Page 1


IMPRESSUM J O U R N A L O F A P P L I E D E N G I N E E R I N G S C I E N C E (J A E S) The journal publishes original and review articles covering the concept of technical science, energy and environment, industrial engineering, quality management and other related sciences. JAES is Open-Access Journal that follows new trends and progress proven practice in listed fields, thus creating a unique forum for interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary dialogue. JAES is part of the electronic journal editing with a transparent editorial and review policy. Provided are: • Online paper submission and tracking of review process with communication between editors, authors and reviewers • CrossRef: assignment of numerical identifiers (DOI) to assure greater visibility and accessibility of journal articles • CrossCheck: control for originality of submitted papers, to prevent plagiarism and duplicate publications • KWASS: automatic extraction of keywords from disciplinary thesaurus • Online-first publishing • Automatic transfer of metadata to SCIndeks that support international protocols for data transfer All published articles are indexed by international abstract base Elsevier Bibliographic Databases through service SCOPUS since 2006 and through service SCImago Journal Rank since 2011. Serbian Ministry of Science admitted the Journal of Applied Engineering Science in a list of reference journals as Leading national journal M51. Same Ministry financially supports journal’s publication. Publisher Institute for Research and Design in Commerce and Industry - IIPP; www.iipp.rs For publisher: Prof. dr Branko Vasić Copublisher Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering – Belgrade University; www.sf.bg.ac.rs For copublisher: Prof. dr Branimir Stanić Editor in Chief Prof. dr Jovan Todorović Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade; Assistant Editor Dr Predrag Uskoković, IIPP Editorial Board Prof. dr Gradimir Danon, Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade; Doc. dr Dušan Milutinović, Institute for Transport and Traffic CIP, Belgrade; Mr Đorđe Milosavljević, CPI - Process Engineering Center, Belgrade; Prof. dr Miodrag Zec, Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade; Prof. dr Nenad Đajić, Mining and Geology Faculty, Belgrade; Prof. dr Vlastimir Dedović, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engeneering, Belgrade; Prof. dr Mirko Vujošević, Faculty of organizational sciences, Belgrade; Prof. dr Vladimir Popović, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade; Prof. dr Vesna Spasojević Brkić, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade; Prof. dr Dragan Aleksendrić, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade. ISSN 1451-4117 UDC 33 Papers are indexed by SCOPUS Journal of Applied Engineeering Science is available at: www.engineeringscience.rs http://aseestant.ceon.rs/index.php/jaes/ http://www.singipedia.com/

International Editorial Board Prof. dr Vukan Vučić, University of Pennsylvania, USA; Prof. dr Robert Bjeković, Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, Germany; Prof. dr Jozef Aronov, Research Institute for Certification JSC, Russia; Prof. dr Jezdimir Knežević, MIRCE Akademy, England; Dr Nebojša Kovačević, Geotechnical consulting group, England; Adam Zielinski, Solaris Bus & Coach, Poland; Prof. dr Miloš Knežević, Faculty for Civil Engineering, Montenegro; MSc Siniša Vidović, Energy Testing & Balance Inc, USA; Dr Zdravko Milovanović, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka. Publishing Council Prof. dr Milorad Milovančević, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade; Milutin Ignjatović, Institute for Transport and Traffic CIP, Belgrade; Dragan Belić, Transport Company “Lasta”, Belgrade; Dr Deda Đelović, Port of Bar, Bar; Dr Drago Šerović, Adriatic Shipyard, Bijela; Cvijo Babić, Belgrade Waterworks and Sewerage, Belgrade; Nenad Jankov, Power Plant Kostolac B, Kostolac; Miroslav Vuković, Mercator Business System, Belgrade; Dušan Đurašević, Euro Sumar, Belgrade. Editorial Office Nada Stanojević, Miloš Vasić, Darko Stanojević, Miloš Dimitrijević, Ivana Spasojević, IIPP, Belgrade; Printed by: Sigrastar, Belgrade Designed and prepress: IIPP

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


CONTENTS

Sanja Stanisavljev, Dr Dragan Ćoćkalo, Dr Dejan Đorđević, Dr Robert Minovski THE PRODUCTION CYCLE TIME IN SERIAL PRODUCTION: 115 - 122 REDUCTION OF THE DURATION IN METAL PROCESSING INDUSTRY CASE Mr Velimir Komadinić, Dr Dragomir Ilić RISK ASSESSMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM - SIZED ENTERPRISES - SPECIFICS 123 - 128 AND DIFFERENCES IN APPROACH Dr Miroslav Kuburić, Milan Filipović, Mladen Lero NEEDS FOR NEW CADASTRAL SURVEYING BUILDING REGION IN THE TOWN 129 - 136 OF BAČKA PALANKA Dr Miroslav Demić, Dr Đorđe Diligenski A CONTRIBUTION TO RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF STEERING TRAPEZE ON 137 - 144 BUS STEERED WHEELS SHIMMY Dimić-Mišić Katarina, Dr Yogesh Sanavane, Dr Jouni Paltakari, Dr Thaddeus Maloney SMALL SCALE RHEOLOGICAL OBSERVATION OF HIGH CONSISTENCY 145 - 151 NANOFIBRILLAR MATERIAL BASED FURNISHES Ines Isaković CRM PERFORMANCES ACCENTED WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION 153 - 159 OF E-COMMERCE TECHNOLOGY EVENTS REVIEW 160 - 161 ANNOUNCEMENT OF EVENTS

162

BOOK RECOMMENDATION

163

EDITORIAL AND ABSTRACTS IN SERBIAN LANGUAGE 165 - 168

Institute for research and design in commerce & industry, Belgrade. All rights reserved.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


EDITORIAL

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Intelligent systems engineering is a complex and challenging process. Why? What is an intelligent system and how does any system become intelligent? Moreover, how could we keep the level of system intelligence during time i.e. during a system operation? There is no doubt that interest in developing intelligent systems for civilian and military uses constantly growing. Scientists and engineers are looking for the new approaches to enhance our current way of information processing. Intelligent systems engineering, as an Prof. dr Dragan Aleksendrić attempt to match some functions of the brain in processing, controlling and interacting with dynamic changes in the environment, is a non-trivial task. It could be clear if we only take into consideration that the important attributes of an intelligent system would consist of words such as: learning, creativity, quickness of mind, reasoning, understanding, autonomous behaviour, adaptive, ability to self-organize, coordinate and possess knowledge. Could man-made systems (machines, assemblies, sub-assemblies, components etc.) currently fulfil all the above requirements? Some think that if a system could fulfil a subset of the attributed words, the system would have to possess some form of intelligence (or sub-intelligence). It is believed if a system could perform quickly with a certain logical reasoning, it may be classified as ‘clever’ or ‘smart’. So, what is an intelligent system? Many agree that the definition of intelligent systems depends on expectations and the current status of knowledge in the specific area: perhaps the “intelligent systems” of today are the “classical systems” of tomorrow. It could be said that an intelligent system could receive sensory information and has the ability to process this information with one or more smart or intelligent algorithms for performing functions, such as control, diagnostic and/or decision-making. Sensor technology plays an important role in the process of an intelligent system development in order to “see” status of the system operation and its environment. Hence the growing importance of intelligent systems is in line with the increase usage and improvement in sensory technology. In traditional hard computing, the prime objectives of the computations are precision and certainty. However, in soft computing, the precision and certainty carry a cost. Therefore, it is realistic to consider the integration of computation, reasoning and decision making as various partners in a consortium in order to provide a framework for the trade-off between precision and uncertainty. It is believed that this integration of methodologies provides a foundation for the conceptual design and deployment of intelligent systems. The principal partners in such a consortium are fuzzy logic, neural network computing, generic algorithms and probabilistic reasoning. Furthermore, these methodologies, in most part, are complementary rather than competitive. Increasingly, these approaches are also utilized in combination, referred to as “hybrid”. According to researchers in the area of intelligent system engineering, hybrid intelligent systems are likely to play a critical role for many years to come. Why? Contrary to analytical methods, it is believed that soft computing methodologies mimic consciousness and cognition in several important respects: they can learn from experience, they can generalize into domains where direct experience is absent, they can perform mapping from inputs to the outputs. What is a problem? The trade off, however, is a decrease in accuracy. If a tendency towards imprecision could be tolerated, then it should be possible to extend the scope of the applications even to those problems where the analytical and mathematical representations are readily available. The most important engineering task in the 21st century will be the process of a system engineering which offering advanced system abilities such as learning, generalizing and an adaptation to the changes in the environment i.e. intelligence. Sincerely yours, Prof. dr Dragan Aleksendrić

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


Original Scientific Paper

doi:10.5937/jaes11-4052

Paper number: 11(2013)3, 255, 115 - 122

THE PRODUCTION CYCLE TIME IN SERIAL PRODUCTION: REDUCTION OF THE DURATION IN METAL PROCESSING INDUSTRY CASE Sanja Stanisavljev* University of Novi Sad, Technical faculty “Mihajlo Pupin”, Zrenjanin, Serbia Dr Dragan Ćoćkalo University of Novi Sad, Technical faculty “Mihajlo Pupin”, Zrenjanin, Serbia Dr Dejan Đorđević University of Novi Sad, Technical faculty “Mihajlo Pupin”, Zrenjanin, Serbia Dr Robert Minovski University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skopje, Macedonia The most relevant factor which affects the production cycle time per unit is the size of a series. The production cycle mean value for the groups formed according to the number of units in a series tpcu moves along the hyperbolic function which has asymptote c, tpcu = c + b/n, and, mathematically, these groups do not behave as strata, which means they are linked to deterministic factors of technology and number of units/series. This paper presents the application of original model on reduction in the duration of the production cycle time in serial production – research case is metal processing industry. Key words: Production cycle time, Work sampling, Stochastic model, Serial production INTRODUCTION To ensure rational production and adherence to time schedules in production, quality planning of production and corresponding technicaltechnological calculations are needed to provide machine operating modes and time duration of machine operations as well as the activities in the manufacturing process. This way, they are normed, normalized and standardized, so the elements of production cycle (PC) time can be determined beforehand for machines, mechanization means and manual work. In practice they are not deterministic but stochastic, especially under conditions of small and medium businesses and as such they have to be monitored. On an experimental example Niebel [11] illustrates the determination of the elements of production cycle (PC) time, showing that production cycle C is divided into only three elements of cycle time, C=T1+T2+T3 (T1= running time to produce one unit of output, T2= normal time to service a stopped machine, T3= time lost by normal operator working because of machine interference). The elements of PC time are possible to monitor using the work sampling method, which was

originally applied in the textile industry by Tippett [12, 13, 14], and taking into account the surveys of Barnes [01], Moder [9] and Richardson and Eleanor [11]. However, the original method has a restricted realm of use, and only three elements of PC time were monitored: the machine is in operation, the machine is in preparation, or the machine is idle (+, x, -). Although a technical-technological indicator of machine utilization level, i.e., the time of operation against machine total available time, is a very significant indicator in production and business operations and the stochastic model application itself very simple, it is more important to obtain those levels for the elements of PC time. The PC time involves the time for making a unit or a series of units from putting them in production until their storage, and aside from being significant as a technical indicator, it is important as an economic indicator of freezing current assets, especially raw materials [05]. There can hardly be any enterprise that does not monitor the PC time over documentation and analytically, but rare are those that monitor the elements of work within the PC and by analyzing those elements

* University of Novi Sad, Technical Faculty “Mihajlo Pupin”, 23000 Zrenjanin, Serbia; sanja@tfzr.uns.ac.rs

115


Sanja Stanisavljev - The production cycle time in serial production: reduction of the duration in metal process industry case

affect their reduction and thereby the PC time reduction. This is the reason why in the present paper we prove experimentally the applicability of the original stochastic method to determine the elements of PC time using as the example the results obtained by screening in metalprocessing plant with small scale production. METHODOLOGICAL OVERVIEW The basics of a stochastic model to determine the elements of production cycle time The production cycle is the period from the entry of a product part or a series of products into manufacturing to their receipt in the warehouse of finished products (or parts). The production cycle is indirectly dependent on the factors of the total supply-sales cycle as its part, but some elements of cycle time are also mutually influential. For example, any increase in the supply time for parts from cooperating companies leads to a stoppage in the production cycle. In theory, the PC time (tpc) is divided into production time (tp) and non-production time (tnp) and production time is further divided into technological time (tt), with machine (ttm) and lead time (tpf), non-technological time (tnt) with time of control (tc), transportation (ttr) and packaging (tpk). Nonproduction time is classified according to various causes of stoppages in production, and we have made the screening of the most general and common ones caused by the lack of raw materials (tmr), tools (ttl), organization (to), machine breakdown (tb) and other troubles (tot), [02, 03]. Our investigation is directed at designing a new original method for monitoring the production cycle and its time elements by using a stochastic work sampling method, whose basis was set up by Tippett. However, this method will be innovated and adapted to an investigation of the production cycle. A modified work sampling method will enable the determination of the participation percentages of working time elements against the total duration of the production cycle and production. As this method is statistic and is based on a certain number of instantaneous observations of a certain activity, it is simpler to use and more efficient than the continual streaming method. Monitoring within the production cycle will involve technological time with lead time and manufacturing time, non-technological time with times for transport, 116

control and packing, while non-production time includes stoppage due to poor production organization, lack of materials, lack of tools, including the failure or breakdown of machinery and other types of stoppage, their interdependence, as well as impact factors such as series size, organizational level and product characteristics pertaining to the factors mentioned. Establishing the representativeness of screening time duration Representative screening time is related to the length of the production cycle time. It is clear that it must not be shorter than the production cycle time and that under identical production conditions it must be repeated a certain number of times in order to make the sample representative. Production and productivity are also related to the production dynamics which are planned at the operational level on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Hence, the production cycle for the above mentioned periods is also provided for the purposes of monitoring and comparing. The third criterion for determining screening time duration is the adopted margin of error in the stochastic model applied in these investigations, i.e. the number of instantaneous observations and their distribution per working time element. The problem of determining technological time Screening performance requires the precise definition not only of technological and mathematical problems, but also of the practical screening process and the establishment of working time elements. Thereafter, the elements of production cycle working time should be defined and, in particular, the difference against the elements of working time related to machinery, i.e. for the purpose of establishing the machine capacity only or within the production cycle, because these two are not the same. The elements of working time are determined according to Barnes [01], Maynard [08], Moder [09], Niebel [10], Richardson and Eleanor [11], Klarin et al. [07] and ÄŒala et al. [03]. Theoretically speaking, the sequence of operations may be serial, parallel or combined. Therefore, depending on the type of sequence of operations, we know in advance that this portion of cycle time lasts much longer in a serial type, where before moving on to the next operation the whole series waits to be completed by a single machine operation, while in a parallel type, after Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 255


Sanja Stanisavljev - The production cycle time in serial production: reduction of the duration in metal process industry case

one machine part is completed on one machine, it immediately moves on to the next. In companies, the most common type of sequence of operations is combined. Not infrequently, one part of the production cycle is parallel, another serial, and a third combined. Technological machine time (ttm), viewing production against machinery, is exclusively linked to machine performance and the quality of technological calculations, and is mainly a deterministic category. However, if the production cycle is viewed from the aspect of a serial sequence of operations, the elements of working time differ, depending on the automation level. If production is automated, then ttm for a series will be simply a sum of individual n equal operations. However, if each part has to be manually or mechanically conveyed for processing from a joint crate or some other room where a certain series of parts is stored, manual placement on the machine is ancillary manual time (tpr). In theory, this refers to individual pieces. Such time is not frequently encountered in literature (rear examples are papers, [06] and [07]) dealing with the division of working time elements. In our investigations, ancillary manual time will be treated as technological machine time (ttm). It is also logical to add ancillary machine time (for example, support moving a lathe) to (ttm). Manufacturing lead time includes receipt of work order with documentation and study of tasks, receipt of equipment, preparation of other components necessary for work, transport of finished pieces for quality control and cleaning up of work place, after a certain number of pieces (n) are manufactured, one at a time, non-stop (number of pieces in a series).

APPLICATION OF THE MODEL The practical application of establishing the mentioned elements of PC time is reduced to instantaneous observations of time elements, where the object of labor moves through the production operations list. A series of units is distinctly marked by this document and an analyst (recorder) can readily identify it. Production cycle is calculated differently depending n type of operations sequence. Results before model application The first most extensive experiment concerns an enterprise owned by a large German firm engaged in manufacturing car components. Screenings were performed from September 19, 2011 to November 4, 2011. Monitoring included 47 cycles of different series sizes (4 – 10 units) and the time duration ranged from the shortest (240 min) to the longest (420 min), with 10 - 30 instantaneous observations. There were 932 observations in total, while the total time for all cycles amounts to 15,293 min. The average production cycle time - tpc is 325 min and the average production cycle time per unit tpc is 56.2 min. Investigations related to the coefficient of running time as a function of the series size and where the PC was analytically monitored from the plant’s records did not include an in-depth analysis of the relationships between the series. Data for all cycles elements calculated as percents of cycle time are shown on Figure 1. The mean value for all the groups with the same number of units in a series obtained is = 74.35% and ranges from the bottom control limit BC = 52.64% to the upper control limit AC = 96.06%.

Figure 1: Data for production cycles elements monitored in 2011 Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 255

117


Sanja Stanisavljev - The production cycle time in serial production: reduction of the duration in metal process industry case

Table 1: Number of cycles and number of units in a series for enterprise I in 2011

No

No of cycle

unit/ser

1

3

2

t pcu (min/unit/series)

t p (%)

SDtp

3

93.10

85.41

7.42

4

4

72.48

81.31

16.14

3

18

5

63.29

74.97

28.04

4

10

6

57.02

70.84

29.64

5

3

7

43.50

76.67

16.91

6

5

8

45.50

77.78

10.07

7

3

10

35.67

79.75

10.53

43

52.389

76

t p (%)

(2) Figure 2: Trends of production time tp mean values and PC mean values per unit in a series tpcu in 2011

Table 1 displays the same data without the groups but with the number of screening cycles and the number of units in those cycle series, with the total mean value of the PC time – % that amounts to 76%. The trends of PC time 118

mean values by cycles (groups) with an identical number of units in a series in % and the PC mean values per unit in a series are given in the diagram in Figure 2. The mean value for all groups is obtained using the formula: Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 255


Sanja Stanisavljev - The production cycle time in serial production: reduction of the duration in metal process industry case

A statistical set stratification has not been successful because the SD of a stratified set is: (1)

(5)

where fi is the number of PCs with an identical number of units in a series for a non-stratified set of data from Table 1, using formula 2:

(6)

(2) (7)

where nj is the number of cycles in a group and n is the total number of cycles: (3)

(8)

CC = 76 ± 3•0.09606•76 AC = 97.9 % BC = 54.1 % It is obvious from the diagram in Figure 2 that mathematically viewed the process is mastered, because all the points of lie within the control limits BC < < AC, (54.1 < 76 < 97.9). The trend of function:

can be approximated by the

Since SD< the stratification was unsuccessful, which means that in this enterprise there is no feature distinguishing the PC with a different number of units in a series, but the reduction of time per unit is exclusively the result of technological time, i.e. the elements of working time and the number of units. Results after model application

(4) where n is the number of units, and in enterprise I, c=1.998 and b=297.54.

In 2012, after model initial application, experiment is again conducted in 2012 to check if there are some improvements in production cycle elements.

Figure 3: Data for all cycles elements monitored in in 2012

In enterprise I screenings were carried out again from 23rd October to 2nd November, 2012. Monitoring comprised 30 production cycles, with 17 to 26 instantaneous observations, with mean value Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 255

21 and 644 observation in total. Data on production cycle elements collected in enterprise I in 2012 are shown on Figure 3. 119


Sanja Stanisavljev - The production cycle time in serial production: reduction of the duration in metal process industry case

Table 2: Number of cycles and number of units in a series for enterprise I in 2012 No

unit/ser

min/unit/ser

(%)

1

48

85.71

2

51

78.26

3

62

76

53.7

80

5

43.2

82.35

6

43.2

100

7

35.6

90

8

56.8

77.27

4

3

9

38.8

84

10

41.8

93.75

11

41.8

85

12

41.8

95.24

13

47.6

86.36

14

49.8

78.26

15

47

77.27

16

40.5

88.24

32.3

86.5

18

40

86.66

19

40.7

80.95

20

40.8

83.33

21

38.5

79.17

34.3

82.5

23

23.8

69.23

24

23.8

85.71

25

31.3

88.89

26

31.6

77.27

27

31.6

78.95

28

31.6

80

17

22

12

4

29

6

30.1

80

30

1

30.6

78.26

31

1

31.7

83.33

32

30.4

91.3

33

27.5

91.3

34

2

29

91.3

35

1

27.6

75

281.7

656.89

â&#x2C6;&#x2018;

120

No of cycle

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 255


Sanja Stanisavljev - The production cycle time in serial production: reduction of the duration in metal process industry case

Time durations were 233 minutes as average value, while one year later, before model application, it was 325 minutes. The mean value for all the groups with the same number of units in a series obtained is = 83.60% and ranges from the bottom control limit BC = 66.66% to the upper control limit AC = 100%. It can be seen that production cycle time after model application is 28% reduced, while average cycle time is reduced from 35 to 17 minutes. Trends of production time tp mean values and PC mean val-

ues per unit in a series tpcu for enterprise I now have different coefficients c=-7.363 and b=239, as can be seen on Figure 3 and Table 2. The trend in production time by strata by the number of units in a series of tables 1 and 2 and the diagrams in Figures 2 and 4 shows that there was a significant reduction in production time duration in minutes of = 52.389, 2011. years to = 37.7 for 2012. as a result of the stochastic model of research production cycle.

Figure 4: Trend of production time tp mean values and PC mean values per unit in a series tpcu in 2012.

CONCLUSION The original method for determining the elements of production cycle time using a modified work sampling method was proved through experimental investigations done in 2011 and 2012, which involved a large number of Serbian enterprises. Results have shown that the production process is mastered through model application. The most relevant factor which affects the production cycle time per unit – tpcu is the size of a series. • By applying stochastic model of research production cycle in a representative plant Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 255

showed a significant reduction in the duration of the production time in minutes from = 52,389 in 2011. years to = 37 in 2012. • The PC mean value for the groups formed according to the number of units in a series tpcu moves along the hyperbolic function which has asymptote C, tpcu = C + b/n, and, mathematically, these groups do not behave as strata, which means they are linked to deterministic factors of technology and number of units/series. 121


Sanja Stanisavljev - The production cycle time in serial production: reduction of the duration in metal process industry case

• The process is mastered to a higher degree when all levels of working time elements are utilized to a higher degree (or %) and production time tp is the most important for the process. This means that it is more favourable to apply higher organizational and production levels in the stochastic model for establishing the elements of PC time; • In experiments to follow optimization is needed for the number of working time elements and stoppages depending on the type of production. REFERENCES 1) Barnes, R. (1957). Work Sampling, 2 nd edn. New York: Wiley. 2) Brkić-Spasojević, V., Klarin, M., & Curović, D. (2009). Dimenzije menadžmenta kvalitetom isporučioca u industrijskim preduzećima Srbije. Journal of Applied Engineering Science, 7(23-24), 67-71. 3) Čala, I., Klarin, M., & Radojčić, M. (2011). Development of a Stohastic model for determing the elements of production cycle time and their optimization for serial production in Metal processing industry and recycling processes. Journal of Engineering Management and Competitiveness (JEMC), 1(1-2), 21-25. 4) Elnekave, M., & Gilad, J. (2006). Rapid video-based analysis for advanced work measurment. Int. Journal of Production research, 44(2), 271-290. 5) Jovanovic, J., Milanovic, D., Radovic, M., & Ðukic, R. (2012). Investigations of Time and Economic Dimensions of the Complex Product Production Cycle. Journal of Applied Engineering Science, 10(3), 153-160. 6) Klarin, M.M., Cvijanović, M.J., & SpasojevićBrkić, K.V. (2000). The shift level of the utilization of capacity as the stochastic variable in work sampling. International Journal of Production Research, 38(12), 2643-2651. 7) Klarin, M.M., Milanović, D.D., Misita, M., Spasojević-Brkić, K.V., & Jovanović, A. (2010). A method to assess capacity utilization in short cycle functional layouts. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part E-Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 224(E1), 49-58. 8) Maynard, H.B. (1971). Industrial Engineering Handbook. Pittsburgh. PA: McGraw-Hill. 122

9) Moder, J.J. (1980). Selection of work sampling observation times – Part I: Stratified sampling. AIIE Transactions, 12 (1), 23-31. 10) Niebel, W.B. (1980). Time Study, Handbook of Industrial Engineering. Salvendy G. (Eds). New York: Wiley. 11) Richardson, W.J., & Eleanor, S.P. (1982). Work Sampling, Handbook of Industrial Engineering, Salvendi G. (Eds.). New York: Wiley 12) Tippett, L.H.C. (1929). Statistical Methods in Textile Research: The Analysis od Complex Variations. Shirley Institute Memoirs, 8, 175190. 13) Tippett, L.H.C. (1935). Some Applications of Statistical Methods to the Study od Variation of Quality in the Production of Cotton Yam. Supplement to the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, II, 27-62. 14) Tippett, L.H.C. (1936). Applications of Statistical Methods to the Control of Quality in Industrial Production. Transactions of the Manchester Statistical Society, 1-32. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This paper was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science, Grant TR 35017. Paper sent to revision: 01.07.2013. Paper ready for publication: 29.08.2013.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 255


Professional Paper

doi:10.5937/jaes11-3665

Paper number: 11(2013)3, 256, 123 - 126

RISK ASSESSMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM – SIZED ENTERPRISES, SPECIFICS AND DIFFERENCES IN APPROACH Mr Velimir Komadinić* Institute “Lola”, Belgrade, Serbia Dr Dragomir Ilić Institute “Lola”, Belgrade, Serbia The health and safety policy in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) demands a different approuch from that of big company. There are many differences between SMEs and their larger counterparts, and this must be taken into account when assessing risks in SMEs. The aim of this paper is analyzing he characteristics of SMEs, current economic changes and their impact on developing the health and safety policy of the company and risk assessment. Also, we will describe the importance of labor inspection service, as an important external partners in supporting small and medium-sized enterprise with risk assessment. Key words: Small and medium-sized enterprise, Characteristics, Risk assessment, Labor inspection service INTRODUCTION

SPECIFIC CARACTERISTICS OF SMEs

The health and safety policy in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) demands a different approuch from that of big company. There are many differences between SMEs and their larger counterparts, and this must be taken into account when assessing risks in SMEs. This paper focuses on three main issues. Firstly, the characteristics of SMEs. These characteristics influence the way SMEs manage risks in the workplace and how they carry out their risk assessment. Secondly, the impact of current economic changes and the priorities in this specific context. Changes create new challenges for SMEs and hence new challenges for risk assessment. Risk assessment requires know-how and expirience. SMEs don’t always have these competencies within their own company. Many of them have to seek external partners to help develop the health and safety policy of the company in general, and risk assessment in particular. Thirdly, the labor inspection services should be an important external partner in helping SMEs with risk assessment, where should be guided by the principle “less sanctions but more support”.

Benefits

* Institute “Lola”, Kneza Višeslava 70a, 11030 Belgrade, Serbia; vrkomadinic@yahoo.com

The way SMEs approach the topic of risk assessment is strongly influenced by the structure and strengths of the particular SMEs, but there are some characteristics that are applicable to most of SMEs, as follows [05]: Informal social dialogue – In most SMEs, social dialogue is conducted in a very informal way. In most of them there are no formal consultation bodies or procedures. The social dialogue in SMEs is a continuos, informal interaction between employer and employees and also among employees. Many SMEs don’t have, and don’t need, formal consultation bodies or procedures to identify problems or pinpoint risks. The problem and the solution are discussed at the working area (offices, shop floor, construction site, etc.) Employer works with employees –An important advantage for most SMEs is the fact that the employer works alongside the employees. This means they can see risks in the workplace and operation first hand, and will be more likely to take measures to reduce or eliminate risk. These measures can include important inovative changes or simply small changes with great effectivness for the safety of workers and employ123


Mr Velimir Komadinić - Risk assessment in small and medium-sized enterprises, specifics and defferences in approach

er. With this kind of operation, risk assessment is a continuous, informal process. Flexibility – Flexibility is the key for SMEs. Employer and employees are often required to multitask in a constantly changing envinronment. They are highly adaptable. This also means that workers have a good knowledge of how their company works, and most of workplace risks. This flexibility among staff affects the way the risk assessment is carried out. Fast decision-making process – Another advantage of SMEs is the fast decision-making process. In biger companies when one wants to introduce changes, it’s usually necessary to consult several hierarchies of menagers. In SMEs with a flat hierarchy, the employee can go directly to the right person and make a proposal. This saves both time and energy. Family atmosphere – Employees work for the company, but are also ready to be mutually supportive and to help each other if necessary. The willingness to support colleagues creates a very special atmosphere in the company between workers and employer and between employees. This make easier for employees to correct one another, and to educate one other on risk assessment. Easy communication – The traditional informal communication and the direct and personal relationships at all levels of an SME facilitate rapid adaptation of change and better prevention of risks. These positive elements create a sound basis for carrying out a risk assessment which is adapted to the needs of the company. Shortcomings On the other hand, SMEs also have some shortcomings when it comes to risk assessment. Typical problems that need to bi solved in SMEs include [05]: Low degree of delegation – The employer is responsible for all the various tasks,from human resources management to accounting and the production process. The Health and Safety policy of the company is just one among many responsibilities. While employer remains responsible for every aspects of the company’s activity, he needs to be supported by other employees in the risk assessment area. Lack of long-term strategic vision – Another shortcoming in SMEs is that they don’t have a strategic vision.Problems tend to be solved as 124

and when they occur. They are not dealt with in advance. Because of this approach, it is difficult to teach employers how to be proactive about Health and Safety and risk assessment. In some cases, employers only take action after an accident. It is never too late to do risk assessment, but it should be done proactively. Less formal risk assessment – Employers in SMEs tend to carry out the assessment and any preventive measures in practice, without formal documentation. Each time they have to start from scratch once more. A more formal risk assessment, using specific practical tools, would be much more productive for them in the long term. Many SMEs need improvement in this regard. CHANGES IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND PRIORITIES Economic changes, new economic challenges Changes in business environment influence the work of SMEs, and therefore risk assessment. These include [05]: • a more complex society (globalisation, structural change, rapid technological development, etc.), • more complex business operations, • shorter lifespan of technologies, • customer-oriented production, • need for company networks, • new products and operations, • new technologies / innovation, • increase in outsourcing. When we say that the changes in the business environment affect the risk assessment does not mean the scope and methodology of risk assessment but the loss of priority, because SMEs focused on solving the problems that these changes are made, and which have significant impact on the business result. Of course, this statement applies to our business environment. Risk assessment in the workplace and work environment perceive the work organization, work processes, equipment of labor, raw materials used in technology and work processes, tools and equipment for personal protection and safety, as well as other factors that may cause risk of injuries, damage to health or illness of the employee.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 256


Mr Velimir Komadinić - Risk assessment in small and medium-sized enterprises, specifics and defferences in approach

The risk assessment includes [08]: • general information about the employer, • a description of technology and business processes, description of tools and their grouping and description of the resources and personal protective equipment at work, • analysis of the work organization, • identifying and determining the risks and hazards in the workplace and working environment, • determining the means and measures to eliminate, reduce or prevent risk, • conclusion. State authorities,the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (the Commitee of Occupational Safety and Health at Work and the Labour Inspectorate)have to take these strengths and shortcomings into account when dealing and cooperating with SMEs in the field of safety and health. The real challenge for SMEs is the correct and effective application of all existing legislation. The Commitee of Occupational Safety and Health at Work and the Labour Inspectorate have to act as partners to SMEs to achieve those objectives. Legal framework and instruments available to SMEs in the risk assessment At the state level security issues and occupational health deals with the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Policy, and within it, the Committee of Occupational Safety and Health at Work – OSH Committee and the Labour Inspectorate (previously mentioned). In accordance to the Law on Safety and Health, OSH Committee performs state administration with the aim to improve and develop safety and health at work and reduce occupational injuries, occupational diseases and diseases related to work. According to Article 60. of Law, this OSH Committee performs the following tasks [07]: • preparation of regulations concerning occupational safety and health, as well as reviews for their implementation, • prepares technical basis for the development of the national development program of safety and health at work and monitors its exercise, • provides technical assistance in the areas of health and safety at work, Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 256

• preparation of methodology for conducting examinations and tests in the field ofsafety and health at work, • explores and encourages development in the area of humanization of labor, • organizes preparation and professional examinations to conduct safety and health (OSH person and responsible person), • supervises the legality of legal persons and entrepreneurs, as well as responsible persons with the license and the preparation of solutions for the issuance and revocation of licenses, • collects and analyzes data on injuries, occupational diseases and illnesses related to work and issues that affect the health of employees, • organizes professional conferences, educates employees, employers, persons OHS, inspectors and others, • to the application as international, (EU) legislation in the area of safety and health at work, • encourage training and development culture occupational safety and health at work. Inspection in the field of OHS’s, according to the law on health and safety at work, is done by the ministry of labor (Labour Inspectorate) through the labor inspector. The labor inspector has the right and obligation to control the implementation of measures for safety and health at work, and in particular hygiene and working conditions, production, distribution, use and maintenance of assets, resources and equipment for personal protection and safety, dangerous substances used in the work, and to [07]: • control of general and individual acts, records and other documents, • take statements from responsible and interested parties, • employers, employees, and representatives of their union gives explanations and advices in the field of OHS, • take samples for analysis, expertise, etc.., • order measurements performed by another professional organization when the employer itself or through a particular professional organization performs measurements in the relevant fields, and measurement results provide a basis for it, 125


Mr Velimir Komadinić - Risk assessment in small and medium-sized enterprises, specifics and defferences in approach

• report to the employer and the employee or representative of employees on the inspection and supervision of the established condition, • The next important state institution that participates in the affairs of the OHS’s is Occupational Health Service. For the performance of health at work the employer engage occupational health services, which performs the following tasks [07], • participates in the identification and assessment of risks in the workplace and work environment when creating document on risk assessment, • carries out preliminary and periodic medical examinations at workplaces with high risk and issue reports of medical examinations in accordance with the regulations on OSH-in, • provides staff training in first aid, • evaluates and identifies specific health skills that must be met by an employee to perform certain tasks at work or at risk for handling certain work equipment, • advises the employer in the selection and testing of new assets, hazardous materials and resources nopreme for occupational safety, the health aspect, • advises the employer in selecting appropriate job to another medical fitness of the employee, • participates in the analysis ardu injuries, occupational diseases and diseases related to work, • cooperates directly with the person of health and safety at work. Safety and health jobs at work may be performed by a person who has passed the examination in accordance with the law. The employer may designate one or more of its employees, the state exam, or to hire a legal entity that holds a license (hereinafter referred to as the person of health and safety at work). Person for safety and health at work has a key role in the performance of safety and health at work in any company, even in the SMP, and these activities are [07]: • participation in drafting legislation on risk assessment, • control counseling employers in the planning, selection, use and maintenance of work equipment, hazardous materials and 126

resources iopreme for occupational safety, • participation in equipping and regulation of the workplace in order to ensure safe and healthy working conditions, • the organization of preventive and periodic examination of the working conditions, • the organization of preventive and periodic testing of work equipment, • daily monitoring and control of implementation of OSH measures, • preparation and training in safe and healthy work, • preparation of guidelines for safe and healthy work and control of their applications, • monitoring related to injuries and at work and occupational diseases, • prohibition of workplace guides and resources for the work, in case of imminent danger to life and health of employees. The existing legal framework is comprehensive and includes a number of laws, rules, regulations and directives. Also, there are certain standards in this area. We will mention some of them: • Law on Safety and Health at Work, • EU Council Directive 89/391, • EU Council Directive 92/57/EEC of compliance with the minimum requirements for health and afety in the interim and mobile construction sites, • Law on Labour, • Regulations on the procedure for the assessment of risks in the workplace and working environment, • Guidelines for the risk assessment of the EU, ISBN 92-827-4278-4 out in 1996., • Regulation on occupational safety during construction, • Regulation on Safety and Health at Work on temporary and mobile construction sites, • Regulation on preventive measures for safe and healthy work in the use of work equipment, • Regulation on the general safety at work of the hazardous effects of electricity in the facilities for work, work premises and work sites, • Regulation on preventive measures for safe and healthy work in the workplace, Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 256


Mr Velimir Komadinić - Risk assessment in small and medium-sized enterprises, specifics and defferences in approach

• Regulation on preventive measures for safe and healthy work when exposed to chemical substances, • Regulation on test equipment for the testing and working environment, • Regulation on general measures and safety at work of noise in work areas, • Regulation on preventive measures for manual handling of loads, • Regulation on preliminary and periodic medical examinations of employees in the workplace with increased risk, • Standard SRPS ISO 14001/2005 Environment Management System, • Standard SRPS OHSAS 18001 / 2008 Occpational Health and Safety Management System. Priorities SMEs need practical and effective instruments The existing legislative framework for risk assessment at state level is adequate. The focus should now be on the implementation of this legislation at regional, local and company level. Although the risk assessment is a legal obligation, many companies did not do the risk assessment act. The state could provide financial support for companies that commit to it, either through a tax relief or through funds (eg fund from fines for violating the Law on Safety and Health at Work). In addition, companies should not be automatically held responsible for everything that goes wrong, which very often gives a negative image of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. Strengthening the culture of prevention All parties should work towards a culture of prevention. This must be based on a partnership between all the players involved and must be accompanied by substantial efforts in information provision and training and in enhancing awareness [05]. State agencies (Department of OHS), professional associations, chambers of commerce need to work on promotion of risk assessment and risk prevention, as well as to encourage the exchange of best practices between companies in the same industries and between regions.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 256

The need for a partnership The Health and Safety policy, the risk assessment and prevention in general have to be based on a strong partnership between all players involved. There is no need for new institutions, but rather for better networking and cooperation between the relevant actors, and between sectors at all levels. We have to bundle different forces towards strong collaboration, with only one target: a better Risk Assessment in SMEs, a better health and safety environment for employer and employees. The role of labour inspection services The work of inspection services should be an important external factor for small and medium enterprises. They need the support of labor inspectors to better comply with regulations, especially through education, and then, when necessary, through punitive measures. Proper and effective implementation of the legislation is very important, both from the social, and economic perspective. It is expected that the labor inspection service is a modern, contemporary and professional authority. It has to be run by highly professional staff members. The establishment of a management system for OHS ensuring that the same policy and strategy are implemented, would be particularly welcome. CONCLUSION Risk assessment in the workplace is a central issue for all employers. However, in our country, employers are still not aware of the importance of the topic for their workforce.Another reason for lack of consideration for this area is the existence of too many legal obligations (many of OHS regulations) which, combined with a poorly designed forms and documents you need to fill in, are not helping employers in small and medium-sized enterprises to carry out their obligations.Therefore, we urgently need a strong support to facilitate the understanding of laws and regulations by small employers, and therefore its better implementation in the workplace. Last but not least, a strong partnership between small and medium-sized enterprises and the Labour Iinspection Services and OSH Committee is necessary. They should provide more help for SMEs in developing the health and safety policy of the company in general, and risk assessment in particular. They should be guided by the principle of “less sanctions but more support”. When 127


Mr Velimir Komadinić - Risk assessment in small and medium-sized enterprises, specifics and defferences in approach

sanctions are applied, they should be aimed at those companies which, after having been warned, still neglect health and safety or refuse to carry out a risk assessment.This is the key message of this paper. REFERENCES 1) D. Ilic, V. Komadinić, “Risk Assessment Act of jobs at the plant for thermal desorption of FAS in Kragujevac,”Lola Institute, Belgrade, May 2011. 2) European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Mainstreaming OSH into business management (ISBN 978-92-9191-298-8), Luxembourg, 2010. 3) Jonathan Statham, and group,Technical assessment of means of preventing crushing risks on lifts subject to directive 95/16/EC, Report Number ME/07/07, HEALT & SAFETY LABORATORY, August 2007. 4) Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Policy, Law on Safety and Health at Work, Official GazetteRS No. 101/05, Belgrade, 2005.

128

5) Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Policy, Regulations on the procedure for the assessment of risks in the workplace and working environment,Official GazetteRS No. 101/05, Belgrade, 2005 6) Petrović, P., Milačić, V. (2010): “National technology platform Serbia - a new formal framework for re-engineering industries of Serbia“, Journal of Applied Engineering Science (Istraživanja i projektovanja za privredu), Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 147 - 161 7) Savić, S., Stanković, M., Anđelković, B. (2010): “Preventive Engineering - System Engineering of Risk”, Journal of Applied Engineering Science (Istraživanja i projektovanja za privredu), No. 9, pp. 29-35 8) V. Komadinić, D. Ilić.”Employees view of the dangers and hazards in an industrial enterprise”, 36 Jupiter Conference Proceedings, Belgrade 2010., Pages 118 – 121 Paper sent to revision: 23.04.2013. Paper ready for publication: 27.08.2013.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 256


Review Paper

doi:10.5937/jaes11-3862

Paper number: 11(2013)3, 257, 129 - 136

NEEDS FOR NEW CADASTRAL SURVEYING BUILDING REGION IN THE TOWN OF BAČKA PALANKA Dr Miroslav Kuburić* Geoput d.o.o, Belgrade, Serbia Milan Filipović Geoput d.o.o, Belgrade, Serbia Mladen Lero Geoput d.o.o, Belgrade, Serbia In this article is presented the short overwiev on previews works of cadastral measurements on territory of municipality of Bačka Palanka and direct comparison data on cadastral maps with data on new digital ortophoto plans (aerial photography from 2010.) on the building region in the town Bačka Palanka. Base on that there is suggestion to make new measurements on the building region in the town Bačka Palanka using new technology. According to this the analysis is given in the study („Geoput“ 2010.) which gives available cadastral data and their updating, credibility and level of useable this data in the process of making decisions about economize lend and creating adequate plans for using, classification and arrangement trade and other recourses on this part of building region. The study gives information about cadastral measurements in chronological way from 1864, which carried out in harmony with possibilities of local government and according to plans and programs of work of republic establishment. From other side the study gives suggestion of work on the cadastral measurements in the next period according law regulation and possibility of institutions, which dallies, and which are authoritative in this area. Key words: Cadastral measurements, Previews study of reasonable, Civil region, Municipality Bačka Palanka INTRODUCTION In recent years local government municipality of Bačka Palanka its activity focused on improving the system of management of the land under their jurisdiction. For the realization of these activities, starting point are the cadastre data, which is a basic, and a public registry of immovable property and rights to them, but within this perceived problem of lack state cadastral records in comparison with the facts on the ground. Such a situation has inevitably generated a need to determine the degree of promptness, quality, reliability and usability of data available in order to make quality decisions on the management of the municipal resources. The area of space measurement and its elements for the establishment and renewal of cadastre and monitoring, updating and keeping of cadastre data in its professional and administrative terms, as a work * “Geoput” d.o.o., Tome Rosandića 2, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia; geodelta@geoput.com

of general interest for the Republic of Serbia, is under the jurisdiction of the Republic Geodetic Authority. This job can be recommended to a geodetic organization, which meted the statutory requirements. In accordance with the applicable laws and regulations covering this area, a private company “GEOPUT” doo from Belgrade, has prepared a feasibility study on the previous performance of the new surveying building region of municipality Bačka Palanka. GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION TERRITORY OF MUNICIPALITY BAČKA PALANKA The territory of Bačka Palanka municipality covers an area of 579 km², located in the western part of Vojvodina, and together with the municipalities Bač Beočin Bački Petrovac, Vrbas, city Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Srbobran, Temerin, Bečej, and municipality Žabalj and Titel seems 129


Dr Miroslav Kuburić - Needs for new cadastral surveying building region in town of Bačka Palanka

South Bačka District. For its development of the municipality is located in the top 10 (of 45) in the Province. The southern part of the municipal boundary is located on the river Danube, which is the border with Republic Croatia, and the remaining lower part of the southern land borders of the municipality of Backa Palanka, is over the Danube River, and has the borders with the

municipalities of Šid and Sremska Mitrovica of Srem. The Danube river except that the boundary between the states of Serbia and Croatia, it is also the border between Bačka and Srem, while the water flow divided municipality territory in two parts, one northern which is the larger and smaller southern part.

Figure 1: The position of municipality Bačka Palanka in Republic Serbia [03]

It was noted that on the position of current city of Bačka Palanka, the first settlement on this region raised in the eleventh century, and the name Palanka was mentioned from the 1593rd year. At the end of the sixteenth century this area was occupied by the Turks, but after the signing of Karlovac Peace 1699th, Turks departure this territory, after which the area inhabited by Serbian, German, Slovak and Hungarian population. Therefore, here there the Old, New and 130

Germany Palanka, and later this area became known as Bačka Palanka. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in this area began to develop the economy (production of bricks, tobacco processing of wood, hemp, and lower production of silk), which contributed to the overall development of the area and a substantial settlement. Now the territory of Bačka Palanka municipality has 14 settlements, 12 to the left and 2 (Neštin and Vizić) on the right bank of the DanJournal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 257


Dr Miroslav Kuburić - Needs for new cadastral surveying building region in town of Bačka Palanka

ube, where living more than 60 thousand people of different nationality. The territory of Bačka Palanka municipality is divided into 15 cadastral municipalities (CM) with the following names: Bačka Palanka, Bačka Palanka-town, Vizić,

Gajdobra, Despotovo, Mladenovo, Neštin, Nova Gajdobra, Nova Palanka, Obrovac, Parage, Pivnice, Silbaš, Tovariševo and Čelarevo, as can be seen in Figure 2.

Figure 2: The names of settlements (14) and cadastral municipalities (15) in the Municipality of Bačka Palanka [02]

ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING CADASTRAL SURVEYING IN MUNICIPALITY OF BAČKA PALANKA Cadastral surveying and cadastral renewal survey on the cadastral municipalities on the territory of Bačka Palanka was carried out at different times and using different methods surveying of details (aerial survey, application consolidation, application of polar and orthogonal method of surveying). The content of plane presented in analogue form on the cadastral plans in different scale, what you can see on Table no.1. Since founding, to this day by the cadastral survey on cadastral municipalities was carried out in accordance with municipality possibility and financial capabilities, plans and requirements or needs of the public administration. In the municipality of Bačka Palanka primary survey conducted in the period since 1864. to 1900. in scale 1:2880, in stereographic projection. The new survey was conducted in 1967. until 1970., in the cadastral municipality of Bačka Palanka-town, in GaussKruger projection, using aerial surveying, and the period of 1967-1991, in the some cadastral municipalities, a new survey is done in the process of redistribution of agricultural land. In the Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 257

period from 1966 to 1967, in the town area, there were defined and stabilized the points of town polygonal network I and II order, which used for this surveying. At that, time in the city polygonal network of the first order determined 204, and in the network of second order 131 point, was determined. For the purposes of the construction of building area municipality of Bačka Palanka, in 2000, it was developed polygonal network first rank on the field with 202 points, which relied on eight points of reference network of the Republic of Serbia. In addition, for the survey of cadastral municipality Bačka Palanka - town in altitude view, from the 1966th-1967, it was stabilized the specific town leveling networks with points first and second order. Back then, in the city, leveling network of first order it was determined 12 benchmarks, and in the network second order it was determined 51 benchmarks. Based on survey data, survey and restoration, in the past and applying contemporary technological solutions, it worked out of digital cadastral maps. In the municipality of Bačak Palanka made digital cadastral maps (DCM) in seven of cadastral municipalities, Mladenovo, Nova Palanka, Obrovac, Parage, Pivnice, Silbaš and Čelarevo. 131


Dr Miroslav Kuburić - Needs for new cadastral surveying building region in town of Bačka Palanka

Sheets

Table 1: Overview of cadastral plans by CM and theirs scales on the territory of the municipality Bačka Palanka [02] Available cadastral plans by CM on the territory municipality of Bačka Palanka

12

23

16

28

24

16

9

24

17

In accordance with the legislation and the tendency of regulation of this area and in the municipality of Bačka Palanka are derived works to create a unique cadastral records and real estate cadastre. From the 15 cadastral municipalities which existing on territory of Bačka Palanka, in mentioned these seven CM which are made of DCP, for another 3 CM, Bačka Palanka, Gajdobra and Tovriševo are made the cadastre of real estate, while for the remaining 5 CM there is the land cadastre and land registration (lend book). During 2003 year, The Government of the Republic of Serbia (SG RS no. 93/2003), on the base of the decision of Backa Palanka municipality and the recommendation of RGA, decided to change the boundaries of CM Bačka Palanka – city. For once, this CM is incorporated parts of CM Bačka Palanka and New Palanka, in order to extend area of urban construction land in the municipality. The level of efficiency of existing cadastral plans can the best be seen by direct comparison by simultaneous observation of the existing building line display on the cadastral plan and built a new aerial photography (e.g. scanned cadastral maps and digital aerial photo or, better, digital ortophoto), the same area, which automatically indicates the existence of newly constructions, roads, etc.. or other elements that are not recorded on cadastral maps and other documents. This fact undoubtedly contributes to the visual character of the need of solving the issue of ille-

Silbaš

Pivnice

Parage

Obrovac

Nova Palanka

Nova Gajdobra

Neštin

Despotovo

16

Vizić

Bačka Palanka

55

Gajdobra

1:1000 (750х500)

132

15

31

20

263 78

15

17

103

Total

39

1.1000 (900х600)

Name CM

57

Čelarevo

25

24

Tovariševo

42

23

Mladenovo

1.2500 (900х600)

10

Bačka Palanka -town

Scale

1.2880

gal construction or legalization or implementation process of collection of fees for the use of lend or for consolidation of urban construction lend. By simply superimposing i.e. simultaneous looking available cadastral maps and a newly constructed digital ortophoto of the same part of the territory, we concluded that the level of detail on updating cadastral maps. The result can be seen from the attached pictures and considerable the table. Wider area of building engagement area of Bačka Palanka municipality (for which there is a digital ortophoto) extends to 70 sheets of scale 1:1000 (format 900x600 mm). In the following examples, clearly, there is a difference between the situations of having registered / available cadastral maps and the current situation on the ground i.e. from the summer of 2010th when the aerial photographing was recording. On the lower images are examples of these differences for the parts of Sava Kovačević Street and Liberation Square in Bačka Palanka. Direct observation and counting of objects displayed on cadastral maps and objects that exist in the field, it is evident that the percentage of unregistered facilities ranging up to 40% in some parts of the building regions. This inevitably suggests that it is necessary to undertake all planning activities to overcome this situation, i.e. carried out survey and register of all buildings and other elements that make the real estate registry. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 257


Dr Miroslav Kuburić - Needs for new cadastral surveying building region in town of Bačka Palanka

Figure 3: Overview drawing sheets of digital ortophoto in the scale 1:1000 which cover building region of the town Bačka Palanka [02]

Figure 4: Comparison of the displayed objects on the cadastral plot (red) and the existing buildings on the ground / new digital ortophoto (blue); at the part of the Sava Kovačević street in Bačka Palanka Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 257

133


Dr Miroslav Kuburić - Needs for new cadastral surveying building region in town of Bačka Palanka

Figure 5: Comparison of the displayed objects on the cadastral plot (red) and the existing buildings on the ground / new digital ortophoto (blue); at the part of the Liberty place in Bačka Palanka Table 2: Summary of existing and newly built structures in the building zone on the territory of three cadastral municipalities in Municipality of Bačka Palanka [02]

From the review table is evident that in the building zone it will be necessary to do additional sur134

veying on more than about 5700 new objects, yet. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 257


Dr Miroslav Kuburić - Needs for new cadastral surveying building region in town of Bačka Palanka

RENOVATION NEEDS OF THE STATE SURVEY AND CREATION OF ESTATE CADASTRE On the territory of CM Bačka Palanka - town maintenance of cadastral surveying was carried out by “modify” measurements. Since 2000, the maintenance and changes in surveying measured by geodetic instruments from the existence geodetic network and using polar method of surveying. During the mapping we observed discrepancies - one objects or their parts “fell” into the adjacent parcel and if it is not the case in the field (errors are sometimes up to 2m). Based on previous survey data it was established the land register (book) with a new numbering of land parcels from the land cadastre. These jobs usually completed until 1982, but not fully completed. Disagreement over the land register is about 40%. In the land cadastre are registered holders of tenure for fiscal necessity, but in the Land Registry are registered holders of title to the scope of law - all co-owners. Maintenance of operate cadastral land is carried out in the software “JS”, version 7.1. Besides the foregoing, it is certain that the existence of disagreement survey and cadastral with the situation on the ground, like some roadspublic areas and in particular, analyzing only the objects on the ground are about 50% changed / increased relative to the state evidence and it cannot be eliminated routine maintenance measures. For example, town traffic roads on the plans exist only as cadastral parcels, but not as a actual objects carried out of the situation. There are no data in the cadastral records of parts of the floors of buildings. So the tax is charged only for agricultural land by the state land cadastre evidence, and property tax is charged only after user presented oneself - the owner of construction (because only when you establish real estate cadastre it will be possible for all owners pay property tax according to the actual records and adequate accounting). Therefore, on the part of the area with the status of urban construction land (formed of cadastral municipalities Bačka Palanka- town with old borders area which has 1443 hectares, and annexed parts of CM Bačka Palanka, measuring 100 hectares and CM Nova Palanka area of 236 hectares, for a total of 1779 hectares would be required do the following:

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 257

• Accomplish a renovation of cadastral surveying by modern methods and make the establishment of real estate cadastre (the complete procedure of collecting spatial data on estates and related rights, the creation of appropriate databases, and to put on public display of data of estates and rights to them - to establish a unique record database cadastre - in accordance with the performed pre-main project renewal survey and establish real estate cadastre); • Develop a database of digital cadastral map based on numerical data renewal survey; • Put in practice the establishment of real estate cadastre (database). Looking at legislation in this area and technology process, reconstruction activities of the state survey and real estate cadastre would be conducted in accordance with this, i.e.: 1. Medium-term programs of works of the government would be bringing based on the proposal of RGA, while the annual work plan prepared RGA; 2. The decision on the renewal survey and real estate cadastre would bring the Government of Serbia, based on proposals RGA, for the area where there is disagreement survey and documentation with the situation on the ground, but which cannot be cured out by measures of routine maintenance; 3. Financial support for realization of programs and work plans are funded from nation budget of RS, the local government, from donations and from the interested legal and natural persons; 4. Preliminary and Main design creating RGA or geodetic organizations, upon request and under terms of reference investor, but a listed projects are subject to professional or technical control carried out by the revision commission of RGA ор Geodetic organization wich accomplished all the legal requirements; 5. Accomplishment geodetic work performing contractor who accomplish all conditions and who selected by the investor in accordance with the law; 6. Professional supervision executing RGA; 7. Receiving, verification and certification of final documentation executing RGA by itself resolution; 135


Dr Miroslav Kuburić - Needs for new cadastral surveying building region in town of Bačka Palanka

8. Thus founded the real estate cadastre would apply from the day of receipt of the RGA and after submitting in the relevant department of cadastre for further protection, storage, use and maintenance. If we kook the territory of the Municipality Bačka Palanka with all features, it has elements which significantly contribute to easier performance process of geodetic measurement, such as the flat terrain, developed traffic infrastructure, arable land, dense settlements and settlements are near the road and so on. All these elements significantly might decrease the overall costs of the works, and above all for field surveying work. In analyzing the present situation, it is evident that already existed decisions of the Municipality Bačka Palanka on the renewal survey and implementation of the lend consolidation of appropriate cadastral municipalities where by the design solutions proposed the selected method of measurement and reconstruction of the cadastre of real estate. It indicates that there is a strong preference of citizens and local governments for these activities to finish it as soon as possible. The completing of it bring significant advantages estate enlargement (parcels), arranging travel and drainage network, land use, collection of adequate fees, etc.., and also it provides update, accurate and modern picture of regulation of real estate cadastre and space in general, as the basis for a quality work of local self-government. CONCLUSION In the municipality of Bačka Palanka, in the territory with the status of urban construction land, i.e. the territory of the CM Bačka Palanka - town, there is a disagreement of data of cadastral surveying with the situation on the ground. For example, the roads - public areas, and facilities where there has been a change for 50%, compared to the situation in the evidence. It is certain that this situation cannot be eliminated routine maintenance measures, and this situation inevitably slows down a series of activities of municipal bodies, which depend and using the real estate cadastre data. The main activities in this field, in accordance with the competence, are starting from the Republic Geodetic Authority. RGA prepares and proposes a decision for the renewal of surveying and cadastre, but the same bringing by the Government of the Republic of Serbia and the As136

sembly of the Municipality Bačka Palanka, as a local government. In addition, the decisions are bringing regarding to the financing of the works. For the final realization of the mentioned surveying, with considering the volume of those works and as well as important financial amount for that, it is necessary that the Republic Geodetic Authority, together with the Assembly of the Municipality Bačka Palanka set priorities and hierarchy of implementation, as well as the dynamics of total project by cadastral municipalities. Then it is necessary to make design and certify main project for every cadastral municipality and technical documentation. Based on that, it will be start technical implementation using appropriate methods in the process of collecting and processing data on real estate cadastre data, and rights on them. It going up to produce adequate data bases, process of public display of data on immovable property and rights to them, and their establishment and use in the service for real estate cadastre data in municipality. The whole process requires high quality and constant cooperation corresponding participants such as the Republic Geodetic Authority, a body of local self-government and surveying organization, which will be including in the implementation of this project. REFERENCES 1) Kuburić M., Lero M. (2011): Surveying works in road designing and construction, Journal of Applied Engineering Science (Istraživanja i projektovanja za privredu), Vol. 9, No. 3, pp 393-400. 2) Law on State Survey and Real Estate Cadastre (Official Gazette of RS, No. 79/09 and 18/10) 3) Official presentation / website of the municipality of Bačka Palanka, www.backapalanka.rs 4) Previous studies justification of cadastral survey of Bačka Palanka municipality, GEOPUT doo, Belgrade,2010. 5) The Republic Geodetic Authority, territorial organization, the status of real estate cadastre per Municipalities, contact information, the official website of the Authority, www.rgz.gov.rs Paper sent to revision: 07.05.2013. Paper ready for publication: 28.08.2013.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 257


Original Scientific Paper

doi:10.5937/jaes11-4122

Paper number: 11(2013)3, 258, 137 - 144

A CONTRIBUTION TO RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF STEERING TRAPEZE ON BUS STEERED WHEELS SHIMMY Dr Miroslav Demić* University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering Science, Kragujevac, Serbia Dr Đorđe Diligenski University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia

Steered wheels shimmy is a harmful phenomenon in the steering system of the vehicle. It causes driver’s fatigue and fatigue of the elements of steering system, increased tire wear etc. In practice, efforts are being made to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of this effect, and the buses are sometimes equipped with shock absorbers in the steering trapeze. In this paper an attempt is made to analyze the influence of shock absorber in the steering trapeze on the steered wheels shimmy of a bus. Analysis showed that shock absorbers significantly affect the reduction of steered wheels shimmy. Key words: Bus, Shock absorber, Steered wheels shimmy INTRODUCTION Today there is a variety of systemic and design solutions in terms of meeting the basic functions of the steering system. In addition to the main task - to ensure the vehicle motion in the desired direction - the steering system has to meet a number of other requirements, some of the most important are the following [01, 03, 11-22]: • acceptable steering accuracy and minimal lateral slip of steered wheels, • spontaneous return of turned steered wheels into neutral position, • low internal losses, • acceptable level of handling the vehicle, primarily from the aspect of physical effort while controlling the steering wheel (low torque at the steering wheel with optimal turn of the steering wheel), also from the aspect of a sense of steering control (proportionality of the torque applied on the steering wheel and steered wheels resistance to turning), • low level of system vibration, • kinematic conformity with the vehicle suspension system, • high reliability in the operation and steering the vehicle on the road in all conditions, and

• long life and easy maintenance. In this paper, special attention will be paid to the vibration of steering system, in particular steering wheels shimmy. Actually, steered wheels shimmy refers to the steered wheels angular vibration about the king pin [03, 04-08, 11-22]. Steered wheels shimmy is a harmful phenomenon, because it leads to the fatigue of the driver and the elements of the steering system. Therefore, special efforts are made to reduce this phenomenon to a minimum, even at the stage of vehicle design.

Figure 1: Layout of steering system of a domestic bus with built-in shock absorbers

* University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering Science, Sestre Janjić 6, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia; demic@kg.ac.rs

137


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of steering trapeze on bus steered wheels shimmy

For this purpose, sometimes, the design of a steering system incudes shock absorber, schematically shown in Figure 1 [22]. In this paper, the aim was to analyse the validity of this design, through the process of dynamic simulation, which is based on the analysis of a simplified mathematical model of a steering system. Given the complexity of the kinematics and steering system design, as well as the existence of wheels elasticity, deformations of the system, influence of various forces and torques, it is obvious that the modelling of the system represents a significant problem. In the literature [01, 1121] models of different structure and complexity can be found, but bearing in mind that the goal here was to introduce the influence of shock absorbers, built-in in steering trapeze, it was found appropriate to use the model from [01, 17] as a basic point. Of course, it has been upgraded by introducing shock absorbers into a steering trapeze, as it will be discussed below.

VIBRATION MODEL OF THE STEERING SYSTEM Model of a steering system should include all relevant parameters, such as the influence of allowance in the system, steering mechanism ratio, dry and viscous friction, inertial forces and torques, gyroscopic moments, as well as all active forces and torques acting on the wheels, etc. [17]. Certainly, it is a complex problem that in practice, in the initial stage of design of a steering system, is solved with simplifications so that the model can provide the analysis of the relevant variable, which is in this case damping of shock absorbers in the steering system [03]. Therefore, as a basis for the model, a model with two masses (two angular degrees of freedom) is used, taken from [01, 17]. As the original model did not include the influence of shock absorbers in the steering trapeze on the steered wheels shimmy, it was necessary to upgrade the model, according to the structural scheme of the steering system shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Structural scheme of the applied model of steering system

It is a model of two equivalent masses (power steering and steered wheels) and two degrees of freedom (the angle of the steering wheel refers to the equivalent mass of the power steering, hereinafter referred to as steering angle, and shimmy of the equivalent mass of steered wheels, hereinafter referred to as steered wheels shimmy). The following symbols were used in Figure 2: • Md - moment on the steering wheel applied by the driver, • Mfrs - moment of friction in the power steering, • Mks - damping moment of the power steering, • Mcs - moment due to elasticity of the power steering, 138

• Msh - moment due to the built-in shock absorber in the steering trapeze, • Mgyr - gyroscopic moment of wheels, • Msa –aligning torque of the wheels, • Mfrt - friction torque of the system of steered wheels, • Is – moment of inertia of the equivalent masses of the elements of power steering, and • It - moment of inertia of steered wheels and related elements of the steering system. On the basis of [01, 03, 11-21], the expressions for moments can be written in the following form:

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 258


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of steering trapeze on bus steered wheels shimmy

(1)

where: • Mmax- maximal torque applied by the driver on the steering wheel, • f – frequency of turning the steering wheel, • cfrs, cfrt – friction coefficients in power steering and wheels, respectively, • v - vehicle speed, • t - angular speed of wheels, • rd – dynamic radius of wheels, • Zf – vertical reaction on the front axle, • kθ – tire sideslip coefficient, • – slip coefficient due to caster angle, • cχ – slip coefficient due to wheel convergence, • - caster angle, and • Χ – convergence angle of steered wheels

Based on Newton’s laws and Figure 2, after sorting, differential equations describing the vibration of the observed equivalent masses of the steering system are: (2)

(3)

The analysis of differential equations (2) and (3) shows that they are with constant coefficients and nonlinear, and need to be solved numerically, as will be discussed later. DYNAMIC SIMULATION Using the model of the steering system described by equations (1) - (3), it is possible to analyse parameters of the built-in shock absorber in steering trapeze, the influence of radial load and the speed of the bus on the steering angle and steered wheels shimmy. In doing so, the analysis is performed for two typical speeds of the bus, 10 and 30 m/s and two front axle loads, 50 and 70 kN. While driving, the driver acted at the steering wheel with a maximum torque of 2 N, and the variation of the torque on the steering wheel was sinusoidal, with frequency of 1 Hz, because around that value there are commonly found frequencies of drivers action to the steering wheel) [17, 19]. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 258

Bearing in mind that the applied model of the steering system was nonlinear, differential equations that describe its vibration motion are solved numerically, by use of Runge - Kutta method. In doing so, the numerical stability is achieved with the time increment of 10-5 sec, and the integration is carried out in 262144 points, which ensured the reliability of the results in the domain of 0.38 to 50000 Hz (which is very high for this type of problem and the results are observed in the area of up to 50 Hz). Dynamic simulation is performed for the tourist bus with the parameters given in Table 1 [22]. Preliminary analyses have shown that in order to follow the further text it is useful to present an illustrative example of a time series steered wheels shimmy, as it is done in Figure 3. From Figure 3 it is evident that shock absorber affects the steering wheels shimmy, and was deemed appropriate to perform the further analyses on the basis of amplitude spectra, calculated by using the software ANALSIGDEM [10]. 139


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of steering trapeze on bus steered wheels shimmy

Table 1: Data on the vehicle and its systems Shock absorbers damping coefficient with the linear member, k1, Ns/m

0 (without shock absorbers) 300000 (with shock absorbers)

Shock absorbers damping coefficient with the square member, k2, Ns2/m2

0 (without shock absorbers) 200000 (with shock absorbers)

Tire dynamic radius, rd, m

0.556

Steering gear ratio, iu, -

4

Moment of inertia of the power steering equivalent mass , Iv, kgm2

15

Moment of inertia of the steering wheels equivalent mass, It, kgm2

150

Steered wheels angle of convergence, X, rad

1/360

Steered wheels caster angle,

1/60

, rad

Coefficient of tire sideslip proportionality, cθ, -

20

Coefficient of sideslip proportionality due to caster angle, , -

0.005

Coefficient of slip proportionality due to steered wheels convergence, cχ, -

0.05

Friction coefficients of power steering, cs, -

500

Power steering damping coefficient, ks, 1/rad

50000

Wheels stiffness coefficient, ct, N/rad

1000

Wheels damping coefficient, kt, 1/rad

10

Friction coefficient of the wheels system, ktrs, -

100

Figure 3: Illustration of the impact of shock absorbers on steered wheels shimmy for the speed 30 m/s and load 50 daN

140

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 258


Dr Miroslav DemiÄ&#x2021; - A contribution to research of the influence of steering trapeze on bus steered wheels shimmy

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS Dynamic simulation enables the analysis of the impact of damping of built-in shock absorbers, radial load and vehicle speed on the steering

wheel vibration and steered wheels shimmy. By using the software [10], mean and RMS values of the time-series are calculated, as the results of dynamic simulation, and the values are given in Table 2.

Table 2: Mean and RMS values of steering angles and steering wheels shimmy Speed m/s

Front axle load, N

Mean value of steering angle, rad

Mean value of steered wheels shimmy, rad

Effective value of steering angle, rad

Effective value of steered wheels shimmy, rad

10

50000

1.58703E-003*

7.657674E-002*

1.92179E-003*

9.12244E-002*

10

50000

1.58703E-003**

1.009701E-002**

1.92179E-003**

1.19799E-002**

10

70000

1.58703E-003*

8.381248E-002*

1.92179E-003*

1.00708E-001*

10

70000

1.58703E-003**

1.095510E-002**

1.92179E-003**

1.30989E-002**

30

50000

-1.157885E-003*

3.736105E-001*

4.39064E-003*

4.26686E-001*

30

50000

-1.15788E-003**

4.466578E-002**

4.39064E-003**

5.10057E-002**

30

70000

-1.15788E-000*

-7.37474E+000*

4.39064E-000*

1.19403E+000*

30

70000

-1.15788E-003**

4.540509E-002**

4.39064E-003**

5.16531E-002**

* Without shock absorbers ** With shock absorbers

It was estimated to be expedient, in addition to statistical values given in Table 2, using the same software, to calculate amplitude spectra of

the observed variables. For illustration, the amplitude spectra of the steering wheel angle are partially shown in Figures 4 and 5.

Figure 4: Steering angle for a speed of 30 m/s and 70 kN radial load of front axle

Analysis of all the data, partially shown in Figures 4 and 5 showed that the greatest power of amplitude spectra of the steering angle is distributed within the area until about 2 Hz, which is consistent with [17]. In addition, it can be seen that the installation of shock absorbers insignificantly affects the steering angle, for both vehicle Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 258

speeds, which also refers to the influence of the load of steered wheels on the aforementioned parameter. The obvious match of graphs relating the status - with or without shock absorbers is a result of significant damping effect of power steering itself and partly a result of simplifications introduced in the vehicle model. 141


Dr Miroslav DemiÄ&#x2021; - A contribution to research of the influence of steering trapeze on bus steered wheels shimmy

Figure 5: Steering angle for a speed of 10 m/s and 70 kN radial load of front axle

Figure 6: Steered wheels shimmy for speed 30 m/s and 50 kN radial load of front axle

However, the speed of the vehicle influences the steering since the increase of speed leads to the increase of amplitude spectra of the observed parameter (this fact can be explained as the influence of gyroscopic moment which exists in differential equations of motion of the observed vibration model of the steering system). Dynamic simulation enabled the analysis of the impact of damping of built-in shock absorbers, 142

radial load and vehicle speed on the steered wheels shimmy. For illustration purposes, the results of dynamic simulation are partly shown in Figures 6 and 7. The analysis of the data, partly shown in Figures 6 and 7, can confirm that the installed shock absorbers significantly decrease steered wheels shimmy, especially in the area up to 15 Hz, which is very important for vehicle ride comfort [21]. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 258


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of steering trapeze on bus steered wheels shimmy

Figure 7: Steered wheels shimmy for speed 10 m/s and 50 kN radial load of front axle

This certainly justifies the installation and application of shock absorbers in the steering system trapeze, even though it complicates the design and increases the vehicle cost. In this case, the value of shimmy increases with the increase of the load of steered wheels, which is easily explained by the fact that the parameters of the tire lateral stiffness which exist in the applied model of the steering system increase with the growth of radial load of the tire. Bus speed also shows the impact on the steered wheels shimmy. In fact, the increase of speed leads to the increase of steered wheels shimmy, which can be related to the increase of the value of gyroscopic moments that are included in the model of the bus steering system. CONCLUSIONS Based on the performed study the following can be concluded: • The applied simplified vibration model of a bus steering system can be used at the initial stages of vehicle design to enable the analysis of the dynamic phenomena in the mentioned system. • Practical design solutions of the steering system trapeze with the built-in shock absorbers have their own justification, as a shock absorber significantly reduces steered wheels shimmy at lower frequencies, in reJournal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 258

gimes of variable vehicle speed and radial load of wheels. In doing so, shock absorber doesn’t show a higher impact on the steering angle, except in the case of vehicle speed variation. REFERENCES 1) Abe, M., Manning, W. (2009) Vehicle Handling Dynamics, Elsevier. 2) Bendat J.S., Piersol A.G. (2000) Random Data Analysis and Measurement Procedures. John Wiley and Sons, London. 3) Demić, M. (1996) Analysis of Influence of Design Parameters on Steered Wheels Shimmy of Heavy Vehicles. Vehicle Syst. Dyn. 26: 343-379 4) Demić, M., Diligenski Ð. (1999) The Optimization of Suspension Geometry Parameters of Bus Steered Wheels,Third International Conference Heavy Mashinery-HM´99, Kraljevo. 5) Demić, M., Diligenski, Ð. (2000) The sensitivity analysis and the optimization of suspension geometry parameters of bus steered wheels, MVM 1,2. 6) Demić, M. (2000) Optimization of the steering wheels geopmetry of motor vehicles (in Serbian), Tehnika br. 3. 7) Demić, M. (2002) Some aspects of the investigation of the shimmy of the steered truck’s wheels (in Serbian), Vojnotehnički glasnik 3 143


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of steering trapeze on bus steered wheels shimmy

8) Demić, M. Diligenski, Đ. (2013) A contribution to research of the influence of degradation of vehicle vibration parameters on thermal load of shock absorbers, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol.11, No. 1, pp 23-30. 9) Demić, M., Diligenski, Đ. (2012) A Contribution to Research of Degradation of Characteristics of Vibration Parameters on Vibration Aspect of Vehicle Comfort, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp.185190. 10) Demić, M. Software “Analsigdem”, www.ptt. yu/korisnici/i/m/imizm034. 11) Ellis, J.R. (1994) Vehicle Handling Dynamics. Mechanical Engineering Publications Limited, London. 12) Fiala, E. (2006) Mensch und Fahrzeug. ATZ/ MTZ, Springer Verlag. 13) Gincburg, L. L. (1997) Driver model for investigation of vehicle motion at desired trajectory. Avtomobilnaja promisljenost, No. 8: 11-16 (in Russian).

144

14) Gillespie, T. (1992) Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. SAE, Warrendale 15) Genta, A. (2003) Motor Vehicle Dynamics. Politecnika di Torino. 16) Georg, R. (2004) Vehicle Dynamics. Lecture Notes, Fachhochschule Regensburg. 17) Hačaturov, A.A. et al. (1976) Dynamics of System: Road-Tire-Vehicle-Driver. Mašinostrojenije, Moscow (in Russian). 18) Miliken, W.F., Miliken, D.L. (1995) Race Car Vehicle Dynamics. SAE, Warrendale. 19) Mitschke, M. (1972) Dynamik der Kraftfahrzeuge. Springer Verlag . 20) Rajamani, R. (2006) Vehicle Dynamics and Control. Springer Verlag. 21) Simić, D. (1988) Motor Vehicle Dynamics. Naučna knjiga, Belgrade (in Serbian), 22) FAP (2013) Information (in Serbian). Paper sent to revision: 01.07.2013. Paper ready for publication: 04.09.2013.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 258


Original Scientific Paper

doi:10.5937/jaes11-3234

Paper number: 11(2013)3, 259, 145 - 151

SMALL SCALE RHEOLOGICAL OBSERVATION OF HIGH CONSISTENCY NANOFIBRILLAR MATERIAL BASED FURNISHES Dimić-Mišić Katarina* Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland Dr Yogesh Sanavane Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland Dr Jouni Paltakari Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland Dr Thaddeus Maloney Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland Nanotechnology allows development of new enabling technologies with broad commercial potential. Cellulose has also the potential to be the source for renewable materials, which can be made multifunctional and self-assembling at the same time displace many non-renewable materials including metal and ceramics. The potential application area includes high quality paper products, paper coatings, high-performance and sustainablecomposite. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) can be obtained by the mechanical breakdown of natural fibers. These materials have the potential to be produced at low cost in a paper mill and may give many novel properties to paper, paper coatings, paints, or other products. However, suspensions of these materials have a complex rheology even at low solids. To be able to coat, pump, or mix NFC at moderate solids, it is critical to understand the rheology of these suspensions and how they flow in process equipment. Only a limited number of reports have been published in the literature on NFC rheology at moderate solids. NFC was found to be a highly shear thinning material with a power law index of around 0.1. Oscillatory tests gave consistent results for the parallel-disk and other geometries. The complex viscosity, the storage and loss moduli, and the yield stress were determined for the range of solids. Basic rheological and dewatering properties of nanocellulose based high consistency furnishes were evaluated. Two different grades of nanocellulose, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with different swelling properties were used. Both types of nanocellulose have a common challenge, namely strong interactions between the particles resulting in aggregation of individual particles. These inter-particle interactions together with the physical entanglements cause high viscosities of nanocellulose suspensions and furnishes, which together with high water bonding property affects processability. Key words: Nanocellulose, Rheology, MFC, NFC, Nanocellulose furnishes INTRODUCTION The properties of wood result from a unique interplay between nanoscale domains of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin [06, 14]. In addition to cost, improved environmental friendliness has been a motivation for the use of cellulosecnanosized filler elements in place of other filler materials for the engineering of composite structures [12]. There is huge diversity in raw materials used for productions of nanofibrillar materials * Aalto University, PO Box 110000 Aalto, Finland katarina.dimic.misic@aalto.fi

and in this work this term will be used for both microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) and nanofibrillatedcellullulose (NFC) [12]. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) can be prepared from chemical pulps by mechanical shearing while preserving the chemical composition as well as the high aspect ratio of the cellulose fibrils [25, 35]. An efficient chemical method of producing NFC while preserving high aspect ratio of fibrils is to selectively oxidize primary hydroxyl groups into carboxylate groups via 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperdine-1-oxyl

145


Dimić-Mišić Katarina - Small scale rheological observation of high consistency nanofibrillar material based furnishes

radical (TEMPO-oxidized) [16, 32, 33]. The hydroxyl groups efficiently prevent the formation of strong inter-fibrillar hydrogen bond-network via electrostatic repulsion [10, 25]. In respect to production process resulting fibrils have a high aspect ratio and diameter varying between 5 and 100 nm. MFC forms a highly entangled network consisting ofnano scale size elements with a gellike behavior for water dispersions at 1% or lower concentrations of MFC [01, 15]. In general, nanofibers are elementary assemblies of distinct polymeric units (based on glycopyranose in the central of nanofibrills) that have diameters on the order of tens of nanometers and constitute a fiber/strand network [34]. Since the nanofibrillar material has a fibers carry a negative charge,have a high relative surface area and high surface charge, charge density plays an important role for the interactions between surfaces [08, 20, 33]. Surface charge density of MFC plays an important role for the interactions in paper making furnish, modeling its network strength [07, 20] and this effects have been in investigated with microscopy [19, 36]. MFC fibers at certain consistencies form networks and have high shear thinning behavior [21, 28, 30]. Decrease in flock size with increase repulsion between fibers can be explained as more swollen fibers, which have higher bending and water bounded on surface, have lower frictional forces on their wall, enabling fibers to slide past each other in process conditions [36]. This phenomena has been investigated before and seenas decrease in flock size and lower storage modulus (G`) [07, 10, 11]. Rheology of paper making furnishes is very important for their processing; pumping, mixing, thickening etc. as observed by many authors [03, 09, 11]. However, amount of nanocellulose and its surface modifications have to be modified in order to balance between positive and negative effects of processability [11, 13]. The rheolocigal complexity of high consistency nanofibrillar material based furnishes was found to be due to the gel-like nature of the nanocellulose conatining material, even so that furnishes are mostly composed of pigment particles amd pulp fibers. This finding suggests of the filler component from a del-like nature of nanocellulose containing material [04, 07, 25]. Further challenges can be due to the moisture absorption by most cellulosic materials, and their tendency to swell when wetted [05]. 146

A key issue that prevents the immediate use of MFC and NFC in a high consistency composites is the rheology of MFC suspensions. Even at a solid level of less than 2%, the behavior is nonNewtonian with difficulty frequently found with a water removal through applications. Therefore, understanding the rheology of these suspensions and furnishes can be of help when tryiung to utilize it more efficiently. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials The charge of the pigments and MFC/ NFCs was determined from the filtrate by a Zetasizernano series (Malvern Instruments Ltd.). The average particle size of the pigments, MFC and NFC was measured with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Malvern (Malvern Instruments Ltd.). Prior to measuring the zeta potential (Ψz) and average particle size the samples were diluted with deionized water to a solid content of 0.01 %. The filler added to the furnish was a commercial precipitated calcium carbonate with scalenohedral morphology (SPCC), which came as an undispersed slurry with a solid content of 35.5 % (OmyaOy). The ensemble average particle size of the SPCC was 4.27 μm. The zeta potential was 9.8 mV at pH 9. Previously dried softwood pine pulp was used as source for cellulose fibers used in this research. Pulp of 360 gr was soaked in 5 l od de-ionized water over night and then beaten to a consistency of 1, 45% in a Valley Beater (ISO 5264-1) to the Shopper-Riegler (SR) number (24) (ISO 5267-1), zeta potential -19mV. Two types of MFC were used for two different furnish grades, Masuko and TEMPO. Masuko MFC Vane viscosity for 10 rpm and 1, 5% consistency was 23176 (mPas), Brookfiledvane viscosity at 0,5 rpm was 489722 (Pas). NFC TEMPO oxidized grade material at consistency of 2,3% was used, Vane viscosity for 10 rpm at 1,5% consistency was 48 657(mPas). From initial water suspension of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of 3% and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) of 2.3%, other MFC and NFC concentrations (2%and 4%, respectively) were obtainedwith dilution with deionized water and centrifugation in order to increase solid content. Furnishes were made for three consistencies (4%, 8% and 12% , respectively) with solid content with 70 % filler and 30% pulp. Two different Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 259


Dimić-Mišić Katarina - Small scale rheological observation of high consistency nanofibrillar material based furnishes

recipes were used for each furnish consistency regarding pulp, one with 20% nanocellulose (and 10% of cellulose fibers ) and another without cellulose fibers, or 30% MFC/NFC.WRV for NFC was three time higher than for MFC 9, methods explained elsewhere [07]. Methods The rheological measurements were performed at 23°C by means of and Anton Paar 300 Rheometer using plate-plate geometry. Oscillatory measurements were used to characterize the microstructure of the materials. These measurements are usually carried at sufficient small strain amplitude so that the structure is not modified, in linear viscoelastic region (LVE). Viscoelastic behavior was tested onAntonPaar 300 Rheometer using plate-plate geometry, Figure 1. Dynamic moduli, Storage modulus (G`) and Loss modulus (G``) were measured as a function of frequency (ω=0,1-1000 Hz) using oscillatory tests. To perform the frequency sweep test, the linear viscoelastic range of the sample (LVE) was obtained from amplitude sweep using constant angular frequency ω = 10 Hz) with strain amplitude between (0,01-500%) [20]. Parallel plate geometry was selected with upper plate diameter 25mm where both upper and bottom geometries were roughened (P-PTD 200) in order to prevent slipping of sample [15]. The gap between upper and bottom plate was 1mm for suspensions and 1.5mm for furnishes. Dynamic viscosity as a function of shear rate was measured at a steady state flow by increasing the shear rate from 0.01 to 1000 s -1. Note that the present geometry is very prone for shear inhomogeneities such as shear banding due to the inherent shear gradient in the radial direction [27, 29]. This is especially true for shear thinning complex fluids such as nanocellulose. Furthermore, is well documented in the literature, that vacuum filtration induces a gradient in the solid content in the filter normal direction. Both suspensions and furnishes were measured with a strain sweep, frequency sweep, and steady shear flow. In the strain sweep the strain was from 0.1 to 100% at an angular frequency 1Hz. Frequency sweep was done after determining linear viscoelastic region with amplitude sweep, varying angular frequency from 100 to 0.01 Hz.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 259

Figure 1: Anton Paar 300 Rheometer

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Suspensions Data from strain sweep measurements for suspensions are plotted in Figure 2. Plots presented in Figures 2 a) and b) reports the elastic (G`) and viscous (G``) moduli and elastic stress as a function of the strain at 1Hz for the 2% and 4%suspensions, MFC and NFC, respectively. It has been concluded from previous research that swelling is product of increased surface charge of fibers, as zeta potential of fibers affects their swelling properties [10, 07]. Both MFC and NFC suspensions exhibited linear viscoelastic response at low strain. Higher repulsion forces between more swollen NFC suspensions shows as lower elastic modulus G` than of MFC suspensions, Figure 2 a). The G` is constant up to a critical strain above which the elastic modulus decreases with strain and viscoelastic behavior becomes nonlinear. The G`` is considerably smaller than the G`, typical for nanocellulose based gel-likesuspensions.Linear viscoelastic region is longer for NFC suspensions, with critical strain reaching a higher strain values with increase in consistency, due to formation of stronger networks observed from other research papers [15, 07, 30]. Figure 2 b) shows the stress sweep for the storage modulus of different solid contents using the parallel-disk geometry. For strains values lower than 0.01% , both the storage (G`) and loss moduli (G``) are constant; this result indicates that the materials are in the linear

147


Dimić-Mišić Katarina - Small scale rheological observation of high consistency nanofibrillar material based furnishes

viscoelastic regime.The storage modulus (G`) is much higher in magnitude than the loss modulus in these tests, which indicates a solid-like behavior of the material [02, 15, 13]. (a)

similar to the steady shear viscosity (η) against the shear rate [23, 30]. Although there is no fundamental explanation for such a relationship, it is widely accepted and used for isotropic polymeric solutions and polymer melts. Figure 3 depicts that the Cox-Merz rule does not hold for MFC suspensions for 2 and 4% solid, and that they don`t have polymer–like behavior, rather being gel-like materials. The complex viscosity is larger in magnitude than the steady shear viscosity data by a large amount. The slopes of the lines are similar for the different solid levels. Other investigations have shown that the complex viscosity is two orders of magnitude larger than the steady shear viscosity. Here, the complex viscosity at certain angular frequencies is over 100 times larger than the steady shear viscosity at the equivalent shear rate-frequency, as observed before for other similar materials [31].

(b)

Figure 2: Amplitude at 1 Hz at strain sweep (0,1-100 %) for MFC and NFC suspentions: a) Storage and loss moduli for different solids for a range of strains of 1 Hz, b) Elastic stress as a function of strain for various solids

The steady shear viscosities of NFC suspensions at different solids as a function of shear rate with the parallel-disk geometries are given in Figure 3. The suspensions for all solids show a decrease in viscosity with an increase in shear rate, which is the characteristic ofpronounced shear thinning behavior [30]. As expected, the viscosities increase with increase in solids and follow a shear thinning curve at theconsistent pattern [07]. The slope of the lines are nearly parallel indicating that the power-law exponent are similar for different solidsas observed before [13]. The Cox-Merz rule states that complex viscosity (η*) versus the angular frequency obtained from small- amplitude oscillatory shear flow should be 148

Figure 3: Complex viscosity (CV) and steady viscosity (V) for 2% and 4% solids. Each line is an average of three trials

Figure 4 shows the shear stress versus shear rate for MFC and NFC suspensions. All profiles are similar to those presented at Figure 3., with curves showing a minimum with its value at given shear rate. Furnishes Data from frequency sweep measurments form 8% solids of MFC and NFc furnishes are presented at Figure 5, as representative measurment, similar data are observed for 4% and 12% solids. As it can be observed form data ploted for all frequency ranges, G` has higher values in comparison to G`` which indicates that elastic behaviour dominates the viscous one.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 259


Dimić-Mišić Katarina - Small scale rheological observation of high consistency nanofibrillar material based furnishes

small deformations. The complex viscosity plotted in Figure 6.a) is obtained from frequency sweep tests and helps to analyze the rheological properties of the suspension. The complex viscosity presented at Figure 6 a) is two orders of magnitude largerthan the steady shear viscosity data presented at Figure 6 b). The slopes of the lines are similar for those obtained for suspensions, nicely supporting results from Figure 3. s. It is obvious that for bothnanofibrillar material based suspensions and furnishes CoxMerz rule is not applicable, as stated before [31].

Figure 4: Steady shear stress as a function of shear ratefor 2% and 4 % solids of MFC and NFC

Typical for gels, intermolecular interaction forces are forming threedimensional networks and thus they are showing G`> G`` in the whole frequencyranges with a slight increase in the slope at higher frequencies [17, 18, 37]. Furnishes show high stabilities at low frequencies possibly due to high intermolacular interactions between strong nanocellulose networking within furnish [20]. Elastic moduli for MFC furnishes are sligtly higher than for NFC furnishes, increasing with the presence of cellulose fibers, similar behaviour as seen for suspentions, in Figure 2.

Figure 6: Profiles of viscosities for 12% furnishes a) complex viscosity profile b) dynamic viscosity profile

CONCLUSIONS Figure 5: Elastic (G`) and Loss moduli (G``) for frequency sweep at ω=0, 1-100 (rad/s)versus for 5% MFC and NFC furnishes

Figure 6 show profiles of complex viscosity and steady shear viscosity for MFC and NFC furnishes at 12% solids. Complex viscosity should characterize the resistance to deformation for Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 259

The rheology of nanofibrillated cellulose is complex with strong shear thinning behavior, significant viscoelastic character and a large yield stress. The complex viscosity at certain angular frequencies is 100 times the steady shear viscosity at equivalent shear rates. Rheological behavior of nanocellulose is function of its swelling degree.The comparison of both

149


Dimić-Mišić Katarina - Small scale rheological observation of high consistency nanofibrillar material based furnishes

dewatering and rheological results indicated that the nanocellulose type, i.e swelling property, had a significant effect on the behavior of furnishes. Rheological behaviorofhigh consistency nanocellulose based furnishes is to a great extent governed by rheological behavior of nanocelluloseapplied in formulation even though furnishes were mostly composed of pigment particles (70%) and pulp fibers.This findgs are consistent with hypothesis that swelling influence rheological behaviour of nanocellulose based suspensions and furnishes dominating rheological and dewatering properties. Filler presence, even at very high mass ratio, does not show anyinfluence on the rheological behavior of furnish, filler being trapped within the gel-like furnish matrix. The storage and loss moduli from frequency sweep test showed a gel-like structure for investigated solids of suspensions and furnishes, and dependence of type nanocellulose, i.e. swelling degree. Flow behaviour of high consistency furnishes is the most important property in turbulent conditions in head-box and pipe flow during transportation. Utilizing diffwerent swelling properties of MFC and NFC would make possible to finally predictcomplex rheological behaviour of higly viscous high consistency MFC and NFC furnishes. REFERENCES 1) Agoda-Tandjawa, G., Durand, S., Gaillard, C., Garnier, C., & Doublier, J. -. (2012). Rheological behaviour and microstructure of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions/low-methoxyl pectin mixed systems. effect of calcium ions. Carbohydrate Polymers, 87(2), 1045-1057. 2) Ahola, S., Myllytie, P., Österberg, M., Teerinen, T., & Laine, J. (2008). Effect of polymer adsorption on cellulose nanofibril water binding capacity and aggregation. BioResources, 3(4), 1315-1328. 3) Ayol, A., Dentel, S. K., & Filibeli, A. (2010). Rheological characterization of sludges during belt filtration dewatering using an immobilization cell. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 136(9), 992-999. 4) Barnes, H., & Carnali, J. (1990). The vane-incup as a novel rheometer geometry for shear thinning and thixotropic materials. Journal of Rheology, 34, 841. 5) Bledzki, A., & Gassan, J. (1999). Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibres. Progress in Polymer Science, 24(2), 221-274. 150

6) De Morais Teixeira, E., Corrêa, A. C., Manzoli, A., de Lima Leite, F., de Oliveira, C. R., & Mattoso, L. H. C. (2010). Cellulose nanofibers from white and naturally colored cotton fibers. Cellulose, 17(3), 595-606. 7) Dimić-Mišić, K., & Paltakari, J. (2012). Fibrillar material as a cobinder in coating colors formulations. Journal of Applied Engineering Science (Istraživanja i projektovanja za privredu), 10(4), 209-220 8) Henriksson, M., Henriksson, G., Berglund, L., & Lindström, T. (2007). An environmentally friendly method for enzyme-assisted preparation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) nanofibers. European Polymer Journal, 43(8), 3434-3441. 9) Heymann, L., Peukert, S., & Aksel, N. (2002). Investigation of the solid-liquid transition of highly concentrated suspensions in oscillatory amplitude sweeps. Journal of Rheology, 46(1), 93-112. 10) Horvath, A. E., & Lindström, T. (2007). The influence of colloidal interactions on fiber network strength. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 309(2), 511-517. 11) Hubbe, M. A., & Heitmann, J. A. (2007). Review of factors affecting the release of water from cellulosic fibers during paper manufacture. BioResources, 2(3), 500-533. 12) Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Lucia, L. A., & Sain, M. (2008). Cellulosic nanocomposites: A review. BioResources, 3(3), 929-980. 13) Hubbe, M. A., & Panczyk, M. (2007). Dewatering of refined, bleached hardwood kraftpulp by gravity, vacuum, and centrifugation with applied pressure part 2. effects of wetend additives. [Desaguamento de polpa kraft branqueada de fibra curta refinada: Por gravidade, vácuo e centrifugação com aplicação de pressão Parte 2. Efeitos dos aditivos da parte úmida] O Papel (Brazil), 68(10), 88-100. 14) Iakovlev, M., Hiltunen, E., & van Heiningen, A. (2010). Paper technical potential of spruce SO2-ethanol-water (SEW) pulp compared to kraft pulp. Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, 25(4) 15) Iotti, M., Gregersen, Ø W., Moe, S., & Lenes, M. (2011). Rheological studies of microfibrillar cellulose water dispersions. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 19(1), 137-145. 16) Isogai, A., Saito, T., & Fukuzumi, H. (2011). TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers. NaJournal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 259


Dimić-Mišić Katarina - Small scale rheological observation of high consistency nanofibrillar material based furnishes

noscale, 3(1), 71-85. 17) K.Dimic-Misic, A.Puisto, M.Alava, J. Paltakari, T. Maloney. (2013). The influence of shear on the dewatering of high consistency nanofibrillated cellulose furnishesCellulose1-12 (2012), 18) K.Dimic-Misic, A.Puisto, P.Gane, K.Nieminen ,M.Alava, J. Paltakari, T. Maloney. (2013). The role of MFC/NFC swelling in the rheological behaviour and dewatering of high consistency furnishes. 19) Kang, T., & Paulapuro, H. (2006). Effect of external fibrillation on the retention of filler.Kami Pa Gikyoshi/Japan Tappi Journal, 60(8), 88-92. 20) Karppinen, A., Vesterinen, A. H., Saarinen, T., Pietikäinen, P., & Seppälä, J. (2011). Effect of cationic polymethacrylates on the rheology and flocculation of microfibrillated cellulose. Cellulose, 18, 1381-1390. 21) Lasseuguette, E., Roux, D., & Nishiyama, Y. (2008). Rheological properties of microfibrillar suspension of TEMPO-oxidized pulp. Cellulose, 15(3), 425-433. 22) Lindstrom, T. (1985). CELLULOSE SUSPENSIONS AND POLYELECTROLYTES - SOME KINETIC ASPECTS. 121-122. 23) Marrucci, G. (1996). Dynamics of entanglements: A nonlinear model consistent with the cox-merz rule. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 62(2), 279-289. 24) Mishra, S. P., Thirree, J., Manent, A., Chabot, B., & Daneault, C. (2010). Ultrasound-catalyzed TEMPO-mediated oxidation of native cellulose for the production of nanocellulose: Effect of process variables. BioResources, 6(1), 121-143. 25) Nakagaito, A. N., Fujimura, A., Sakai, T., Hama, Y., & Yano, H. (2009a). Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites from sheets obtained by a papermaking-like process. Composites Science and Technology, 69(7), 1293-1297. 26) Nakagaito, A. N., Fujimura, A., Sakai, T., Hama, Y., & Yano, H. (2009b). Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites from sheets obtained by a papermaking-like process. Composites Science and Technology, 69(7-8), 1293-1297. 27) Ovarlez, G., Rodts, S., Chateau, X., & Coussot, P. (2009). Phenomenology and physical origin of shear localization and shear banding in complex fluids. Rheologica Acta, 48(8), 831-844 Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 259

28) Puisto, A., Illa, X., Mohtaschemi, M., & Alava, M. (2012a). Modeling the viscosity and aggregation of suspensions of highly anisotropic nanoparticles. The European Physical Journal E: Soft Matter and Biological Physics, 35(1), 1-7 29) Puisto, A., Illa, X., Mohtaschemi, M., & Alava, M. (2012b). Modeling the rheology of nanocellulose suspensions. Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, 27(2), 277. 30) Richmond, F. (2012). The coating of nanofibrillated cellulose onto paper using flooded and metered size press methods. 12PaperCon/Papers/12PAP18.Aspx, 31) Richmond, Finley - Co, Abert - Bousfield Douglas. (2012). The coating of nanofibrillated cellulose onto paper using flooded and metered size press methods. 12PaperCon/ Papers/12PAP18.Aspx 32) Saito, T., & Isogai, A. (2005). TEMPO-mediated oxidation of native cellulose. Appita Annual Conference, 3, 337-340 33) Siró, I., & Plackett, D. (2010). Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: A review. Cellulose, 17(3), 459-494. 34) Subramanian, R., Hiltunen, E., & Gane, P. A. C. (2011). Potential use of micro-and nanofibrillated cellulose composites exemplified by paper. Cellulose Fibers: Bio-and Nano-Polymer Composites: Green Chemistry and Technology, 121 35) Turbak, A. F., Snyder, F. W., & Sandberg, K. R. (1984). Microfibrillated Cellulose—A new composition of commercial significance. Atlanta, Ga., USA. 115-124. 36) Xiong, X., Guo, S., Xu, Z., Sheng, P., & Tong, P. (2009). Development of an atomic-force-microscope-based hanging-fiber rheometer for interfacial microrheology. Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, 80(6) 37) Yılmaz, O., Cheaburu, C. N., Gülümser, G., & Vasile, C. (2011). Rheological behaviour of acrylate/montmorillonite nanocomposite latexes and their application in leather finishing as binders. Progress in Organic Coatings, 70(1), 52-58. Paper sent to revision: 15.01.2013. Paper ready for publication: 28.08.2013.

151


Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


Professional Paper

doi:10.5937/jaes11-4008

Paper number: 11(2013)3, 260, 153 - 159

CRM PERFORMANCES ACCENTED WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF E-COMMERCE TECHNOLOGY Ines Isaković* Paneuropean University, Banja Luka, Bosna & Hercegovina Anywhere you live, you must have heard for e-commerce in last few years, because there are a lot of e-mails with a many advertisements with e-commerce purchasing. Maybe, you do not know exactly what e-commerce means. In my country, for sure, there are many persons that do not even heard about that opportunity for our economy, which Internet established as a part of business innovation. Because of that this paper is talking about e-commerce and datebases in details, as well as how it affect on the Customer Relationship Management. Key words: Customer Relationship Management (CRM), E-commerce, Database INTRODUCTION Question is: What is precisely e-commerce? “Ecommerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business, are often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing is sometimes used [06].” According to the definition, e-commerce enables users to make transaction, that does not depend to geographical location and it enables users to visit site at any time we want. In the world many business companies have been selling online for years. This kind of service is today essential for each company and government. E-commerce is based on the information systems but the user protection is the essential thing that needs to be done. The issue that attracts legislators is how to secure consumer in e-business, but that problem is solved by implementing e-signature. E-commerce gives a lot of benefits for the business companies and makes their business more profitable and more effective. This way of transaction that can increase income. Anyone connected to the Internet is a potential customer, without looking where he/she is. This kind of business transaction is used all over the world. Not only to mention the effectiveness of e-commerce, there is a statistics that shows that 8-10 the biggest abundantly producing companies in the world have e-business functionality, 9-10 the

most profitable companies and 10-10 those with the largest market validity have it also [08]. The customers are more comfortable to visit on-line stores because they can buy anything they want during 24 hours. As we all know, today people work too much and do not have enough time for finding things in which they are interested in. This kind of opportunity is an advantage for the buyer and seller, because it allows us banking, paying and booking. There are different opinions concerning the future of e-commerce, but according to the situation today, development of e-commerce is in the stage of increasing. Furthermore, Fred Held said that “e-commerce and/or e-business has grown faster than all the predictions and will continue to grow. It is beginning to be part of the business. Some applications, such as a bill paying over the Internet have been successful beyond anyone’s imagination [07]. The future without e-commerce cannot be imagined. In the future every transaction to shops, business to business and government will go through the website. E-commerce is buying or selling products and exchanging information through the web. This kind of service is becoming more and more popular in the world. To resolve the security problem it is necessary to make the law to protect users. Today, business without e-commerce cannot be imagined and we must follow all trends that world companies set in motion. E-commerce needs to be protected especially the business-to-customer marketing.

* Paneuropean University, Pere Krece 13, 78000 Banja Luka, Bosna & Hercegovina; isakovic.ines@hotmail.com

153


Ines Isaković - CRM performances accented with the implementation of e-commerce technology

Over the last twenty years business-to-business e-commerce has been presented and it enables companies to establish a good communication between their partners. Some benefits of this kind of communication are of a better quality and speed up information as well as costless transferring documents. CRM ON THE INTERNET Customer Relationship Management strategy on the Internet can be explained over three levels mentioned in [02] Anderson and Kerr book such as: Level one: Getting information out to customers On the Internet are all information about a company and products and services that it offers to existing and potential customers. Companies need to be aware of that that customer can find all positive opinions about the company; they also can find the negative once. Level two: Getting information back from customers Not having a purpose of only giving information to the customers also getting information about them and from them (collecting data about customers). Data about customer can be collected by enabling them to ask questions through mail, asking to register, or even putting a survey or a question of the day on site. Level three: E-commerce sales Use Internet in a purpose of selling and delivering products and services to the customers. Today, with IS technology company can sell products and services over the Internet, as well as reply to customer questions, offer additional products and services according to the previous

purchases, and evaluate customers’ satisfaction with your offerings. All these action can be done without being in touch with them in person. It is essential to provide real-time customer service support. Customer service on the web site can be offered through following: 1. Search engines - support customers’ need, by enabling them to quickly find needed information, which are located on the website. 2. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - list of most commonly asked questions 3. Live help - customers are able to speak to a customer service representative. They visit the online site through Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) applications – enable PC users to click call button and directly communicate with company service. 4. Online order tracking - allow customers to track the progress of their order. THREE RULES FOR SUCCESS ON THE WAY TO E-COMMERCE After the implementation of e–commerce here are three rules for success related to which company must be aware of: • E-commerce needs to be costless – implementation of e-commerce does not need to be expensive, maybe company can put an electronic catalogue on the web site and enable users to see offers. • Data to be current and timely – information on the web site must be up-to-date. • Make a great effort to keep it personal- be aware how companies web site will be accepted by customer side. The objective is to make customer life easier and better.

Figure 1: Funnel model of customer acquisition, conversion, and retention

154

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 260


Ines Isaković - CRM performances accented with the implementation of e-commerce technology

CUSTOMER ACQUISITION, CONVERSION, AND RETENTION: THE FUNNEL MODEL The job of marketing managers is to determine how the companies’ customers will be acquired and retained. One way is by evaluating competing marketing strategies. The funnel model is the best tool used to understand a purpose of a marketing strategy that contains a clear structure for evaluating particular strategy elements. This model is less abstract and on the easiest way it represents the efficiency of two or more particular strategy. This model as many other models, starts with a huge amount of prospects, and few of them will be switch into serious prospect, then customers and finally loyal customers. One example of a Funnel Model is shown in Figure 1. In this picture, the part that potential customers take as they become loyal, and repeated customers are presented on the left side of the figure, while on the right side of this figure is the rising increasing level of commitment that occurs in every step. In this model the wider the bottom of the funnel is, the better strategy is. That means that more prospects are converted into loyal customer. Introduction of the Internet technology in the area of business leads to increase profitability and spread business around. Company needs to be aware of: • Developing a real-world buying environment (shopping baskets with virtual shopping opportunities and engine to count visitors) • Simplicity of e-commerce • Security of customer data need to be explained to customers • Speak with customers • Personal data need to be treated with respect The Online Consumer E-commerce explains many electronic platforms, for instance the order from suppliers via electronic data interchange (EDI). The customers that have 24 hours access to information on the Internet. Here is a list of things that they can do (1) obtained information about quality, features, prices, as well as costs; (2) arrange for advertising and information from producers and sellers that is important to start; (3) plan the offerings they want; and finally (4) employ shopping agents to look for and invite offers Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 260

from many sellers. Customers determine information that they would like to have; offers they would like to have, and determine prices most suitable for their purchase. Online Marketing Benefits Three major advantages of online marketing are: 1. Order. The customers on the Internet have ability to order 24 hours a day 2. Availability of information. Customers can quickly and simply find needed information about products, competitors, companies, and so on 3. Fewer annoy. The customer is always right, and he/she do not have to deal with salespeople or wait in line Benefits to marketers • Ability to update product list and change prices • Lower costs • Relationship building • Expansion in size of audience Advertising Online According to [05], advertisements that help company in promoting products and services to customers across the globe can be put on the Internet on three ways such as: 1. Determining the special parts in the major profitable online services 2. Choosing newsgroups 3. Ads that pop up when user surf on the web site, that contains pop-up windows banner ads, “tickers” (that represents banners moving across the screen), and “roadblocks” (these are ads that open as full screens and in order to see a site, user need to close it). Despite the banner ads, the “click-through rate” (represents users that click on an ad to get more information) has plunged under 1 %. E-mail The most beneficial method that company can use to link with a potential customer and current customers is through an e-mail. Using incoming e-mail, company can tell their customer that they can contact company via mail, if they have questions, suggestions or even complaints. Furthermore, in direct marketing it is important to be aware of not building reputation as a “spammer.” Spam is a mail that is unwelcome. In a

155


Ines Isaković - CRM performances accented with the implementation of e-commerce technology

where customers are angry as they are used to receive junk mails in their inbox, and due to that, even if they receive advertisement material they do not want to read it. Some countries want to established rules to forbid spam distribution. An efficient approach is to ask customer for permission before sending mail offers. Online marketing strategy is based on targeted visitors that have option to join a system of marketing messages. Companies that use this strategy have impressive response rates between 18 and 25% in comparison to the average banner ad’s with the rate of 1 % or even less. CUSTOMER DATABASE In order to establish a good relationship with customers and to successfully manage a business, first of all, the managers must know their customers and do database marketing. Consecutively, to know customers, the company needs to collect needed information about them and store them into database. Database “is a computer structure that houses a collection of related data. A database contains two types of data: end user data (row facts) and metadata. The metadata consist of data about data, that is, the data characteristics and relationship [04].” We need to agree that a database is an integrate part of CRM. A customer database is collection of thorough information about individual customers. As well as being existing, available and actionable for market intentions that it wants to achieve and lead to targeted age groups, sale of products and service, maintenance [03, 01]. One important process is a database marketing that represents the process of developing, maintaining and using customer databases for the purpose of getting in touch with customers, transaction and developing customer relationships [03]. Data vs. Information The big deal is how companies collect, store, and manipulate with customer data in order to develop and implement more effective CRM strategy. Therefore, companies need first to decide what their strategy is, than start to search and collect data and information needed about the customers. Working together they are more effective and give us a great knowledge about customers. According to [02] here is a list of information that company needs to know about their customer, no matter which business it do: 156

• How long customer does business with company? • What do they mostly like about company? • What is his/her opinion about the things that company could improve? • How often they repurchase products? • What life events influence their business with you? i.e., marriage, Internet etc. • With which companies (competitors) he/she also do purchase? • List of factors that influence his/her purchasing decision? That is a product price, quality, service and etc. • What is the typical life cycle for each of your products and customers? (This tells company when the customer will be ready to buy again.) Data Collection Some of other ways how to collect customers’ information are: from customer transaction, registration information, telephone queries and customer contact. Using online surveys, face-to-face or telephone interviews it is relatively easy to get data, because customers willing to give basic information about themselves. This lead to making our job harder, because we are dealing with a large amount of data according to which we need to make our decision related to the CRM strategy. Surveys are useful for getting data but also risky, because of possibility of asking the wrong questions. If the answers are essential for the business, than taking a surveys need to be given to a professional research firms. The key is to turn data into useful information, because data itself does not mean to us anything. Front-line employees are important for collecting customer information and they represent company’s interface for customers. In order to be productive company’s front-line employees do not need to know all the details of customer relationship strategy, because this occasion can jeopardize company’s customer relationship strategy. But what they need to have is a detailed answer and that will motivate them to be more productive and gather the information. The more informed they are, the more they will be able to motivate customer to provide information.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 260


Ines Isaković - CRM performances accented with the implementation of e-commerce technology

Some tips how to prepare front-line employees to gather customer information: • Inform them why company needs that data • Prepare them on the possible customer questions about the request • Make them prepared on the situation when customer does not want to give the information • Do not make a pressure on employees to get information from customer that company is seeking, because some customers are not willing to participate Finding Meaning in Information Complementing customer data into information is a basic thing, because that is knowledge that we get by asking questions such as why and how. For example: 1. Why customer often decides to buy goods at lower price? 2. How does customer view your service? In order to make major decisions such as service offerings, marketing and so on, information about customers that can tell us what are customers’ needs, wants and what are their feelings about some of company’s particular business areas. Data can enables user to discover trends. Creating Customer Database Even a simplest can store a multitude data about customer. That is fine if we know what we want to get, but the problem appears if database is used on the daily basis. The objective is to find information that will be effective for our operations and make customer comfortable customer databases to cooperate with your company. Company needs to have on its mind to keep customer privacy, not even to share all information with company’s coworkers. In [02] a book of information about customer that will be shared with all of the employees, there are divisions into three types in a customer database: 1. Important to know • Correctness of spelling customer’s first and last name • Essential to know customer’s address and telephone number • Essential to correct pronunciation of a customer’s first and last name • Essential to know which honorific to use - Mr., Ms., Miss, Mrs. or Dr Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 260

2. Nice to know • How the customer paid for products • How long the person has been a customer • How much persons from a particular firm or household places make order • Ordinary customer’s purchases • Last products that the customer purchased • Customer’s complaints if he/she has it 3. Not for general knowledge • The customer’s age • The level of customer’s income • The customer’s marital status and number of children • The level of customer’s education • Some of answers that are related to the typical survey questions and which are developed in order to find out opinion about the company and its products and services Those data are stored into database and need to be up to time and valuable in order to get timely and useful knowledge from database. To make clear, company can only use the information getting from a customer for the purpose it has told him or her. Company is not able to sell that information to other company or use it for future research projects unless it has asked for the customer‘s permission. Usage of the database The following section will show five ways in which database can be useful: 1. Use of the database in order to identified forecasts. Many companies’ use advertisement as a tool of increases their profits. Usually, the ads have a response feature like a free phone number or business replay card. According to these responses the database is developed. Furthermore, the company did a search through database to find potential customers, and then contact them by e-mail, telephone or personal call in order to turn them into customers. 2. Use of the database to find out customers that should get a current product. Selling, up-selling and cross-selling are types of the sell that are companies interested for. They also set up criteria for the targeted customers for a current product. Furthermore, companies search their database to see which customers are more likely to be their ideal 157


Ines Isaković - CRM performances accented with the implementation of e-commerce technology

type. If targeted customers do not respond than company need to offer a special discount rate. 3. Use of the database in order to build stronger customer loyalty. A customer loyalty is one of the essential tasks for each company. It can be accomplished by building customer’s interest and enthusiasm. The major question is how to do that? Remember customer performance by sending gifts, giving discount rates and sending interesting reading material. 4. Use of database in order to establish reactive customer buying. Each customer likes when companies where they usually buy products to remember them for the Christmas shopping or off-season promotions. Companies can by installing automatically mailing programs to send birthday or jubilee cards to their customer. That represents a great gesture. And in that case the database can help company to develop attractive or timely offers. 5. Use of the database in order to keep away from serious customer mistakes. Depending on the type of the business, mistakes can be different. For example, in post office, database can give notification that some customers did not pay the last bill even it is not true. System automatically sends that notification to the employee in order to inform that customer. Employee that does not know if the customer paid bill or not, he/she sent these notifications (in a form of the bill) that came from database to the customer, and in that case customer is angry and may charge the company. The Disadvantage of Database Marketing and CRM Talking about advantages of database marketing is not appropriate if we even do not determine disadvantages, which also reflect on CRM. Four reasons discourage company from effectively implementing CRM. The first thing is cost of building and maintaining customer database, because in order to do that company need computer hardware, database software, communication links, analytical programs and skilled personnel. It is hard to collect the right data about individual customers. There are some cases where customer database will not be useful: 158

• • • •

Product that is purchased once Less loyalty that customer shows to a brand Number of sold products is too small Cost of gathering information is too high

The second thing is the ability to have customeroriented employees and use of available information. Employees found out that dealing with customer relationship marketing is much harder then dealing with traditional transaction marketing. Successful database marketing includes employee performance and also their training and development as well as dealers and supplies. The third thing is that there are some customer that are not interested in relationship with company, and feeling upset, as they think that company collect too much personal information, which are secure and private, and are just for company usage. The fourth thing is that assumptions that CRM represents are not always true. In order to support this statement, better way is to use example such as loyal customers are not always cost less. In order to have beneficial database marketing company needs to have costs that come from collecting customer data, maintaining and mining data. Yet, when it works, a data warehousing yields more than costs. Database marketing is used by the companies that can easily collect customer data such as hotels, airlines, banks and so on. Other companies that can get benefices from CRM are companies that do a lot crossselling and up-selling as well as companies with different customers’ needs. In some cases such as low customer lifetime value (CLV), where not direct contact between seller and buyer is, CRM is not beneficial. [08] There are four main dangerous of CRM listed in their book: 1. First decide what a customer strategy is, and then implement CRM 2. Launching CRM before changing organization to match 3. Presume that more CRM technology is better 4. Stalking, not wooing customer All these facts are needed in order to decide how much to spend on developing and using of database marketing to get in touch with company’s customer relationships. So, the second important part is: the data warehousing that comprised of a conventional data warehouse and an operational data store. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 260


Ines Isaković - CRM performances accented with the implementation of e-commerce technology

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

E-commerce is buying or selling products and exchanging of information trough the web. This kind of service is becoming more and more popular in the world. E-commerce enables a lot of benefits for the business companies and makes their business more profitable and more effective. This globalization in the entire economy makes organizations to act as the rivals and it has also an impact on a customer’s demand, but what they discovered is that treating the existing customer well is better than finding new ones. That means that the most important assets of each organization is a long-term relationship with customers that can lead to greater profitability, the customer’s and company’s satisfaction and loyalty. The organizations cannot escape this revolution, because it is present and it is business-to-business marketing revolution. Each level of the company will be affected, but some of the company managers will follow new trends and some of them will refuse changes and the role of the new technology. However, to avoid misunderstanding, the implementation of the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) will not be an easy process, and the fact is that organizations that don’t accept those changes will lose a competitive advantage.

1) Aleksić-Marić, V., Stojanović, D. (2007): Rešavanje sigurnosnih rizika u elektronskom poslovanju i informaciona ekonomija, Journal of Applied Engineering Science (Istraživanja i projektovanja za privredu), No. 16, pp. 53-61 2) Gary P. Schneider, 2006, Electronic Commerce, Sixth Annual Edition, Course Technology, Canada, page 185 3) K. Anderson and C. Kerr, Customer Relationship Management. United States of America: McGraw-Hill, 2002. [Online]. Available:http:// www.briefcasebooks.com/andersonfm.pdf. [Accessed April 28, 2008]. 4) P. Kotler and K. L. Keller, Marketing Management, 12 ed. United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 5) P. Rob and C. Coronel, Database Systems: Design, Implementation and Management, 6 ed, United States of America: Course Technology, 2004. 6) Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 10 Ed, United States of America: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002. [Online]. Available:http://ebooks-for everyone.blogspot.com/2007/08/ marketing-management-millenium-edition. html. [Accessed April 30, 2008]. 7) Primode, “Information Security Glossary”. [Online].Available:http://www.google.ba/ url?sa=X&start=0&oi=define&q=http://www. primode.com/glossary.html. [Accessed May 27, 2008]. 8) R. Shaik, “The Future of eCommerce”, 2001. [Online]. Available:http://www.ipowerweb. com/profit/articles/20024.htm. [Accessed May 28, 2008]. 9) UNDP Bosnia and Herzegovina, ICT for Development, e-poslovalje Trening film, Developing the information Society of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2 ed. Paper sent to revision: 20.08.2013. Paper ready for publication: 12.09.2013.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3, 260

159


EVENTS REVIEW

9TH INTERNATIONAL MAY CONFERENCE ON STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IMKSM Bor, 24 - 26th May, 2013.

International May Conference on Strategic Management (MKSM) is a leading international conference in the field of strategic management. This conference was organized by Management Department of Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade. This is a 10th year of the conference. Conference topics were: • Strategic management • General management • Industrial and facility management • Management methods • Project management • Operational systems and technology • Quality management • Marketing • Entrepreneurship

• • • • • • • • •

Production management Production systems management Financial management Management informational systems Management informational technologies Maintenance management Management in practice Risk management Special applications of management methods

Conference was opened by Živan Živković, who is president of Scientific board of the conference and chief of the department of Management on Techical faculty in Bor and by Ivan Mihajlović - president of Organizational Board of the conference. Conference included plenary sessions, which was held after opening speaches, at the beginning of the work sessions by professor Loo-See Beh from University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur“, Faculty of Economics & Administration on topic: “Strategic human resource management and its role in performance in insurance industry“ and by professor Vesna Spasojević-Brkić, from University of Belgrade, Faculty of mechanical engineering on topic: „A confirmatory factor analysis of the interfaces for remote control of manufacturing systems: user evaluation instrument“. After plenary presentations the conference proceed with working sessions. It was presented over a 100 papers with over 200 authors. Within conference, it was also held collegiate symposium on Strategic Management 2013. The symposium was attended by 25 Students with 10 scientific papers. Papers were presented by students from the Department of Management, Tecnical Faculty Bor, but also students from other local higher education institutions. May Conference on Strategic Management MKSM was good opportunity to sharing experience in area of strategic management and other related areas.

160

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


EVENTS REVIEW

Institute for Research and Design in Commerce and Industry University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Serbian Maintenance Society

organized 38 CONFERENCE - MAINTENANCE OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT (OMO 2013) 29th June -03th July, 2013. Budva, Hotel Aleksandar th

This year, main topic of the conference was Asset Management. Idea for this topic was based on the fact that infrastructure maintenance, especially in public sector, is very important but despite that very small investments in maintenance of both, movable and fixed assets property are common practice today. OMO 2013 was excellent opportunity to discuss the maintenance budget and to find compromise between maintaining existing assets and property and investing in reconstruction and new programs. Because of such interesting and popular topic, OMO 2013 has gathered many public enterprises and Institutions from Serbia and from the region. Among them, participants of the 38th conference OMO 2013 were: Serbian Railways, Jat Tehnika, Public Company roads of Serbia, Public Company Belgrade Waterworks and Sewerage, Directorate for Railways of Republic of Serbia, Ministry of Education, Science and Technological development of Republic of Serbia and etc... Conference was opened by Radoslav Ilić, Head of Maintenance Marketing and Sales in Public Company Jat Tehnika who presented paper on topic: “Maintenance Repair overhaul”. After welcome speech and mentioned introduction lecture, the conference proceeds with working sessions. Many interesting papers were presented, but following two drew the most interest: “Why should maintain transport infrastructure - example of Serbia”, by prof. Gradimir Danon, from University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, and “Key indicators for maintenance” by Milun Todorović, general manager of company Autočačak which is one of the leading companies for motor vehicles distribution in Serbia. Beside main topic, OMO 2013 processed traditional thematic areas which are related to maintenance of technical systems. Topics included the latest developments and guidelines in the field of maintenance, with particular emphasis to practical application and achieved results. The conference passed in pleasant socializing of all participants. It was emphasized that such meetings of experts in the field of maintenance had to be continued and that that must be made even greater efforts to raise awareness about the importance and impact of maintenance on daily operation and business success of enterprises.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3

161


ANNOUNCEMENT OF EVENTS 9th SYMPOSIUM RESEARCH AND DESIGN FOR COMMERCE & INDUSTRY 24th-25th December 2013 University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia

Editorial board of scientific journal of Applied Engineering Science in cooperation with Faculty of mechanical engineering in Belgrade, organize IX symposium Research and design for industry, which is traditionally held during the month of December. Objective of the Symposium is networking and experience sharing among experts from public companies in transport, energy and mechanical engineering sector with relevant representatives of City and Republic institutions in order to promote, support and implement new technological developments. The areas covered by the symposium are: planning and execution of projects in a wide range of industrial sectors such as transport, energy, construction, telecommunications, maintenance of technical systems, public sector enterprises, financial sector, IT sector etc. . . Symposium primary present the results of initiated or realized projects in domestic economy, as well as the knowledge, methods and techniques, standards and software tools that have contributed or could contribute to their better implementation. The symposium IIPP, as in previous years, will have plenary sessions, invited lectures, software demonstrations, magazines and books promotions... The authors are invited to submit their papers to the Organizing Committee no later then 31/11/2013. (by sending paper to the e-mail: office@iipp.rs) The accepted papers, whose authors timely paid registration fee, will be published in the Proceedings before symposium. Proceedings will be published in the electronic edition and will be distributed to all participants at the Symposium. Details: www.iipp.rs; +38111 6300 750; +38111 6300 751; +38111 3302 450

162

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


BOOK RECOMMENDATION Recommended by prof. dr Gradimir Danon MECHANICS OF WOOD MACHINING Authors: Etele Csanády, Endre Magoss Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process parameters. Format B5; 200 pages; ISBN 978-3-642-29955-1; Publisher: Springer; Published: July 15, 2012.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3

163


SADRŽAJ

OD UREĐIVAČKOG ODBORA Prof. dr Dragan Aleksendrić UVODNIK

165

REZIMEI RADOVA Sanja Stanisavljev, Dr Dragan Ćoćkalo, Dr Dejan Đorđević, Dr Robert Minovski VREME PROIZVODNOG CIKLUSA U SERIJSKOJ PROIZVODNJI: SMANJENJE TRAJANJA ZA SLUČAJ METALOPRERAĐIVAČKE INDUSTRIJE

166

Mr Velimir Komadinić, Dr Dragomir Ilić PROCENA RIZIKA ZA MALA I SREDNJA PREDUZEĆA, SPECIFIČNOSTI I RAZLIKE U PRISTUPU

166

Dr Miroslav Kuburić, Milan Filipović, Mladen Lero POTREBE ZA NOVIM KATASTARSKIM PREMEROM GRAĐEVINSKOG REONA GRADA BAČKA PALANKA

167

Dr Miroslav Demić, Dr Đorđe Diligenski PRILOG ISTRAŽIVANJU UTICAJA PRIGUŠIVAČA TRAPEZA UPRAVLJANJA NA LEPRŠANJE UPRAVLJAČKIH TOČKOVA AUTOBUSA

167

Dimić-Mišić Katarina, Dr Yogesh Sanavane, Dr Jouni Paltakari, Dr Thaddeus Maloney JEDNOSTAVNA REOLOŠKA OPSERVACIJA NANOFIBRILARNIH SMEŠA ZA PRAVLJENJE PAPIRA

168

Ines Isaković PERFORMANSE CRM-A SA AKCENTOM NA UPOTREBU TEHNOLOGIJE E-POSLOVANJA

168

164

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


OD UREĐIVAČKOG ODBORA

INŽENJERSTVO INTELIGENTNIH SISTEMA Inženjerstvo inteligentnih sistema je složen i izazovan proces. Zašto? Šta je to inteligentan sistem i kako bilo koji sistem u tehnici postaje inteligentan? Osim toga, na koji način bi mogli da zadržimo željeni stepen inteligentnosti sistema tokom vremena, odnosno tokom rada sistema? Nema sumnje da neprestano raste interes za razvoj inteligentnih sistema za civilnu i vojnu upotrebu. Naučnici i inženjeri traže nove pristupe kako bi unapredili trenutni način obrade informacija. Inženjerstvo inteligentnih sistema, kao Prof. dr Dragan Aleksendrić pokušaj imitacije načina rada ljudskog mozga u obradi informacija, upravljanju i interakciji sa dinamički promenljivim okruženjem, nije nimalo jednostavan zadatak. Koliko je to složen zadatak može biti jasno samo ako posmatramo neke važne atribute budućeg inteligentnog sistema kao što su: učenje, kreativnost, brzina „razmišljanja“, rezonovanje, razumevanje, autonomno ponašanje, adaptivnost, sposobnost samoorganizovanja, koordinacija i posedovanje znanja itd. Mogu li sistemi koje ljudi trenutno prave (mašine, sklopovi, podsklopovi, komponente, itd.) da ispune gore pobrojane zahteve? Neki smatraju da ako sistem može da ispuni samo deo gore nabrojanih atributa inteligentnog sistema, sistem bi imao neki oblik inteligencije. Veruje se da ako sistem može dovoljno brzo da radi sa izvesnim stepenom logičkog rezonovanja, onda može biti klasifikovan u grupu „pametnih“ sistema. Dakle, šta je to inteligentan sistem? Mnogi se slažu da definicija inteligentnih sistema zavisi od očekivanja od budućeg sistema i trenutnog znanja u datoj oblasti, moguće je da ono što je danas inteligentno sutra postane samo jedan od „klasičnih sistema“. Za inteligentan sistem bi se moglo reći da je to sistem koji može da primi podatke od davača i ima sposobnosti da obrađuje primljene podatke pomoću jednog ili više inteligentnih algoritama u cilju ispunjenja zahtevane funkcije cilja sistema kao što je upravljanje, dijagnostika i/ili donošenje odluka. Tehnologija prikupljanja podataka igra važnu ulogu u procesu razvoja inteligentnog sistema kako bi se obezbedili uslovi da sistem „vidi“ trenutni status svojih performansi kao i stanje u svom okruženju. Otuda je rastuća važnost razvoja inteligentnih sistema u uskoj vezi sa načinom korišćenja i unapređenjima u oblasti tehnologije prikupljanja podataka. U slučaju tradicionalnog načina izračunavanja, najvažniji ciljevi su preciznost i izvesnost rezultata. Međutim, nasuprot ovom tzv. „hard computing“ pristupu, postoji i drugačiji pristup (soft computing) gde precizno i sigurno dolaženje do rezultata ima svoju cenu. Dakle, realno je razmotriti mogućnost integracije izračunavanja, rezonovanja i donošenja odluka kao partnera u „konzorcijumu“ koji treba da obezbedi okvir za optimizaciju između preciznosti i neizvesnosti. Veruje se da ova integracija metodologija obezbeđuje osnovu za projektovanje i razvoj inteligentnih sistema. Partneri u pomenutom konzorcijumu su fazi logika, veštačke neuronske mreže, genetski algoritmi i verovatnosna logika. Ne samo to, ove metodologije su većinskim delom više komplementarne nego što su konkurentne. Ovi pristupi se sve više koriste u kombinaciji, stvarajući nov hibridni pristup. Prema mnogim istraživačima u oblasti inženjerstva inteligentnih sistema, hibridni inteligentni sistemi će verovatno igrati važnu ulogu u godinama koje dolaze. Zašto? Nasuprot analitičkim metodama, veruje se da „soft computing“ metodologije oponašaju svest i spoznaju u nekoliko važnih aspekata: one mogu da uče iz iskustva, mogu da izvode postupak generalizacije u oblastima gde nemamo direktna iskustva, mogu da mapiraju ulaz u izlaz, itd. Šta je problem? Pomenuta optimizacija tj. kompromis vezan za tačnost tako dobijenih rezultata često vodi ka smanjenju tačnosti. Ukoliko tendencija ka smanjenju preciznosti može biti tolerisana, onda se mogućnosti primene soft computing tehnika mogu proširiti i na probleme koji su već analitički i matematički opisani. Najvažniji zadatak u inženjerstvu 21. veka će biti proces inženjerstva sistema koji treba da ponudi napredne osobine sistema kao što su sposobnosti učenja, generalizacije i prilagođavanja promenama u okruženju tj. osobine inteligentnosti. S poštovanjem, Prof. dr Dragan Aleksendrić

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3

165


REZIMEI RADOVA doi:10.5937/jaes11-4052

Broj rada: 11(2013)3, 255

Originalni naučni članak

VREME PROIZVODNOG CIKLUSA U SERIJSKOJ PROIZVODNJI: SMANJENJE TRAJANJA ZA SLUČAJ METALOPRERAĐIVAČKE INDUSTRIJE Sanja Stanisavljev Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Tehnički fakultet “Mihajlo Pupin”, Zrenjanin, Srbija Dr Dragan Ćoćkalo Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Tehnički fakultet “Mihajlo Pupin”, Zrenjanin, Srbija Dr Dejan Đorđević Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Tehnički fakultet “Mihajlo Pupin”, Zrenjanin, Srbija Dr Robert Minovski Univerzitet “Ćirilo i Metodije”, Mašinski Fakultet, Skoplje, Makedonija Najvažniji faktor koji utiče na vreme proizvodnog ciklusa po jedinici je veličina serije. Srednja vrednost proizvodnog ciklusa za grupe formirane prema broju jedinica u seriji tpcu prati hiperboličnu funkciju sa asimptotom c, tpcu = c + b/n, i, matematički, ove grupe se ne ponašaju kao slojevi, što znači da su povezane sa determinističkim faktorima tehnologije i broja jedinica/serija. U radu je prikazana primena originalnog modela na smanjenje trajanja vremena proizvodnog ciklusa u serijskoj proizvodnji - istraživani slučaj je metaloprerađivačka industrija. Ključne reči: Serijska proizvodnja, Stohastički model, Uzorkovanje rada, Vreme proizvodnog ciklusa doi:10.5937/jaes11-3665

Broj rada: 11(2013)3, 256

Stručni članak

PROCENA RIZIKA ZA MALA I SREDNJA PREDUZEĆA, SPECIFIČNOSTI I RAZLIKE U PRISTUPU Mr Velimir Komadinić Institut “Lola”, Beograd, Srbija Dr Dragomir Ilić Institut “Lola”, Beograd, Srbija Politika bezbednosti i zdravlja na radu u malim i srednjim preduzećima (MSP) zahtevadrugačijipr istupodonogkojivažizavelikekompanije. Postoji mnogo razlika između malih i srednjih preduzeća i velikih kompanija i to se mora uzeti u obzir prilikom procene rizika.Cilj rad je da anlizira karakteristike MSP-a, aktuelne ekonomske promene i nijihove uticaje na razvoj politike bezbednosti i zaštite zdravlja i procenu rizika. Takođe će biti opisan značaj službe inspekcije rada, kao važnog spoljnog partnera u podršci malim i srednjim prduzećima pri proceni rizika. Ključne reči: Inspekcija rada servisa, Upravljanje rizikom, Karakteristike, SMEs

166

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


REZIMEI RADOVA doi:10.5937/jaes11-3862

Broj rada: 11(2013)3, 257

Pregledni članak

POTREBE ZA NOVIM KATASTARSKIM PREMEROM GRAĐEVINSKOG REONA GRADA BAČKA PALANKA Dr Miroslav Kuburić* Geoput d.o.o, Beograd, Srbija Milan Filipović Geoput d.o.o, Beograd, Srbija Mladen Lero Geoput d.o.o, Beograd, Srbija U radu je dat kratak osvrt na dosadašnji rad na državnom premeru na teritoriji opštine Bačka Palanka, sa konkretnim poređenjem prikaza elemenata sadržaja na katastarskim podlogama u odnosu na novoizrađeni digitalni ortofoto (avio snimanje 2010. godine) građevinskog reona grada Bačka Palanka. Na osnovu toga je istaknuta potreba za izvođenjem novog premera građevinskog reona grada Bačka Palanka primenom savremenih tehnologija. Analiza je izvedena kroz studiju („Geoput“ 2010. god.) koja prikazuje dosadašnje stanje katastarskih podataka tj. njihovu ažurnost i pouzdanost, a smim tim i stepen primene takvih podataka u procesu donošenja značajnih odluka opštinskih organa o gazdovanju zemljištem, te izradi adekvatnih planova korišćenja raspoloživih zemljišnih, odgovarajućih privrednih i drugih resursa u građevinskom reonu. Studija hronološki ukazuje na izvedene radove geodetskog premera, počevši od 1864. godine, koji su izvođeni u skladu sa mogućnostima lokalnih organa vlasti i prema planovima i programima rada republičkih organa. Sa druge strane, studija daje predlog radova u narednom periodu u skladu sa zakonskom regulativom i mogućnostima institucija nadležnih za ovu oblast. Ključne reči: Katastarski premer, Studija opravdanosti, Građevinski reon, Opština Bačka Palanka doi:10.5937/jaes11-4122

Broj rada: 11(2013)2, 258

Originalni naučni članak

PRILOG ISTRAŽIVANJU UTICAJA PRIGUŠIVAČA TRAPEZA UPRAVLJANJA NA LEPRŠANJE UPRAVLJAČKIH TOČKOVA AUTOBUSA Dr Miroslav Demić Univerzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet inženejrskih nauka, Kragujevac, Srbija Dr Đorđe Diligenski Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut za nuklearne nauke “Vinča”, Centar za motore i vozila, Beograd, Srbija Lepršanje upravljačkih točkova predstavlja štetnu pojavu u sistemu za upravljanje vozilom. Ono dovodi do zamora vozača i elemenata sistema za upravljanje, povećanog habanja pneumatika i sl. U praksi se čine napori da se pojava smanji ili eliminiše, a kod autobusa se, ponekad, ugrađuju pprigušivači u trapez upravljanja. U ovom radu je učinjen pokušaj da se izvrši analiza uticaja prigušivača trapeza upravljanja na lepršanje upravljačkih točkova autobusa. Analize su pokazale da prigušivači značajno utiču na smanjenje lepršanja upravljačkih točkova. Ključne reči: Autobus, Prigušivač, Lepršanje upravljačkih točkova

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3

167


REZIMEI RADOVA Broj rada: 11(2013)3, 259

doi:10.5937/jaes11-3234 Originalni naučni članak

JEDNOSTAVNA REOLOŠKA OPSERVACIJA NANOFIBRILARNIH SMEŠA ZA PRAVLJENJE PAPIRA Dimić-Mišić Katarina Univerzitet “Aalto”, Helsinki, Finska Dr YogeshSanavane Univerzitet “Aalto”, Helsinki, Finska Dr Jouni Paltakari Univerzitet “Aalto”, Helsinki, Finska Dr Thaddeus Maloney Univerzitet “Aalto”, Helsinki, Finska Nanotehnologija omogućava razvoj novih tehnloških mogućnosti širokog komercijalnog potencijala. Celuloza je specifičan primer obnovljivog prirodnog materijala nastao multifunkcionalnim samoorganizovanjem manjih hemijskih složenih celina, i koji može da se kombinuje sa ostalim ne-obnovljivim materijalima, kao što su metali i keramike. Oblast primene između ostalog obuhvata proizvod od papira i premaze papira visokog kvaliteta i sustabilnosti. Nanofibrilovana celuloza (NFC) i mikrofibrilovana celuloza (MFC) mogu se dobiti mehaničkim putem od prirodnih vlakana.Ovi materijali imaju potencijal da budu proizvedeni po niskim cenama i na taj način nađu primenu u proizvodnji papira, boja, farmaciji i u kozmetici. Međutim, suspenzije ovih materijala imaju veoma kompleksnu reologiju. Da bi njihovo procesiranje bilo uspešno, na primer pumpanje, mešanje, transport, izuzetno je važno da se razume njihov fluiditet u tehnološkim uslovima. Ovi materijali imaju veoma izražen pad viskoziteta u oblasti visokih brzina centrifugiranja sa koeficijentom oko 0.8, sto je izuzetno važno za njihovu primenujersuinaceextremnovisokeviskoznosti. Oscilatorni testovi obavljeni na reometru sa disk geometrijom dali su rezultate u saglasnosti sa rezultatima merenja na drugim geometrijama. U ovom radu su korišćene dve vrste nanoceluloze, kao suspenzije i kao smeše za pravljenje papira. Ovde dve vrste nanoceluloze, MFC i NFC imaju različit stepen oticanja zida vlakna. Obe vrste nanoceluloze imaju visok električni potencijal zida vlakna koji utiče na način interakcije i aglomeracije među vlaknima. Ključne reči: Nanoceluloza, Reologija, MFC, NFC

doi:10.5937/jaes11-4008

Broj rada: 11(2013)3, 260

Stručni članak

PERFORMANSE CRM-A SA AKCENTOM NA UPOTREBU TEHNOLOGIJE E-POSLOVANJA Ines Isaković Panevropski univerzitet Aperion, Banja Luka, Bosna i Hercegovina Gde god da živite u zadnjih nekoliko godina morali ste čuti za e-poslovanje, iz razloga što nam stižu mnogi e-mailovi sa reklamama koje nam nude kupovinu uz pomoć e-poslovanja. Možda, tačno ne znate šta je značenje e-poslovanja. U mojoj zemlji, zasigurno, mnogi nisu ni čuli za priliku za naše gospodarstvo, koju nam internet omogućava kao deo poslovne inovacije. Iz tih razloga ovaj članak se bavi tematikom e-poslovanja i baza podataka, kao i njihovim uticajem na menadžment odnosa sa kupcima. Ključne reči: Baze podataka, E-poslovanje, Menadžment odnosa sa kupcima 168

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)3


Journal of Applied Engineering Science (3 2013 11)  

Journal of Applied Engineering Science publish original and review articles covering the concept of technical science, energy and environmen...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you