Page 1

Cover Story



"Despite the strong support of all professional regulatory boards and accredited professional organizations back in 2008, some professionals criticized CPE program as a waste of time and money", narrates Ellen Claire Malimban. Continue reading what else our professionals have to say starting on Page 42.


CONTENTS Double Issue 2017



Benn Siman and Bryan Salamat share how our electrical professionals can determine equipment grounding conductor sizes using the performance approach.

President's Desk


"Moving forward to global recognition, this year’s leadership is committed to bring significant difference to the lives of its members and electrical practitioners", ensures President Joebe Panhilason. He continues: "guided by the Institute’s Vision 2020, we humbly share with you the highlights of the Institute’s achievements for the past five months."



"Smoking is something personal to smokers", Edcel Artificio notes. "Everyone has his or her story on how one started and keeps on smoking. Most of the time, smoking has become a habit that is difficult to break and is already part of body systems." Know more about its nature and new government policy on public smoking on Pages 30-31.

EE Woman


Delia Fainsan shares: "I started studying IE but trouble came when my professor, who was very authoritative, embarrassed me in front of my classmates. In order to avoid the professor, I shifted to EE the next semester." And that's the reason why she landed as an EE professor.




Bea Charlyn Laino, a proud Bacolodnon, shares: "I know leaving would be a little difficult. But then again, you have all those activities and experiences to remember which can always bring out a smile on your face." Check out what she is referring into the City of Smiles in Negros.



THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER asks National Transmission Corporation President Melvin Catibag five questions on the power to connect Filipinos to fast internet services with the help of the country’s power facility.



Thinking what more Arduino can do, THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER teamed up with Leo Augustin Vela of Camarines Norte State College and Virgilio Lamotan of Adamson University, together with their EE student mentees, in what else can pull out from the wonders of this electronic module.



"At last, we reached the bell tower. There, we saw the numerous houses circling San Sebastian. And it makes me wonder, do these people know how much this grand church beside them is suffering," reflects Vincent Bryan Velez on the restoration of the grand and all-steel San Sebastian Church in Manila.


MISSION t To enhance the competencies of electrical practitioners to make positive contribution towards new trends and technologies t To be an authority of electrical engineering services that results to safe, reliable and efficient systems t To consistently deliver high quality products and services duly recognized by international organizations and institutions t To promote awareness on the use of environmentally friendly electrical products, services and resources as well as active participation on disaster preparedness and recovery programs


THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER’s Kaycee Victorio sits with former IIEE President Rogelio Avenido to talk about his past, present, and future, and other life’s lesson in this debut section of the magazine.

VISION To be the leading electrical professional organization globally The views and opinions expressed by the contributors of THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER do not necessarily reflect the views the editors and publishers of the magazine or of Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE). IIEE and the editorial board carry no responsibility for the opinions expressed in the magazine. Articles or visual materials may not be reproduced without written consent from the publisher. The publisher reserves the right to accept, edit, or refuse submitted materials for publication.


64 OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR DISTRIBUTED ENERGY IN THE PHILIPPINES Jessie Todoc discusses the challenges facing the introduction of disruptive energy (DE) sources and distributed power in the Philippine power system. "Why distributed energy is seemingly becoming popular", he asks. "For one, many DE technologies are based on renewable energy and low carbon fuels and are thus environment-friendly, and many other reasons to consider."

POWER OVER-ETHERNET LIGHTING Willardo Mesa weighs the efficiency of power over ethernet lighting. Will it be soon become popular among the new building installations? Check out his findings.


Francis Luces and his colleagues discuss requirements for coordinating generator full-load capabilities and steadystate stability limits, with generator protection, excitation system limiters and voltage control settings. "Starting from fundamental concepts of generator protection, synchronous generator power capabilities and excitation system control, the paper builds toward understanding and implementing the requirements for coordination specified in the 2016 update of NERC Standard PRC-019-2."



We asked our readers (both online and in print) why they will settle with letters in hard copy or swipe up and down in their iPads. Read on and choose which side of the fence you are most comfortable with.




Ť #SelfIIEEver Ť Wants Energy Engineering Ť Burnt Conductors, Forgotten Circuit Breakers

What's the News

Ť Saudi Arabia Central Region Kicks Off With Lightning Protection Ť Zambo Chapter Donates EE Books Ť 400+ Attend North Luzon Conference Ť Bicol, Batangas Schools Lead NSCON Ť IIEE Teams with WoldBex 2017 Ť IIEE, BEE Urge HS Grads to Take EE Ť Phinma Energy Joins Oplan Dagitab Ť IIEE, CDO State U Advance EE Professionals in the Region Ť IIEE, DOE Host ASEAN Energy Workshop Ť IIEE Names New Director Ť EE Practitioners All-Smile at Bacolod Midyear Confab Ť Oman Professionals Start New Chapter Ť PRC Welcomes 2,883 New EEs, RMEs Ť Middle East Conference Goes Dubai, Again Ť Standards Group Sought use of PV Standards Ť Saudi Chapter for Coastal Clean-Up


I'm a fresh grad EE. Got this old issue from #WorldBEX2017.. One of my favorite topic in EE (Electrical Safety).. Ganda ng magazine, very informative. Sana maka-receive ako ng other issue sa sunod, good luck sa akin sa jacket at lalo na sa darating na September board. #SelfIIEEver #SizeSmall hahaha #PromoteElectricalSafety #MorePowerIIEE SALVADOR ALFONSO BUQUE // Via Facebook

Its helps me a lot to do my jobs better #selfIIEEver MICHAEL MARTIN // Via Facebook

Hahaha #SelfIIEEver Got it on our chapter headquarter! Nice and informative! ERLINDA CORPUS // Via Facebook

Ahahahaha! Nice magazine! #SelfIIEEver JERIC COSEP // Via Facebook

Knowing that you are reading and enjoying our magazine makes us sleep better for doing a good job of serving the electrical practitioners and our partners all over the country. That is why we asked our readers online to post their best selfies with THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER and share to us something or two about the magazine. We got lots of posts, and here are some of the best of them, a testament of gratitude for doing great stories from small people and events and making you inform in our ever-changing world that is EE. // Ed IIEE.ORG.PH

Hi! These are my THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER magazines. I've been using this magazine as a useful guide and supplementary source of ideas and concepts for my personal and professional growth. Aside from that, this serves as my effective tool for teaching and giving new information to my students as a college instructor. Thank you for publishing these magazines. Kudos IIEE! #selfIIEEver LEO VELA // Via Facebook

The photo may not be that clear but I am assuring you guys, all news and information provided in THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER are clear. Thumbs up to the editorial team for doing great just to provide the best mag. #selfIIEEver CHRISTIAN SIMON BALTAZAR // Via Facebook Please send regularly. If we can have electronic copy, the better. BENEDICT SY // Via Facebook VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 5





Volume xlv NO. 3 2016


Sing and Dance with our SupEEr Woman

Passing the Board, Here’s How

Contributors of feature articles, technical papers and photographs will receive special token from THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER. Send your feedbacks and contributions to

The reason we struggle with insecurity is because we compare our behindthe-scenes with everyone else’s highlight reel. // Steven Furtick

EE Humor


ello THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER. As I am reading the magazine, I found out that your editor is currently taking MS in Energy Engineering in UP. I am eyeing to take that program as well but I am afraid that I might be rejected in the admission because of my GWA in college. I have always been longing for excellence so I can be the best I can in this profession. Now, can you help me out on what would be the best preparation so I can to secure a slot in the program? By the way, I am planning to apply for SMARTENING UP THE PHILIPPINE GRID the program in 2020 which will give me two years of preparation. I will also be taking the board exams this coming September. Thank you and more power. THE OFFICIAL MAGAZINE OF THE INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED electrical engineers of the philippines, inc.

Eat, Drink, and Sail in Zamboanga

We welcome your ideas, questions, and feedbacks regarding our previous issues. THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER reserves the right to edit articles for the sake of clarity, grammar, and brevity.


Will smart grid raise our power resiliency?

MARK REDEN BARCENAS // Via Facebook Hi Reden. Thank you very much for reading THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER. Ideally, the program is open to all sorts of students without bias on your performance in your undergraduate studies but you have to prove in your application that you can conduct research during your tenure as a graduate student. As preparation, you can start reading as many literatures as you can that interests you since graduate studies include more time reading research papers and books. We hope that you are doing good in your review and will pray for your success in the coming board exams. Looking forward to meet you soon and work with you as well! EDITOR // Via Facebook



here are two cases of electric circuits that bugged my imagination very recently. The first one is what has been contributed by Mr. John Keenan F. Martines, which for want of name, I have dubbed as “the case of burned out 5.0 HP, three phase exhaust system” (THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, Vol. XLV No. 1 2016) and the much more general condition of failures of operation attributed to stocked-up air circuit breakers which failed to break the circuit in view mostly of corroded contacts points or some other causes.

The case of burned-out exhaust system as mentioned by Mr. Martinez needs to be clarified as to: 1. Whether the system is served by a three phase, three wire system from the source of power to the utilization of power continuously; 2. Whether it is served by rigid metal conduit (RMC) or electrical metallic tubing (EMT) throughout the system and properly grounded at points prescribed by the code; 3. Whether there are points along the extend of the system are crossed and whether the same crossing has been installed in the manner approved by the code. The fact that observations made on the damaged three phase system indicated a burned out conductors inside a conduit system may mean that it is the conduit which enclosed the conductors that may have overheated. Which means that there is a circulating current between the conduit on one hand and the three phase conductors. This also means that there is no reliable grounding or perhaps Continue on next page 6 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017


there is one grounding which differs in resistance with one another causing a circulating current between the three conductors inside the conduit. If there are wire carrying power that crossed the conduit that carry the three phase conductors, it may also induced certain low frequency circulating currents. In any case, the proper installation in conduit pipes must follow the required conditions under which it is installed including among others the required bonding together the grounding system. When air circuit breakers fails to disconnect the sources of power at a time when it must disconnect automatically, there is no way that it can safely be done but to abandon your house or your establishment and run for your life! That is the main reason why in the days of the late Turing Lopez, one of the examiner in the days of Engr. Festin and Engr. Gil (if I recall it right) I made a suggestion of a tandem main switch of the fusible type – a fuse holder - of equal rating as the main air circuit breaker installed in series with the main air circuit breaker so that in the event of failure of the main air circuit breaker can be manipulated (of course, by qualified persons) manually to disconnect the source of power. The suggested fuse holder, of course entails an added expensive to the user of the system but it may make a difference when manipulated during emergencies which may save lives and properties. It cannot be denied that air circuit breaker which is supposed to disconnect an errant circuit may fail to operate as designed for many reasons and one

of these is corroded points which fused together the movable contacts. It cannot also be denied that the Philippines is surrounded by miles of coastlines and therefore the corrosive effect of the sea cannot be dismissed altogether. And when air circuit breaker is left for years without manually switching the same on and off, it is ripe for failure to operate in most cases due to fused movable contact points which has been severely damaged due to corrosion or simply rendered inoperable. The idea is to have these fuse holder or if the owner so desire, the safety enclosed type switch of the same rating as the main circuit breaker installed after the meter in series with the main circuit to afford a manually operable device. In the case of fuse holder, the same shall be enclosed with lock and key which shall be tested for manual operation for a period not exceeding fives from the time last tested. It is here that the usefulness of RMEs, REEs, and PEEs can be exemplify for the country as their certification as to the testing of the fuse holder or the safety switches can be required as a condition for operations of building or structures. Unfortunately, the sudden death of examiner Turing Lopez put everything in suspension until the same has been practically forgotten. Recently, however, I was alarmed at the news that almost always carries with it the burning of building in the country. That forced me to recall the things that have been buried in forgetfulness and so I have written this. MINDANAO E. BACONGUIS, PEE 774 // Via Mail










The existing set-up (left) and the proposed one as recalled by Mr. Baconguis. IIEE.ORG.PH

VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 7

Ask the EExperts



id you know that Philippine Electrical Code (PEC) 2009 has an effort to harmonized National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. Based on the preface of the PEC 2009: The 2009 edition of the Philippine Electrical Code, Part I (PEC1 2009) was prepared by the PEC1 Committee under the auspices of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE). PEC1 2009 is a product of countless hours of study and discussions among the members of the PEC1 Committee. It embodies the continuing effort of the Committee to integrate the experiences gained in the practice of electrical engineering with the provisions for safety for life and property espoused by the Code. Another continuing effort reflected in PEC1 2009 is harmonizing the Code, which is referenced from the 2005 edition of the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70), together with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. Although much still needs to be done, an endemic standard for safety in electrical installations remains the mission for future Code committees. (Emphasis by the authors)

Let’s take an example and compare performance approach mentions in PEC1 2009: Given: Ground fault level = 55.32 kVA No. of parallel sets = 11 sets

Due to the consideration of IEC in PEC 2009, sizing of equipment grounding conductor using the performance approach in accordance with section 131 of IEC 603641 (2005) standard as mentioned in article (d) of PEC 2009, Part 1, Volume 1 can be consider. This is also consistent with numerous IEEE Standard publication for cable thermal damage due to fault (phase or ground fault). Particularly IEEE Std 141-1993 (Red Book), IEEE Std 142-1999 (Green Book), IEEE Std 242-1986 (Buff Book) and being used as reference for National Electrical Code. The performance approach is based on the protection of equipment grounding conductor against thermal damage during ground fault condition using the adiabatic thermal damage equation for copper conductor: I2t A2

=50237 ln [

234.5 + T2 234.5 + T2

] (1)

Where: I = fault current in A t = circuit protective device tripping time in s A = cross sectional area of the copper conductor in sqmm T1 = initial conductor temperature in ºC T2 = final conductor temperature in ºC The above equation is based on section 5.6.2 of IEEE Std 141-1993 (Red Book) but converted to the Metric system. 8 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

Sample system of 11 sets and 55.32 kVA ground fault level. Determine the following: 1. Minimum size of a single set of grounding conductor on the cable tray with the assumption that the ground fault element is set at 0.3 s. 2. Same as above item 1 but considering ground fault element is set at 0.5 s. 3. Same as item 2 but consider 11 sets. Using performance approach: From formula (1): Item No. 1 (55320)2(0.3) A2

=50237 ln [

234.5 + 150 234.5 + 30


A2 = 221.77 mm2, say 250 mm2 (from PEC table) IIEE.ORG.PH

Item No. 2 (55320)2(0.5) A2

=50237 ln

234.5 + 150 [ ] 234.5 + 30

A2 = 285 mm2, say 325 mm2 (from PEC table) Item No. 3 285 mm2 11

= 25.9 mm2, say 30 mm2

Using the PEC approach: TABLE MINIMUM SIZE EQUIPMENT GROUNDING CONDUCTORS FOR GROUNDING RACEWAY AND EQUIPMENT Rating or Setting of Automatic Overcurrent Device in Circuit Ahead of Equipment, Conduit, etc., Not Exceeding (Amperes) 15 20 30 40 60 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 6000

Size mm2 (mm dia.) Copper 2.0(1.6) 3.5(2.0) 5.5(2.6) 5.5(2.6) 5.5(2.6) 8.0(3.2) 14 22 30 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 175 200 250 400 400

Copper Aluminum or Copper-Clad Aluminum* 3.5(2.0) 5.5(2.6) 8.0(3.2) 8.0(3.2) 8.0(3.2) 14 22 30 38 50 60 80 100 125 175 200 325 325 400 600 600

Item No. 1: Cable is 250 mm2 Item No. 2: Cable is 250 mm2 Item No. 3: Cable is 11 sets of 250 mm2 Performance approach calculation can be consider for economic and cost effective solution in approaching grounding sizing. Although in theory and principle performance approach is acceptable, the calculation shall be presented properly to the Authority having jurisdiction. IIEE Technical Information Committee would like to acknowledge Engr. Benn Siman, PEE/ Department Head – Meinhardt Philippines and Engr. Bryan Salamat, REE/ Assistant Head – Meinhardt Philippines Inc. for sharing this article.


VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 9



After my Energy Engineering master’s degree, what’s next, asked my friend over coffee. I told her maybe a few years of laid-back life, enjoying my time like the time when life has not been to much complicated and busy. Well, everybody deserves a rest after a quick but work-loaded two years, I told myself. Graduate studies can be both physically and mentally exhausting. An academic leave did not prevented me reporting to my work sometimes and do other stuff I used to do before. And that added to the complications of studying. Me enjoying and loving learning is always an understatement. With the reintroduction of continuing professional development (CPD) to all Filipino professionals, I can only think that I got unlimited opportunities. Sadly to say that not all of my CPD-related activities were accredited by the Professional Regulations Commission (PRC) neither of its instrumentalities. Maybe that is the challenging part of this lifelong learning concept for PRC license holders - staying afloat with all of the new and exciting things that is coming in our respective professions. After all, we get old when we settle less and be mediocre. We stay young when we learn new tricks and reinvent ourselves. This is the main feature of the double issue of your magazine, stories that will make you think dream, and survive on your professional life. We let you decide, but we will just keep you inform. We don’t judge, because staying afloat is always a personal, unique, and subjective decision we all have to make, whether one has PRC license or not. Also, we have the story of former IIEE president Rogelio Avenido, the May 2017 PEE/REE/RME oathtaking ceremonies keynote speaker. We would like to share with you his story of struggles and success, and everything in between. Because like your life, his story is worth to highlight, to share, and to reflect. We do hope our double issue this year will make you read more and want more of your magazine. We still look for more opportunities for you to participate more, share your stories and insights, and learn from your fellow PEEs, REEs, and RMEs. Because like what I have written, everyone of us has a story to tell. Remember that contributing for your magazine is also a lifelong learning opportunity, so does preserving our heritage, travelling around the country, staying healthy and young, building new technologies, or learning new EE ideas. Learning is always personal, unique, and subjective. So choose your learning scheme that fits you, wisely.

Victor Calinao is a photogpraher who studies engineering and writes for his college publication. He is always on a pursuit for genuine happiness. Christian James Concepcion loves to watch films and walk around the streets of Manila late at night. Micah Dylan Crisologo believes that most of the best things in life were savored in small quantities. Jonero Dacula Jonero Dacula is an EE student who loves to write and travel. You won't be having food leftovers when you are eating with him though. Bea Charlyn Laino is a dreamer, traveller, storyteller, and everything in between. Ellen Claire Malimban is a determined and ambitious girl trying to survive the chaotic world.

Going back with my friend in the coffee shop conversation, I remember her asking: Why settle to be the best and do those things I use to do? I said that, *G I live idle, IXJMM grow weak. After all, when I keep myself occupied, busy and learning, nagpapahinga ako.

Vincent Bryan Velez is currently taking BS Civil Engineering yet still chasing his dream as a journalist.

Sounds like Ricky Lee. But true.

April Zamora is a freelance artist and animator who loves anime, games and ducks. Visit her portfolio site at aprilsworkshop.

Kaycee /KayceeBVictorioOfficial /eyesby.kaycee /kayceebvictorio /KayceeBVictorioOfficial



he Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. once envisioned becoming the authority of electrical engineering services; strengthen our partnership and coordination with the government agencies and private sectors in advocating reforms that are both beneficial to the industry and national development. Amidst challenges persistently confronting the EE profession, our Institute continues to sustain professional excellence, promote advancement among its members and active participation on disaster preparedness and recovery programs. While it is true that globalization and ASEAN integration opens great opportunities to our members, greater demands and challenges will also be brought to the fore. Moving forward to global recognition, this year’s leadership is committed to bring significant difference to the lives of its members and electrical practitioners. Guided by the Institute’s Vision 2020, we humbly share with you the highlights of the Institute’s achievements for the past five months. FINANCIAL GROWTH & SUSTAINABILITY The Institute gears in optimizing resources, expanding revenue opportunities and continuously develops effective financial planning and control. Based on the 12 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

Financial report the percentage for the budget utilization (receipts) is 14 percent, budget utilization (expenses) is 16 percent and the cost to serve per member is Php 900. MEMBERSHIP ENGAGEMENT & SATISFACTION IIEE is committed in enhancing membership programs, utilizing technology as enablers, advocating members to become PEE and harnessing chapter talents. Based on the membership records the distribution per region such as; Northern Luzon – 2,756, Central Luzon – 3,526, Southern Luzon -5,438, Bicol – 1,229, Western Visayas -1,121, Eastern/Central Visayas 3,054, Northern Mindanao – 1,413, Southern Mindanao -1,734, Western Mindanao - 481, Metro Manila -13,094, Foreign – 1,823. The total active members as of May 5, 2017 is 68,834. Furthermore, the total membership per grade the number of Professional Electrical Engineers is almost 2,053, with the total of 47,723 Registered Electrical Engineers, 18,774 for the Registered Master Electricians and 314 Auxiliaries members. The Institute continuously encourage the members in advancement of professional competencies for the International Engineering Registries. As of July 2017, the total number of ASEAN Chartered Professional Engineer (ACPE) – 92, ASEAN Engineers – 136 & APEC Engineer – 12. IIEE.ORG.PH

PRESIDENT'S DESK Moreover, the Institute provided various onsite and offsite trainings to develop the technical knowledge of the electrical practitioners from expertise in different industries.

Additionally, the IIEE is also looking forward for the expansion and structural design for the new IIEE building.

CORPORATE BRANDING The Institute keeps on developing and sustaining corporate brand, enhancing regulatory influence, developing pool of subject matter experts of resource persons which will bring us to the fore of thought leadership. The IIEE collaborated with the industries which was a memorandum of agreement of the following:

PROGRAM MANAGEMENT & ADVOCACY The Institute is expanding local and international linkages, enhancing advocacy initiatives and establishing opinion process. IIEE supports the following activities/programs of the following:

1. IIEE and PHINMA Energy Corporation held last March 24, 2017 at Canyon Cove, Batangas City. 2. IIEE and Management Association of the Philippines held last April 19, 2017 at Ayala, Makati City. 3. IIEE and Distribution Management Committee (DMC) held last May 19, 2017 at SMX Convention Center, Bacolod City. 4. IIEE and Bureau of Philippine Standards (BPS) held last May 20, 2017 at SMX Convention Center, Bacolod City. OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE & PROCESS INNOVATION IIEE keeps on improving operational effectiveness, establishing people program, creating new products and services and instituting continuous process improvement. Last January 6, 2017, the IIEE ‘s conducted strategic planning held at Microtel UP Techno Hub Diliman Quezon City which was participated by the Executive Committee, Council of the National Presidents and other committee members. Another activity conducted was a team building and orientation of the newly elected Board of Governors last January 20-21, 2017 at the First Pacific Leadership Academy, Antipolo City. The Board of Governors approved the 2017 theme, “Sustaining Initiative Growth for Global Excellence”, wherein IIEE is committed to develop the capabilities and skills of electrical practitioners to become globally competitive.

1. ESEA Committee, Metro Manila Region and IIEE staff participated in Bureau of Fire Protection kick off activity (unity walk) for the celebration of the Fire Prevention Month held last March 1, 2017 at Quezon City Memorial Circle, Quezon City. Electrical Safety Month headed by the Electrical Safety Enforcement & Awareness (ESEA) committee which is held at Mall of Asia, Pasay City last May 2, 2017 together with the supportive region Metro Manila, MERALCO and the IIEE staff. 2. The IIEE’s Oplan Dagitab, a corporate social responsibility initiative centered on electric power restoration, alternative electrification and electrical inspection encourages the chapters, regions and sectors to conduct and participate in Brigada Eskwela, Bigay Liwanag & Balik Liwanag. The approved OPLAN Dagitab guidelines was released last April 6, 2017 wherein the Committee will recognize the best projects on the Annual National Convention. 3. EU-ASEAN SHINE Project recently conducted technical presentations on ASEAN promotion and development of energy efficiency air conditioners led by Engr. Arthur A. Lopez, Project Manager during the regional conferences: 18th Northern Luzon Regional Conference last March 4, 2017 at Thunderbird Hotel & Casino San Fernando, La Union, 18th Southern

The IIEE collaborated with the universities and colleges which was a memorandum of agreement of the following: 1. IIEE & Trinity University of Asia held last July 7, 2017 at IIEE National Office Cubao Quezon City. 2. IIEE & ASIAN College held last July 25, 2017 at IIEE National Office Cubao Quezon City.


PLANNING AHEAD. IIEE officers, former presidents, then Executive Director Mon Ayaton and BEE's Jimmy Mendoza pose in the sidelines of Institute's Strategic Planning last January. PHOTO: Gelyn Lee

VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 13


Panhilason addressing guests, participants, and IIEE officers during the opening ceremonies of Metro Manila Conference. PHOTO: Gelyn Lee

Luzon Regional Conference last March 24, 2017 at the Canyon Cove, Batangas City, 21st Northern Mindanao Regional Conference last April 29, 2017 at Mallberry Suites Hotel, Cagayan De Oro City and National Midyear Convention last May 19, 2017 at SMX Convention Center, Bacolod City. During the first quarter of this year, HEMS conducted technical seminars in regionals conferences such as: 18th Northern Luzon Regional Conference last March 4, 2017 at Thunderbird Hotel & Casino San Fernando, La Union, 18th Southern Luzon Regional Conference last March 24, 2017 at the Canyon Cove, Batangas City. Regional Workshop on Energy and Minimum Energy Performance in Commercial and Industrial Sectors held last March 2930, 2017 at Manila, Mariot Hotel, Newport Pasay City. 3E XPO Launching held last April 18, 2017 at SMX Convention Center, Pasay City. The Institute upholds various activities and continuously supporting its valued partners’ endeavors as follows: 1. Courtesy visit with Senator Grace Poe last February 22, 2017 at the Senate of the Philippines, Roxas Boulevard, Pasay. 2. 3rd National Electrical Safety Summit, co-hosted by the IIEE and the Meralco Power Academy last May 26, 2016 held at Meralco Multi-Purpose Hall, Meralco Compound, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City. In addition, the IIEE sets the bar for electrical engineering community to bring its members and electrical practitioners at the fore global recognition 14 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

by holding the following regional conferences. The members actively participated and attended regional conferences to enhance technical proficiencies of the electrical practitioners. 1. 18th Northern Luzon Regional Conference held last March 3 -4, 2017 at Thunderbird Hotel & Casino San Fernando, La Union which was attended by 458 electrical practitioners. 2. 18th Southern Luzon Regional Conference held last March 24-25, 2017 at The Canyon Cove, Batangas City which was participated by 258 electrical practitioners. 3. 21st Northern Mindanao Regional Conference held last April 28-29, 2017 at Mallberry Suites Hotel, Cagayan De Oro City which was attended by 532 delegates composed of electrical practitioners and students in the region. 4. 19th Central Luzon Regional Conference held last June 30 – July 1, 2017 at Subic Bay Traveler’s Hotel and Events Center, Subic Bay, Zambales which was participated by 356 electrical practitioners. 5. 17th Eastern /Central Visayas Regional Conference held last July 21-22, 2017 at Radisson Blu Hotel, Cebu City which was attended by 659 delegates composed of electrical practitioners and students in the region. Likewise, the National Midyear Convention held last May 17-20, 2017 at SMX Convention Center, Bacolod City which was joined by more than 1000 delegates composed of electrical practitioners from the other regions/chapters. IIEE.ORG.PH


OPLAN DAGITAB LIGHTS, ENERGIZES NAGA 800 houses has been energized by IIEE, Naga City government, Aman Engineering, Power Compact Enterprises during the Oplan Dagitab - Balik Liwanag in the 12 areas of Barangays Bagumabyan Sur, San Felipe, Balatas, Cararayan, Pacol, and Concepcion Grande in Naga City, January 10-21. Spearheaded by IIEE Camarines chapter with the help of Metro West chapter and RME Affairs Committee, the program also distributed 50 solar lamps in Concepcion Grande as part of the Bigay Liwanag program under Oplan Dagitab. PHOTO: Bicol Chapter


Members of the Central Region Chapter Saudi Arabia (CRCSA) attended their first technical seminar for the year at Palace Hotel in Riyadh. 77 participants joined in a lively discussion of Farhan Nadri on BS EN 62305:2011 Protection Against Lightning. Nadri is the wire management and connectivity

ABB’s Farhan Nadri (leftmost, standing) answers an inquiry during the discussion on BS EN 62305: 2011 Protection Against Lightning seminar of Central Region Saudi Arabia chapters. PHOTO: Central Region Chapter Saudi Arabia


product marketing manager of ABB. Nadri narrated how the increased scientific understanding of lightning over the last two decades impact on man’s daily life and accompanying electronic system technology. The speaker highlighted the following in his discussion: principles of lightning and lightning protection, risk management, life and structural hazard, and electronic system protection. The event also featured the report of Chapter President Arnel Aguas and the recognition of some senior members. ▌

VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 15


ZAMBO CHAPTER DONATES EE BOOKS Zamboanga chapter officially launched Book Donation Program to key EE schools in the province, February 4 at Jose Rizal Memorial State University (JRMSU) in Dapitan. Book Donation Program aims “to enhance the learning capacity of EE students” and “to encourage our students to conduct research and design works in the course of their study using these references as guides,” said Jefferson Manrique, Zamboanga chapter president. Officers and members of Zamboanga chapter turned over copies of the Philippine Electrical Code, Electrical Safety, Protective Relaying, RA 7920 Handbook, and other technical references and manuals frequently consulted by PEEs, REEs, and RMEs to JRMSU with the presence of Student Affairs Dean Jay Telen, Engineering Dean Quiliano Lasco, and some EE students of the university. The program has been started last October 29 last year, donating same

set of books to Andres Bonifacio College. Julius Elorpe, registrar of the college, thanked the initiative of IIEE in the province as a boost to strengthen academe-professional organization linkage. Both schools will provide IIEE corner in their respective libraries to contain the collection the organization have donated. Zamboanga chapter plans to conduct the book drive annually with the help of PEEs, REEs and RMEs and patrons, and be able to reach out more school in the province. ▌

EE students with the officers of Zamboanga chapter shared the EE books to the Jose Rizal Memorial State University.


PHOTO: Zamboanga del Norte Chapter

458 delegates filled the halls of Thunderbird Resorts, Poro Point, San Fernando City, La Union for the 18th Northern Luzon Regional Conference, March 2-4. The conference has been led by Northern Luzon Governor Feleciano "Jojo" Padua III and host La Union chapter headed by Francisco Fontanilla III featuring 11 technical presentations, 13 technical product presentations, a number of meetings, sports activity, skills competition and exhibits. Technical discussions included topics on proposed EE bill, distribution code, motor operation and controls, applied protective relaying, efficient air conditioners and motors, CPD program, control gear, copper and aluminum connectivities, ASEAN and Asia Pacific Engineer Registry, among others.

Holcim’s Erano Santos accepts the plaque of appreciation from IIEE National President Joebe Panhilason during the closing ceremonies of the North Luzon Conference, March 4 at Thunderbird Resorts in La Union. 16 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

La Union Governor Francisco Emmanuel Ortega III and San Fernando City Mayor Hermenegildo Gualberto joined the opening ceremonies. Engr. Eraño Santos, Holcim Maintenance Manager, delivered the keynote speech during the closing ceremonies. ▌ IIEE.ORG.PH


Schools outside NCR dominates the competitions during the 18th National Student Convention (NSCon) last February 16-18, at three different venues in Manila and Pasig. NSCon is the annual gathering of electrical engineering and technology (EE&T) students in the country which features technical seminars, skills competition, quiz bees, and congress, organized by the Council of Student Chapters. Wiring, PLC skills

Snapshot of the National Math Wizard showdown held at Far Eastern University Gymnasium in Manila, February 18.

With 10 participating teams from different colleges and universities around the country, students from Bicol region dominated the 13th Skills Olympics. Group from Divine Word Colleges of Legaspi hailed as champion, followed by Computer Arts and Technological College, Legaspi and Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Manila, followed in first and second runner up places respectively, in the battle for skill prowess in building wiring installation and programmable logic circuit. Parallel with the Skills Olympics was the Annual Students Congress. The congress has been the platform of CSC

to discuss with delegates the accomplishments of the student arm of the Institute, as well as the challenges encountered by the members for the past academic year. The olympics and congress were hosted at the Technological University of the Philippines, Manila. 10 seminars MFI Foundation, Inc. in Pasig City served as venue for the 21st Mega Seminar, February 17. Attended by 254 students from all over the country, the seminar featured 10 technically-riched discussions including overhead distribution facilities by Andryn Beltran; power plant operation, performance testing and maintenance, Florencio Berenguel; pneumatics and programmable logic controllers, Sherlie Bunag; marine transportation, Vladimir Santos; and global Filipino practitioner, Edgardo Calantuan. Other seminars were industrial pneumatics, Venerando Sison; power system engineering, Jayson Francisco; electrical inspection, audit and safety, William Juan; solar power system, Ferdinand Francisco; and topping EE board exam, Romeo Quisto. UB, UST Highlighting the three day NSCon are the 16th National Math Wizard and 30th National Quiz Show, February 18 at the Far Eastern University-Institute of Technology. This was participated by the 50 winning teams from the regional competitions held September last year.

EE students (top) show their best skills in building wiring in the Skills Olympics at Technological University of the Philippines Manila, also the venue of Annual Student Congress below. PHOTOS:


The National Math contest was dominated by the University of Batangas, followed by University of Cebu, Mandaue and Divine World Colleges of Legaspi. University of Santo Tomas topped the National Quiz bowl, while Camarines Norte State College and Saint Louis University, Baguio trailed at first and second-runner up respectively. ▌ VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 17



The country’s biggest construction exposition teamed up with the Institute to bring the best to our electrical engineering practitioners. Metro West chapter hosted technical seminars for 120 participating PEEs, REEs, and RMEs, as one of the sidelines of the Philippine World Building and Construction Exposition (Worldbex), held last March 18 at SMX Convention Center, Mall of Asia Complex, Pasay City. Together with the construction industry exhibition, from highly sustainable building designs to emerging construction material trends, Metro West’s event matched up-to-date topics on operations and maintenance of electrical system in high-rise buildings, solar PV updates, and proper implementation of electrical safety— discussed by Domingo Abella III, Eugene Araullo, and Alwin Wagan, themselves. Worldbex 2017 is a large-scale venue for construction innovation presentations and business transactions. This stint gathers a huge number of recognized local and foreign companies on their exhibits, presenting them to the students, engineers, businessmen, and other industry stakeholders. ▌

Some of the 150 participants during the opening ceremonies of IIEE Technical Seminar as part of WorldBex2017 (top). IIEE Metro Manila Officers enjoy a light moment at the WorldBex exhibition. PHOTO: Metro Manila Region Chapter


To encourage high school students to consider and choose electrical engineering as their future profession, IIEE and the Board of Electrical Engineering (BEE) teamed up for a promotional video contest. Dubbed as Watt’s Your Course!, the EE promotional video competition is spearheaded by the Institute’s Academic Affairs Committee. The committee challenged video enthusiastic students to “show us the best way to encourage high school students to take electrical engineering in college, earn a degree, and make a difference through the profession that shows compassion, by making a video”. The competition is open to all college students. Entries must be submitted either by an individual or a group with atleast one EE student, and should not be longer than seven minutes. Deadline of submission of entries will be on September 30. Five finalist will be selected and judges by the panel composed of members of the IIEE Executive Committee, BEE, and representatives from the industry. Grand winner will receive cash prize of Php 50,000 and tokens for the students and the school, and will be annouced in the sidelines of the IIEE Annual National Convention at SMX Convention Center on November. Finalists will receive Php 5,000 and tokens each. Interested parties may check the IIEE website ( for the full mechanics. ▌

18 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017


Phinma Energy’s Francisco Viray (seated, 2nd from left) signs the Oplan Dagitab cooperation with IIEE National President Joebe Panhilason, as part of the South Luzon Regional Conference at Nasugbu, Batangas. Joining them is former IIEE National President Sheila Cabaraban. PHOTO: Southern Luzon Region



PHINMA Energy Corporation entered into an understanding to strengthen IIEE’s flagship corporate social responsibility initiative Oplan Dagitab. The memorandum has been accomplished during the opening ceremonies of the 18th Southern Luzon Regional Conference at Canyon Cove Resort, Nasugbu, Batangas, March 24. PHINMA Energy is a Philippine firm engaged in energy resource exploration and development, power generation, and electricity supply, represented by Francisco Viray, president and chief executive officer and Sheila Cabaraban, project development manager. Viray, former president of the Institute in 1992, also served as the keynote speaker of the conference. Cabaraban was the 2015 IIEE national president. As continuing commitment to nation building, Oplan Dagitab is the threepronged program of the Institute that undertakes Balik Liwanag or power restoration to calamity IIEE.ORG.PH

stricken areas, Bigay Liwanag or alternative electrification to communities, and Brigada Eskuwela or electrical inspection and safety education to schools nationwide. Alex Cabugao, IIEE 2014 national president, currently chairs the program committee.

kicked off with golf tournament at KC Hillcrest Hotel and Golf Club, March 18. For two days, Southern Luzon Governor Allan Anthony Alvarez and host chapter of Batangas led programs and activities for PEE, REE, RME, and student-members.

IIEE and PHINMA Energy affirmed to intensify collaboration particularly in areas where the energy company has presence. 2017 National President Joebe Panhilason announced that the Institute will arrive with more partnerships like with PHINMA to further the reach of Oplan Dabitab across the country.

Students were able to visit 2 MWp solar power plant of Absolute Distillers, Inc in Lian. RMEs showed their hand prowess in Electrician Skills Olympics. REEs were encourage to upgrade to PEEs through mentorship workshop. Forum on Capacitors and Reactors, Professional Practice, and ASEAN and APEC Chartered Professional Engineering Registry was hosted for PEE members with other 18 technical sessions for delegates and other guests.

South Luzon confab Viray highlighted the “unrelenting efforts” of IIEE “in uplifting professional competence and excellence not only within our country’s power industry but beyond economic borders as well,” before the 258 delegates of the conference The Southern Luzon Conference

Board of Mechanical Engineering Chairman Jesus Redelosa graced the closing ceremonies with recognition rites to new PEEs, conference sponsors, exhibitors and the working committee. ▌ VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 19


IIEE, CDO STATE U ADVANCE EE PROFESSIONALS IN THE REGION IIEE and the newly formed University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines (USTP) will collaborate to further enhance expertise of electrical practitioners in Region 10, Mindanao. Cagayan de Oro (CDO) chapter President Sandro Villarosa and Vice President for Internal Affairs Rojien Morcilla entered into a memorandum of understanding with USTP President Ricardo Rotoras and Vice Chancellor for Research and Innovation Ambrosio Cultura II, March 27. The event came after the Academe-Industry Forum at the USTP Performing Arts Theater in the sidelines of the celebration of the university. USTP formed after the merger of Mindanao University of Science and Technology (MUST) and Misamis Oriental State College of Agriculture and Technology of this Northern Mindanao province. With a new mandate to provide robust science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education in the region, the alliances of the USTP with industry

Sandro Villarosa (seated, second from the left) and USTP President Ricardo Rotoras sign an agreement with IIEE CDO chapter officers and USTP officers. PHOTO: Cagayan de Oro Chapter

and professional organization in the Misamis Oriental and nearby provinces will paved way on furthering professional development programs to industry stakeholders and players. MUST has been the frontrunning higher education institution providing EE education in the province based on recent EE board exams results. USTP aims to maintain the leadership following the merger. ▌



Copper Alliance Manager Jessie Todoc moderates the discussion of DOE Undersecretary Leonido Pulido III, High Efficient Motors Project Manager Marvin Bathan, and EU Delegation to the Philippines Gabriel Dayre about the adoption of efficient motors in industries as part of the two-day workshop at Marriot Hotel, Pasay City. PHOTO: Gelyn Lee

IIEE and Philippine Department of Energy (DOE) hosted an energy efficiency workshop participated by representatives from ASEAN energy ministries and international organizations on March 29-30 at Marriott Hotel in Pasay City. The workshop was organized under the EU-funded Switch to High Efficiency Motors (HEMs) project as part of its policy advocacy. The workshop were undertaken to learn about the international initiatives and best 20 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

practices on energy efficiency and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that can benefit the Philippines and the ASEAN. Joining 120 participants includes speakers and resources persons from Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Finland. IIEE National Secretary Cirilo Calibjo highlighted the growing relevance and importance of energy efficiency in electrical engineering Continue on Page 21 IIEE.ORG.PH


IIEE NAMES NEW DIRECTOR Marking the Electrical Safety Month,RME Affairs Committee held another RME Technical Seminar with 60 participants regarding frequent electrical safety issues and challenges May 6.

WORDS: Vincent Bryan Velez

The seminar tackled electrical safety issues such as overcurrent protection with former IIEE President Gregorio Guevarra, common errors in service entrance primary metering with Meralco’s Ray Anthony Rodriguez. The assembly served as venue for the discussion of the updated guidelines on continuing professional development program, presented by Metro Manila Governor and CPD Council member Rodrigo Pecolera.

Following the retirement of Ramon Ayaton, the officers and staff of the Institute welcomed Ramil Tan as ED and chief operating officer (COO), April 17. Tan is bringing with him 23 years of experience in working with government and business entities with particular focus investments, renewable energy, and public-private partnerships.

PHOTO: Kaycee Victorio

IIEE, DOE HOST ASEAN ENERGY WORKSHOP From Page 20 practice, in his welcoming remarks. DOE Assistant Secretary Leonido Pulido III and Mr Gabriel Dayre of the EU Delegation in the Philippines also graced the event. The technical sessions on energy efficiency policy focused on MEPS for electric motors led by Jakarta-based ASEAN Centre for Energy Executive Director Sanjayan Velautham, representatives from Malaysia and Thailand, and Olli Mansikka in behalf of United for Energy Efficiency, a global initiative assisting developing countries achieve their energy efficiency target. Marvin Bathan of IIEE presented an update of HEMs, including the development of a proposed community practice of energy efficiency stakeholders. Roundtable dialogue among with the international resource persons, participants, and HEMs partners DOE, IIEE, International Copper Association, European Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines discussed plans for regional action plan on MEPS for electric motors, followed after the technical sessions. DOE conducted public or stakeholders’ consultation on the draft implementing guidelines of the Philippine Energy Standards and Labelling Program for household appliances, lighting products, commercial buildings and industrial establishments. As an important milestone of the HEMs project, the workshop led to the realization of stakeholders of the critical and indispensable role of MEPS policy and regulation in the uptake of energy efficiency programs based on the experiences of other countries. ▌ IIEE.ORG.PH

IIEE has new executive director (ED).

Tan has been the executive director for Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission where he pioneered the firstever sisterhood agreement between the Pasig River System and the Los Angeles River System, in the United States. The agreement paved way for the mutual exchange of technology, finance, and programs between the two river systems. Tan is the second ED to oversee the daily operations of the Institute. Meanwhile, Ayaton, one of the longest serving staff, currently serves as consultant of IIEE, aside from being the managing editor of THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER and member of the Philippine Electrical Code Committee. ▌ VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 21



WORDS: Jonero Dacula

Showcasing the electrical engineering professionalism and intellects, Bacolod welcomed 1,056 engineering and professional delegates from all over the country for the annual National Mid-Year Convention (NMYC) at the SMX Convention Center Bacolod City last May 18-20. Highlights of the mid-year gathering included technical seminars and panel talks for professionals to widen skills and knowledge of PEEs, REEs, and RMEs in their field and an exhibition of sponsors and product presenters from various companies.

National Grid Visayas O&M In-charge Virgilio Sanchez (top, third from left) receives a token from Negros Occidental chapter President Nonilo Nacion, IIEE National President Joebe Panhilason, and Western Visayas Region Governor Al Bunda during the opening ceremonies of National Midyear Convention in Bacolod City. Members of Ladies Auxiliary (below) distributed school supplies and hygiene packs to families in Barangay Granada.

PHOTOS: Gelyn Lee

NMYC 2017 also witnessed the renewal of the cooperation between IIEE and the Bureau of Philippine Standards on the harmonization of the Philippine Electrical Code with the Philippine National Standards. Another cooperation has been signed by the Institute with the Distribution Management Committee (DMC) which focuses on the continuing professional development program for DMC’s EE practitioners. Delegates have also got an eye of the renewable energy development in the Negros island with the educational plant tour at the Silay Solar Farm north of Bacolod. IIEE Ladies Auxiliary visited Barangay Granada in Bacolod for an outreach activity with 100 children and beneficiaries. ▌


IIEE and Meralco converge safety practitioners in the electrical energy sector in the 3rd National Electrical Safety Summit, May 28. European Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines’ Gerry Constantino (left) talks about Good Governance Towards an Electrically Safe Community, Institution of Engineers Malaysia’s Kim Lim on Harmonization of ASEAN Inspection Standards, Department of Trade and Industry-Bureau of Philippines Standards’ Arnold Aquino on Electrical Products Quality Assurance, and Department of Energy’s Felix William Fuentabella on Proposed Policy/Direction to Ensure a Safe and Sustainable Power Industry, highlighted the discussions. Meralco Power Academy also launched the upcoming edition of K-Ligtas Award. PHOTOS: Gelyn Lee

22 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017



In celebration of Electrical Safety Month, Southern Luzon Region bring Oplan Dagitab to Marinduque, May 27-28 after the province has been hitted by Typhoon Nina. South Luzon region Governor Allan Alvarez, and Marinduque Electric Cooperative General Manager led the power restoration activities, together will other members of the Institute in the province. Eight PEEs signed and sealed over 1000 electrical plans has been signed and sealed as part of the Bigay Liwanag electrification project, coupled with electrical safety training and grounding and bonding seminar with local officials, residents, IIEE members, and students. was also conducted for almost a hundred participants (elementary, teachers, parents and barangay officials).

PHOTOS: Marinduque Chapter

NEW EE STUDENT LEADERS NAMED IIEE Council of Student Chapters named new batch of officers from different EE&T schools in the country. National officers are from Metro Manila schools which includes Anthony Ian R. Rentoy from Colegio de San Juan de Letran; Elizabeth J. Viola, Polytechnic University of the Philippines; Agapito Gendro U. Cuanan, Mapua University; Samuel P. Caranyagan, Jr., New Era University; Maria Victoria S. Bragais, Technological University of the Philippines; Carl Jefferson B. Corona, Mapua University; Deanna Zen De Luna Montes, Adamson University; Justine Claude M. Arogante, Rizal Technological University; Charles Del Lopez Llanes and Marcedez Benz A. Abel, Technological Institute of the Philippines; and Christian Russel M. Mainar, Technological University of the Philippines. Last school year, CSC has 122 accredited schools across the Philippines with 13,701 EE and 256 ET student-members. PHOTOS: IIEECouncilofStudentChapters


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Officers of the newly founded Sultanate of Oman chapter takes oath in the presence of State of Qatar chapter President Teofilo Tongson Jr., Middle East region Governor Robert Mabulay, and Labor Attache Ponciano Ligutom. PHOTOS: Oman Chapter

IIEE members in the Middle East have never been this active. A total of 41 members and guests witnessed the inauguration of Sultanate of Oman chapter (IIEE-SOC), June 2. Middle East Region Governor Robert Mabulay graced the event in Muscat. Mabulay discussed the importance of the chapter to provide “professional services” to members in the Gulf country, as well as “network and support” to all members and other Filipinos. Initially with 31 members, the new Muscat-based chapter is led by President Karlo Calpotura; Vice Presidents Joel Arjona, Frederick Espinosa, and Werhner Paul Guerrero; Secretaries Rex Penas, Jimmy Santos, and Peter Baladad; Treasurers Dindo Latonio and Rodolfo Freo; Auditors Benedicto Erazo and Ronaldo Sarcia; Public Relations Officer Jimmy Jarana; and Business Manager Kennedy Agbayani. State of Qatar Chapter President Teofilo Tongson Jr. and Mabulay serves as advisers.

PRC WELCOMES 2,883 NEW EES WORDS: Christian James Concepcion

994 new Registered Electrical Engineers (REEs) and 1,817 Registered Master Electricians (RMEs) were added to the roster of electrical engineering professionals after the April 2017 licensure examinations, given by Philippine Regulation Commission (PRC) Board of Electrical Engineering (BEE) in nine satellite locations. Cedie Pamplona of Bicol University-Legazpi led the new RMEs with a 94.00-percent rating, while Kent Meyler Samaranos, a Mindanao State University-General Santos City graduate, tallied 90.90 percent to top the exam among new REEs. Topping the list of performing schools in REE exams was Batangas State University-Batangas City (88.31 percent) while examinees from De La Salle University-Lipa got 100 percent passing for the RME licensure examinations. Meanwhile, a total of 72 REEs passed the 2017 April and May technical evaluation for the upgrading as Professional Electrical Engineers, headed by Engrs. Francis Mapile and Jaime Mendoza. The oath taking ceremonies was held at the Philippine International Convention Center Plenary hall last June 3. Engr. Rogelio M. Avenido, former BEE chairman and IIEE 1986 National President, served as the keynote speaker for the oathtaking ceremonies. ▌

The induction ceremonies were led by Philippine Overseas Labor Office Labor Attaché Ponciano Ligutom and Filipino Community Social Club’s (Filcosoc) Kathryn Noelle Mascardo-Syed. Filcosoc also recognized IIEE-SOC as an affiliate organization of the Filipinos in Oman. IIEE-SOC adds up to the existing chapters in the Middle East: Qatar, Central region of Saudi Arabia, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Southern region of Saudi Arabia, Western region of Saudi Arabia. ▌ 24 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

BEE Chairman Francis Mapile awards the plaque of appreciation to Rogelio Avenido after the latter's keynote speech in the oathtaking ceremonies for April 2017 PEE, REE, and RME board passers at PICC, June 3. BEE's Jaime Mendoza and IIEE National President Joebe Panhilason look over. PHOTOS: Diana Dollesen



Dubai has once again convened more than 250 Filipino electrical practitioners in the Arab gulf region for the 5th Middle East Region Conference at Jumeirah Creek Side Hotel of United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) largest city, June 25-26. It the second time that PEEs, REEs, and RMEs in the regional learned from technical sessions with the tallest tower in the world and some of the most iconic developments in Middle East in the background.

Middle East Governor Robert Mabulay leads the cake slicing ceremony during the sidelines of the Middle East Conference in Jumeirah Creek Side Hotel, Dubai. It is the second time the United Arab Emirates’ largest city hosted the conference of Filipino PEEs, REEs, and RMEs. PHOTOS: elektrikal

Philippine Ambassador to UAE Constancio Vingno Jr. and Dubai Consulate General Paul Raymund Cortes graced the opening of the two-day event together with members of the Board of Electrical Engineering and officers and staff of the Institute. With the usual discussion on the new trends and developments in electrical engineering global industry, the conference has also geared professionals to be globally-competitive and recognized with discussions on ASEAN and APEC engineer registry. ▌

CENTRAL LUZON CONFERENCE IN SUBIC PEEs, REEs, and RMEs stopped at Subic Bay Travellers Hotel and Event Center for the Central Luzon Regional Conference, June 29-July 1. The conference welcomes Edgardo Manongsong, National Electrification administrator, as keynote speaker, with technical discussion on energy storage systems, electrical safety, proposed EE law, substation engineering, transformer diagnostic, electrical system design, bonding and grounding, renewable energy, fault analysis, continuing professional development program, and ASEAN mobility.


VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 25


EASTERN/CENTRAL VISAYAS CONFAB GOES CEBU Cebu Governor Hilario Davide III (right) stands with Eastern/Central Visayas Governor Teodoro Arnaiz and IIEE National President Joebe Panhilason for an opportunity during the regional conference held at Radison Blu Hotel in Cebu City while technical sessions were conducted at SM City Cebu Tade Hall. The conference also played host to PEE applicants preliminary interview with Board of Electrical Engineering Chairman Francis Mapile and Member Jaime Mendoza present.


The Professional Regulation Commission awarded Alexander Sandoval Buyco(center), along with other 34 best and the brightest Filipino professionals, as the outstanding EE in the country last June 23, at the Manila Hotel. Buyco, a PEE and current chief operating officer of ASB Electrical Inv. has been awarded “for his praiseworthy service in his profession such as demonstration of professional competence in the design of various major construction of high rise story buildings, participation in the program of the IIEE in the Region, highlighting the initiative to design and construct the IIEE Building for Davao Chapter, contribution in the advancement of Registered 26 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

Electrical Engineers in attaining higher level of degree to professional level, significant contribution to the profession’s social responsibility by giving free electrical design for the People’s Park of Davao and the Mental Hospital Building, concern with the advancement of all members of IIEE profession not only in the regional area of Region IX as well as other affiliated electrical engineers in the country by unselfishly sharing his ideas and experiences in the field of electrical engineering. It is in these areas where he shows his commitment and professionalism in his field.” PHOTO: Gelyn Lee


The Calatagan Solar Farm in Batangas during the IIEE ANC Plant Tour November last year.

PHOTO: Gelyn Lee


IIEE Standards Committee shared with THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER the list of Philippine National Standards (PNS) on and related to photovoltaic (PV) devices and systems. Chairman Gem Tan said that the Committee intended to share the list to allow members and stakeholders to be mindful and make use of the international practices adopted by the Philippines in ensuring the quality and safety of disruptive energy source as solar photovoltaic technologies penetrating the local market. Tan furthers that this will ensure safe and globally-aligned integration of these PV devices and systems in the local power grid. The 52 national standards were based on the latest edition of its equivalent International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. These standards cover design and safety, test procedures, peripherals and accessories of photovoltaic devices, modules, and systems. Below is the list of standards adopted by the Bureau of Philippine Standards (BPS) last year with the assistance of the IIEE Standards Committee: Ť PNS IEC 60904-2: 2016 Photovoltaic devices - Part 2: Requirements for photovoltaic reference devices Ť PNS IEC 60904-3: 2016 Photovoltaic devices - Part 3: Measurement principles for terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) solar devices with reference spectral irradiance data Ť PNS IEC 60904-8: 2016 Photovoltaic devices - Part 8: Measurement of spectral responsivity of photovoltaic device Ť PNS IEC 61215-1: 2016 Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval - Part 1: Test requirements Ť PNS IEC 61646: 2016 Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval Ť PNS IEC 61727: 2016 Photovoltaic (PV) systems Characteristics of the utility interface Ť PNS IEC 61730-1: 2016 Photovoltaic module safety qualifications - Part 1: Requirements for construction Ť PNS IEC 61730-2: 2016 Photovoltaic module safety qualifications - Part 2: Requirements for testing Ť PNS IEC 62093: 2016 Balance of system components IIEE.ORG.PH

for photovoltaic systems - Design qualifications natural environments Ť PNS IEC 62108: 2016 Concentrator photovoltaic modules and assemblies - Design qualification and type approval Ť PNS IEC 62109-1: 2016 Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems - Part 1: General requirements Ť PNS IEC 62109-2: 2016 Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems - Part 2: Particular requirements for inverters Ť PNS IEC PAS 62111: 2016 Specifications for the use of renewable energies in rural decentralized electrification Ť PNS IEC 62116: 2016 Utility-interconnected photovoltaic inverters - Test procedure of islanding prevention measures Ť PNS IEC 62124: 2016 Photovoltaic stand-alone systems Design verification Ť PNS IEC 62253: 2016 Photovoltaic pumping systems Design qualification and performance measurements Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-1: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification - Part 1: General introduction to IEC 62257 series and rural electrification Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-2: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification - Part 2: From requirements to a range of electrification systems Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-3: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification - Part 3: Project development and management Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-4: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification - Part 4: System selection and design Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-5: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification - Part 5: Protection against electrical hazards Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-6: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification - Part 6: Acceptance, operation, maintenance and replacement Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-7: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification - Part 7: Generators Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-7-1: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification Part 7-1: Generators - Photovoltaic generators Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-8-1: 2016 Recommendations for VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 27

WHAT'S THE NEWS renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification Part 7-3: Generator set - Photovoltaic generators Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-8-1: 2016 Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification - Part 8-1: Selection of batteries and battery management systems for standalone electrification systems - Specific case of automotive flooded lead-acid batteries available in developing countries Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-9-1: 2016 Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrifications Part 9-1: Micropower systems Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-9-2: 2016 Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrifications Part 9-2: Microgrids Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-9-3: 2016 Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrifications Part 9-3: Integrated Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-9-4: 2016 Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrifications Part 9-4: Integrated systems - User installation Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-9-5: 2016 Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrifications - Part 9-5: Integrated systems - Selection of stand-alone lighting kits for rural electrification Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-9-6: 2016 Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrifications - Part 9-6: Integrated system - Selection of photovoltaic Individual Electrification System (PV-IES) Ť PNS IEC TS 62257-12-1: 2016 Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification Part 12-1: Selection of lamps and lighting appliances for off-grid electricity systems Ť PNS IEC 62446-1: 2016 Photovoltaic (PV) systems Requirements for testing, documentation and maintenance - Part 1: Grid connected systems - Documentation commissioning tests and inspections Ť PNS IEC 62509: 2016 Battery change controllers for photovoltaic systems - Performance and functioning Ť PNS IEC 62548: 2016 Photovoltaic (PV) arrays - Design requirements Ť PNS IEC 62670-1: 2016 Photovoltaic concentrators (CPV) Performance testing - Part 1: Standard conditions Ť PNS IEC 62670-2: 2016 Photovoltaic concentrators (CPV) Performance testing - Part 2: Energy measurement Ť PNS IEC 62716: 2016 Photovoltaic (PV) modules - Ammonia corrosion testing Ť PNS IEC TS 62727: 2016 Photovoltaic systems - Specification for solar trackers Ť PNS IEC 62759-1: 2016 Photovoltaic (PV) modules Transportation testing - Part 1: Transportation and shipping of module package units Ť PNS IEC TS 62782: 2016 Photovoltaic (PV) modules - Cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load testing Ť PNS IEC 62788-1-2: 2016 Measurement procedures for materials used in photovoltaic modules - Part 1-2: Encapsulants - Measurement of volume resistivity of photovoltaci encapsulants and other polymeric materials Ť PNS IEC 62788-1-5: 2016 Measurement procedures for materials used in photovoltaic modules - Part 1-5: Encapsulants - Measurement of change in linear dimensions 28 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

of sheet encapsulation material resulting from applied thermal conditions Ť PNS IEC TS 62789: 2016 Photovoltaic concentrator cell documentation Ť PNS IEC 62790: 2016 Junction boxes for photovoltaic modules - Safety requirements and tests Ť PNS IEC TS 62804-1: 2016 Photovoltaic (PV) modules - Test methods for detection of potential-induced degradation - Part 1: Crystalline silicon Ť PNS IEC 62817: 2016 Photovoltaic systems - Design qualification of solar trackers Ť PNS IEC 62852: 2016 Connectors for DC-application in photovoltaic systems - Safety requirements and tests Ť PNS IEC 62894: 2016 Photovoltaic inverters - Data sheet and name plate Ť PNS IEC TS 62910: 2016 Utility-interconnected photovoltaic inverters - Test procedure for low voltage ride-through measurements Ť PNS IEC TS 62941: 2016 Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Guideline for increased confidence in PV module design qualification and type approval According to its website, IEC “is the leading global organization that publishes consensus-based international standards and manages conformity assessment systems for electric and electronic products, systems and services, collectively known as electrotechnology.” The website continues that “IEC publications serve as a basis for national standardization and as references when drafting international tenders and contracts.” For more information of any particular PNS listed above, you may inquire with the BPS through their website: ▌



METRO MANILA AWARDS 1ST BASKETBALL CUP Metro West chapter prevailed in the first Metro Manila Region Basketball Tournament finals held August 2 at Camp Aguinaldo Gym. Metro Central placed first runner up followed by Metro East, Metro South, and Metro North teams. Raul Kristopher Cruel has been named the most valuable player of the tournament. Joining Cruel are Michael Miguel Fajardo, Patrick Camata, Jhonal Punzalan, and Ronaldo Dicag as part of the mythical five.



PHOTOS: Eastern Region Chapter Saudi Arabia

Members of the Eastern Region Chapter Saudi Arabia (ERCSA) celebrated the 21st anniversary of their chapter through different kind of bonding - caring for Saudi’s coastal environment. Led by Chapter President Joselito Lagaac, directors, officers, former presidents, members, family members and other guests went to Al Khobar beach front and collect garbages left by tourists and locals, March 24. “The clean up drive is one of the civic activities taken up by the IIEE-ERCSA. In doing so, our group helps in the collective move to conserve the environment,” said Lagaac, as reported by Arab News. This is the first time ERCSA conducted such “bonding” activity by “meaningful spending of free time”, Lagaac added. The group accumulated amount of trash equivalent to 75 garbage bags which were eventually collected by the municipal waste management team. IIEE.ORG.PH

Pinoys lauded Local authorities of Al Khobar praised civic activities of Filipino groups, particularly IIEE, in this eastern Saudi Arabian city. During the courtesy call with Al Khobar Assistant Mayor Khalifa Abdullah Al Saad, Lagaac thanked the authorities for supporting this activities in the city. Alfredo Flores, chapter vice president for external affairs, is also present in the simple ceremony. Lagaac further that they will invite other OFW groups in this cause, particularly those belong to Philippine Professional Organizations. Early March, Al Khobar local government lauded the clean up drive efforts made by All Filipino Community and Sports Commission (AFCSCOM) in the city’s beach front. AFCSCOM is composed of 70 organizations and has been able to collect 100 bags of garbage on their activity last March 5. ▌ VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 29







Smoking within

Sell, distribute or

Compeling a minor to

Placing ads or

enclosed public

purchase tobacco

use, light up, buy, sell,

stalls outside of the

places and public

products to and from

deliver or promote

premises of point-of-



products of tobbaco.

sale locations





For "persons-in-charge"

Advertising and selling materials

For a minor to smoke,

to tolerate smoking in

of tobbaco products within 100

sell or buy cigarettes

places not designated

meters from the perimeter of

or any other tobbaco

for it.

facilities frequently participated


by minors.








A DSA should be in an enclosed space that will not allow air to escape from the DSA.

It should not be located within 10 meters from entrances and exits where people pass or congregate.

20 percent of the total floor area of the building is the maximum allotment

No building or conveyance shall have more than one DSA.

The ventilation of DSA should be independent for all ventilation systems servicing the building.

Minors shall not be allowed in DSAs.

30 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017


Before Kissing that '


Recently, President Rodrigo Duterte has signed an executive order which prohibits smoking in public places. It received positive reaction from non-smokers while mixed reaction among those who are enjoying the puff. One of my friends who is a smoker agrees with the provisions of the law, she even quipped “smoke responsibly” just like how liquor company suggests.



WORDS: Edcel Artificio

ipping that beer or rum, or “occasional drinking” so to speak after a tiring day at work, 24/7 scrolling through your social media accounts or smoking that pack of cigarettes a day are some of the habits one can consciously doing unconsciously, if you know what I mean. We all have a specific pleasurable habits which help us cope in life whether we are feeling good or not. But what if people around us or even ourselves pushes us to quit these habits?


GRAPHICS: Victor Calinao

Smoking is something personal to smokers. Everyone has his or her story on how one started and keeps on smoking. Most of the time, smoking has become a habit that is difficult to break and is already part of body systems. It is as natural as breathing air or drinking water, but the underlying reasons behind it is more psychological than physiological, which makes it harder to push people to quit smoking. From a non-smoker perspective, it is really hard to understand what keeps others to smoke and why is it hard to stop? We have to be realistic about our own prejudices to people who smoke. We immediately ask for their individual recovery from their addiction pointing its health risk like lung cancer but never did we realize the underlying factor that needs to be recognize. Thus, we have to see the

world through a smokers’ lens and acknowledge that changing this habit doesn’t take an overnight. Turning away from smoking takes so much time and will for smokers but it doesn’t disqualify them in taking responsibility not just of themselves but of others. Smokers need to pause and reflect whether that cigar they lit affects people around them - it could be a nonsmoker stranger who happens to share a jeepney ride with them, a friend or a family member. Most of the time, having this sensitive mindset fuels one’s will to break a habit more than smoking. The idea is that we are all part of a bigger picture that connects us with others whether smoker or not. Sometimes, this requires everyone to compromise acts, in this case smoking, for the benefit of all. Maybe it is not a question of how to quit such habit but for whom are you willing to quit this habit. ▌

VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 31

H I S T O RY & P R O J E C T B A C KG R O U N D Energy-Efficient Motors and National Competitiveness The Philippines is considered one of the countries in the world with the highest power costs. This continues to plague national competitiveness, particularly in the energyintensive industrial sector, which accounts for 27.4% of the country’s total electricity consumption.

27.4% of the Philippines' total electricity consumption is due to the energy-intensive industrial sector

It was estimated that a factory in the Philippines pays more than twice as much for power than its counterpart in Indonesia and Vietnam, and almost twice as much as a factory in Malaysia and Thailand.1 Electricity accounts for a big chunk of the cost of doing business in the Philippines. It affects investment decisions and the ability of domestic firms to compete in the world market. By using energy-efficient motors, Philippine industries also contribute to the global campaign to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius or below.

65-70% of the total electricity consumption of local industries is due to the use of electric motors

Why Switch to HEMs? Of the total electricity consumption of local industries, 65-70% are due to electric motors. Energy inefficiency stems from using outdated, improperly sized and poorly maintained electric motors. Switching to more efficient electric motors and drive systems translates to substantial energy savings and reduces companies’ operating cost. A 2011 scoping study2 conducted by the World Bank’s International Finance Corporation (IFC) in collaboration with the International Copper Association Southeast Asia found that 20 companies that would invest US$8.3 million in high-efficiency motors could save US$4.6 million annually in their operating costs. Potential electricity savings in these 20 firms could reach 27,128 MWh per year, which would translate to 12,671 tonnes of CO2 emission reductions annually.

55% potential electricity savings of companies that would invest in using high-efficiency motors2

Under the Switch to High Efficiency Motors (HEMs) project, the private sector is encouraged to use more-efficient electric motors and drive systems to reduce their operating cost.

Benefits of Using HEMs

Lower energy cost to operate Lower life cycle cost Enhanced profitability Reduced greenhouse gas emissions

Arangkada Philippines, 2 IFC Scoping Study on Opportunities for High-Efficiency Motors in Philippine Industries, 2011 1



Switch to High Efficiency Motors (HEMs) is a four-year project funded by the European Union that aims to increase energy efficiency of electricity-intensive industries, cut down electricity consumption, as well as reduce the industries’ contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.



For inquiries, visit:


Financing to help industries achieve energy efficiency provides an opportunity to increase their revenues while improving their customers’ profitability and competitiveness.

What is the HEMs project and what is the role of financial institutions?

How is the HEMs project being implemented by financial institutions?

The four-year Switch to High Efficiency Motors (HEMs) project aims to ensure the availability of financing that will bankroll prospective projects of Philippine industries and energy service companies (ESCOs) willing to adopt highly efficient motors and motor systems. Financing is believed to be critical in ensuring the sustainability and success of the project.

The capacity building seminars aim to raise FIs’ awareness on the role of ESCOs and the ESCO concept as alternative financing and implementation for HEMs projects. This is in addition to the financial model that FIs can use in evaluating HEMs projects.

How can the HEMs project help financial institutions assess the financing needs of industrial customers and ESCOs? One of the important activities of the HEMs project is the identification of financing programs that financial institutions (FIs) can offer. Through one of its implementing partners — the Association of Development Financing Institutions in Asia and the Pacific (ADFIAP) — the project is able to help FIs through capacity building training programs that aim to strengthen their knowledge on evaluating HEMs investments, especially involving technology risk.

HEMs is also conducting capacity building programs for these local FIs which have committed to fund HEMs projects (including three FIs that have already Source: completed the training programs): • Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI) • Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP) • Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP) • Philippine National Bank (PNB) Additional FIs are in the pipeline to join the training programs.





Switch to High Efficiency Motors (HEMs) is a four-year project funded by the European Union that aims to increase energy efficiency of electricity-intensive industries, cut down electricity consumption, as well as reduce the industries’ contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. For inquiries, visit:


Going Around to Teach with Del Fainsan W e are sure that many EE professionals has been taught by Delia Myrna Fainsan. Going around to different schools in Manila, Quezon City, Paranaque, Las Pinas, Dasmarinas, and Bacoor as instructor in EE and allied subjects is a feat only few can take. But this Doctor of Philosophy in Technology Education does this way not just to earn a living, but to stay young, sane, and learning.

Currently finding comfort at the halls of learning of the Institute of Science and Technology, Far Eastern University, Manila, learn how our suppose-to-be industrial engineer found a way to be an EE educator and turned around as one of the ‘top’ female species in a male-dominated profession. Call her Del or DM. My father wanted Delia while my mother liked Myrna. In order to settle the problem, they put the names together. I believe that life is superb when you never walk away from someone who deserves help. Your hand is God’s hand for that person. People don't know that I am easy to please and easy to go along with. The first impression of me being “suplada” will change if you learn to know me more. I am really good at adaptability in working of change environment and I can work under pressure to beat the demands. I am an EE practitioner because I started studying IE but trouble came when my professor, who was very authoritative, embarrassed me in front of my classmates. In order to avoid the professor, I shifted to EE the next semester. During the first month of the class, I was the object of green jokes by my professors and classmates because I was the only female in the class. I need to earn their respect by doing good qualities of a woman such as cooperative, serious, simple and studious. The fruits of my labour came to me during our graduation. I was surprised that all the graduates in different disciplined

including my classmates stood up when my name was called. It was not part of the program but I was honored by their hearts. If I am not an EE practitioner, probably I am a psychologist involved in human resources development. When woman works we are more process-focused. Men are better motivated by having a clear goal, and they are highly energized by attaining the goal. The more unattainable, the more motivating it is to get there. Women are more motivated by what goes into the process of getting there. The path to get there is more exciting than the actual end itself. In relation to this, employing both men and women in the EE profession will empower the organization. Life is always different in the academe because of the opportunity to teach and work with students. I am very much enjoy teaching—one of the main reasons I wanted to become a professor was that I deeply admired my professors and wanted to emulate them. Working with students and helping them develop research and designs, presentation skills, and life skills is simply one of the most rewarding aspects of the job. At the end of the day my philosophy on work and life is very much the same as Steven Gerard: It doesn’t matter who scores the goals so long as we win. The day-to-day grind of doing the work, figuring things out, facing obstacles, learning, and growing – it isn’t always glamorous, and it isn’t always ideal – but it’s all about taking a step back to look at the end goal. As long as we know what

34 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017


we’re trying to achieve, and why, life is on the right track. As an electrical engineer, what do you think is your biggest contribution to the profession? After I passed the board examination, I worked as electrical designer but it was only for a few months. I shifted to teaching profession wherein I used to handle EE major subjects from different universities and a review center. Later on, I included research and presented in the international arena like the University of California-Berkeley and Imperial College of London. Furthermore, I climbed to managerial position wherein I am part of planning and implementation of quality education in the field of engineering particularly EE. Do you agree that females have a disadvantage in the Electrical profession? I think one of the most discouraging things about being a woman in


The path to get there is more exciting than the actual end itself.

Our Del (left) with her colleagues in the National University College of Engineering, then headed by Academician Estrella Alabastro (center). EE is the lack of female mentors and role models. During my time, I only had one female EE professor and I am the only female student in the class. I have enjoyed the guidance and mentorship of some wonderful male professors, but sometimes it's discouraging to look around and see how few women have stayed in the field and "made it" to the top. ▌


To *Insert Verb Here* in

Bacolod WORDS: Bea Charlyn Laino PHOTOS: Bea Charlyn Laino & Gelyn Lee

The new Bacolod City Hall smiling to tourists and locals. BacoloD ciTy, locaTED in ThE provincE of nEgros occiDEnTal, is one of the most promising cities in the Visayas. Dubbed as the “Best Place to Live in the Philippines” in 2008 by MoneySense Magazine, this Hiligaynon speaking province gives you ten beautiful reasons why it was called as such. x To EaT Bacolod is home to the famous Chicken Inasal. In fact, there is a whole street dedicated to it called, Manokan Country. Must try Inasal restaurants are Aida’s and Bacolod Chicken House. A meal wouldn’t cost you more than PHP 200. Don’t forget the Chicken Oil on your hot rice, and please forget about your diet even just for your stay in Bacolod. However, there is more to the City than just Chicken Inasal. If you wish to divulge into the mouthwatering seafood, try Aboy’s, Imay’s or Hyksos’. Bacolod is also known for its Cansi, an Ilonggo version of bulalo, that is a steaming hot soup of bone-in beef shank that comes with the infamous bone marrow or utok as the locals would call it. A must try restaurant is Sharyn’s Cansi House. x To Drink Bacolod is blessed with abundant and fresh supply of water, that in fact, five bottling plants are in the island, namely Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola, Asia Brewery, Tanduay, and San Miguel. However, this didn’t stop the locals to brew their own beer. First of its kind in the city, a magic-themed speakeasy bar, Trapdoor, is home for the local brews of Illusion Beer. This bar is hidden behind the walls of a parking lot in one of the prime locations in Bacolod. The door, if you can find it, sports a spade that doubles as its knob. It opens you to a magical world, Harry Potter-esque if you must. Interesting as it sounds, the food and the drinks served here plus the cool vibe of the place are worth the try. And did I mention, the waiters here perform awesome magic tricks too! It’s definitely worth the visit, if you can find it!

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IIEE in Bacolod

IIEE welcomes PEEs, REEs, and RMEs in Bacolod with the active Negros Occidental chapter. Enjoy the mansions, beaches, greens, and food in the island and connect with your fellow EE professionals through Chapter President Nilo Nacion (09338617272) or visit their usual hub at the New Government Center with the better half of National President Joebe Panhilason, Leah, at the City Engineers Office (09420093894).

x EaT somE morE! After eating and drinking, locals who would warmly tour you around would suggest you eat some more! Known for being the Sugar Capital of the Philippines, the city boasts numerous patisseries that sell delectable Cakes, pastries, sweets, Piaya and Napoleones. Taste the crowd favorites; Calea, Felicia’s, El Ideal, Roli’s, Sugarlandia, Virgie’s, and Bailon’s. In Calea, feast your eyes with a lot of cake selections. Must tries are the Imported Chocolate Cake, Cheesecakes, and the Mudpie Icecream cake; that is actually, never displayed. (Very sneaky mudpie!) Another must try is Silay’s El Ideal. Located 30 minutes outside Bacolod City, Silay City takes pride in their Guapple pie served only by El Ideal since circa 1920. Napoleones is another Bacolod classic. It is a flaky puff pastry filled with custard cream and topped with light sugar icing, and it tastes very dreamy. And of course, who will ever forget about the famous Piaya? This muscovado-filled unleavened flatbread can be found everywhere. However, I personally recommend Bailon’s. I like it because of its crisp texture that features just the right amount of sweetness. All these are ridiculously affordable and mouthwatering. If I might also add, people in Bacolod are equally sweet as these desserts. They talk with a very soft tone and in a sing-song manner. I’m sure you can’t let their accent pass! x To lEarn To get the most out of your trip to Negros, open yourself to opportunities for learning amidst the fun and adventure. Danjugan Island, located 3-5 hours down south of Bacolod, is a 1.5 kilometer long marine protected sanctuary that has five lagoons and is home to many wildlife species in the air and in the ocean. The island serves as an outdoor classroom for students and research area for conservationists and tourists. You swim 30 seconds off the shore and you will be welcomed by Nemo, the Clown Fish and anemones. Don’t get me wrong. This is not a resort but an ecotourism destination. You may check for rates if you wish to pay a visit. I tell you, it’s worth it!

laid-back lifestyle Tawhai, north of Cadiz City, is a floating bar lounge in the middle of a marine heaven. Tourists can't resist the aroma and taste of the authentic, Negros-all time favorite, chicken inasal and garlic rice (inset)


x To apprEciaTE Take photos with the background of The Ruins behind you! See UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Sites in the old houses found in Silay City and visit the Bacolod Public Plaza right beside the San Sebastian Church to find the Bandstand and the checkered print on the floor, that is always present in paintings that depict Bacolod City. x To DiscovEr If nature and eco-tripping are your thing, a trip to Mambukal Resort, Murcia is for you. A 30 – 40 minute drive from Bacolod City, Mambukal boasts a hike that leads you to a

VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 37

TRAVEL trail of seven individual waterfalls and a ton of other activities in the Mountain Resort. If you are more adventurous, try to go for a hike at Tinagong Dagat, Patag, Silay City. The 2-km wide plateau and occasional lagoon is located in Mt. Mandalagan. Other than its hidden location being surrounded by mountains, the plateau ,which was once believed to be the crater of the mountain, gets covered in water during the rainy season and serves as a camp-site carpeted with flat grass during dry-seasons. x To ExplorE morE Kicking off from an adventure up in the mountains, and you wish to encounter more adventures under the sea, Artistic Diving Resort in Sipalay is the place to be. Hop on a 3-5 hour drive south of Bacolod and experience the exciting thrill of diving. The resort offers basic training that opens you to dive sites that include beautiful corals, group of huge clams, and even shipwrecks! You might even find yourself saying “Life under the sea is better than anything they’ve got up there” as Sebastian from Disney’s ‘The Little Mermaid’ would say! On the flip side, Artistic Diving Resort is also a place for you to just embrace the slow lifestyle of the province. Waking up to the sound of the waves away

from the noise of the metro is definitely, not bad at all. x To chill By now, you might have already noticed how slow things happen in Bacolod. Even in the way they talk. This province depicts a very laidback lifestyle embracing a so-called “Tawhai” vibe. “Pa-tawhai” which means “to relax” in English is the very description of the life in the province. Embraced by numerous locals, Tawhai is now a name to a famous floating bar lounge in Lakawon Island resorts. Probably a 2-3 hour drive north to Cadiz City, hop on to a huge bar right in the middle of the sea with day beds right off the ledge. It’s the perfect place to chill and say “pa-tawhai ta!” /let’s relax/. If the sea is not your type of “chill” try a 30-minute drive up the mountainous municipality of Don Salvador Benedicto. During the short drive, bask in the stunning and beautiful view of the mountain. If you happen to be passing by in time for the sunset, you came at the right time. Enjoy the view with a cup of Coffee at Doc J’s. Nothing fancy, just you and the view. x To DancE With all these activities, I’m sure you’re probably asking, “what is the best month to visit Bacolod?”

I highly recommend you to come specifically on the third week of October to do all these and witness Masskara Festival with your very eyes. The Festival was born in one of the lowest times of the City; low sugar prices, and the tragic Don Juan maritime disaster, among others. Masks were used to cover the sad faces of the residents and turned them into smiles. This paved way to showcasing the resilience of a Bacolodnon; showing smiles despite of difficulties. Now, gone are the sad days and smiles are now layered with more smiles. Get in to the groove with beautiful and eyecatching street dancers in colorful costumes and huge grand masks. Feast yourself in this play of colors and you might just find yourself smiling as well. x To rEminiscE I know leaving would be a little difficult. But then again, you have all those activities and experiences to remember which can always bring out a smile on your face. By the way, don’t forget to bring with you a mask souvenir that you’ll surely be able to find at the Negros Showroom, a showcase of Negros talents and SME products. I’m sure you’ll be able to find something that will remind you of your wonderful stay in Bacolod and in Negros as well. ▌

The Ruins in Silay, North of Bacolod, is a lovely testament of love.

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Powe r t o Co n n e c t TransCo’s Melvin Matibag on the future of Philippine internet services ith the recent move of the national government to revive the National Broadband Network project, it is expected to boost the internet speed in the country, considered to be lagging behind the Southeast Asian region.

It is through Secretary Cusi's strong position with regards to this issue that the public was made aware that such assets are available for the government to tap as the fastest and cheapest way to develop the broadband network.

One of the options made public by the Department of Information and Communication Technology is the availing of the fiber optic network assets of the National Transmission Corporation (TransCo) currently being leased by National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP) in its electric power transmission operation in the Philippines.

Would it be the first time to use a power transmission facility as vehicle of communications particularly for the internet? Are other countries using the same platform as the government is planning with our national broadband network? Is it the first time that this kind of proposal has been looked into using our transmission assets?

Having this in mind, THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER asks TransCo President and CEO Melvin Matibag five questions on the power to connect Filipinos to fast internet services with the help of the country’s power facilities.

Since the start of TransCo's operations in 2003, its national control center, regional control centers, area control centers and substations have been using the H o w d o e s Tr a n s C o fiber optic cables in ~ see its assets as a the transmission vehicle for faster Connecting all the lines as a medium internet service of communication, major islands in the in the country? These were later country in a single grid... turned over to It was actually NGCP in 2009. is the only way we can truly the Department For purposes of Energy and of the internet produce efficient, reliable TransCo who connection initiated all these and affordable electricity however, this would efforts for the use be the first time this and data transmission of the transmission will be used but it grid to be used as the as well. really makes a lot of backbone of the National sense. ~ Broadband Plan. It was during the last administration As we have stated, this that it was proposed by then is not the first time this was Information Communication proposed. In 2011, the DOST initiated Technology Center of the Department of communications with PSALM and TransCo to Science and Technology (now Department of explore the potential of TransCo's transmission Information Communication Technology) to assets for this project. use what was embedded in the grid as a shared network through its "iGovernment Project" but As to other countries, Australia has its own the request was thumbed down by the National National Broadband Network but we are not Grid Corporation of the Philippines, the O&M aware of their backbone infrastructure, if they concessionaire of the government. are tied with their own transmission grid.

40 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017


PHOTOS CREDIT: Victor Saulon

What are the trade-offs in this kind of arrangement? Do we have to be concerned with our data security, sabotage and the likes? Much like electric service, internet service could suffer if the fiber optic cables embedded in transmission lines are cut or damaged due to natural calamities or acts of sabotage like tower bombings or transmission line pilferages, But these are issues we try to address anyway because the government has the mandate to ensure stable and efficient delivery of utility services.

Considering that the government has all things in the pipeline, when can Filipinos use this fast internet? And how fast are we talking about in this type of connection? The President has promised to deliver this project as soon as practicable, but if we in the government will implement this right, we could deliver internet service faster than what Singapore is enjoying now.

Will the national broadband network push a more connected Philippines in


terms of inter-island transmission connectivity? Are we looking forward for more submarine cables to strengthen this vision? How does TransCo see this future of power and communication connectivity, not only in the country but for the rest of the ASEAN regional and the world as well? For the DOE and TransCo, our vision is to develop the whole transmission grid into a single grid, connecting all the major islands in the country in a single grid, such that any power generation company can build a power plant anywhere in the country and be able to transmit its output in the whole country. This is the only way we can truly produce efficient, reliable and affordable electricity, and data transmission as well. This is why we are stepping up our efforts in bringing out all the issues concerning the transmission business and the national grid to the public. Not really to create antagonism in the industry, but rather to educate the public and to make the public aware what it deserves. ▌

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The world is full of possibilities. Learning is one of them. With the reintroduction of continuing professional development program, affirmative and dissent professionals make discussion rich and reflective. Is this good or bad? THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER weighs in.


Words Ellen Claire Malimban W i t h V i n c e nt B r ya n Ve l e z a n d Kayc e e B . V i ct o r i o Photos Victor Calinao, Jr.


degree dream of becoming a licensed professional is not an easy endeavor to manage. It requires at least four to five years of serious studying, followed by a nervecracking board examination. After passing the board, the next career stop is getting a good job and earn a better living. With all flying colors, it is up for the professional to further his or her development, takes a master class or two, enroll to graduate school, enjoys volunteer work one after another, and live a normal, perfect life. So, what makes a good professional, one may ask. For a handful of modern Confucius, it is the continuous seeking of knowledge, a pursuit of personal and professional development. This philosophy now pushes the implementation of the continuing professional development program (CPD) by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC). And not everyone with a PRC license agrees with that. CPE TO CPD CPD, as we know it, has used to be called the continuing professional education (CPE). Although repealed in the Republic Act (RA) 8981 that reorganized and strengthened the powers and functions of PRC, CPE has been reinstated by the PRC in 2008, and intended as one of the requirements for professional license renewal. Despite the strong support of all professional regulatory boards and accredited professional organizations back in 2008, some professionals criticized CPE program as a waste of time and money attending seminars, trainings, conferences, and the like, just to earn credit units. On the other hand, some disagrees with the dissenting professionals, thinking CPE opens a lot of opportunities for personal and professional growth. By 2016, the Congress of the Philippines has passed RA 10912, An Act of Mandating and Strengthening the Continuing Professional Development Program for All Regulated Professions, Creating the Continuing Professional Development Council, 44 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

and Appropriating Funds therefor, and for Other Related Purposes. CPE made a good comeback as CPD, hoping for better acceptance. GET TO KNOW CPD The overarching objective of CPD does not change from CPE: to promote and upgrade the practice of professions in the country. The promotion and upgradement is in “accordance with the international standards of practice” that will ensure the professional’s welfare and contribute to the country’s economic growth. That being said, CPD aims to complement professional development based on the Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF), ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework, and other international arrangements (most notable are Washington, Sydney, Seoul, and Dublin accords). CPD will ensure career progression leading to specialization, development of new competencies to supplement local and international labor market and industry needs. According to the PRC, the CPD, as a mandatory requirement in the renewal of professional license, shall be implemented after the effectivity of the Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) which will be in March 2017. Each of the professional boards, the Board of Electrical Engineering included, will develop own strategies and operational guidelines for an effective implementation of CPD. Likewise, PRC emphasized that registered and licensed professionals have to adhere with the law; otherwise, the Commission could not be permitted to renew holder’s license(s). By July 2017, the PRC will start requiring a fraction of what has been required CPD credit units for the renewal. CPD CREDIT UNITS In Section 19, it is written that “Registered and licensed professionals shall complete the required units every three years, or as specified in the Professional Regulatory Law, or as provided by the IIEE.ORG.PH

THE OVERARCHING OBJECTIVE OF CPD DOES NOT CHANGE FROM CPE: TO PROMOTE AND UPGRADE THE PRACTICE OF PROFESSIONS IN THE C O U N T R Y. PRB (Professional Regulatory Board) and the Commission that may be issued”. This means that licensed professionals have to acquire a certain amount of credit units, depending on what is required for their profession, within that three years.

Articles published in professional journals, magazine and newspapers, technical papers, pamphlet, books, monographs, authored by professionals also given CPD credits, same goes with inventions, recognitions, sociocivic activities, and technical consultancies.

For Registered Master Electricians (RMEs), the number of required CPD units are 30. Meanwhile, 45 CPD units are required for Professional Electrical Engineers (PEEs) and Registered Electrical Engineers (REEs), same goes with chemical and civil engineers, chemists, and architects. Accountants need 120 units for renewal, the highest in credit units required across all profession, dentists need 60.

Self-directed learning (SDL) are those provided by nonaccredited CPD providers. The professional can apply their SDLs individually with PRC, with an accompanying cost. This ensures that all professionals will not run out of sources of credits, and not only limited to those the accredited providers.

What most professionals know is that CPD points (because the same goes with CPE before) can only be obtain by attending trainings, seminars, conferences, and conventions that conducted by accredited CPD providers. This makes one think that it is a business proposition, limited, and exclusive.

All excess credit units earned cannot be carried over to the next three-year period except those obtained from the following: master’s and doctorate degrees, attending specialty trainings which can only be credited once during the compliance period, and participating in programs that emanate from the PRB, for the development of the profession.

STRUCTURED, NONSTRUCTURED Unknown to everyone, the continuing professional learning program consists more than seminars and the likes. CPD allows activities “range from structured to nonstructured” ones like formal learning, nonformal learning, informal learning, self-directed learning, online learning activities, and professional work experiences. PRC noted that “attendance and participation… in conferences and/or conventions sponsored…, although not strictly considered as CPD programs, shall be given appropriate… credits in recognition of the fact that the same contribute to the professional development and lifelong learning of professional.” IIEE.ORG.PH


For the programs to be accepted and recognized, it must be duly validated by the PRC and in accordance with Pathways and Equivalences of the PQF. PQF refers to the quality of the national system for the development, recognition, and award of qualifications at defined levels based on standards of knowledge, skills, and values that is acquired in different ways and methods by learners and workers. SHARED RESPONSIBILITY As a matter of principle, professional training is a self and moral commitment (other than an obligation) VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 45

COVER STORY for lifelong learning. More so, development of professional skills should also a responsibility to be shared by the professional with his or her company. An able engineer will be a very good asset to the business he or she is working with. Erwin Raymund, an EcE, said that his company has always required engineers like him to attend local and international seminars, conventions, and trainings. This is also because his team is responsible

CPD Providers (As of March 22, 2017) FROM: PRC

Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. Contact: Ŕ41 Monte de Piedad St., Cubao, Quezon City Ŕ Ŕ4145626 Fax:7273545/ 4101899 ŔMr. Ramon P. Ayaton PAMAV Training Institute & Technology Center, Inc. Contact: Ŕ7th Floor, Integrated Professional Offices Building, 14 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City Ŕ Ŕ742-2637 ŔEngr. Rodolfo R. Peñalosa, President / Marites C. Sandagon AES Philippines Power Foundation Inc. Contact: Ŕ18th Flr. Bench Tower, 30th Street corner Rizal Drive, Crescent Park West 5, Bonifacio Global City, Taguig Citycontact@pamavtech. com / Ŕ Ŕ459-2674 ŔRonald Allan Sumague, Senior Program Coordinator

Project Management Institute Philippines Chapter Contact: Ŕ5th Floor, Padilla Building, F. Ortigas Jr. Road, Ortigas Center, Pasig City Ŕ Ŕ(02) 966-6436 Mobile: 09178175434 ŔMs. Casila Ganihong Vice, President/Secretary 46 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

for their company's newest technology for telecommunications. “Before we [can] renew our licenses, we had to accumulate about 24 credit units annually. Kaya nung narinig ko yung tungkol sa CPD… naisip ko na parang mas madali na siya. But I guess we [have to] reconsider the professions that did not have to comply before sa CPE”, admits Erwin. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING Karl Danielle Lelis, REE, said that “there is a lot of training that I have attended, but they are not accredited by the PRC which is a big drawback for us to renew our licenses”. Karl Danielle worries that he will not be able to receive credit units because the trainings that he has attended are not recognized or accredited though they are part of the profession that he is in, even the one he took in Singapore. Professionals who have attended trainings, seminars and the like from an unaccredited CPD provider will need to submit the required documents and pay the prescribed fee. This means that although the trainings, seminars, or conventions are not accredited by the CPD, these professionals can still appeal to the CPDC whether they can earn proper credit units from them. “I think the CPD program should require the company to send their employees to a training and pay the training for that employee without any bond contracts," Karl Danielle suggests. Chris Mark Carla, a mechanical engineer, echoes the same concern. “I think it would do us good if the companies we are employed in are the ones paying for our trainings and seminars,” he reiterates. “Not all engineers are receiving a good pay so I think that not everyone can comply within three years before the renewal,” Chris Mark added. DISSENTING OPINIONS On the other hand, Jomarie Mangaoang, an REE and RME working in Dubai, said that he believes that credit units are not that important even if he would have been working in the Philippines. “It's just a waste of money to attend seminars or events just to achieve target points,” Jomarie argues. “I'm not saying that what you will learn from those things are not going to help you. What I mean is [that], it must be your choice and free will. That's why we took and passed the board in the first place.” He may be not fully supportive about the implementation of the program but he feels that in the end, everyone has still comply with it.


Applying for CPD? Here's How! 1 Present original seminar / activity Certificate. In the absence of the original copy, applicant may request for a Certified True Copy of the Original of his Certificate provided the applicant presents the receipts of the seminar/training attended. 2 The CPD Staff will verify the attendance of the applicant in the seminar / activity as shown in the certificate presented. 3 Process the CPD Certificate and/or Certificate of Good Standing. 4 Non-Metro Manila Member must secure their COGS from their respective Chapter and/or Region. Accordingly, only those from the MMR will have the COGS processing in the national office. 5 Issuance of the CPD / COGS. 6 Payment. 7 Secure photocopy of all documents. 8 Proceed to the PRC.

Credit Units per Profession (every 3 years) 120 CREDIT UNITS Ŕ Accountancy 45 CREDIT UNITS Ŕ Aeronautical Engineering Ŕ Agricultural Engineering Ŕ Agriculture Ŕ Architecture Ŕ Chemical Engineering Ŕ Chemistry Ŕ Civil Engineering Ŕ Criminology Ŕ Custom Brokers Ŕ Dentistry Ŕ Electrical Engineering Ŕ Electronics Engineering Ŕ Environmental Planning Ŕ Fisheries Ŕ Forestry Ŕ Geodetic Engineering Ŕ Geology Ŕ Guidance and Counseling Ŕ Interior Design Ŕ Landscape Architecture Ŕ Librarian Ŕ Mechanical Engineering Ŕ Medical Technology Ŕ Medicine Ŕ Metalurgical Engineering Ŕ Midwifery Ŕ Mining Engineering Ŕ Naval Architecture


Ŕ Nursing Ŕ Nutrition and Dietetics Ŕ Occupational Therapy Ŕ Optometry Ŕ Pharmacy Ŕ Physical Therapy Ŕ Professional Teachers Ŕ Psychology Ŕ Radiologic Technology Ŕ Real Estate Service Ŕ Respiratory Therapy Ŕ Sanitary Engineering Ŕ Social Work Ŕ Veterinary Medicine 30 CREDIT UNITS Ŕ Chemical Technician Ŕ Dental Technician Ŕ Dental Hygienist Ŕ Master Electrician Ŕ Electronics Technician Ŕ Master Plumbing Ŕ Certified Plant Mechanic Ŕ Medical Laboratory Technician Ŕ Metallurgical Plant Foreman Ŕ Mine/Mill/Quarry Foreman Ŕ Detailman Ŕ X-ray Technician Ŕ Real Estate Sales Person

Taking Moises Lauren Cawilan’s words regarding those who have been in the profession for years, he said that “it is an opportunity… to be engaged and taught by well-trained and experienced engineers like the PEEs and REEs. And somehow puwede rin nila kaming i-guide pagdating sa pagpili ng field na tatahakin according to our expertise.”

Activities and Output considered as CPD Professional Track (training offered by accredited CPD providers, face to face or online) Ŕ Participant Ŕ Resource Speaker Ŕ Panelist/Reactor Ŕ Facilitator/Moderator Ŕ Monitor Ŕ In-Service Training Academic Track Ŕ Master's Degree or equivalent Ŕ Doctorate Degree or equivalent Ŕ Professional Chair Ŕ Residency/Externship/Specialty/ Sub-Specialty Program Ŕ Fellowship Grant (Participant/ Resource Speaker/Researcher) Ŕ Post Graduate Diploma/ Certificate Self-Directed (training offered by non-accredited CPD providers, face to face or online) Ŕ Partcipant Ŕ Resource Speaker Ŕ Panelist/Reactor Ŕ Facilitator/Moderator Ŕ In-service Training Ŕ Program/Training Module Development Ŕ Technical Paper Ŕ Article published in a referred/ peer reviewed professional journal (author/s, peer reviewer) Ŕ Pamphlet/Book or Monograph (author/s, editor) Ŕ Article in magazine/newspaper Ŕ Inventions Ŕ Study Tours/Visits Ŕ Consultancy Ŕ Socio-civic Activities Ŕ Recognition/Title GRAPHICS CREDIT:

VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 47

COVER STORY Olive P. Taganas Lawyer and R E Certified H T O WHAT S Public IONAL S S E F Accountant O PR ?



I am a holder of both an Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) and PRC ID. An IBP ID is an identification that one is a full-pledged lawyer. Under our rules, for us to validly practice law - appear before the courts, sign pleadings and the like - we must have an Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE) number, updated every three years. Just like CPD, we are required to attend seminars and lectures of subjects with designated units. Unless otherwise completed, our MCLE number cannot be updated and we cannot practice law, just like CPD although the non-renewal of MCLE number is not a ground for the non-renewal of IBP ID. For professionals who hold both IBP and PRC ID, it would be difficult to attend and comply with the requirements of MCLE and CPD especially if one is not practicing the other profession anymore. I am just renewing my PRC ID for I have to comply with the charter to am entitled with. While, both the MCLE and CPD are beneficial to the professionals

involved. However, I believe that it is the professional's responsibility to keep abreast of the current regulations of his or her practice even without being mandated by profession's authorities. At the very least, all professionals who have completed what is required by law should be entitled to retain their license, unless otherwise provided in the law itself. If the law did not specify for such restriction, any implementing regulation contrary thereto should be struck down because an implementing regulation cannot overpower a law. Ravenal A. De Jesus Professional Electronics Engineer When I took the oath as an electronics and communications engineer in 2005, I saw in the oath taking ceremonies program the CPE matrix together with its corresponding equivalent points. In ECE undergraduate studies, CPE was mentioned as terms that has to be remember in order to the pass an examination. For me, CPD is necessary when applying for advanced engineer level such as ASEAN engineer, ASEAN chartered professional engineer, or APEC engineer. Rojun Aranas Architect I think it’s definitely well intentioned if somewhat lacking in coordination with CPD providers. It really a fire

Moises Lauren hopes that new engineers like him will be guided and be given deeper insights about the possibilities that the CPD program can provide to them. As of March 2017, there are only about seven CPD providers out of 22 that are active and approved. The full list can be seen in PRC's website (, and the website can cater to other inquiries as well, not just from the CPD providers and from the council. ONE RULE FOR ALL The Philippines has more than a handful of licensed professionals who have been practicing their professions for years, even with or without the program. Some may be supportive of the program, while some may not agree with CPD at all. 48 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

under professionals to up their game and pursue building their skills via the mediums that are available: symposiums, seminars, graduate studies, etc. But I think a trial would have served best to ease the professionals into transition, and partly because most of the complaints have been that the CPD providers are becoming more profit-oriented. I think the CPD is inevitable and very useful with the right conditions. I’ve only had my license for roughly seven months so the pressure isn’t palpable, yet. But it has definitely influenced as it urges me to keep an eye out for any source that I can get CPD credits from, and exploit some free lectures that may be of valuable to my growth as a professional. But I do worry that some of the CDP programs might be cost prohibitive. It really puts a fire under professionals to strive for growth and not be too complacent in the knowledge and skills that they have. But I suppose it needs better integration with each profession. I’ve examined how the American Institute of Architects has successfully integrated CPD credit earning through industry magazines, and enable professionals in the field to file for them and earn them online, so it would be much convenient. I think accessibility is a major issue right now.

But whether we like it or not, PEEs, REEs, and RMEs must comply with CPD, not only because it's a law that every Filipino citizen has follow faithfully. We get old when we stop learning, George Bernard Shaw puts plainly. Since professionals cannot give what they cannot have, same goes with the scientific, technological, and industrial development put in their shoulders. Man should never remain unmoved in seeking new ideas and improved skills to make him or herself a better professional. Constant growth and learning will always be inevitable, as the very principle of CPD program envisions. But of course, taking one’s knowledge and skills further is always a personal, unique, and subjective decision every professional to, and must, make. So what’s yours? ▌


What they say about CPD?

We ask five electrical engineering professionals on what is their take on the implementation of the continuing professional development (CPD) starting this year, and what else can be done to make it a success this time.

Jamaica A. Chavez, REE

Michael M. Gonzales, REE, RME

Michael Angelo DS. Magpantay, PEE

Solayman S. Maso, REE

Do you agree with implementation of CPD program to all professionals particularly to PEEs, REEs, and RMEs? Why is that so?

CPD program should have criteria to determine those who are practicing the field of their registered profession and those who are not.

Experience makes one a better professionals not necessarily attending seminars to compensate the CPD units required. Licensed practitioners have a professional obligation to maintain their competence and to aim for continuous improvement in the standard of service they provide that is why the government implemented it.

I agree but I think different ranks should have different CPD point requirements or different cost for each seminar or training.

Learning is a continuous process and continuous development of the electrical engineering field is its essence. Advancement is not only what engineering should be concern about, it is what engineering is.

Our profession is all about science and technology and there is an innovation. In technical work, dapat laging updated ang kaalaman. Hindi dapat natutuyuan ng learnings dahil every year may new set ng technologies.

Do you see any difference of CPD from the continuing professional education program implemented many years back? Can you share it to us?


Different in acronyms, but the two have in common, the training is for professionals. It helps us raise our awareness of knowledge in our profession capabilities.

I think the old CPE requirement was not implemented. Professionals can still renew their license without showing proof of continuous education/ development.

The implementation of CPD now has more format. Credibility, responsibility, accountability and measurability mechanisms are now in place.

Mas marami lang licensed ang naging aware sa pag-earn ng CPD compared with many years back.

What mechanism or process improvements do you look forward from the new implementation? (e.g. for the CPD Council, PRC, CPD providers)

CPD Council/PRC should required each company to provide trainings and seminars to all their licensed professional employees.

There should be a regulatory body for it. Government to provided subsidy for employers and employees, as well as to streamline CPD requirements that is relevant to one’s current work.

CPD providers should be regulated as to the cost and quality of their trainings.

We need continuous awareness campaigns so that it's better understood by practitioners. Eventually, we will all learn by heart all its rules and the credit earning process.

I’m looking forward for free trainings with CPD points. Hindi kasi lahat ng may license, mayayaman.

What are your preparations for the implementation of the CPD program?

Will take training and seminars to earn CPD points.

The law states that the employers should include this in their programs. Since it was implemented, I need to earn the required CPD points.

I'm looking for opportunities to earn CPD points in the most cost efficient way possible.

I just try to keep myself updated of any changes which one can easily learn by reading the news.

I need to save enough money for future seminar and trainings.


Tresha Irish M. Paglinawan, RME

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R o g e l i o

l e A R n s

f R o m

c e l e b R A t e s

A n d

t H e

t H e

p R e p A R e s

Retold KAycee b. victoRio

A v e n i d o

p A s t ,

p R e s e n t ,

t H e

f u t u R e

pHotos victoR cAlinAo, JR.




"i Am conceRned in tHe futuRe of ouR Rmes And Rees. i wAnt to see tHem gRow... i don't wAnt tHem to stAy tHe Rest of tHeiR lives As Rmes oR Rees."

ogelio Avenido is not a household name, yet for someone who is adept and involved with the Philippine electrical engineering industry, IIEE and Manuel L. Quezon University (MLQU) School of Engineering, Roger is a part of the past, present, and future.

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER’s Kaycee Victorio chats with the former president of IIEE to talk about his motivations on leading the most prestigious organizations in the country, advocating responsible leadership and management, ushering change in the academe, and what become of his life. TELL US ABOUT YOUR FAMILY My wife is an accountancy graduate. We are married since 1960. We have five daughters and a son. The eldest is a dentist. My second and only son is a graphic artist and the third one is an architect and a graduated of MLQU. Both of them are living in Canada with their own families. My fourth daughter, who passed away already, is the mother of my eldest grandson. My fifth daughter is Maria Theresa and my youngest daughter is Fatima. Unfortunately, I do not have a firm with my daughterarchitect because she got married to my employee who’s an EE, who after passing the PEE board exam, resigned from my company and put up his own office. I cannot blame him. I came to admit that a man needs to find his own sunshine. What I mean is that they also have their own plans in life, you know. Thelma, my wife, and I met when we are both working in a shop in Marikina that manufactures firearms, while both of us are both studying for college. NOW, I AM BUSY WITH Well, I’m sitting in many organizations. I’m a consultant and I’m active in the arbitration commission. And there’s IIEE, as you can see you probably see me there every Saturday. I like music but I am not playing instruments. I sing a little. I play golf, taking a walk, doing some workouts, and spend most of my time with my wife. I still renew my license and pay my PTR. Once in awhile, I am a consultant. WHY EE? When I was young I seem to like that profession all ready. When I see my uncle doing electrical wiring of our house, I’m interested to watch him and after that I did it on my own. My aunt on the contrary, wanted me to take up law for she will sponsor my education. However, that’s not my

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liking. My boss wanted me to take up ME. I’m good in mechanical works and design already. But again, it’s not my liking. It’s still EE. It’s like a calling maybe if you can put it that way. Prior to IIEE, I am also a member of Philippine Association of Mechanical and Electrical Engineers. But I am not a mechanical engineer, but I have a lot of experience in mechanical engineering (ME) as a machinist.

EE AND WORKING As the eldest child, I have to work to support my family because we lost our father when I was five years old. That was 1942. After some tragic events in my family, we moved to Manila. That was 1947. My mother was able to support our elementary and high school studies because she got something from my father’s. But beginning in college, she cannot support us anymore, so I have to go to work. That was sometime in 1955 when I took up my first year in MLQU. That’s why I graduated in 1960. So, I was working full time. I am only second year college student when I started working. I have resigned in 1969 after almost 13 years of employment. As a student, I was academically inclined. I’m a working student and during break time, I eat fast during lunch. I’m not fond of sleeping at work. My co-workers always telling me “why don’t you chat with us while having our break time?” Instead, I look for a special place where nobody can disturb me. I opened my books there, study the lessons. ON PROFESSIONAL UPGRADING When I was studying already, it’s in my mind that you do not have just to graduate of EE because there are certain government requirements that you have to follow. A year after I have finished EE in 1960, I took up the board exam for assistant EE. I am exempted to take the board examination as an associate EE because I have a degree in EE. During that time, if you are an experienced electrician, you can apply and get an RME. Once an RME, one can apply as associate EE without any BSEE degree. The loophole is this: if one is an associate EE, one can already take PEE examinations even without a bachelor’s degree. So when I became the IIEE president, I also helped in amending RA 184. I am concerned in the future of our RMEs and REEs. I want to see them grow. The REEs and RMEs in who are


part of our old company are now in good hands, some are working abroad, others have their own businesses. That is what I wanted them to be. I don’t want them to stay the rest of their lives as RMEs or REEs. We can always notice that there are certain group of professionals who are very noisy. They want to perform the job of a PEE although it’s very easy for them to take up a PEE examination nowadays, unlike many years before that you have to take the exam all over again, except Mathematics. You have to review everything about EE such as transmission lines, power plants and so on. Did I find it tough? Not really. As long a one study the subjects in EE and have an actual experience. When I have passed the assistant EE examination, I was offered to teach in MLQU. PEE examination was a bit easy for me because I am teaching the subject. Of course, I am not teaching the major subjects because at that time I was only an assistant EE. To teach the major EE subjects, one must be a PEE or have master’s degree. And I don’t have both. PEE works like an equivalent to a master’s degree. That’s is why, I became the dean of MLQU School of

Engineering in 2004, because I have PEE and a rich teaching experience by that time. BEE TO MLQU Almost a year after I was asked to be part of the Board of Electrical Engineering, the MLQU president of that time talked to me and said “Mister Avenido, you better serve your alma matter, you are now already in a good position so why not serve the university as the dean of School of Engineering.” So what can I do? So I have to resign from BEE and join the academe. SERVING THE COUNTRY, YOUTH To me, doing an action that will help the youth is more important. As a member of the BEE, I can only serve those who are taking the examinations. But to serve in the university, you will develop the youth from college to dream and become engineers. It was prestigious. It is grand. It a humbling experience. I always remember the rich teaching career I have. I have been working 10 years as dean of the MLQU Engineering and before that, 12 years as faculty member, from 1961 to 1973. I have been serving for 22 years over all. That’s quite a length of service.

TABLE OF MEMORIES. This is the desk of Rogelio in his small study inside their family home in Marikina crowded with the happy memories of his wife, daughters and sons, apos and in-laws, and some quotes to live by.


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MANY FACES OF AN ENGINEER. Different reactions of Rogelio during our three hours interview with him. He lives most of his semi-retired life with his wife, Thelma, and tags her along in his travels around the country and abroad. Ordinarily, they enjoys their own spaces in their modest home watching TV dramas and newscasts. When I passed the board, and I passed successfully 2nd place, immediately,the university gave me a little award and asked me to teach. So I thought at first, my goodness, what does teaching going to be for me? I never thought myself teaching. Anyhow, when I was offered to teach, I was given an assignment that I don’t need study because that’s my experience already. And when I stayed, I thought my students were happy. Because they learned immediately something from me. Whatever is in the textbook, I know it, and I have experienced it. That is what impressed them. So I felt they’re happy about my teaching. At the end of the class, I heard students call me professor. It sounds good to my ear. I am proud to be called a professor. REGARDING LEGACY My last major project in the university was the solar panels installation in our Quiapo campus. It happens that we are already increasing our policy on renewable energy. So, the Department of Energy wanted to start with the solar panels. DOE wanted to put up solar panels in the rooftops of school buildings. LEADING AND MANAGING Every engineering profession is almost the same. When you graduate, what will be your job if you have no experience. Luckily, I have an experience already. So, when I graduated, I have a position already. When you graduate EE, you start as a mere employee, whose job is related to what you have studied. You

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just have to keep on gaining and gaining experience. Now, later on, as you gained your experience and competence, the management will see that is now the start of leadership and a little management. After 3 or 5 years of being a practicing engineer at a company, you have competence already to become a leader, to manage your people, to do something undertake a problem. Let’s look it in another way, you graduated EE then put up your own construction business, it’s the same at first, you have to learn the fundamentals of construction, EE works and other aspects of the business. Later on, you have people under you, you will oversee the laying of conduits and you are also doing it yourself. You will have the feel it. But as an EE graduate, it will only take you one week to learn the trick of the trade very fast. Am I fond of getting smart people? Of course because, he or she will easily be trained, can easily get a responsible position in the company. That’s why when you hired an engineer during my time, I’ve got good engineers. AFTER RETIREMENT I envy the others whose companies continuously grow and are performing well, like Rod Ferrer and Bernard Morillo. There are many good engineers and I envy them. It’s just some kind of envy because I already retired and a senior citizen so I passed that stage already.


I still hope that somebody will come and continue what we have started. That’s why it’s only hibernating. But now, I am just a plain retiree, not really fully-retired but semi-retired.

one of the meeting which has been very troublesome in a restaurant in Cubao. There were meetings held and then later on, there were quarrels already between officers and other members present.

OTHER JOBS I was involved in Phelps Dodge for nine years. First, I was the quality control superintendent then a production manager and eventually a manufacturing manager. I report directly to the president. You’ll undertake the inspection for wires and cables, you undertake the inspection and statistics of process and then once it is finished you undertake tests.

Mel Fonollera were sued by the other group. Pero the case did not materialize. Because at that time, Turing Lopez stood on the stage and declared that there will be one organization of IIEE. At that time, he is the chairman of the Board of Electrical Examiners.

LIFELONG LEARNING Continuing professional development is essential. Engineering, especially electrical, changes rapidly. Look at the progress that we have. Before, we don’t have a GPS that tells us where to take our route. These are all improvements. Now, if we do not have CPD, we will become idle. Just like me, I don’t do anything, I will become idle and I will die soon. It is essential. Some, as you said, agrees with it. Others, opposing. Why do you think some professionals are not agreeable with it? Well maybe because they feel complacent with what they have already achieved. They just want to keep on their laurels and then they don’t want to learn anything more. Look at me, why did I take up doctorate degree while I’m working. I don’t ambition to make use of this PhD to earn income for me, I don’t need that anymore. I don’t need that much expense for my children are independently on their own. In fact, they are the ones


IIEE AND BEYOND I think IIEE is going for good. Although, I would expect it to be going for better, if not for best. So what do we need to become better? We need good management constantly. Like an engineer’s management skills, as one goes up the ladder, one become less and less doing practice of EE but more and more of people management, corporate management, human relations, financial operational, and marketing. These are all management. That’s why I’ll be happy if IIEE will implement my proposal of AIM-IIEE linkage to train not only the officers, not only the incoming officers but also staffs. Only by training on management and leadership will we will be able to expand and be better stewards of the organization and the profession. In addition to your technical know-how, PEEs, REEs, and RMEs need to do leadership and management. We need to be trained to observe and measure performances, financial, marketing operations. As you grow older, physically you will become weaker, like me. But mentally, you can still manage. You can


i t H i n K i i e e i s g o i n g f o R g o o d . A l t H o u g H , i w o u l d e x p e c t i t t o b e g o i n g f o R b e t t e R , i f n o t f o R b e s t .

who helps my wife and me. So what else do I need? My pension is adequate for my wife and me already. LIFE WITH IIEE I cannot say that I am part of the pioneering officer of IIEE like Art Lopez or Mel Fonollera. Prior there is IIEE, I am already a secretary of the Philippine Society of Electrical Engineers, one of the two organizations where the Institute started. 11 years after the foundation of the Institute, I became the president. But being part of the organization, during the first three years with Turing Lopez as president, I saw it all. In fact my wife was there, during the inception. I’m proud that IIEE, the association of electrical engineers, that is why I invited everyone. There was this


handle big projects when you are well versed in management. But if you are only technical in nature, you can also handle huge projects but how you are able to carry this out, how you are able to sustain this growth and how you will target the growth that you want, as we said in IIEE Vision 2020, we need management. IIEE is has larger room for better management. There are unnecessary headaches which should not have happened if the IIEE officers and staff are very highly management-trained. I am not saying that they are all lacked. But we can always improved, right? We need more expertise in management, this will have expand our horizon in associating with others. By involving yourself, relating it with others, maybe another company or organization, we can pick up ideas and implement in our organization. That’s part of the management. ▌ VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 55



of the Awesome Things You Can Do With Arduino


tarted as a project for students from Ivrea, Italy in 2003, Arduino has come along way to provide affordable and easy-to-use device that can work with a wide array of sensors and actuators for all kinds of electrical, electronics, and computer enthusiast. Being an open source and supports an all users’ community, an simple board microcontroller kit morphs into more than one thousand and one devices and gadgets we can only think of. Thinking what more this wonderful module can do, THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER teamed up with Leo Augustin Vela of Camarines Norte State College and Virgilio Lamotan of Adamson University, together with their EE student mentees, in what else can be pulled out from the wonders of Arduino.

First Aid Kit Companion Mobile Scanner

Multipurpose Waxbot

Ali Alzarooni, Jim Gerald Garcia, Jeffrey Sacriz, Matt Vincent Sical

Kemuel Galvez, John Mark Marcaida, Joh Irvin Rasco, Angela Jane Vega

First aid treatment is important to prevent complication brought by accidents. Contact and noncontact scanner with mobile interface is an innovation which focuses on providing first aid with the help of Arduino Uno.

As household chores continue to sprang back aches to any member of the household, so does maxing your floor red. Multipurpose Waxbot will be a helping hand to cover more floor area beyond our reach.

The system determines body temperature, scans for skin lacerations, burns, fractures and other injuries by non-contact scanner and can stimulate the blood pressure and pulse rate by a contact scanner. All data collected will be displayed in a mobile tablet with the help of Arduino Uno device. The program also suggests first aid treatment for every identified injury. As each section turn red, it is programmed to display the interface of injured part and the suggested treatment to relieve pain, minimize infection, or apply swabs and medical rubs.

Car Remote System Using Bluetooth and GSM James Bryan Bobis, John Mark De Vera, Gino Omalin, Teresa Cyril Zoleta, Kiesha Pamelle Cebuano Ever leave your car in a sunny and hot spot? Or left your car keys inside your car? KEEDLAT, an Arduinobased car remote system using Bluetooth and GSM technology, this can be a great help for your car problems. It is a platform made to receive and perform action together with a android cellular phone application. The device features the capability to start the engine, turn on the air conditioning unit, adjust fan level, and lock or unlock the doors of the car. With these application, the user can access car features wherever he/she is but with conditions associated with Bluetooth range and mobile service signal.

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AUTOMATIC MONEY SEGREGATOR Aljohn Clacio, Lorenzo Fuentes, Mark Vincent Ronquillo, John Elver Veri Do you want your business to perform fast and efficient in handling money? Well, the Arduino-powered automatic money segregator can be your money counselor. It works like a calculator, the difference is the infrared sensor is installed in order to detect the physical appearance and kinds of money, through the use of Arduino Uno device. Also, a program is installed to use as a separator of any amount of money so that your transactions between your most valued customers is accustomed.

The Multipurpose Waxbot is an automatic waxing robot that shines the floor and works with an infrared sensor that operates when there is an obstacle detected. It focuses on filling a floor area with wax. It also serves as a multipurpose device using the low voltage vacuum cleaner, that collects dirt or light materials while waxing. It is basically comprised of a wiper that will automatically wipe the floor in a 160 degree motion. The pumping system works like a drilling mechanism that pushes the floorwax to fell on the floor. This device uses smartphone that serves as the remote to control different commands.

Automatic Crib Rachel Balang, Shazny Laron, Althea Marie Lopez, Hannah Mae Mera Having a baby in the family is one of the happiest moments in a parents life, minus the sleepless nights, stressful days. Using Arduino, this Automatic Hele Crib with Alarm System can be a better companion in parenting and addressing the baby’s sleeping concerns. When the sensor detects the sound of baby’s cry, the motor attached under the crib will automatically runs in back and forth motion to comfort the baby. Once the baby stops from crying, the crib will stop rocking. If the baby continues to cry, the installed wireless alarm system inside the parent’s room will be triggered, signaling that the baby needs attention. It can also be manually operated by putting a switch in order the crib move, rocking the baby to sleep without any detection of crying sound.


Make Yourself An Arduino

WORDS: Micah Dylan Crisologo PHOTO: Gelyn Lee



rduino is an opensource platform used for building electronics projects. It is consists of both a physical programmable circuit board and a piece of software that runs on a computer, used to write and upload computer code to the physical board.

Arduino board is basically a tiny computer. It is a low maintenance module that can be powered by a battery for days but fast enough to process data than human being can think.

The Arduino platform has become quite popular with students just starting out with electronics. Unlike most previous programmable circuit boards, the Arduino simply uses USB cable to load new code into the board. Additionally, the Arduino uses a simplified version of C++, making it easier to learn to program.

There are different types of Arduino boards and there are countless third-party companies that make their own versions of it. You yourself can make your own Arduino board which contains the function an enthusiast only needs. Arduino board mainly compose of a microcontroller, crystal oscillator, wires, resistors, and capacitors. + YOU’LL BE NEEDING • ATmega328P-PU microcontroller with Arduino bootloader • 16 MHz crystal oscillator • 22 pF and 100nF capacitors • Connecting wires

Thousand of projects can be developed from Arduino, as simple as the blinking LED or as complex as a remote-controlled robots. This DIY Arduino might be or might not be cheaper than the genuine Arduino. If you are going to use a genuine Arduino board, it is better to consider if your Arduino project will fully utilize all the features of your board. Consider the size of your project and of course the enthusiasm and the knowledge that you will acquire in using your own board using your own hands. ▌

+ WHAT TO DO 1/ Connect microcontroller and all components accordingly. You may mount all components to the breadboard temporarily or permanently using a printed circuit board.


2/ Supply power either from the computer USB slot or from a voltage regulator supplying 5 VDC to your DIY board. Use USB-to-Serial converter and the USB cable to upload codes to the microcontroller.

3/ Write the codes according to the function of your project. ATmega328P-PU is pre-programmed with a bootloader that simplifies uploading of programs and allows you to upload it without using additional hardware.

4/ Install Arduino Integrated Development Environment to your working computer to start programming and test your board. Most of the time, the Blink built-in sample code is being used to test if the making of the DIY board is a success. Run the Arduino application on the computer.

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s A v i n g


And it’s 125 years of its all-metal heritage fRom AfAR, the blue-colored façade of an underappreciated treasure stands a proud formidable posture. A beautiful edifice built in over a hundred and twenty five years ago along bilibid viejo street in Quiapo district of manila remains unfazed by its continuously changing environment. WORDS Vincent Bryan Velez

PHOTOS Victor Calinao, Jr.

FEATURE Or so we thought. Apparently, the aweing beauty of the historic San Sebastian Church is succumbing to a slow and quiet deterioration. Inside the basilica It was 9:30 in the morning and the scorching heat of the sun blazed the ground. Despite the low pressure area mentioned from the news earlier, the sun, to our no avail, showed no mercy. Its light glinted off the metal walls of our target destination: the first and only all-steel church in the philippines. Built in 1881 by the Spanish engineer Genaro Palacios, the San Sebastian Church greeted our team with its majestic and vast interior. Chandeliers were suspended from the high, arched ceiling with wires worming around their chains. tubular steel columns at the sides and long wooden benches were all the way from the entrance up to the dais. Colorful stained glasses depicting each of the five sorrowful and joyful mysteries also adorned the metal walls. The light that passes through it conjures a sanctified aura inside the sacred structure, giving threedimensional paintings of saints and angels on the walls a more life-like feel. It was beautiful. But before we become fully absorbed to the magnificence of the church, a disheartening truth plagued the awe we just felt: a corroding structure is hiding behind its beauty and grandiose. Symptoms of destruction The team was led to a glass-walled room in the administrative building of the church, where two short and petite women welcomed our team. According to chanelle custorio, an architect in the restoration team, a diagnostic study was conducted in 2012 to determine the damages suffered by the structure. The US Ambassador Fund for Cultural Preservation provided a US$97,000 budget to initiate the study. Ironically, it’s a foreign country taking initiative in restoring a national cultural heritage that is not even theirs. Of course, our own National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) did contribute as well, as resident historian samantha pacardo mentioned; but in terms of monetary assistance, San Sebastian was relying more on others’ shoulders. According to the findings, there are more than 300 leaks in the building. Pacardo even recalled that during heavy rains, there were times buckets had to be placed in an on-going mass just to avoid spills. Imagine the grandeur of the basilica easily spoiled by the drops of rain leaking through their roofs. Some of the hollow steel columns were also determined to contain water at least three meters high inside them IIEE.ORG.PH

due to these leaks. Five of these columns already have massive holes making them 75 percent weaker than the rest. Fortunately though, it was only three percent of the total number of columns in the church. And this structural impairment alone already costs approximately Php300 million - an amount which besides the fund given by the Order of Augustinian Recollects, the team no longer knows where to get. Determining Roots These damages led to only one pliable root: its design. The indestructible-looking San Sebastian is vulnerable to rust. Accordingly, the church is designed to withstand both earthquakes and fires but the Spanish engineer had not exactly considered the abrupt weather changes in the country. Back in the mid-16th century, the original San Sebastian, which was then made up of wood, was burnt down due to revolutions and wars. It was reconstructed in bricks back in early 1800s only to get destroyed by frequent earthquakes. Due to these, Genaro Palacios redesigned a fireproof and earthquake-proof San Sebastian; hence, the all-steel church. the past reconstructions and repairs done on the structure also resulted to multiple consequential damages. samantha said, for example, that the mural painting at the choir loft turned mooty and black after several parishioners applied a coating on it causing discoloration and etcetera. Remedying Baste There were three phases in the restoration of San Sebastian, Chance informed: assessment, design, and implementation. Since the structures were already evaluated, their team is currently working on the design stage. the toughest part of this phase, as chance iterated, is that each repair requires a unique and specific plan. No single treatment is available, even for the 300 leaks. This is maybe why the team no longer counts the number of leaks they have to fix because as Chance said, actions just have to be made. The team also looks forward to a plan for the electrical system of the church. Unfortunately, San Sebastian’s electrical system is connected to the power system of the administrative building and the school nearby, Sta. Rita College. No separate organized electrical layout for each. Just one power line in, and the others go down with it. Closer Look Samantha toured the team yet again inside the Basilica. And for once, we noticed the scars hiding behind the beauty of this regal church. some of the long steel columns supporting the ceiling, looking sturdy and strong, had rusty holes in them. The intricate 140 figural paintings, ceiling and wall finishes— VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 59


Hope for Baste So how PEEs, REEs, and RMEs can help in saving the first basilica in the country? Kaycee B. Victorio outlines how: B o o k a t o u r . san Sebastian Basilica Conservation and Development Foundation, Inc., “the non-profit org dedicated to the sustainable preservation of this unique all metal” temple is doing an awesome all access tour to public and private spaces of the church (including the belfries - Manila’s highest point during 19th century), retelling the Basilica’s 125 years (and counting) history and heritage. Tour fee starts at Php 80 and all proceeds go to fund the remaining years of the restoration program of the foundation. visit their facebook page:

GRAND. As the first basilica in the country, years before it has been completely erected, San Sebastian Basilica is an example of gothic revival architecture in the Philippines. crafted by Lorenzo Rocha, Isabelo Tampingco and Félix Martínez and other students of Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado— were fading and flaking. The vibrant stained glasses on the walls, which are surprisingly and uniquely hand-painted, were damaged and chipped. Samantha even said they had to contact the original makers of this art, the Heinrich Oidtmann Company from Germany, in order to save them. Soon, we were escorted by a young lad volunteer, Genchar Siroma, to the bell tower. We had to climb a century old, creaking stairs spiraling upwards one by one just to prevent any mishaps. The oven-like space between the metal ceiling and the metal roof had to be around 50°C it could almost toast us. The problem, Chanelle said, is that it had no means of ingress or egress for air to cool it down. Reviving Hope At last, we reached the bell tower. There, we saw the numerous houses circling San Sebastian. And it makes me wonder, do these people know how much this grand church beside them is suffering? Hopefully, they do. And they care, just like the Filipino volunteers working in this multinational restoration— architects, engineers, metallurgists, curators, historians, conservators and others who set aside their own personal goals and collaborated just to keep this 125-year old treasure alive. At 2022, the targeted end date of this project, San Sebastian will be restored. Or at least, it’s what Chanelle and Samantha, along with the other members of this team, and we, hope for. ▌ 60 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

D o n a t e . Share your resources (wires, conduits, switches, money, skills and expertise) and time with the foundation. for more information, send them a message at or give them a call at (02)7085122. You can also connect local and international experts you know personally to the restoration for peer assessment and review of the designs the foundation is doing for the restoration. Buy merchanDise. check the shirts, bags, pouches, greeting cards, and ref magnets adorned with designs from the awe-inspiring stained glass windows of the Basilica. You can take home your favorite trinket after your tour or in the parish office during weekends. No time to visit? Order your favorite merchandise as gifts and tokens online: C8NG2uSkwBAncT6e2 s h a r e . Spread the efforts to restore the church, as well as support any heritage restoration efforts in your place. The more people know about these activities, the more will be willing to book a tour, donate, buy merchandise, and share. Just make sure to use the hashtags #savessbasilica when telling the world about your feelings on the church in your social media IIEE.ORG.PH accounts. ▌



ook around you - a yuppie reading today’s breaking news using his mobile phones, commenting online using their tablet or watching movies in their laptops, while seated next to a woman reading Libre tabloid, a gossip magazine or stack of reports. The contrast is evident, yet the debate whether using digital platform or stick to the traditional print is not yet over. With people getting on-the-move, being connected on-data (or for free) can be one thing, but still there are people who enjoy to read something physical, annotate comments on it margins, place a bookmark, and touch (and even smell) the crisp prints. This goes beyond environment, energy, and sustainability merits of having your usual print into its digital format. We asked our readers (both online and in print) why they will settle with letters in hard copy or swipe up and down in their iPads. (And we can’t help commenting, in parenthesis. of course!) Read on and choose for yourself. P. Reference materials for everyday use. (So can’t be for digital format?) Milo M. Manlabao P. Because you can read the print without internet or device. (That is, if the print is with you…) Erwin Rigor Gagarin

Print (P). Mas prefer ko kasi puwede ko maging alaala lahat ng printed document etc. And also physically mo siya nakikita rather than digital, paano kong electricity? Diba… Less space nga lang talaga kapag digital, pero iba pa rin yung nakikita at pwede mo i-display. (As in framed and wallhanged?!?) Jose Mari S. Bongat Digital (D). Mas madali rin kasing i-access through internet. And mas madali i-send compared sa [physical] delivery. And kahit nasaan ka, if digital, makakabasa ka basta may internet. (Even under the sea?) Christian Baltazar D. For people with connectivity, it would be helpful but those without, they won’t know. In my case that I have connectivity, I would agree on digital. (Flip flopping!) Aldren C. Bigay P. So you can have time to look it together with family. (So kapag digital, hindi?) Albert Artillaga D. Less paper storage requirements and convenient to be carried in smartphones, tablets, and laptops anywhere for easier reference and reading. (Yuppies will agree!) Dennis Cara D. It would be easier to archive and prevent clutter plus it is obviously good for the environment. (Isn’t paper good for the environment as well? Recycle paper that is!) Ronnel Lacampuenga Both. Not everybody can access digital magazines because of poor internet accessibility in some areas. Why not print and digital, so that every member can access the magazine using smartphone or just read the printed mag. (Two thumbs up!) Gilbert Laroco D. May times na okay ang printed sa digital pero kung maraming pages siguro go for digital. (Ganoon pa rin naman ang dami ng babasahin mo di ba?) Francis Agustin Flores

P. I prefer print because even if you can’t afford or cannot access digital device I can read or use data [as] printed. (Unless you can afford print, right?) Ralp Joseph Fernando D. Because it [is] easy to access and communicate others [using this platform]. (Agree si acoe!) Daisyiee Suan

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Both. in most cases. Digital to reduce paper consumption but not totally eliminate print which is good for formal periodicals. (Ay hoarding!) EJ del Rosario D. Kasi mas mabilis if online. (Kung mabilis din ang internet!) Bianca Icon Canzana IIEE.ORG.PH

#PrintOrDigital ILLUSTRATION: April Zamora


Opportunities and Challenges for Distributed Energy in the Philippines Jessie L. Todoc Introduction Perhaps it would have been easier to talk about distributed energy (DE), or distributed generation (DG), as it is more popularly called, if it had a common or universally accepted definition. DE or DG is generally considered “small scale.” But then “small” has also different definition. For example, Philippine laws put the limit of 100 kW to “a system of small generation entities that supply directly to the distribution grid.” To distinguish from that definition, this article will use the term distributed energy and a working definition: “an electric power generation source that is connected directly to the distribution network or on the customer side of the meter”. Why is DE seemingly becoming popular? For one, many DE technologies are based on renewable energy and low carbon fuels and are thus environment-friendly. DE also increases security and diversity of electricity supply, as various energy sources can be used. DE systems are also more efficient than conventional systems and thus leads to some cost reductions. DE by definition can be located near the load or customer, so it can be an alternative to medium- or high voltage network upgrade and expansion. It is easy to see why DE also leads to reduction in distribution system losses, congestion, and land use. Enabling (legal and regulatory) frameworks in the Philippines

Benefits of Distributed Energy: t GHG emissions reductions; t Security and diversity of supply; t Cost reductions; t Deferral of transmission and distribution systems upgrades; t Reduction of losses in the distribution system; t Reduced congestion; t Reduced land use

The EPIRA (2001) and the RE Law (2008) are the basic legislations that have widely opened the DE opportunities in the Philippines. On one hand, the EPIRA has decoupled generation from transmission and allowed competition in generation, including direct connection to distribution utilities’ network and customers. The RE Law, on the other hand, introduced a number of policy instruments and incentives that should encourage accelerated development of renewable energy resources and

uptake of renewable energy technologies, including for DE applications. In addition, the NEA Reform Act (2013) extended the DE opportunities to the electric cooperatives. The Act, furthering the objectives of EPIRA, stresses the generation opportunities for electric cooperatives, and aims to strengthen the role of NEA in supporting the electric cooperatives achieve those objectives. Following the NEA Reform Act, the Office of Renewable Energy Development (ORED) was created within NEA in response to the opportunities brought about by the RE Law. EPIRA Before the EPIRA, the Philippine power sector had followed the single-buyer model with the opening up of the generation sector to independent power producers (IPPs), in response to the power crisis in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Transmission had been a government monopoly. Distribution, even though fragmented, had been separated from generation and transmission functions and in the hands of the private sector, including private distribution utilities that have a for profit status and electric cooperatives that have a non-profit status. The aim of the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 (Republic Act 9136) has been to achieve a total deregulation and restructuring of the Philippine power sector by completely unbundling and privatizing the generation and transmission functions of the National Power Corporation (NPC) and introduce competition in the generation (wholesale competition) and the distribution (retail competition) sectors. The EPIRA has also opened the power sector to distributed energy (DE). Through its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) promulgated in February 2002, EPIRA defined Embedded Generators as referring “to generating units that are indirectly connected to the Grid (transmission network) through the distribution utilities’ lines or industrial generation facilities that are synchronized with the Grid.” The Philippine Grid Code and the Philippine Distribution Code that were developed to support the technical requirements of the EPIRA also defined Embedded Generating Plant as “a generating plant that is connected to a distribution system or the system of any user and has no direct connection to the Grid (transmission system).” These are all forms of DE, which are consistent with the concept of retail competition (distribution utilities and end-users can choose their suppliers of electricity).

Editor's Note: This article derives heavily from an article the Author has submitted as a chapter in Peter Droege, ed. (2017), Urban Energy in Transition, 2nd ed. Elsevier, UK (in press).

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One of the ultimate objectives of the EPIRA is “to ensure and accelerate the total electrification of the country.” Thus, EPIRA also promoted two schemes of private sector participation in the electrification (including generation, distribution and supply of electricity) of (or to) off-grid areas (or those areas that could not be reached by the main distribution and transmission networks), which are also forms of DE: t t

New Power Producer (NPP)—in existing SPUG (NPC’s Small Power Utility Group) areas Qualified Third Party (QTP)—in remote and unviable areas that are also not served even by SPUG and so completely do not have access to electricity

by-area basis including a program to encourage private sector participation. Qualified Third Party (QTP) “The QTP is an entity that is financially and technically capable to provide generation and distribution facilities in the unviable areas of the distribution utilities— especially the electric cooperatives (ECs).”4 The QTP scheme is in pursuant of Section 59 of EPIRA and Section 6 Rule 7 (Distribution Sector) and Rule 14 (Provision of Electricity by Qualified Third Parties) of the EPIRA IRR: t

Section 59 of EPIRA (Alternative Electric Service for Isolated Villages) – The provision of electric service in remote and unviable villages that the franchised utility is unable to service for any reason shall be opened to other qualified third parties.


Section 6 Rule 7 of EPIRA IRR – In remote and unviable areas where the Distribution utility is unable to serve for any reason as authorized by ERC in accordance with the Act, the areas shall be opened to other qualified third parties that may provide the service pursuant to Rule 14 of the EPIRA IRR.

New Power Provider (NPP) An NPP refers to a private sector entity deemed technically and financially capable to serve and take over existing NPC-SPUG areas, resulting from competitive bidding of building a new plant or buying the NPC-SPUG assets. This is essentially privatization of NPC-SPUG areas.2 “A NPP provides essentially the same service as NPC-SPUG. It generates electricity and sells it to a distribution utility for distribution within its franchise area. A NPP is, in general, selected through a competitive selection process (CSP) and qualifies to avail subventions from the missionary electrification subsidy fund collected through the universal charge missionary electrification (UCME).”3

Selection of a QTP is a two-stage process. The first stage is handled by the DOE5, and the second stage by the ERC.6 t

In the first stage, the DOE accredits private entities as QTPs based on defined legal, financial and technical criteria. Once a DU declares an area as remote and unviable, the DOE issues a request for proposals (RFP). The accredited QTPs submit proposals including their business plans and the proposed retail rates for this specific area.


In the second stage, the QTP selected by DOE files for the approval of the retail rate and the service agreement to the ERC.

The NPP scheme was devised following two provisions of the EPIRA IRR: t


Section 1 Rule 13 (Missionary Electrification) – The DOE is tasked to issue specific guidelines on how to encourage the inflow of private capital and the manner whereby other parties including distribution utilities and qualified third parties can participate in missionary electrification. Section 3 Rule 13 – The NPC-SPUG is mandated to periodically assess the requirements and prospects of bringing power generation and associated delivery systems to commercial viability on an area-

RE Law Prior to the passage of the RE Law in 2008, significant renewable energy capacity and generation had been

NPC-SPUG operates in 231 service areas nationwide. Of these, only 16 areas have been opened to private sector participation through the NPP scheme since February 2004. As of end 2013, only eight of the 16 areas have NPPs. 3 GIZ (2014), “Technical-economical analysis of the integration of renewable energies in the power supply system of San Vicente, Palawan,” p. 49. 4 GIZ (2013), “Renewable energies for off-grid generation in the Philippines,” p.9. 5 The DOE through a Public Notice issued in 2005 identified 428 barangays as remote and unviable areas that are open for QTP participation. However, to date, only two accredited QTPs exist: Power Source Philippines (PSPI) and DMCI Power. PSPI operates in three off-grid communities—Barangay Rio Tuba, Palawan; Malapascua Island, Cebu; and Barangay Liminangcong, Palawan. DMCI Power, on the other hand, would take over the generation and distribution system in Semirara Island, Antique, where its sister firm owns and operates the coal mine concession. (GIZ, 2013) 6 GIZ (2014), p. 50. 2


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TECHNICAL already provided by geothermal and large hydropower resources. The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 (RE Law or Republic Act 9513) provides for the accelerated development and utilization of other RE resources and technologies by providing fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to private sector investors and equipment manufacturers and suppliers, as well as by establishing a Renewable Energy Trust Fund (RETF). The RE Law also defines distributed generation as referring to a system of small generation entities supplying directly to the distribution grid, any one of which shall not exceed 100 kW in capacity, which of course is a form of DE. In this regard, the other DE opportunities provided for by the RE Law are through as follows: t

Net metering, refers to a system, appropriate for distributed generation, in which a distribution grid user has a two-way connection to the grid and is only charged for his net electricity consumption and is credited for any overall contribution to the electricity grid (rooftop solar PV or grid-tied). However, only capacities 100 kW and below can avail of net metering.


Green Energy Option, refers to the mechanism to empower end-users to choose renewable energy in meeting their energy requirements.


Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), refers to a market-based policy that requires electric power industry participants (including DUs) to source an agreed portion of their energy supply from eligible RE resources.

The RE Law also provides for off-grid development through the development and utilization of renewable distributed energy technologies (for example, solar PV, wind, biomass, and small hydropower). Section 12 of the RE Law IRR mandates developers and electricity suppliers of off-grid areas, whether NPC-SPUG, NPPs, QTPs, or the DUs concerned to source a minimum percentage of its total annual generation from available RE resources in the area concerned.

the local distribution grid may be used to offset electric energy provided by the DU to the end-user during the applicable period.” The purpose of the net-metering program is “to encourage end-users to participate in renewable electricity generation.” Distribution utilities are mandated to enter into netmetering agreements, without discrimination, with qualified end-users who will be installing an RE system, subject to technical and economic considerations, such as the DUs metering technical standards. In return, DUs entering net-metering agreements are entitled to RE certificates that shall be credited in compliance with the obligations of the DUs under the RPS. The ERC was tasked to establish the net-metering rules, including interconnection standards, pricing methodology and other commercial arrangements necessary to make net metering successful. These rules are contained in the ERC Resolution No. 9, series of 2013 “A Resolution Adopting the Rules Enabling the Net-Metering Program for Renewable Energy”, which was issued in May 27. (The Rules were published on July 9, 2013 and became effective on July 24.) The Rules limit the application of net-metering to “distributed generation” systems that are defined as small renewable generation systems supplying directly to the distribution grid that do not exceed 100 kW in capacity. The Rules open the net-metering program to all “qualified end-users” who are entities that generate electric power from an eligible on-site RE generating facility and who are in good credit standing in the payment of their electric bills to the DU. All types of RE systems are eligible for the net metering program.

Net Metering

The Rules also contained the Net-Metering Interconnection Standards that provide general guidelines on interconnection between the distributed RE generating system and the DU distribution system, including compliance of the RE facility to Philippine Electrical Code, Philippine Distribution Code, and Distribution Service Open Access Rules, and specific technical guidelines on system parameters (voltage, frequency, power quality, and power factor), system protection, operation and maintenance, metering, and testing and commissioning.

Net-metering, per the RE Law, applies to a distributed generation system “in which a distribution grid user has a two-way connection to the grid and is only charged for his (or her) net electricity consumption and is credited for any overall contribution to the electricity grid.” The IRR of the RE Law further defines net-metering as “a consumer-based renewable energy incentive scheme wherein electric power generated by an end-user from an eligible on-site RE generating facility and delivered to

The Rules also provide the template for the NetMetering Agreement between the qualified end-user and the DU. The Rules also specify the pricing and crediting methodologies, respectively: (a) the DU’s monthly generation charge that is based on its blended generation cost shall be used as the preliminary reference price (export price); (b) the net amount payable by or creditable to the QE shall be obtained by subtracting from the subtotal amount for import energy,


Hydropower and geothermal resources combined for more than 30 percent of total power installed capacity as of 2013.

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the following: (i) the subtotal peso amount for export energy, and (ii) the peso amount credited in the previous month, if any. If the resulting amount is positive, the QE shall pay this positive peso amount to the DU; if the resulting peso amount is negative, the DU shall credit the negative amount to the QE’s electric bill in the immediately succeeding billing period. (See Figure 1.)

countryside even in missionary or economically unviable areas.” Market growth and potential—rooftop solar PV IFC commissioned a market study of distributed energy opportunities in the Philippines, and rooftop solar PV

Figure 1: How net metering works in the Philippines Source: Meralco NEA Reform Act

has been identified as one of the DE technologies with huge if not the largest potential (ECOFYS/CSI 2015).

The NEA Reform Act of 2013 (or Republic Act 10531) aims among other objectives to “empower and enable electric cooperatives to cope with the changes brought about by the restructuring of the electric power industry” following the EPIRA. In this regard, the NEA Reform Act has allowed ECs to engage in power generation business within its franchise area through any of the following schemes, which are all opportunities for DE:

Meralco is Philippines’ biggest distribution utility. It’s franchise area of 9,685 sq. km. encompassing more than 6 million customers in 36 cities and 75 municipalities, including Metro Manila, represents only 3 percent of the country’s land area but more than 50 percent of the country’s total energy consumption.

t t t t

Construction of an embedded generating facility Acquisition of an existing generating facility Through lease and/or rental of a generating facility Consortium or partnership among ECs (joint venture)

Equally important, the NEA Reform Act seeks to “empower and strengthen the National Electrification Administration (NEA) to pursue the electrification program and bring electricity, through the electric cooperatives as its implementing arm, to the IIEE.ORG.PH

Since the announcement of the net metering rules in 2013, the number of net metering customers of Meralco shoot up to 207 in less than two years, with a total installed capacity of 1,652 kWp (Figure 2). As expected, the number of residential customers with net metering outnumbered the commercial and industrial customers, in fact by a factor of 8 as of October 2015, but the total installed capacity only by a factor of 1.5 and the average capacity of commercial and industrial rooftop solar PV under net metering was almost six times that of residential customers. At that time, Meralco expected the VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 67


Source: Meralco

Figure 2: Growth in net metering customers of Meralco

total number of net metering customers and their total installed capacity to more than double by end-2015 or in two months. Meralco accounts for more than 90 percent of both total net metering customers and installed capacity. Based on data from DOE, the number of net metering customers in Meralco franchise area had nearly quadrupled to 763 by March 31, 2017 and a total installed capacity more than tripled to 4,800 kilowatts (see Table 1). TABLE I NET METERING CUSTOMERS AS OF MARCH 31, 2017 Distribution utility MERALCO VECO CEBECO III CEBECO I DLPC AEC BATELEC I PELCO II LEYECO V PANELCO OEDC Total

Number of customers 763 27 1 5 10 6 1 4 2 1 2 822

Source: Meralco 68 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

Capacity (kW) 4,793.76 159.62 3.00 84.00 84.20 41.32 10.00 26.00 6.00 100.00 16.73 5,324.63

Thus, as of March 31, 2017, a total of 822 electricity customers with a total installed capacity of more than 5,000 kWp had availed of the net-metering program of the government. The bulk of these, 763 (or 93 percent), as expected, are in the Meralco franchise area, with a total installed capacity of close to 4,800 kWp (or 90 percent). But net metering agreements in the two other major cities of the country, Cebu City and Davao City, served by the second and third largest private distribution utilities, respectively, VECO (Visayan Electric Company) and DLPC (Davao Light and Power Company), follow Meralco. The single largest net metering customer is probably the lone customer with 100 kWp rooftop solar PV served by Panelco (Panay Electric Cooperative) in the Panay Island. (Data on the individual customers of Meralco, which likely could also have such customers are not available at this writing.) Only 11 out of the 140 distribution utilities (including electric cooperatives) have entered net-metering agreements with their customers. Based on the data from Meralco, most net-metering customers are their residential customers and the average size of rooftop solar PV installation per household is 5 kWp. The 2012 Family Income and Expenditures Survey estimated that there are 21.4 million households in the Philippines, of which 29 percent or 6.2 million belong to the highest income brackets (Php250,000 and above per year), which represents those that could afford to have solar PV systems on their roofs. This represents a huge market for rooftop solar PV. IIEE.ORG.PH

Besides as net metering customers, DOE and the utilities in the Philippines also classify rooftop solar PV customers as own-use or commercial projects. As of December 31, 2016, DOE had awarded 12 own-use rooftop solar PV with a total capacity of 6,320 Kw of which 2,714 Kw were already installed. In addition, DOE had awarded six commercial projects with a total capacity of 46.18 MW. So to date, the total capacity of the rooftop solar PV installed in the country must be already at least 57 MW, assuming that all these awarded commercial and own-use projects will have been completed at this writing. In addition, a total of 36 rooftop solar PV projects (commercial and own-use) have pending applications at the DOE as of December 31, 2016. A handful of shopping malls have installed rooftop solar PV systems greater than 100 kW. ECOFYS/ CSI (2015) reports that there are close to 400 shopping malls in the country that could potentially install rooftop solar PV systems. Aside from shopping malls, rooftop solar PV systems could also be installed in restaurants, government offices, resorts, and hospitals.

specific benefits of rooftop or distributed solar PV (please see Table 2). Source; ADB (2014). Handbook for Rooftop Solar Development in Asia, ADB, Manila, p. xii. IFC (2014)8 discusses the specific benefits of rooftop solar PV, including: t Value creation from under-utilized rooftops t Savings in network losses and costs of transmission infrastructure t Enhanced supply reliability and energy efficiency t Simpler or less complex project development t Ability to self-replicate Electrical Safety Issues with Rooftop Solar PV

Despite the benefits, a rooftop solar PV system like any electrical system presents electrical safety risks of electrical fires and electric shock. However, this aspect of rooftop solar PV tends to be undermined in the design and implementation of a rooftop solar PV project, when compliance to electrical safety requirements should Rooftop solar PV has several benefits. ADB (2014) be the major consideration in wiring design. In fact, summarizes the general benefits of a PV system and the knowledgeable local government electrical inspectors in the Philippines complain about the non-compliance to even the TABLE II basic requirements of the Philippine BENEFITS OF ROOFTOP SOLAR PV Electrical Code of many electrical plans for rooftop solar PV submitted Construction to them prior to the issuance of wiring Photovoltaic systems are at the point of consumption, thus do not permits. Site access require additional investment for access during construction of for operation and maintenance. Non-compliance to electrical safety Modularity They can be designed for easy expansion if power demand increases. requirements is the major cause of electrical safety hazards and failures in Operation and maintenance rooftop solar PV systems. Eghtesady Primary Photovoltaic systems are at the point of consumption, thus do not (2012)9 presents the types of electrical energy require additional investment for access during construction of for safety hazards and failures as well as supply operation and maintenance. their respective remedies in solar PV Maintenance They can be designed for easy expansion if power demand increases. installations. The main systems failures Peak These systems offset the need for grid electricity generation to meet related to rooftop solar PV refer to generation expensive peak demand during the day. equipment and wiring failures (Table 3 on page 70). Mature PV systems nowadays are based on proven technology that has technology operated for over 25 years. Eghtesady (2012) also notes that Impact the worker (installer) and his or her Rooftop PV system costs help offset part of the investment needed workmanship can be a source of Investments for new power generation, transmission, and distribution in the power failure. That is why it is must that the grid. contractor is licensed to perform such Fuel savings from PV systems typically offset their relatively high initial work and comply with an electrical Cost cost. code. In the Philippines, this means the contractor should be licensed PV systems create no pollution or waste products while operating, and Environment by the PCAB and comply with the production impacts are far outweigh by environmental benefits. Philippine Electrical Code. International Finance Corporation (2014). Harnessing Energy from the Sun: Empowering Rooftop Owners, White Paper on Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Development Models, IFC, New Delhi.


Eghtesady, Behzad (undated2012). “What are the basic electrical safety issues and remedies in solar photovoltaic installations?�, presentation, City of Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety,



VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 69

TECHNICAL TABLE III FAILURES AND THEIR REMEDIES IN ROOFTOP SOLAR PV SYSTEMS Failures Equipment Ť Modules: Cell short circuit, cell open circuit, interconnect open circuit, open circuit, short circuit, glass breakage, delamination, hot spot, DC arc fault, by-pass diode, encapsulant, bonding path resistance, reverse current overload, corrosion, strain relief, insulation, weather Ť Inverter: capacitor, bridge circuit, insulation, output overload, DC input miss wiring, ventilation, termination, component short of open circuit, loss of control circuit, surge, harmonic, synchronization, overvoltage, weather, ground fault Ť Combiner: insulation, loss of control circuit, termination, undersized bus Ť Disconnecting means: undersized, insulation, inadequate withstand current Ť Overcurrent protective devices: undersized, inadequate interrupting capacity Ť Connectors: inadequate voltage rating, lockable vs. non-lockable, make first break last ground pin in multi-pin connectors (plug) Wiring Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť Ť

Short circuit Ground-fault current Excessive DC open circuit voltage Open circuit Overload Over heat (i.e. ambient solar radiation, harmonics, irradiance factor, etc.) Lack of, improper or inadequate grounding (equipment system) Undersized raceway Improper terminations Improper connector Intermix or dissimilar metals (i.e. Cu and Al) Improper binding screws or splicing devices Improper expansion joints Rodents

Remedies Ť Ť Ť

Use appropriate overcurrent protective device type and rating Assure that the maximum open circuit voltage does not exceed the equipment voltage rating Assure that the maximum modules short circuit current does not exceed the inverter maximum input short circuit current rating


Equipment are listed by a recognized testing agency according to approved test standards and labelled or identified as listed


Use wire size suitable for the short circuit current of modules including the irradiance factor and solar exposure de-rating effect Use appropriate type and rated overcurrent protective devices Include the effect of continuous operation of the system and ambient temperature Coordinate terminal temperature ratings of various equipment terminals with that of wiring insulation Use wiring insulation that is suitable for the exposed environments (wet, UV, corrosive, etc.) Assure wire stranding is compatible with wiring termination (i.e. fine strand vs standard strand) Do not intermix different wiring materials (Cu vs Al) Provide properly sized equipment grounding that is based on circuit overcurrent protective device rating and terminates into a fitting that is rated and sized appropriately Provide properly sized system grounding electrode conductor for grounded system that is based on PV source ungrounded (energized) conductors


Source: Eghtesady (2012). The PEC is the “bible” of electrical practitioners in the Philippines. Heavily referenced to the American NEC, it applies to all electrical installations in the Philippines and defines general installation and safety standards. Enforcement of the PEC rests with local government electrical inspectors. Compliance with the PEC ensures electrical safety in the homes. The electrical safety requirements of solar PV systems are provided by Article 6.90 of the Philippine Electrical Code. The provisions of Article 6.90 describe in detail: 1. Solar PV system components in common system configurations (PEC 6.90.1) 70 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

2. Installation of components and connection (PEC 3. Circuit requirements (PEC 6.90.2) 4. Overcurrent protection (PEC 5. Disconnecting means (PEC 6.90.3) 6. Wiring methods (PEC 6.90.4) 7. Grounding (PEC 6.90.5) 8. Marking (PEC 6.90.6) 9. Connection to other sources (PEC 6.90.7) 10. Installation of battery systems (PEC 6.90.8) The basic safety requirements of the PEC for a typical rooftop solar PV system are shown in Table 4. IIEE.ORG.PH

Table IV BASIC SAFETY REQUIREMENTS OF ROOFTOP SOLAR PV INSTALLATION BASED ON THE PEC 2009 Rooftop solar PV component Solar cable (PEC 6.90.4): To ensure the electrical safety throughout the entire life of the PV installation cables should be particularly durable and resilient to the harsh environment.

Safety requirements of the PEC Article 6.90 Solar PV cables should have the following features: Ť Earth and short circuit protection Ť Very high mechanical strength Ť UV, ozone and weather resistance Ť Temperature resistance (design temperature on the roof: 70ºC) Ť Single core and double insulation

DC connection, Circuit breaker (DC Main switch) (PEC 6.90.7): The DC circuit breaker is required and allows the installer to repair and maintain the inverter and other AC components while disconnected from the solar PV modules.

DC switch should be installed immediately before the inverter

Grid connection, Circuit breaker (AC Main switch) (PEC 6.90.7): The AC circuit breaker is required and allows the operator or authorities to disconnect the PV inverter and other PVA systems from the AC in-house network Main Circuit Breaker (AC): For safety reasons, the REinstallation must be equipped with a disconnect device for use by the DU to electrically isolate the RE -facility from the DU’s network and to establish working clearances for maintenance, safety and system considerations.

AC switch should be installed in the panel board, right after the inverter

The disconnect device should be physically located within 10 feet from the connection point or, if this is not practical, between the PV solar system and the connection point (PEC 6.90.7) The main AC circuit breaker is required and allows the utility to unlock the entire PV system from the local utility grid (PEC 6.90.3)

Source: Derived heavily from Wollny, Michael (2014). “LGU Reference Paper in Assessing the Safety of Solar PV Rooftop Installations,” GIZ, December. Wollny (2014) also recommends using a visual inspection checklist as shown below in conducting inspection of rooftop solar PV system (see Table 5). TABLE V VISUAL INSPECTION CHECKLIST Structural stability of the rooftop installation P Mounting of the solar panels in the mounting frame (clamping of the solar panels) P Sufficient mounting of the solar panels on the flat roof (loading or fixation with regards to wind impact) P The weight of the modules is approximately 20 kg per module P Stability of the roof surface P Sufficient wide gap between module field and rooftop edge P Will fire compartments not be overbuilt and will there be sufficient distance to the fireproof walls? P Large on-roof PV systems: Is the PV plant divided in different arrays with intermediary spaces (for maintenance and safety reasons)? P Consider an intermediary space as protective measure for the event of a fire in the building (this fire fighters can maintain safety) Cable hauling P Protect cable hauling against earth fault and short circuit P Cables have to be UV and temperature resistant P Check if the appropriate DC cable for solar application is used P Preferential use of solar cables P Cables are properly fixed on the substructure or whether there are conducted adequate fixings in order to prevent lying on the roof or on sharp edges P If possible, DC cables should not be hauled inside the building P If possible, cables should be laid in shaded areas P DC cable inside a building shall be contained in metal raceways or enclosures P AC and DC cables have to be physically separated from each other Equipment grounding P Main equipotential bonding, every non-current carrying metal part of an LV -installation must be connected together and grounded P An effective ground-fault current path has to be established IIEE.ORG.PH

VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 71

TECHNICAL TABLE V VISUAL INSPECTION CHECKLIST Xdci^cjVi^dc Panel board P The board is equipped with a visible lockable disconnect device for the solar system P Visible checking of the quality of the workmanship, wiring, termination, conductor, meter, feeder, and fuses (or circuit breakers) P Protection against direct contact and electric shock hazards Marking and labeling P Marking is required on all interior and exterior PV conduits, raceways, enclosures, cable assemblies, and junction boxes in order to alert the fire service to avoid cutting them P All DC combiner and junction boxes have to be marked as well P Some systems are quite complex; all connections points than relate to locations on the PV should be labelled Schematic circuit diagram P An electrical plan of the PV installation and the integration in the in-house network is displayed on site P A general overview is displayed for emergency worker Source: Derived heavily from Wollny 2014. During a consultation with local government inspectors and practitioners, Wollny also recommended updating Article 6.90 of the PEC to the latest version of the NEC. In this regard, ACMEEE with funding from International Copper Association under its Electrical Safety program and in consultation with Meralco has developed an inspection manual and checklist for rooftop solar PV based on NEC 2014. The Manual, designed precisely for local government inspectors, discusses ground-faults in grounded and ungrounded systems, overcurrent protection, equipotential grounding. The Manual divides rooftop solar PV systems into: the string circuit, the array circuit and the inverter circuit, and presents inspection checklists based on these circuits (Figure 3). The Manual, following the PEC, also presents the requirements of electrical plan templates. (At this writing, however, the PEC Committee of IIEE, in-charged of updating the PEC, has just submitted to the Board of Electrical Engineering a revised or updated version of the PEC based on NEC 2017. ACMEEE will revise the manual and checklists based on NEC 2017.

Source: ACMEEE

Technical Standards In conducting the DE market study, IFC also conducted separate consultations with various stakeholders’. The following issues had been identified that are particularly associated with rooftop solar PV (Ecofys/CSI, 2015): a) lack of industry or local technical standards b) Is the technology appropriate or suitable for local conditions? c) product reliability d) ease of installation e) Did the technology undergo a certification process? In the same study, project developers, utilities and endusers (including industries, commercial establishments and consumers) called for the development of national standards on solar PV systems and components particularly in the face of rapid growth in the deployment of these technologies. In the Philippines, standards development rests mainly

Figure 3: The subdivisions of a rooftop solar PV system used in the “Grid-tied Solar PV System Manual with Inspection Checklist”

72 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017


with the Bureau of Philippine Standards (BPS) of the Department of Trade and Industry. BPS was established through RA 4109 Standardization Law of the Philippines in 1964. In support of RA 4109, RA 7394 Consumers’ Act of the Philippines, passed in 1992, named three Standards Development Bodies which shall develop, enforce, and regulate standards in the Philippines: t Department of Agriculture – standards for agricultural products t Department of Health – standards for food, health products, and health devices t Department of Trade and Industry (BPS) – standards for products not covered by DA and DOH The BPS as the national standardization body promulgates the standards created by DA and DOH as Philippine National Standard (PNS). It can also liaison with other Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to promulgate or adopt the standards these other SDOs develop as PNS given that they conform with BPS Directives, which are in accordance with ISO (International Standards Organization). Standards developed by BPS, as much as possible, should be aligned with International Standards to reduce barriers to trade. As indicated earlier, Philippines through the BPS has actually fast-tracked and completely adopted 14 IEC standards on solar PV systems in response to this growing market. We lead most ASEAN countries in this regard but lag behind Malaysia which has developed 22 solar PV system standards based almost entirely on IEC. The effective implementation and enforcement of standards is also tied to the presence of testing laboratories. In this case, Philippines lag behind its neighbors, even those which have adopted only few IEC solar PV system standards. For example, Indonesia, Singapore and Vietnam that have adopted less than IEC standards have at least five solar PV tesing laboratories. Apparently, Philippines has a solar PV testing laboratory at the University of the Philippines but it is not known whether it remains functional. To be sure, BPS is establishing a dedicated technical committee on solar PV systems that will ensure the continuous adoption of correponding technical standards. Testing will have to be certified from laboratories outside the country for products and technologies to be used in the country. The UNDP-GEF CBRED project developed and established standards for RE equipment and systems and compiled best practices. These set of standards have been used by DOE in helping developers in the design and implementation of RE systems. The setting of national standards on RE technologies had been postponed as it was believed that the adoption of national standards may slow down the entry into the market of new RE equipment and technologies. To anticipate the growth of an RE DE market, it might be good to adopt those standards developed under the CBRED project as national standards. This requires in IIEE.ORG.PH

the first place the establishment of a dedicated technical committee on renewable energy technologies and systems standards. The proposed technical committee on solar PV may be expanded to all RE technologies and systems and independent TWGs formed for each RE technology similar to standards setting in other countries (e.g. Malaysia). Conclusion The Philippine government has been successful in accelerating the uptake of rooftop solar PV through the net metering policy. Other aspects that will affect the sustainability in the application of the technology, particularly standards, electrical safety and related capability, have been overlooked, as more attention was paid in growing capacity. But it is not too late to address the gaps in these aspects of the technology. In fact, parallel though uncoordinated efforts are underway that address these gaps. For example, the Bureau of Philippine Standards has fast-tracked the adoption of IEC solar PV standards. The International Copper Association is working with the Association of City/Municipal Electrical Engineers and Electricians and Meralco to develop and disseminate an updated electrical inspection guidelines to local government electrical inspectors.

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Power-Over-Ethernet Lighting Willardo C. Mesa Power-Over-Ethernet (POE) is based on the still evolving IEEE Standard, the 802.3bt (which has 2 most recent types, the Type 3 4PPoE and the Type 4) which states the enhancements using all 4 pairs balanced twisted-pair cabling, lower standby power and specific enhancements to support Internet-ofThings applications (e.g. Lighting, sensors, building automation). Table 1 shows the technical specifications of both the Type 3 and Type 4 PoEs. Some of the applications of PoE (IEEE 802.3bt) include the Building Management (Connected LED lighting), Pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) CCTV cameras, Kiosks, Point of Sale (POS) terminals, Access points, and Small Cells (InBuilding Signal Enhancement or DAS), etc. Pertaining to PoE Lighting, a basic system includes a Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE), a Powering Device

TIA 568, ANSI-TIA-569, BICSI ITSIMM. These standards specify the various aspect of data wiring, from wiring method, electromagnetic interferences, and best installation practices. The local standard, the Philippine Electronics Code Part 1, was based from the preceding international standards. Relative the practice of lighting design in the Philippines, the applicable law is RA 7920, its Section 2 (j) states…“Utilization equipment” refers to energyconsuming equipment including motors, heaters, furnaces, light sources and other devices which utilize electric energy, for any purpose.” Another local code, the Philippine Green Building Code of 2015 (which is one of the referral codes of the National Building Code). Section 3 “seeks to improve the efficiency of building performance

TABLE I TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF BOTH THE TYPE 3 AND TYPE 4 POES Parameters Power available at Powering Devices (PD) Maximum Power Delivered by the Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) Voltage Range (at PSE)

802.3bt Type 3 4PPoE 51 W 60 W 50.0–57.0 V

802.3bt Type 4 71 W 100 W 52.0–57.0 V

Voltage range (at PD) Maximum Current Maximum Cable Resistance

42.5–57.0 V 1200 mA 6.25 Ω

Supported Cabling

Category 5

41.1–57.0 V 1731 mA 6.25 Ω Category 5e (awaiting ratification)

(PD), LED Lighting Fixtures, Dimmers and Sensors. Some Equipment manufacturers also include Wireless Remote Controllers. Complementing the POE devices were the Smart Phones with App serving as remote controller, and PC Applications to control the system remotely within the building or via the Internet. Information from a leading equipment manufacturer include features in which the Sensors will not only sense the natural light to control the lighting devices, but will also sense other parameters such as temperature to control even the airconditioning system via the Building Management System. Cabling-wise, PoE lighting were being installed following international standards such as the ANSI-

74 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

through a framework of acceptable set of standards that will enhance sound environmental and resource management that will counter the harmful gases responsible for the adverse effects of climate change, throughout the building’s life-cycle including efficient use of resources, site selection, planning, design, construction, use, occupancy, operation and maintenance, without significant increase in cost.” With its proven efficiency, the PoE lighting will soon become popular among the new building installations. Its acceptability will depend mainly on the lowered cost of data wire, wherein a 305-meter reel of Cat6 now only costs around P3,000.00. Compared to the conventional wire, whose reel is only 150-meter also costs P3000.00 (which has only an effective length of 50 meters, 2-way plus a ground wire).


Figure 1. Typical Power-Over-Ethernet Lighting Set-up



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to shop for and purchase your products (or services), call your company hotline, or go to Double your website. Response VOLUME XLVI Issue 2017 | 75 is immediate.


Coordinating Generating Unit Capabilities, Excitation Limits, Voltage Control, and Generating Protection C.M. Bautista | F. Luces | M. Gutierrez | R. Austria | T.C. Garcia Abstract—This paper discusses requirements for coordinating generator full-load capabilities and steadystate stability limits, with generator protection, excitation system limiters and voltage control settings. Starting from fundamental concepts of generator protection, synchronous generator power capabilities and excitation system control, the paper builds toward understanding and implementing the requirements for coordination specified in the 2016 update of NERC Standard PRC019-2. This standard requires generators to demonstrate coordination of the generator's capabilities and controls with protection equipment and external system stability limits. Methods and analysis of coordination through calculations and plots/graphs are illustrated. A sample review of coordination for a 230-MVA Steam Turbine Generator Unit in a combined-cycle power station is provided to illustrate the concepts.

II. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR CAPABILITY AND EXCITATION SYSTEM A. Synchronous Generator Capability A synchronous generator must observe operating limits for its real and reactive power output in order not to exceed thermal capability for its various components. The plot of real versus reactive power limits under various conditions for a specific machine is known as its generator capability curve (GCC). Figure 1 shows the GCC for a sample cylindrical rotor gas-turbine generating unit.

Index Terms—Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR), Generator Capability Curve (GCC), V/Hz Protection, Overexcitation Limiter (OEL), Phase Back-up Protection, P-Q Diagram, R-X Diagram, Steady-State Stability Limit (SSSL), Underexcitation Limiter (UEL) I. INTRODUCTION The undesired outage of generating units during the July 1996 Outages in the Western Interconnection [1] and the August 2003 blackout in the Eastern Interconnection [2] of the United States has motivated regulatory agencies to update reliability standards which secure, improve, and optimize generator response during power system disturbances while observing generator capabilities. For instance, North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) has recently issued Standard PRC-019-2 [3] which specifies reporting, requirements, and review standards for generator protection coordination. In the Philippines, a similar objective with that of PRC-019-2 was also established in the latest edition of the Philippine Grid Code [4]. However, the coordination requirements for this new provision in the Grid Code are still to be developed. In this paper, the coordination requirements among generator capability, generator protection, exciter limiter, voltage controls and the grid’s steady-state stability are discussed in detail. Protection coordination requirements set forth in the PRC-019-2 are then introduced, and methods for complying with the requirements presented. A sample case study focusing on reviewing the PRC-0192 coordination compliance for a steam generating unit in a combined-cycle power station is illustrated. 76 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

Figure 1. Synchronous generator capability curve. The GCC consists of three regions. These are the rotor winding limit in the overexcited region (curve A-B), stator winding limit (curve B-C), and stator end iron limit in the underexcited region (curve C-D). The rotor or field winding limit, and the stator winding limit are associated with the i2t capability of the rotor winding, and of the armature of the generator, respectively. When the generator is supplying reactive power below its rated power factor, an increase in exciting current is observed to flow in the rotor windings, and thus an increase in conductor temperature in the field winding. In the underexcited region, a reduction in exciting current in the rotor circuit causes a significant increase in excitation being absorbed by the generator. The rotor retaining rings (end core) approach saturation due to leakage flux crossing the air gap which originates from the stator and produces localized heating. This is usually referred as the core end heating limit and is due to localized heating in the end-turn region of a generator when operating underexcited. It can be noticed in the three regions of IIEE.ORG.PH

the GCC that generator’s rating is influenced by the changes in operating temperature of machine.

power swings and disturbances in the power system. To visualize the coordination, the settings of the UEL and Device 40 are plotted in the P-Q plane together with the GCC and SSSL curve.

B. Elements of synchronous generator excitation system Figure 2 below is a typical excitation system block diagram as being described in [5]. Limiters and protective circuits

Terminal voltage transducer and load compensator





To power system

Power system stabilizer

Figure 2. Functional block diagram of synchronous generator excitation control system. The exciter produces dc current to power up the field winding of the generator. The amount of current and voltage produced by the exciter is controlled appropriately by the automatic voltage regulator (AVR). To automatically control the output of the exciter, the AVR needs a monitored value to compare with its reference signal. The measured value of voltages and current are obtained by transducers in the form of instrument transformers. During disturbances, the exciter’s under and over excitation limiters and protective circuits control the amount of reactive power produced or absorbed by the generator to ensure that the generator operates within its GCC. A control path between limiters and AVR is present to fulfill this requirement. The configuration, design and control equipment included in the exciter can vary significantly from machine to machine. In most installations, an alarm or trip signal transferring voltage control from automatic to manual mode is provided if the limiters fail or cannot control reactive power output of the generator.

B. Generator Loss of Field/Underexcitation Protection A typical loss of field scenario is when the AVR and the exciter loses its power supply. From the operations standpoint, a generator absorbing reactive power from the system causes it to behave like an induction generator which is detrimental for both stator and rotor windings. Such scenarios are to be avoided because of potentially serious damage to the generator windings. The most widely used protection against loss of field is through the application of relays with offset mho characteristics. The settings of Device 40 are plotted together with GCC, UEL, and SSSL in the R-X plane to check the coordination. In some cases, a G-B diagram is used to check coordination in the underexcited region of the generator. This is particularly useful where the admittance is used as a parameter for detecting loss of field. Reference [9] provides a sample. C. Generator Phase Back-up Protection Generators should be provided with back-up protection in the form of distance relays (ANSI Device No. 21) for phase faults in the power system. This is to ensure that the generator will not be damaged ensuing from supplying high current to a prolonged fault. A distance relay with mho characteristics is frequently sufficient in this application. To check the coordination, the settings of the relay are plotted in the R-X plane together with the loci of impedances and GCC transformed from P-Q to the R-X diagram.

Several standards dealing with ac generator protection [6], [7] widely used today discuss application of different protection schemes and coordination requirements. The following discusses methods for reviewing coordination for a generating unit based on recommendations of a technical working group report [8].

D. Exciter/AVR Coordination – Overexcited Operation Generator reactive power or VAr support is extremely important to maintain power system voltage stability. Thus, field forcing can provide excitation within the field winding thermal capability of the generator. Overexcitation limiters (OEL) should be coordinated with the generator field winding i2t. For field winding thermal capabilities, [10] suggests typical short time current capabilities for a cylindrical pole generator rotor circuit. In some generator installations, the field winding circuit is equipped with an overcurrent relay to protect the field winding circuit against excessive excitation current. Plotting the OEL settings, field winding circuit and overcurrent relay characteristics in an inverse timecurrent graph simplifies the coordination review.

A. Exciter/AVR Coordination – Underexcited Operation Operation of underexcitation limiters (UEL) and generator loss of field protection (ANSI Device 40) should be coordinated with the GCC and the corresponding steady-state stability limit (SSSL) . The limiters and protection should allow the generator to absorb reactive power within its capability and prevent undesired tripping of generating units during stable

E. Generator V/Hz Protection Generators should be protected against overexcitation affecting its stator terminals. The problem of overexcitation (or overfluxing) happens whenever the ratio of voltage to frequency (V/Hz) when applied to the equipment terminals exceeds 1.05 p.u. (on generator base); and 1.05 p.u., 80 percent power factor (on transformer base). Overexcitation occurs when the



VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 77

TECHNICAL generator is operating at regulated control at reduced frequencies during start-up or shut down or during partial or complete load rejection (i.e. remote line breakers are opened) or AVR failure, leaving a very high voltage seen at the generator terminals [6], [7]. The coordination between the generator overexcitation limit (also referred to as “damage curve”), transformer over-excitation limit, and generator V/Hz protection (ANSI Device No. 24) are checked via an inverse time graph. The following example illustrates the various aspects of coordination using the methods proposed in this paper.



Figure 3. Single Line Diagram for Steam Turbine Generator Protection TABLE I GENERATOR PARAMETERS Reactance and Time Constants (Saturated Values) 7.4 s Xd 1.42 p.u. T’do 0.025 s X’d 0.224 p.u. T”do 1.5 s X”d 0.171 p.u. T’qo 0.04 s Xq 1.40 p.u. T”qo 1.2 s X’q 0.342 p.u. T’d 0.020 s X”q 0.171 p.u. T”d 0.40 s Xl 0.145 p.u. T’q 0.020 s S(1.0) 0.0885 T”q 1.47 s S(1.2) 0.26 H

78 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

Ratio 9000/5 A 18000/120 V

Accuracy Class C400/0.3B1.8 0.3%W.X.M.Y.1.2%Z


IV. SAMPLE STUDY A. System Data As an example, the following presents the review of generator protection coordination for an existing generator, a 230 MVA, 18 kV, 60 Hz, 0.85 p.f. Steam Turbine Generator. The protection scheme applied to the generator and system data are illustrated in Figure 3 and Tables I-IV, respectively.

174/231 MVA 18/345 kV 60 Hz 10.5%



Fault Level

HV side n-1 (strongest 23.5 kA at of GSUT line out) 345 kV

System Impedance 0.016739 p.u. at 230 MVA

B. Coordination Procedure Figure 4 shows the estimated GCC for the sample generator. In practice, the GCC available from the manufacture should be applied for a particular study.

Figure 4. GCC for 230 MVA Steam Turbine Generator The procedure proposed here utilizes plots of P-Q, R-X, and inverse time curves for assessing coordination. The following guidelines for effective plotting of relay settings and equipment capabilities are applied: 1. Use the machine MVA rating as the MVA base for calculation of impedances and relays settings requiring actual values for plotting since the generator is the primary interest in protection coordination. 2. Obtain the relay settings for Device 40 relay, Device 24 relay, and Device 21 relay together with the settings of excitation limiters. The settings are available from commissioning and test results conducted for each relay. IIEE.ORG.PH

3. The interpretation of the settings is unique for every relay thus, a relay manufacturer’s operating manual should be used. The same is true with other equipment and devices (exciters, limiters, etc.). For protection coordination requirement that can be assessed using P-Q and R-X diagrams, a transformation of parameters is needed as described in Figure 5 [8].

The Device 40 for the study generating unit utilizes two mho characteristics; the settings being expressed in ohms. To plot these settings, the radius and coordinates of the center for two mho circles are calculated as follows: Zone 1: Radius=

16.9 =8.45 Ω 2

Center (R, X)=(0, (-8.45-1.9))=(0,-10.35) Zone 2: Radius=

24 =12 Ω 2

Center (R, X)=(0, (-12-1.9))=(0,-13.9)

Fig. 5. GCC for 230 MVA Steam Turbine Generator

The calculation of SSSL requires a graphical method which is described in [8] and is depicted in Figure 6. To plot the SSSL in the R-X diagram, values of P and Q for the SSSL curve are determined first before applying (1).

The conversion of P-Q to R-X parameters and vice versa can be done using (1). MVA=

kV2 Z


⟮ ⟯ RC RV


RC=CT Ratio RV=VT Ratio Since MVA and Z are both complex quantities consisting of P-Q and R-X values respectively, direct manipulation of (1) should be done to obtain the parameters for GCC, UEL, LOF, and SSSL. Generator Underexcitation Capability, Underexcitation Limiter (UEL), Steady-State Stability Limit (SSSL), and Loss of Field Protection Coordination in P-Q and R-X Diagrams The settings of UEL and Device 40 protection are based on plant information and are presented in Table V and VI respectively. TABLE V UNDEREXCITATION LIMITER (UEL) SETTINGS Point Number 00 01 02 03

UEL Active UEL Reactive Power (p.u.) Power (p.u.) 0.000 -0.391 0.348 -0.391 0.826 -0.304 1.000 -0.304 TABLE VI DEVICE 40 SETTINGS

Parameter Circle Diameter (Ω) Offset (Ω) Time Delay (cycles) Time Delay (s) IIEE.ORG.PH

Zone 1 16.9 -1.9 5.0 0.0833

Zone 2 24.0 -1.9

30.0 0.5

Figure 6. Graphical Method to Calculate SSSL Using 230 MVA as the MVA base for calculation,

Xt(new)= Xt(old)

⟮ ⟯ MVAg MVAt


Xt(new)= 0.105( 230 )=0.104545 p.u 231 Xe=Xt+Xs


Xe=0.104545+0.016379=0.120924 p.u The center of the SSSL and its radius can be calculated using (4) and (5) below:

Center= Radius=

V2 2 V2 2

⟮ ⟮

1 Xe

1 Xd

1 1 + Xe Xd

⟯ ⟯

(4) (5)

From the equations above with Xd = 1.42 p.u. (Table I), Center=3.783p.u at 230 MVA(870.02MVA) Radius=4.487p.u at 230 MVA(1031.995MVA) VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 79

TECHNICAL Following the conversion process using (1) for UEL, Device 40 protection, SSSL, and GCC, the resulting P-Q and R-X diagrams are illustrated in Figure 7 and 8.

Generator Phase Back-Up Protection Coordination in R-X Diagram The study generator is equipped with a Device 21 relay with two-zone mho characteristics. The settings are listed in Table VII. TABLE VII DEVICE 21 SETTINGS Parameter Circle Diameter (Ω) Offset (Ω) Time Delay (cycles) Time Delay (s) Impedance Angle (degrees)

Zone 1 2.9 0 24.0 0.4 89

Zone 2 4.0 0 60.0 1.0 89

Similar with the Device 40, the radius and coordinates of the center for two mho circles are calculated as follows: Zone 1: 2.9 =1.45Ω Radius= 2 Figure 7. P-Q Diagram for Underexcitation Protection Coordination It can be observed from Figure 7 that the settings of UEL and Device 40 (LOF) are properly coordinated. The present settings of UEL allows it to operate first before the zone 2 of the Device 40 relay initiates an alarm or warning signal prior to tripping action. However, the UEL clips the full capability of the generator to operate in the underexcited region. For Figure 8, the same observation can be drawn. When the actual locus of steady-state impedance points is obtained from a stability simulation and plotted in this diagram, the impedance trajectory is expected to encroach UEL curve much sooner. The results of stability simulation will also confirm the accuracy of the time delay settings for the relay.

Center(R1X)=(01(0+1.45))=(011.45) Zone 2: Radius=

4 2


Center(R1X)=(01(0+2))=(012) The system impedance plus transformer reactance was already calculated using (3). Thus,

Xe=0.104545+0.016379=0.120924 p.u This impedance seen at the secondary terminals of the instrument transformers is


182 230

⟮ ⟯ 1800 150


The maximum load impedance at rated power factor angle (RPFA) should be calculated to check that it will not encroach the settings of Zone 2 protection. Normally, the reach of Zone 2 protection should not exceed 50-67% of generator load impedance [6] to prevent the generator from tripping during stable power swings. At 0.85 power factor,


Figure 8. R-X Diagram for Underexcitation Protection Coordination 80 | VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017

182 230

⟮ ⟯⦟ 1800 150

cos-1(0.85)=16.904 ⦟31.788° Ω

Plotting the Device 21 zone elements, system impedance, and GCC, the resulting coordination curve in R-X diagram is illustrated in Figure 9. IIEE.ORG.PH

Figure 9. R-X Diagram for Phase BackUp Protection Coordination The R-X diagram of Figure 8 shows that the phase backup protection is well coordinated to the capability of the generator as the present settings does not encroach the GCC. The generator can fully maximize its overexcitation capability. When a stability simulation is carried out for a fault in the power system, the trajectory of generator load impedance is expected to cross the GCC and will lie within the Zone 2-GCC region. The large margin observed between the Zone 2 and GCC region indicates that the present settings of Device 21 for Zone 1 and 2 are sufficient to prevent the undesired tripping of generator during grid disturbances and voltage collapse scenarios. Generator Overexcitation Capability and Overexcitation Limiter (OEL) Coordination in P-Q Diagram This coordination requirement allows the generator to provide overexcitation for reactive power support during transient periods while observing its limits and capabilities. The GCC and OEL settings are plotted in P-Q diagram to assess the coordination. The settings of OEL are presented in Table VIII. TABLE VIII OVEREXCITATION LIMITER (OEL) SETTINGS Parameter Maximum Continuous Excitation Current Field Current Fast Limit Value Ceiling Current Monitoring Value

Setting 1.10 p.u. 1.231 p.u. 1.331 p.u.

The per unit value of current flowing in the field winding circuit of the generator is directly translated into its equivalent reactive power plotted in the overexcited region of the generator. This is illustrated in Figure 10. IIEE.ORG.PH

Figure 10. P-Q Diagram for OEL Coordination with GCC The plot on Figure 10 indicates proper coordination in the overexcited region as the OEL curves are being set above the generator overexcited limit. The present settings of OEL are sufficient to allow the generator to fully maximize its overexcited capability during disturbances. This is the same observation being drawn in the phase back-up coordination plot illustrated in Figure 9. Generator V/Hz Protection Coordination The overexcitation damage curves for generator and GSUT should not be exceeded following changes in generator terminal voltage and frequency. The settings of Device 24 relay are illustrated in Table IX. TABLE IX DEVICE 24 DEFINITE AND INVERSE TIME SETTINGS Device 24 Definite Time Settings Parameter Settings No. 1 Settings No. 2 Pick-up (% V/Hz) 118.0% 106.0% Time Delay (cycles) 120 120 Time Delay (s) 2 2 Device 24 Inverse Time Settings Pick-up (% V/Hz) 106.0% Curve (Inverse) Time Dial Inverse Reset Rate (s)

#1 1.0 60

The resulting plot of coordination is shown in Figure 11. VOLUME XLVI Double Issue 2017 | 81

TECHNICAL becomes evident following undesired generator outages from recent blackouts. This paper presents a generator protection coordination method based on use of P-Q, R-X and inverse time curves. The method is illustrated through an actual review of coordination for a steam turbine generating unit based on the requirements set forth in NERC PRC-019-2 standard, technical reports, and international standards dealing with ac generator protection. The following conclusions can be drawn for this sample study, as follows:

Figure 11. R-X Diagram for Underexcitation Protection Coordination The settings of Device 24 relay for overexcitation protection indicate that the generator and GSUT are properly protected against abnormal voltage and frequency scenarios such as may occur during load rejection and unit shutdown. However, the plot tells that the generator is the limiting element in the event of core saturation because of overexcitation. Because the damage brought by overexcitation is very severe, it is important that the generator and transformer manufacturers should be consulted first before applying settings of V/Hz protection. V. CONCLUSION The need to coordinate generator protection with generator capability, excitation and voltage controls

t Settings of UEL and Device 40 (LOF) are properly coordinated, although the UEL prevents to maximize the full capability of the generator to operate in the underexcited region.


The phase back-up protection and OEL are well coordinated to the capability of the generator in the overexcited region.


The present settings of Device 24 relay for overexcitation protection reveals that the generator and GSUT are properly protected against higher V/ Hz scenarios although the generator is proved to be the limiting element.

Since the observations being drawn for each protection coordination requirement were based on the plots and diagrams, it is suggested to carry out a positive sequence dynamic simulation to check validity of observations being concluded.

VI. REFERENCES [1] J.F. Hauer, and J.E. Dagle, “White Paper on Review of Recent Reliability Issues and System Events,” Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions Grid of the Future, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [Online]. Available: edit/power_outages.html#_Toc469373534 [2] “Final Report on August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations”, U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force, April 5, 2004. [Online]. Available: DocumentsandMedia/BlackoutFinal-Web.pdf [3] Coordination of Generating Unit or Plant Capabilities, Voltage Regulating Controls, and Protection, NERC Standard PRC-019-2, North American Electric and Reliability Corporation, May 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.nerc. com/pa/Stand/Reliability%20Standards/PRC-019-2.pdf [4] Generating Plant Control and Protection, Grid Protection (GPR) 7.5., Philippine Grid Code (PGC) 2016 Edition, Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC), January 2016. [Online]. Available:

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2016%20Edition%20(for%20booklet%20and%20webpost).pdf [5] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, 1994, p. 317. [6] IEEE Guide AC Generator Protection, IEEE Standard C37.102-2006, Feb. 2007. [7] IEEE Guide for Abnormal Frequency Protection on Power Generating Plants, IEEE Standard C37.106-2003, Feb. 2004. [8] Working Group J-5 of the Rotating Machinery Subcommittee, Power System Relay Committee, "Coordination of Generator Protection with Generator Excitation Control and Generator Capability," IEEE Power Engineering Society, 2007. [9] Z.P. Zhang, J.P. Wang, Z. Gajic, C. Sao, and M. Ghandhari, “Protection against loss of excitation in generators,” [Online]. Available: pdf [10] American National Standard Requirements for Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generators, ANSI C50.13-1977, Aug. 1975.


The Electrical Engineer Volume XLVI Double Issue 2017  
The Electrical Engineer Volume XLVI Double Issue 2017