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2011 IIEE Board of Governors and Officers National President VP-Internal Affairs VP-External Affairs VP-Technical Affairs National Secretary National Treasurer National Auditor Region I Region II Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Region IX Immediate Former President Officer-in-Charge

Armando R. Diaz Jules S. Alcantara Gregorio R. Cayetano Alex C. Cabugao Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban Larry C. Cruz Florigo C. Varona Francis R. Calanio Virgilio S. Luzares Roselyn C. Rocio Ronaldo D. Ebrada Marlon T. Marcuelo Lelanie T. Mirambel Rey G. Paduganan Victorianito E. Teofilo Gregorio Y. Guevarra Ramon P. Ayaton

IIEE National Secretariat Department Heads Administrative Finance Technical Marketing & Membership

Niellisa Joy B. Bandong Karen T. Sacdalan Ramon P. Ayaton Allen M. Pido

Publications Committee Chairman: Members: Overseer:

Robinson S. Uy Ernesto M. Cabral Marvin H. Caseda Dr. Allan C. Nerves Ronald Vincent M. Santiago Alex C. Cabugao


The present circulation of the magazine is 30,000 copies per issue to members and industry stakeholders. The Electrical Engineers Editorial Board Alex C. Cabugao Robinson S. Uy Ernesto M. Cabral Dr. Allan C. Nerves Ramon P. Ayaton Editorial Staff Editorial Assistant Graphic Artist

Jenelyn C. Pajutining Elwood B. Perez

Advertising and Marketing Account Executive


FROM THE OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL PRESIDENT • President’s Message • President’s Report

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IIEE NEWS Chapter and National News


INDUSTRY NEWS • Meralco September Bills to Customer lower this month • DOE Clarifies Efficient Lighting Project Status TECHNICAL FEATURE • Trouble Shooting of Electric Motors Process

Joan Q. Delos Santos 727-3552 loc. 101 410-1899


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By: Engr. Edwin B. Cano

• Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) Evaluation


From Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

• Demand Power Factor as an Ancillary Service


A Power Quality Case Study by APQI

• Voltage Protection: Set to Match

The Electrical Engineer is published quarterly by the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE), with editorial and business offices at #41 Monte de Piedad St., Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines. Tel Nos. (632) 722-7383, 7273552, 412-5772, 414-5626, Fax Nos. (632) 721-6442 & 410-1899. Website:, E-mail:

Chairman Editorial-in-Chief Associate Editor: Technical Consultant: Administrative Officer:



By: Engr. Dean A. Sempio








iews or opinions expressed by the authors of letters, articles and research studies published in The Electrical Engineer DO NOT necessarily reflect the views of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE). The IIEE trusts the integrity of these authors. The IIEE exercises due review diligence but it is possible that the contents of the articles contributed may not be verified due to time constraints. Articles or visual materials may not be reproduced without written consent from IIEE. The IIEE reserves the right to accept or refuse submitted materials for publication. Articles, reactions and feedback from readers may be sent through e-mail at

To Our Readers From the Desk of the

Tentative Schedule (4th Quarter of 2011)

Vice President for Technical Affairs Welcome to the third quarter issue of The Electrical Engineer!

Through the continuous efforts, support and dedication of the IIEE Officers, Regional Governors and Chapter Officers, the Institute indeed experienced a momentuous and fruitful third quarter. The Institute will surely welcome the last quarter of 2011 with great confidence amidst all the challenges. This issue features the different activities conducted by the different chapters in the region and the IIEE National Committees. The Institute’s celebration of its 36th Founding Anniversary last September 15, is included in this issue. Also featured is the Motor Trouble Shooting Process by the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI). Our sincerest thanks to the EPRI who continuously allows the Institute access to relevant technical reports and researches. The EE Magazine Editorial Board deemed it appropriate to feature an APQI Power Quality Case Study on Lighting Ballast Evaluation and the technical paper on Demand Power Factor as an Ancillary Service by Engr. Edwin Cano. The Editorial Board continues to solicit for technical papers that can eventually be published in local and technical magazines of the engineering and power industry. Before I end, we encourage all the members to attend and actively participate in to the IIEE 36th Annual National Convention and 3E Xpo 2011: A Specialized in Electrical, Electronics and Energy Exposition on November 23-26 at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC). To all our contributors and advertisers, we would like to extend our sincerest gratitude for your support to the Editorial Board. ALEX C. CABUGAO

Management Review Meeting November 5, 2011 IIEE National Office 11th Executive Committee Meeting November 5, 2011 IIEE National Office 11th Regular Board Meeting November 22, 2011 Board Room, PICC 36th Annual National Convention and 3E Xpo 2011: A Specialized in Electrical, Electronics and Energy Exposition November 23-26, 2011 Philippine International Convention Center (PICC) ISO External Surveillance Audit November 29, 2011 IIEE National Office Turn Over Ceremonies and Christmas Party December 9, 2011 MERALCO Lighthouse, Ortigas Ave. Pasig City Joint Board Meeting and Pre-Planning December 10, 2011 IIEE National Office

From the Office of the National President ENGR. ARMANDO R. DIAZ For more than three decades, we travelled in a difficult road in search for a respectable place in society. We looked for a position of esteem not for honors, power, or influence. We simply wanted to be credible. We wanted to attain a reasonable ground so we could be believed. We did seek a common interest, a principle, a doctrine that would bind us all together. With the strength of our unity, locked tightly by the spirit of friendship, we kept our commitment to help others have a better life. Fellow officers and members, our ever supportive ladies auxiliary, distinguished guests, we now stand on this pedestal as we celebrate today our 36th Founding Anniversary. Celebrate with us our sucesses and help us remember our failures that we may learn to overcome our weaknesses. Let me take this opportunity to thank all our members, from the ancient ones who started this all, to the youngest ones who have yet to learn the character, culture and tradition of this organization. The Institute of Integrated of Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. will not be as it is today without all of you. This is your day. This is your celebration and you will continue to cherish this day as long as you keep IIEE in your hearts. Let me ask everyone for a round of applause for the pillars of the Institute who gave it all: devotion, dedication, commitment, and time for the passion of serving our fellow practitioners in the field and the general public. Once more, let me ask another round of applause for a new members who are now looking ahead for their time in handling the helm of this organization. I would like to believe that in the past 36 years, we have attained our goal of introducing ourselves in our respective communities. We have shown what we can do and have proven that we could do some more. Today, in this era of state-of-art industry, our goals are mobile. Reaching it is like chasing a rainbow. As we achieve one, another spring out. We are in the endless crusade of looking for solutions to problems that never ran out. We should continue learning. We have to find new ideas, neo-technologies, new tools, and new inspirations that would induce our creativity. We have to fit with the times. Is there any better way of learning than learning from one another? Our active participation in the institute's activities, social otherwise, gather us together for effective exchanges of ideas. Every time we interact we learn something new. In fact we learn things that were even outside our field of specialization and skills. One's story about how he cooks at home helps us discover new recipes. Through cordial exchanges, we learn how to cook. Another member's story on how he artfully dodges his wife when he goes home late at night make us learn new techniques on how we could make our wife happy. We learn by just listening from one another. we learn, by just keeping ourselves together. So I say, " The family that stays together stays together." Let us not make this anniversary the last one we shall celebrate. Let us celebrate the institute' anniversary until as we could no longer remember the number of the years it existed, as long as electricity dominates the environment, as long as industry needs electricity to run their mills and light their ways. In closing, let me share this insight from an American Author- Bruce Burton, "Nothing splendid has ever been achieved except by those who dare believe that something inside them was superior to circumstances." No circumstances will ever stop me from loving IIEE and the works that we do. I believe everyone feels the same. while we have acheived so much, we could do better, every day, every week, every month every year, as long as we are all together. Maraming salamat. Mabuhay ang IIEE at kayong lahat! 3rd QUARTER 2011 THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER



President’s Report Third Quarter 2011

As we welcome the last quarter of 2011, let us review the accomplishments of the Institute during the 3rd Quarter of 2011.

Welfare A. IIEE TRAININGS The IIEE Continuing Professional Development Committee chaired by Engr. Frumencio T. Tan conducted four technical seminars during the third quarter of the year, namely: 1. Electrical Power System Design of High Rise Residential and Commercial Buildings Date: July 29 and 30 Speaker: Engr. Emiliano G. Marabulas 2. PLC Programming Methods and its Applications Date: August 12 and 13 Speaker: Engr. Philip Marvin D. Joven and Engr. Malou S. Laserna 3. Applied Short-Circuit Analysis in Commercial and Industrial Power Systems Date: August 13 and 20 Speaker: Engr. Vincent E. Jimenez


4. Electrical Grounding and Bonding Date: September 2 and 3 Speaker: Engr. Jaime V. Mendoza

Regional Math Wizard, which were simultaneously conducted in the nine (9) Regions of the Institute, including the National Capital Region (NCR).

B. IIEE WEBSITE The Institute partnered with Union Bank to provide better services to its members through on-line registration and payments. The link for on-line registration and payment has already been updated in the IIEE website. Please visit and see the link for Registration and Payments. C. IIEE COUNCIL OF CHAPTERS (IIEE CSC)


The IIEE CSC, together with the Regional Council of Student Chapters successfully held the 7th Regional Student Conference (RSCON), last September 22-24. The 7th RSCON featured the 25th Regional Quiz Show and 11th


3rd QUARTER 2011

The 4th Mid-Year Convention which featured the Educational Field Trip and Mega Seminar, was held last September 30 to October 1 by the IIEE CSC. It was participated by sixty (60) BS Electrical Engineering Students.

Ecology A. PHILIPPINE GREEN BUILDING INITIATIVE (PGBI) As a member of the PGBI, the IIEE showed its support to its LEED Assessors' Training Course. The Institute sent a delegation to the LEED Assessor's Training Course last October 8.





The Professional Practice Committee (PPC) chaired by Engr. Antonio Guevarra, reviewed and revised the Policy and Guidelines on Handling Complaints. The guidelines on handling complaints by the PPC has a purpose of providing a standardized guideline in filing, processing and hearing of complaints, and making recommendations and rendering of final action. B. IIEE CODE OF ETHICS The PPC reviewed and made necessary revisions to the IIEE Code of Ethics. It has an aim of aligning these provisions with the demands and requirements of the industry, at present. C. AMENDMENT ON THE CRITERIA FOR THE MOST OUTSTANDING PRACTITIONERS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING The Selection and Awards Committee reviewed and revised, respectively, the Criteria for the Most Outstanding EE Practitioners in various fields. The said criteria was also presented and approved during the 9th Regular Board Meeting in Embarcadero De Legazpi, Legazpi City, Albay.


2. NCR Conference


The 2011 NCR Conference was held last July 1 at Hotel Rembrandt, Quezon City. About 43 electrical practitioners coming from the different sectors of the electrical industry participated in the event.

Three (3) Regions successfully held their Regional Conferences during the third quarter of 2011: 1. The 12th Eastern/Central Visayas Regional Conference hosted by the IIEE Negros Oriental Chapter was held last July 21-23 at Bethel Guest House, Dumaguete City. It was participated in by almost 200 delegates coming from the different chapters of the Region. 2. The 15th Southern Mindanao Regional Conference was hosted by the IIEE Davao Chapter last August 25-27 at Davao Trade and Convention Center, Davao City. 3. The 12th Bicol Regional Conference was hosted by the IIEE Albay-Legazpi Chapter last September 8-10 at Embarcadero De Legazpi, Legazpi City Albay. B. NCR Affairs Bureau The NCR Affairs Bureau chaired by Engr. Eusebio A. Gonzales held two (2) different activities:

C. 36th Founding Celebration


The Institute celebrated its 36th Founding Anniversary last September 15 at the IIEE National Office. It was participated in by the IIEE Officers, Council of Former Presidents (CFP), the Ladies' Auxiliary Group, the IIEE National Secretariat and various Committee Chairmen. D. Ladies Auxiliary Socio Civic Activity The IIEE Ladies Auxiliary conducted a Feeding and Electrical Mission program last September 15 for the Broadway Samahang Magkakapitbahay Association Inc. The Electrical Mission program included the Streetlighting Project for Broadway St., Barangay Kalusugan, District IV, Quezon City.

1. Golf Tournament The IIEE NCR Affairs Bureau successfully conducted the 1st IIEE NCR Golf Tournament last June 30 at AFP Golf Club, Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City. This event was participated in by 33 golfers.




E. Asia Power Quality Intiative Fora The APQI Philippines, together with the International Copper Association and the IIEE organized two (2) EUAPQI fora during the third quarter of 2011: 1. The 1st APQI Forum was held last August 11 at Makati Shangri-la Hotel. Representatives from nine (9) companies attended the event. 2. The 2nd APQI Forum was held at Oakwood Premier Joy-Nostalg Center last September 14 Eight (8) representatives from different companies participated in the event. F. ESEA Strategic Planning The IIEE, together with the ICA held the Electrical Safety Enforcement and


Awareness Campaign (ESEA) Strategic Planning Session last September 1 at Oakwood Premier Joy-Nostalg Center.

Other Activities A. Board of Electrical Engineering The Board of Electrical Engineering of the Professional Regulation Commission, chaired by Hon. Fortunato C. Leynes, held the 2nd Licensure Examination for Electrical Engineers and Electricians last September 10-12.

Engineering, 1519 Registered Electrical Engineer and 742 Registered Master Electricians passed the Electrical Engineer Licensure Examinations.

Twenty-one Professional passed the conducted by

The oathtaking ceremonies of the successful examinees was held last September 29 at the SMX Convention Center, Pasay City.


(21) applicants for Electrical Engineers technical evaluation the Board of Electrical

3rd QUARTER 2011

IIEE News Palawan Chapter Conducts Mid-Year General Membership Meeting, Technical Seminar and 5th Leg of UR4 ELECTRICAL SAFETY INSPECTION The IIEE Palawan Chapter officers, together with Hon. Francis V. Mapile & Region IV Governor, Engr. Roselyn Rocio and chapter officers from the region conducted a free electrical safety inspection at the Palawan National High School. During the ocular inspection at the PNS, the team found out that there is a necessity to rehabilitate the service entrance of the building and its panelboards. It also recommended the construction of a new service pedestal. The team also conducted a preliminary inspection of the NCC Mall and Hotel Fleuris. Their representatives were advised to prepare for the follow-up and more detailed inspection on October, this year.

Electrical inspection in Palawan National High School

CIVIC ACTION AT BRGY. SALVACION, PUERTO PRINCESA CITY After the safety inspection, the team headed to Brgy. Salvacion and participated in the civic activities initiated by IIEE Palawan Chapter. The chapter donated the materials needed for the repainting of the Multi-purpose hall of Kapit-Bahayan Association, Tagbato Village (Gawad Kalinga). A follow-up activity will be conducted for the repair of their electrical wirings.

Electrical inspection in NCC Mall with the maintenance personnel

Socio-civic activity at Kapit-Bahayan Association, Gawad Kalinga, Tagbato Village, Brgy. Salvacion, Puerto Princesa


graced by the presence of the Board of Electrical Engineering (BEE) Chairman, Hon. Fortunato C. Leynes and BEE members, Hon. Francis V. Mapile and Hon. Jaime V. Mendoza, who also served as resource speakers for certain technical topics. Other Resource Speakers were Engr. Amando R. Diaz and IIEE Batangas Chapter Secretary Engr. Maria Josenia Bautro. IIEE Region IV Governor, Engr. Roselyn C. Rocio acknowledged the guests and officers from Quezon, Laguna, Cavite and Batangas Chapters.

To provide public impact for the launching of the Electrical Safety Enforcement and Awareness Campaign, the General Membership Meeting was started with a motorcade at 7:00 o’clock in the morning from Puerto Princesa Bay Walk to Palawan State University in Brgy Tiniguiban via the city’s major streets. The motorcade was participated in by about 200 individual representatives from PALECO, NAPOCOR, City Fire Department, faculty and students (from Palawan State University, Western Philippine University and Puerto Princesa School of Arts and Trade), private practitioners,UR4 delegates and guests. The motorcade was then followed by a press conference regarding Electrical Safety Inspection and Awareness at the PSU Hostel. The press conference was organized by IIEE Palawan Former President Engr. Edgardo L. Antonio. Engr. William Juan, chairman of the IIEE Electrical Safety Committee was also present during the event. It was participated by the local media in Palawan. The GMM and Technical Seminar was

Two product presenters also participated in the event namely BTicino and FELCO. The GMM had a total of 213 delagates. An oath taking of the successful new REE and RMEs was also conducted by the BEE in the evening at AA Plaza Hotel.

The delegates of the General Membership Meeting and Technical Seminars.



IIEE News Albay Legazpi Chapter Hosts 12th Bicol Regional Conference

By: Engr. Ronaldo D. Ebrada, Bicol Regional Governor Surging across Bicol, the Albay-Legazpi Chapter plunges south for the 12th Bicol Regional Conference held at Embarcadero de Legazpi, Legazpi City Albay last September 8-10. Dubbed “Economic development through clean and affordable electricity,” 134 aspiring electrical engineers from six schools of the region together with 151 professionals, the event served as a venue for the participants to hone their craft as simultaneous seminars, sports fest, skills Olympics and plant tour were given. The event was graced by Engr. Armando R. Diaz, IIEE National President, as he shared his expertise to the delegates as well as enumerating his agenda of what he tagged as ‘making IIEE a better IIEE.’ WENS as he called it, is Welfare, Ecology, Neo policies and Support all aiming to enhance professional knowledge and national awareness. He made special note on the host chapter’s different concept of the venue of the Conference. Meanwhile, Engr. Ronaldo D. Ebrada supported the government in its campaign of achieving an economically stable and greener Philippines. “By using renewable energy in the country, two outcomes are absolute— the Filipinos will be unburdened with the exorbitant cost of electricity and the country will tread the greener path,” Engr. Ebrada stated. Likewise, Engr. Teodoro M. Atienza, host Chapter President, greeted the delegates and guests in his welcome address. Engr. Atienza stressed the responsibility of the organization in giving ease to our people. “The task imbued in every professional require us to be sensitive to the needs of our fellowmen but keeping in mind that our environment is considered for protection and preservation. Providing clean and affordable electricity and


Hon. Harold O. Imperial and the IIEE Board of Governors during the Official Opening of the Exhibit

Albay Legaszpi Chapter Officers with Hon. Mayor Geraldine Carmen Rosal after the Closing program

protecting the environment should be our primary goal.” Engr. Atienza stated.

For the first time in the conduct of the Bicol Regional Conference, there were a total of eighteen (18) exhibitors and eight (8) technical product presenters who committed their sponsorship. These are the following: (1) Phelps Dodge Philippines, (2) Legazpi Sony Marketing, (3) Centrade, (4) GEMCO, (5) Spectrum, (6) Firefly, (7) Frontier, (8) Systems Control Instrumentations, Inc, (9) Asiaphil, (10) PPI Pazific, (11) MOLDEX, (12) BAG Electronics, (13) RPV, (14) Vioqure, (15) Cotton City, (16) American Wire and Cables, (17) Access Frontier and (18) Albay Aids Council. Other sponsors are as follows: (1) Embarcadero De Legazpi, (2) PowerBuild Construction, (3) Samsung & Jayson Marketing, (4) EDC-BGPF, (5) Canon, South Bicol Office, (6) Banitrade, (7) Multitech Industrial &Eng’g. Supply Co., (8) Yokogawa Philippines, (9) Metrosphere Corporation.

Hon. Harold O. Imperial, Vice-Governor of the Province of Albay, inspired the delegates in their advocacy as the Keynote Speaker during the Conference opening ceremony. Beforehand, the official opening of exhibits was headed by the Vice Governor and the National Officers, together with IIEE Board of Governors and the host Chapter Officers. During the three-day event, IIEE hailed the winners of the sports fest in bowling. Jijie Morico won the competition with Emmanuel Jacob as the 1st runner-up, Alden Sia, 2nd runner-up; and Garry Navarro as the 3rd runner-up. On the other hand, Camarines Sur Polytechnic College (CSPC) Nabua prevailed as Champion in the Skills Olympics with Camarines Norte State College and CSPC as 1st and 2nd runnerups respectively. Bicol University, Divine Word College of Legazpi and Sorsogon State College also participated in the said activity. Also in the event, the board of governors meeting was held at Gerry’s Grill where accomplishment reports were discussed. Mayor Geraldine Carmen Rosal, was present as Guest Speaker during the culmination of the Conference.


3rd QUARTER 2011

Motorcade using e-jeep parading the delegates, guests and officers from Embarcadero de Legazpi to Daraga, Albay

IIEE News IIEE Negros Oriental Chapter Hosts 12th Visayas Regional Conference

By: Engr. Peter T. Credo, Vice-President for Internal Affairs, IIEE Negros Oriental Chapter “God is so good and wonderful”. This was the expression of most of the members of the host and working committee of the IIEE Negros Oriental Chapter as they hosted the 12th Visayas Regional Conference held last July 21-23 at the Bethel Guest House, Dumaguete City. As for them, hosting the Visayas Conference was no joke and not an easy task. But with God, nothing is impossible. It started with so much uncertainty as to whether participants would come and attend and whether the VIP’s from Manila and other Regional Officers would also come. As the day of the conference drew near, the typhoon “Juaning”was also fast approaching as if it wanted to take part in the conference. But as the working committee would say, “Offer everything to God and He will do the rest”. Indeed, Thursday came and the weather was quite cooperative. The different exhibitors were able to put up their products located at the ground floor of the Bethel Guest House located along the boulevard. Slowly but surely, guests and participants on that day started to arrive, either by plane, by bus and by boat, a clear manifestation that the weather had not gone wrong yet. Everybody billeted in the hotels they had booked earlier. As afternoon of July 21 came, everybody assembled in front of the Bethel Guest House to prepare for the motorcade around the city. It was a productive and fun-filled motorcade as the group distributed flyers and pamphlets featuring tips on how to conserve energy and how to practice electrical safety both in the workplace and in the house. Many Dumagueteños took some time off to view the streamers and banners decorating the vehicles of the IIEE members which featured the theme, “Electrical Safety Starts With Me”. But

what attracted the onlookers the most was the beating of the drum to the tune of “waka-waka”performed by the “Banda Mangga”, a local musical group performing usually during parades and special occasions. The motorcade ended back at the Bethel Guest House with the participants exhausted yet enjoyed. Evening came and the group once again prepared for the welcome party at a local native restaurant. This time, the typhoon drew havoc as it reached the Visayas region. It was even reported that a tornado was spotted 20 kms. north of Dumaguete. Fortunately, nobody was hurt during the tornado as it was believed to have landed in the sea. Though the rain kept on pouring, the visitors and guests enjoyed the sumptuous meal at the native restaurant while being entertained by the “Banda Mangga”with matching fire dancers. There was even a time when the guests were given the chance to play their own repertoire using the available musical instruments, to the delight and amazement of the crowd. On the next day, the weather was again calm, a sign that the regional conference would soon start quietly and calmly. In contrast to the calmness outside the venue, the opening ceremony started with a bang as the IIEE March and Hymn were intricately interpreted by the Silliman University Jazz Band and sang by the Silliman University Gratitude and Goodwill Ambassadors (SUGGA), respectively. The general assembly hall was filled with about 200 electrical practitioners who came all the way from other parts of the province and neighboring provinces in the region just to be part of the conference. Gracing the opening ceremony were no less than the Chairman and members of the Board of Electrical Engineers, National IIEE Officers, the different regional governors, speakers and guests. Engr. Lanie Mirambel,

Region 7 Governor could not describe her feelings at that time because she did not expect the attendees to be that many despite the unfavorable weather condition the country was experiencing. In her welcome speech, she thanked the Board of Electrical Engineering, officers from the IIEE national office, the different regional governors and guests for making it to the venue.

The regional conference includes the ESEA motorcade with the theme “Electrical Safety Starts with Me’

The Board of Governors together with Guest Speaker, Dr. Betsy Joy Tan, Acting President of the Siliman University

About 200 electrical practitioners participated in the conference



IIEE News Davao Chapter Hosts the 15th Southern Mindanao Regional Conference IIEE Davao Chapter conducted the 15th Southern Mindanao Regional Conference (SMRC) last August 25-27 at the Davao Convention and Trade Center. This year’s theme is “Economic Development through Clean and Affordable Electricity”. Through the leadership of Chapter President Engr. Rodelio B. Ravela and Region IX Governor, Engr. Victorianito E. Teofilo, the affair attracted an overwhelming 500 participants from various chapters under the Region. There were 24 booth exhibitors and 40 product sponsorships. August 24 - An IIEE Golf Tournament was held at the world class Rancho Palos Verdes course in partnership with the Society of Philippine Electrotechnical Constructors and Suppliers (SPECS). This was made possible with the help of former National President Engr. Arthur N. Escalante. Later in the evening, the awarding of prizes to the winners of the golf tournament was held at the Pantawan Hall of Pagcor Davao, at the Grand Mercure Hotel.

and manual dexterities to work in going through the NC III Certificate examination of TESDA. Engr. Joel G. Ayon of the University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP), was the declared winner of the competition. Engr. Jose Marie Uy of Dole Philippines, Inc. (Socsargen Chapter) was the first runner-up. The Winners of various sports competitions were: Engr. Roland Rogo of Kidapawan Chapter for Bowling; Engr. Angel de Vera and Engr. Teofilo of Davao Chapter for Lawn Tennis; and Engr. Ciriaco Godoy of Davao del Sur Chapter for Billiards. The Opening Ceremonies last August 26, started on time with the ribbon cutting led by the National President Armando R. Diaz and Engr. Escalante. This was followed by a short tour of the 24 booth exhibitors.

The highlights of the Opening Ceremonies were the inspiring speeches of Engr. Diaz and Engr. Victorianito Benjamin Lahoz. Engr. Diaz talked about the institute’s thrust on its Welfare, Ecology, NeoPolicies, and Support or WENS; and the promotion of electrical safety. This was in consonance with the conference theme “Economic Development through Clean and Affordable Electricity”. Engr. Lahoz was the representative of Engr. Ramon F. Allado, the Chairman of PCAB and Honored Guest of the conference. Engr. Lahoz talked on the vital role of electrical practitioners in nation building through the leadership of the IIEE.

As Engr. Teofilo declared the SMRC open, Engr. Ravela welcomed the National Officers, Board of Governors, Chapter Presidents of Region IX, the BEE, and all the participants and guests.

One of the unforgettable highlights was the creative cultural presentation numbers by USEP Choral, Rondalla, and Dance Group. Their distinctive voices, elegance and grace never ceased to amaze everyone in the conference hall as they expressed their cultural talents that truly brought out what Davao City and the whole Region IX had to offer in the field of arts and culture.

The Southern Mindanao Conference also includes the ESEA Motorcade

Twenty-four (24) booths participated in the exhibition

August 25 -The first day of the 3-day conference kicked off with a motorcade through the major streets of the city. This was enthusiastically supported by the Bureau of Fire Protection with one of their fire trucks leading the convoy. At the same time, various sporting competitions were also conducted: Tennis at the Davao Light Tennis Court, wIth Bowling and Billiards held at the NCCC Mall. The Plant tour visited the newly opened Sibulan Hydro Electric Plant at Sta. Cruz town in Davao del Sur. The Skills Olympic competition was held at TESDA Korphil, Tibungco, Davao City. Here, six (6) participants put their brains



3rd QUARTER 2011


The IIEE Board of Governors together with the Guest of Honor during the Official Opening of the Exhibit

After the Opening Ceremonies, the technical sessions followed. There were 13 Technical Topics and 8 Product Presentations. Immediately after the Opening Program had ended. Engr. Jules Alcantara broke the ice for the Technical Sessions with his lecture on Simplified Fault Analysis using Simplified Drawings. Proper Grounding and Maintenance was the next topic presented by Hon. Jaime V. Mendoza then followed by Dynamics of WESM by Hon. Francis V. Mapile. Other Technical Topics presented during the SMRC: Project Estimating and Costing by Engr. Florigo C. Varona; Advance Metering Infrastructure by Engr. Anastacio Cubos, The New EE Curriculum on its 3rd Year of Implementation by Engr. Lyndon R. Bague.; Electrical Safety (Arc Flash) by Engr. Frumencio T. Tan; 8.Integrating Smart Components and Smart Solutions into the Distribution Grid by Engr. Julius S. Algabre; Sibulan Hydroelectric Power System: Electrical Protection and Metering by Engr. Jopcip L. Ebarle; Transformer Protection by Engr. Juanico Rubia; The Case of Coal Power Plant by Mr. Manuel Orig; Guidelines on PEE Licensure Examination by Hon. Fortunato C. Leynes; Presentation of Three (3) ICA Manuals by Engr. Arthur A. Lopez, Engr. Raymond Marquez, and Engr. Rene Ong.

The following were the Product Presentations in the SMRC: Power Cash – Suprina by Mr. Melchor A. Gallian, Jr. of PPI.; Low Voltage Equipment by Ms. Nicole Wang, CHINT; Envirotemp Fluid for Pole type distribution transformer by Engr. Patrick Joseph U. Munoz; Compact and NSX “Next Generation Circuit Breakers” by Ms. Ellaine Guillermo of Zimmons; Power Quality Solutions and Preventive Maintenance by Engr. Rodolfo Santos of ASIA Phil; 6.Value Engineering for Wiring System by Engr. Manrico Gutierez of Phelp Dodge; 7.Energy Efficient Lighting by Engr. Julius Alayon of KOTEN; and 8. Extra High Frequency Lightings by Engr. Evelyn Pellazar of Panasonic.

About 400 delegates coming from the different sectors in the industry participated in the conference

In the evening of August 26, all participants, guests, National Officers, Board of Governors, and BEE were entertained by the Host Chapter with free-flowing food and drinks plus an entertainment program. The stress and information overload from the technical sessions during the afternoon were all forgotten by the participants as they enjoyed the evening. August 27 – the last day of the conference was kicked off by the ever energetic Engr. Algabre with his technical topic on Integrating Smart Components and Smart Solutions into the Distribution Grid. Ambers from smoldering topics

flew and grazed the inquisitive minds of the participants as Mr. Orig presented his topic on The Case of Coal Power Plant then followed by the Guidelines on PEE Licensure Examination as presented by Hon. Leynes. But everybody was still craving for more as the presentations of three (3) ICA Manuals were delivered by Engr. Lopez, Engr. Marquez and Engr. Ong. The Closing Ceremony finally came to a spectacular close with a bang as the Keynote Speaker, Davao City Councilor Hon. Pilar Braga, expressed her profound admiration for the IIEE and its members. In her speech, Councilor Braga commended the Institute and its members for striving hard to become truly a professional in the electrical practice, and most of all, responsible individuals for the betterment of our country. But another thing that Councilor Braga could not help but notice was the very touching meaning that the IIEE Hymn brings forward. She commended the author who wrote the hymn because of the power and impact it brings to the Institute. The councilor could not contain her eagerness to hear from the National Officers to sing out the Hymn. Engr. Diaz took it as the cue and led the singing of the IIEE Hymn together with all other National Officers and Board of Governors. The Southern Mindanao Regional Conference was formally closed by Engr. Teofilo.

The event also includes the Chapter Presidents’ meeting attended by the National Officers and Chapter Representatives



IIEE News IIEE AND ICASEA Host Asia Power Quality Initiative (APQI) Fora The APQI Philippines, together with IIEE and International Copper Association Southeast Asia held two (2) Asia Power Quality Initiative Fora last August 11 and September 14. The 1st APQI Forum was held at Makati Shangri-la Hotel. It was attended by representatives from nine (9) different companies, namely: (1) University of Perpetual Help Dalta Medical Center; (2) University of Santo Tomas Hospital; (3) Aichi Forging Co. of Asia, Inc.; (4) ON Semiconductor; (5) San Miguel Yamamura Packaging Corp.; (6) Integrated Microelectronics Inc.; (7) Emerson Network; (8) Lafarge Cement and (9) FVMI.

The IIEE Officers, together with the ICASEA Representatives during the August 11 forum at Makati Shangri-la Hotel

The APQI Philippines Core Group held its monthly meeting coinciding with the fora

The 2nd APQI Forum was attended by the Dusit Thani Manila, Makati Medical Center , Moldex and the Medical City.

These fora aims to introduce APQIPhilippines, its objectives and programs in the country to the industry.

IIEE AND ICASEA Conducts ESEA Campaign Project Strategic Planning The IIEE together with the International Copper Association Southeast Asia (ICASEA) conducted a Strategic Planning Workshop at Oakwood Premier JoyNostalg Center on September 1. The Strategic Planning aims to identify the Mission and Vision of the ESEA Campaign Project and to develop program strategic thrusts.

The group came out with the Mission: “To ensure ESEA is properly enforced through improving local inspection’s capacity and to increase the public’s awareness on Electrical Safety”, and Vision: “To be a major campaign that leads the public towards an electrically safe environment.”

The ESEA Steering Group after the strategic planning

Ms. Jessie Lei, Project Manager for Building Construction of ICASEA, presented the long term program of the ESEA Campaign, the role of IIEE and ICASEA to this campaign and the important key elements which will bring a success to the campaign. Ms. Lilet Cruz facilitated the crafting of the Mission and Vision through a “Tripod Enterprise Model.”


The planning session resulted in the finalization of activities from September 2011 to December 2014. Furthermore, the planning session established various committees to realize its action plan.

The ESEA strategic planning proper


3rd QUARTER 2011

IIEE News IIEE Commences Its 36th Founding Anniversary with a Wild Western Vigors Engr. Andy Glynn O. Gayman

September 15– This remarkable day of the year denotes the 36th year founding anniversary of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines as it went ahead to pull off a rather enthusiastic celebration resembling a Wild Western setting at its national office in Cubao, Quezon City. A thanksgiving mass as well as a summon for blessings was officiated by Father Teddy Abas at 4:00pm and attended by the incumbent national officers led by the National President Engr. Armando R. Diaz, together with members of the Board of Governors, Board of Electrical Engineering, the Ladies auxiliary group, and the IIEE Secretariat. All prepared for the occasion, everyone appeared with their best in casual cowboy get-ups, hard-kicking well-suited boots, and that symbolic Bronco Billy hat costume to suit the theme of the event. While the evening was still sober, Engr. Diaz announced the charitable gesture of Engr. Rolando P. Vasquez (CEO of RPV Electro) who donated an Insulation Resistance Tester and a Clamp-on meter in aid for the ESEA Committee and which were gratefully accepted by its Chairman, Engr. Francis Mapile. Not missing out to bear witness of this milestone were personalities from the Council of Former Presidents who each delivered enlivening messages in the spirit of such an achievement of the Institute: Engr. Rogelio M. Avenido (1986), Engr. Willington K.K.C. Tan (1990), Engr. Virgilio C. Flordeliza (1995), Engr. Hipolito A. Leoncio (2008) and Engr. Arthur A. Lopez (2000). There was no dry eye in the room when Engr. Avenido expressed his profound appreciation to everyone

The celebration started with the thanksgiving mass officiated by Father Glenn Abas

who upheld the pillars of IIEE especially citing the names of the staff employees who exhausted every effort in dedication to the Association’s continuing success. Another highlight of the affair was when the Secretariat Head, Ramon P. Ayaton, shared a very compelling message about his 33 years in service for IIEE evoking his memories of how it evolved from being a constituent of the then PAMEE up until its earlier struggles and eventual disintegration as a distinctive entity in 1997.

The anniversary celebration witnessed the support of the Institute to the Philippine Green Building Intiative (PGBI) LEED Assessors’ Training

As the night progressed, a series of production numbers ignited the stage in an inter-departmental frenzied competition that was eventually won by the Marketing-Membership Department who allured the audience with their enticing dance moves and walked away with bragging rights in beating the Technical Department who landed second place. Other prizes were disposed in a raffle and to the winners of the best in cowboy attires namely Engr. Rey G. Paduganan and host Engr. Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban.

The anniversary celebration was graced by the IIEE Former Presidents and Ladies Auxiliary



IIEE News NCR Holds 1st Golf Tournament and 2011 NCR Conference The NCR Affairs Bureau, chaired by Engr. Eusebio A. Gonzales held its 1st Golf Tournament and 2011 NCR Conference last June 30 and July 1, respectively. The 1st NCR Golf Tournament The 1st NCR Golf Tournament was held at AFP Golf Club at Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City. Thirty-three (33) golfers coming from the different companies in the electrical industry participated in the event. Winners of the 1st NCR Golf Tournament were: Low Gross Champion - Mr. Ed Custodio Low Net Champion - Mr. Willy Cabalce Class “A” Champion - Mr. Bong Bambao Class “A” 1st Runner Up - Mr. Sammy Tan Class “A” 2nd Runner Up - Mr. Roberto Divina Class “B” Champion - Mr. FB Caluza Class “B” 1st runner Up - Mr. Eugene Villanueva Class “B” 2nd Runner Up - Mr. Jonjon Tomas Class “C” Champion - Mr. Jun De Leon Class “C” 1st runner Up - Mr. Robert Lai Class “C” 2nd runner Up - Mr. Ignacio Mendoza Nearest to the pin # 8 - Mr. Sammy Tan Longest drive # 1 - Mr. Willy Cabalce Accurate Drive # 12 - Mr. Arnel Victorio 2011 NCR Conference The 2011 NCR Conference was held at Hotel Rembrandt and participated in by forty-three (43) delegates coming from the utility and distribution companies, government units and academe. Among the companies who participated were: Manila Electric Company, National Grid Corporation of the Philippines, Philippine Electric Market Corporation, S and H Construction, SKF Philippines, Inc. , Asiaphil Group of Companies,


The 1st NCR Golf Tournament was participated by 33 golfers coming from the different companies in the industry

CSC Batch 25 hold its Induction Ceremonies of the New Set of Officers for SY 2011-2012

International Copper Association Southeast Asia, Pazific Power Inc., KC Industrial, Polytechnic University of the Philippines and AMA.

success of the event: (1) MERALCO (2) R. A. Mojica and Partners, (3) Voltage Electrical Contractor Corp., (4) Gemini Electrical and Communication. (5) Cabalce Electrical Contractors; (6) KC Industrial Corp., (7) Tom' Elekt Power Systems , Inc. (8) SKF Philippines, Inc. (9) Columbia Wire and Cable Corporation, and (10) Trade Editions.

The conference presented four (4) technical sessions: (1) Energy Efficiency Lighting by Engr. Arthur F. Maurera, Jr. (2) Power Quality by Engr. Dean Arnold Sempio, (3) Smart Grid by Engr. Romerico Justiniano, and (4) Behavioral Base Safety by Mr. Joel Ello. It also featured four (4) technical product presentations by (1) Pazific Power Inc., (2) KC Industrial, (3) SKF Philippines; and (4) Asiaphil Group of Companies. The conference also witnessed the Turn Over Ceremonies and Induction Ceremonies of the Council of Student Chapters Batch 25 for SY 2011-2012. The NCR Affairs Bureau extended its warmest appreciation to all the individuals and companies who showed its support towards the


3rd QUARTER 2011

IIEE News CSC Batch 25 Holds 4th Mid-Year Convention By: Jeffrey S.D. Sandoval Convention Committee Chairman The Council of Student Chapters (CSC), together with the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE), had conducted its prestigious IIEE – CSC 4th Mid – Year Convention from September 30 to October 01, 2011 with the theme “Economic Development through Clean and Affordable Electricity”. The said event aims to prepare the students for their future careers thru plant visits and seminars. The convention was a successful and fulfilling event that features different activities such as Educational Field Trip and Technical Seminar. The 1st Mid – Year Convention started in the year 2002, kicked off by the CSC Batch 16 and persist by Batch 17 and 18 in the year of 2003 and 2004. After bringing idle for seven years, the CSC Silver Batch 25 decided to return and continue the said convention for the students to help in their future careers and professions. The educational field trip took place on the first day of the event held at Bataan Nuclear Power Plant in Morong, Bataan and Moldex Products Inc. in Marilao, Bulacan. The departure time was exactly 6:30 in the morning with 55 students from different schools participating. After three hours of bus drive from Manila, the bus arrived at BNPP and the plant tour started with a short briefing and presentation. The core of the tour package is a close-up view of the huge reactor where the uranium is supposed to be locked in place. For the afternoon treat, the participants were given technical tour at Moldex Products Incorporated. During the second day of the event, a pleasant opening was conducted. This was followed by the series of seminars given by chosen members of the academe and industry, featuring

by Jonalyn V. Go. Part of the programs also is the awarding of certificates and tokens. Through these seminars, the students have learned various topics that are relevant to the profession, which are not being discussed in schools.

Participants of Technical Seminars held on October 1 at the Seminar Room B, IIEE National Office

the latest trends and innovations in the Electrical Engineering profession. The technical seminars given are the following: (1) Principles of Protective Relaying by Gilbert B. Hollaman; (2) Energy Efficient Lighting By Arthur F. Maureraa, Jr.; (3) Renewable Energy by Arthur A. Lopez; (4) Variable Frequency Drives by Roland A. Cultura; and NonRenewable Energy Pollution Reduction

By 5:00 PM the convention had successfully ended, with the aims to establish solidarity, camaraderie and Unity among IIEE – CSC members, officers and professionals.

Mr. Mauro Marcelo (from BNPP) together with the delegates from TIP– Manila during the educational field trip in Bataan Nuclear Power Plant

The Electrical Engineer Magazine

Bulletin T

he Electrical Engineer, our quarterly magazine will feature different activities conducted by different Regions and its chapters. With this, we would like all Regional Governors to coordinate with their respective chapters the submission of reports (articles) of all Chapter activities that you would like to be featured in The Electrical Engineer magazine. We would appreciate it if you would send your articles through email at or jen.pajutining@gmail. com on or before the 15th of each month. For further queries regarding the matter, you may coordinate with our Communications Staff, Ms. Jenelyn C. Pajutining at Telephone Nos. (02) 727-3552 loc. 109; (02) 448-5211.





Chapter last July 22. The orientation was attended by 143 BS Electrical Engineering Students and discussed matters on policies and membership guidelines of IIEE CSC, the benefits of being an IIEE CSC Member, the CSC Calendar of activities from SY 2011-2012 and the Quiz Show and Math Wizard

The Southern Laguna Chapter conducted a visitation at Franklin Baker Company of the Philippines, by the power of Chapter City Ordinance The Southern Cavite Chapter held its General Membership Meeting and Technical Seminars on September 23 at RSM Restaurant, Brgy. Sampaloc 4, Dasmariñas Cavite. It was attended by 52 delegates coming from the different companies, government agencies and schools. The chapters of Southern Luzon Region simultaneously conducted different activities in celebration to the Institute’s 36th Founding Anniversary.

IIEE Aroroy-Masbate Chapter was finally reenergized and activated. General Membership Meeting and Election of Officers was Conducted last August 20, 2011 at Remadora’s Resto Bar, Cagba, Tugbo,Masbate City With Engr. Ronaldo D. Ebrada, Region V Governor, as the Administering Officer. The Central and Eastern Visayas Region conducted a simultaneous celebration of the 36th IIEE Founding Anniversary last September 15.

Among of the chapters participated in this nationwide event were the: Southern Laguna Chapter, Palawan Chapter, Northern Cavite Chapter, Batangas Chapter and Southern Cavite Chapter.

The chapters held a thanksgiving mass and fellowship simultaneous with the celebration of the IIEE National Office. Aside from the thanksgiving mass, the Leyte Samar Chapter held a General Membership Meeting and election of 2012 Chapter Officers.

The Quezon Chapter launched the Electrical Safety Enforcement and Awareness Campaign, Technical Seminars and General Assembly last August 12.

The 2011 IIEE Aroroy-Mastabe Chapter Officers are as follows: Rogato O. Cos, Jr., President; Marvin V. Danao, VP– Internal; Bermie Doctolero, VP – External, Sherwin G. Espinas, VP – Technical; Claudette D. Pusing, Secretary; Elmor M. Sese, Jr., Treasurer; Emilio D. Cantoria, Auditor; Patrocinio V. Palo, Jr., Board of Director (BOD) Chairman, Joel Bugtai, Elizalde Lipa, Juan Carmona, Jay A. Galve, Board of Directors (BOD). The IIEE Camarines Norte Chapter held its General Membership Meeting last September 16, 2011 at Canoreco Boardroom. It was attended by 23 members. The Election of Officers for 2012 was simultaneously conducted. The new set of officers for CY 2012 are as follows: Alexis O. Olila, President; Cirilo N. Nudo, VP – Internal; Rafael C. Villagracia, VP – External, Ryan Roel C. Bacuño, VP – Technical; Arceli S. Etrata, Secretary; Eric L. Adem, Treasurer; Rommel Z. Realosa, Auditor; Socrates M. Balane, Arlan V. Gutierrez, Edwin Dl. Alejandro, Redentor A. Molina, Board of Directors.

The Isabel Leyte Chapter held a meeting with the LGU’s Fire Bureau and Barangay Electricians last August 31 at Isabel Session Hall.

The Eastern Visayas Chapters conducted a joint technical seminar in preparation for the hosting of 2012 Regional Conference last September 24 with the topic ‘A Practical Approach to Electrical System Design for High Rise Building and Commercial Complex’. Engr. Danie Daniel, served as the Resource Speaker of the Technical Seminar that was attended by 199 professionals and students.

The Batangas Chapter held its 2nd General Membership Meeting and Association of City and Municipal Electrical Engineers and Electricians (ACMEEE) Induction of Officers last August 20, 2011. The Marinduque Chapter and the United Accredited Electrician of Sta. Cruz participated in the tree planting “Alay Tamin Program” at Brgy. Libjo Watershed last Sept. 30. The Leyte Samar Chapter held an Orientation Seminar to Eastern Visayas State University Student

Out of the nine (9) active chapters of Central and Eastern Visayas Region or REGION VII, six (6) chapters conducted their election of Officers and Board of Directors for 2012 last September 2011 (West Cebu, Mactan, Bohol, Isabel Leyte, Ormoc, Leyte Samar).

People & Events

The 3E Xpo 2011 Exhibitor’s Briefing held last September 30 at the The IIEE CPE Council held its Planning Session last September 23-24 Philippine International Convention Center at Clark Electric Staff House, Clark Freeport Zone, Pampanga

The successful examinees of the September 2011 REE and RME Licensure Examinations during the Oath Taking Ceremonies held on September 29, 2011 at SMX Convention Center.

West Cebu Chapter conducted its Induction of Officers and Board of Directors for 2011 and 2012

Engr. Roland P. Vasquez, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of RPV Electro, donated an Insulation Tester and Clamp-on Meter to the ESEA Steering Committee, chaired by Hon. Francis V. Mapile

Palawan Chapter hosted an Oath Taking Ceremonies of the successful examinees who passed the licensure examination for Registered Electrical Engineers and Registered Master Electricans

Industry News Meralco September Bills to Customers Lower this Month Date Published : September 13, 2011 Lower WESM and IPP costs trigger reduction as generation charge drops to almost 17 centavos per kWh The Manila Electric Company (Meralco) today said that the generation charge will go down by P0.167 per kilowatthour (kWh) to P5.2051 per kWh this September, from P5.3721 per kWh last August. This reduction will effectively offset the reported 3 centavos per kWh adjustment on Meralco’s under-recoveries which was approved by the regulator. Meralco said the primary reason for the reduction in the generation charge was the lower cost of electricity purchased from the Wholesale Electricity Spot Market or WESM. From P9.7017 per kWh, the WESM cost went down by P1.63 per kWh to P8.0759 per kWh. Likewise, the rate of Quezon Power Philippines Ltd. (QPPL), an Independent Power Producer (IPP) selling to Meralco, went down by P0.37 per kWh due to an improvement in its dispatch or utilization level from 77% to 90%.

These reductions in the rates of WESM and QPPL more than offset the increases in the rates of the National Power Corporation (NPC) and First Gas (FG) plants. NPC rate went up due to the higher share of purchases during peak periods. FG rates, on the other hand, went up due to higher fuel cost. Nevertheless, the FG plants, along with QPPL, continued to be Meralco’s lowest cost source of supply. In percentage terms, Meralco obtained 5%, 49%, and 46% from WESM, IPPs, and NPC, respectively, for the supply month of August. Meralco reiterated that the generation charge, which is the electricity bill’s biggest component, is entirely a pass through charge and does not accrue or go to Meralco. The cost of power sold by the generating companies moves from month to month based on many factors beyond its control like fuel prices, the foreign exchange rate, and WESM prices, among others. Meralco added that should there be adjustments in the cost of generation from its various suppliers, it will reflect these changes in the customers’ bills, such as this month’s reduction.

In another development, Meralco said that in accordance with the Energy Regulatory Commission’s (ERC) Order (ERC Case No. 2011-074 RC) dated August 1, 2011, an additional P0.0709 per kilowatthour (kWh) will be applied to the Universal Charges (UC) for a period of one year beginning the September 2011 billing period. While the order states that the increase in the UC should be effective the August 2011 billing cycle, in a subsequent clarification with ERC, MERALCO was advised to implement the new UC in its September billing. ERC mandated all distribution utilities and NGCP to collect from the consumers the additional amount of PhP0.0709 per kWh. The ERC order also states that collections will be remitted to the state-owned Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corp. (PSALM) on or before the 15th day of the succeeding month, until otherwise ordered by the Commission. Meralco emphasized that similar to the generation charge, this additional amount in the electricity bill is merely a pass-through charge that does not go to Meralco.

DOE Clarifies Efficient Lighting Project Status

Date Published : July 6, 2011

(Taguig City) Department of Energy Undersecretary Loreta G. Ayson reports that there are only 131,000 compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) remaining in its office at Fort Bonifacio. She claims that these CFLs are actually ready for pick up by recipients which include elderly homes, members of the Association of Child Caring Agencies in Metro Manila, and other DSWD Accredited Centers, National Housing Authority Projects, and other beneficiaries, such as local government units (LGUs) and government hospitals. On the other hand, there are also 50,000 CFLs on stock at the DOE premises to


cover claims for warranties which apply to defects emerging from normal use of the product within the period of 2 years from date of acquisition. The 131,000 CFLs are valued at P7.2 million while the other 50,000 CFLs have no commercial value. Meanwhile, there are only one million left out of the 2 million CFLs which are being distributed by the 33 electric cooperatives and 2 distribution utilities in Mindanao. This unique distribution methodology requires the exchange of one inefficient incandescent bulb for every CFL. Likewise, recipients are


3rd QUARTER 2011

required to present their electricity bills and commit to install them in their households. The CFL exchange project aims to alleviate the power shortage in Mindanao which was felt in summer 2010. The one million CFLs distributed are expected to have reduced electricity demand by 50 MW, which translates to emission reduction of 34,492 tons per year. Usec. Ayson further says that the 15Watt CFLs that are being distributed last ten times longer and use about 75% less energy than incandescent bulbs.

Technical Feature

Trouble Shooting of Electric Motors Process rESEARCH BY The Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (EPRI)

In order to effectively troubleshoot any equipment, condition, or circumstance, an analytical, well thought-out, traceable, and repeatable approach should be used. The purpose of the troubleshooting process is to collect and identify the contributors to an observed condition. The ability of an individual to determine failure causes and to diagnose operational anomalies is developed and enhanced with time and experience. The opportunity for today’s plant personnel to ascertain this level of skill is limited; especially with the emphasis placed on avoiding equipment failures and anticipating “conditions” that contribute to equipment failure. There is also very limited formal information such as organized failure and case studies that can be used to supplement the learning process. By utilizing the troubleshooting process in this report, it is hoped that this process will form a base for improving troubleshooting skills and collecting supporting data.



Validate Symptom 1. Is Indication Correct? 2. Is Value Anomalous? d1

Does Symptom Require Corrective Action?


Flow Chart Because of the importance of electric motors to power plant operation, it is imperative to determine failure cause, provide information to other parties, and to obtain proper repair in order to return a motor to service as soon as possible. The flow chart is set up to be as generic as possible. The process presented by this flowchart depends heavily upon the supporting information provided in symptom charts. These charts provide insight for the users to move clearly and distinctly from the point of identifying a problem along a path that should led to problem resolution. In the following section, guidance on using the flowchart and the associated symptom charts will be covered in limited detail.

MI = Root Cause Is Motor Issue EI = Root Cause Is External Issue



yes Determine Source of Symptom from Possible Causes by Process of Verification/Elimination

Most Probable


Moderately Probable


Notify Appropriate Component/System Owner




Less Probable


Is Issue a Source Motor Issue or External Issue? d3



Not Corrected No Further Action Required



Verify Problem Is Corrected

Identify/Evaluate Possible Corrective Actions Perform Corrective Actions

Figure 5-1 LEMUG Troubleshooting Flowchart 3rd QUARTER 2011 THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER


Technical Feature

Initiating Symptom

Does Symptom Action?



Typically any abnormal or out-of-theordinary condition will prompt an observer to take notice and suggest some sort of action. In the flowchart developed by the LEMUG, this condition is called the initiating symptom. This information can come from several sources such as plant personnel that notice something visually, hear an abnormal sound in the equipment, or detect an abnormal odor. Surveillance tests, operator rounds, or plant instrumentation can also provide initiating symptoms.

Once the symptom has been verified, the next step in the process is to determine the symptom cause such that appropriate action can be recommended. This takes the responsible person back to the symptom charts to review recommended corrective actions. The symptom charts also provide supporting information to prompt the users’ thought process. The cause evaluation is presented in a tieredfashion such that one can move from most probable, moderately probable, to least probable. Action taken may vary This information will typically be passed from increased monitoring to actually on to a responsible person which might be removing the motor from service. Section maintenance personnel or a component 5.2.2 covers this process in more detail. or system engineer depending on organizational structure. Source of Motor Issue Validate Symptom It is acknowledged that although there is an observed condition, that particular indication may not be the total cause of the problem. Once a symptom has been noted, responsible personnel must validate the symptom. There are two questions that should be asked concerning the reported symptom: 1. Is the indication correct? 2. Is the value anomalous? In order to answer these questions, the responsible person should move to the symptom charts. Under section D1 of the symptom charts several recommendations are provided to assist with answering the two questions in the flowchart. There is a method of proof along with the results that should be expected from applying the recommended methods of proof. This same supporting information and approach is covered in the symptom chart to answer question 2.


The user will want to be sure of the source of the problem and to understand whether the cause of the symptom is internal to the motor or external to the motor. If the particular cause is an external issue, then the responsible motor person will have the information to support the decision to involve other plant personnel (component or system owner) in the issue resolution. If it is determined that there is a motor internal issue, that is to say that the issue is found to be within the established motor boundary, then the responsible person should proceed to the Section D3 of the symptom page. This section leads to a required cause determination and a corrective action plan. The possible corrective actions are identified and evaluated for application. Once the corrective action has been identified, the corrective actions are taken to remedy the situation. This process allows for tracking and following the process until the particular issue is resolved.


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Symptoms The flowchart is backed by symptom-based trouble-shooting recommendations. There is supporting information such as references, test methods, and typical values provided to facilitate and prompt the troubleshooting process. This information is included to support the decisions that a plant person will make regarding motor conditions. Additional symptom charts will be added as they are developed by the LEMUG Maintenance Working Group or can be submitted by other plant personnel for inclusion in the troubleshooting process. Symptom Background Information Identifying symptoms is an easy process. Symptoms can be submitted by anyone that is within the proximity of a motor, conducting surveillances, or monitoring instrumentation. However, the real work begins when supporting data and other causal conditions need to be provided in order to plan a course of action to remedy the symptom. Information provided should be logical, clear, and traceable so that the information can be relied upon to support the decision making process. Guidelines for the Development of the Symptom Charts The symptom charts are the supporting documents for the trouble-shooting process. There will be more of these charts developed and added to the trouble-shooting process. It is anticipated that new symptoms will be provided by motor use, thus, the guidance for developing symptom charts is provided to assist with that development. It is requested that as these charts are developed individually, that they will be submitted for review and inclusion in this guide. By sharing individual symptom charts, there are several clear benefits that will be provided to the

Technical Feature

user and the industry. First, the user has a group of industry experts to review their findings and validate their process. Second, there will be a benefit to the industry through having lessons learned from many sources that shrink the learning curve for other users and hopefully shorten the time between problem identification and problem resolution. The following is to be utilized in the development of all symptom charts based upon the approved flowchart template. •

These flowcharts were developed considering AC motors 460 volts and above. The approach can be applied to motors of other sizes but the recommended causes may not always apply to smaller motors. It needs to be clearly identified that the information contained in the flowchart is general information based upon data collected from utility personnel experience. This information is not intended to supersede or contradict individual station procedures, guidance, Technical Specifications or the SAR. The information in the flowchart begins at a symptom identified by station personnel via direct indication or via possible troubleshooting. These flowcharts are defining the scope of a motor issue to include the motor, cables, main and auxiliary/ accessory terminal boxes and other possible devices attached on the load side of the power supply cubicle. The causes and corrective actions discussed in the flowchart are based upon the experience of the working group. Prior to starting the process, the current and previous operating and maintenance history of the motor shall be assessed to redirect the analysis and priorities. The most probable cause is defined

as the most probable cause which is the least intrusive to complete the corrective actions. The scope of these charts is to determine and correct all possible issues without removing the machine from service. If continued operation of the machine is unsafe based upon individual field condition or station policy, the user must revise the priorities, causes, testing and corrective actions. The D2 block on the flowchart is utilized to verify that the value or indication identified as the symptom is valid and true. At some utilities this may involve, but not be limited to, troubleshooting and/or continued monitoring of the value. The “Cause” identified in the chart is to correlate to the corrective action on the chart. For example the cause identified and labeled as the most probable or DC1 is to correlate to it’s corrective action labeled CA1 in the chart. The individual flowchart is to end once it is directed to another symptom. Follow that symptom flowchart from that point on. All external references contained within these flowcharts are to be specific and contain document numbers, along with the reference

to the external document, tables, and charts. • The information is not to be contained within the flowchart. The use of the flowchart is to stop once the issue is determined to be outside of the motor boundaries. Issues outside of the motor are considered to be external issues. Sample Symptom Chart The following chart was the original symptom evaluated by the LEMUG Maintenance Working Group. The group chose this symptom because it is one that is typically reported and also many of their critical motors are instrumented for bearing temperature. Additional symptom charts can be found in Appendix B of this report. The charts are not presented as final and complete in terms of addressing all aspects of any evaluated symptom; however, they have been reviewed and will adjusted by the LEMUG Maintenance Working Group. Any omissions or improvements should be brought to the attention of the EPRI Project Manager. This troubleshooting process is an effort to capture the logic approaches that have been informally applied by motor users.

The Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (EPRI) conducts research and development relating to the generation, delivery and use of electricity for the benefit of the public. An independent, non-profit organization, EPRI brings together its scientists and engineers as well as experts from academia and industry to help address challenges in electricity, including reliability, efficiency, health,safety and the environment The opinions expressed in this article are solely of the author. This article is for general information only and is not a substitute for professional advice where the facts and circumstances warrant. The views and opinions expressed above are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Institute.



Technical Feature SYMPTOM: High Bearing temperature alarm Motor Design Particulars – machine with journal bearings w/ temperature measured by thermocouple (t/c)



Method of Proof

1. Is the indication correct ?

A. Take direct reading with t/c voltmeter at junction nearest t/c element B. Take bearing case temperatures by infrared or surface pyrometer to determine gradient between t/c indication and shell temperature. Compare gradient to conjugate machines

2. Is the value anomalous ?


Does symptom require corrective action.

A. Review temperature trends B. Compare trends of potentially anomalous machine to temperature trends of conjugate machines

A. Consult bearing/motor manufacturer’s technical support, or machine operating manuals. B. Bearing temperatures should not exceed rises above ambient per Table 6.17 of EL-5036, Vol.6. C. Maximum temperature should not exceed lubricant capabilities, or babbitt softening point (typically shouldn’t exceed 200°F (93.3°C)



Possible Causes (by order of probability)

Verification Method (by order of preference)

Improper lubricant level

A. Verify oil level is within manufacturer’s recommended range under static or running conditions. Static condition levels are preferred.


3rd QUARTER 2011

Expected Result A. If indication is correct, reading should duplicate original indication. B. Gradients between case temperatures and bearing temps as measured by t/c should be similar for conjugate machines operating in the same temperature range in similar ambient temperatures and environments. A. Determine if trend is a step-change, which could indicate a problem or a gradual change which follows ambient temperature or other external conditions. B. If all machines experienced similar trend it is probable that external factors are effecting bearing temperatures. A. Disposition per manufacturer’s recommendations B. If temperature rise exceeds recommended levels, perform corrective action, or see Method C. C. If temperature exceeds maximum lubricant or babbitt temperature, secure motor and perform corrective action. If rise exceeds recommended value, and maximum lubricant or babbitt temp threshold is not broached, consider immediate corrective action or increased monitoring frequency.

A. Low or high oil levels may cause elevated bearing temperatures. If oil level is found to be low, it is probable that oil is leaking internally or externally. Also, consider quantity of lubricant lost to oil sampling or during sampling process. On machines with water-cooled bearings, if oil level is found to be high, coolant could be leaking into lubricant. For self-cooled bearings, review maintenance records to verify oil has been recently added.

Technical Feature SYMPTOM: High Bearing temperature alarm Motor Design Particulars – machine with journal bearings w/ temperature measured by thermocouple (t/c)

Process DC2

Inadequate Cooler Flow or Temperature (if applicable)

Method of Proof A. Verify Valve Alignment/ Position B. Verify coolant (air or water) flow is present (and within acceptable limits defined by manufacturer, if possible) if equipped with flow indicators

Expected Result A. Valves in normal alignment B. Flow and temperature are within manufacturer specified limits and/or are consistent with conjugate machines. C. Expect similar Δt Note-Higher Δt = Less Flow

C. Determine Δt across cooling coil or air box by skin temperature or air temperature. Compare to conjugate machines. DC3

High Vibration or Adverse Vibration Trend

A. Obtain and review vibration magnitude and frequency spectrum B. Tribology / Ferrography

A. Reference EPRI TR-108773 B. Misalignment increases radial loading, generally to the point that metal particles begin to appear in oil sample.

C. Check alignment by laser or conventional methods

C. Alignment should be within specifications delineated by manufacturer at operating temperatures, with proper consideration given to thermal growth of motor and driven equipment.


Improper Lubricant Quality / Viscosity

A. Obtain Oil Sample . Perform Tribology Testing

A. Oil viscosity is correct per OEM or Station Lube Manual. Contaminant count is within acceptable limits (Reference OEM manual and/or EPRI NP-4916)


Inadequate Oil Flow (Forced Lube System)

A. Observe pressure and/or flow indications, if equipped.

A. Ensure all within acceptable parameters.

B. Visual inspection through inspection glass of bearing housing, if equipped

C. Visually ensure auxiliary oil pump is operating properly

B. Verify oil delivery to top of journal

C. Visually verify operation of delivery pump motor if equipped and accessible DC6

Inadequate Oil Delivery (Oil Ring System)

A. Visual inspection through inspection glass of bearing housing

A. Verify ring is intact. Visually verify ring is turning freely. Visually verify ring is turning at similar speed as observed on conjugate machines. Verify that ring is installed ? Correctly? (Post-Maintenance concern)



Technical Feature SYMPTOM: High Bearing temperature alarm Motor Design Particulars – machine with journal bearings w/ temperature measured by thermocouple (t/c) Process DC7

High Ambient Temperature/Radiant Heating

Method of Proof

Expected Result

A. Determine if both bearing temperatures are trending up (tracking each other).

A. If both temperatures are trending up, possibility of high ambient/radiant temperature is inconclusive.

B. Determine if winding temperature is “tracking” bearing temperatures.

B. If stator temperature is tracking with bearing temperatures, see Chart for Symptom : High Stator Winding Temperatures

C. Determine if other equipment temperatures in general area are “tracking” with bearing temperature. D. Verify load.

C. If temperatures of other equipment in general area is tracking with subject “high” bearing temperature, source is likely an elevated ambient temperature in the locale of the motor. D. If actual load exceeds design, see Chart for Symptom: High Stator Winding Temperature.


Axial Misalignment (Thrust Shoulder Contact)

A. Obtain vibration data in axial direction and analyze. B. Strobe test shaft/coupling to observe movement. C. Mark shaft, shutdown machine and verify end float/axial offset. D. Inspect bearing. E. Inspect/verify housing fits.

A. If vibration data shows axial movement or impacting, the source of the heating may be due to the axial movement B. If movement of the shaft in the axial direction exceeds the design of the machine, heating may be due to the movement. Verify that the offset/float design of the shaft/coupling was properly utilized during recent maintenance activities. C. Verify that the offset/float design of the shaft/coupling was properly utilized during recent maintenance activities. D. Inspect for rubbing/scoring on the shoulders. E. Inspect housing/bearing fits.


Improper Bearing Clearance (bearing disassembly required)

A. Inspect bearing for nature of overheating.

A. Verify clearances per OEM/procedural specifications. Also reference EPRI NP6407, Appendix 2, Section 5.2.5.


Bearing Failure (bearing disassembly required)

A. Inspect bearing for nature of overheating.

A. Reference EPRI GS-7352 “Manual of Bearing Failures”.


Is source a motor issue or external issue?

If Root Cause is deemed an External Issue as determined above, notify appropriate component or system owner. Otherwise, proceed to Possible Corrective Actions below.



3rd QUARTER 2011

Technical Feature SYMPTOM: High Bearing temperature alarm Motor Design Particulars – machine with journal bearings w/ temperature measured by thermocouple (t/c) Root Cause

Possible Corrective Actions


Improper lubricant level

A. Add oil. B. Drain Oil to Proper Static Level with machine shut down


Inadequate Cooler Flow or Temperature (if applicable)

A. Verify proper valve alignment. B. Clean/replace filters or orifice, as applicable. C. Clean cooler coils.


High Vibration or Adverse Vibration Trend

A. Reference data to station / utility acceptance criteria. Also reference EPRI TR-108773 for basic acceptable limits. B. Corrective actions (immediate and long term) based upon trend, current vibration levels and source of vibration.


Improper Lubricant Quality/Viscosity

A. Based upon results from tribology and ferrogram testing: Change oil, Filter oil for particulate or water removal or B. Shutdown machine and inspect bearings


Inadequate Oil Flow (Forced Lube System)

A. Clean filter, orifice and/or check valve. B. Removal of piping blockage. C. Replace aux. oil pump motor and/or oil pump.


Inadequate Oil Delivery (Oil Ring System)

A. Inspect, replace or rework oil ring / slinger assembly.


High Ambient Temperature / Radiant Heating

A. See Stator Winding Temp. Corrective Actions. B. Add Supplemental Air Cooling. C. Adjust setpoint, if applicable. D. Identify source of heat and correct.


Axial Misalignment (Thrust Shoulder Contact)

A. Correct deficiencies with axial float. B. Replace bearings. C. Replace / machine housing to proper tolerances. D. Verify proper installation of bearing housing/cap.


Improper Bearing Clearance (bearing disassembly required)

A. Re-establish bearing clearance tolerances. B. Replace bearing.


Bearing Failure (bearing disassembly required)

A. Replace bearing.



Technical Feature Demand Power Factor as an Ancillary Service by Edwin B. Cano, PEE

Reactive power support is essential in reliable power system operations. It is needed to provide a better voltage profile in the power system thus giving quality of power utilized at the consumer end. Without ample reactive power support, voltage can be low enough for electrical equipment to mis-operate or tripped out. Sources of reactive power can be synchronous generators, capacitors, synchronous condensers, or static var compensators. One technical characteristic of reactive power is that it can’t be transported through long distances such as in an electric power transmission system since the transmission system, through its line/transformer reactances, absorbs most of the reactive power supplied by generators. In this case, reactive power can only be effective when supplied locally or within a zone of the power system. Another is that when reactive power is sourced out from generators, the reactive power supplied by power generating plants impacts the transmission line loadings since it adds to the MVA flow


through the transmission system and there is a limitation of reactive power that a generator can produce or absorb due to the machine capability. Figure 1 presents a 600 MVA generator capability curve with its limitations. As the machine supplies real power, it can also produce or absorb reactive power but those variables have to play within the curve.

are some of the advantages of having an acceptably high power factor at the load end: 1. Transmission line(s) loading relief – since reactive power is produced at the demand side, it does not flow though the transmission system thus line MVA loadings are lower resulting to increased

500.0 400.0

Qmax Qmin

300.0 Q (MVAR)

The National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP) presented their technical justification on getting rid of Power Factor Adjustment (PFA) for grid connected consumers by providing technical article published in the Electrical Engineer magazine [1]. The Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) made a decision [2] regarding this issue that the PFA must be gradually removed so as not to impact the grid connected consumers in recovering their power factor correction equipment investments. On the other hand, NGCP procures ancillary services from generating plants [3]-[4], which are paid by the transmission users, which is the demand.

200.0 100.0 0.0 -100.0









-200.0 -300.0 P (MW)

Figure 1. An example of a generator reactive power capability curve

Unlike generator reactive power support, reactive power from demand power factor equipment doesn’t add to the MVA flows in the transmission system since it is connected at the demand end. With the connection of power factor equipment at the demand end, power quality at the power receiving end is better since reactive power support is supplied locally. Since generators are far from the load centers, it is practical and good utility practice to provide reactive power support using capacitors at the demand end side. When capacitors are connected to the demand side, power factor at the point of common coupling is higher since the reactive power being sourced out from the grid is lower. The following


3rd QUARTER 2011

line thermal limit margin. When transmission line(s) loading are lower due to lower reactive power flows, power system security can be better. Example, without capacitors at the load side, the load power factor is 0.85 lagging. With capacitors, the load power factor is brought up to 0.95 lagging. Computing the current flow with and without the capacitors, for a 1 MW per-unit power on 100 MVA base; S the current flow will be, I = V and the apparent power flow is, S = P2 + Q2 and the reactive power flow is Q = P tan(cos–1pf) ,

Technical Feature


From the equations (1) and (2), the current flow from the line decreased due to the addition of the capacitor. Coupled with the reduction of the value of the numerator is normally an expected rise of voltage magnitude, V, which would further bring down the current flow. Figure 2 shows the decreasing sensitivity of the apparent power flow and reactive power flow along a transmission line with respect to the increasing load power factor.

Consider the simple power system below. If the capacitor at the load is not connected, at the pre-disturbance scenario, the generator must support the transmission voltage and the load voltage. In this case, there will be no constraint since the line capacity is higher in an intact system. In the event of one line of the double circuit is tripped, the generator would be constraint to support the voltage at the demand side since the line capacity is reduced. In both conditions, pre or post disturbances, the capacitors at the demand side support the voltage at the load. The voltage support the power factor capacitors bring at the demand side is not constrained with the transmission network reconfiguration or transmission capacity changes, though it maybe

limited with the voltage acceptable boundaries where it is installed. 3. When the transmission system experiences lower reactive power flows, real power losses [6] at the transmission system are minimized with the demand power factor reflective of supporting transmission capacity. Using the example above, for computing power losses; we know that

Ploss = I2 R



1.2 1 0.8

Ql pu MVAR


Sl pu MVA

0.4 0.2 0

0.8 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99

Load Factor Figure 2. Sensitivity of apparent power flow and reactive power flow with respect to increasing load power factor.

2. Pre and post disturbance voltage profile at the load side, for any disturbance at the grid, is better for reactive power need not to flow through the transmission system which will be constrained by line tripping to clear faults or disturbances.





Pre-disturbance configuration

Post-disturbance configuration



Equations (3) and (4) give us that the factor of the real power losses goes down with the addition of capacitors at the demand side because the apparent power flow is reduced. With the reduction of reactive power losses, the real power losses decrease likewise. Note that the voltage has higher magnitude as the losses decreases resulting to higher value of the denominator in the fraction of the equations. Figure 4 presents the sensitivity of real power losses with respect to the increasing load power factor reflective of adding capacitors at the demand side.

Quotes, Unquotes “Be a yardstick of quality. Some people aren't used to an environment where excellence is expected.� Steve Jobs



Technical Feature [3] “NGCP, First Gen unit sign 3-year power supply deal”, Philippine Star, published April 21, 2011, available online: px?articleId=678474&publicationSubCat egoryId=[4] “Aboitiz unit forges ancillary services accord with NGCP”, Philippine Star, published July 10, 2010, available on-line: aspx?articleId=591780&publicationSubC ategoryI d=66

Real Power Losses Factor

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4

[5] Philippine Grid Code, available online: Grid_Code.pdf

0.2 0

0.8 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1

Load Power Factor

[6] A Tariff for Reactive Power, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, June 2008

Figure 4. Sensitivity of real power losses factor with respect to increasing load power factor.

The Philippine Grid Code (PGC) [5] defines Ancillary Services as support services such as Frequency Regulating and Contingency Reserves, Reactive Power support, and Black Start capability which are necessary to support the transmission capacity and Energy that are essential in maintaining Power Quality and the Reliability and Security of the Grid. This definition is not only exclusive for generating plants but can be identified with the demand side.

supported with an acceptable high power factor at the demand side. For the listed benefits above, the direct beneficiary would be the transmission grid operator/ owner as well as the demand side. The concepts show that there is value in operating acceptable high power factor at the demand side not only for the demand but also for the transmission system operator/owner and the whole power system in general. References:

A demand connected to the power system with an acceptable high power factor contributes to the reactive power support needed in maintaining power quality, reliability and security of the grid. Also an aggregate demand that can be interrupted completely or partially can provide frequency regulation or contingency reserve. If the demand can do such, then demand, specifically demand power factor, can be considered and is an ancillary service. As shown in the discussion above, power system security and reliability can be


[1] R. Corpuz and G. R. Pagobo, “A Closer look at Power Factor Adjustment. Does NGCP really need to get rid of it?”, pages 35-37, Electrical Engineer Magazine, Volume XL, No. 1, available on-line: www. Electrical%20EngineerNEW.pdf [2] Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) decision on Power Factor Adjustment available on-line: ph/cgibin/issuances/files/Decision_ ERCCaseNo.2009-056MC_PEPOA0001. pdf


3rd QUARTER 2011

Edwin B. Cano graduated from Holy Angel University (HAU) for his BSEE degree and from Technological University of the Philippines (TUP) for his MEng-EE. He is currently employed as a Senior Consultant with Siemens Power Technologies International (PTI) in Schenectady, NY, USA. He held academic positions in Holy Angel University from June 1996 to March 2007 both in full-time or parttime capacity, teaching graduate and undergraduate electrical engineering courses. He was a Principal Engineer B at the System Operations Group with National Transmission Corporation from April 2003 to November 2007. The opinions expressed in this article are solely of the author. This article is for general information only and is not a substitute for professional advice where the facts and circumstances warrant. The views and opinion expressed above are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Institute.

Technical Feature

Power Quality Case Study:

Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) Evaluation needing a personnel lift for high ceiling areas) can magnify “typical” cost estimates by an order of magnitude. It is sometimes cost-effective to replace an entire system with a more efficient one. In the case described here, the owner decided to replace the entire system.

Measuring Tools: Fluke 43B Power Quality Analyzer Operator: Plant Engineer or Plant Energy Manager Features Used: Voltage, kW, PF, DPF, THD Problem Description In most facilities, lighting is a major element of operating cost. Part of that cost is due to energy, and part is due to maintenance. The maintenance costs can be significant. Light fixtures require periodic maintenance—for example, lamps burn out, ballasts fail, and lenses need cleaning. The amount of maintenance required varies with the age and design of the lighting fixtures. The logistics of that maintenance (e.g.,

While reducing the maintenance costs was the driving force in obtaining a replacement system, reducing energy costs was the driving force in selecting a replacement system. Determining the actual reduction in energy consumption required significant research. The research was difficult, because there was no common platform for comparing the widely varying performance claims from competing suppliers. Sometimes, critical specs were missing altogether. The plant engineer decided to compare various units side-by-side, in the field. He began by asking each supplier to submit a sample for evaluation. Next, he worked on determining what to measure and how to make the measurements. The final measurement criteria included measurements of power consumption, power factor, displacement power factor, and harmonic spectrum. Power consumption and displacement power factor would translate directly to operating cost. Harmonic distortion was of interest, because the plant

engineer knew that high levels of harmonic current could cause problems for transformers, circuit breakers, and other parts of the electrical distribution system. To make these measurements easy, the plant engineer chose the Fluke 43B. The electrical team made measurements using a setup similar to Fig. 1. This is an experiment that you can easily duplicate on your workbench.

Fig. 1 Example test set up for compact fluorescent lamps

They recorded data in the matrix table shown here. From the table, you can see they were able to make comparisons of all the key electrical factors on a level playing field. This allowed them to select the most costeffective approach. It’s worth noting that each manufacturer bases its performance claims on a specified set of operating



Technical Feature conditions—these conditions may be ideal or they may be “typical.” But, the conditions vary between manufacturers and the conditions differ from actual applications. Therefore, those claims—while made in good faith—can be a poor basis for a final product decision. When trying to make economic decisions on lighting or other electrical applications, measuring actual performance under actual conditions—with the right test equipment—is a sure way to arrive at the best decision. Line Voltage 11.92 Vac

source. It may not be possible to duplicate the ballast suppliers’ exact specification number—but, if all tests are made from the same supply source, the performance comparison will be valid. 4. Measurement values for the lamp tested in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 are recorded as “Brand A”. The remaining tests for brands C and D are left as an exercise for the reader.

, Line voltage THD


Ballast/Lamp Supplier

Power Consumption



Current THD

Unit Cost $

Brand A

14 watts




$ 76.50

Brand B

16 watts




$ 8.00

Brand C

Brand D

Notes to table:

Fig. 2 Compact fluorescent lamp power consumption and current waveform

1. The comparison test for compact fluorescents can easily be demonstrated using a desk lamp and a split extension cord with one conductor wrapped in a 10-turn coil. The 10-turn coil increases the range of current measurement. Power consumption for one unit would be the recorded value divided by 10.


The EU-Asia Power Quality Initiative (APQI) aims at improving power quality in Asian manufacturing industries by creating awareness on the origins of the problems and building capacity on the technical, financial and managerial aspects of power quality. This article is for general information only and is not a substitute for professional advice where the facts and circumstances warrant.

2. To make a fair comparison, the line voltage should be the same for each unit tested. 3. The performance value of current THD will depend on the amount of harmonic distortion on the supply voltage and impedance of the voltage

Fig. 3 Compact fluorescent lamp current harmonic spectrum

The views and opinion expressed above are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Institute. Fig. 2 Compact fluorescent lamp power consumption and current waveform


3rd QUARTER 2011

Technical Feature

Voltage Protection: Set to Match Eng’r. Dean Arnold S. Sempio


Case 1

Substation Panel (34.5kV)

In the past, not too much attention is paid to voltage variations. Many electrical appliances at that time are robust enough to tolerate big differences between their rated voltage and the actual voltage supply, e.g. incandescent bulbs.

A large commercial center is being plagued by constant power interruptions. The mall operators have to put up with the inconvenience of re-starting their loads as well as the inconvenience to their customers and tenants. The mall administrators are puzzled since the utility has told them that there were no disturbances on the distribution circuit serving the mall yet they still suffer from power interruptions.

Maximum 37090.85V (+7.51%)

Today, computers and other electronic based equipment rely on a stricter voltage supply variations in order to operate reliably. However, the utilities supplying the voltage pointed out that providing the rigid voltage regulations that customers want need substantial amounts of investment which neither the utilities nor their customers can afford. A compromise has struck after considering the sides of the industry/ users, the designers/operations/ maintenance personnel and the manufacturers. Voltage supplied by the utilities would be limited to certain economical levels (generally plus/minus10%) and that equipment manufacturers can make equipment that will operate on these “standard” voltage swings without imparting substantial additional costs. The designers and operations personnel should also ensure that equipment be fed with voltages they can handle.

Power Quality Study A monitoring device was installed at the mall’s main panel as well as in the utility substation serving the mall. In the week of monitoring, there was an incident of power interruption at the mall; however, no disturbance was recorded at the substation. It must be noted that the substation was less than 1,000 meters away from the mall.

Minimum 32281.18V (-6.43%)

The power interruption at the customer occurred when the voltage was only minus 6.04% from the supply voltage. The suspected culprit is the under voltage relay that the mall has installed in their main panel. Subsequent tests on the relay revealed that the relay activates at 6% below the customer’s contracted service voltage. This is relatively sensitive for the utility supply of plus/

The data from the monitoring device at the mall showed the following: Customer Panel (34.5kV) Maximum Minimum 37913.46V 32415.87V (+9.89%) (-6.04%)



Technical Feature

minus 10% of the service voltage; the re-charged. The operation of their utility‘s voltage variation limits being UPS units is relayed to their principal mandated by government regulators. company located outside the country; the engineers there would then ask what power disturbance Solution had activated the UPS units. The local The relay was calibrated to match the BPO administrator cannot answer voltage variation limits of the utility, since no power disturbance was felt in which equipment should operate by their office. without any foreseen problems. The number of power interruptions of to PQ Study the mall was significantly reduced; to the satisfaction of the mall Voltage monitoring was done on to determine the characteristics of the administrators and their customers. voltage supply for the UPS units. The result of the monitoring was: Case 2 A BPO (call center) has installed UPS (uninterruptible power supply) units for their computer equipment. However, the UPS units kept activating and would run on battery power until the battery runs out. The UPS units would have to be removed from duty in order to have their batteries

Substation Panel (34.5kV) Maximum 37090.85V (+7.51%)


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Re-adjusting the voltage settings of the UPS to match the allowed voltage variations have enabled the UPS units to activate as intended – when there is a power disturbance or abnormal voltage variations. Conclusion: Voltage Protection is employed to protect equipment from destructive voltages or those which can result to detrimental over-currents. Most equipment are designed to tolerate some “stresses” that are inherent in any electric power system.

Minimum 32281.18V (-6.43%)

It was found out that the UPS units activate when the voltage goes beyond plus/minus 5% of the contracted service voltage. This is a mismatch to the actual voltage variations and mandated limit of plus/ minus 10%, the voltage variations allowed for services and the level that can be handled by most equipment. This have made the UPS too sensitive to voltage variations, which resulted to the frequent “cutting-in” of the UPS and drained the batteries. This is also the reason why the UPS did not return to “standby mode” to recharge – the voltage was still beyond the 5% limit of the voltage setting before the UPS can re-charge.



While we value our equipment, we also want a system that is continuous and reliable. We should aim for the best compromise - compatibility in our system’s components.

Engr. Dean. A. S. Sempio is a member of Corporate Business Group – Technical Services of the MERALCO, Philippines This article is for general information only and is not a substitute for professional advice where the facts and circumstances warrant. The views and opinion expressed above are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Institute.




DPNS IEC 61000-3-3Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)- Part 3-3: Limits-Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems, for equipment with rated current ≤16 A per phase and not subject to conditional connection (IEC published 2008) ICS 33.100.10

This part of DPNS IEC 61000 is concerned with the limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker impressed on the public low-voltage system. It specifies limits of voltage changes which may be produced by an equipment tested under specified conditions and gives guidance on methods of assessment. This part of DPNS IEC 61000 is applicable to electrical and electronic equipment having an input current equal to or less than 16 A per phase, intended to be connected to public low-voltage distribution systems of between 220 V and 250 V line to neutral at 50 Hz, and not subject to conditional connection. Equipment which does not comply with the limits of this part of IEC 61000 when tested with the reference impedance Zref of 6.4, and which thereof cannot be declared compliant with this part, may be retested or evaluated to show conformity with IEC 61000-3-11. Part 3-11 is applicable to equipment with rated input current ≤75 A per phase and subject to conditional connection. The tests according to this part are type tests. Particular test conditions are given in annex A and the test circuit is shown in Figure 1.


DPNS IEC 61000-2-11 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)- Part 3-11: Limits- Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems-Equipment with rated current ≤75 A and subject to conditional connection (IEC published 2000) ICS 33.100.10

This part of DPNS IEC 61000 is concerned with the emission of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker produced by equipment and impressed on the public low-voltage supply system. It specifies the limits of voltage changes produced by equipment tested under specified conditions. This par­t of DPNS IEC 61000 is primarily applicable to electrical and electronic equipment having a rated input current from 16 A up to and including 75 A, which is intended to be connected to public low-voltage distribution systems having nominal system voltages of between 220 V and 250 V, line-to-neutral at 50 Hz, and which is subject to conditional connection. This part of DPNS IEC 61000 is also applicable to equipment within the scope of IEC 61000-3-3 that does not meet the limits when tested or evaluated with the reference impedance Zref and is therefor subject to conditional connection. Equipment which meets the requirements of IEC 61000. Equipment tests made in accordance with this part of IEC 61000 are type tests.


DPNS IEC 61000-3-12Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)Part 3-12: Limits – Limits for harmonic currents produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input current >16 A and ≤75 A per phase (IEC published 2004) ICS 22.100.10

This part of DPNS IEC 61000 deals with the limitation of harmonic currents injected into the public supply system. The limits given in this International Standards are applicable to electrical and electronic equipment with a rated input current exceeding 16 A and up to and including 75 A per phase, intended to be connected to public low-voltage a.c. distribution systems of the following types: • nominal voltage up to 240 V, single phase, two or three wires; • nominal frequency 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Other distribution systems are excluded. The limits given in this edition apply to equipment when connected to 230/400 V, 50 Hz systems. See also Clause 5. This standard applies to equipment intended to be connected to low-voltage systems interfacing with the public supply at the low-voltage level. It does not apply to equipment intended to be connected only to private low-voltage systems interfacing with the public supply only at the medium- or high-voltage level. This standard defines: a)requirements and emission limits for equipment; b)methods for type tests and simulations. Tests according to this Standard are type tests of complete pieces of equipment. Conformity with this standard can also be determined by validated simulations.




DPNS IEC 61000-2Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)Part 6-2: Generic standardsImmunity for industrial environments (IEC published 2005) ICS 33.100.20

Scope This part DPNS IEC 61000 for EMC immunity requirements applies to electrical and electronics apparatus intended for use in industrial environments, as described below. Immunity requirements in the frequency range 0 Hz 400 GHz are covered. No tests need to be performed at frequencies where no requirements are specified. This generic EMC immunity standard is applicable if no relevant dedicated product or productfamily EMC immunity standard exists. This standard applies to apparatus intended to be connected to a power network supplied from a high or medium voltage transformer dedicated to the supply of an installation feeding manufacturing or similar plant, and intended to operate in or in proximity to industrial locations, as described below. This standard applies also to apparatus which is battery operated and intended to be used in industrial locations. The environments encompassed by this standard are industrial, both indoor and outdoor. Industrial locations are in addition characterized by the existence of one or more of the following: • industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) apparatus (as defined in CISPR 11); • heavy inductive or capacitive loads are frequently switched; • currents and associated magnetic fields are high. The object of this standard is to define immunity test requirements for apparatus defined in the scope in relation to continuous and transient, conducted and radiated disturbances, including electrostatic discharges. The immunity requirements have been selected to ensure an adequate level of immunity for apparatus at industrial locations. The levels do not, however, cover extreme cases, which may occur at any location, but with an extremely low probability of occurrence. Not all disturbance phenomena have been included for testing purposes in this standard, but only those considered as relevant for the equipment covered by this standard. These test requirements represent essential electromagnetic compatibility immunity requirements

DPNS IEC 61000-6-4Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)Part 6-4: Generic standardsEmission standard for industrial environments (IEC published 2006) ICS 33.100.10

This part DPNS IEC 61000 for EMC emission requirements applies to electrical and electronic apparatus intended for use in industrial environments as described below. Emission requirements in the frequency range 0 Hz to 400 GHz are covered. No measurement needs to be performed at frequencies where no requirement is specified. This generic EMC emission standard is applicable of no relevant dedicated product or product family EMC emission standard exists. This standard applies to a apparatus intended to be connected to a power network supplied from a high or medium voltage transformer dedicated to the supply of an installation feeding manufacturing or similar plant, and intended to operate in or in proximity to industrial locations, as described below. This standard applies also to apparatus, which is battery operated and intended to be used in industrial locations. The environments encompassed by this standard are industrial, both indoor and outdoor. Industrial locations are in addition characterized by the existence of one or more of the following examples: • industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) 1 apparatus; • heavy inductive or capacitative loads that are frequently switched; • high currents and associated magnetic fields. The object of this standard is to define the emission test requirements for apparatus define in the scope in relation to continuous and transient, conducted and radiated disturbances. The emission requirements have been selected so as to ensure that disturbances generated by apparatus operating normally in industrial locations do not exceed a level that could prevent other apparatus from operating as intended. Fault conditions of apparatus are not taken into account. Not all disturbance phenomena have been included for testing purposes in this standard but only those considered as relevant for the equipment covered by this standard. These requirements represent essential electromagnetic compatibility emission requirements. Requirements are specified for each port considered.



3rd QUARTER 2011




DPNS IEC CISPR 11- Industrial, scientific and medical equipmentRadio-frequency disturbance characteristicsLimits and methods of measurement (IEC CISPR published 2010) ICS 33.100.10

This Standard applies to industrial, scientific and medical electrical equipment operating in the frequency range 0 Hz to 400 GHz and to domestic and similar applicances designed to generate and/or use locally radio-frequency energy. This standard covers emission requirements related to radio-frequency (RF) disturbances in the frequency range of 9 kHz to 400 GHz. Measurements need only be performed in frequency ranges where limits are specified in Clause 6. For ISM RF applications in the meaning of the definition found in the ITU Radio Regulations (see Definition 3.1), this standard covers emission requirements related to radio-frequency disturbances in the frequency range of 9 kHz to 18 GHz. Requirements for ISM RF lighting apparatus and UV irradiators operating at frequencies within the ISM frequency bands defined by the ITU Radio Regulations are contained in this standard. Equipment covered by other CISPR product and product family emission standards are excluded from the scope of this standard.


DPNS IEC CISPR 12 – Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines – Radio disturbance characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement for the protection of off-board receivers (IEC CISPR published 2009) ICS 27.020; 33.100.10

The limits in this Standard are designed to provide protection for broadcast receivers in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 1000 MHz when used in the residential environment. Compliance with this standard may not provide adequate protection for new types of radio transmissions or receivers used in the residential environment nearer than 10 m to the vehicle, boat or device. This standard applies to the emission of electromagnetic energy which may cause interference to radio reception and which is emitted from a)vehicles propelled by an internal combustion engine, electrical means or both (see 3.1); b)boats propelled by a internal combustion engine, electrical means or both (see 3.2). Boats are to be tested in the same manner as vehicles except where they have unique characteristics as explicitly stated in this standard; c)devices equipped with internal combustion engines or traction batteries (see 3.3). See Annex G for a flow chart to help determine the applicability of CISPR 12. This standard does not apply to aircrafts, household appliances, traction systems (railway, tramway and electric trolley bus), or to incomplete vehicles. In the case of a dual-mode trolley bus (e.g. propelled by power from either a.c./d.c. mains or an internal combustion engine), the internal combustion propulsion system shall be included, but the a.c./d.c. mains portion of the vehicle propulsion system shall be excluded from this standard. The measurement of electromagnetic disturbances while the vehicle is connected to power mains for charging is not covered in this standard. The user is referred to appropriate IEC and CISPR standards which define measurement techniques and limits for this condition. Annex H lists work being considered for future revisions.


DPNS IEC CISPR 13 – Sound and television broadcast receivers and associated equipment – Radio disturbance and characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement (IEC CISPR published 2009) ICS 33.100.10

This Standard applies to the generation of electromagnetic energy from sound and television receivers for the reception of broadcast and similar transmissions and from associated equipment. The frequency range covered extends from 9 kHz to 400 GHz. No measurements need be performed at frequencies where no limits are specified. Receiving systems for collective reception, in particular: • •

cable distribution heads end (Community Antenna Television, CATV); community reception systems (Master Antenna Television, MATV) are covered by IEC 60728-2.

Broadcast receivers for digital signals are covered by Annex A and Annex B. Information technology equipment (ITE) is excluded, even if intended to be connected to a television broadcast receiver. The telecommunication port of broadcast receivers,

Those who are interested for a copy of these draft standards, you can contact the Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) 3F Trade and Industry Building, 361 Sen. Gil Puyat Ave., Makati City Philippines 1200 Telephone: (632) 751-3123; 751-4736 Fax: (632) 751-4706; Email address:

PECTORIAL EXPLAINED (b) requires that an unspliced main bonding jumper be used to connect the equipment grounding conductor(s) and the service-disconnect enclosure to the grounded conductor of the electrical system. The connection is required to be made within the enclosure for each service disconnect.

All the pictures featured in the PECtorial are examples of cases related to the most frequently misunderstood requirements of the PEC 1: the grounding and bonding. Art 2.50-2.5 (c) requires that the grounded service conductor be brought to each service disconnecting means and be bonded to the enclosure. The main bonding jumper is the means to accomplish this requirement (Art (b)). It is permitted to consist of a wire, bus, screw or other suitable conductors (Art

To complete the grounding and bonding, Art requires that equipment grounding conductor connections at service equipment shall be made by bonding the equipment grounding conductors to the grounded service conductor and the grounding electrode conductor.

It is also at this point where the equipment grounding conductor may emanate. For a grounded system, Art

It is also a basic requirement that a conductor used as a grounded conductor shall be identifiable and

Cross Word

By: Alex C. Cabugao

66. Same as stated above 67. Spread for drying 68. “Unforgettable” singer

DOWN 1.Unwanted plant 2.Warcraft’s user interface 3.Salutation word (pl) 4.Fuse and circuit breaker’s role 5.Sexual drive 6.Ethnic group in Ethiopia 7.Egyptian symbol for gold 8.Fill with joy 9.Controlled from a distance 10.Enthusiasm 11.Past of light 12.Did eat 13.Affirmative reply 21. Function 22. Energy put into a system 25. Revered 26. Electricians’ tool 27. Ask again 28. French chemist who 38. Sets of points which share a ACROSS studied solutions property 1.Wood pole insect 29. Father of geometry 39. Industrial facility 5. Electric circuit 30. Sodium chloride 40. Yo soy, Tu __, El es 9. Electrical control device 31. Fill with pride 41. US mining stock symbol 14. Islamic chief 33. Electrical insulator 42. Business letter abbr 15. India’s mining company 34. Bus where |V| and θ are 43. Office worker 16. Choice group 44. Holds known 17. Europe money 46. Transcends 18. Starwars’ bounty hunter, Fett 36. Annex (abbr) 48. Tibetian budhist monastery in NY 39. Promenade 19. Captures the king 49. Masinloc power plant owner 20. Electric power segment 43. Electrochemical device 51. Resonant circuit 23. Duty engineer (abbr) 45. Eraserheads’ gadget 52. Light to electricity conversion 24. Medical clinic sign 47. Sings in gentle murmuring 58. Unrestrained outburst 25. 2nd Qtr. mo. manner 61. La Union town 28. Reenergize 50. Commence 62. Rework 32. Sell 63. Abnormal circuit connection 52. Proj. mangt. planning tool 34. Fry lightly 64. Check 35. A Nepal village 53. S-shaped molding 37. International farm inspectors assoc. 65. Transformer core 54. Annul You can scan and email your solution with your name, mailing address and chapter to IIEE or Senders with correct solutions will receive exciting prizes!

distinguishable from all other conductors (Art 2.0). Furthermore, in Art 1 where it requires that the grounded conductor be brought to service equipment also entails that this conductor be routed with the phase conductors. To broaden the learning of this corner, this time we would like to invite everyone to send photos of cases like the ones we highlighted, together with the written discussion on the deviation or violations cited. Best cases will be featured in this corner and the sender will receive a reward. The process of revising the 2009 PEC 1 is underway, thus, every practitioner is also welcome to send suggestions and recommendations for the applicable update or correction on the provisions of the code. Lastly, we would like to congratulate the winners for the Q1 PECtorial: Engr. Edgar Munoz Lintao of Sabic Petrochemical Plant, Jubail City, KSA; Engr. Rufino (Junjun) Barrato of Iloilo City, and RME Mario V. Amarante of Dasmarinas, Cavite -Engr. Alex C. Cabugao

55. Aeronautical 56. Object of worship 57. Geometric shape with an apex 58. Data storage device (abbr) 59. Greek letter for flux 60. Decay

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