Tuesday, June 21, 2011
THISDAY, Vol. 16, No. 5902, Page 37
BusinessWORLD Climate Change, Threat to Water for Agric, FAO Warn.;s
he: Food and AgricultUfC Organisation (FAD) tw.s warned th ot cl imate change will tum:: ntajorimpactS on the avaiJabilil}' of wow for growing food and on emp producu vi lY in the decIde5 10 come. Acroo.hnl 10 a new FAO repon, as a rt$Uh of climale c!lange !here arc reductioru in rh 'er runoff and aquifer recharges in the Mcdilel'T1lnCan and the ~mi·arid lII'ClS of the AmcriC3$, AuswJia and SOUlhem Africa regions Ihal are already ""'aler-~_ FAD said inAsi:l., Ilqe areas of UTigalOd Llnd \hal rdy on S/lD'A'meh and moomain glaciers for ....'lIter will aho be alfa;:ted, while heavily populated river de lLilS are at risk from II rombinalion of reduced Woller flows , iflCJ1:ased uJinil}', and rising sea levels_ Additioaal impactS described iu !he report includes thai an acceleration of the world's hydrological cycle is anlici lJat~ as rising le'mp::rolUres increaJ>e the mle of e\'llpDr..uoo from land and sell_ FAO said rainfall will incr~ in the tropics and higha lalitudcs, bul ~ in alsWy dry 5enu-und 10 midarid latin.ldu and In the inu:rior of ~e cOlllinents, adtJing thai a greater frtquellC)' in droughl5 and floods will need 10 be: pL'UIflCd for but ~udy, wale'r scarce arC:ai or the: .....ork! are c:xpc:ctaJ 10 be:rome drlc:r and hOlier -'E\en though esurnall:S of groundwnter recharge under clim.ale change C-01mlOl be: made .... ilh :iIIy certHimy, Ihe increasing freqLM:/'I(:y of drought c:ln Ix: apc:ctcU 10 t::/'ICOUI'llg.: fwtlx:r den'lopmen! or a\"lIilahle gnJ"II.1dwal~r to buffer lhe: pmduction mL for fatl'l'lefS:' it
stresses thai small-scale pro-
Siories by CrII SOI! Osagil!
d ucer:s in developing countries
dun::s are nooexislenl, ad hoc, or pootly de\'Clopc:d," the repon R1ys. ' Helping lk\'C~ ing counuies acquire good wale'r accounting pr;x:tioes and de-.'elopmg roWs!. and fbible WlIlet alloc:nions iystelT\S will be: a rlfSl priority.' FAO added that at tho: farm bel, growers C3lI change their cropping ~ucms 10 allow earlief or bter planting, reducing their waLer use and oprirnis.ing irrigation . It ~ that yields and productivity CIII be improved by milling 10 soil moisture COnSen'8lion fH'lCliees, including zero. and minimum tillage whi le planling deep-rooted crops would allow farme:ni 10 bel1er uplo il a\wlable soil ITlOlStUfC. Uov.'e\'U, FAD's report also
will faa: W1 uphill S\JlJggle in odopting such WlIle'gies. FAD paimed OIlt that fann me and acce:.s 10 capiraJ SCI the limits for tho: !iCOpe and
cx tenl or adapuuion and (!lange III farm level. l1IXing tltal aln:ady many developing world fllmlS produce yields far be:low their agro-c limatic potential . FAD also warns that far 100 liule is known aboul
how climale' dwige impacu on water for agncuhure will
play OIIt 1\1 the rqional and sub-regional le\'eI, and where fW1llen will be: most at risk. 'Greater pn:cision and focus is needed 10 undastand
Ihe IlilIUfC, iCope and location of climalOOl change impactS on developinl count ry water /'C5Ourccs or agrlI."UItun::," Ibc: repon says, add;na: •Mapping w]nero1bi lil)' is 0 uy task at mlional and regional ~ls"
Rice Centre Boosts Production in Nigeria, Others Piooeering project to enhanoe the qual ity and rnaJket.ability of 100000lyproduced rice through improved harvc:oI and ptShar\~ r.:chnologies in Nigeria and SC\'eII other pilot countries of Wcsa and ~ Africa has been launched by tho: Africa Ric-e CenLtf (AfricaRicc). Dcscribiug the: project as "one of the iust-of-its-kintl for rice: in SSA:' AfricaRicc cconomi5t Dr. Aliou Diagne WltCd that irnprovaJ processing pactica and ICChnologics could significantly inmase O\'ef1lJJ Ore prudllClion by reducing
losses. "The reduction of postharvest IoMe:s of JO po::rCCllt will help increase: farmcJ'i' nominal annual incon~ by :tbcut USD32 million in !he eight pilO! countries by 1m.O:Rice is !he fasleSl growing 5CJW1:e of food in Africa. The conlinent accot.tnts for onethinl 0( gJobaI rio;: imports as the oornestic rke pmdllClion has no! been able to keep ~ with the increa.ses in demand triggered by popuL:uion growlh anti rnpid 1tI'banWtion_ Small holder f:umc:rs lind proccssotS in !he region genetally depend on manual tech-
nologies for rice cuhh'llliOl! ruui handling, processIng aoo slorage. ·1bis has rt$Uhed in tho: ~ucUon of poorquality rice In the t-egion;' said Dr_ John Manful , Atiit:aRice grain quality expen. Dr. Munful tJlplained thai until now more importanCe W.lS given to increasingllCl:: production. "HowcVd", equal inlportllnce should be: given 10 impnwing the qualil}' of 1ocaIly-prodUCdJ rioc:. Odw::twise Ihe lower-quality tIomtsl ic rice CIlI\MI compde with hig.herquality imprwd rice."
The project will focus on the: tb'Clopmel1l and c-.'Dlu.lIion of suitable han·61 and postharVCSI t.:chnologics for produciiig qualifY rice products thal. respond 10 msrI:d demands_AI tho: same time , local fanners and ~ in tho: .\lICgd countries will be ' !rained 10 apply these ~hnoIogies. The p-oj.:a will also nffer opportunities 10 local househokJs 10 raise ~ir illC'OOleS by promotmg the development of ni:W llL'C·bascd' products and rk:c byiJl'lldoclS. II will also c:x.pIcu. tho: us.: of riot for pr0ducing fortlfled food.iu:ms.
-'l1v:: loss of glaciers wlud! support around p.:nrnl Lhe .... orid's lniglllion ...·ill e\'Cn-
luall), illlpac1 the amouru or ~urface ....<;II.:r :l\'lIliablo: (\Wagriculture ill ke) produdng ' basins:· FAD said. 1b: agency soud incrcsed Icrnpc:ralurcs will lengthen the gro\\ LIIg ~ason in nonhero h:rnp.:raLe zones but will reduce the lenglh :dm05t e\'erywhc:fe else ~nd said coupled with Ll1Ii.To:ascd ro1les of e\'lIpou-anspir.uion, Ihis will cuuse the ykltl potenlial and Wllkr productivity of crops 10 dc:chne . • Both !he Ih-.:lihoodi gf ruml communities as well liS lhe food so:cwil}' of cil}' ~Ia lions arc 111 risk," s;:&id FAO Assistant DII"eclor Gener.tJ for Natural Resources, Alexander ~t LM:ller. "Bul the tur.l1 poor, woo aro: the: most \'U bw::rublc, arc likely to be disproportionatel), affected_· Respondi ng 10 the dtallengc:, FAO's report also looks at aclions that ClU1 be: Iaken by naliooaI po!icymak.:rs, regional and loe-.£! WlItershed authorities, and individulI! farmers to re:;pond to tlJeSe new challenges. Accord.illg 10 FAD, cww:: key area requiring alie ni ion is intpro-.·ing the ability of coontries 10 im plement effeC'live sysu:rns for 'WIller aooounting' the thorough measurement of water supplies, traruf0!f5, and IJansactions in onJcr 10 inform df:cislons abou L how wa ter reoources can be: I1Wlaged and ~ under increasing \-ariabili-'Y. "Water IICCOUnling in most developing countries is very limiiOO. and allocation proce.
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