EDITORIAL Greetings Dear Readers from the Editorial Team of Crucibles. Crucibles wishes all its readers a Very Happy and Prosperous New Year 2014!!! It gives us great pleasure in releasing the 25th edition of E-Zine. We hope that all of you enjoy reading our magazine. This edition of Ezine comprises of a factual side of management as its Cover Story. We have four new external contributors this month, 1. Shri Chandra Kishore Prasad, Professor at Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering and Telecommunications(IRISET) 2. Monica Barthalomeo, PGP/SS/13-15 – IIPM 3. Darshana Mudiraj, PGP/WIN/13-15 – IIPM 4. Urvashi Tyagi, PGP/WIN/13-15 – IIPM
We would like to thank all the contributors for this magazine who have taken out their valuable time and sent us articles. We hope that this association continues to thrive. Crucibles has had a long break and is now in the path of an ultimate make-over. We will soon be having new faces and talents supporting the team to take the legacy forward. The recent orientation has revealed an immense amount of energy from the lot who are themselves looking for a virtual growth through this journey called Crucibles. Let us end with a note, “Whatever you chase will run away from you. So stop chasing what you want to be and realise, you already have it all.”
Happy Reading!!! NEETHU UNNIKRISHNAN
SURVEY ON LABOURERS - SRIPERUBUDUR If the 20th century saw colonization and wars, the 21st century is witnessing the exploitation of the working class. Globalization enabled the capitalists to expand their industrial empire across the globe. Since the liberalization of 1990‟s India attracted a huge flow of foreign capital investments. Investor friendly government policies and the burgeoning purchasing power of middle class Indians, attracted many trans-national automobile companies. The automobile industry is one of India‟s major sectors; accounting for 22% of the country‟s manufacturing GDP. The Indian auto industry is the seventh-largest in the world with an annual production of 17.5 million vehicles of which 2.3 million are exported. According to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), the auto sector accounts for 4% of total foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow into India. Chennai is the biggest hub accounting for 60% of Indian auto exports. Chennai plays a vital role in the manufacturing map of the nation. Most of the trans-national companies including - FORD, Hyundai, BMW, Daimler, Nissan-Renault have their manufacturing units in the suburbs of Chennai.Industry-friendly government policies, proximity to the port, a traditional engineering base are factors that have made the City the „Auto Hub‟ of India. The Indian automobile industry provides 1.3 Lakh direct and indirect employments. But often the ‘cheap labor tag’ is one important factor that attracts trans-national companies to invest in Chennai. Apart from manufacturing, Chennai is becoming the export hub for the major auto companies. Often, people who make the cars (workers) are the most exploited in Chennai‟s auto manufacturing value chain. Places like Sriperumbudur, Orragadam, Ambattur, attracts huge number of workers from various parts of the state owing to the proximity of these places to the automobile companies and their ancillary component manufacturing units. Most of them are migrant laborers who reach the city from far away villages in search of a better living standard. But what they get in return are poor wages, exploitation, and the denial of their collective bargaining rights at their workplaces by their employers. The successive state governments are interested to attract FDI (Foreign Direct Investments) to the state economy. But they are not concerned about the number of quality jobs being created in the state. In most of the auto/ancillary units, the workers are being denied with their genuine rights. Often, their concerns like the workplace safety, better salaries, job security etc. are being stymied. The companies keep an internal agenda to keep the unions away from their shop floors, so that the workers won‟t have a collective bargaining power. The workers who try to organize a group are being dismissed without any genuine reasons. The working class, constitute a major role in the development of middle class citizens of our nation. This survey and the report is a genuine effort by few workers themselves to understand the issues and problems faced by their comrades at their workplaces. Throughout the survey the leaders and the team members, who are working with various automobile and component manufacturing units had shown tremendous energy, passion, and goodwill to ensure that they
reach the maximum number of coworkers as well as try to understand their issues. Irrespective of their busy work schedules they have taken time to comb through the narrow streets of Sriperumbudur and the surrounding areas in search of the working men and women to fill the survey questionnaires. Most of the workers who participated in the survey welcomed this new initiative and cooperated along with the team. Approximately 400 workers were included in the survey. The difficulties in reaching out to people, and the time constraints of the volunteers made the survey to be limited to a niche crowd of 400 workers. All the questions included in the questionnaire are represented with pictorial diagrams along with the response from the workers. The pictorial representation may help the readers, especially the working comrades to assess the data in an easy way. The observations of the survey from the pictorial diagrams are noted under them using bulleted lists. The questionnaire and the surveys were done in Tamillanguage to reach the target group of workers in their mother tongue, so that they can share their problems easily with the volunteers. The English translation of the survey Questionnaire is mentioned below. 1.) Name 2.) Age 3.) Educational qualification 4.) Married/ Unmarried? 5.) Native place/State/District 6.) Which company are you working for? 7.) Job title/designation? 8.) Are you involved in the core job/direct production? 9.) Have you worked with any other company prior to this job? If so, mention the company name? 10.) Current salary/CTC? 11.) Is your current salary adequate enough to manage your family expenditures? 12.) Do have a voice to discuss about the work issues/salary/safety with your company management? 13.) Do you have a union at your work place? 14.) What are your major issues at your work place?
15.) How often does the labor commissioner or his representatives visit your factory premises? 16.) Is the government taking any appropriate initiatives for workers? What are your expectations from the government for protecting workers rights? 17.) Would you like to join a progressive organization that can ensure your collective bargaining rights?
Age Group of workers
Below 20 Yrs. 21 to 25 26 to 30 31 to 35 36 & above
Companies â€˜utilizeâ€™ the most productive years of a human being for their manufacturing job. Most of the workers are in the age group of 21-30 Years.
Marital Status of workers
With the existing salary structure most of the workers prefer ‘not to get married’ as they cannot support a family with the poor salaries. They prefer to remain as bachelors until they get a better paid job.
Often, the workers are selected from other districts by the companies. This makes them difficult to organize! Most of these migrant laborers are brought to the city by ‘contract labor agents’.
Job status of workers
Permanent Temporary Trainee
The Trainees and the temporary employees constitute a major chunk of the employees. It’s the general strategy of the company managements to reduce the number of permanent employment. This strategy will help the management to make the unit production cost much cheaper!
Are the workers involved in direct production or not?
Most of the workers including the temporary workers and the trainees are doing the core manufacturing job; this is a breach of the Contract Labor act. Only permanent workers are supposed to do the core manufacturing activity
Is the current salary adequate to support your family or not?
Almost 90% of the workers agree that they can’t support their families with their current salaries. With an ongoing WPI (Wholesale Price Index) based inflation level of 4.56, its clear that most of the workers can’t meet their basic needs in their lives.
Is the company providing you a chance to speak your grievances to the management? 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes
The above data clearly indicates that the worker’s voices are not being heard by the company managements. In most of the companies the workers doesn’t even have a grievances redress system.
Table: Expected salary with respect to the current WPI* based inflation rate 10,000 Rs.
26,000 Rs. & above
Most of the workers feel that they need minimum 18,000 to 25, 000 Rs. to sustain themselves and to support their families.
Do you have a union and collective bargaining power at your plant? 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes
Company managements have an internal agenda to keep the unions off the shop floor, thereby stymie the union supporters and the workerâ€&#x;s collective bargaining rights.
Is there any periodic, official visits from the Labor department at your factory? 0% 0% Yes 13%
The officials from the Labor departments are not doing their duty. They may be irresponsible or they could have accepted the bribes from the company managements!
Is there any central /state government intervention for your job related issues?
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes
The successive governments are not concerned about the labor issues, which is making the situation worst at the shop floor.
Table: What are the main job related issues in which you expect the government interference is essential? No. of workers who said that their Jobs No. of workers who said that the law must be made permanent implementation must be done
Are you willing to Join a union for your collective bargaining rights? Yes
Most of the workers feel that they need an effective union at their workplace. They strongly feel that Unions can make a difference to their jobs.
Conclusion o It‟s the general strategy of the company managements to reduce the number of permanent employment. This strategy will help the management to make the unit production cost much cheaper! o Most of the workers including the temporary workers and the trainees are doing the core manufacturing job; this is a breach of the Contract Labor act. Only permanent workers are supposed to do the core manufacturing activity. o Almost 90% of the workers agree that they can‟t support their families with their current salaries. With an ongoing WPI (Wholesale Price Index) based inflation level of 4.56, its clear that most of the workers can‟t meet their basic needs in their lives. o The worker‟s voices are not being heard by the company managements. In most of the companies the workers doesn‟t even have a grievances redress system. o Most of the workers feel that they need minimum 18,000 to 25, 000 Rs. to sustain themselves and to support their families.
o Company managements have an internal agenda to keep the unions off the shop floor, thereby stymie the union supporters and the workerâ€&#x;s collective bargaining rights. o The officials from the Labor departments are not doing their duty. They may be irresponsible or they could have accepted the bribes from the company managements! o The successive governments are not concerned about the labor issues, which is making the situation worst at the shop floor. Most of the workers feel that they need an effective union at their workplace. They strongly feel that Unions can make a positive difference to their jobs.
CHASE YOUR DREAMS Remember that you always dreamt of being someone extraordinary, special and unique as a kid. You‟d get inspired every time you‟d watch a Superhero show. The whole idea would be around saving the world, making a positive impact in the lives of people and being known for doing good. I‟m sure every person born on this planet must have had this thought as a child. It‟s not only in this Technology or Electronic era that people have these thoughts, the people who lived in the ancient times whenever they were told stories of heroes who saved their kingdoms wanted to be one of them. These dreams brought forth great leaders the world ever witnessed who made an impact and influenced many for good like Alexander the Great, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Junior, Walt Disney, etc. What happens when you chase your dreams? It’s Contagious: Whenever you are passionate about your goals and visions, you end up spreading some kind of charisma to the people around you. You become an inspiration to others to pursue their dreams. You become a beacon of hope. Drives you Crazy: Dreams don‟t make you sleep, they make you pursue them. I heard a saying from a wellknown person. He said that Graves are the most treasured and richest places in the world. Initially, I thought that this person doesn‟t make any sense. He had a valid reason though. He said that because many people have gone back to the dust without giving their dreams even a try. They left it at the level of thought, without executing it once. Do you want to be one of them or do you want to make your existence on this planet memorable? Chasing your Dream: Strategize: First, be sure of your vision. “Goals are dreams with deadlines”. You can understand things better when you pen them down. Once you are clear about what you want to do or how you want to see yourself in few years from the moment, you can start devising a concrete plan. Prioritize: It doesn‟t end with planning. Most of them plan correctly; however, find it difficult when it comes to executing the plan. This happens as they don‟t know the significance of priorities. If
you want to work on your dreams and want to see it fulfilled, you have to pay a price. The price might be in terms of your time, energy, money, or anything. We know the famous proverb, “No Pain, No Gain”. Execute: Now that you are clear of what you need to do, you can start executing your plan. You might face obstacles in your journey, but you need to maintain a positive through it all. You need to finish what you started, don‟t ever think of giving up. Keep your chin up and move ahead, that‟s the only formula. Say no to “Approval Addiction”: During your journey you might encounter people of different mentalities. Some might appreciate your ideas and some might not. Anyone loves to be appreciated and recognized for anything they do, but when it comes to taking criticism, they take it negative. Whenever you have people mocking you or criticizing you, that‟s when you are growing, rather when they appreciate you. Gold is purified only when it is put in a furnace. So whenever you find yourself in a similar situation, be of good cheer, you‟re growing and becoming better. “Don’t Follow Your Dreams, Chase Them!” ~ Walt Disney
PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY FOR LAN Introduction
Passive Optical Network (PON) technology is finding its way deep into the Local Area Network (LAN) to provide significant features, benefits and cost savings to large businesses and organizations. This is particularly true for the Gigabit PON (GPON) flavor, which is standardized by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and used extensively around the world for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) for triple-play service delivery. A passive optical network (PON) is a point-to-multipoint network architecture that provides a fiber-to-the-desktop solution in which unpowered (hence passive) optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple end points with multiple services. Passive Optical LAN (POL) solutions are implementations of PON technology platforms that have been optimized for enterprise LAN environments. Although this technology has only been made available in the last couple of years, it is quickly gaining traction in the communications industry. The drivers contributing to a successful POL adoption are primarily: Scalability and reliability Ease of use and administration Energy savings and environmental sustainability Optimized bandwidth connectivity Advanced security Lowest total cost of ownership (savings in initial capital equipment cost as well as ongoing operational cost)
Due to one or more of these drivers, decision makers are increasingly choosing to forgo the status quo of a copper-based Ethernet LAN and take advantage of what POL has to offer for the long-term benefit of their organizations. POL is best suited for larger LAN deployments, where scalable and immediate cost savings are most realized and longer-term operational benefits of the solutions can be gained. Passive Optical LAN adoption: Until recently, the high cost of a future-proof, fiber-to-the-desktop LAN architecture kept it out of reach for many organizations. However, today, capital expense related to POL equipment and infrastructure can run up to 40 percent less than the traditional copper-based Ethernet solution. In addition, deploying a POL system can result in 50 to 70 percent savings
in system operational expenses compared to a copper system due to less energy consumption, reduced HVAC and UPS cooling requirements, and lower monitoring and maintenance costs. This disruptively low total cost of ownership savings along with the many other benefits of the future-proof fiber infrastructure contributes to POL gaining traction in the market. POL Design and Installation Challenges As can be expected with the fast adoption of any new technology, some challenges may be encountered with regard to the design and installation of the network infrastructure. Deciphering Industry Cabling Standards Support for POL Applications In August 2012, the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) published Addendum 2 to the ANSI/ TIA 568-C.0 Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premises. In this addendum, the TIA generic cabling standards have been updated to support single mode fiber PON applications for the LAN. The standard now provides the following guidance with regard to PONs:
Link and channel definitions have been updated to accommodate PONs.
Link attenuation does not include any active or passive devices other than cable, connectors and splices (i.e., link attenuation does not include such devices as optical bypass switches, couplers, splitters, repeaters or optical amplifiers).
Channel attenuation includes the attenuation of the constituent links, patch cords and other passive devices, such as bypass switches, couplers and splitters. Channels begin and end at active devices and they do not include active devices, such as repeaters, switches and amplifiers. The channel attenuation is the sum of all link attenuations and attenuation values for all passive components.
Optical Fiber Application Support Information Table 9 added for PONs.
Table 9 has been added to the standard, indicating “Maximum Supportable Distances and Minimum and Maximum Channel Attenuation for single mode Passive Optical Network Applications.” The table provides guidelines for designing the minimum and maximum channel attenuation and supported distances for various PON applications.
With regard to the GPON Class B+ (ITU-T G.984) POL application support, the standard states; Minimum attenuation = 13 dB, Maximum attenuation = 28 dB, for 20 km distance
(Based on minimum performance requirements of singlemode fiber as established by TIA568-C.3 Optical Fiber Cabling Components Standard) POL technology uses single mode type of fiber, which is necessary to enable wave division multiplexing of upstream and downstream signals on a single fiber (no separate transmit and
receive). It also incorporates the use of passive optical splitters located anywhere between the main equipment Ethernet aggregation chassis or optical line terminal (OLT) and workgroup terminals, also known as optical network terminals (ONTs). Note that the POL application can be designed over a 20 km (about 12 miles) distance. The passive optical splitters serve to branch the signal from one PON port on the OLT to typically up to 32 ONTs located in or near the work areas. With typically four gigabit Ethernet ports per workgroup terminal, a single OLT can support up to 7192 Gigabit Ethernet ports. As required for POL, TIA 568-C.0 has long recognized singlemode fiber media type in the cabling subsystems for the backbone and horizontal links and specifies minimum performance requirements in TIA-568-C. Additionally, the fiber connectors typically required by POL applications (primarily SC/APC) are also allowable connector types. Regarding topologies supported, TIA-568-C.0 requires generic structured cabling to be installed in a hierarchical star. Strict adherence to the standard allows the optical splitters to be installed in the telecommunications spaces distributors A, B or C. This allows some amount of opportunity in the design to take advantage of the flexible POL infrastructure. Keep in mind that the permanent links for the backbone or horizontal as defined and specified per the standards should not include the optical splitter losses in the attenuation calculations. Regarding the horizontal fiber distribution, the standard recommends a two-fiber or higher count to each work area. The recent update to the TIA cabling standards represents a significant development for enablement of PON LAN technology adoption in our industry. With the changes made to the TIA-568-C.0-2 publication, POL can now be designed and supported in accordance with the industry standards intended to ensure the longevity of the infrastructure life cycle as well as to ensure the performance of the application system bandwidth over the distances specified. Consider the following statement of stewardship by the TIA (Telecommunication Industry Association), “Telecommunications infrastructure affects raw material consumption. The infrastructure design and installation methods also influence product life and sustainability of electronic equipment life cycling. These aspects of telecommunications infrastructure impact our environment. Since building life cycles are typically planned for decades, technological electronic equipment upgrades are necessary. The telecommunications infrastructure design and installation process magnifies the need for sustainable infrastructures with respect to building life, electronic equipment life cycling and considerations of effects on environmental waste.” POL adoption for an organization promotes significant energy conservation and environmental sustainability by enabling all of the following:
Reduction in overall power consumption on a per-Ethernet port basis in comparison to traditional technologies as well as effectively eliminating electrical and HVAC requirements in the telecommunications room.
Reduced physical cable plant infrastructure (significant reduction in cabling and interconnect materials; up to 90 percent less cabling materials required, depending on configuration).
Reduction in building construction square footage required for the telecommunications space requirements by eliminating the active electronics support normally required on each floor (this building space can be re-purposed for other uses and/or savings spent on advanced IT features instead).
Increased infrastructure life cycle by utilizing single mode optical fiber with properties of high bandwidth supported over long distances (further enabling a sustainable infrastructure capable of supporting future generations of electronics over the building life).
In these ways, POL can provide quantifiable benefits with regard to energy and sustainability. Overcoming the â€œFear of Fiber Fiber cabling as well as the design and installation of it for an in-building LAN network is in many ways more robust and simpler than copper structured cabling. Over the years network designers and installers as well as building architects have become accustomed to dealing with the many technical challenges and limitations imposed by 100-ohm balanced twisted-pair structured cabling to support the traditional copper-based Ethernet LA. However, POL and the single mode fiber-to-the-desktop infrastructure provide higher performance over longer distances and can reduce installation challenges associated with the copper-based LAN. In 2002, the first bend-insensitive single mode fiber cable was launched in the U.S. It was capable of a 10 mm (about 3/8 inch) bend radius without affecting signal performance. Since then, manufacturers have improved upon this feature and developed fiber with specifications that support 7.5 mm (about 1/4 inch) and even 5 mm (3/16 inch) bend radii.Current low-water peak fiber (OS2) has less than 0.35 dB per km at 1310 nm. This means that fiber cabling media can be easily handled. Compared to copper structured cabling solutions, the fiber cabling media that is available today has numerous advantages with regard to durability and performance. (See figure A.)
2 22 22 l. 5 b8 / l 1m b ,m f 0 0 0 f t
Fig: A Riser cables
rated Bendinsensitive SM Fiber Cable 10G Distance 40,000 m Cable Outer 2.9 mm Diameter Weight 4 lb/1000 ft Minimum 10 mm (down to Bend Radius 5 mm) Tensile Atleast 50 lbf Strength (Installation
Category 6 UTP
Category 6 UTP
45 m 5.7 mm
100 m 7.5 mm
22 lb/1000 ft 22.8 mm
39 lb/1000 ft 30 mm
Fiber media is easier to install than copper structured cabling due to the following traits:
Much lower bend radius. The minimum bend radius for fiber cable is 5-10 mm, depending on the type, Compared to approximately 30 mm for Category 6 copper cabling and up to 50 mm for Cat 6A, depending on the diameter and shielding of the copper cabling. This makes the fiber installation bend radii specifications much easier to obtain with suitable smaller interconnect and cross-connect apparatus than that required for copper cabling.
Robust pulling tension. Fiber media typically has a 50 to 100 lbf pulling tension specification, compared to traditional copper media, which is relatively delicate and specified to only 25 lbf tension for cables that are installed by pulling. This 25 lbf limit is imposed in order to safeguard the required twists of the copper conductor pairs. Otherwise, performance degradation due to crosstalk and other parameters can occur during the installation.
Fiber is small. Typical fiber cables used for longer distribution runs are 2.9 mm or less in outer diameter, compared to copper structured cabling, which is twice that for Cat 6 and more for Cat 6A. For this reason, fiber solutions compared to copper structured cabling can significantly reduce installed space requirements, congestion and install time.
Fiber is lightweight. Fiber cabling media weighs a fraction of copper media. Fiber typically weighs four pounds per 1,000 feet, compared to 22 or 39 pounds per 1,000 feet for Cat 6 or Cat 6A, respectively. Fiber‟s lighter weight makes it easier and less costly to install. Fiber can be an environmentally responsible and sustainable choice:
An all or partial fiber choice for the installed in-building network can provide benefits of environmental sustainability. For example, an all-fiber LAN can save thousands of pounds in raw materials of plastic and copper when substituting for just oneRiser-rated Cables sizeable copper structured cabling project.
The LEEDs (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) internationally recognized Green Building Council program can reward building owners who choose fiber with certified accreditation based on a points criteria. LEED certification can lead to increased property values for certified buildings.
With a general lifetime reliability expectancy of 25-50 years and longer, fiber is a very good choice for future-proofing the infrastructure investment.
Other benefits of fiber cabling media:
Fiber is more secure as a transmission media because it is harder to tap into than copper
cabling, and it is not vulnerable to compromising emissions of radiated signals.
Fiber networks do not require shielding to mitigate issues of EMI/RFI interference, which causes performance degradation.
Fiber cable is all-dielectric, so it presents no grounding and bonding issues.
Fiber is better suited than copper to allow for converged services because it can support numerous separate or converged networks (like POL) on independently managed multiple transmission light wavelengths.
In addition to the above advantages of fiber cabling media, it is surprised to learn that fiber inside plant cabling is very easy to test and verify for correct installation and qualification required to obtain a manufacturer‟s typical extended warranty certification. In contrast, according to the ANSI/TIA 568-C.0 cabling standards, copper cabling requires measured verification of no less than seven technology parameters for confirmation of the installed copper infrastructure performance characteristics: insertion loss, return loss, pair-topair NEXT, pair-to-pair ACR-F, propagation delay, wire map, continuity for signal conductors, short circuits, open circuits and screened conductors, if present. If any of these parameters are out of limits, troubleshooting activities will be required. Therefore, the fiber inside plant may be easier to test, certify and commission compared to traditional copper structured cabling. SHRI CHANDRA KISHORE PRASAD
Professor at Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering and Telecommunications (IRISET)
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDIA - A BURNING ISSUE You might be listening to news, reading newspaper or magazine, you would have gone through incidents and accidents with women in India. While any other article on women‟s empowerment in India will take a look at our rich heritage and enlightened societies of the past where women were treated as equals, the concept of “India” itself evolved quite recently, relative to the sum of its parts‟ histories. But the TRUTH is that in the modern India, the woman has always been a second grade citizen, no matter what its esteemed leaders have said or done. It is hard to fathom how slow moving the cultural exchange of the world is when you find out that there are several places across the country where harmful customs of the ancient world coexist with modern appliances and thought. However that may come as hardly any surprise to anyone who has lived in India – the dichotomy of society is something that can only be explained by a refrain from an old Bollywood song: “It happens only in India!” Yes, it is only in India that glaring and brutal gang rapes occur frequently in a state that is headed by a woman Chief Minister. Gender discrimination is the least of worries for women in India, known otherwise as the fourth most dangerous country in the world for women. Other instances of violence against women has an astonishing and grim variety to it – with acid throwing, domestic violence stemming out of dowry, rape, harassment and an assortment of others. WHAT IS WOMEN EMPOWERMENT? In the simplest of words it is basically the creation of an environment where women can make independent decisions on their personal development as well as shine as equals in society. it is no real surprise that women empowerment in India is a hotly discussed topic with no real solution . CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN The crimes against women fly directly against orchestrating women empowerment in India. A report on the crimes against women by the National Crime Records Bureau comes up with some alarming statistics:-
Percentag e Variation in 2012 over 2011
Sl Year No Crime Head 2006 .
Rape (Sec. IPC)
Percentag e Variation in 2012 over 2011
Dowry Death (Sec 302/304 7,618 IPC)
Torture (Sec. 498-A 63,128 IPC)
1,06,52 7.5 7
Molestation (Sec. 354 36,617 IPC)
Sexual Harassment 9,966 (Sec. 509 IPC)
Importation of Girls 67 (Sec. 366-B IPC)
Sati Prevention Act, 1987
Immoral Traffic (Prevention)
Sl Year No Crime Head 2006 .
& Abduction (Sec. 363 to 373 IPC)
Percentag e Variation in 2012 over 2011
Indecent Representati on of 10 1,562 Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
Dowry 11 Prohibition Act, 1961
Sl Year No Crime Head 2006 .
1,64,76 1,85,31 1,95,85 2,03,80 2,13,58 2,28,65 2,44,27 6.8 5 2 6 4 5 0 0
A total of 2,44,270 incidents of crime against women (both under IPC and SLL) were reported in the country during the year 2012 as compared to 2,28,650 in the year 2011 recording an increase of 6.4% during the year 2012. These crimes have continuously increased during 2008 – 2012 with 1,95,856 cases in the year 2008, 2,03,804 cases in 2009 and 2,13,585 cases in 2010 and 2,28,650 cases in 2011 and 2,44,270 cases in the year 2012. West Bengal with 7.5% share of country’s female population has accounted for nearly 12.7% of total crime against women by reporting 30,942 cases during the year 2012.
CHALLENGES There are several challenges that are currently plaguing the issues of women‟s rights in India. A few of these challenges are presented below: EDUCATION While the country has grown from leaps and bounds since its independence where education is concerned, the gap between women and men is severe. While 82.14% of adult men are educated, only 65.46% of adult women are known to be literate in India. Not only is an illiterate women at the mercy of her husband or father, she also does not know that this is not the way of life for
women across the world. Additionally, the norms of culture that state that, the man of the family is the be-all and end-all of family decisions, is slowly spoiling the society of the country. Eradicating this gap and educating women about their real place in the world is a step that will largely set this entire movement rolling down the hill to crash and break the wall of intolerance, negligence and exploitation. POVERTY IN THE COUNTRY About a third of the countryâ€&#x;s population lives on less than 1.25USD per day. The GINI index keeps rising slowly over the years, indicating that the inequality in the distribution of wealth in the country is increasing, currently hovering a little close to 33.9. Poverty is considered the greatest threat to peace in the world, and eradication of poverty should be a national goal as important as the eradication of illiteracy. Due to abject poverty, women are exploited as domestic helps and wives whose incomes are usurped by the man of the house. Additionally, sex slaves are a direct outcome of poverty. Andhra Pradesh accounts for nearly half of all sex trafficking cases in India, the majority involving adolescent girls. According to police estimates, a shocking 300,000 women and girls have been trafficked for exploitative sex work from Andhra Pradesh; of these just 3,000 have been rescued so far. If poverty were not a concern, then the girl child will be able to follow her dreams without concerns of sexual exploitation, domestic abuse and no education or no work. The health and safety of women are paramount for the wellbeing of a countryand is an important factor in gauging the empowerment of women in a country. ACTIONS TAKEN TO EMPOWER WOMEN There are some actions being taken for empowering womensuch as:1. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL The United Nations Development Programme constituted eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for ensuring equity and peace across the world. The third MDG is directly related to the empowerment of women in India. The MDGs are agreed-upon goals to reduce certain indicators of disparity across the world by the year 2015. 2.Formation for ministry for women and child development, to drive the holistic development of women and children in the country. 3.National Commission for Women The National Commission for Women is a Department within the Ministry of Women and Child Development. It was set up exclusively to help women via the Constitution â€“ by reviewing Legal and Constitutional safeguards for women, recommending remedial legislative measures, by facilitating quick redressal of grievances and by advising the Government of India on all policy matters affecting women. The website allows for online submission of complaints and fast redressal exclusively for women. Additionally it is also a good resource of information for women and the Commission is committed to helping out women in need.
In the end, to truly understand what women empowerment is, there needs to be a sea-change in the mind-set of the people in the country. Not just the women themselves, but the men have to wake up to a world that is moving towards equality and equity. It is better that this is embraced earlier rather than later, for our own good. Swami Vivekananda once said â€œarise away and stop not until the goal is reachedâ€?. Thus our country should thus be catapulted into the horizon of empowerment of women and revel in its glory. We have a long way to go, but we will get there someday. We shall overcome. URVASHI TYAGI
DEVELOPING EXCELLENT FOCUS - HOW TO OVERCOME OUR FEAR "Focus on where you want to go, not on what you fear." Anthony Robbins. It seems to me that right now people are consumed with FEAR. It's everywhere we go. People are afraid of the economy, afraid for their jobs, business, afraid for our country â€“ FEAR seems to be the language of the day. Yet when we let fear in, we push out peace, creativity and joy! Fear will rob us of productivity, opportunity and relationship. Fear makes our world small and blinds us to solutions. There has never been a better time to get out of our own way and get rid of fear. But it is possible. We can choose to FOCUS on where we want to go instead of where we may go. Often fear is tied up in letting our minds consider all the negative outcomes that could happen. The key word is could - most of the time our fears never materialize. But when we focus on what could happen we get off course. We can choose to make a commitment to change our focus. To focus on where we want to go, where we are inspired to go. Some ways I feel we can overcome our fears could be: 1. Taking a small risk everyday: By practicing taking risks we learn that they are not so scary and that our fears usually never materialize. 2. Change our language: Instead of saying, "I am afraid I may lose my job or business." Try saying, "I will focus on being the best in my field and even if I lose my job or business, I will find a place to apply my skills." All language can be turned into something that focuses us towards our future and our dreams. 3. Read something inspiring ever day: Biographies, success stories or other inspirational material can help us keep on track. 4. Make a list of the worst possible outcomes around the things we fear: For example, if we lose our job or business, one of the worst possible outcomes would be that we would end up losing our home. When we look at the worst thing that could happen, we then decide that we won't die if it happens and that more than likely it will not get to that. By accepting the worst and reassuring ourselves we will be okay - we do not need to fear. 5. Focus on our priorities: Our family is the most important thing in our life. We could lose our home, our job or business or our money but at the end of the day what matters most is the people we love. Focusing on our priorities helps us to put things into perspective. Focus on where we want to go - let go of our fears and live our life to the fullest today! DARSHANA MUDIRAJ
R.B.V.R.R. Womens College
Guest Lecture with Prof. C K Prasad on Operations Management