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IMPRESSUM J O U R N A L O F A P P L I E D E N G I N E E R I N G S C I E N C E (J A E S) The journal publishes original and review articles covering the concept of technical science, energy and environment, industrial engineering, quality management and other related sciences. JAES is Open-Access Journal that follows new trends and progress proven practice in listed fields, thus creating a unique forum for interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary dialogue. JAES is part of the electronic journal editing with a transparent editorial and review policy. Provided are: • Online paper submission and tracking of review process with communication between editors, authors and reviewers • CrossRef: assignment of numerical identifiers (DOI) to assure greater visibility and accessibility of journal articles • CrossCheck: control for originality of submitted papers, to prevent plagiarism and duplicate publications • KWASS: automatic extraction of keywords from disciplinary thesaurus • Online-first publishing • Automatic transfer of metadata to SCIndeks that support international protocols for data transfer All published articles are indexed by international abstract base Elsevier Bibliographic Databases through service SCOPUS since 2006 and through service SCImago Journal Rank since 2011. Serbian Ministry of Science admitted the Journal of Applied Engineering Science in a list of reference journals. Same Ministry financially supports journal’s publication. Publisher Institute for Research and Design in Commerce and Industry - IIPP; www.iipp.rs For publisher: Prof. dr Branko Vasić Copublishers Faculty of Mechanical Engineering - Belgrade University; www.mas.bg.ac.rs For copublisher: Prof. dr Milorad Milovančević Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering – Belgrade University; www.sf.bg.ac.rs For copublisher: Prof. dr Branimir Stanić Editor in Chief Prof. dr Jovan Todorović Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade; Assistant Editor Dr Predrag Uskoković, IIPP Editorial Board Prof. dr Gradimir Danon, Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade; Doc. dr Dušan Milutinović, Institute for Transport and Traffic CIP, Belgrade; Mr Đorđe Milosavljević, CPI - Process Engineering Center, Belgrade; Prof. dr Miodrag Zec, Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade; Prof. dr Nenad Đajić, Mining and Geology Faculty, Belgrade; Prof. dr Vlastimir Dedović, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engeneering, Belgrade; Prof. dr Mirko Vujošević, Faculty of organizational sciences, Belgrade; Doc. dr Vladimir Popović, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade; Doc. dr Vesna Spasojević Brkić, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade. ISSN 1451-4117 UDC 33 Papers are indexed by SCOPUS

International Editorial Board Prof. dr Vukan Vučić, University of Pennsylvania, USA; Prof. dr Robert Bjeković, Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, Germany; Prof. dr Jozef Aronov, Research Institute for Certification JSC, Russia; Prof. dr Jezdimir Knežević, MIRCE Akademy, England; Dr Nebojša Kovačević, Geotechnical consulting group, England; Adam Zielinski, Solaris Bus & Coach, Poland; Prof. dr Miloš Knežević, Faculty for Civil Engineering, Montenegro; MSc Siniša Vidović, Energy Testing & Balance Inc, USA; Dr Zdravko Milovanović, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka. Publishing Council Milutin Ignjatović, Institute for Transport and Traffic CIP, Belgrade; Dragan Belić, Transport Company “Lasta”, Belgrade; Dr Deda Đelović, Port of Bar, Bar; Dr Drago Šerović, Adriatic Shipyard, Bijela; Cvijo Babić, Belgrade Waterworks and Sewerage, Belgrade; Nenad Jankov, Power Plant Kostolac B, Kostolac; Miroslav Vuković, Mercator Business System, Belgrade; Dušan Đurašević, Euro Sumar, Belgrade. Editorial Office Nada Stanojević, Miloš Vasić, Darko Stanojević, Miloš Dimitrijević, Ivana Spasojević, IIPP, Belgrade; Journal of Applied Engineeering Science is available at: www.engineeringscience.rs http://scindeks-eur.ceon.rs/index.php/jaes http://www.singipedia.com/content/1166-naucni-casopisi Printed by: Sigrastar, Beograd Journal of Applied Engineering Science 10(2012)4


CONTENTS

Ana Perić THE REVIEW OF PLANNING PRACTICE IN BROWNFIELD REGENERATION - SOME EUROPEAN EXPERIENCES

1-8

Orlando Chiarello, Dr Jezdimir Knežević SIMPLIFIED TECHNICAL ENGLISH IN MIRCE MECHANICS

9 - 14

Bojana Jovanović, Dr Vojislav Božanić, Bojan Jovanović EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SERBIA - SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

15 - 22

Dr Miroslav Demić, Dr Đorđe Diligenski, Dr Milan Milovanović A CONTRIBUTION TO RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF DEGRADATION OF VEHICLE VIBRATION PARAMETERS ON THERMAL LOAD OF SHOCK ABSORBERS

23 - 30

Hrvoje Puškarić, Dr Danijela Tadić, Dr Mirjana Misita, Dr Miladin Stefanović, Dr Dragan Milanović THE EVALUATION OF QUALITY GOALS AT THE PROCESS LEVEL IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT

31 - 38

Vladimir Janko Desnica, Dr Dragana Šarac IMPLEMENTATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY IN MAIL DELIVERIES ORGANIZATION

39 - 43

EVENTS REVIEW

44 - 45

ANNOUNCEMENT OF EVENTS

46 - 47

BOOK RECOMMENDATION

48

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

49 - 50

EDITORIAL AND ABSTRACTS IN SERBIAN LANGUAGE

51 - 56

Institute for research and design in commerce & industry, Belgrade. All rights reserved.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1


EDITORIAL

FAST LEARNING, KNOWLEDGE AND ADVANCEMENT The phrase that the world is changing rapidly and that everyone must rapidly adapt to environment is frequently being repeated for very long time. Needs must be satisfied faster, tasks must be performed faster, learning and professional advancement must have faster progress. That becomes dominant form of social behavior of society which is managed by invisible hand of greed, market and competition - favoring efficiency above everything else. Typical consequence is the omnipresent practice of fast food. A modern man has accepted such practice; he demands fast serve of the meal and he got used to eat fast. Similarly, the need to quickly learn exists and it seems that can be satisfied fast, also. About this phenomenon Prof. dr Mirko Vujošević I want to give a few personal experiences and observations. Even in the first grade of elementary school, back in 1957 I had friends who repeated first grade. Then it was acceptable that someone cannot and does not have to finish elementary school. Long time ago was brought out the Law under which pupils of elementary school can not repeat grade. The same principle will be later implicitly transferred to high school too. In a last few years, under the principle of Bologna Process, similar approach is applied to higher education. A study today is fundamentally different from studies in seventies of the twentieth century, when I was a student. First year of faculty was rigorous filter: many students left faculty because they could not reach the second year. Average studies lasted even 50% more than nominally required. High marks were hard to earn and 10, as the highest mark, was real rarity. Today exist binding “standards” of mandatory high percentage of passing the exams and mark distribution. Huge difference also exists in respect to available textbooks literature. My generation from department of electronics had to study new semiconductor technologies about which in the domestic textbooks was hardly a word. Very small number of students was privileged to have some new and expensive book in English language, and beside that, were lucky to know English which back then was very rarely learned in schools. Photocopying did not exist. Since kindergarten today’s students grew along with the computers and internet and learned English language from TV and CDs along with first words of mother tongue. Abundance of information was always accessible at the push of a key. There is no topic or term on the internet about that they cannot find some information and knowledge. Phrase was made: if one does not have in head, has it in Google. And when is so, why anything must be in our head, when internet can be approached always and anywhere? Fast as eating sandwiches bought on counter of fast food restaurants, information from internet sites are flew over. As men felt he is fed very fast, thus also got the impression that he knows something he saw on the internet. Efficiency is increasing also in the fields of postgraduate studies and scientific research work. For me, Magister studies were serious challenge, because statistic data told that only 10 % and less of the total number of enrolled students ends them. Diplomas Doctor of Philosophy were even rarer. Today, a Magister degree studies does not exist. Their curricula have been mostly facilitated and repacked in Doctoral (PhD) programs in which is, in aim of accreditation and according to some standards, precisely quoted what and in which time (most in five years) needs to be learned, researched and discover to get PhD degree. Basic aim of invisible hand is reached, because efficiency is significantly increased: on some faculties, in the last three years, PhD degree gained around the same number of candidates as altogether in the last 20 years! It seems that elementary school rules had reached also Doctoral studies: Student should only enroll and be persistent, and for the eventual failure guilty would be alleged disorganization of the faculty. After completing doctoral studies one must progress quickly. Sometimes it was not uncommon to go retire from the university with the title of Associate professor. Now would be considered a personal disaster when someone does not meet the formal bureaucratic requirement for a title of a Full professor before the fiftieth year of life. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1


EDITORIAL Consumers of fast food are exposed to high health risks that have been identified as a serious social problem. In order to protect populations, regulations becoming stricter and awareness about the hazards of fast food are being raised over media. When it comes to quickly acquired knowledge and degrees, it seems to me that we are in the process of massive expansion of the phenomenon and only at initial phase of associated risks recognition. Of course, also here the bureaucracy is trying to achieve some protection by prescribing instruments for measuring the individual research work quality. While in the field of food quality is possible to apply knowledge from fundamental sciences (chemistry, biochemistry, biology ...), in the field of knowledge-based rapid progress fundamental scientific knowledge does not exist, regardless of the formation and development of scientometrics. We witness that papers published in journals within famous SCI lists are imposed as the most important and almost the sole criterion for assessing the quality of research. Such an approach is crucial influence on the perverse behavior of researchers: in the foreground puts the publication and not necessarily actual enrichment of knowledge repositories. The principle of “publish or perish” was subjected to fierce criticism in serious scientific communities. Bureaucratic rules have made legitimate greed within the established competition in the field of education, knowledge and certification. So they do not make it impossible, but on the contrary, they encourage its substantially corruptive influence. Without an ethical dimension, which has been widely written by Adam Smith as the protagonist of socially useful greed and invisible hand of the market, there is no real progress in the development of social relations in this area. Sincerely yours, Prof. dr Mirko Vujošević

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1


Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1


doi:10.5937/jaes11-2122

Paper number: 11(2013)1, 243, 1 - 8

THE REVIEW OF PLANNING PRACTICE IN BROWNFIELD REGENERATION - SOME EUROPEAN EXPERIENCES Ana Perić* University of Belgrade, Faculty of Architecture, Belgrade, Serbia The research subject is the analysis of the possible ways to achieve stakeholder compliance in the brownfield regeneration process. In a narrow sense, the treatment of brownfield sites within different planning systems is considered. Each of the selected planning systems is described through the institutional structure as well as the regulative framework. The aim of the paper is to show urban planning mechanisms that are used for the establishment of collaboration between different stakeholders involved in brownfield regeneration. In the very beginning, a brief history of spatial development is given. A special emphasis is on the current trends in the brownfield regeneration. The central part of the paper deals with the overview of selected examples in terms of brownfield regeneration. It is followed by the overview of the institutional aspect within the planning system in Switzerland and Austria. The determination of the responsible institutions for the brownfield regeneration process is of particular importance. Also, it is important to show the basic documents dealing with the above-mentioned topics. However, the focus of research concerns the collaborative procedures to achieve the successful regeneration of brownfields. Those results stem from the analysis of the brownfield sites examples. Namely, the first example relates to the regeneration of wood-industry complex in the Swiss town of Solothurn, while the second case indicates the regeneration of cable and wire factory in Vienna. The final section of the paper systemizes the experiences from the developed countries which provide a possible formulation of general brownfield regeneration model to be applied within different contexts. Key words: Brownfield regeneration, Collaboration, Stakeholders, Interest compliance, Switzerland, Austria INTRODUCTION Brownfield redevelopment is defined as a redevelopment of “any land or premises which has previously been used or developed and is not currently fully in use, although it may be partially occupied or utilized, (…) and which may also be vacant, derelict or contaminated” [01]. It has opposite goals from those which are the expression of modern urban growth trends. Also, it occurs under the direct impact of socio-economic factors, as an expression of a broader socio-political context. Only the synthesis of these factors can lead to a common goal - the transformation of space. Since the 1980s brownfield regeneration has become a central topic in most important international documents [12,02,15]. This especially relates to urban practice in North America (U.S. and Canada) as well as Western Europe. However, the new millennium trend of sustainable regeneration has also spread to the transition countries. Nevertheless, the mentioned countries tend to

integrate European models of urban transformation. Since they established market economies, these countries have become open to global influences and foreign direct investment. According to the views of certain authors, cities have fallen under the simultaneous influence of the local system of social transformation as well as global processes, which created a specific ‘postsocialist’ context of urban restructuring [15]. This is particularly done by the creation and adoption of many local planning documents, which were prepared on the base of western experience. The issue of the collaboration among various actors in the brownfield regeneration process is considered to be complex, because it is often very difficult to examine and define the interests of different stakeholders. This problem is present even in the developed countries as evidenced by the studies where brownfield regeneration is seen as a specific urban process due to a large number of participants [03,04,08]. According the same source, communication, understand

* University of Belgrade, Faculty of Architecture, Bulevar Krallja Aleksandra 73/II, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia; anaperric@yahoo.com

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Ana Perić - The review of planning practice in brownfield regeneration-some european experiences

ers and their often contradictory interests, where the final aim of such collaboration is a consensus building and solution achievement. The aim of the research is to assess to what extent the brownfield regeneration process has been really collaborative within the selected cases.

ing and trust among stakeholders are the key goals in brownfield regeneration process. Research also shows that the understanding of the process with a large number of participants led by different driving forces can be interpreted by the network as a basic concept, where the network is considered as a set of relations between different groups composed of actors with same interest [05]. This can be explored on the brownfield regeneration example, which begins as a specific process, but it has the potential to spread through a process of imitation, learning, adaptation, evolution, and fading of actors and networks that were originally involved in the process. The main hypothesis of the research is that brownfield regeneration process should be placed within the collaborative planning paradigm, i.e. within the context of multiple stakehold-

REGULATIVE FRAMEWORK OF BROWNFIELD REGENERATION Since one of the main aims of the Swiss spatial planning policy is economical use of the limited land area [17], the regeneration of the brownfield sites is one of the top mechanisms to sustainable spatial development. In order to achieve optimum spatial organisation, the coordination of all the activities with spatial impact is needed. This relates to the representatives of the federal, cantonal, and communal authorities [09]. The detailed institutional framework is shown in the Table 1.

Table 1: The main institutional and legislative framework for brownfield regeneration in Switzerland Functional level Administrative organization Institutional framework

National

Confederation

Federal Council

Federal Law on Spatial Planning

Federal office for Spatial Development

Swiss Planning Policy Guidelines

Other federal offices

Sectoral strategies Sectoral plans

Cantonal governments

Cantonal Planning and Building Laws Cantonal structure plan

Cantonal spatial planning offices

Planning studies

Regional planning associations

Regional structure plan

Communal authorities

Communal Zoning and Building regulations Communal structure plan Land use plan (M1:10.000) Special plan (M1:5.000) Building regulations

Canton Cantonal

Region

Local

Commune

Planning instruments

(Source: Prepared by author according to Muggli, 2008)

Although the new article on spatial planning, incorporated in the Federal Constitution, transferred the responsibility for framework legislation on spatial planning to the confederation, the practice of planning implementation remained a matter of the cantons [13]. The transdisciplinary approach can be observed just in the process 2

of collaboration between the confederation and cantons, which is the central postulate of cooperative federalism. This is achieved by the set of documents indicated in the table above, where the most important one is the Cantonal structure plan which should be approved by the federation as a proof of mutual collaboration. Also, the Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 243


Ana Perić - The review of planning practice in brownfield regeneration-some european experiences

cantonal executives approve the communal zoning plans and building regulations. All communal zoning and building regulations are subject to a public referendum on local level [09]. The multidisciplinary approach is obvious on the federal level, where the other federal offices together with the Federal Office for Spatial Development participate in the spatial strategies and sectoral plans formulation. Also, many cantons provide the cantonal land use plans for the projects which are of special importance to their spatial planning policy, such as industrial zones or waste disposal sites of regional importance. In these cases, cantonal land use planning replaces communal land use planning confined to specific designated areas [13]. Stakeholder participation is seen is the fact that planning authorities have to inform the population about the structure plans and the land use plans. Everybody can object to these plans.

The responsible authorities have to consider the objections made and either accept them or give a reason for not accepting them [09]. According to the same source, the conflicts between communal and cantonal planning authorities are decided by the cantonal executive or finally, by the Federal Court of Law. Conflicts between cantonal and federal planning authorities are dealt with in a conciliation procedure [09]. In Austria, the crucial role in increasing awareness about brownfield regeneration lies in the hands of policy makers and the authorities. The main obstacle in efficient problem-solving at local level is the fuzziness of local authority competences in regard with the mentioned problem [06]. Some of the main institutions as well as their documents concerning brownfield regeneration on the national, state, and local level are given in the Table 2 below.

Table 2: The main institutional and legislative framework for brownfield regeneration in Austria Functional level

National

Administrative orga- Institutional nization framework

Planning instruments

Federal administration

no federal competence in spatial planning

ÖROK - Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning

ÖREK - Austrian spatial development concept STRAT.AT - Spatial development strategy Spatial Development Scenarios - Austria 2030 Sectoral plans from different ministries

Austrian Environment Agency

National Policy Target

Ministry of Environment

Enough Ground

State (NUTS II)

Länder administration

Spatial Planning Law (9 laws) State Spatial planning concept

Region (<NUTS III)

Regional associations

Regional spatial development concept Regional spatial development programme Sectoral spatial development programme

Municipal administration

Local spatial development programme Local development scheme (M1:10.000) Land use plan/ zoning plan (M1:5.000) Lay out plan, local development plan (M1:2.000, 1:1.000)

Federal Republic

Regional

Local

Municipality

The general conclusion about the Austrian institutional framework of brownfield regeneration can be drawn here. Firstly, of utmost importance are the two federal documents directly concerning the issue of brownfield regeneration, as well as the provincial instruments of implementation the brownfield policies. Secondly, the multidisJournal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 243

ciplinary approach is expressed in the activities of the Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning - ÖROK (Österreichische Raumordnungskonferenz). Its main role is to serve as a base for the informal cooperation between institutions responsible for spatial planning [11]. In a narrow sense, this means that all the sectoral policies 3


Ana Perić - The review of planning practice in brownfield regeneration-some european experiences

the brownfield regeneration are integrated into the consistent policy of the one federal authority. It is not the case on the state level - there is a need for better exchange of experiences. This is also requested on local level, where the differences between municipalities come to the fore. Thirdly, transdisciplinary approach is noticed in the transfer of knowledge between the federal and lower levels of institutional structure, but also and vice versa. The top-down approach is not an obligation for brownfield regeneration in Austria, which has to be recognized as a great advantage of the entire system [14]. Finally, the involvement of stakeholders from diverse sectors is particularly simple on local level due to the territory coverage. Most municipalities mainly collaborate with private sector or the international organizations as partners in funding the brownfield regeneration projects. COLLABORATIVE PROCEDURES FOR SUCCESSFUL BROWNFIELD REGENERATION The collaborative procedures for successful brownfield regeneration are going to be presented and examined on the two selected case studies. The methodology used for the determination of the collaboration extent within the

cases is based on the extensive semi-structured interviews conducted among the selected actors who were directly in charge of the preparation (planning) phase of brownfield regeneration process [10, 07, 16]. The structure of the interview as well as the section of the article that follows consists of several parts: • Major stakeholders who have contributed to the project initiation; • Planning experts in this project - their actions, organization and project management; • Negotiation process and decision-making procedures in the specific project; • Identifying the ways to conflict resolution. THE SWISS CASE - WOOD-INDUSTRY COMPLEX, SOLOTHURN The first case refers to the ex-wood-industry complex in Solothurn, the city in the central part of Switzerland. The site is located near the river Aare and occupies the territory of 107 hectares, what makes it the second largest brownfield area in Switzerland. During the past decades it was owned by the Norwegian company named Borregaard AG, which during the recent years, to be more precise in 2008, lost the interest to continue with production due to a low profit.

Figure 1: Ex-wood-industry complex in Solothurn, Switzerland

4

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Ana Perić - The review of planning practice in brownfield regeneration-some european experiences

1.The first idea about the possible start of brownfield regeneration process occurs due to a closure of the company Borregaard. Since it was an industry of the great importance for the whole region, in the very beginning many possible stakeholders were willing to participate. This, primarily, refers to the canton and municipality authorities as well as the private company representatives. In a meantime, the private companies appraised that any kind of investment will not be profitable, so the canton authorities separated from other stakeholders and took over the crucial role in the future process of brownfield regeneration. The major cantonal representative decided to start the liaison with the academic institutions in order to create the purposeful spatial intervention, so the head of the spatial planning institute from ETH Zurich was invited to participate in the process. All significant information in the process was transmitted in a direct way through the network building. The responsibility for the project group establishment, its members, and the leadership was in the hands of the cantonal authorities who, after the consultation with many partners, suggested the final organisational group. No external consultants were involved in the process, because of the canton’s willingness to exert the direct influence. Therefore, the project management and all the responsibilities lay within the canton. 2.The participants in the process were numerous. Among the members of the cantonal offices we should mention the Department for Spatial Planning, Department for Economic Development and Labour, and Building Department. Besides the cantonal offices, local communities and landowners were also invited to express their own interests. The role of a technical expert in the whole process was dedicated to a broad-based technical evaluation committee, consisted of transportation/ infrastructure, urban and spatial planning, and economic experts. In this way, the project covered all the relevant interests. Despite the large number of participants, the whole process ran smoothly due to its efficient organisational structure. Namely, the whole organisation scheme was divided in two levels. On the strategic level, the main role of decision-making was assigned to the executive board, while on the operational level the most Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 243

important body was the technical evaluation committee composed of the members with practical spatial planning expertise, i.e. planning teams whose main task was to create the urban design for the given area. To be more precise, the work of all the stakeholders was brought together by the chairman of the technical evaluation committee. He had the important control function - before, during, and after the interim meetings in plenary. Organisational level also comprises the organisation office which acted as a hub and to which the production of the protocols and reports was entrusted. 3.The negotiation and decision-making process took place within a structured procedure. The four invited teams presented their ideas at two meetings. The results of the consultations were communicated to the team. After the final presentations by the teams, the technical evaluation committee met for a two-day closed session to discuss the results and evaluate on the basis of a planning programme (with the required criteria). After extensive discussions, the technical evaluation committee formulated the recommendations to the executive board. Although the chairman of the committee had a great knowledge and negotiation skills, the recommendations were based on the stance of the whole team. The “external” negotiation, i.e. the negotiation with land owners, local municipality, and the canton of Solothurn, was conducted in the early phase of the process. At this stage, the investors were not included. The possible role of investor took over a real estate expert, who was also involved in the process. 4.The planning phase was relatively harmonious. All communication was placed via the representative of the canton, in consultation with the chairman of the technical evaluation committee. The conflicts have been managed in this group. The public had the opportunity to give comments on the results of the planning phase. They were informed on the progress made in the plan at regular intervals. However, there were no suggestions from the public in the mentioned phase. The specific way of planning phase organisation provided security to the potential investors. Also, the community could support the various participants, if there are different interests, for example between the land owners 5


Ana Perić - The review of planning practice in brownfield regeneration-some european experiences

and investors through the presentation of their calls (e.g. round table). Nevertheless, the responsibility clearly lies within the canton. THE AUSTRIAN CASE - CABLE AND WIRE FACTORY, VIENNA The second example is the ex-cable and wire factory in Vienna, located in the municipal dis-

trict of Meidling on the area of almost 7 hectares. For the entire century, the factory has been a prosperous enterprise with the several hundred employees. After the year 1989, due to a course of privatization, the company was sold and consequently started to weaken. Finally, in 1997 the plant was closed.

Figure 2: Ex-cable and wire factory in Vienna, Austria 1.Since the factory had the specific influence on the whole district, not only in terms of previous employees, but also the very special reference factor for the population, the first initiators of the possible area development were the laid-off staff and local residents. The citizens’ participation was reflected in the organisation of a citizens’ competition, where they were invited to provide any kind of suggestions for future development. The jury, which was intentionally not formed of a majority of urban planners, but from the chairman of the district office, local parish priest, journalist, and the representatives of the City of Vienna, chose the first three places. The principal recommendations and demands of the district residents were published by the Municipal District Office. Shortly after the closedown of the factory, a syndicate composed of eight developers bought the site. Nevertheless, the course of the future development was already formulated and the developers had to conform to that. This was followed by the one-tier urban design competition, where two winners formed joint venture for the urban master concept and draft. 2.The collaboration and interaction of the stakeholders was an intention from the very beginning of the process. The project management was led by two groups. In the beginning the main significance was devoted to 6

a working group, composed of the planning experts, from a variety of fields and municipal departments, the winners of the urban design competition, and the representatives of the developers. This group served as an instrument of planning information, discussion, and control. Later, the focus shifted to the urban monitoring group which acted as advisory board on the findings and proposals made by the working group. This group relayed on the opinion of primary external experts, but also the representatives of both Chief Executive Office and Municipal Department, as well as the municipal district members. This control group turned to be crucial for the success of the entire process. 3.Negotiation process was on the very high level during the entire project due its organisation. In the beginning phase, intensive information and citizen involvement made the land use plan and the development plan procedures to run very smoothly. Nevertheless, the citizens’ advisory board did not participate in the master concept and master project development. This was reserved for the planning experts who still respected the mutual consultation activities. Later, the members of the working group were convinced that the high-quality project can be achieved only through the collateral agreements and area management based on the planning Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 243


Ana Perić - The review of planning practice in brownfield regeneration-some european experiences

work. The mediation phase was achieved in the urban monitoring group through the test projects prepared by the architects and then examined by the developers. 4.In such a complex network composed of several expert groups combined with a great impact of citizens and interwoven with developers’ demands, it was not possible to collaborate without conflicts. Some of them were so strong that it seemed the whole process was going to fail. It was particularly expressed within the working group, composed of the members with a different interest background. Nevertheless, the elimination of mutual confrontations was achieved through the sessions of the urban monitoring group. The possible conflicts with the city administration were avoided since the political representatives were the significant part of the urban monitoring group. Before the final draft adoption, it was presented to the citizens’ representatives, which ensured the final solution appropriate for all the direct participants in the planning process. CONCLUDING REMARKS From the previous overview of the planning process in the case of the brownfield regeneration we can draw some general characteristics of the collaborative procedures applied in such a process. It is interesting to observe whether the inclusion of certain sectors is prescribed by the legal measures or it represents a personal approach of the interviewees. Thus, from this we can discover the extent to which innovative approaches are implemented in brownfield regeneration process. When it comes to the Swiss brownfield case, it is the typical example of the so-called test-planning. During test planning procedure, a few basic rules have to be followed. Namely, there is a need for: • A specific role differentiation (technical evaluation committee, 3-5 design teams, the executive board, and organisation office); • Three consultation meetings; • At least three competing teams; • The simultaneous development of the final draft - there are no winners. Those rules are the part of an informal planning procedure. They are not regulated by the law, but they surely contribute to an efficient and meanJournal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 243

ingful planning process. The described procedure provides the opportunity to “be smarter when working together”. Only jointly recognized problems motivate collaboration. Planner, as an expert, does not insist on his own opinion. On the contrary, the consensus building is the main prerequisite for the successful results of the testplanning procedure. In the case of the Austrian brownfield regeneration project, the organisational structure of project management can be also drawn: • A specific organisational roles are divided between working group and urban monitoring group; • Only one-tier competition, over 20 consultations within the working group, 4 consultations within the urban monitoring group; • 27 project teams; • Two prize winners - joint venture urban design. The working group networked all the relevant stakeholders with no require for formal or legal competence to do so. Also, the one-tier competition is not often seen in the urban design procedures. Nevertheless, this affected all the stakeholders to express their own opinions as much as possible. “Open” planning process resulted in a high-level of mutual understanding. Namely, only three negative opinions were submitted during the draft formulation phase. The final solution was consensus-based, i.e. it was the result of the extensive discussions, well-documented interim planning phases, clearly formulated qualities of the urban design, and avoiding the requirements carrying the risk for implementation. In the end, there are some general recommendations which were observed within the both cases. Firstly, the role of every expert involved into the planning process has to be differentiated. This means that the professionals in the field of real estate economics, transport, landscape planning, urban planning, etc. have to incorporate their own knowledge, skills and experiences in the concrete process. Expert opinion should be expressed in the early stage of process. It should be provide in the form of explicit answer, e.g. a written progress reports. Also, a careful selection of proven experts should be taken into account. Also, public relations (PR) are very important and should be approached carefully. Firstly, some common opportunities and problems with a po 7


Ana Perić - The review of planning practice in brownfield regeneration-some european experiences

tential to motivate collaboration should be recognized. Later, the document in paper form should be presented in the public exhibition in order to involve a great number of general public. Finally, to cope with difficult unsolved problems in planning a comprehensive training is required. Besides knowledge and skills in project management, it is important that there is a basic understanding of spatial processes and some experience in the field of designing. Some of the mentioned general recommendations can be applied within the further projects of brownfield regeneration in Europe and beyond. REFERENCES 1) Alker, S., Joy, V., Roberts, J., and Smith, P., (2000) The definition of brownfield, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 43(1), 49-69. 2) CABERNET (Concerted Action on Brownfield and Economic Regeneration Network), (2009) Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration, http://www.cabernet.org.uk, preuzeto 10.12.2010. 3) Dixon, T. and Doak, J., (2005) Actors and Drivers: Who and what makes the brownfield regeneration process go round? In: Proc., SUBR:IM conference, Sheffield, UK, http:// www.subrim.org.uk/publications/subrim1stconference/1030_1100actorspaper.doc, preuzeto 25.11.2008. 4) Dixon, T., Raco, M., Catney, P. and Lerner, D. (Eds.), (2008) Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration: Liveable Places from Problem Spaces, Chichester: Wiley. 5) Doak, J. and Karadimitriou, N., (2007) (Re)development, complexity and networks: a framework for research, Urban Studies, 44(2), 1-22. 6) Ferber, U. and Grimski, D., (2002) Brownfields and redevelopment of urban areas, Vienna: Austrian Federal Environment Agency on behalf of CLARINET. 7) Grams, A., (2011) [Personal communication], 4 September. 8) Mrđenović, T. (2011): Integrative urban design in regeneration – principles for achieving sustainable places, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 305-316.

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9) Muggli, R., (2008) Spatial planning in Switzerland: a short introduction. In: J. Ryser and T. Franchini (Eds.), International Manual of Planning Practice (IMPP), International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISoCaRP), 304-314. 10) Pamer, V.K., (2011) [Personal communication], 6 November. 11) Prokop, G., Jobstmann, H. and Schönbauer, A., (2011) Report on best practices for limiting soil sealing and mitigating its effects, Luxembourg: European Commission. 12) RESCUE (Regeneration of European Sites in Cities and Urban Environments) (2004– III), (2004) Guidance report for the management of the Brownfield Regeneration Projects (Work Package 6, Deliverable 6.1), http://www.rescue–europe.com, preuzeto 13.12.2010. 13) Scholl, B. (Ed.), (2008) Spatial planning and development in Switzerland - observations and suggestions from the international group of experts, Zurich: ETH Zurich, Institute for Spatial and Landscape Development. 14) Schremmer, C., (2010) Austrian Spatial Development Strategy in a European Perspective. In: Proc., Symposium ’Spatial Planning in the Danube Region: A Comparison of Serbia and Austria’, Vienna, Austria. 15) Stanilov, K. (Ed.), (2007) The Post-Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe after Socialism, Dordrecht: Springer. 16) Staub, B., (2011) [Personal communication], 3 December. 17) Swiss Federal Council, (2008) Sustainable Development Strategy: Guidelines and Action Plan 2008–2011, Bern: Swiss Federal Council. Paper sent to revision: 26.09.2012. Paper ready for publication: 01.03.2013.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 243


Paper number: 11(2013)1, 244, 9 - 14

doi:10.5937/jaes11-3322

SIMPLIFIED TECHNICAL ENGLISH IN MIRCE MECHANICS Orlando Chiarello* Secondo Mona S.p.A., Italy Dr Jezdimir Knežević MIRCE Akademy, Woodbury Park, Exeter, United Kingdom The second Axiom of Mirce Mechanics, states, “The probability of faulty execution of any maintenance task is greater than zero”. Analysis of maintenance processes clearly shows that ineffective communication between system designers and maintenance personnel, through maintenance documentation, is a well-recognised contributor to the occurrence of faulty maintenance task, which in turn could have a significant impact on reliability, availability, safety, cost and effectiveness of technical systems. This paper addresses the lack of understanding of maintenance manuals, written in English, by 80% of the global maintenance personnel whose native language is not English. The majority of them have knowledge of English that is rather limited and are easily confused by complex sentence structures and by the number of meanings and synonyms that English words may have. Significant improvements in the direction of effective communication have been achieved by the creation and use of Simplified Technical English, the benefit of which is presented in this paper. Keywords: Mirce mechanics, Maintenance errors, Maintenance documentation, Simplified technical english, Technical authors training INTRODUCTION Mirce Mechanics: is a scientific theory of the motion of observable functionability phenomena through the life of technical systems. Its axioms, mathematical formulas, rules and methods enable accurate predictions of a system’s measurable functionability performance characteristics like reliability, availability and others to be made with probabilistic regularity [08]. According to Mirce Mechanics the motion of functionability through negative functionability state is driven by the execution of maintenance tasks, among other factors. Maintenance tasks typically include removal, installation, servicing, rigging, inspection and other scheduled maintenance. The execution of any maintenance task involves the possibility of human error. Human error in aircraft maintenance is the consequence of a complex interaction of many factors including system and maintenance task design, maintenance personnel and other resources, maintenance organisation, and the physical environment in which the maintenance occurs. Hence, to assess the impact of human errors on successful execution of maintenance tasks,

analysis of over tens of thousands of maintenance tasks, in defence, aerospace, transportation, motorsport, nuclear, communication and other industries, had been studied at the MIRCE Akademy. It has lead to the formulation of the second Axiom of Mirce Mechanics, which states, “The probability of faulty execution of any maintenance task is greater than zero”. [09] As it has a profound impact on all aspects of the in-service life on any maintainable technical system several research studies have been performed by the Master and Doctoral students of the MIRCE Akademy with aim to understand the physical mechanisms that caused their occurrences. The human constituents of a maintenance process, either as decision maker or as a task executor, bear the ultimate responsibility for recognising, interpreting, compensating for, and correcting or mitigating the consequences of deficiencies and faults of a maintenance process. Thus “human error” and “judgement error” are terms found frequently in reports on malfunctioning of technical systems. For example, according to a Pratt & Whitney survey the major causes for the 120 in-flight engine shutdowns on Boeing 747 aircraft’s, due to human errors

* Secondo Mona S.p.A., Via Carlo Del Prete 1-21019 Somma Lombardo (VA) Italy; orlando.chiarello@secondomona.com

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Orlando Chiarello - Simplified technical english in Mirce mechanics

in maintenance, were mainly due to: • Incomplete installation (33%) • Damaged on installation (14.5%) • Improper installation (11%) • Equipment not installed or missing (11%) • Foreign object damage (6.5%) • Improper fault isolation, inspection (6%) • Equipment not activated or deactivated (4%) Some of the other related causes are: • Complex maintenance related tasks • Time pressure for delivering the aircraft • Fatigue of the maintenance personnel • Maintenance procedures not followed accordingly • Usage of outdated maintenance manuals However, as statistics does not study the causes of statistical behaviour, full understanding of the human errors in maintenance is only possible by understanding physical causes and mechanisms that lead to the occurrence of maintenance faults during the maintenance process. Analysis of maintenance processes clearly shown that ineffective communication between system designers and maintenance personnel, through maintenance documentation, is a wellrecognised contributor to the occurrence of faulty maintenance task, which in turn could have a significant impact on reliability, availability, safety, cost and effectiveness of a system [07]. For example, in the article [10] it was reported that in a given service bulletin a certain maintenance procedure was “proscribed”. The technician reading this bulletin concluded to proceed and perform that task as it was “prescribed”. Clearly this is an excellent example of misunderstanding of English word “proscribed”, which means “prohibited” with the English word “prescribed” which means “defined”. Consequently, the main objective of this paper was to address the lack of understanding of maintenance manuals, written in English, in relation to the second Axiom of Mirce Mechanics. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTATION The maintenance documentation used in maintenance of technical systems has the following three functions: • To support correct execution of a maintenance task. It is a procedural document that guides maintenance personnel trough a sequence of instructions in the task execution. 10

Comprehensible and accurate documentation is a vital part of the successful execution of a maintenance task. • To support maintenance training. In well-organised and structured organizations maintenance documentation is used during the training process. However, in some organisations maintenance documentation is discovered after the unsuccessful completion of a task. • To support a legal process, when necessary. For example, in aviation industry the use of maintenance documentation is a legal obligation. It constitutes a proof that a maintenance task has been executed in accordance with the related instructions. Thereby, the maintenance documentation is a mean of certifying safety and security of the aircraft systems after the completion of a maintenance task. Indeed, the maintainer must sign in the documentation used at the end of the maintenance operation. The signature has an important legal role. For third party maintenance organizations, it constitutes a protection in case of a conflict with the customer after the delivery of the aircraft. ENGLISH AS THE GLOBAL LANGUAGE With the development of “computerized” technical reality, English became the international language mostly used by communities, organizations and industries for promoting their business and defining their products. However, it is not the native language of the majority of the people involved. Hence, potentials for misunderstandings and miscommunications are endless and continuously present. The first solution to this problem was proposed by Professor Charles K. Ogden in the Thirties who created the Basic English [06] that consisted of a set of simple grammar rules and a restricted vocabulary of 850 words. It was the first real attempt to “give everyone a second or international language” for business and education in every country, with the primary aim of creating more communication among people. Therefore, Basic English can be considered as a pioneer controlled language. From there, some other controlled languages were developed, each of them dedicated to different fields of application. In the Seventies, Caterpillar created the Caterpillar Fundamental English [6] to make the operating and maintenance instructions of their products easily understood by their customers and users. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 244


Orlando Chiarello - Simplified technical english in Mirce mechanics

In the Nineties, the President of the United States introduced the use of Plain Language in all government regulations, the Great Britain Government, and other English-speaking Countries used the same approach. The new South African Constitution of 1996 is perhaps the first in the world written in scrupulous respect of the principles of Plain Language. ASD SIMPLIFIED TECHNICAL ENGLISH English became also the language of industrial and technological domains, especially aviation and military industries where the need of sharing a common code for operation, maintenance and logistics support was essential to guarantee, other than the correct understanding of the procedures, the flight safety and the human life. A standard was created to regulate technical writing: the ASD Simplified Technical English, Specification ASD-STE100 (STE) [01]. The STE project (formerly known as AECMA Simplified English) started in 1979 with a request made by the Association of European Airlines, which approached AECMA (the European Association of Aerospace Industries) to investigate a possible form of controlled English to be used by all manufacturers in their maintenance manuals. After researching several types of controlled languages that existed in other industries, AECMA decided to produce its own controlled English and, in 1983, set up a project group, under the leadership of Fokker. The project was not limited to the European industry and the American Aerospace industry, through the AIA (Aerospace Industries Association of America), was invited to participate, especially as some American companies had already done some standardization along the same lines. AECMA Simplified English was first released in 1986 as a guide. Soon, it was included as a requirement in the major international specifications for writing maintenance manuals such as ATA100 (now ATA Spec i2200) [09] and S1000D [03]. In 2004, AECMA became ASD, “The AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe” and the Simplified English guide became an official specification, ASD-STE100, with the word “technical” added to its name. Although today the STE structure is stable and consolidated, the language has to be kept in line with the technology evolution and amended on the continuous and important feedback from the users. Today, the success of STE is such that other inJournal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 244

dustries want to use it beyond its intended purpose of aviation maintenance documentation. PRINCIPLES AND STRUCTURE OF STE The STE specification provides a set of writing rules and a dictionary of controlled vocabulary. The writing rules (approximately 60) cover aspects of grammar and style; the dictionary (approximately 860 approved words) specifies the general words that can be used. These words were chosen for their simplicity and ease of recognition. In general, there is only one word for one meaning, and one part of speech for one word. The STE specification consists of two parts, namely: Part 1: Writing Rules, which specifies restrictions on grammar and style usage. For example, they require writers to: • Use the approved words in the Dictionary, and the relevant Technical Names and Technical Verbs • Use consistent language and spelling • Avoid slang and jargon • Make instructions as specific as possible • Restrict the length of noun clusters to no more than 3 words • Use articles when appropriate • Use simple verb tenses (past, present, and future) • Use active voice and not passive • Not use -ing participles or gerunds • Keep to one topic per sentence • Use vertical lists for complex texts • Keep sentence length as short as possible (20 words maximum for procedural sentences, or 25 words maximum for descriptive sentences) • Write sequential steps as separate sentences • Write only one instructions per sentence • Use the imperative (command) verb in procedures • Use paragraphs to show the reader the logic of text • Restrict paragraphs length to no more than 6 sentences • Identify and write warnings and cautions correctly • Use notes to give information and not commands • Use punctuation correctly 11


Orlando Chiarello - Simplified technical english in Mirce mechanics

• Do different constructions when it is not possible to replace an unapproved word with an approved word Part 2: Dictionary, which includes entries of both approved and unapproved words. The approved words can only be used in their specified meaning. For example, the word “close” (verb) can only be used in one of two approved meanings: 1.To move together or to move to a position that stops or prevents materials from going in or out. 2.To operate a circuit breaker to make an electrical circuit. The verb can be used to express “close a door” or “close a circuit”, but it cannot be used in other senses (for example “close the meeting” or “close a business”). The adjective “close” appears in the Dictionary as an unapproved word with the suggested approved alternative “near” (as a preposition). So STE does not allow “do not go close to the landing gear”, but it does allow “do not go near the landing gear”. Besides the specified general vocabulary, STE accepts the use of company-specific or projectoriented technical words (referred to in STE as Technical Names and Technical Verbs), if they fit into one of their categories listed in the specification. Section 1, Words, gives explicit guidelines for using technical terms and verbs that writers need. For example, nouns such as “overhead panel”, “grease”, “propeller”, or the verbs “ ream”, and “ drill” are not listed in the Dictionary, but they qualify as approved terms under the guidelines listed in Part 1, Section 1 (specifically, Writing Rules 1.5 and 1.13). STE AND TRANSLATION Helping the translation process was a primary goal of the controlled languages and STE is no exception. As said before, the Simplified English project officially started on June 30, 1983, with the “First Ratification Meeting for AECMA Simplified English”, held at Fokker, Amsterdam. This significant statement is included in the minutes of that meeting: “Simplified English should be seen as a code that uses English words for its symbols. The users of the texts learn to recognize the “code symbols” (words) that tell them what to do. The users do not learn how to speak or write English. They do not even learn “everyday” English, but only SE. But at the same time, SE must still meet the de12

mand of being an idiomatic version of English. … This “code” aspect of SE makes it very suitable for machine translation”. [02] The use of STE throughout the years indicates that translation from STE texts is not necessary in aviation if the readers have a basic knowledge of English but it may be necessary if the readers do not have that knowledge. However, outside aviation a translation could always be necessary. In this case, if the “source text” is English and correctly written in STE, the translation, especially Machine Translation, can be dramatically helped by the principle of “one word = one meaning”. The translation will be more and more accurate if the machine is “guided” to replicate in its translation the “assigned meaning” given to the STE words. This does not necessarily require subsets of STE translated in other languages but the availability of a “mirror” controlled language based on STE would greatly help the translation process. A “mirror” controlled language may use the same structure of the STE writing rules and dictionary suitably adapted to a specific language. A significant attempt was made in the past in France (Rationalized French) with exceptionally good results and enormous benefit to translation. Other attempts were made with other languages and some are in process. Having as a reference a consolidated and internationally recognized standard is very important in translation. It could be ASD-STE100 or another standard but the starting text should be correct, simple and understandable. Sometimes people are confused by the instructions. For example, they may not be able to set their TV, mobile phone or video camera, because the texts in the user’s manuals are not translated correctly into their language. These manuals are clear examples in which the starting texts – although understandable in the original starting language – can be misinterpreted by the translators and the resulting translation may lead to something incorrect or meaningless. The common “code” (i.e. the Standard) is essential to the effective translation and communication in general. STE AUTHORING TOOLS The primary objective of STE is the creation of simplified texts for the readers. However, STE is not a simplified version of English for the writers. Writing correctly in STE is not an easy task as it requires a good command of the English language together with a good knowledge of the Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 244


Orlando Chiarello - Simplified technical english in Mirce mechanics

matter of the writing. This combination is without a doubt the key to writing successfully in STE. Authors who would like to write proficiently and correctly in STE must have as the only point of reference the STE specification itself. There is nothing that can replace it. The use of manipulated versions of the STE specification, partial use of the specification or deviations from its writing rules and vocabulary will diminish the accuracy of STE and create confusion among its users. To assist users and potential users of STE, there are on the market software products that support STE. The basic question is: “Do we need a software product to write in STE correctly?” Well, the answer is “no” simply because software does not think in place of authors and does not replace the STE specification. STE checkers should only be seen as aids for those authors having a good knowledge of STE. None of these checkers write STE text for authors, nor can they convert non-STE text into STE. Although STE checkers can be helpful with highlighting non-STE terms and incorrectly written STE text, they are not fool-proof. We have cases in which STE checkers parse STE texts correctly (no errors flagged) even if these texts do not obey the Standard English Grammar! Authoring tools must be used with discernment and if authors rely blindly on what checkers tell them, they are likely to write rubbish. The authors are the ones who know, think and control. Only the authors are the ones who must decide whether what a tool has told them is correct or not. TRAINING PROGRAMME IN STE AT THE MIRCE AKADEMY Effective maintenance communication is very important and sharing a common “code” is essential. In the present global and complex scenario, Standards are playing a key role for the purpose. In the same way that XML regulates the formatting of texts for electronic release, there is strong need to regulate the writing itself. The controlled languages, as internationally recognized standards, can serve the scope in certain instances. The use of controlled languages in writing and translation does not diminish the everyday languages but makes the messages and texts easily understandable to everyone. The misconception about controlled languages, reluctance and resistance to use them are often derived by the fact that it is thought they could limit the authors. In reality, nobody will try to translate poems or Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 244

literature books into STE or similar, and it is necessary to keep literature material well separated from general communication and technical domains. Plain Language, Plain English, Simplified Technical English etc. should be seen as vehicles and tools for improving clarity and hit the target of effective communication. Without standards, there will be a serious risk of an uncontrolled “jungle”. Consequently, in collaboration with Secondo Mona, the MIRCE Akademy offers the opportunity for learning the needs for and principles of effective technical communication in general and its in-depth applications to maintenance. It is based on the philosophy and methods of ASD-STE100, which is created to prevent the misunderstanding of technical instructions that can lead to errors and accidents. An example of a 30-hour training course in STE offered by the Akademy is given in the Appendix. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of maintenance tasks required during the in-service life of technical systems, preformed under the auspices of Mirce Mechanics, clearly showed that ineffective communication between system designers and maintenance personnel, through maintenance documentation, is wellrecognised contributor to the occurrence of faulty maintenance task, which in turn could have a significant impact on reliability, availability, safety, cost and effectiveness of technical systems. Although, English is the language of industrial and technological domains, especially aviation and military industries, where the need of sharing a common code for operation, maintenance and logistics support is accepted, for 80% of global population it is not native language. Many of them have knowledge of English that is rather limited and are easily confused by complex sentence structures and by the number of meanings and synonyms that English words may have. Significant improvements in the direction of effective technical communication have been achieved by the creation of controlled languages, and a standard that regulates technical writing: the ASD Simplified Technical English, ASDSTE100 (STE). STE, as described in this paper and as a consolidated international standard, can be seen as the gate to successful and effective technical communication. As previously remarked, today the success of STE is such that other industries want to use it beyond its intend 13


Orlando Chiarello - Simplified technical english in Mirce mechanics

ed purpose of aviation maintenance documentation. STE interest is also growing within the Academic world. For its principles and accuracy it is a model-writing standard for other domains and industries like medical, oil, high-tech, IT, automotive, and many others. A recent study on STE shows that only 3% of the current content is specific to aviation, the remaining 97% is applicable in all contexts, without any need of adaptation. The same study shows that, during the writing process, authors tend to focus mainly on the Dictionary and not on the Writing Rules, which are equally important. Simply giving authors a copy of the STE specification is probably the best way to discourage them from learning about STE, and applying it correctly. It is important for authors to fully understand the STE writing rules, and to think about what they are writing. Therefore, STE training is the first essential step for a technical author to be able to apply STE correctly. The STE training programme for technical writers, conducted at the MIRCE Akademy, has been briefly discussed and presented. REFERENCES 1) ASD – Aerospace and Defence Industries Associations of Europe – “ASD Simplified Technical English, Specification ASD-STE100”, 1986 - 2013. 2) ASD - Aerospace and Defence Industries Associations of Europe – “First Ratification Meeting for AECMA Simplified English”, 1983 – 2013. 3) ASD – Aerospace and Defence Industries Associations of Europe – “S1000D – International specification for technical publications utilizing a common source database”, 1989 - 2009 4) ATA, Air Transport Association of America – “ATA iSpec 2200, Information Standards for Aviation Maintenance”, 1956 and subsequent dates of revisions and issues 5) Charles A. Verbeke, “Caterpillar Fundamental English”, Training and Development Journal, 27, 2, 36-40, Feb 1973. 6) Charles K. Ogden, “BASIC English – A general introduction with rules and grammar”, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., 1930 and subsequent editions. 7) Chiarello, O., “Impact of Accuracy of Technical Communication on the Motion of Functionability”, Proceedings of the 1st World Congress of Mirce Mechanics, 28-30 May 2012, Exeter, UK 8) Knezevic, J. (2012): Time to Choose Between Scientific and Administrative Approach to Reli14

ability, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol.10, No. 3, pp. 167-173 9) Knezevic, J., “Quality of Maintenance – Mirce Mechanics axiom”, Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, Vol. 18, No 2, 2012, pp 216-226, Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. UK 10) Werfelman, L. “Simplifying the Technicalities”, Flight Safety Foundation, AeroSafety World, August 2007. Paper sent to revison: 05.02.2013. Paper ready for publication: 05.03.2013. Appendix: Training Course in Effective Maintenance Communication The Program Day one: Operational Reliability, Cost Effectiveness of Technical Systems, Mirce Mechanics Principles Maintenance induced failures, types and categories Impact of Maintenance Communication on Inservice Reliability, Cost and Effectiveness Introduction to ASD-STE100 • What is Simplified Technical English? • Why do we need a controlled language? Other controlled languages • History, background and philosophy of STE • Who uses STE? Is it only for aviation and maintenance? • The ASD-STE100 Specification: Part 1 Writing Rules • How to use the Dictionary • Overall overview of the Writing Rules • Detailed tutorial of the Writing Rules • Section 1 - Words • Section 2 - Noun Phrases Day two: Writing Rules • Section 3 - Verbs • Section 4 - Sentences • Section 5 - Procedures • Section 6 - Descriptive Writing • Section 7 - Warnings, Cautions and Notes • Section 8 - Punctuation and Word Count • Section 9 - Writing Practices • Practical exercises are given after the tutorial of each section Day Three Final review of the Specification Practical texts (also proposed by the participants) Final Test and its correction Question time, final discussion and course assessment Certificate Award Ceremony Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 244


doi:10.5937/jaes11-3489

Paper number: 11(2013)1, 245, 15 - 22

EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SERBIA – SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Bojana Jovanović* Iritel a.d. Belgrade, Serbia Dr Vojislav Božanić University of Belgrade, Faculty of organizational science, Belgrade, Serbia Bojan Jovanović University of Belgrade, Faculty of electrical engineering, Belgrade, Serbia In the Balkan region and in the territory of the Republic of Serbia, the energy consumption in relation to gross domestic product is huge. The Republic of Serbia consumes two to three times more energy than the gross domestic product, compared with the average in the European Union. At the beginning of 2013, on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, will be announced the Law on rational use of energy, which is currently in draft form. Adoption of the Law is a step in Serbia’s accession to the EU, because the Law will basically have taken a European directive on energy efficiency. In order to determine the extent to which the concept of energy efficiency is presented in the formal and informal education, as well as knowledge of this area in general, the survey was done. This paper describes a results of survey that was done with the aim of gaining information about education in the field of energy efficiency in formal and informal education systems in Serbia, as well as how much are the citizens familiar with the term. This paper shows the questionnaire which was distributed to the respondents. For easily and quickly collecting the necessary data, it was used the on-line questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed as a web application. The survey was conducted on a sample of 200 respondents, from September to December 2012. After the structure of the respondents, the results of research and analysis are presented in this paper, with one proposed research in future. Key words: Energy efficiency, Education, Survey INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW In improvement of energy efficiency, education of people plays the most important role. Topic of energy efficiency in extremely increasing: in 2010 there are 41,833 papers about energy efficiency, in 2011 51,427 papers, in 2012 59,029 papers, 24,780 papers accepted for publication and publicated paper in 2013 and one paper accepted for publication i 2014 [10]. There are some papers which deal with specific fields of energy efficiency. Santos, Faga & Santos (2013) discussed the impact of different approaches through a case study on the regulations of energy efficiency for buildings in four countries: Brazil, China, India and Russia [16]. Gunn (1997) analyzed the interactions between the concepts of energy efficiency and economic efficiency [07]. Momčilović, Medar, Manojlović & Papić (2003) analyzed energy efficiency as one * Iritel a.d., Batajnički put 23, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia; bojana.jovanovic.123@gmail.com

element in development of information system in transportation company [15]. Mandal (2010) estimated energy use efficiency in the presence of energy related undesirable emission by taking Indian cement industry as a suitable context of analysis [14]. Griffin, Hammond, Ng & Norman (2012) presented a bottom-up/top-down data analysis to examine the influence of the scheme on the overall energy demand trend of the UK industrial sector as separated from structural and output effects [06]. Fleiter, Fehrenbach, Worrell & Eichhammer (2012) analyzed improvements in energy efficiency in the German pulp and paper industry up to 2035 using a techno-economic approach [05]. Cagno, Worrell, Trianni & Pigliese (2013) provided a novel approach for barriers to the adoption of industrial energy-efficient technologies [03]. Al-Mansour (2011) analysed the structure, trends of energy consumption and energy efficiency indicators by sectors of economic 15


Bojana JovanoviÄ&#x2021; - Education in the field of energy efficiency in Serbia-survey results and analysis

activity in Slovenia [01]. Lopes, Antunes & Martins (2012) presented a review on energy behaviours in order to recognise recent trends, quantify energy behaviours potential savings, characterise energy behaviour modelling strategies and identify potential research gaps. Energy behaviours have a crucial role in promoting energy efficiency, but energy behaviours characteristics and complexity create several research challenges that must be overcome so energy behaviours may be properly valorised and integrated in the energy policy context [13]. Backlund, Thollander, Palm & Ottsson (2012) introduced an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector [02]. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU. There is one study about relationship of energy efficiency and human behavior and education. Sola & Xavier (2007) presented a study accomplished in the State of Parana in Southern Brazil, aiming at verifying the correlation between organizational human factors and the level of energy losses in organizations. They determined that management system, education of employees and strategical vision has an important influence on energy efficiency [17]. PROBLEM OVERVIEW The importance of energy for the development of economy and society contribute to energy policy development in each country [04]. In the Balkan region and in the territory of the Repub-

lic of Serbia, the energy consumption in relation to gross domestic product is huge. The Republic of Serbia consumes two to three times more energy than the gross domestic product, compared with the average in the European Union [09]. In addition to the lack of funds for investment in energy-efficient equipment and technology, a special challenge is the lack of awareness of citizens and companies about the benefits of investing in energy efficiency. As for most of the socio-economic problems, education is a maner for achieving the improvement, both in formal educational institutions (primary and secondary schools, universities) and through non-formal education, which is very important. In order to determine the extent to which the concept of energy efficiency is presented in the formal and non-formal education, as well as knowledge of this area in general, the survey was done. The survey was conducted on a sample of 200 respondents of different gender, education level, place of residence, etc. The survey was conducted from September to December 2012. This paper presents the results and analysis of the survey. CREATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF QUESTIONNAIRE For easily and quickly collecting the necessary data, it was used the on-line questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed with the help of free on-line application, written by one of the authors [08]. Part of the questionnaire, which was distributed to participants in the survey, has the following format (print screen):

Figure 1 and 2: Part the questionnaire and statistics of answers

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Bojana Jovanović - Education in the field of energy efficiency in Serbia-survey results and analysis

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 1) Gender of respondents The gender structure of the respondents is showed in this part of the analysis of the results. The sample was representative in terms of gender of respondents, because the overall structure represented 58% of female and 42% male respondents. The following graphic shows the structure of the respondents.

their residence. The aim was to include respondents with different territories, because not all of the territory of Serbia has the same access to information and education in the field of energy efficiency. As can be seen in the structure of respondents, the respondents have a place of residence in different territories (cities) in Serbia, and then the sample is representative. The following graphic shows the territorial distribution of the respondents.

Figure 5: Structure of respondents – territory of residence Figure 3: Structure of respondents - gender

2) Level of education The structure of the respondents, according to the level of their education, is shown in this part of the analysis of the results. The survey included respondents with primary schools, high schools, colleges and university graduates (BSc, MSc, PhD). In relation to the level of education of the respondents, it can be concluded that the research involved different groups of respondents, according to the level of education. Thus, the sample of respondents is representative from this point of view. The following graphic shows the structure of respondents by education level.

Figure 4: Structure of respondents – level of education

3) Territory of residence This part of the analysis of the results shows the structure of the respondents to the territory of Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 245

4) Knowing the meaning of the term “energy efficiency” According to standard ISO 50001 [11], which provides the requirements for energy management systems, energy efficiency is defined as the ratio of quantitative or quantitative relation between output performance, service, goods or energy, and the energy input. When respondents were asked if they know the meaning of the term “energy efficiency”, the majority of respondents (127 respondents) answered that fully knows the meaning of the term “energy efficiency”, 68 respondents said that heard for the term but did not know what it means, and only 5 respondents have never heard for term “energy efficiency”.

Figure 6: Knowing the meaning of the term “energy efficiency”

5) The presence of energy efficiency as a topic within formal education (primary school, secondary school, college, faculty) Formal education systems are extremely impor17


Bojana Jovanović - Education in the field of energy efficiency in Serbia-survey results and analysis

tant in the development of people’s awareness on rational use of energy and conservation of the environment in general. Respondents were asked if they had a subject about energy efficiency in formal education. Most respondents have never had subject about energy efficiency in formal education (158 respondents), and only 42 respondents said that during a formal education encountered on the concept of energy efficiency. It was not analyzed how this concept thoroughly addressed in these subjects. The following graphic shows a graphical analysis of received responses.

Figure 7: Presence of energy efficiency as a topic within formal education

The survey led to the data about schools/faculties in Serbia which have subjects related to energy efficiency. We hope that this list is not definitive, and certainly there are some educational institutions that deal, dealt with or have plans about these subjects: • Social responsibility (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade) • Sustainable development (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade) • Environmental management (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade) • Environmental management systems (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade) • Technology and development (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade) • Ecology (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade) • The management of natural and cultural resources (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Tourism, Belgrade) • Geography (Valjevo Gymnasium, Valjevo) • Town sociology (Faculty of Arts, Belgrade) • Power electronics (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade)

18

• Transformers (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade) • Power system analysis (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade) • Power (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade) • Technical education (Elementary School) • Ecology (Elementary School) • Heating and air conditioning (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade) • Energy processes and environment (Faculty of Occupational Safety, Niš) • Utility systems and environment (Faculty of Occupational Safety, Niš) • Sustainable development (Faculty of Occupational Safety, Niš) • Industrial ecology (Faculty of Occupational Safety, Niš) • Thermal power  processes (Faculty of Occupational Safety, Niš) • Energy (Faculty of Occupational Safety, Niš). 6) Frequency of meetings visits, forums visits, conferences visits, etc. (informal education) with the subject of energy efficiency Informal education systems also have an important role in developing and maintaining awareness of the rational use of energy. This type of education is often focused on the population of a higher level of education. Respondents were asked if they have ever visited meetings, seminars, conferences, forums, etc. with the subject of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The majority of respondents (141) said they have never visited seminars like this, 30 respondents were on one conference with this subject, 26 respondents were several times, and only 3 respondents regularly visit these conferences. Graphical analysis of the results is shown below.

Figure 8: Frequency of meetings visits, forums visits, conferences visits, etc. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 245


Bojana JovanoviÄ&#x2021; - Education in the field of energy efficiency in Serbia-survey results and analysis

7) Familiarity with the legislation and standardization in the field of energy efficiency (the Law on the rational use of energy, energy passports for buildings, standard ISO 50001, etc.) Innovation in terms of legislation in this field, which is expected in the Republic of Serbia is a publication of the Law on the rational use of energy [12], and translated version of the International Standard ISO 50001. With the publication of the Regulations concerning energy efficiency in buildings, almost every building is subject to these rules. The obligation to obtain energy passports for building affects both companies and private households. Energy labeling class of electronic devices will also be a liability for manufacturers. For all these reasons it is important to be familiar with the legislation promptly, enabling the timely and appropriate application. Law on the rational use of energy in Serbia is in the draft form. Its publication is expected in early 2013. The Law would be obligatory for all large energy consumers, energy producers and all public and state enterprises and organizations. Organizations will have obligation to establish and maintain an energy management system, to monitor consumption and reported to the authorities. The Law also sets out the requirements for class of energy labeling of electronic devices. Standard ISO 50001 provides requirements for establishing, implementing and maintaining the energy management system. Question posed to respondents was if they have ever heard about the new legislation and standards in the field of energy efficiency (energy passports for buildings, the Law on rational energy use, standard ISO 50001, etc.) and are they familiar with the requirements of these documents. 96 respondents said they had heard but did not understand the requirements of these documents, 79 of respondents have not heard for these documents, and 25 respondents were fully aware of the requirements. Graphical analysis of the results is shown below.

Figure 9: Familiarity with the legislation and standards in the field of energy efficiency Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 245

8) Familiarity with various sources of renewable energy Application of renewable energy and the use of cleaner energy instead of traditional fossil fuels, significantly reduced the environmental pollution. There are different sources of renewable energy. Whether they are more or less available, more or less used, they are very important, because they enable the preservation of natural resources. In contrast to the limited natural resources, renewable energy sources are unlimited and available to everyone. Some of the most important and widely used renewable energy sources are: solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, fuel cells and biomass. Solar energy is the energy of solar radiation in the form of light and heat. Wind energy is the energy that comes from wind power. Hydropower is the power received from the generation from the water. The term geothermal energy refers to the use of heat inside of the Earth, which is at the center approximately 4000-7000°C, which is approximately the temperature of the Sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface. Biomass refers to matter plant or animal origin, which can be used as fuel or for industrial production. Fuel cells are electrochemical cells that generate electricity from the energy released by chemical reaction of fuel continually leads with oxidizing agents. Using the questionnaire, the authors wanted to determine awareness of respondents about the existence of various forms of renewable energy. In the analysis it was not determined the level of familiarity with some of the renewable energy sources. The survey only included analysis of are respondents heard about the renewable energy sources that are listed in the questionnaire. The question was: Which forms of renewable energy are you familiar with? The largest number of respondents (197) had heard for solar energy, 194 respondents for wind energy, 161 respondents for water energy, 134 for geothermal energy, 99 for biomass, and only 57 respondents had heard for fuel cell. Graphical analysis of the results is shown below.

Figure 10: Familiarity with various sources of renewable energy

19


Bojana JovanoviÄ&#x2021; - Education in the field of energy efficiency in Serbia-survey results and analysis

9) Respondents opinion about factors which the most effect on energy efficiency In this section of paper, it was determined what the respondents think about which factor has the biggest impact on energy efficiency. The question was: In your opinion, which of the following factors have the biggest impact on energy efficiency? 74 respondents said that the most affects technologies and technical solutions, 67 of the respondents said habits of the people, 287 respondents financial incentives, 26 respondents regulations and standards, and only 6 respondents considered that the design of work processes significantly affect on energy efficiency. Answers are presented in the following graphic.

Figure 11: Factors which effect on energy efficiency

10) Familiarity with funds to encourage and assist in the implementation of projects in the field of energy efficiency Funds for the encouragement and assistance in the implementation of projects in the field of energy efficiency have been established both at the state level, and in the level of individual companies and NGOs. According to the draft form of Law on rational use of energy, will be formed an Energy Efficiency Fund, which will fund projects that promote energy efficiency. Also, there are funds in the Ministry of natural resources, mining and spatial planning, which is funding projects that improve energy efficiency, although these funds are generally intended for public companies. Within the commercial banks, there are also credit lines to finance energy efficiency projects. For this credit line, basic requirement is to achieve energy efficiency improvements of at least 20%. Question for respondents was: Do you know that there are funds to finance projects in energy efficiency? 107 respondents said they are not familiar with the existence of funds, and 93 that are familiar. The answers are presented graphically.

Figure 12: Familiarity with funds to encourage implementation of energy efficiency projects

11) Opinion of respondents about areas in which may be the significant improvements in energy efficiency The question for respondents was: In what areas would you believe that there may have been significant improvements in energy efficiency? 99 respondents think that the main area of improving is energy production, 77 of respondents believe that is the energy consumption in households, 16 respondents believe that energy efficiency can be improved significantly in transport, and only 8 respondents considered that the improvement in construction and buildings can be significant (although adopted a â&#x20AC;&#x153;packageâ&#x20AC;? of legislation in the field of energy efficiency in the construction industry). The answers are presented graphically.

Figure 13: Areas with the significant potential for improvement in energy efficiency

It was investigated how the level of education of the respondents effect visiting conferences, forums and seminars about energy efficiency. How often such events were visited by respondents with high school, college and faculty, is shown below. The results are presented in Figures 14-17.

Figure 14: How often respondents with high school visit conferences, seminars and forums about energy efficiency

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Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 245


Bojana Jovanović - Education in the field of energy efficiency in Serbia-survey results and analysis

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH

Figure 15: How often respondents with faculty degree visit conferences, seminars and forums about energy efficiency

Figure 16: How often respondents with Master degree visit conferences, seminars and forums about energy efficiency

Figure 17: How often respondents with PhD degree visit conferences, seminars and forums about energy efficiency

It has been also investigated how much of respondents which visited conferences on energy efficiency understand the meaning of the term “energy efficiency”. The obtained results show that the majority of respondents in this group understand the concept of energy efficiency, however there are respondents which visit conferences, but this term is still not clear for them. The results are shown in Figure 18.

Figure 18: How much respondents which visit conferences, seminars and forums understand meaning of term of “energy efficiency” Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 245

Based on collected data in survey, as presented in this paper, the following conclusions were made: • The majority of respondents were familiar with the concept of energy efficiency, but there is still a large number of respondents who had heard of energy efficiency (probably due to the frequent campaigns on television and in the paper), but do not know what the term means; • Energy efficiency is an important concept in many areas of human activity (tourism, construction, energy, etc.), but it is not sufficiently represented in the formal education system in the Republic of Serbia; • In addition to the above, respondents poorly visit meetings with subject of energy efficiency, though in Serbia has a large number and most of them are free; • The majority of respondents do not know or only superficially are familiar with the new regulations and standards in the field of energy efficiency, which will cover almost every area of work and even everyday life; • A large number of respondents were aware of the existence of various forms of renewable energy sources; • The majority of respondents believe that the investment in technology and the changing habits of people may significantly affect the energy efficiency in the territory of the Republic of Serbia; • Most of respondents were not aware of the existence of funds that are financing projects for improvements in energy efficiency; • The majority of respondents considered that improvements in production and consumption areas can result in significant improvements in energy efficiency in the future; • With the higher education level of the respondents, grows interest in visiting conferences on energy efficiency; • With increasing visits to conferences in the field of energy efficiency, grows the level of understanding of the term “energy efficiency” by respondents. In future research we will conduct survey on a controlled group respondents, which will be sent


Bojana Jovanović - Education in the field of energy efficiency in Serbia-survey results and analysis

to the appropriate training in the field of energy efficiency and we will monitor the effect of training. Also, the idea of this paper is to use conclusions in order to create a new subject in faculty, dealing with energy efficiency. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This paper is part of a project supported by the Republic of Serbia Ministry of education, science and technological development, under the number III 43008. REFERENCES 1) Al-Mansour, F., (2011) Energy efficiency trends and policy in Slovenia, Energy, Volume 36, Issue 4, April 2011, Pages 1868– 1877 2) Backlund, S., Thollandera, P., Palm, J., Ottosson, M., (2012) Extending the energy efficiency gap, Energy Policy, Volume 51, December 2012, Pages 392–396 3) Cagno, E., Worrell, E., Triannia, A., Pugliesea, G., (2013) A novel approach for barriers to industrial energy efficiency, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 19, March 2013, Pages 290–308 4) Đajić, N. (2003): Energetika - preduslov održivog razvoja privrede i društva naše zemlje, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 7-14 5) Fleiter, T., Fehrenbach, D., Worrell, E., Eichhammera, W., (2012) Energy efficiency in the German pulp and paper industry – A modelbased assessment of saving potentials, Energy, Volume 40, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 84–99 6) Griffin, P.W., Hammond, G.P., Ng, K.R., Norman, J.B., (2012) Impact review of past UK public industrial energy efficiency RD&D programmes, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 60, August 2012, Pages 243–250 7) Gunn, C., (1997) Energy efficiency vs economic efficiency?: New Zealand electricity sector reform in the context of the national energy policy objective, Energy Policy, Volume 25, Issue 2, February 1997, Pages 241–254

8) http://ankete.izrada-web-sajtova-beograd. com/, downloaded 15.01. 2013. 9) http://www.euractiv.rs, Euractiv Srbija, downloaded 19.11. 2012. 10) http://www.sciencedirect.com, downloaded 02.03. 2013. 11) ISO 50001:2011 Energy management systems — Requirements with guidance for use, International Organization for Standardization, 2011. 12) Law on rational use of energy, draft, Republic of Serbia 13) Lopes, M.A.R., Antunes, C.H., Martins, N., (2012) Energy behaviours as promoters of energy efficiency: A 21st century review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 16, Issue 6, August 2012, Pages 4095–4104 14) Mandal, S.K., (2010) Do undesirable output and environmental regulation matter in energy efficiency analysis? Evidence from Indian Cement Industry, Energy Policy, Volume 38, Issue 10, October 2010, Pages 6076–6083 15) Momčilović, V., Medar, O., Manojlović, A. ,Papić, V. (2003): Povećanje energetske efikasnosti kao element razvoja informacionog sistema transportnog preduzeća, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 35-43 16) Santos, A.H.C., Fagá, M.T.W., Santos, E.M., (2013) The risks of an energy efficiency policy for buildings based solely on the consumption evaluation of final energy, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Volume 44, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 70–77 17) Sola, V.H., Xavier, A.A.P., (2007) Organizational human factors as barriers to energy efficiency in electrical motors systems in industry, Energy Policy, Volume 35, Issue 11, November 2007, Pages 5784–5794 Paper sent to revison: 03.03.2013. Paper ready for publication: 12.03.2013.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 245


doi:10.5937/jaes11-3270

Paper number: 11(2013)1, 246, 23 - 30

A CONTRIBUTION TO RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF DEGRADATION OF VEHICLE VIBRATION PARAMETERS ON THERMAL LOAD OF SHOCK ABSORBERS Dr Miroslav Demić* University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kragujevac, Serbia Dr Đorđe Diligenski University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Dept. of IC Engines and Vehicles, Belgrade, Serbia Dr Milan Milovanović Zastava Vehicles Group, Kragujevac, Serbia Dynamic simulation, based on modelling, has a significant role during to the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant parameters are to be defined. In practice, it is commonly assumed that vehicle vibration parameters are invariable, what is basically not true. Many investigations have shown that vibration parameters degrade in service conditions, what consquently leads to the variation of dynamic characteristics of a vehicle. This paper attempts to indicate, on the basis of the preliminary results, a need to introduce these variations, caused by the thermal impact, in the early stages of vehicle design through the adequate vehicle modelling. Key words: Vehicle, Vibration parameters, Degradation, Vibration comfort, Thermal load of shock absorbers

INTRODUCTION Shock absorbers are an integral part of the elastic suspension system, which directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of damping in addition to the basic, is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the ground and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. As it is known, in shock absorbers the kinetic energy of the system transforms into mechanical work or heat [17, 18, 20 ,26-28]. In practice, in the stage of vehicle development, shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping of vehicle vibrations, but in order to avoid the negative impact on the function, thermal loads should be taken into consideration [26, 28, 30]. The goal is to get as much mechanical work received from the ground into thermal energy to be transferred to the environment and thus provide the cooling of shock absorbers. Wrong choice of shock absorbers, from the standpoint of thermal loads, can cause a rapid degradation of its properties during service. Too much heat, eventually kept “inside” the shock absorber,

would cause rapid deterioration of sealing elements and consequently the loss of function of the damping element. Tests have shown that mechanical work is partly converted into heat which is transferred to the working fluid and shock absorbers body, and the remaining amount of heat delivery is transferred to the environment and thus cools the absorber. Mathematically, it can be displayed by the formula [26, 30]: (1) where: • A - mechanical work (equal to the quantity of heat), • Qt - quantity of heat transferred to the shock absorbers body, • Qf - quantity of heat transferred to the working fluid, and • Qo - quantity of heat transferred to the environment.

* University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering Science, Sestre Janjić 6, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia; demic@kg.ac.rs

23


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of degradation of vehicle vibration parameters on thermal load of shock absorbers

The work of the force in the shock absorber is interesting because of the analysis of its transformation into heat energy. The force work in the shock absorber is experimentally measurable, but it is hard to measure the amount of heat released from the absorber [26]. This phenomenon is complex and difficult to measure, because it is known that a part of the energy is spent to heat shock absorbers elements, such as piston, cylinder, working fluid, etc. In addition, the nature of heat transfer from the shock absorber to the environment is very complex. Heat transfer is carried out by convection, as dominant, and less by conduction and radiation [26, 28]. From the point of maximal cooling, proper selection of shock absorbers requires a comprehensive analysis of the transformation of mechanical energy into heat. Method of transformation of mechanical energy into heat is largely determined by the shock absorbers design. It is not possible to influence directly on the conduction of heat and radiation from the absorber. It is necessary to increase the influence of the heat transfer by convection from the absorber to the surrounding environment, as dominant appearance. This is best achieved by design of the vehicle body (fender). The idea is to utilize convection flow of the air around the absorber, with the least complexity of the structure. In practice, this solution is rarely used, but can certainly be applied. Making some kind of air deflectors on the elements of the body should increase the effect of convective heat transfer to the environment. Note that the objective of this study was not to analyze the cooling of the shock absorber, but only thermal load to which it is exposed. Therefore, it was deemed expedient to analyze the heat which is obtained by converting mechanical work into heat energy per time unit. Mechanical work was calculated by use of mechanical model of the vehicle, which will be discussed below. In addition, it is known that in service condition, vehicle vibration parameters vary with vehicle aging [16], including shock absorbers, and therefore it was deemed appropriate to investigate whether and how much influence of degradation of shock absorber parameters does on its thermal load. VEHICLE MODEL As mentioned above, kinetic energy due to motion of shock absorber elements is transformed into mechanical work, which is further converted into thermal energy by the mutual friction of mov24

ing elements of the shock absorber and oil flow through the corresponding holes is [28]. This process will, in this paper, be explained by use of vehicle vibration model. Vehicle vibration model The structure of the vehicle model is selected depending on values to be analyzed [7-13, 1618, 20, 33]. Consequently, in practice, vibration models using different structure and complexity are utilized. In fact, the choice of model should tend to a solution as simple as possible, but to enable simulation of the desired value [7-13, 16]. Bearing in mind that the aim of this study was to emphasize a need to involve vibration parameters degradation in the model, which will allow the study of shock absorber heat loads, it was found useful to observe vehicle vibration model, which is often, in the literature, called the quarter model [7-13, 16-18, 20, 33], shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Equivalent vehicle vibration model

• m1, m2 – unsprung and sprung mass of a quarter model, respectively (in this case 27.5 and 250 kg), • Fs - force in the shock absorber, and • Ft – force in the tire. The force of the spring can be presented by the third-degree polynomial [7, 9-13, 17-21, 28, 31]: (2) Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 246


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of degradation of vehicle vibration parameters on thermal load of shock absorbers

where: • c1 and c2 – stiffness parameters, and • - relative deformation of the spring. The force in shock absorber depends not only on the relative velocity, but also on the relative displacements and relative acceleration [02, 13]. Analyses showed that the model defined in [02, 13], which includes transcendental functions of acceleration, can be very difficult to use in the modeling of vehicles with more than one degree of freedom. This follows from the fact that the acceleration of the tangent function included tangent hyperbolicus, so in this case problems occur with decoupling differential equations of motion for models with two or more degrees of freedom. In addition, it was shown that the acceleration is of minor influence on the force then the relative displacement and velocity, and therefore for further analysis model [02, 13] is applied, where force is described by the expression:

(3) where: i – relative displacement and • velocity, respectively, and • k1, k2,3, k4, k5 and k6 – parameters of shock absorber model. Radial force in the tire is also nonlinear [07-13, 16, 17-20, 28, 31/, and the following expression is used: (4) where: • - radial deformation of tire, and • c3, c4 and c5 - parameters of tire radial stiffness. It was estimated to be appropriate for the aim of this study to explore the impact of vehicle speed on the amount of heat energy that is obtained from mechanical work. Therefore, two vehicle speeds were introduced, 10 and 35 m/s. It is noted that the objective of this study was not to analyze the way of heat dissipation from the shock absorber, because it is not possible without a complicated experimental procedures, but the analysis of the sources of heat in the shock Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 246

absorber. Analysis was carried out for the case of a vehicle with two passengers, for the motion on a good asphalt road, whose excitation function in time domain is shown in Figure 2 /7/. Specifically, as the excitation a poliharmonial function is used, because the analyses have shown that it is a good approximation for the actual road microprofile [09-12]. Given the observed vibration model of the vehicle, using Newton’s law [19, 20, 22, 33], the differential equation of the vehicle vibration motion is dispalyed in the following form: .. (5) (6) where: .. • , - acceleration of unsprung and sprung mass, measured from the equilibrium position, respectively, • Fs – force in spring given by expression (2), • Fsh – force in shock absorber given by expression (3), and • Ft – radial force in tire given by expression (4). Given the highly nonlinear and complex structure of the expressions [02, 03, 04], even in case of such a simple vehicle model, as well as quasistochastic character of excitation functions, it is obvious that the model described in equations (5, 6) is complex and cannot be solved in final form. Analyses showed that the argument of tangent hyperbolicus function in expression (3) – motion divided by triple variation - lies in the field of -1.8 to +1.8 (determined from experimental data [02, 13]). Note that the argument of the observed function mostly belongs to the range -1 to 1, and the relative error of approximation of the mentioned function by the MacLaurin polynomial of the third degree is about 9% [02, 13], which can be accepted for practical reasons. During the simulation, parameters of the vehicle “Zastava 1100” were used, obtained from the manufacturer [33], and given in Table 1. Table 1: The model parameters c1

c2

c3

c4

c5

50000

10000

5000

500000

500000

k1

k2

k3 / k4

k5

k6

20.25

-9.51

0.008/0.02

-2.091

0.0015

25


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of degradation of vehicle vibration parameters on thermal load of shock absorbers

It should be noted that the dimensions of the coefficients in Table 1 are in SI unit system. Thermal load of shock absorber Due to the relative motion of the sprung and unsprung masses, mechanical work is being done in shock absorbers, which is equivalent to the amount of heat Q [06, 21-24, 27, 29, 32]. Mechanical work (amount of heat) is defined by the expression [28]:

(7) where: • Fsh - force in the shock absorber, • sr –relative displacement of the piston relative to the shock absoprber’s body, • vr - relative speed of the piston relative to the shock absoprber’s body, and • t - time. Power required to excite relative motion of the piston relative to the shock absorbers body is given by:

METHOD Based on the expressions (1-10), the required parameters of shock absorbers elements are calculated, mechanical work and equivalent heat energy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of degradation of vibratory parameters, due to their aging in service, on the thermal loading of shock absorber. It was therefore necessary to learn how these changes occur in practice. In the absence of other data, Figure 2 shows the variation of characteristic vibratory parameters of the vehicle with the aging, expressed in kilometers passed [16]. From the Figure 2 it is obvious that the parameters of elasto-damping elements vary during service time. More precisely, their values decrease, and due to the lack of detailed data, it is assumed that the parameter values linearly decrease with the vehicle aging, expressed in kilometers. Data from Figure 2 allow the analysis of the impact of variation of vibration parameters on the variation of dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, i.e. thermal loads of the shock absorber.

(8) As it is well known [06, 21-24, 27, 29, 32], this force is identical to the heat flow (flux) of heat transfer by convection, and its mean value is: (9) Distribution of most of the amount of heat to the surrounding air is carried out by convection [26, 28, 32]. Formal expression is [06, 21-24, 27, 29, 32]: (10) where: α – heat transfer coefficient S – area that heat is taken from, and Δt - temperature difference between the ambient and external surface of shock absorber. As already noted, this analysis did not involve the heat dissipation from the shock absorber, because values α and S are not known. It is obvious that a very extensive experimental studies are needed to determine these values, what will certainly be the subject of special attention in the future.

Figure 2: Variation of vibration parameters in vehicle service time

For the analysis of the impact of variation of dynamic characteristics of the vehicle caused by the variation of the parameters of elastic-damping elements, due to the aging in exploitation, two groups of parameters were introduced, with corresponding factors that take into account these variations. More precisely, bearing in mind Figure 2, after a straight line approximation, any variation is defined by the equation: (11)

26

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 246


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of degradation of vehicle vibration parameters on thermal load of shock absorbers

where: • - value of vibration parameter after mileage of kilometers, • - value of vibration parameter at the beginning of vehicle service, and • - factor taking into account degradation of vibration parameters during the vehicle service. In order to take into account the impact of aging on dynamic characteristics of vehicles in service, based on the data in Figure 2, the corrective parameters are adopted and given in Table 2. In doing so, it is noted that factor relates to the springs, to the shock absorbers, and to the tires, and two groups of factors: the beginning of the operation are observed: at the beginning of service (group 1) and after 200.000 kilometers (group 2). On the basis of [03-05], statistical error values of signal processing are calculated, and for the illustration only data on errors of spectra calculations are given, because they are calculated using signal averaging. Based on the signal length of 1024 points, time increment of 0.01, number of averagings 256, the following values were obtained: “bias” error - 0.003, random error of one signal 0.10 and 0.118 for two crossed signals. Such small values for the errors show that these results enable reliable analysis.

DATA ANALYSIS Since a detailed analysis of the impact of variation of vibration parameters on the vehicle vibration system has been reported in [07-13,1618,28,31], it is considered appropriate to show, in Figure 3, time series of vibration motion of characteristic vehicle masses, while moving over rough road at speed of 10 m/s, in case of new elements of suspension. Figure 3 shows that random excitation of road microprofile (B), also causes a random function of wheel bounce (c) and supported mass (D).

Table 2. Corrective factors of vibration parameters degradation ξ1

ξ2

ξ3

First

1

1

1

Second

0,95

0,83

0,70

Figure 4: Mechanical work (amount of heat) for a speed of 35 m/s (parameters: B – new suspension elements, and C - after service of 200.000 km) and a speed of 10 m/s (parameters: D – new suspension elements, and E - after service of 200.000 km)

Mechanical work, calculated according to the formula (7), is converted into heat energy in the shock absorbers, and shown in Figure 4. From the Figure it can be seen that the higher speed of vehicle contributes to the occurrence of a smaller heat load of shock absorbers, in both cases of the applied suspension elements. It is evident that the mechanical work, and consequently, the thermal load of new elements of suspension system, are greater than in those who were in service for 200.000 km, which is logical, given that forces in new shock absorbers are greater.

Figure 3: Excitation function (B), wheel bouncing (c), and sprung mass bouncing (D) at a speed of 10 m / s and for the new elements of suspension system Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 246

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Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of degradation of vehicle vibration parameters on thermal load of shock absorbers

Figure 5: Heat flux for the speed of 35 m/s (parameters: B – new suspension elements, and C - after service of 200.000 km) and a speed of 10 m/s (parameters: D – new suspension elements, and E - after service of 200.000 km)

Figure 7: Ordinary coherence function for the speed of 35 m/s (parameters: B – new suspension elements, and C - after service of 200.000 km) and a speed of 10 m/s (parameters: D – new suspension elements, and E - after service of 200.000 km)

Power that corresponds to the heat flux in shock absorbers is calculated, expression (8), and shown in Figure 4. From the Figure it can be seen that the higher speed of the vehicle contributes to the occurrence of a smaller heat flux in shock 28

Figure 6: Cross-correlation coefficient for the speed of 35 m/s (parameters: B – new suspension elements, and C - after service of 200.000 km) and a speed of 10 m/s (parameters: D – new suspension elements, and E - after service of 200.000 km)

Figure 8. Magnitude of the transfer characteristic for the speed of 35 m/s (parameters: B – new suspension elements, and C - after service of 200.000 km) and a speed of 10 m/s (parameters: D – new suspension elements, and E - after service of 200.000 km)

absorbers, in both cases of the applied elements of suspension system. It is evident that the heat flux is greater with new elements of suspension system, which is logical, given that forces in new shock absorbers are greater. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 246


Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of degradation of vehicle vibration parameters on thermal load of shock absorbers

Previously mentioned is illustrated by the data on the mean power, i.e. mean heat flux, expression (9), given in Figure 5, as follows: B: 680,878, C: 227,549, D: 2024,819 and E: 547,802 W. It is obvious that at low vehicle speeds higher mean values of heat flux appear, and given the difficulty in heat dissipation, it is evident that lower vehicle speeds are more critical in terms of cooling of shock absorber. Calculated cross-correlation coefficient between excitation and heat flux, Figure 6, has values that are relatively high, which means that in the time domain, between these values, there is a significant coupling /3-5/. It should also be noted here that the influence of speed and the degree of wear of the elements of suspension system can be observed, but it is somewhat less than that concerning heat and flux. The measured ordinary coherence between road excitation and heat flux, in Figure 7, has values that are relatively high, which means that in the frequency domain, between these values a significant coupling exists /3-5/. In addition, the impact of speed and the degree of wear of the elements of suspension system should be noticed, but it is somewhat less than in case of heat and flux. The magnitude of transfer characteristic is shown in Figure 8. Obviously, the resonance of the heat flux occurs in an area of around 2.5 Hz, which coincides with the resonances of the sprung mass. It should also be noted that there is an impact of vehicle speed on the heat flux, as a result of the influence of the degree of wear of the elements of suspension system. In addition, in the field of resonance, higher vehicle speeds cause higher heat flux.

Phase angle of the transfer characteristic depends on the frequency. However, in this case the impact of vehicle speed and the degree of wear of the elements of the suspension system on heat flux is of minor importance. CONCLUSIONS Based on the performed research the following can be concluded: • thermal load of shock absorbers can be investigated based on the results of dynamic simulation, • vehicle speed affects the thermal loads of shock absorbers. Thermal loads are higher at lower speeds, • variation of vibration parameters during the service time influences the thermal load of shock absorber. Thermal loads are also higher with new shock absorbers, and • in the period to come, the experimental research should be carried out to allow the analysis of the heat dissipation (cooling) of shock absorbers. REFERENCES

1) Atkins, P. (2010), The Laws of Thermodynamics (A Very Short Introduction), Oxford. 2) Belingardi, G., Demić, M. (2009), A possible model for shock absorber by using the „Black box“ method, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, VII/4, pp. 45-53. 3) Bendat, J. and Piersol, A., (1980), Engineering applications of correlation and spectral analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New York. 4) Bendat, J. and Piersol, A., (2000), Random data analysis and measurement, John Wiley and Sons, London. 5) Bendat, J., Nonlinear Systems - Techniques and Applications, (1998), John Wiley and Sons, London. 6) Bojić, М., (2011), Thermodynamics (in Serbian), Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Kragujevac. 7) Demić, M. (1997), The optimization of vehicle vibration systems (in Serbian), Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Kragujevac. 8) Demić, M., (2004), Design of passenger cars (in Serbian), Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Kragujevac. Figure 9: Phase angle for the speed of 35 m/s (parame-

ters: B – new suspension elements, and C - after service of 200.000 km) and a speed of 10 m/s (parameters: D – new suspension elements, and E - after service of 200.000 km) Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 246

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Dr Miroslav Demić - A contribution to research of the influence of degradation of vehicle vibration parameters on thermal load of shock absorbers

9) Demić, M. (1999), The definition of the tires limit of admissible nonuniformity by using the vehicle vibratory model. Vehicle System Dynamics 31 (3), pp. 183-211 10) Demić, M., (1994), Optimization of Vehicles Elasto-Damping Element Characteristics from the Aspect of Ride Comfort, Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 23, pp.351-377. 11) Demić, M. (1996), Optimization of Characteristics of Elasto-Damping Elements from the Aspect of Oscillatory Comfort and Vehicle Handling, Int. J. of Vehicle Design, Vol. 17, No 1. 12) Demić, M., Diligenski, Đ., Demić, I., Demić, M. (2006), A method of vehicle active suspension design, Forschung Im Ingenieurwessen, 5, 70: DOI 10.1007/s10010-06-0025, pp 145-158. 13) Demić, M., Belingardi, G. (2010), A Contribution to shock absorber modelling and Analysis of their Influence on Vehicle ride Charakteristics, Journal of Middle European Construction and Design of Cars (MECCA), 01, pp 6-17. 14) Demić, M., (2003) Analsigdem Software for signal analysis, www.ptt.yu/korisnici/i/m/imizm034/index.swf. 15) Demić, M. (2003), Demparcoh Software, www.ptt.yu/korisnici/i/m/imizm034/index.swf 16) Demić, M., Diligenski, Đ. (2012): A Contribution to Research of Degradation of Characteristics of Vibration Parameters on Vibration Aspect of Vehicle Comfort, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol. 10, No 4., pp.185-190. 17) Genta A. (2003), Motor Vehicle Dynamics. Politecniko di Torino. 18) Gillespie T. (1992), Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. SAE, Warrendale. 19) Magneti Marelli, (2012), Informations. 20) Miliken WF, Miliken D.L., (1995), Race Car Vehicle Dynamics. SAE, Warrendale, 1995.

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21) Ilić, G., Radojković, N., Stojanović, I., (1996), Thermodynamics II – The basics of heat transfer (in Serbian), Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Niš. 22) Malić D., (1972), Thermodynamics and thermotechnics (in Serbian), IP „Gradjevinska knjiga“, Belgrade. 23) Milinčić D., Vasiljević B., Djordjević R., (1984), Problems with heat transfer (in Serbian), IP Gradjevinska knjiga“, Belgrade. 24) Marić, M., (2002), Thermal Science - thermodynamics, heat transfer, combustion (in Serbian). University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences. 25) Milinčić D., Voronjec D., (1991), Thermodynamics (in Serbian), Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Belgrade 1991. 26) Mohd Sh., Mohd. S., Erlifi H., Nor, M. M., (2008), Experimental heat transfer study on the shock absorber operation”, International Conference on Science & Technology: Applications in Industry & Education, 27) Moran, M.J. et al., (2010), Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley. 28) Mitschke, M., (1997), Kraftfahrzeugkonstruktion, Teil D., TU Braunschweig, Forlesung. 29) Fermi, E., (2011), Thermodynamics, Dover Books on Physics. 30) Riesenburg, O., (1970), „Beitrag zur Klärung der Vorgänge in einem hydraulischen Schwingungsdämpfer“, Dissertation TU Braunschweig. 31) Rajamani, R., (2005), Vehicle Dynamics and Control, University of Minesota. 32) Šelmić, R., (1986), Technical thermodynamics (in Serbian), Naučna knjiga, Belgrade. 33) Zastava informations (1977-2010) (in Serbian). Paper sent to revision: 22.01.2013. Paper ready for publication: 06.03.2013.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 246


doi:10.5937/jaes11-3271

Paper number: 11(2013)1, 247, 31 - 38

THE EVALUATION OF QUALITY GOALS AT THE PROCESS LEVEL IN A UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT Hrvoje Puškarić* University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kragujevac, Serbia Dr Danijela Tadić University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kragujevac, Serbia Dr Mirjana Misita University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia Dr Miladin Stefanović University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kragujevac, Serbia Dr Dragan Milanović University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia Improvement of business processes is achieved, among the other, through improvement of quality goals which are defined on the level of each process. In practice, it is not possible to improve all identified quality goals simultaneously. It is assumed that it is necessary that the quality goals values be determined by applying determined metrics. With respect to given values of quality goals, management team determines the order by which quality goals are improved. In this paper, the relative importance of quality goals is stated by fuzzy pair-wise comparison matrix. The performances of quality goals are described by linguistic expressions. All linguistic expressions are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The new model for evaluation of quality goal values with respect to their relative importance is proposed. The developed model is tested by illustrative example with real life data of development process. Key words: Quality goals, Fuzzy sets, Evaluation INTRODUCTION The analysis and design of enterprise which is based on process approach has been an active area research for many years. The process model of enterprise leads to organizational structure which is absolutely beneficiary oriented and flexible. At the level of each process, aims and responsibilities are uniquely defined and in this way higher control over process resources can be achieved, as well as the interest for accomplishing the identified quality goals which is kind of business goals, etc. Accomplishment of the identified quality goals leads to increasing of competitor’s advantage, process improvement, increasing quality of products, etc. Development process management problem is one of the most important management tasks of quality management, and it can be among the others defined as identification, evaluation and improvement of quality goals. These tasks are

implemented in ISO 9000:2000 and ISO 14000 as presented in [13]. In the process of setting goals it is important to point out the following:it is desirable to accomplish management consensus over goals as wide as possible, goals can never be realized without the basic knowledge, it is necessary to be devoted to goal achievement and having too many goals is as bad as not having them at all. Also, it can be possible to apply proposed decision making systems [12], [14, 15, 16]. The solution of this sub-problem affects efficiency and successfulness of process realization. Measuring the performance or characteristic of quality goals is the second sub-problem of development process management problem. The results which are given by appropriate measure methods enable to observe quality goals better, as well as the efficiency of process management too. In other words, quality goal values enable better understanding of the process, better

* University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering Science, Sestre Janjić 6, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia; xpboje@gmail.com

31


Hrvoje PuĹĄkariÄ&#x2021; - The evaluation of quality goals at the process level in a uncertain environment

control, better delegation of responsibilities, compliance with business goals, determination of efficiency management which is defined as quotient of achieved and projected values of each quality goal. To overview achieved and recognized result. Based on acquired performance values, quality goal values are calculated. It is highly important to set performance metric system of quality goals. The process improvement is acquired by increasing the quality goal values. In practice, it is not possible to improve all quality goals in the same time. It is obvious that you should focus efforts to undertake management mesaures first which lead to improvement of quality goals which are associated as the least weighted normalized values. It is not possible to determine precisely the characteristics of quality goals. Their value is estimated by management team (quality managers, process managers, external experts). These estimations are based on their knowledge, evidence data, current data, etc. It is closer to human reasoning that management team states their evaluations by linguistic expressions more so than by precise values. Development of some areas of mathematics, such as fuzzy set theory [8] enables all uncertainties and vaguenesses to be adequately numerically introduced. In the presence of imprecise, approximate and vague data fuzzy set theory can simulate human way of thinking in the decision making process [07]. The considered problem is solved in two steps. In the first step, the relative importance of quality goals is determined. In many papers which can be find in the literature, the relative weight of considered entitets is stated by pair-wise comparison matrix (by analogy Analytic Hierarchy Process) [17]. In conventional AHP, the pairwise comparison is established by using a standard integer scale (1-9). Value 1, that is value 9, denotes that every considered quality goal pair has equal that is extreme importance, respectively. The use of discrete scale of AHP is simple and easy, but it is not sufficient to take into account the uncertainty associated with the mapping of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perception to a number [10]. Decision makers express their judgments far better by using linguistic expressions than by representing them in terms of precise numbers. It feels more confident to give interval judgments than fixed value judgments.

32

The relative importance relation of considered values in many papers [6, 19, 2] is given through comparison pair matrix , where the elements of this matrix are linguistics expressions. The quality weights are determined by applying procedure which is developed in [3]. The evaluation of quality goals and model of business process management selection is possible to realize by applying business planning management (Business Planning Management) (BPM) which leads to significant success of the enterprise. However, it is difficult to systematically and reasonably evaluate business processes for enterprises that plan to introduce BPM [4]. The performance measures for web designed processes are based on numerous indicators of successfulness for different types of processes [20]. The example of industrial implementation shows usage of this metrics as part of the system for monitoring quality of paper factory. Ratting of dynamic enterprise performance process is based on using sophisticated simulation of the process and optimization tools. Performance evaluation of quality goals represents the base for applying simulation method of processes and researching the possibility of applying optimization tools for re-engineering processes [21, 5]. In this paper, methodology for evaluation of dynamic enterprise performance process with metrics measurement models is suggested, according to expenses calculation based on activities: Activity Based Costing (ABC) and management based on activities: Activity Based Management (ABM). Prototype software system is implemented in order to validate suggested methodology. Contributions of this paper are the follows: (1) it handles uncertainty in relative importance of quality goals and performance values using fuzzy sets, (2) model for evaluation and ranking of quality goals during the time period is proposed and (2) monitoring of quality goals management efficiency by control cards. This paper considers: basic assumptions of proposed model, modeling of the relative importance of quality goals and performance values of quality goals, proposed model for ranking of quality goals and verification of proposed models by real-life data which come from developing process.

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 247


Hrvoje Puškarić - The evaluation of quality goals at the process level in a uncertain environment

THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS The following are assumptions underlying a model of the considered problem: • Management team (process managers and external experts) identifies quality goals of development process. These quality goals are formally presented by set C={1,...,c,...C} . The total number of identified quality goals is denoted as C and c is index of quality goal. • Relative importance of treated quality goals depends on rating of decision makers and, in most cases, hardly changes. Management team evaluations are based on: (a) analysis of historical data based on the experience of other companies, (b) using data which are found in official bulletins, (c) judgments of experts, (d) professional observation, etc. In practice, different approaches are more often combined. Generally, the relative importance of criteria is different and determined according to knowledge and experience of management team. In this paper, the relative importance of each pair of identified quality goals is described by linguistic expression and modeled by triangular fuzzy number. • Management team defines parameters of quality goals: percentage of deviation, projected time and management resource efficiency. Parameter values are determined by management team by consensus. These values are uncertain and changeable over the period of time. The considered parameters of quality goals can be benefit and cost type. They are described by linguistic expressions which are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. Time period in which development process quality goals values of are evaluated is discretized by discretization step t . It can be formally presented by set T={1,...,t,...T} . The total number time period interval is T and t is index for discretization time period.

course. The membership function of a fuzzy set can be obtained based on one’s experience, subjective belief of decision makers, intuition and contextual knowledge about the concept modeled [22]. The triangular fuzzy numbers are most used in the literature. They offer a good compromise between descriptive power and computational simplicity. The range of maximum triangular shape membership has to be around the crisp point of the triangle. Fuzzy sets of higher types and levels have not as yet played a significant role in applications of fuzzy sets theory [09]. Granularity is defined as number of fuzzy numbers assigned to the fuzzy rating of the relative importance and parameter values of quality goals. It can be mentioned that human being can only seven categories at most [11]. MODELING OF QUALITY GOALS WEIGHTS Management team determines the number and kind of quality goals of development process primarily depending on the type of industry and size of considered industrial organization. All the quality goals of development process are usually not of the same relative importance. Also, they can be considered as unchangeable during the considered period of time. They involve a high degree of subjective judgment and individual preferences of decision makers. We think that the judgment of each pair of treated criteria best suits human-decision nature (by analogy with AHP method). In this paper, the relative importance of each pair of the considered quality goals is described by triangular fuzzy number with the lower and upper bounds and modal value , respectively. If strong relative importance of quality goal c’ over quality goal c holds, then pairwise comparison scale can be represented by the fuzzy number:

MODELLING OF UNCERTAINTIES In this Section, modeling of uncertainties in relative importance of quality goals and values of quality goal parameters are described. All uncertainties are described by linguistic expression which is modeled by fuzzy sets [08]. A fuzzy set is represented by its membership function. The parameters of membership function are shape, granularity and location on the universe of disJournal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 247

If c=c’(c, c’=1,...,C) then relative importance criterion c over criterion c’ is represented by single point 1 which is a triangular fuzzy number (1,1,1). In this paper, the fuzzy rating of each decision maker can be described by using three linguistic expressions. These linguistic expressions are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers which are given in the following way:

33


Hrvoje Puškarić - The evaluation of quality goals at the process level in a uncertain environment

• low important • moderately important • strongly important MODELING OF QUALITY GOAL PARAMETERS The parameter values are not measurable values, that it is nearly impossible to be described by precise numbers. Because of that, it is assumed that these values are adequately described by linguistic expressions. Management team determines number and type of linguistic expressions depending on type of enterprises. These linguistic expressions are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The parameter values of quality goals in time period t is modeled by triangular fuzzy number so that . Lower and upper bounds and modal value of triangular fuzzy number are denoted as lpct, ucpt and mpct, respectively. Domain values are defined on real set numbers into interval (1-9). The value 1, that is 9 denotes that parameter value has smallest, that is the highest values. In this paper, the following linguistic expresses are used for describing parameter values: • low value - V1=(1,1,3) • medium value - V2=(1,3,5) • medium hight value - V3=(3,5,7) • high value - V4=(5,7,9) • very high value - V5=(8,9,9) THE PROPOSED MODEL FOR EVALUATION QUALITY GOALS For management team carrying out the analysis, the following tasks are important: (1) to determine which identified quality goal has the smallest value in time period t, t=1,..,T, (2) to determine degree of belief that quality goals are smaller than quality goal which is based at the first place in rank, and (3) quality goals management efficiency with the worst performance to present by relation diagram. Answers to firs two questions are given by comparing triangular fuzzy numbers by using method [1]. Values of quality goals with the worst performance values are visually presented by relation diagram. With the analysis of this diagarm it is possible to determine quality goals efficiency improvement of development process. 34

Ranking of quality goals depends on their values and relative importance. The relative importance of quality goals is stated as pair-wise comparison matrix. The elements of this matrix are linguistic expressions which are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The weight of each identified quality goal c, c=1,..,C is calculated as average value of all triangular fuzzy numbers of row c, c=1,..,C. The calculated value of quality goal weight is described by triangular fuzzy number according to fuzzy rules algebra [08]. In general, treated performance of quality goals can be benefit and cost type. Their values are normalized by using linear normalization procedure [18]. In this way, parameter values are mapped into interval (0-1). Value 0, that is 1 denotes that parameter value has the smallest, that is the highest value. The normalized values of parameters are presented by triangular fuzzy numbers rpct=(y; Lpct, Mpct, Upct). It is assumed that quality goal is consisted of three performances, and then the values of quality goals can be presented graphically by polyhedron. It is assumed that, the value of each quality goal can be presented by volume of polyhedron, vct= Пp=1,2,32Mpct The weighted normalized value of quality goal c, c=1,.,C is denoted as dct=(y; lct, mct, uct) . The rank of quality goals in each time period t, t=1,..,T corresponds to rank of triangular fuzzy numbers dct. First, dct with the smallest value , mct is found. The quality goals are ranked in increasing order of their modal value mct, c=1,...C; t=1..., T . The first in the sequence is dct . These ranked triangular fuzzy numbers are further analyzed to determine a measure of belief that one fuzzy number is smaller than the other one and a measure of belief that it is not. This procedure is applied in order to determine the measure of belief that a fuzzy number, which is ranked higher, is smaller than another fuzzy number which has a lower rank position. The algorithm for ranking of quality goals development process is formally given as follows. Step 1. The pair-wise comparison matrix of the relative importance of quality goals is stated:

The relative importance of quality goal c, c=1,..,C is given: Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 247


Hrvoje Puškarić - The evaluation of quality goals at the process level in a uncertain environment

Step 2. To normalize parameter values by using linear normalization procedure [18]: а) For benefit type of quality goal parameter:

b) For cost type of parameter:

portant task of management. The solution of this problem has an impact on growth, development and endurance of the enterprise on the market. The identified quality goals are: on the time delivery (c=1), fulfillment of initial demands of the project (c=2), and engagement of employees (c=3). The parameters of these quality goals are: percentage deviation (p=1), projected time (p=2), and efficient management resources (p=3). First two parameters are cost type and the third considered parameter is benefit type. The fuzzy pair-wise comparison matrix of the relative importance of quality goals of development process is:

where:

Step 3. To determine quality goal value c, c=1,..,C in time period t, t=1,..,T: The parameter values are presented in Table 1. The considered period is three months (one quarter). By applying proposed Algorithm (Step 1), the weights of quality goals are calculated: Step 4. Calculate weighted normalized quality goal values. By using method which is proposed in [1], the rank of quality goals are determined. The rank of quality goals corresponds to rank of fuzzy numbers. Step 5. Calculate degree of belief that quality goals can be stated in the first place of determined rank. Step 6. Determine representative scalar of fuzzy number, , dct in time period t, t=1,..,T. The change of values of each quality goal during the considered time period is presented by relation diagram. THE ILLUSTRATED EXAMPLE In this paper, the proposed procedure is illustrated by example with real-life data of development process of one food company exists in Šumadia region. In this company work about 50 employees. According to size criterion, the considered enterprise is small and medium type. The standards ISO 9001 and ISO 22000 are implemented in this food company by Quality Center of the Faculty of Engineering, Kragujevac. The development process of this food company is one of the most complex business processes. Management of this business process is the most imJournal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 247

and

By applying Algorithm (Step 2 and Step 6) the weighted normalized values of quality goal parameter and their representative scalar for each time period are calculated and presented in Table 2. Table 1: Parameter values of quality goals for each time period c=1

c=2

c=3

V2, V3

V4, V3

V2, V3

V2, V1

V5, V2

V2, V1

V4, V5

V3, V3

V2, V4

V5, V2

V2, V2

V3, V2

V3, V2

V1, V2

V2, V3

V3, V3

p=1

p=2

V3, V2 V4, V1

p=3

35


Hrvoje PuĹĄkariÄ&#x2021; - The evaluation of quality goals at the process level in a uncertain environment

The least weighted normalized value in time period t=1 is quality goal engagement of employees (c=3). With respect the given results (see Table 1), it can be concluded that management team should undertake management measures which lead to improvement of denoted quality goal values Table 3. In the second quarter, the quality goal on the time delivery (c=1) has the least weighted normalized value. Degree of belief that performance of quality goal engagement of employees (c=3) have lower values than performance on the time

delivery (c=1) is 0.96. Management team has to undertake appropriate measures to improve performance values of both analyzed quality goals almost simultaneously Table 4. In the third quarter, quality goal fulfillment of initial demands of project (c=2), has the lowest weighted normalized value. Management team in considered time period should focus its attention on possibility of improvement of this quality goal Table 5.

Table 2: The rank of quality goals of development process in time period t=1 Quality goals

The weighted normalized quality goal values

Rank

Degree of belief that quality goal can be placed in the first place of the rank

The representative scalar values

c=1

d11=(0.0254, 0.0529, 0.0739)

2

0.305

0.0529

c=2

d21=(0.058, 0.0739, 0.0897)

3

0

0.0739

c=3

d31=(0.0209, 0.0226, 0.0387)

1

1

0.0226

Table 3: The rank of quality goals of development process in time period t=2 Quality goals

The weighted normalized quality goal values

Rank

Degree of belief that quality goal can be placed in the first place of the rank

The representative scalar values

c=1

d12=(0.0178, 0.0371, 0.0517)

1

1

0.0371

c=2

d22=(0.0489, 0.0622, 0.0756)

3

0.1

0.0622

c=3

d32=(0.0348, 0.0378, 0.0563)

2

0.96

0.0378

Table 4: The rank of quality goals development process in time period t=3 Quality goals

The weighted normalized quality goal values

Rank

Degree of belief that quality goal can be placed in the first place of the rank

The representative scalar values

c=1

d13=(0.0198, 0.0412, 0.0576)

3

0.13

0.0412

c=2

d23=(0.015, 0.0191, 0.0232)

1

1

0.0191

c=3

d33=(0.0249, 0.0269, 0.0402)

2

0

0.0269

Quality goals

36

Table 5: The rank of quality goals of development process in time period t=4 Degree of belief that quality goal The weighted normalized representative Rank can be placed in the first place of Thescalar quality goal values values the rank

c=1

d14=(0.0762, 0.1589, 0.2218)

1

1

0.1589

c=2

d24=(0.2258, 0.2875, 0.3492)

2

0

0.2875

c=3

d34=(0.5222, 0.5667, 0.8444)

3

0

0.5667

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 247


Hrvoje Puškarić - The evaluation of quality goals at the process level in a uncertain environment

In the last of considered quarter, the quality goal on the time delivery (c=1), has the least weighted normalized value. Management team should make an effort to undertake and monitor management measures which lead to improvement of this quality goal. The representative scalars of quality goals values for each considered time period are presented by relation diagrams Figure 1., Figure 2. and Figure 3.

Figure 1: The weighted normalized values of on the time delivery (c=1) during the time period

the last quarter value of each quality goal is significantly increasing. According to given results, management measures taken are adequate and lead to increasing of quality goal values which further enables improvement of considered business process. CONCLUSION The evaluation of quality goals on the business process level is important task of management team. Improvement of business processes depends on the solution of considered problem. Consequently, a fuzzy logic based approach appears as a natural way to describe vagueness of effects parameters of quality goals. The proposed fuzzy model contributes to forming an opinion which quality goal has the lowest value in considered time period. Finding the degrees of belief that a quality goal has a higher predisposition to have the worst value than some other quality goals, helps management team to recommend the application of specific management measures. The proposed model was tested on a randomly selected group of quality goals which are given from the telecommunication enterprise in Republic Serbia. The results obtained by using real world examples showed good performance of the new model. The propsed model is very flexible in the sense that it can be easily extended to include more quality goals. REFERENCES

Figure 2: The weighted normalized values of initial demands fulfillment of project (c=2) during the time period

Figure 3: The weighted normalized values of engagement of employees (c=3) during the time period

According to relation diagrams it can be concluded that values of each identified quality goal in first three quarters have almost same values. In Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 247

1) Bass, M.S., Kwakernaak, H. (1977). Rating and Ranking of Multiple-aspect Alternatives using Fuzzy sets. Automatica, 3, 47-58. 2) Chan, S.T.F., Kumar, N. (2007). Global supplier development considering risk factors using fuzzy extended AHP-based approach. Int. Journal of Production Research, 46, 417-431. 3) Chang, D.Y. (1996). Applications of the extent analysis method on fuzzy AHP. European Journal of Operational Research, 95, 649-655. 4) Chiwoon C., Seungsin, L. (2010) A study on process evaluation and selection model for business process management. School of Industrial Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749. 5) Gaben. M., Krčevinac. S., Vujošević. M. (2007): Modelujući sistemi u optimizaciji. Journal of Applied Engineering Science, No.18, pp. 37-46.

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Hrvoje Puškarić - The evaluation of quality goals at the process level in a uncertain environment

6) Gumus, T.A. (2009). Evaluation of hazardous waste transportation firms by using a two step fuzzy-AHP and TOPSIS methodology. Expert System with Applications, 36, 4067-4074. 7) Kaur, P., Chakrabortyb, S. (2007). A New Approach to Vendor Selection Problem with Impact Factor as an Indirect Measure of Quality. Journal of Modern Mathematics and Statistics, 1, 1-8. 8) Klir, G.J., Folger, T.A. (1988) Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty and Information (1st ed.). New Yersy: Prentice-Hall. 9) Klir G.J., Yuan, B. (1995) Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, theory and applications. Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 10) Kwong, C.K., Bai, H. (2003). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements in QFD using a fuzzy AHP with an extent analysis approach. IIE Transakcions, 35 (7), 619-625. 11) Lootsma, F.A. (1997) Fuzzy Logic for Planning and Decision making. Kluwer Academic, Boston, USA. 12) Milanović, D., Ranđić. D., Ristić. Lj.(2007): Unapređenje sistema upravljanja životne sredine po standardima ISO14000, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, No. 18, pp. 7-12. 13) Milosavljević, Đ. (2003): “Unapređenje sistema upravljanja životne sredine po standardima” Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 41-48. 14) Misita. M., Senussia. G., Milovanović. M.(2012): A combining genetic learining algorithm and risk matrix model using in optimal production program”Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 147-152 15) Nunes. I.(2012): ”Fuzzy systems to support industrial engineering management”, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, No. 3, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 143-146

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16) Popović. M., Vasić. B., Curović. D.(2010): A possible answer to the question: What is asset management? Journal of Applied Engineering Science,Vol. 8, No.4, pp. 205-2014 17) Saaty, T.L. (1990). How to make a decision: The Analytic Hierarchy Process. European J. Oper., 489-26. 18) Shih, H.S., Shyur, H.J., Lee, E.S. (2007). An Extension of TOPSIS for Group Decision Making. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 45, 801-813. 19) Tadić, D., Milanović, D., Misita, M., Tadić, B. (2011). New integrated approach to the problem of ranking and supplier selection under uncertainties. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part B: Journal of Engineering manufacture, 225, 1713-1724. 20) Vesa, H., Heikki, K. (2011) Performance metrics for web-forming processes, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Automation and Systems Technology, P.O. Box 15500, 00076. 21) WenAn T., Weiming S., Jianmin Z. (2006) A methodology for dynamic enterprise process performance evaluation, a Software Engineering Institute. Zhejiang Normal University, JinHua, Zhejiang, 321004, PR China. 22) Zimmermann, H.J. (1978). Results of empirical studies in fuzzy set theory (ed. G.J. Klir). Applied General Systems Research, Plenum Publishing Corporation, 303-311. Paper sent to revision: 31.01.2013. Paper ready for publication: 05.03.2013.

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Paper number: 11(2013)1, 248, 39 - 43

doi:10.5937/jaes10-2164

IMPLEMENTATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY IN MAIL DELIVERIES ORGANIZATION Vladimir Janko Desnica* Public Enterprises of PTT, Novi Sad, Serbia Dr Dragana Šarac University of Novi Sad, Faculty of tehnical science, Novi Sad, Serbia The Post of Serbia should create conditions for improvement of its assortment of services by innovations of the current services and introduction of new commercial services in the work process. This can be achieved if high technologies – automation, mechanization and particularly informationcommunication technology and Geographic Information System (GIS) are introduced. The paper discusses results of the case study which comprises application of GIS on the example of delivery areas of the Post of Serbia in Novi Sad based on created thematic maps. The aim is to increase efficiency and productivity of delivery services by application of this technology. Key words: Delivery service, Geographic information system (GIS), Thematic maps INTRODUCTION Geographic information system (GIS) is a technological field that incorporates geographical features with tabular data in order to map, analyze, and assess real-world problems [12]. Almost every human activity relative to a territory or the whole planet may be improved by application of optimized geographic information system. GIS is used in business, scientific and public projects. It is considered as a dominant tool which provides effective planning, analyzing and managing, from the cartography itself, which is a base for GIS development, all along to business, public and military systems. It is used in all fields which use spatial i.e. geographic data (for scientific research, management of resources, property management, development planning, infrastructural planning, in electrical, machine and civil construction industries, architecture, banking, economics, urban planning, transport, health care system, tourism, for marketing research, geology, ...). GIS is used on the global as well as on the local level (e.g. national atlas of a country (cities, population, telephone area codes, postal codes), hydrography of a country (rivers, lakes), infrastructure (hospitals, schools, parks, cemeteries, museums), transport (airports, roads and highways, rivers, railroads), education, entrepreneurship, etc.) [02,11,13].

GIS in Serbia is mainly used in the following areas: traffic and transport, telecommunications, tourism, city infrastructure (water pipelines, heating system, gas pipelines), education, local selfgovernment [03, 07]. The topic of the paper is improvement of the situation in the Post of Serbia, especially its delivery services, as well as providing an effective work and optimal use of working hours of post deliverers by application of GIS technology. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE POST OF SERBIA A state company for offering postal services “Srbija” (JP PTT “Srbija”) is the oldest, the most powerful and the widest available infrastructural system in the country. The Post of Serbia is a company which offers postal services including carrying various kinds of mail from a sender to an addressee, so the mail delivery service plays an important part in the system. The notion of mail transport signifies a continuous manner of transferring mail in all phases of a unique technological process. A unique technological process which comprises all interdependent phases of transfer makes up a completed production cycle. A production cycle in mail transport is made up of 5 phases: reception, dispatch, transport, arrival and delivery [05].

* Public Enterprises of PTT, Bulevar Mihajla Pupina 16, 21108 Novi Sad, Serbia; desnica@ptt.rs

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Vladimir Janko Desnica - Implementation of geographic information systems technology in mail deliveries organization

It is very important to deliver mail quickly, properly and safely. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to organize the work of the mail delivery service in such a way that it satisfies the requirements of the market and the needs of the customers and to work in a cost-effective way, i.e. to make profit [01]. Facing a competition which is getting more and more powerful, the Post of Serbia should maintain its rightful position of the national leader and one of the regional leaders in the modern market of postal services by innovations of the current services and introduction of new commercial services. Replacement of out-of-date technology and introduction of high technology (automation, mechanization and particularly information-communication technology and GIS) in the work process create conditions for improvement of assortment of services. In the first place reengineering in the delivery process means the process of innovation, or in other words, it provides the delivery process innovations by use of modern technical solutions (introduction of modern equipment and facilities, application of Postal Address Code (PAC) and especially GIS). GIS has proved its advantages where visualization of spatial data is required as well as manipulation with a large number of data. It is quite certain that wider application of GIS technology in the Post of Serbia will confirm its advantages. Organization of mail delivery Mail delivery to addressees is a final phase of a single technological process. Regarding the manner of mail delivery, two organizational systems can be distinguished: • mail delivery to home or business premises addresses of an addressee, • mail delivery in the post office through PO box service and delivery counters. Delivery is certainly the most expensive process in postal technology; hence it is quite understandable to try to reduce the expenses [6]. Possibilities to reduce delivery expenses are numerous, only an effective tool is required to find the most efficient solution to this problem. More intensive application of GIS proves that this technology is one of the most efficient solutions regarding more qualitative delivery organization.

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APPLICATION OF GIS IN THE PROCESS OF DELIVERY ORGANIZATION In order to analyze territorial availability of postal services to citizens, rationalization of transport and delivery of postal items, the Post of Serbia bas been developing Geographic information system - GIS since 2002. Based on the information about addresses where the postmen deliver the mail, the Post of Serbia has positioned on the map (geo-referenced) about 1 million of house numbers in all major cities in Serbia. Based on the data from Geographic information system, the Post of Serbia is able to conduct the following analyses: • analysis of territorial access to facilities and users, • planning the distribution of advertising material, • route planning, • generation of address lists by zones, • analysis of population density in order to plan the capacity of infrastructure or • selection of the best locations for opening new facilities and others [14]. The most important segment of GIS is geographic information. It comprises spatial, time and attribute components. Each of these components can be changed, which affects the manner and selection of analysis, storage and presentation of information itself. Every variable, i.e. information which may be located spatially, can be integrated in GIS. Development of GIS and introduction of PAC help meet the conditions for application of this technology in the Post of Serbia, particularly in delivery organization [9]. PAC is a new way of addressing mail in Serbia and is made up of six digits written beside the city or town name. This code helps describe the territory of Serbia, i.e. a series of digits replaced the name of municipality, part of the city and street (or its part). Writing the PAC ensures unmistakable dispatch and delivery of mail to the recipients. The software package Maplnfo is used for work with Geographic Information System in the Post of Serbia. The main prerequisite for creation of qualitative and usable vector maps is a good and detailed base.

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Vladimir Janko Desnica - Implementation of geographic information systems technology in mail deliveries organization

The base for this creation may be a detailed aerial photo (orthophoto) or a satellite image. Spatial data are first collected and stored in relational databases, i.e. a connection between geodata and relational databases is generated. Files created to write geometric elements in a binary form in them are used to describe spatial data. The first step in database creation in the Post of Serbia is inserting the streets i.e. street network and assigning a code. Drawing in the complete street network is followed by drawing in objects (houses, buildings, industrial facilities). Each object is assigned a street code which contains house number. There follows data pairing which involves available data with the assigned codes. Microsoft Office Access which is compatible with Maplnfo software is used for application of data from databases [08]. GIS is more and more used in automated vehicle control (AVC). The vehicles contain a built-in Global Positioning System- GPS so the vehicle fleet may be controlled in real time thus providing security of both deliverer and the vehicle [10]. Fuel filling and consumption can be also controlled along with departure time and stops, opening and closing of the doors, etc. Vehicle

movement is possible to control in earlier period as well and this enables analyses and control of accuracy and quality of delivererâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work. It is also possible to control a mailman in his delivery area by means of personalized locators. For the purpose of further improvement of delivery quality a greater use of personalized locators for mailmen is necessary. Their use contributes to security of mailmen in the first place (because the alarm is activated in case of emergency) while the control of movements of mailmen in a particular area provides and improves quality of delivery. Application of GIS technology in past time and real time helps to establish if the movements are appropriate or certain corrections are possible to make. Analysis of productivities of delivery areas based on thematic maps - case study When organizing the delivery the following basic elements for formation of delivery areas must be considered: number of users (legal entities and physical persons), quantity and type of mails and distance traveled by a mailman in the area. Application of GIS and creation of thematic maps offer quickly obtained data about the way of delivery organization in a delivery area or a city.

Figure 1: Thematic map with the data: delivery mail area (21101, 009), distance traveled by a mailman in a delivery area (4510 meters), number of households (919), number of telephone bills for physical persons and legal entities (1514 and 521), number of pensioners (399), number of electricity bills for physical persons and legal entities (136 and 156), number of bank reports (1251and 302), number of mobile operators bills (1173) Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 248

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Vladimir Janko Desnica - Implementation of geographic information systems technology in mail deliveries organization

Thematic maps provide an overview of delivery capacity for a specific segment, delivery area and for the whole company. In working unit Novi Sad GIS technology is used in the mail delivery phase in order to equal productivities of areas in the Post of Serbia. A thematic map which is created contains all necessary and relevant data for delivery organization, such as: population number, number of households, number of unregistered mails for a particular period, distance traveled by a mailman in a particular delivery area, optimal number of post offices for a particular area, number of telephone bills, number of mobile operators bills, number of electricity bills, total number and amount of pensions, number of legal entities, and so on. If a particular area is selected, the requested data are quickly given, which is shown in figure 1. In earlier period it was necessary to spend a large number of working hours to collect these data, which involved physical counting of household, legal entities and mails in a particular area. A great difference in numbers of household and legal entities in areas was established based on thematic maps and their analysis. Selection of specific postal address codes quickly offered the requested data so it was possible to establish which segments could be transferred from one (more productive) area to the neighboring (less productive) area. Thus productivities of areas were balanced (by number of households and of legal entities and by distance traveled by a mailman in the area). Moreover, only measuring distance traveled by a mailman in an area required at least 5 measurements (by bicycle or moped) in order to establish the average distance traveled by a mailman [01]. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A very important step in database creation and creation of entire GIS is data collection phase. Preciseness and exactness is especially underlined in this phase because mistakes in measurements, input and data classification may produce completely wrong results and consequently wrong analyses and models in further phases. Variety of information which enters the database is great because all entered data are spatial reference information and location reference information. In the Post of Serbia GIS has even greater application in organization of letter delivery, parcel 42

delivery and specialized delivery, mail delivery, desk operations, timetable and transport optimization. Using the data and thematic maps which GIS offers, the delivery operator can analyze the obtained data and very quickly make decisions about possible changes for the purpose of optimization of delivery organization: organizer may decide whether to transfer one segment from one delivery area to another, or to transfer one part of the city to a delivery area of another delivery post office. All data from the thematic map in figure 1 are immediately available for delivery organization in working unit Novi Sad for 263 delivery areas (including district of South BaÄ?ka in AP of Vojvodina). It used to take several working days to obtain these data. Application of GIS technology on the concrete example shows that analysis is performed in a faster, more qualitative and cheaper way while the results are immediately visible. It provides improvement in efficiency and delivery, more qualitative definition of expenses, fuel consumption control and more effective organization; on the other hand, it reduces unproductive walk of mailmen. CONCLUSION The tendencies of the future development of the post office should be based on spreading and modernizing, introducing new technologies in compliance with general development in Europe and the world. It could be said that the Post of Serbia has found in GIS a suitable engineering tool which provides a qualitative work that can be performed in the office and which improves post offices organization and desks work organization, transport and processing as well as delivery. The Post of Serbia must timely respond to a challenge of increasing competition and introduce GIS in the system of delivery organization, but also in the system of strategic decision-making in general if it wants to remain the leader in its work. Since in the Post of Serbia all relevant postal capacities such as PAC, regular delivery (areas, mailboxes, depots, mailmen stations), specialized delivery, timetable, reception and delivery are georeferenced, more intensive application of GIS technology is the main prerequisite to advance the process and improve quality in all phases of production cycle, in other words, from mail reception, dispatch, transport and arrival to Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1, 248


Vladimir Janko Desnica - Implementation of geographic information systems technology in mail deliveries organization

analyses and define priorities in a more qualitative way as well as to provide more effective and faster decision-making. Application of GIS technology in the process of delivery organization ensures significant increase in productivity, more effective use of working hours and more qualitative services and overall operations of the organization. REFERENCES 1) Desnica,V., Šarac, D., (2012) Application of new technologies in the Post of Serbia in function of efficient business, II International Symposium Engineering Management and Competitiveness 2012 (EMC 2012), Zrenjanin, 108-112. 2) Gerasimović, M., Stanojević, Lj., Veljović, A., Cvijović, N., (2010) Application of geographic information systems technology in entrepreneurship education, Annals of faculty engineering Hunedoara – International journal of engineering, 8( 2), 197-200. 3) Grgurović, B, Štrbac, S, Popović, M., (2010) Positioning in the market of commercial services the postal activities, International Scientific Conference Management 2010., Krusevac, Serbia, 554-560. 4) Janković, D., Milidragović, R., (2011) Model for improving spatial planning area managment in local government implementation of GIS technology, Annals of faculty engineering Hunedoara – International journal of engineering, 9 (1), 43-52. 5) Kujačić, M., (2005.) Postal traffic, Novi Sad: Faculty of technical sciences

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6) Marković, Z., (2009) Automated processing centers – prerequisite for postal services business processes re-engineering, PosTel 2009, Beograd, 185-194. 7) Marković, Z., Ostojić, Lj., (2006) Ptt route software for designing of transport vehicles route and creation of timetables used in transport of postal items, PosTel 2006, Beograd, 243-252. 8) Nedeljković, S., (2005) Application of GIS technology in delivery organization, Modern Post, no. 3, 55-60. 9) Ostojić, Lj., (2004) Application of GIS technology in postal traffic, Postfest, Beograd. 10) Stanković, S., Tadić, Z., Vasković, V., Ljubojević, M. (2010):The application of the ICT on optimization of traffic currencies and fluency of public city transport system”, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 27-32 11) Zahorjanski, M., Veljović, A., (2011) Use of analytical data bases and gis for monitoring performance of institutions of higher education, Journal Metalurgia international, 16 (12), 136-139. 12) www.gislounge.com (Retrieved January, 2013) 13) www.gis.ba (Retrieved December, 2010) 14) www.posta.rs (Retrieved May, 2011) Paper sent to revision: 24.09.2012. Paper ready for publication: 06.03.2013.

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EVENTS REVIEW

8th SYMPOSIUM RESEARCH AND DESIGN FOR COMMERCE & INDUSTRY ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN PUBLIC TRAFFIC Ecological and economic benefits of alternative fuels and unity of relevant regulations 18th December 2012, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade Symposium iipp 2012 was organized by Editorial Board of scientific journal: “Journal of Applied Engineering Science in cooperation with Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Special focus was given to transport and energy and the relationship between scientific research, transportation companies and the relevant municipal and government institutions, with the aim of strengthening and its further development. Idea of alternative fuels is based on reduction of fossil and other hazardous fuels consumption, supported by continuous technology advancement that push the boundaries we know today. For this reason, organizers gathered teams of experts of the largest transportation companies in Serbia in sector of urban and intercity passenger transportation together with relevant representatives of City and State institutions with purpose to exchange knowledge, experiences and ideas in order to respond timely to the rapid development of this sector, both in technical and regulatory domain. Topics of Symposium iipp 2012 were: • Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines / liquid or gaseous • Technical aspects and the possibility of use • Regulatory frameworks / incentive for ecological and economic benefits Institutions - participants were: • Ministry of Transport of Republic of Serbia • Ministry of Energy, Development and Environmental protection of Republic of Serbia • City of Belgrade, Directorate for Public Transport • Novi Sad City Council for Traffic and Roads • Serbian Chamber of Commerce • Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Serbia • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade Symposium was opened by prof. dr Milorad Milovančević, Dean of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Companies - participants were: • GPS Belgrade • JGSP Novi Sad • SP Lasta a.d • Suboticatrans • Niš Express • Kryogas • Messer Tehnogas • ...

Afterwards presentations were held by: Prof. dr Dragoslava Stojiljković Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Dušan Drčelić, Kryogas, Prof. dr Gradimir Danon - Faculty of Forestry, Doc. dr Ivan Blagojević Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slobodan Mišanović - Public Transport Company Belgrade, Aleksandar Živanović - Transport Company Lasta, Holo Apolonija - Public Transport Company Novi Sad and Ivan Stevanović - Directorate for Public Transport Belgrade. All presented topics are given in Symposium proceedings published as CD edition. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 44

11(2013)1


EVENTS REVIEW

7Tth CONFERENCE - TYRES 2012 Regulations in traffic safety related to the tires of passenger and commercial vehicles 20th December 2012, Serbian Chamber of Commerce, Belgrade Intention of the organizers was to bring together in one place experts who are engaged in the development, production, sales, retreading, service, maintenance and research in the field of tires. It was a good opportunity to learn of new products, technologies, software and literature in the field of tires. Participants who are primarily engaged in maintenance and exploitation of the tires presented possibilities and limits of current domestic and global industry in this area. The main topic of the conference was: “The regulation of traffic safety related to the tires of passenger and commercial vehicles” Other conference topics were: • New product materials for tires • New regulations in the field of tires • Tire waste management • Exploitation experiences • Computer applications in tire design

• Equipment and facilities for tire maintenance • Tires retreading • Tires and Road Safety • Vehicle dynamics • Tire pressure and temperature control systems th 7 conference-Tires 2012 was organized by Institute for Research and Design in Commerce and Industry in cooperation with Faculty of Forestry and Serbian Chamber of Commerce with financial support of Ministry of Education, Science and Technological development of Republic of Serbia. Conference was opened by Dr Demir Hadžić, Head of the roads and traffic safety in the Serbian Ministry of Transport together with Dejan Tomašević, independent adviser for homologation from the Traffic Safety Agency. Beside them, presentations were held by: Prof. dr Gradimir Danon - Faculty of Forestry, Vekoslav Šošević - Serbian Chamber of Commerce, Nikola Korunović - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Niš, Miroljub Petković - Goodyear Serbia, Emil Kapetanović - Autotehnik Vejić, Vlada Marinković - Hoffman Marinković, Miloš Petrović - Stanton Chase International and Darko Stanojević - Institute for Research and Design in Commerce and Industry. All presented topics are given in Conference proceedings published as CD edition.

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ANNOUNCEMENT OF EVENTS IIPP QUALITY MANAGEMENT SCHOOL Considering business conditions of European market, quality has a significant role, not only in providing new markets, but also in maintaining the existing ones. Nowadays, customers do not only expect a quality product, but they require a proof that the company is capable to produce high quality products and provide quality services. Obtaining of this evidence should be the first goal for each company that has high aspirations when it comes to new markets but also standard’s procedure in order to maintain its reputation. Implementation is not complete if employees are not familiar with standards. With the aim to closer inform the employees of the meaning and significance of ISO standards, Institute for research and design in commerce & industry – IIPP organize training “School of Quality”. During the training participants will: • expend their knowledge about implementation of ISO standards, • learn how to maintain and improve quality level of companies • learne how to verify and improve business performance of companies Training will be held during four days in two locations. First lectures will be held at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade, while the final lecture and the test will take place in some of attractive location in Serbia. Programme • Fundamentals of quality concepts, definitions, approaches • Standards, review and interpretation • Management Responsibility • System and process approach • Data management, information system • Statistical methods (engineering methods, quality management methods) • RISK, FMEA, FTA • Supply and storage, evaluation of supplier • Maintenance • Evaluation, audit, certification • Examples, practice, Deming management experiment • PAS 99 - Integrated Management Systems Result After implemented training, Qiipp consultant is able to assume responsibility for independent work in the following fields of activity: • Implementation of quality standards • Maintaining a high level of quality • Constant improvement of the quality system • Assessment and audits of own companies and their suppliers Candidates who passe the test will get a diploma “Qiipp consultant for implementation, maintenance, analysis, evaluation and testing, design and improvement of the quality system”. Time and location: April 2013, Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering info: www.iipp.rs Institute for research and design in commerce & industry Phone: 011/6300750; Fax: 011/6300751; E-mail: office@iipp.rs; web: www.iipp.rs

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ANNOUNCEMENT OF EVENTS

IIPP MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SCHOOL Maintenance Management School presents practical experience in combination with adopted theoretical knowledge, thus creating maintenance management experts capable to perform and coordinate the maintenance of complex technical systems. Use unique opportunity to expand knowledge in the field of technical systems maintenance. During fourdays training focus will give to the following topics: • Maintenance Objectives and Policies • Corporate/Company Environment • Maintenance Concepts • Work Planning • Maintenance Terminology • Team Working and Communications • Laws and Regulations • Information Technology • Condition Monitoring • Quality Assurance (Systems) • Fault Finding Techniques • Environment and Occupational Health and Safety • Spare Part Management The school program merges best local knowledge and experience modernized and harmonized with the recommendations of European Federation of National Maintenance Societies. Since Maintenance Management School connected and unified local tradition and experience in the maintenance process with the European norms and requirements, it’s result is thus twofold - to all who signed up gives a chance to gain national certificate ’’Expert for maintenance management” and to those who can and want more, Maintenance management school opens the possibility of obtaining the International certificate “European maintenance manager”. Result: More than 240 national certificates and 16 internationally recognized certificates: European Maintenance Manager. Time and location: April 2013, Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Info: www.dots.rs

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BOOK RECOMMENDATION Recommended by Ms Nada Stanojević EFNMS General Assembly Member GLOBAL MAINTENANCE AND RELIABILITY INDICATORS FITTING THE PIECES TOGETHER 4th EDITION A publication of European Federation of National Maintenance Societies vzw (www.efnms.org) and the Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals (www.smrp.org) When comparing Maintenance and Availability performance internally or externally, you need a set of clearly defined and standardized indicators supported by definitions. In Europe you can use the indicators defined in EN 15341: 2007. In North America one can take advantage of the SMRP metrics. If you want to compare and translate the different local indicators and definitions you can use the “Global Maintenance and Reliability Indicators” book. Harmonised indicators are those which are similar between the SMRP and EN 15431, and those for which any differences can be identified. The harmonised indicators provide a common platform for global organizations to benchmark their facilities across borders. The “Global Maintenance and Reliability Indicators” book includes 29 Indicators identified as harmonised. Each indicator is documented by “hands on” examples on the calculation of the indicator to enhance understanding. Why use standardized indicators or metrics such as the indicators from the standard EN 15341 or the SMRP metrics? • Maintenance managers can rely on a single set of predefined indicators supported by a glossary of terms and definitions. • The use of predefined indicators makes it easier to compare maintenance and reliability performance across geographical borders • When a company wants to construct a set of company indicators or scorecard, the development process based on predefined indicators will be simplified • The predefined indicators can be incorporated in various CMMS software and reports • The predefined metrics can be adopted and/or modified to fit specific requirements • The need for discussion and debate on indicator definitions is ended and uncertainties are eliminated • Applicable for whom? The objective of this harmonization document is to offer the global maintenance and reliability community a set of predefined indicators to be used by companies with a need to measure maintenance and reliability performance on a global basis. The indicators can be used by all organizations with a need to measure, track, report and compare maintenance and reliability performance. The indicators or metrics are supported by a set of guidelines and examples of the calculation. This provides maintenance and reliability professionals with an easy-to- use guide for understanding of the indicators, and of the components included or excluded in the calculation of each indicator. The target group for the Global Maintenance and Reliability Indicators is comprised of: Maintenance managers, Asset managers, Plant managers, Operations managers, Reliability Engineers, Technical managers, General Managers or in general any other personnel who are involved with benchmarking, or maintenance and reliability performance measurement. Language: English Format: A4, 93 pages, Copyright © 2011 by the European Federation of National Maintenance Societies vzw and the Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals 48

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

The benefits of publishing in Journal for Applied Engineering Science are: • No page charges • World wide exposure of your work • Accelerate publication times • Online author service • Automatic transfer of metacontent in SCOPUS, SJR, SCIndeks and other bases supporting international protocols for data transfer • Assignment of numerical identifiers DOI • Fair, constructive and able to follow reviewing process • Dedicated team to manage the publication process and to deal with your needs Submission of the papers has to be done online, trough journal e-service at http://aseestant.ceon.rs/index.php/jaes/login For assistance during the process of submission and publication, please contact graphical editor Mr. Darko Stanojevic at dstanojevic@iipp.rs or +381 116300750 Every manuscript submitted to JAES will be considered only if the results contained in the paper were not already published, that are not currently in the process of publishing and not to be published in another journal. Each paper is sent to a review by two independent experts and the authors are obligated to adopt the observations and comments of the reviewers. Articles presented at conferences may also be submitted, provided these articles do not appear in substantially the same form in published conference proceedings. All articles are treated as confidential until they are published. Manuscripts must be in English free of typing errors. The maximum length of contributions is 10 pages. THE FORMAT OF THE MANUSCRIPT The manuscript should be written in the following format: • A Title, which adequately describes the content of the manuscript. • An Abstract should not exceed 250 words. The Abstract should state the principal objectives and the scope of the investigation, as well as the methodology employed. It should summarize the results and state the principal conclusions. • Not more than 10 significant key words should follow the abstract to aid indexing. • An Introduction, which should provide a review of recent literature and sufficient background information to allow the results of the article to be understood and evaluated. • A Theory or experimental methods used. • An Experimental section, which should provide details of the experimental set-up and the methods used for obtaining the results. • A Results section, which should clearly and concisely present the data using figures and tables where appropriate. • A Discussion section, which should describe the relationships and generalizations shown by the results and discuss the significance of the results making comparisons with previously published work. (It may be appropriate to combine the Results and Discussion sections into a single section to improve the clarity). • Conclusions, which should present one or more conclusions that have been drawn from the results and subsequent discussion and do not duplicate the Abstract. • References, which must be cited consecutively in the text using brackets [1] and collected together in a reference list at the end of the manuscript and in alphabetic order.

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS Units - standard SI symbols and abbreviations should be used. Abbreviations should be spelt out in full on first appearance, e.g., variable time geometry (VTG). Meaning of symbols and units belonging to symbols should be explained in each case or quoted in a special table at the end of the manuscript before References. Figures must be cited in a consecutive numerical order in the text and referred to in both the text and the caption as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc. Figures should be prepared without borders and on white grounding and should be sent separately in their original formats. Pictures may be saved in resolution good enough for printing in any common format, e.g. BMP, GIF or JPG. Tables should carry separate titles and must be numbered in consecutive numerical order in the text and referred to in both the text and the caption as Table 1, Table 2, etc. The tables should each have a heading. Tables should not duplicate data found elsewhere in the manuscript. Acknowledgement of collaboration or preparation assistance may be included before References. Please note the source of funding for the research. REFERENCES must be written in alphabetical order and in the following form: Journal: /Number/ (must match number in the text), Last name, Initial of the authors name, (Year of publication). Article title: secondary title. Title of the Journal (italic), volume number (number of the journal), page number. /1/ Sekulić, D., Dedović, V. (2008): Simulation of oscillatory behavior of buses with conventional and active suspension systems, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, Vol. 6, No. 20, pp. 23-32 Book: /Number/ (must match number in the text), Last name, Initial of the authors name, (Year of publication) Book title: secondary title, Place of publishing: Publisher. /2/ Vasić, B., Popović, V. (2007) Inženjerske metode menadžmenta, Beograd: Institut za istraživanja i projektovanja u privredi. Book chapter: /Number/ (must match number in the text), Last name, Initial of the authors name, (Year of publication) Chapter title: secondary title, Book title: secondary title, Place of publishing: Publisher, page numbers. /3/ Vasić, B. (2004) Model Hardverskog resursa, Menadžment i inženjering u održavanju, Beograd: Institut za istraživanja i projektovanja u privredi, 95 – 97. Internet source: /Number/ (must match number in the text), link to the page from which the text is taken, retrieved on (state the date) /4/ http://www.autogume.net/veleprodaje/kelena/, retrieved on November 7th, 2010

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SADRŽAJ

OD UREĐIVAČKOG ODBORA Prof. dr Mirko Vujošević UVODNIK

52 - 53

REZIMEI RADOVA Ana Perić PREGLED PRAKSE PLANIRANJA BRAUNFILD REGENERACIJE - NEKA EVROPSKA ISKUSTVA

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Orlando Chiarello, Dr Jezdimir Knežević POJEDNOSTAVLJENI TEHNIČKI ENGLESKI JEZIK U MIRCE MEHANICI

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Bojana Jovanović, Dr Vojislav Božanić, Bojan Jovanović OBRAZOVANJE U OBLASTI ENERGETSKE EFIKASNOSTI U SRBIJI-REZULTATI ISTRAŽIVANJA I ANALIZA

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Dr Miroslav Demić, Dr Đorđe Diligenski, Dr Milan Milovanović PRILOG ISTRAŽIVANJU UTICAJA DEGRADACIJE KARAKTERISTIKA OSCILATORNIH PARAMETARA VOZILA NA TOPLOTNO OPTEREĆENJE AMORTIZERA

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Hrvoje Puškarić, Dr Danijela Tadić, Dr Mirjana Misita, Dr Miladin Stefanović, Dr Dragan Milanović OCENA PERFORMANSI CILJEVA KVALITETA NA NIVOU PROCESA U NEIZVESNOM OKRUŽENJU

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Vladimir Janko Desnica, Dr Dragana Šarac IMPLEMENTACIJA GIS TEHNOLOGIJE U ORGANIZACIJI URUČENJA POŠTANSKIH POŠILJAKA

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OD UREĐIVAČKOG ODBORA

BRZO UČENJE, ZNANJE I NAPREDOVANJE

Prof. dr Mirko Vujošević

Odavno se ponavlja fraza da se svet ubrzano menja i da se svako mora ubrzano prilagođavati okolini. Moraju se sve brže zadovoljavati potrebe i brže izvršavati zadaci, mora se brže učiti i brže profesionalno napredovati. To postaje dominantni obrazac ponašanja društva koje uređuje nevidljiva ruka pohlepe, tržišta i konkurencije favorizovanjem efikasnosti iznad svega ostalog. Tipična posledica je sveprisutna praksa brze hrane. Savremeni čovek je nju prihvatio, on zahteva brzo serviranje obroka i navikao se da ga brzo pojede. Slično, potrebu sa znanjem želi i izgleda da može da zadovolji brzo. O tom fenomenu želim da iznesem nekoliko svojih ličnih iskustava i opservacija.

Već u prvom razredu osnovne škole, davne 1957.g., imao sam drugove ponavljače. Tada je bilo prihvatljivo da neko ne može i ne mora da završi osnovnu školu. Davno je donesen zakon po kome deca u osnovnoj školi ne mogu da ponavljaju razred. Taj princip će kasnije biti implicitno prenesen na srednju školu. U poslednjih nekoliko godina, pod parolom bolonjizacije, sličan pristup se primenjuje na visoko školstvo. Studiranje je danas suštinski različito od onog sedamdestih godina dvadesetog veka kada sam ja bio student. Prva godina fakulteta je bila strogi filter: mnogi studenti su napuštali fakultet jer do druge godine nisu mogli dospeti. Prosečno studiranje je trajalo i do 50% više od nominalno propisanog. Visoke ocene su se teško zarađivale, a desetke su bile prava retkost. Danas se propisuju obavezujući „standardi” visokog procenta obavezne prolaznosti na ispitima i raspodele ocena. Ogromna razlika postoji i u pogledu raspoloživosti udžbeničke literature. Moja generacija na odseku elektronike morala je da izučava tada nove poluprovodničke tehnologije o kojima u domaćim udžbenicima skoro da nije bilo ni reči. Privilegovano je bilo vrlo malo studenata koji su imali neki savremeni i skupi udžbenik na engleskom jeziku i uz to, srećom, znali engleski koji se tada retko učio u školama. Fotokopiranje nije postojalo. Sadašnji studenti su od zabavišta rasli uz kompjutere i internet, a engleski su uz crtane filmove sa TV-a i CD-a učili uporedo sa prvim rečima maternjeg jezika. Obilje informacija im je uvek bilo raspoloživo na pritisak dugmeta. Nema teme ili pojma o kojima na internetu ne mogu pronaći neke informacije i znanja. Nastala je izreka: ako nema u glavi, ima na guglu. A kada je to tako, zašto išta mora da bude u glavi kad se internetu može pristupiti uvek i bilo gde? Kao što se brzo sažvaće sendvič kupljen na šalteru restorana brze hrane, tako se brzo preleti i preko informacije sa internetskog sajta. Kao što čovek brzo oseti da je sit, tako brzo stekne i utisak da zna ono što je video na internetu. I u oblasti poslediplomskih studija i istraživačkog rada povećava se efikasnost. Magistarske studije su meni bile ozbiljan izazov jer su statistički podaci govorili da ih završava tek desetak pa i manje procenata od ukupnog broja onih koji su se upisali. Diplome doktora nauka bile su još ređe. Danas magistarskih studija nema. Uglavnom su njihovi programi olakšani i prepakovani u programe doktorskih studija u kojima se, u cilju akreditacije i u skladu sa nekim standardima, precizno navodi šta sve i za koje vreme (a najviše pet godina) treba naučiti, istražiti i otkriti da bi se stekla doktorska titula. Osnovni cilj nevidljive ruke je postignut jer se efikasnost značajno povećala: na nekim fakultetima je u poslednje tri godine stepen doktora nauka steklo približno onoliko kandidata koliko ukupno u prethodnih 20 godina! Izgleda da su pravila iz osnovne škole doputovala na doktorske studije: student treba samo da se upiše i bude uporan, a za eventualni neuspeh kriva bi bila navodna neorganizovanost fakulteta. Posle završenih doktorskih studija mora se brzo napredovati. Nekad nije bilo retko da se sa univerziteta ode u penziju sa zvanjem vanrednog profesora. Sada bi se smatralo ličnom katastrofom kada neko ne bi ispunio formalni birokratski uslov za redovnog profesora još pre pedesete godine života. Konzumenti brze hrane izloženi su visokim zdravstvenim rizicima koji su prepoznati kao ozbiljan socijalni problem. U cilju zaštite stanovništava donose se sve strožiji propisi i medijski širi svest o haz52

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OD UREĐIVAČKOG ODBORA

ardima brze hrane. Kada je u pitanju brzo znanje i sticanje diploma, meni se čini da smo u fazi masovnog širenja te pojave i tek početnog prepoznavanja povezanih rizika. Naravno, i ovde birokratija pokušava da ostvari izvesnu zaštitu propisivanjem instrumenata za merenje kvaliteta istraživačkog rada pojedinca. I dok se u oblasti hrane u svrhu određivanja kvaliteta mogu primeniti znanja iz fundamentalnih nauka, (hemije, biohemije, biologije...), u oblasti brzog napredovanja na osnovu znanja, fundamentalna naučna znanja ne postoje bez obzira na formiranje i razvoj scientometrike. Svedoci smo da se kao najznačajniji i skoro jedini kriterijum za ocenu kvaliteta istraživača nameće broj radova objavljenih u časopisima sa famozne liste SCI. Takav pristup presudno utiče na perverzno ponašanje istraživača: u prvi plan se stavlja objavljivanje a ne obavezno stvarno obogaćivanje riznice znanja. Princip “objavi ili nestani” (publish or perish) izložen je žestokoj kritici u ozbiljnim naučnim sredinama. Birokratska pravila su implicitno učinila legitimnom pohlepu u okviru uspostavljene tržišne utakmice u oblasti obrazovanja, znanja i sticanja diploma. Zato ona ne onemogućavaju, već naprotiv, podstiču njeno suštinsko koruptivno dejstvo. Bez etičke dimenzije, o kojoj je široko pisao i Adam Smith kao protagonista društveno korisne pohlepe i nevidljive ruke tržišta, nema stvarnog napretka u razvoju društvenih odnosa u ovoj oblasti. S poštovanjem, Prof.dr Mirko Vujošević

Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1

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REZIMEI RADOVA Broj rada: 11(2013)1, 243

doi:10.5937/jaes11-2122

PREGLED PRAKSE PLANIRANJA BRAUNFILD REGENERACIJE - NEKA EVROPSKA ISKUSTVA Ana Perić Univerzitet u Beogradu, Arhitektonski fakultet, Beograd, Srbija Predmet rada je analiza mogućih načina za postizanje interesne usaglašenosti u procesu regeneracije braunfild lokacija. U užem smislu, razmatra se tretman braunfild lokacija u okviru različitih planskih sistema. Svaki od izabranih planskih sistema je opisan pomoću prikaza institucionalne strukture, kao i planske regulative. Cilj rada je na prikazu mehanizama urbanističkog planiranja koji se korsite za uspostavljanje saradnje izmedju različitih stejkholdera koji učestvuju u procesu braunfild regeneracije. Na samom početku dat je kratak istorijat prostornog razvoja, sa posebnim akcentnom na prikazu aktuelnih tendencija u domenu braunfild regeneracije. Centralni deo rada se bavi prikazom izabranih primera dobre prakse u pogledu regeneracije braunfild lokacija. Naime, razmatra se institucionalni aspekt planskog sistema u okviru Švajcarske i Austrije. Od posebnog značaja je utvrdjivanje nadležnosti institucija odgovornih za proces regeneracije braunfild lokacija. Takodje, važno je prikazati osnovne dokumente koje se bave pomenutom tematikom. Ipak, fokus istraživanja je na prikazu kolaborativnih procedura za postizanje uspešne regeneracije braunfilda. Rezultati ovog dela rada proizilaze iz analize primera braunfild lokacija. Prvi primer je regeneracija kompleksa drvnopreradjivačke industrije u švajcarskom gradu Zoloturnu, dok se drugi primer odnosi na regeneraciju fabrike električnih kablova u Beču. U završnom delu rada se sistematizuju iskustava iz razvijenih zemalja što omogućava eventualnu formulaciju generalnog modela braunfild regeneracije koji se može primeniti u različitim kontekstima. Ključne reči: Austrija, Švajcarska, Interesna usaglašenost, Zainteresovane strane, Saradnja, Braunfild regeneracija

Broj rada: 11(2013)1, 244

doi:10.5937/jaes11-3322 POJEDNOSTAVLJENI TEHNIČKI ENGLESKI U MIRČE MEHANICI Orlando Chiarello* Secondo Mona S.p.A., Italy Dr Jezdimir Knežević MIRCE Akademy, Woodbury Park, Exeter, United Kingdom

Drugi axiom Mirce Mehanike glasi: “Verovatnoca greske u izvrsenju svakog zadatka odrzavanja je veca od nule”. Analiza procesa odrzavanja jasno pokazuje da nejasna komunikacija izmedju konstruktora i odrzavalaca, kroz dokumentaciju odrzavanja, je poznati uzrok greskaka u odrazavanju, koje mogu imati znacajnih posledica na pouzdanost, raspolozivost, bezdednost, troskove i efektivnost tehnickih systema. Ovaj rad se fokusirana na nejasnost dokumentacije odrzavanja, napisane na engleskom jeziku, od strane 80% svetskog kadra odrzavanja kojima engleski nije maternji jezik. Vecina njih poseduje delimicno znanje engleskog jezika, sto znaci da ih kompleksne structure recenica i viseznacujuce reci i sinonimi mogu vrlo brzo zbuniti. Znacajan doprinos u pravcu povecanja efektivnosti komunikacije izmedju konstrutora i odrzavalaca techniskih sistema je ostvaren kroz kreiranje i primenu Pojednostvaljenoig Technickog Engleskog, cije prednosti su prkazxane u ovom radu. Ključne reči: Mirče mehanika, Greške održavanja, Dokumentacija održavanja, Pojednostavljeni tehnički Engleski, Trening tehničkih autora

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doi:10.5937/jaes11-3489

Broj rada: 11(2013)1, 245

OBRAZOVANJE U OBLASTI ENERGETSKE EFIKASNOSTI U SRBIJI – REZULTATI ISTRAŽIVANJA I ANALIZA Bojana Jovanović Iritel a.d. Beograd, Srbija Dr Vojislav Božanić Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet organizacionih nauka, Beograd, Srbija Bojan Jovanović Univerzitet u Beogradu, Elektrotehnički fakultet, Beograd, Srbija U regionu Balkana, pa samim tim i na teritoriji Republike Srbije, potrošnja energije u odnosu na bruto domaći proizvod je velika. Republika Srbija potroši dva do tri puta više energije u odnosu na bruto domaći proizvod u odnosu na prosek u Evropskoj uniji. Na teritoriji Republike Srbije se početkom 2013.godine očekuje se objavljivanje Zakona o racionalnoj upotrebi energije, koji je trenutno u fazi nacrta. Usvajanje navedenog zakona je jedan od koraka u pristupanju Srbije Evropskoj uniji, jer će zakon u osnovi imati preuzetu evropsku direktivu o energetskoj efikasnosti. Kako bi se utvrdilo u kojoj meri je pojam energetske efikasnosti zastupljen u sistemima formalnog i neformalnog obrazovanja, kao i koliko je poznavanje ove oblasti uopšte, sprovedeno je istraživanje. U ovom radu je prikazano jedno istraživanje koje je urađeno sa ciljem dolaženja do informacja o tome koliko je učenje o različitim faktorima koji utiču na energetsku efikasnost zastupljeno u sistemima formalnog i neformalnog obrazovanja u Srbiji, kao i kolika je upoznatost građana sa ovim pojmom. U radu je najpre prikazan izgled upitnika koji je distribuiran ispitanicima. Kako bi se što jednostavnije i brže prikupili potrebni podaci, korišćen je on-line upitnik. Upitnik je kreiran u vidu web aplikacije. Istraživanje je urađeno na uzorku od 200 ispitanika. Zatim je prikazana struktura ispitanika. Nakon toga su prikazani dobijeni rezultati istraživanja i njihova analiza, sa predlogom daljih istraživanja u budućnosti. Ključne reči: Energetska efikasnost, Obrazovanje, Istraživanje

doi:10.5937/jaes11-3270

Broj rada: 11(2013)1, 246

PRILOG ISTRAŽIVANJU UTICAJA DEGRADACIJE KARAKTERISTIKA OSCILATORNIH PARAMETARA VOZILA NA TOPLOTNO OPTEREĆENJE AMORTIZERA Dr Miroslav Demić Univerzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet inženjerskih nauka, Kragujevac, Srbija Dr Đorđe Diligenski Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut nuklearnih nauka Vinča, Odeljenje za motore i vozila, Beograd, Srbija Dr Milan Milovanović Grupa Zastava vozila, Kragujevac, Srbija Tokom razvoja motornih vozila, značajnu ulogu ima dinamička simulacija, koja je zasnovana na modeliranju. Uloga modeliranja je veoma značajna u prvim fazama projektovanja, tokom definisanja opredeljujućih parametara. U praksi se obično pretpostavlja da su oscilatorni parametri vozila tokom eksploatacije nepromenljivi, što u osnovi nije tačno. Naime, sva istraživanja pokazuju da tokom eksploatacije dolazi do degradacije oscilatornih parametara i, zbog toga, promene dinamičkih karakteristika motornih vozila. U ovom radu će biti učinjen pokušaj da se, na osnovu preliminarnih rezultata, ukaže na neophodnost da se, zbog toplotnih opterećenja, i u najranijim fazama projektovanja promene uključe u razmatranje tokom modeliranja vozila. Ključne reči: Vozilo, Oscilatorni parametri, Degradacija, Oscilatorna udobnost, Topotno opterećenje amortizera Journal of Applied Engineering Science 11(2013)1

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REZIMEI RADOVA Broj rada: 11(2013)1, 247

doi:10.5937/jaes11-3271

OCENA PERFORMANSI CILJEVA KVALITETA NA NIVOU PROCESA U NEIZVESNOM OKRUŽENJU Hrvoje Puškarić* Univerzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet inženjerskih nauka, Kragujevac, Srbija Dr Danijela Tadić Univerzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet inženjerskih nauka, Kragujevac, Srbija Dr Mirjana Misita Univerzitet u Beogradu, Mašinski fakultet, Beograd, Srbija Dr Miladin Stefanović Univerzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet inženjerskih nauka, Kragujevac, Srbija Dr Dragan Milanović Univerzitet u Beogradu, Mašinski fakultet, Beograd, Srbija Poboljšanje poslovnih procesa ostvaruje se između ostalog poboljšanjemciljeva kvaliteta koji su definisani na nivou svakog procesa. U praksi nije moguće da se istovremeno izvrši poboljšanje svih identifikovanih ciljeva kvaliteta. Neophodno je da vrednosti ciljeva kvaliteta budu određene primenom odgovarajuće metrike. Prema dobijenim vrednostima ciljeva kvaliteta, menadžment tim oderđuje redosled poboljšanja ciljeva kvaliteta. U ovom radu, relativan odnost važnosti svakog para identifikovanih ciljeva kvaliteta zadat je u matričnom obliku. Performanse ciljeva kvaliteta su opisane pomoću lingvističkih iskaza. Svi lingvistički iskazi su modelirani trougaonim fazi brojevima. Nov model za ocenu vrednosti ciljeva kvaliteta sa respektovanjem njihove relativne važnosti je predložen. Razvijeni model je testiran ilustrativnim primerom u kome egzistiraju podaci procesa razvoja jednog preduzeća koje funkcioniše u realnom okruženju. Ključne reči: Ciljevi kvaliteta, Fazi skupovi, Ocenjivanje

Broj rada: 11(2013)1, 248

doi:10.5937/jaes10-2164

IMPLEMENTACIJA GIS TEHNOLOGIJE U ORGANIZACIJI URUČENJA POŠTANSKIH POŠILJAKA Vladimir Janko Desnica* Javno preduzeće PTT saobraćaja, Novi Sad, Srbija Dr Dragana Šarac Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet tehničkih nauka, Novi Sad, Srbija Pošta Srbije treba da inoviranjem postojećih i uvođenjem novih komercijalnih servisa u proces rada, stvori uslove za poboljšanje asortimana usluga. To se može postići uvođenjem visokih tehnologija automatizacije, mehanizacije i posebno info-komunikacione tehnologije i Geografsko informacionog sistema (GIS). U radu su razmatrani rezultati studije slučaja primene GIS-a na primeru dostavnih rejona Pošte Srbije u Novom Sadu, a na osnovu kreiranih tematskih mapa. Cilj je da se primenom ove tehnologije poveća efikasnost i produktivnost dostavne službe. Ključne reči: Dostavna služba, Geografski informacioni sistem (GIS), Tematske mape

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Istraživanja i projektovanja za privredu-Applied Engineering Science 1(2013)11