ABOUT THE COVER:
Electrical Practitioners are not only recognized on their skills and potentials locally, but also among various foreign countries. This represents that the skills and competencies of electrical practitioners can meet the standards of the international market. See page 10 for complete story.
The ELECTRICAL ENGINEER First Quarter 2012
Table of Contents
from the office of the National President
Know his Eight-Point Agenda for 2012 ....
Under IIEE spotlight See the different activities conducted by our Chapters in snaphots...
cover story Filipino Electrical Practitioners in a Globally Competitive Environment
technical feature â€˘ Teeter-totter from the Playground convertible to usable energy....
knowing the standards
Featuring the winning researches of the 2011 EE Research Contest, held last November 25, at the Philippines International Convention Center.
from the memberâ€™s point of views
Without EE instructors there would be no EE students....
2012 IIEE Board of Governors and Officers National President VP-Internal Affairs VP-External Affairs VP-Technical Affairs National Secretary National Treasurer National Auditor Governor-Northern Luzon Governor-Central Luzon Governor-Metro Manila Governor-Southern Luzon Governor-Bicol Governor-Western Visayas Governor-Eastern/Central Visayas Governor-Northern Mindanao Governor-Southern Mindanao Governor-Western Mindanao Immediate Former President Officer-in-Charge
Jules S. Alcantara Gregorio R. Cayetano Alex C. Cabugao Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban Larry C. Cruz Florigo C. Varona Angel V. De Vera, Jr. Efren Nelson F. Plete Virgilio S. Luzares Eusebio A. Gonzales Jozane F. Jalbuena Edwin G. Parañal Cirilo C. Calibjo Federico C. Mercado Remegio B. Gonzales Benjamin A. Arboso Richard O. Lizardo Armando R. Diaz Ramon P. Ayaton
IIEE National Secretariat Department Heads Administrative Technical Marketing Membership
Niellisa Joy B. Bandong Ramon P. Ayaton Allen M. Pido Marjorie Aguinaldo-Muñoz
Publications Committee Chairman: Vice Chairman: Members:
Rolito C. Gualvez Ronald Vincent M. Santiago Ernesto M. Cabral Marvin H. Caseda Glynn Andy O. Gayman Dr. Allan C. Nerves Roland P. Vasquez Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban
The ELECTRICAL ENGINEER The Electrical Engineer is published quarterly by the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE), with editorial and business offices at #41 Monte de Piedad St., Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines. Tel Nos. (632) 722-7383, 7273552, 412-5772, 414-5626, Fax Nos. (632) 721-6442 & 410-1899. Website: www.iiee.org.ph, E-mail: email@example.com. The present circulation of the magazine is 32,000 copies per issue to members and industry stakeholders. The Electrical Engineer Editorial Board Chairperson Editor-in-Chief Associate Editor: Technical Consultant: Administrative Officer:
Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban Rolito C. Gualvez Ronald Vincent M. Santiago Dr. Allan C. Nerves Ramon P. Ayaton Editorial Staff
Jenelyn C. Pajutining Advertising and Marketing
Joan Q. Delos Santos 727-3552 loc. 101 410-1899
editorial Revving the Electrical Engineer As we focus on the Filipino electrical practitioners’
skills and potentials traversing borders in the international market, the “Electrical Engineer” hopes to spread its reach, through a faster and readily available medium – the internet. Started last year, the “Electrical Engineer” is now downloadable from the website. Technical information, the industry and the profession’s latest development, and the Institute’s news are made accessible just a click away. Reaching our readers is not only a function of time but also of breadth. Hence, technical articles will mostly populate the content of the magazine, paving for more avenues of mutual learning and continuing education. Detailed IIEE Chapter activities will be posted on the website. Albeit reducing the cost of publication and mailing, the timeliness of delivering the information has not been compromised. As we tread towards a fast, paperless and readily available medium of publication, the doors for contributions from members and non-members alike are open, as always have been.
---The Electrical Engineer Editorial Board
or opinions expressed by the authors of letters, articles and research studies published in The Electrical Engineer DO NOT necessarily reflect the views of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE). The IIEE trusts the integrity of these authors. The IIEE exercises due diligent review but it is possible that the contents of the articles contributed may not be verified due to time constraints. Articles or visual materials may not be reproduced without written consent from IIEE. The IIEE reserves the right to accept or refuse submitted materials for publication. Articles, reactions and feedback from readers may be sent through e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
from the office of the National President Engr. Jules S. Alcantara
2012 IIEE National President
The 2012 IIEE
Eight (8) Point Agenda
This year’s thrust is reflected in the
theme, “Engineering A Safe and Better Nation Through Excellence in Electrical Profession”. The IIEE will focus on developing strategies, plans and programs towards excellence in electrical profession and nation building. These programs are guided by the core values of integrity, innovation, empowerment, excellence, honor and duty (IIEE-HD). Thus, as the National President, I am presenting the 8 Point Agenda for 2012.
For this year, the IIEE will launch the IIEE E-ID Card which will fast tract Membership Data accuracy/update, convention and technical sessions registration, issuances of certificates of participation, membership renewals, certificate of good standing among others, for the benefit of the members. An accurate and user friendly database supports our program to increase membership involvement in the electoral process. 5. Expand Information Dissemination through the Effective use of the Internet and the IIEE Web Site and community works;
The IIEE aims to intensify its efforts to feature various activities conducted by our chapters in the IIEE website. The aim is for the sharing of knowledge through articles, technical questions and The Amended Constitution and By-Laws of the IIEE was already ratified answers, positive experiences and activities of members and chapters during the 2011 National Mid-Year Convention and General Membership with other IIEE members, chapters and the community. Meeting held last May 21, 2011 in Bacolod City. Furthermore, the IIEE created an Ad Hoc Committee on Website While on its transitory period, the IIEE Board of Governors approved the Development. This is to come-up with strategies to further improve the appointment of Ad-Interim Governors for the newly created regions --- IIEE website and its contents. Metro Manila and Western Mindanao. The Ad Interim Regional Governors have the functions of identifying the territorial jurisdiction of the three (3) 6. Promoting Safety, Energy Efficiency, Power Quality and other regions in Mindanao and the revision of the IIEE Manual of Operations, advocacies through joint efforts and cooperation with other organizations and groups such as the LGUs, the Board of Electrical with the inclusion of the newly established regions. Engineering, ICA, among others. 2. Phase 1 of Construction of of the New Building The Institute will continue to strengthen its partnership with different The phase 1 of Construction of the New Building Project is scheduled for government, private and industry sectors. The new phase of programs completion this year. The single-floor annex of the existing IIEE Building in promoting awareness in electrical safety, energy efficiency and will be converted into a four-storey building. This will provide the needed power quality will be launched this year. This includes Fun Run for additional space to host the secretariat, document center, more library electrical safety awareness and an international convention on Power space, sleeping quarters for IIEE officers and members from the provinces, Quality to be held here. expanded laboratory, the Energy Efficiency Training Center and additional training/ conference rooms. The IIEE is continually pursuing a program to Also, the IIEE will intensify its efforts to enjoin the LGUs to hire registered solicit donations from kind hearted individuals and corporations to fund electrical practitioners in their municipalities in order to ensure electrical safety in the residential and commercial establishments in the project, especially the Phase 2; their municipalities. For the same reasons, the IIEE will continue to 3. Improving Services to Members through the adoption of performance cooperate with the BEE in seeing to it that commercial and industrial metrics of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and the empowerment and establishments are complying with the provisions of the New Electrical recognition of Chapters who have demonstrated excellent work of service, Engineering Law. innovations and dedication for their members. 7. Enhancing the skills development program for IIEE Members and We believe in the saying that “What we cannot measure, cannot be students through more extensive technical seminars and conferences. improved”. The Balanced ScoreCard System, used by many corporations with good governance, is introduced to the IIEE to measure and continually With a commitment to provide career growth and continuing professional education, the IIEE will develop new strategies in improve its services. formulating a series of both technical and management trainings for BSC involves coming up with performance indicators which will allow the members and officers and even extending such trainings to out-ofthe Institute to check and track its service performance and be able to school youths, barangay electricians and students. adjust its systems, policies and procedures to meet the requirements of its members, officers, the community and the PRC. This system covers 4 Furthermore, the IIEE is encouraging the chapters to train Barangay perspectives – (1) financial, (2) members, (3) processes and (4) learning, electricians to upgrade their careers to Registered Master Electricians. growth and community. The BSC provides feedback to the very competent and dedicated incumbent members of the Board of Governors in its desire 8. Expanding the call for the electric industry to be prepared for the to continually improve the organization. This system is also an excellent effects of climate change particularly typhoons and floods and to guide for the IIEE secretariat for continual self improvement in their work address carbon emissions; of service. The Institute has its initiative to serve the general public through its A similar approach is used to empower and recognize chapters who have advocacy of a better disaster response. The aim is to mitigate the provided excellent and unselfish service, innovations and dedication to effects of disaster-inflicted calamities that claim thousands of lives and damages to properties. Also, the IIEE advocates the development of duty for their members and the community. renewable energy as a means to address carbon emissions detrimental 4. Improving IIEE Processes such as registrations, issuance of certificates, to the environment. IIEE is assisting the IFC and ICA for programs that technical sessions and license renewals through effective use of promote energy efficiency. technologies such as the Internet, E-IDs, accurate Membership Database, The Mid Year Convention in Cagayan De Oro this May, 2012 highlights and trained in-house personnel; the effects of climate change and the ideal responses to these effects. Since we do not expect different results if we do the same things, we are CDO itself was a calamity area last December 2011 and thus sharing of moving forward using different and innovative ways. With the innovations the experiences and responses of the electrical practitioners in CDO in modern technology, the Institute aims to utilize a system that will fast- and Iligan City to the disaster is part of the convention. track the different processes of the Institute. 1. Implementation of the Amended Constitution and By Laws
Under the IIEE Spotlight
(Left Photo) -- With the aim to assist the adjoining towns of Pangasinan, the IIEE Pangasinan Chapter volunteered to install the Solar Panel Module that will provide electric power to the grinding machine that Taho Producers and Vendors Association will be using in grinding raw materials to produce soya milk, taho and other related products.
(Right Photo) IIEE Bulacan Chapter Board of Directors (BODs) conducted an acquaintance forum with Bulacan State University (BulSU) Electrical Engineering students last 07 January 2012 at BulSU gymnasium. The Chapter took the opportunity in coinciding with the forum the induction of the Central Luzon Regional IIEE-CSC Officers. (Left Photo) --- Various used electrical materials such as miniature circuit breakers, relays, contactors, solderless connectors, etc. were donated by IIEE Bulacan Chapter to the Electrical Engineering Department of Bulacan State University (BulSU) last 24 January.
(Right Photo) --- The IIEE Southern Luzon Chapter hosted the 1st Regional Business Conference Meeting held last January 28 at Rotary Club, Brgy. Palico I, Imus Cavite.
(Left Photo) --- The IIEE Southern Cavite Chapter donated and sent relief goods for the victims of typhoon â€œSendongâ€? to Cagayan de Oro City and Iligan City together with other cooperating agencies. Boxes of items are sent free of charge courtesy of LBC.
For full text and more news from the Chapters and Regions, please visit the www.iiee.org.ph
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Under the IIEE Spotlight
(Right Photo) -- The IIEE Quezon Chapter held its Oath Taking and Induction Ceremonies of the 2012 Officers last January 22 at Antigua Restaurant.
(Left Photo) -- The IIEE Northern Laguna Chapter held its 1st Shootfest Fund Raising Activities last January 7 at Camp Sto. Domingo, PNP Special Action Force Shooting Range. (Right Photo) -- The IIEE Central Laguna Chapter conducted a technical seminar on â€œEffective Condition Base for AC Motor last January 18 at Graycliff Cafe, LISP. Coinciding with the technical seminar were the Oath taking and Induction Ceremonies of the 2012 Central Laguna Chapter Officers. Immediate Former President Engr. Armando R. Diaz administered the ceremonies.
(Left Photo) --- In the aftermath of the Typhoon Sendong , the IIEE-CDO Chapter offered services to the City of Cagayan de Oro through the Office of the Building Official (OBO) for Power Restoration of the affected areas.
(Right Photo) --- The IIEE and MERALCO signed a Memorandum of Agreement last January 20 at Meralco Lighthouse, Lopez Building, Ortigas Ave., Pasig City. (From Left to Right) Engr. Jules S. Alcantara, 2012 IIEE National President, Engr. Armando R. Diaz, 2011 IIEE National President, Mr. Jose Rainer A. Reyes, MERALCO SAVP and SME Business Group Head and Ms. Melinda P. Derpo, Vice President for Marketing.
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Under the IIEE Spotlight
(Left Photo) --- The IIEE Nueva Ecija Chapter held its Oath Taking and Induction Ceremonies of the 2012 Chapter Officers last February 9, 2012 at Lamarang Steak House and Seafood Restaurant, Conception St., Cabanatuan City.
(Right Photo) --- IIEE Sorsogon Chapter held its Oath taking Ceremonies of the 2012 Officers last January 7 at Sorsogon City Hall
(Left Photo) --- Engr. Jules S. Alcantara, presided over the Strategic Planning of the 2012 Board of Govcernors, last January 20 at Pasig Room, Meralco Lighthouse, Ortigas Ave., Pasig City.
The ELECTRICAL ENGINEER BULLETIN
he Electrical Engineer, our quarterly magazine would like to feature technical articles and views submitted by professionals from the different Regions and its Chapters. With this, we would like all Regional Governors to coordinate with their respective Chapters the submission of technical articles and views that is intended to be featured in â€œThe Electrical Engineer â€œ. We would appreciate it if you would send your submissions through email at email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org on or before the 15th of each month. For further queries regarding the matter, you may coordinate with our Publications Assistant, Ms. Jenelyn C. Pajutining at Telephone Nos. (02) 727-3552 loc. 107; (02) 448-5211.
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Ads by Panasonic (To Follow)
Filipino Electrical Practitioners in a Globally Competitive Environment With
the fast-paced innovation in technology and advances in information and communication system, the competition in the global market continues to increase.
data shows that 40% of the newly deployed OFW’s are categorized as “Professional, Technical and Related Workers” are composed of 3,486 are Engineering Technicians (Electrical and Electronics) and 1,290 fullfledged Engineers (Electrical and Electronics).
Thus, Asian countries focus their goals and strategies in achieving global competitiveness to cope with the requirements and demands of the modern world.
Human Resources as A Factor of Global Competitiveness
Wikipedia defines competitiveness as “a comparative concept of the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and/ or services in a given market.” While, the International Institute of Management Development defines Global competitiveness as “a field of economic knowledge which analyzes the facts and politics that shape the ability of a nation to create and maintain an environment that sustains more value creation for its enterprises and more prosperity for its people”. In the article, ‘The Imperatives for Enhancing Global Competitiveness’ written by Mah Lok Abdullah, he cited that the following issues are vital in enhancing global competitiveness: (1) Macroeconomic policies; (2) Government Practices and Regulations; (3) The Cost of Doing Business; (4) Upgrading of Education and Skills; (5) Research and Development & Innovation; (6) Sustainable Environmental Management; (7) Conformity with International Standards; and (8) Total Factor Productivity. Overseas Filipino Workers in Global Competition According to the POEA 2010 Overseas Employment Statistics, about 280,000 composed of new hires and re-hires are being deployed in Asia alone. POEA 2010
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Enhancing the human resources and productivity is one of the issues that needs to be addressed for a developing country like the Philippines. Human resources are considered as an investment by companies that compete in the global market. The government should focus on improving the quality of educational system prior to the working stage of a person. The educational system should be in accordance with the requirements and needs of the modern industry in response to the changing economic situation. According to the article, ‘The Crisis Public Education in the Philippines’ written by Ronald Meinardus, “The modern world in which we live is often termed a as"knowledge society"; education and information have become production factors potentially more valuable than labor and capital. Thus, in a globalized setting, investment in human capital has become a condition for international competitiveness.” IIEE Towards Global Competitiveness of Filipino Electrical Practitioners The Philippine government established different plans and program to improve the quality of the educational system in the country.
Cover Story President Benigno Simeon C. Aquinoâ€™s administration prioritized basic to higher education, with a 17% allocation on the National Budget, an increase of 11.4% as compared to the 2010 education budget. (Department of Budget and Management and by the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office November 2010). This budget allocation is said to provide sufficient funds to the education sector, to deal with the recurring problems and concerns in education. The Department of Education overhauls the educational system in the country through the K-12 Basic Education Program. The program includes Kindergarten, Grade 1 to 6 (Elementary Education), Grade 7 to 10 (Junior High School) and Grade 11 to 12 (Senior High School). The two years additional (Grade 11 to 12) will be an in-depth study in a field of specialization depending on the career path that a student aims to pursue. Continuing Professional Education While the government sector focuses their strategies in pre-employment stage of an individual, the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE) continues with its mission of â€œdelivering high quality products and services in order to instill excellence in the Electrical Practitioner, and to enhance the technical profession to enable it to make positive contributions to National Development. Under the RA 7920, known as the New Electrical Engineering Law, all licensed electrical practitioners should abide by the rules and regulations on the Continuing Professional Education (CPE).
The CPE has the following objectives: 1. To provide and ensure the continuous education of PEEs, REEs and RMEs with the latest trends in the Electrical Engineering profession brought about by the modernization and scientific and technological advancement. 2. To raise and maintain the PEEs, REEs and RMEs capability for delivering professional services; 3. To attain and maintain the highest standards and quality in the practice of Electrical Engineering; 4. To make Filipino PEEs, REEs and RMEs globally competitive; and 5. To promote the general welfare of the public. The Institute conducts in-house training in the IIEE National Office for electrical practitioners, members and non-members alike. A monthly regional conference is being held to provide professional development and to enhance the technical skills and in-depth technical knowledge of its members in the local Chapters. The Institute has its Annual National Convention, held every November of each year that features different activities such as Plant Tour, Technical seminars, fora and academic research contests. Establishment of Foreign Chapters As of 2011, the Institute has eight (8) foreign Chapters composed of electrical practitioners abroad. These chapters formulate different activities, plans and programs that are inclined with the thrust of the IIEE National Office towards the professional development and career growth of its members abroad. These Chapters include (1) Bahrain Chapter, (2) Brunei Chapter, (3) Central Region Chapter --- Saudi Arabia, (4) Eastern Region Chapter --- Saudi Arabia, (5) State of Qatar, (6) Southern Region Chapter---Saudi Arabia, (7) United Arab Emirates Chapter, (8) Western Region Chapter--Saudi Arabia. Only last January, the IIEE Board of Governors approved the creation of Singapore Chapter. The first IIEE Chapter in Southeast Asia initiated by the 2011 Lady Governor of Eastern/Central Visayas Region, Engr. Lelanie T. Mirambel. IIEE continuing to carry on equipping the young minds and promote continuing education in order to progress towards economic development.
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Technical Feature 22nd ASEMEP National Technical Symposium
Energy Contraption Design Using Playground Seesaw For By: John Ray B. Abad Lighting Load Applications ABSTRACT Energy contraption is widely used to produce electricity by transforming different kinds of energy into electrical. One of the sources of energy contraption is from everyday human activities. The playground is used everyday by children and produces motion which can be converted to electrical energy. This study is about conversion of motion by children playing seesaw and storing it to a battery for future use. Using pneumatic principle, the mechanical energy from the motion of the seesaw is converted using the pneumatic principles. With the utilization of the microcontroller, the energy collected will be stored in the battery and will stop the charging once the battery is full. The energy that is stored in the battery will supply mainly lighting loads. 1. 0 INTRODUCTION People are in search of renewable sources of energy nowadays. With increasing demand and decreasing resources, many seek new ways of converting different forms of energy to electrical energy. Contraption is a way in which a strange machine or apparatus is invented for a particular purpose Energy contraption nowadays has many applications in small scale or large scale. With further studies, it may be used to create a major source of renewable energy. By harnessing human power from the children playing in the playground, energy contraption could be further applied specifically in seesaw, merry-go-round, and swing. The mechanical energy produced by children’s play can useful and harnessed resulting to significant energy storage. According to Pandian(2004), the stored energy can be converted to electricity for powering basic, low-power appliances such a lights, fans and the like . The concept of this study is the creation of a prototype of a seesaw to generate power through pneumatics. This study aimed to: 1. Design a prototype 2. Test the speed of compression of air from the pneumatic cylinders. 3. Determine the charging and discharging time of the battery 4. Design a controller circuit for the state of change of the batteries.
Merryll D. Capucao Lynette Dane C. Legaspi
The study aimed to provide free lighting to playgrounds, parks and rural areas. Using the energy generated by seesaw, the energy from children’s play will be converted into usable energy. If this will be implemented to many parks and playground there will be great power savings. This will introduce a new source of renewable energy especially in this country. The scope of this study is the generation of DC power by means of mechanical motion by the use of pneumatic cylinder installed in the seesaw. It will produce a small amount of power due to limited motion of the seesaw that is intended to supply only small lighting loads, particularly LED’s(Light Emitting Diodes). The study focused on the usage of seesaw as the medium of the pneumatic cylinders and not in other playground equipment such a merrygorounds and swings. Battery will be used as a storage device and the amplification of the energy stored will not be covered by the study. 2. 0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Pandian (2004) conducted a study about Human Power Conversion System based on children’s play. It proposed a method for harnessing human power based on children’s play in playground and public places, and on devices such as seesaw, merry-go-round, and swing . When large number of children play in playground, part of power of their play can be usefully harnessed resulting significant energy storage. This stored energy can then be converted to electricity for powering basic, lowpower appliances such as lights, fans, communications equipment, so on. The method provides a low-cost, lowresource means of generation of electricity, especially for use in developing countries. The paper discussed the basic theory behind the method. Results of experiments on a laboratory prototype compressed air human power conversion system using a teeter totter (seesaw) are presented to illustrate the practical effectiveness of the method proposed by Pandian. 2.1 Mechanical to Electrical Conversion Smit and Associates(2009) stated that most human-power energy harvesting systems are used to power abundantly deployed sensor networks and mobile electronics. These systems scavenge power from human activity of derive
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limited energy from ambient heat, light, or vibrations. In most of these conventional methods, users must focus their attention on power generation at the expense of other activities. However, for suitable electrical power generation, energy could be harvested from everyday activities such as walking, running or even dancing. In this paper, systems that use human power by walking and running are analysed, where an alternative system has been designed and implemented to generate energy from people dancing in a club environment. It shows that power from walking can be extracted using the ystem, i.e., maximum 80-100W to an average of 20-30 W over a period of 10 seconds. This previous study is related to the present study because it showed that normal human activities can be used to generate electricity. In here, the previous researchers presented the amount of energy that can produced by a dance floor. Last 2008, a design student Daniel Sheridan has created a simple seesaw which generates enough electricity to light a classroom. The device works by transferring the power, created by a child moving up and down on it, an electricity storage unit via an underground cable. He has calculated that five to ten minutes use on seesaw could generate enough electricity enough to light a classroom for an evening, for example. Many schools in Africa open their doors in the evening to much older pupils but are only to light their classrooms with candles or kerosene lamps . This article discussed the feasibility of generating useful energy from seesaw. It was used to power classrooms in the previous design, while the present researchers will use it to power lightings on playground.
This is related to the present study because the design will make use of motor and generator to produce electricity. The concept of converting energy through motor and generator is important in this study. 2.3 Pneumatic Cylinder Pneumatic Cylinders offer a straight rectilinear motion to mechanical elements. Cylinders are classified as light, medium, and heavy duty with respect to their application. Selection of materials for cylinder components may depend greatly on this factor. Functionally, cylinders may be single acting and double acting. The piston rod of cylinders is given special treatment as it is a highly stressed part. For cylinder lubrication, mist lubrication is most common. To generate rotary motion, air motors may also be used. Vane type motors are more popular. Air motors have certain specific advantages over electrical motors. Proper maintenance of cylinders, motors, and various air-operated hand tools enhance their life expectancy to a great extent. The pneumatic power is converted to straight line reciprocating motions by pneumatic cylinders. A single acting cylinder, the compressed air is fed only in one side. Hence, this cylinder can produce work only in one direction. The return movement of the piston is affected by a built-in spring or by application of an external force. The spring is designed to return the piston to its initial position with a sufficiently high speed .
2.2 Motor and Generator Engineers call electric motors and generators â€œelectrical machinesâ€?. The reason for this more general term is the same device may operate either as a motor or as a generator. Electrical machines convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. When conversion is from electrical to mechanical, the machine is called a motor. When it is being used to convert from mechanical energy to electrical energy, the machine is called a generator. The advantage offered by DC machines is their versatility. The ability to develop high starting and breaking torques, to make quick reversal of rotations, to maintain constant mechanical power output or to maintain constant torque and to permit continuous speed variation over a range as large as 4:1, make DC motors better suited to many industrial applications .
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Figure 1. Parts of a Single Acting Pneumatic Cylinder. (1) Cylinder(tube); (2) End Cover; (3) Piston; (4) Piston rod; (5) U-cap seal; (6) O-ring; (7) Bush; and (8) Spring
The Pneumatic Cylinder will be used as the main component of collecting energy from the seesaw. A single acting cylinder will be connected to the seesaw for the compressed air.
2.4 Energy Storage A battery is a device that can store energy in a chemical form and then convert into electrical energy when needed. There are two fundamental types of chemical storage batteries: The rechargeable or secondary cell, and the nonrechargeable, or primary cell. In terms of storing energy or discharging electricity,, they are similar. The Battery is comprised of at least one but possibly many cells appropriately connected and these cells are where the actual action storage and discharge takes place. All electrochemical cells consist of two electrodes separated by some distance. The space between the electrodes is filled with an electrolyte which is an ionic liquid that conducts electricity. One electrode is the anode and it permits electrons to flow out of it. The other electrode is the cathode which receives the electrodes. The energy is stored in the particular compounds that make up the anode, cathode and the electrolyte such as zinc, copper, and SO4, respectively. Series and parallel connections of batteries are the options to increase the Ampere-Hour capacity or voltage and even both in accordance to what is needed. Ampere-Hours are normally used to indicate the amount of energy a storage battery can deliver . The Battery will serve as the storage device of the design. It will be the source of supply for the lighting loads. The connections of the battery, parallel or series may be considered to increase either the voltage of the Amperehour capacity of the storage device. 2.5 Microcontrollers A microcontroller is a single device which follows instructions, reads information, stores information communicates, measures time, and switches things on and off. It also does other things, depending on the model. If you are the type of person who likes to take thing apart you will find microcontroller in all kinds of places. The most common place is under the hood of almost any car produced since 1985. Consumer items include televisions, compact disc players, washing machines, telephones, and microwave oven. Office computers use microcontroller in addition to their main processor to control peripherals such as keyboards and printers. Automated manufacturing systems use microcontrollers in production equipment such as robots and conveyor lines . This study made use of microcontroller to regulate the flow of voltage for battery storage.
2.6 Air Pressure Engine Air pressure engines are employed as motive force. From the extreme lightness and mobility of air, it has been frequently proposed to employ it as a medium for transmitting motion to machinery at a considerable distance from the prime mover. Among the first who attempted this is the celebrated Papin, who invented the steel-yard safety-valve. He employed a fall of water to compress the air in a cylinder, through the medium of an intervening piston and he connected this cylinder to another, at the mouth of a mine a mile distant, by means of a pipe of that length. In the second cylinder was another piston, the rod of which was intended to work a set of pump; but, contrary to expectation, the compression of the air in the first cylinder produced no movement in the piston of the second. Papin subsequently attempted to bring his scheme into use in England, but did not succeed. Afterwards, however, he erected great machines in Auvergne and Westphalia for draining mines, but so far from being effective machines, they would not even begin to move. He attributed the failure to the quantity of air in the pipe, which must be condensed before it can condense the air in the remote cylinder he therefore diminished the size of this pipe, and made his water machine exhaust instead of condense, and had no doubt that the immense velocity with which air rushes into a void, would make a rapid and effectual communication of power. But the machine stood still as before. Near a century after this, an engineer at an ironfoundry in Wales erected a machine at a powerful fall of water, which worked a set of cylinder bellows, the blowtype of which was conducted to the distance of a mile and a half, where it was applied to a blast furnace; but notwithstanding every care to make the conducting pipe very air-tight, of great size, and as smooth as possible, it would hardly blow out a candle. The failure was ascribed to the impossibility of making the pipe airtight, but above ten minutes elapsed after the action of the piston in the bellows, before the least wind could be perceived at the end of the pipe, whereas the engineer calculated that the interval would not exceed six seconds. The foregoing particulars are taken from Dr. Robinsonâ€™s Natural Philosophy, art . Air pressure engines will be used to rotate the generator. Concepts behind the air pressure engines and how it works is important. 3.0 EXPERIMENTAL SECTION 3.1 Materials In creating the system, the following materials were used (refer to Figures 3 to 9) : Pneumatic Cylinder, check valve,
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hose, air tank, pressure gauges, FRL, air motor, DC generator, battery. According to Figure 2, for the whole system, the materials were connected together to form the seesaw. Additional fittings were added for compatibility of the materials connected. Some of the parts of the system were brought second hand. The air tank was bought from a shop of unused tank of compressor. The tank does not have specification but, based on the measurement, the tank has a volume of 4.5 gallons. Another material that was bought second hand is the air motor; the motor was from unused car buffing tool. The generator was bought second hand. There are no available specifications, but it produces 12 V, however, through testing, the specification were determined. As this study went along, the design of the system was also modified. One of the modifications is the removal of the flywheel from the original design of the system. Though the implementation of the flywheel proves to prolong the amount of time that will be added to the back-up charging the batteries. Figure 10, actual installation of the project and is located at Hospicio de San Jose, Manila.
Figure 4. Pneumatic Check Valve
Figure 5. Air Pressure Tank
Figure 6. Air Pressure Gauge Figure 2: Proposed Lay-out of the Contraption
Figure 3: Pneumatic Cylinder (CKD Air Cylinder CMAZ--- 30â€™ X 32 -- CA -- RE
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Figure 7. Left : Air Motor(25,000 rpm max), Right : DC Generator(12 V, 0.8 A 750rpm)
Figure 8. Car Battery(12 V, 40 A-h, Motolite)
tested the number of cycles made playing the seesaw in slow, average and fast play.
Figure 9. Bearings and Fittings
Table 1. Rate of Filling the tank at 5-psi interval
Figure 10. Actual Image of the Contraption
Table 2. Computation of the number of cycles and rate of filling the tank for 60 psi
3.2 Procedure One of the determining factors in this study is the rate at which children play. This is essential because the average amount children play the seesaw will affect the charging time and capacity of the battery. The number of children in the seesaw is exposed may also be considered but that will not be focused of the study. To be able to compute the time a battery charges is dependent on how many cycles an average play the seesaw can be made in a given time. Based from Tables 1, 2 and 3, it can be observed that from 10 to 600 psi, the higher the pressure, the higher the time and number of cycles it takes for the air pressure to increase by 5 psi. Also, if there are two pairs playing the seesaw, there are minimal difference in the number of cycles compared to the number of cycles if only one pair is playing. But there is a significant difference in the number of hours the tank can be filled. The researchers
The number of cycles it takes to fill the tank depends on the area of the cylinder. Also, the amount of air that enters the tanks depends mainly on the volume of air where the pneumatic cylinder travels. To prove the researcher claimed that: due to testing, the fitted pressure of air tank drives the air motor to produce 14.4 V to 15 is 60 psi.
Table 3. Computation of mass of air in tank
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Technical Feature The number of cycles it takes to fill the tank depends on the area of the cylinder. Also, the amount of air that enters the tanks depends mainly on the volume of air where the pneumatic cylinder travels. To prove the researcher claimed that: due to testing, the fitted pressure of air tank drives the air motor to produce 14.4 V to 15 is 60 psi. An excel program was used to determine the number of cycles for the tank to reach 60 psi. The result of 117 cycles is close to the actual cycles of 139 cycles. Figure 11 shows the testing of the voltage generated by the generator. Using this, the number of cycles can also be expressed mathematically by the given equation:
Figure 12 Pressure vs. Time
Where: f â€“number of cycles (frequency); K-pressure constant; Troom-room temperature; Penv-atmospheric pressure (1atm); V-volume per cycle; q-cylinder capacity
Figure 13. PSI vs. Voltage
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 12 shows the relationship of pressure and time. The group conducted six trials, starting with 80 psi up to 30 psi. The higher the pressure, the longer the time will it take drain the tank. Figure 13 shows the characteristics of voltage and pressure. As pressure rises, the voltage is held constant. The pressure for this graph is at the tank side. Figure 14 shows the characteristics of current and pressure. As pressure rises, the current is held constant. The pressure for this graph is plotted also at the tank side. Figure 15 shows that at regulated output pressure (14 psi), the behaviour of voltage is constant. But the current shows an erratic behaviour due to the sudden decrease in pressure.
Figure 14. PSI vs. Current
Figure 15. Voltage vs. Current
Figure 11. Testing of voltage produced by the generator.
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5.0 CONCLUSION Based from the results the system, the seesaw energy contrapment system generates small but significant amount of electrical energy which can be stored to a battery and can be used for lighting loads. The addition of the seesaw in the solar panel is a good auxiliary source of power and can be implemented to compensate the power generation and the charging of the battery system. Further development of the system is highly recommended in order to increase the power generation efficiency. Pneumatics as energy converters can also be applied in
Technical Feature various playground equipment such as seesaw, swing, and etc. Also, the charge controller is essential in regulating the energy collected from the system.
Protection, Renewable Sources of Energy, Distributed Generation and Smart Grids. He is the adviser of the authors in this project.
6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS Long air tubes are also losses in air pressure transmission leading to longer time to reach the prescribed pressure. Increasing the number of seesaw with the prescribed system can also improve the time for filling the tank, increasing the time of the rotation of the air motor, thus, longer time for the generator to produce power. If the said recommendations are considered for the system, higher power generation efficiency is expected.
Jesus M. Martinez, Jr. is a graduate of Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila, Philippines, with a degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering (1999) and Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Communications Engineering (2000). A Registered Electrical Engineer, he is a full-time faculty member of the School of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering of the Mapua Institute of Technology. His field of interest includes Power Electronics, Control Systems and Signal Processing. He is also the adviser of the authors in this project.
7.0 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the school of EECE and Power Electronics Laboratory of the Mapua Institute of Technology, and Kraft Philippines through Ace Saatchi and Saatchi and the ABOVE for all of the blessings and guidance. 8.0 REFERENCES 1. S.R. Pandian, “ Abstract,” A Human Power Conversion System Based on Children’s Play, 2010 pp. 54 2. M. Smit “Abstract” Human-Powered Small-Scaled Generation System for a Sustainable Dance Club, 2010 pp.439 3.McPherson and George, An introduction to Electrical Machines and Transformers, John Wiley and Sons, 1990. 4. S. R. Majumdar, “Pneumatic cylinders and air motors” in Pneumatics System Principles and Maintenance, McGraw-Hill, 1995 5. A. Ter-Gazarian, Energy Storage for Power Systems, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., 1994 6. Peter Spasov, What is a microcontroller? And what is it used for in Microcontroller Technology the 68HC11, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.
This article is for general information only and is not a substitute for professional advice where the facts and circumstances warrant. The views and opinion expressed above are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Institute.
9.0 ABOUT THE AUTHORS John Ray Abad, Merryl D. Capucao and Lynette Dane C. Legaspi are all BS Electrical Engineering graduating students of Mapua Institute of Technology. They took up specialization courses on Power Systems Protection as part of their undergraduate curricula. All of them are now reviewing for the Registered Electrical Engineer (REE) Board Examination this coming April. Michael C. Pacis is a Registered Electrical Engineer with a BS EE and Master of Engineering-Electrical Engineering (M.Eng’g-EE) Major in Power Systems degree from MAPUA Institute of Technology. At present, he is taking up PhD EE (Power Systems) at the University of the PhilippinesDiliman. His research interest includes Power System
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Knowing the Standards Draft Philippine National Standards on Rotating Machinery of the Bureau of Product Standards (BPS/TC58) Standards
DPNS IEC 60034-14:2012 – Rotating electrical machines --- Part 14 Mechanical vibration of a certain machines with shaft heights 56mm and higher --Measurements, evaluation and limits of vibration severity. (IEC published 2007) ICS 29.160
The part of IEC 60034 specifies the factory acceptance vibration test procedures and vibration limits for certain electrical machines under specified conditions, when unoccupied from any load or prime mover. It is applicable to d c and three-phase a c machines, with shaft heights 56mm and higher and a rated output up to 50 MW. At operational speeds from 120 min-1 up to and including 15 000 min-1. This standard is not applicable to machine mounted in situ, three-phase commutator motors, single-phase systems, vertical waterpower generators, turbine generators greater than 20 MW and machines with magnetic bearings or series-wound machines. Note: For machine measured in situ refer to applicable parts of ISO 10816 and ISO 7919.
DPNS IEC 60252-1 2012 – AC Motor capacitors --- Part 1: General – Performance, testing and rating --- Safety requirements --- Guide for installation and operation (IEC Published 2010) ICS 31.060.31.060.70
This part of IEC 60252 applies to motor capacitors intended for connection to windings of asynchronous motors supplied from a single-phase system having a frequency up to and including 100 Hz, and to capacitors to be connected to three-phase asynchronous motors so that these motors may be supplied from a single-phase system. This standard covers impregnated or unimpregnated capacitors having a dielectric of paper, plastic film, or a combination of both, either metalized or with metal-foil electrodes, with rated voltages up to and including 660V. Motor start capacitors are covered by IEC 60252-2. Note: The following are excluded from this standard -shunt capacitors of the self-healing type for a.c. power systems of up to and including 1 000 V nominal voltage (see IEC 60831-1) -shunt capacitors of non-self healing type for a.c. power of up to and including 1000 v nominal voltage (see IEC 60831-1) -shunt capacitors for a.c. power systems having a nominal voltage above 1000 V (see IEC 60871-1) -capacitors for induction heat-generating plants operating at frequencies between 40 Hz and 24 000 Hz (see IEC 60110-1) -series of capacitors (see IEC 60143). -coupling capacitors and capacitor dividers (see IEC 60358) -capacitors to be used in power system electronic circuits (see IEC 61071) -small a.c. capacitors to be used for fluorescent and discharge lamps (see IEC 61048). -capacitors for suppression of radio interference (IEC publication under consideration). -capacitors intended to be used in various types of electrical equipment and thus considered as components. -capacitors intended for use with d.c. voltage. The object of this standard is a) formulate uniform rules regarding performance, testing and rating; b) to formulate specific safety rules; c) to provide a guidance for installation and operation.
DPNS IEC 60252-2:2012 – AC Motor capacitors --- Part 2 Motor Start capacitors (IEC published 2010) ICS 31.060.30.31.060.70)
This part of IEC 60252 applies to motor start capacitors intended for connection to windings of asynchronous motors supplied from a single-phase system having the frequency of the mains. This standard covers impregnated or unimpregnated metalized motor start capacitors having a dielectric of paper or plastic films, or a combination of both and electrolytic motor start capacitors with non-solid electrolyte, with rated voltages up to and including 660V.
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Knowing the Standards Standards
DPNS IEC 61400-1 A1:2012
This part of IEC 61400 specifies essential design requirements to ensure the engineering integrity of wind turbines. Its purpose is to provide an appropriate level of protection against damage from all hazards during the planned lifetime. This standard applies to wind turbines of all sizes. For small wind turbines IEC 61400-2 may be applied. This standard should be used together with the appropriate IEC and ISO standards mentioned in Clause 2.
DPNS IEC 60034-22: 2012 Rotating This part of IEC 60034 established the principal characteristics of a.c. generators electrical machines – Part 22 AC under the control of their voltage regulators when used for reciprocating internal generators for reciprocating internal combustion (RIC) engine driven generating set applications and supplements in combustion (RIC) engine driven requirements given in IEC 60034-1. It covers the use of such generators for land and marine use, but excludes generating sets used on aircraft or used to propel generating sets. (IEC published 2009) land vehicles and locomotives. Note 1 For some specific applications (e.g. essential hospital supplies, high-rise ICS 29:160 buildings, etc.) supplementary requirements may be necessary. The provisions of this standard should be regarded as a basis for such requirements. Note 2 Attention is drawn to the need to take note of additional regulations or requirements imposed by various regulatory bodies. Such regulations or requirements may from the subject of agreement between the customer and the manufacturer when conditions of use of the end product invoke such requirements. Note 3 Examples of regulatory authorities: Classification societies, for generating sets used on ships and offshore installations. Government agencies Inspection agencies, local utilities, etc.
Annex A discusses the behavior of generators covered by the standard when subjected to sudden load changes.
Those who are interested for these standards, you can request at the Standards Development Division of the Bureau of Product Standards through the following contact numbers: Direct Line: 751-4730/31; Fax: 751-4735 or through email@example.com
FRAUD WARNING T
he Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE) hereby warns the public of a Fraudulent Recruitment Scheme using the identity of a former employee of the Institute in the name of Engr. Glynn Andy O. Gayman. There has been a validated recent report regarding an unidentified perpetrator who claims to be the “Document Officer” of IIEE main office advertising for a training recruitment in Baguio for interested electrical engineers who desire to be employed overseas particularly in Brunei and Qatar. The said scammer was able to prey on at least three confirmed victims collecting a substantial amount through money transfer as accordingly reported by the latter. This information is being broadcasted as a PUBLIC WARNING and to assert that the Institute IS NOT, by any means, involved in any recruitment activity and has no affiliations to any person/staff-in-charge for such recruitment, both local and abroad. We only post job opportunities for member’s information. If you have received any of these fraudulent offers or suspect any misleading information about the Institute, please contact the IIEE National Office at the following number: (+63) 448-5211; Trunk line No: (+63) 727-3552 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. The Institute responds promptly to any unfavorable circumstances affecting the integrity of its embodiment and/or its constituents as it is absolutely against any act of deceit usually leading to criminal perpetration. Please be guided accordingly and be alert to defeat even the smallest of crimes.
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academic link ...
2011 EE Research Contest The EE Research Contest aims to promote and highlight advancement in the field of Electrical Engineering for sharing new technologies, ideas, and concepts among schools and universities that offer Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering.
winning papers 2nd Place: TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES -- Quezon City Floating Electric Generator
1st Place: By: James C. Belangigue, Rodimer C. Bohol, Elbert Cabison, Ma. POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE Corazon D. De Los Reyes, Jelan Lumayag, Jose Recalde, Angelo Tinio, PHILIPPINES Microbial Fuel Cell This presentation presents part of the work carried out within A Renewable Source of Energy: Pasig River Sediments for Lighting By: Benedict D. Daisog, Enrico M. Dela Cruz, Alvin Rene L. Salazar, Jayson U. Tisca, Gilbert J. Crobillo, Neko E. Taneo As the international community calls for a clean and renewable source of energy due to the treat of the effect of climate change, a lot of effort had been made to find ways to develop existing clean source of energy as well as finding a new type of renewable energy which shall sustain the energy needs of the world. Also, the economic aspect of these renewable source of energy had been taken into great concern to be a much better substitute to the existing source of energy primarily fossil fuel. And one of these types of clean energy source which at the moment is still in its infancy is utilizing bacteria as source of energy now called the Microbial Fuel Cell. And in the Philippines where there is an existing energy crisis, such alternative sources of energy are very much in need today. Also, because of the pollution in the major rivers and bodies of water in the country, this type of alternative energy shall provide a long term goal in utilizing such bodies of water which have an abundant source of bacteria making it suitable for the microbial fuel cell technology. Like the Pasig River, the major river system in Metro Manila which is in fact highly polluted with organic materials make it a huge den of different types and species of electricity producing bacteria. Because of this aspect, the group had seen that the Pasig River is not only for transportation purposes but also for providing a clean source of energy by using the bacteria mostly concentrated in its sediments. More so, bacteria in nature mostly have the purpose of decomposing waste product of nature itself for the completion of life cycle. Because of this natural process the nature have, Bacteria used battery using Pasig River sediments can be sustainable and cheap source of energy for the country.
the framework of a research project entitled Floating Electric Generator. Specifically, it is focused on the activities performed in order to achieve one of the main objectives of the project: the design of a generator for a run-of-river to use the plentiful water source to build an easy-to-install, low-cost and safe hydroelectric power generation apparatus. Hydroelectric power generation is a way of generating electric power by converting potential energy and kinetic energy of water into electric energy. At present, there are different methods of achieving the hydroelectric power generation, and one of the methods is to construct a dam and install a hydroelectric generator for the electric power generation. However, this method incurs unusually high expenses for the construction of the dam, and the dam also damages the natural landscape and ecology, and thus less and less dams are built now. Another method is to build a pumped-storage hydroelectric plant including two water storage pools built at upstream and downstream locations of a river respectively. During off-peak hours, water is pumped from the downstream water pool to the upstream water pool for the recycle and reuse of the water. However, the expense required for building such hydroelectric power generation plant is very high. Another famous hydroelectric power generation method is to build a large underwater turbine at a riverbed, and tides are used for driving the turbine to rotate. However, the construction of the underwater turbine at the waterbed incurs tremendous efforts and high costs, which are not cost-effective, and the operation of the turbine at the waterbed not only gives rise to a high level of difficulty for the maintenance, but it also has a safety concern. With this project, we can preserve the nature at the same time maximize our renewable energy sources. Using renewable energy is a central aim in the world, because it helps to reduce CO2 emissions, it enhances sustainability and it also improves the security of energy supply by reducing the growing dependence on imported energy sources.
...academic link 3rd Place: TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES -- Manila ENERCON (Enery Conversion Grill) By: Edward Robert C. Dee, Paul Timothy R. Mabilangan Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat (electric gas, charcoal) applied to the surface of food, commonly from above and below. Grilling usually involves quite a lot of direct, radiant heat and tends to be used for cooking meat quickly and meat that has already cut into slices. It is widely used nowadays because of the taste that it gives to the food such as the smoke taste of a grilled barbeque. In some coutries like the United States, they commonly use gas of electric grills because of its portability and it is more convenient. Here in the Philippines, we use charcoal for grilling because it is more economical. And as the grilling business grows exponentially in the Philippines, a lot of waste heat is being dissipated day by day on a 24 hour basis. The waste heat being present in the system is not utilized properly by these companies. A device called peltier device is a thermoelectric device capable of harnessing and converting direct heat present in the grill into electrical energy suitable for powering different kinds of loads. Aside from thermoelectricity, conventional way of converting energy such as wind to electricity will be efficient to power up different loads present in the grill for maximum utilization.
“Will the future scarcity of EE Instructors lead to scarcity of EE Professionals?” By: Engr. Jayson A. Francisco, REE 2010-45719 Instructor 1, PUP EE Department Without EE instructors there would be no EE students. For those who aspire to be an electrical engineer, educators serve the bridge that connects between their dreams and reality. Educators lay the foundation for the structure; they inculcate the basic and the complex. In the academic paradigm, the applications of concepts, theories, and laws are taught to strengthen the students’ competitiveness after graduation. A student’s professional construct, at the most, relies on the knowledge and the abilities of the educators to hammer down the raw materials. While it’s true, of course, the task should be two-way. In State Universities, it is the instructor's goal to inform the students’ responsibilities in nation building. Students must understand that because their education is funded by the taxpayers, they must be part of the solution and not the problem. All industries and households rely on electricity so students must also be motivated in strengthening our economy. Ergo, instructors do not only teach technicalities of the course but also the responsibilities of being a state scholar. An instructor’s role requires hard work, passion and integrity. Being part of the academe has enticed few since 0.5% of graduates would walk towards this path. Of course there is an assumption that after acquiring license, an electrical engineer should practice their skills in the industry (corporation and government agencies), where they can assure themselves of financial stability. There is this contagious mind-set that electrical engineers are supposed to be trained of the dirty works in the industry to be able to sharpen and mostly choose to rather not be involved in the hands-on lacks of the academe profession. It also adds up that for careerists, such job is a dead end which does not promote career growth at all. Another point of argument is the relative low compensation and few to none benefits relative to the profession in state universities. This mere fact results to the increasing vacant
from the member’s point of view
professorial seats in the academe. In economics, scarcity means a problem; it is a looming specter. Logically, if there is no sufficient voltage the machines would not function. Yes, there is a need to increase the number of EE instructors to fill in the vacancies. If you ask me, a campaign is imperative to drive the interests of our youth traversing the Electrical Engineering profession. For instance, qualified conversant professionals can do a part time instructional job whilst being a full time industry employee. The importance of EE instructors must be stressed. Also, we must address the need to increase the wage and add non-monetary benefits. But to attain a positive corollary, it is a must that those who will fill in the position are beyond qualified. In a sense, it is important that the one person must be familiar with teaching methodologies. Ergo, prospective instructors must also undergo training programs to strengthen their teaching skills. We must remember that quality and quantity is directly correlated to the success of the institution to produce competitive professionals. Since points have been raised, it is imperative that we analyze the root cause of the scarcity and qualification. In recent years, the government has not increased the budget for education. The state has been clear that it had been campaigning to lessen the number of state universities. Obviously, with insufficient budget allocations it is almost close to impossible to ask for more financial support. Would this lead towards an irresolvable conundrum? I don’t think so. Being part of the academe, I believe that since we have recognized the problems and have formulated possible solutions, we must continuously assert our right. Our institution has produced scholars and we have to produce more. Our government must be startled by the specter that hounds our college. We have to assert and reaffirm our fundamental right since what we are fighting for is for the nation's benefit. Thus, I have to rephrase my first statement, without the abundance of competitive EE instructors, there would be a scarcity of competitive and efficient EE professionals.