Page 1

Improving Administrative Sciences Worldwide

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 Les priorités socioéconomiques et l’administration publique

R a pport M é rid a - M e xiq ue Juin 2012

2012 International Congress of IIAS Socio Economic Priorities and Public Administration

R e po rt M é rid a - M e x ic o June 2012

www.iias-iisa.org Rue Defacqz 1, bte 11 B-1000 Bruxelles, Belgique e-mail: info@iias-iisa.org


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Remerciements L’Institut international des Sciences administratives remercie l’Institut national d’administration publique du Mexique et l’Etat du Yucatan.

Ackowledgements The International Institute of Administrative Sciences should like to thank the Institute of Public Administration of Mexico and the State of Yucatan.

2

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

INSTITUT INTERNATIONAL DES SCIENCES ADMINISTRATIVES L’IISA est une association internationale à but scientifique dont le siège est à Bruxelles. Créé en 1930 par le Congrès international des sciences administratives tenu à Madrid, l’IISA est la première des institutions spécialisées à affirmer, au niveau mondial, sa volonté scientifique pour résoudre les problèmes et les défis des administrations nationales et internationales. Il reste aujourd’hui la seule institution internationale spécialisée en sciences administratives et en administration publique, un lieu unique pour la recherche et la coopération, ouvert aux universitaires et aux praticiens de toutes les régions du monde. L’Institut est représenté dans une centaine de pays et compte parmi ses membres des Etats, des Sections nationales, des Organisations internationales et des membres collectifs. Il est par ailleurs doté d’un Statut consultatif auprès de l’UNESCO et du Conseil économique et social des Nations Unies, et est membre du Conseil international des sciences sociales. L’Institut développe ainsi ses programmes en synergie avec les principales organisations afin de promouvoir la coopération internationale dans le domaine de l’administration publique. L’IISA a pour mission de promouvoir le développement des sciences administratives, l’amélioration du fonctionnement des administrations publiques, le perfectionnement des méthodes et des techniques administratives et le progrès de l’administration internationale. Une grande part des activités de l’IISA est consacrée à l’analyse et la recherche (congrès, groupes de travail, séminaires), à la formation (ses publications, sa Revue internationale des sciences administratives, trimestrielle, publiée en anglais, en français et en chinois, sa Lettre d’information, son site internet), ainsi qu’à l’expertise et à la consultation (L’Institut répond à des demandes spécifiques de gouvernements, d’organisations internationales ou de toute autre agence). L’association spécialisée et les groupes régionaux de l’Institut développent également et de façon permanente des travaux et un suivi des évolutions dans leur domaine spécifique. L’Association internationale des écoles et instituts d’administration (AIEIA) vise à répondre aux besoins de développement institutionnel de la gestion publique et de l’administration. Le Groupe européen pour l’administration publique (GEAP) a pour objectif le développement de l’administration publique et de la théorie administrative dans le cadre européen. Le Groupe Latino-américain pour l’administration publique (GLAP) a pour objectif le développement de l’administration publique dans les pays d’Amérique Latine. Le Groupe Asiatique pour l’Administration publique (GAAP) a pour but de promouvoir la culture et la professionnalisation de l’Administration publique en Asie. Les activités de recherche de l’IISA sont essentiellement menées dans le cadre de ses Groupes de projet/d’études et ses Manifestations majeures annuelles (Congrès, Conférences, séminaires).

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES The IIAS is an international association with scientific purpose whose seat is in Brussels. Established in 1930 by the International Congress of Administrative Sciences held in Madrid, the IIAS is the first of the specialised institutions to affirm, worldwide, its scientific willingness to resolve the problems and challenges of national and international administration. It is today the only international institution specialised in administrative sciences and public administration, the primary meeting place for research and co-operation, and open to academics and practitioners from all regions of the world. The Institute is represented in approximately one hundred countries and counts among its members States, National Sections, International Organisations and Corporate Members. The Institute also has Consultative Status with Unesco and the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and is a member of the International Social Science Council. It thus develops its programmes in synergy with the major organisations to promote international co-operation in the field of Public Administration. The purpose of the IIAS is to promote the development of administrative sciences, the better operation of public administrative agencies, the improvement of administrative methods and techniques and the progress of international administration. A large part of IIAS activities is devoted to analysis and research (Conferences, Working Groups, Seminars, etc.) information (its publications, quarterly International Review of Administrative Sciences - published in English, French and Chinese, Newsletter, website) and expertise and consultancy (the Institute responds to specific requests of governments, international organisations, or any other agency). The Institute’s Specialised Association and Regional Groups also develop and follow-up research in their specific field of interest. The International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration (IASIA) aims to respond to the institutional development needs of public management and public administration. The European Group for Public Administration (EGPA) is responsible for the development of public administration and administrative theory relative to the European environment. The Latin American Regional Group (LAGPA) is responsible for the development of public administration in the Latin American countries. The Asian Group for Public Administration (AGPA) has for goal to promote the Culture and Professionalization of Public Administration in Asia The IIAS research activities are mainly carry out by its Project/Study Groups and its annual Major Events (Congresses, Conferences, Seminars). 2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

3


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

4

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Sommaire - Contents

A. Introduction / Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................................ p.6 B. Résumé du Rapporteur général / Summary of the General Rapporteur................................................ p.9 C. Rapports des Rapporteurs / Reports of the Rapporteurs........................................................................................ p.12

• La gouvernance démocratique en vue du développement socioéconimique Democratic Governance for Socioeconomic Development Ghazi Gherairi, Tunisia/Tunisie – James L Nkata, Ouganda/Uganda.......................................... p.12

• Le e-gouvernement, un moyen de renforcer la confiance E-Government, Instrument to Strengthen Trust Koichiro Agata, Japon/Japan – Tino Schuppan, Allemagne/Germany.................................... p.15

• Valeur publique, le cas du Tourisme/Public Value, the case of Tourism Francisco Madrid Flores et/and René Rivera, Mexique/Mexico – Roberto Gallardo, Costa Rica....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p.18

D. Notes indicatives sur les Plateformes politiques / Issue papers on Policy Platforms

• Plate-forme politique sur La gouvernance démocratique pour le développement socio-économique/Policy Platform on Democratic Governance for Socio Economic Development................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p.20

• Plate-forme politique sur L’e-gouvernement comme un instrument pour renforcer la confiance/Policy Platform on E-Government Instrument to Strengthen Trust............................. p.21

• Plate-forme politique sur La valeur publique, le cas du tourisme Policy Platform on Public Value, the Case of Tourism................................................................................................ p.22

E. Conférence Braibant / Braibant Lecture............................................................................................................................................ p.24

F. Résumés des papiers présentés pendant le congrès en relation avec les sous-thèmes Abstracts of papers presented during the congress in relation with the subthemes................ p.49 F. Panel ouvert organisé pendant le congrès Open panel organized during the congress....................................................................................................................................... p.85 H. Résumés des papiers présentés pendant le congrès sous l’appel ouvert Abstracts of papers presented during the congress under the open call......................................... p.87

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

5


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Introduction Les priorités socioéconomiques et l’administration publique LDes liens essentiels existent entre la modernisation du secteur public et le développement. La modernisation du secteur public est déterminante pour la réalisation des objectifs de développement nationaux. La création, l’amélioration et le maintien d’infrastructures institutionnelles bien conçues et modernes, qui tiennent compte du développement des capacités institutionnelles administratives et humaines, entraînent une amélioration des indicateurs de rendement économique et social des pays. L’on s’accorde en général pour dire qu’il existe une corrélation positive entre le développement institutionnel et le renforcement de l’État, ce qui a une influence considérable sur le développement socioéconomique. L’on soutient que l’efficacité, l’efficience et la qualité des institutions publiques sont très importantes pour la mise en œuvre des priorités socioéconomiques des pays. Il existe une corrélation solide entre la modernisation du secteur public et le développement. Il semble également que l’institutionnalisation des pratiques de bonne gouvernance influence différents indicateurs du développement socioéconomique. Dans beaucoup de pays, la priorité de l’État est d’assurer une économie de la connaissance compétitive et dynamique, capable de produire une croissance économique durable en offrant des emplois plus nombreux et de meilleure qualité et assurant une plus grande cohésion sociale. Le rôle de l’administration publique est déterminant de ce point de vue.

1. Sous-thème 1 : La gouvernance démocratique en vue du développement socioéconomique

La démocratie et la gouvernance se retrouvent partout dans les activités de développement qui abordent une gamme plus large de questions, allant des réformes stratégiques au développement des capacités, en vue de la mise en œuvre des politiques socioéconomiques nationales. Quelle est l’importance de la bonne gouvernance pour la croissance économique ? Peut-on assurer la croissance économique en l’absence de bonne gouvernance ? La meilleure réponse se retrouve dans l’aphorisme selon lequel la bonne gouvernance favorise la croissance et la croissance améliore la gouvernance. Le principal défi consiste à améliorer la gouvernance participative en vue du développement socioéconomique et de l’éradication de la pauvreté. Les experts insistent sur le lien essentiel qui existe entre la gouvernance économique et la gouvernance démocratique en tant que condition essentielle à une croissance économique équitable et à des services sociaux de qualité. La gouvernance démocratique comprend le système participatif de gouvernance et le développement d’une culture politique de la participation, qui encourage les citoyens, ainsi que les organisations de la société civile, à participer au système de gouvernance avec les outils et l’expertise technique nécessaires pour établir des gouvernements responsables et réactifs à tous les niveaux ; pour mettre en place des politiques économiques bien dosées et pertinentes, qui facilitent la croissance des entreprises, la création d’emplois, la réduction de la pauvreté et l’amélioration des services publics.

2. Sous-thème 2 : Le e-gouvernement, un moyen de renforcer la confiance

Beaucoup de gouvernements considèrent le gouvernement électronique ou le recours aux technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) dans le secteur public comme un moyen de moderniser leur administration avec ses relations extérieures. Les gouvernements renoncent peu à peu aux modèles de prestation de service basés sur le face à face et sur les documents papier au profit d’une prestation de service basée sur les TIC, ce qui pourrait avoir une influence, à divers égards, sur la confiance et les modes d’imputabilité. Les médias sociaux et les concepts connexes tels que le gouvernement transparent sont plus particulièrement susceptibles de renforcer la participation citoyenne, la transparence et, partant, la confiance. À l’inverse, l’on peut penser que le gouvernement électronique risque d’ébranler la confiance des citoyens dans l’État, par exemple, si le gouvernement n’est pas capable d’assurer la sécurité des données ou si les citoyens associent le gouvernement électronique à un processus de surveillance. Le recours accru aux TIC dans le but de conserver, de traiter et de partager des renseignements personnels peut avoir de nombreux avantages, mais aussi mettre en péril la confiance. Dans le cadre de l’atelier, nous examinerons le lien entre le gouvernement électronique, la satisfaction des citoyens et différentes formes organisationnelles basées sur les TIC, comme la prestation de services amalgamés et la confiance. Nous ne nous limiterons pas à un angle de recherche axé sur des données empiriques, puisque nous nous tournerons aussi vers l’avenir et analyserons les scénarios les plus optimistes et les plus pessimistes en matière de confiance et de gouvernement électronique. Nous aborderons les questions suivantes : Les gouvernements se lancent-ils dans des mécanismes de cyberconfiance et, dans l’affirmative, à quoi ressemblent-ils et quel est leur lien avec les éléments de confiance « analogues » ? Quelles sont les implications en matière d’imputabilité et à quoi pourrait ou devrait ressembler le gouvernement de demain en ce qui concerne la confiance dans le cyberespace ? S’agissant des nouveaux développements dans les TIC, nous examinerons les façons de conceptualiser la confiance dans le cybergouvernement et les conséquences possibles.

6

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

3. Sous-thème 3 : Valeur publique, le cas du tourisme

L’État est de plus en plus considéré comme un générateur de valeur publique, et les politiques efficaces sont le principal moyen de produire cette valeur publique. En tant qu’activité économique majeure, le tourisme est un domaine de politique publique dans la plupart des pays des différentes régions de l’IISA. L’administration publique joue un rôle non négligeable dans le contrôle des politiques et des changements structurels qui influencent le développement du tourisme, ainsi que dans la promotion d’une croissance économique durable du tourisme. Le secteur du tourisme est une activité multidimensionnelle, qui fait intervenir une série de domaines et un développement économique variable, dans la mesure où il intervient dans différents secteurs ayant une influence sur le développement socioéconomique. Par sa fonction de leadership, l’État a toujours été connu pour être à la tête du développement du tourisme, en organisant le fondement infrastructurel et en définissant les cadres législatif, physique, financier, social et environnemental. La régulation, la facilitation, l’élaboration, la définition et la formulation des politiques, la mise en œuvre, la coordination, l’évaluation et la planification en matière de développement, de promotion et de durabilité du tourisme et des loisirs sont les principales tâches de l’AP dans l’élaboration des politiques du tourisme. Les experts reconnaissent par ailleurs que le tourisme est confronté à deux problématiques en termes de cohésion sociale : comment faire en sorte qu’il engendre des relations harmonieuses entre les touristes et les communautés locales ? Comment permettre aux groupes à revenu faible d’accéder plus facilement au tourisme ?

Introduction Socio Economic Priorities and Public Administration There are essential connections between the modernisation of the public sector and development. The modernisation of the public sector is central for the attainment of national development goals. The creation, enhancement and maintenance of an advanced and well-designed institutional infrastructure, that includes the development of institutional administrative and human capacities, lead to an improvement in a country’s economic and social performance indicators. There is a general consensus that there is a positive correlation between institutional development and State-building, which has a considerable impact on socio-economic development. It is argued that the effectiveness, efficiency and quality of public institutions are very important for implementing the socio economic priorities of countries. There exists a strong correlation between modernisation of the public sector and development. Evidences also suggest that the institutionalisation of good governance practices influence various indicators of socio-economic development. In many countries, the priority of the State is to ensure a competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion. The role of Public Administration in that perspective is crucial.

1. Sub-theme 1: Democratic Governance for Socioeconomic Development

Democracy and Governance are deeply involved in development activities that cover a wider spectrum from policy reforms to capacity development, for implementation of national socio economic policies. How important is good governance for economic growth? Can economic growth be sustained without good governance? The answer is best captured in the aphorism that good governance promotes growth and that growth further improves governance. The main challenge is to provide improved, participatory governance for socio-economic development and poverty eradication. The experts underline the central relationship between economic and democratic governance as the basis for equitable economic growth and high-quality social services. The democratic governance includes the participatory system of governance and the development of a political culture of participation encouraging the citizens, and civil society organisations to take part to the system of governance with the tools and technical expertise needed to build accountable and responsive governments at all levels; to establish balanced and sound economic policies that facilitate business growth, job creation, poverty reduction, and improved public services.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

7


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

2. Sub-theme 2: E-Government, Instrument to Strengthen Trust

Many governments see e-government or the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the public sector as an instrument to modernize its administration with its external relationships. Governments are shifting from face-to-face and paper-based service delivery models towards ICT-enabled service delivery which might have an impact on trust and accountability modes in various ways. Especially social media and the related concepts such as open government might enhance citizens’ engagement, transparency and hence might increase trust. Vice versa it can be hypothesized that e-government would reduce citizen’s trust in government, e.g., if data security could not be assured by the government or citizens associate e-government with a surveillance state. Increased usage of ICT to store, process and share personal information might bring far reaching benefits as well as risk for trust. In the workshop we will discuss the relationship between e-government, citizen satisfaction and specific ICT-enabled organizational forms such as joined-up service provision and trust. Beyond an empirically oriented research perspective we will also look ahead and develop future best and worst case scenarios on trust and egovernment. Questions we will discuss are: Do governments enter in cyber trust mechanisms and if so, how could they look like and how are they related to “analogous” elements of trust? What does it mean for accountability and how could or should future government look like regarding trust in cyber space? Regarding new developments in ICT we will highlight how trust could be conceptualized in the cyber government and what its possible consequences are.

3. Sub-theme 3: Public Value, the case of tourism

Government is increasingly understood as a generator of public value, and effective policy is the central mechanism through which public value is delivered. Tourism as important economic activity is an area of public policy in most countries of the different IIAS regions. The role of Public Administration for monitoring policies and structural changes affecting the development of tourism and promoting a sustainable economic growth of tourism is significant. Tourism sector is a multi-dimensional activity which touches many spheres and different economic development as it interferes in number of sectors leading to socioeconomic development. The government, in its leadership role, has always been known to lead tourism development by arranging the infrastructural foundation, providing the legislative, physical, fiscal, social and environmental framework. Regulating, facilitating, policy making, definition and formulation of policy, implementation, coordination, evaluation and planning in development, promotion and sustainability of tourism and leisure are the main tasks of PA in developing tourism policy. The experts also recognise that tourism is facing two challenges in terms of social cohesion: how can it engender harmonious relations between tourists and local communities? How can low-income groups be given more access to tourism?

8

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Résumé du Rapporteur général

summary of the General Rapporteur

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

9


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Rapporteur general: interventions In discussing a general theme such as ‘Socio Economic Priorities and Public Administration’, the general assumption is that the public sector is part of a solution, and therefore it should make sure it is not part of the problem. This implies that a systemic triangle should be controlled. Three dimensions are being discussed during this conference: democratic governance, technical systems (which include E-government, databases as a source of evidence based policy making, and ICT in general), and public value systems. Together, these three dimensions are necessary conditions for an equilibrated development of economic, social, and ecological dimensions of welfare and well being of societies. It is not easy to define ‘governance’. Actually, in several languages the English word ‘governance’ is not easy to translate. It seems not always to travel well, the word. This could suggest that the concept is also subject to discussion: what is good governance? We should assume that good institutions contribute to good governance, at all levels, from international to local good governance. The checklist of criteria may differ, even if there are many commonalities between cultures globally. Another challenge is how austerity and crises are affecting good governance. Technical systems which include databases and ICT in a context of electronic government may contribute to several criteria of good governance, including transparency and openness. However, there are also limits, and technical systems are necessary but not sufficient to cope with e.g. cultures of abuse of power. This refers to the need for values. The value of public, and the list of public values are also an element of a public sector which is part of the solution. Again, the list of public values may differ a bit according to culture and tradition. However, there is more commonality than differences. One key concept is trust and the public sector: how to build trust, and how to keep trust. All these debates are in the context of different models, which are changing and shifting. There is the ‘state of law’, the ‘market state’, and the ‘network state’, depending on whether hierarchies, markets, or networks are the main driver of a system. Of course these are ideal types. Realities consist of blends and hybrids of these pure types. But questions such as e.g.’ what kind of civil servant do we need?’, or ‘What kind of politicians do we need?’ emerge in all systems. And we all share the question of how to turn the current crises into an opportunity to improve our systems. In 1963, Marco Antonio Montes de Oca wrote his ‘Fundacion del Entusismo’. He said: “… Para ti que iluminas mi confianza Des brozo el camino y retiro las verdeantes trampas.” (For you who enlightens my confidence I clear the path and remove greening traps) This conference has enlightened us, through questions answered we could clear some paths, and through debates between academics and practitioners we could remove some of the greening traps. We got during this conference also a bit more confidence in the fact that the public sector can be part of a solution, and also should be part of a solution. Therefore, it is a huge responsibility for academics, decision makers, policy makers and practitioners to contribute to an agenda which makes the public sector part of a solution for societal problems. During this conference we have been focusing on the three angles of a the public sector. There is a public sector as a governance system, as a technical system, and as a value system. This triangle should function in such a way that welfare, well being, and trust are realized in a context of development and protection of rights (see also the Braibant lecture of Kliksberg). The conception of the reporting is to focus on the academic side, the practitioner’s point of view, and the bridge as a dialogue between practice and academia.

10

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

METACONCLUSION In all the reporting two logics are emerging, a logic of consequences, and a logic of appropriateness. The logic of consequences is essential because we need to guarantee that resources lead to activities and outputs, which should result in outcomes. Also, we need to make sure that outcomes are realized by delivering outputs which are produced by resources that are actively used. This is a causality of resources and policies. For this conference it means that democratic governance needs to lead to socio-economic development, that e-government (technical) strengthens and supports trust , satisfaction, and community building, and finally that strong policies (including tourism policies) contribute to Public Value. However, there is also a logic of appropriateness. It is essential for us to be aware that we first need to have a recognition of the ‘value of public’ which means that ‘public’ is part of the solution. This could lead to a recognition of ‘public value’ which we need to measure and value. Only then does it make fully sense to talk about all the components of ‘Public Value’, which include ethics, integrity, transparency, performance, etc. This was also demonstrated during this conference. It also became clear that these two logics need to be combined. It is not or/or, but and/and in a context of compatibility. Also, academics and practitioners are compatible and their points of view become bridgeable through dialogues. Finally, we can learn from cultural differences. It became clear at this conference that we do not have a ‘one size fits all’ paradigm and mindset. Nevertheless, benchlearning is useful, necessary, and possible. In conclusion, the IIAS Merida conference has demonstrated that the public sector is part of the solution, that the troika of governance, e-government, and values are mutually reinforcing one another to the benefit of development, welfare, and well being, and that a vivid dialogue between theory and practice is necessary, useful, and possible.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

11


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Rapports des Rapporteurs

Reports of the Rapporteurs

12

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Thème 1 / Theme 1 La gouvernance démocratique en vue du développement socioéconomique Democratic Governance for Socioeconomic Development By Ghazi Gherairi, Tunisia/Tunisie – James L Nkata, Ouganda/Uganda

Session : Democratic Governance, Citizen Participation and Transparency:

Under this session six papers were presented from the following Countries and people

a) Perceptions of Public officials and citizens of the Public Decision –making process in the Midwest USA by Enrlich, Jeff Alan, Rebekkah, Jumar John.

The paper was delivered from the study carried out in the USA. The study tested the feelings of people as to why they participated in meetings. The reasons given ranged from emotional involvement to being forced to attend.

b) European citizenship concept: – Enhancing Citizenship concept – Enhancing Citizen’s rights; by Molino Del Poso, and Carles F. Spain

The papers highlights were;

I) Genesis of the development of the concept of European citizenship.

II) Attitude issue on European citizenship

III) Efforts being made to harmonize equity of none – Europeans’ rights. That is people with no rights of citizenship.

IV) Process of acquiring European citizenship from non Europeans.

V) Linguistic issues and cultural identity for immigrants.

c) Challenges of Governance Reforms of Public Budgeting in China: by XU, Guangjian, Wei, Yifang, Lioo, Fuxiu, Tianjian.

The paper highlighted issues of public budgeting in China. The pillars of public budgeting process were given as transparency, accountability and public participation. The reforms in public budgeting were designed to promote those pillars. Considerable achievements were given and also areas of failures were highlighted. The impediments to success were given as historical practices of keeping Government issues as secretes at the expense of Public participation.

d) Crisis management and Citizen Participation in Mexico by Almada Carles.

The paper highlighted the causes of crisis as being.

(I) C  alamities due to natural disasters destroying infrastructure, economic bases and people’s live hoods.

It is also highlighted steps taken by government to manage crisis by establishing a Natural Disaster Fund. The paper further gave reasons underlying the problem of disaster management as being:

I) Lack of working system

II) Political fragmentation

III) Security

IV) Economic decline

The Government has also created a Reconstruction Council that implements the reconstruction plans. To ensure participation the Council has adopted the practice of rationality in decision making and inclusiveness of academics, government and private sectors in planning.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

13


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

e) Lobbying Regulation in Brazil by Santos.

The paper highlighted the concept of lobbying in public administration in Brazil. It emphasized the need to regulate lobbying to fit into the democratic governance and also to regulate access to information that can be can be used in the lobbying process. It highlighted the consequences of the practices of lobbying as;

I) Promoting corruption in financing public administration Perception of lobbying and democracy as inseparable entities.

f) Transparency Directed to Accountability and Decentralization. Through Citizen participation, by Nijera Victor.

This paper highlighted citizenship entrepreneurship in Mexico which has been promoted by;

I) Easy access to information acquisition

II) Usage of acquired information for citizen good governance (Awareness)

Reactions to the Presentations The participants reacted to the presentations in a way of questions and comments. In summary the Questions and comments centered around the practicability of implementing the described strategies in citizens participation. Various historical, political, economic, social and contextual impediments were highlighted.

Conclusion From the papers presented and subsequent discussions and comments two major issues emerged as conclusions.

14

1) The concept of democratic governance and social economic development is widely accepted but interpreted differently depending on the political, social and economic context. Thus leading to adoption of different approaches by different countries.

2) People empowerment in the context of awareness of their rights is key to enhancing the principle of democratic governance, accountability and participation leading to social economic development.

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Thème 2 / Theme 2 Le e-gouvernement, un moyen de renforcer la confiance E-Government, Instrument to Strengthen Trust By Koichiro Agata, Japon/Japan – Tino Schuppan, Allemagne/Germany 1. Overview In the framework “E-Government, Instrument to Strengthen Trust” we initially received 37 proposals. In the end, 17 final papers were submitted. These 17 papers were grouped into four sessions. Session 1, “Between Data Protection and Transparency” was held on the 19th of June with four presentations on two Mexican cases, one German example and one Canadian report. Session 2, “Improving Public Service Delivery”, included four lectures using two Chinese examples, one German reflection and one Canadian analysis. Session 3, entitled “Building Institutional Capacity” also included four reports: one Indian study, one Japanese case and two Mexican examples. Session 4, “E-Government for Development”, was the final session and was made up of five presentations: one Czech case, two proposals for Ghana and Nigeria, one Mexican reflection, and one study on the situation in Iran. The last three sessions were held on the 20th of June.

2. Contributions 2.1. “Between Data Protection and Transparency” Prof. HU picked up on widespread micro-blogging in China during the last three years to show important changes in public administration (The author has only submitted his final paper): namely diversification of values beyond efficiency and fairness and a rise in equilibrium between various values. Dr. MARIÑEZ has analysed information capital in public management, interpreting its role as a specific link between the information generated and the actors involved. In this context, the author emphasised some aspects of the actors tied to collaboration: interpersonal ability to associate, influence and negotiate, awareness of external conflicts and ability to resolve those conflicts, which should be important factors for conflict management. Dr. Masser’s team has pointed out the shift from increasing efficiency and effectiveness to creating satisfied customers and encouraging citizens as the primary purpose of e-government by examining a new system of electronic participatory budgeting. In this system, citizens’ engagement and the transparency of government action have been enhanced, yet a clear digital divide remains for other people, which can lead to a weakening of trust in government. Ms. Vargas has raised the question of how to deal with a situation in which individual information is held by the government, and yet compromised by a particular law. In this context, she has proposed some principles such as legality, loyalty, proportionality, responsibility, quality and finality and gave an impressive expression: Transparency of the government for the people should be secured, but not the reverse, i.e. transparency of the people for the government.

2.2. “Improving Public Service Delivery” In this session, four different topics were discussed: Environmental protection in China, Chinese civil servant examinations, the electronic health card in Germany and the Treasury Board Secretariat in Canada. Prof. Dong, in his examination of the use of environmental protection information found that people’s psychological distance factors have a significant effect on their online behaviour. Therefore e-government can be used to select the appropriate online channel for publishing environmental information, so as to enhance the efficiency of policy delivery. Prof. Liu discussed e-examination for civil servants as a way to implement the equality of opportunity guaranteed every applicant and noted that social equity improved, even though a potential cheating problem was raised. His analysis determined that applicants’ engagement and the transparency of recruitment are enhanced, while the e-examination reduces the gap between the government and society, increasing trust. Dr. MORY analysed the acceptance of the e-health card in Germany by classifying its perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use. As determinants, she identified efficiency, usability of the system and the cost-benefit ratio. Prof. Brown researched the role of the CIO in the Treasury Board in Canada, finding that this position not only creates a functional map defining a new public administration, but also introduces several new elements that touch on service to the public as well as partnerships with the private sector.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

15


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

2.3. “Building Institutional Capacity” Four cases were presented in the third session: A theoretical reflection on Enterprise Resource Planning as an information package for public administration, the education of CIOs in Japan, E-JUSTICIA in Mexico and the online contentious administrative trial, also in Mexico. Dr. Jayakumar considered it necessary to design and implement mechanisms for processing knowledge structures and handling information and knowledge resource transactions in an ERP solution. This would enhance explanation, prediction and troubleshooting, which can lead to increased trust in public organisations. Prof. KUDO perceived the establishment of a CIO position as an administrative modernisation measure. She stressed the importance of education and training for CIOs, especially in policy-making; presentation; facilitation; negotiation; consensus-building; leadership; and innovative, creative and logical thinking, and suggested it should be also applied to other civil servants. Mr. Llano introduced to us a new ICT-based judicial system in Mexico which has established the complete standardisation of court proceedings and the correct measurement of them. It contributes to facilitating the judges’ work and monitoring, planning and producing statistics of the trials as well as enabling a real and concrete observation of the court’s performance, promoting transparency. Mr. MORALES found that the online contentious administrative trial in Mexico enhances citizen trust by improving the mechanisms of transparency and accountability, but notes an urgent need to improve ICT affinity and literacy not only among citizens, but also among civil servants and lawyers.

2.4. “E-Government for Development” This session covered developments in the Czech Republic, the policy situation in Ghana, a warning about the negative influence of E-government based on a theoretical reflection, the transferability of strategies from Canada to Nigeria, and an empirical study on factors affecting E-Government adoption in Iran. Mr. SPACEK from the Czech Republic, in addressing the development of E-Government in his country emphasised the importance of improving the management and evaluation of E-government and the integration of existing evaluation approaches. He argued that user satisfaction and citizen attitudes are not sufficiently considered in the Czech Republic and are a key point for further development. Prof. OHEMENG illustrated three concrete policy proposals for Ghana: namely integration of several piecemeal government measures under one umbrella, consideration of the influence of the digital divide in policy and immediate development of a mobile government policy. Mr. QUIJANO, in a theoretical reflection, warned against three possible tendencies of E-Government: neglecting the diversity in society, to leaving the minority without affinity for ICT behind, and dehumanising social needs and demands. Appropriate, adequate measures should be devised and implemented to counter these tendencies. Dr. OLUKOJU gave concrete recommendations based on his comparison between Canada and Nigeria: effective technical and operational procedures, sustainable cooperation between the public and private sectors, flexible procurement procedures, improvements in broadband access, and creation of relevant and accessible governmental contents under partnership with experts. Prof. Forouzandeh conducted a quantitative analysis of the situation in Iran based on seven categories of indicators such as demographic factors, ICT knowledge, Internet access, system characteristics and so on in order to pick up the necessity of both enhancing citizens’ perceptions of these services and increasing their ICT knowledge by improving internet access.

3. Comments from both Fellow Rapporteurs 3.1. From the Academic Fellow Rapporteur Through our discussions in the last two days from many different viewpoints, we can draw conclusions from E-Government sessions on at least three points. First of all a change, shift, widening or extension of the values for trust in E-government from efficiency and fairness to include satisfaction and engagement. Government efficiency and fairness were the first values in the development of E-government and they must be pursued further, while satisfaction and engagement on the citizen side are very important not only in the mature stage, but also in the introductory stage of some e-government systems. On the other hand, transparency and accountability are still very important and closely related to satisfaction on the citizen side. Secondly, a readiness and ownership for the development of E-Government and possibly E-Governance as its next phase on both sides, namely government and citizen/business: The government must guarantee the security of the whole E-Government system, while citizens should have enough skill and literacy to utilise this system to produce a higher quality of public policy and service delivery. If such readiness and ownership on both sides can be secured, the phase of E-Governance including the relation BtoC/CtoB is achievable in the future.

16

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Finally, further institutional measures and arrangements for strengthening trust in E-government are needed. These include the hardware basis of ICT systems themselves, as well as different applications for various sectors, for example not only for daily delivery of social services and tax administration, but also for judicial procedures. In addition some key positions for system management such as a CIO, measures to minimise and avoid digital divide, to improve ICT literacy on both sides and so on must be considered. While indeed some sceptical arguments about the current state and future of E-Government were expressed in our discussions, necessary arrangements should be established so that trust in E-Government can be enhanced for the sustainable future with smart public policy.

3.2. From Practitioner Fellow Rapporteur Understanding: Very different and mixed understandings of E-Government were apparent. E-Government is not a unified concept. Is E-Government a tool, a medium, an instrument or something magical? Currently, Government without «e» is impossible. But ICT is not a panacea, therefore, lets drop the «e» because the potential of E-Government can only be realised when organizational change takes place. Trust: Very mixed results. E-Government could reduce or increase trust. More responsiveness does not necessarily contribute to more trust. New trade-offs between trust and efficient service provision are very likely, and these need to be addressed by PA scholars. , New questions of accountability and trust come up especially when E-Government is used for new networked structures at the organizational level. Context: There is no uniform model. Different models exist in different countries even when the same technology is being used. We have to be very cautious about the simple transfer of E-Government good practices from one setting to another. In such cases, unintended results are very likely, and these in turn can reduce trust and legitimacy. Administrative contexts are very important for trust in and through E-Government. Capacity: Appropriate E-Government requires specific individual and institutional competences, as well as such as technical and organizational infrastructures. These infrastructures not only often need to be built up and created to make e-government possible, but they must also be continuously maintained and improved. Infrastructure components should be provided as shared services for the entire machinery of government. Skills and an awareness of trust have to be developed. Implementation: Change in the field of E-Government – especially with the focus on trust – is more evolutionary than revolutionary. No leapfrogging in the frame of institutional change! But technological jumps may be possible. Organizational change and acceptance of a technology within government needs careful and specific change management, but above all time. You can’t buy a modern government from a software vendor! What we have learned from the panel trust and E-Government? The potential of E-Government to increase trust is high and yet limited at the same time. On the one hand, participatory tools such as open budgeting and transparency may have a direct positive impact on trust. On the other hand, the effect of online government is probably low for government. Online services may enhance or strengthen trust in a very specific agency or unit but not in government as whole. What we see so far is that the link between E-Government and trust needs more research in concrete cases. Then the results might turn out to be that it is more institutional changes which are important for increasing trust in the context of E-Government.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

17


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Thème 3 / Theme 3 Public Value, the case of Tourism Valeur publique, le cas du Tourisme By Francisco Madrid Flores et/and René Rivera, Mexique/Mexico Roberto Gallardo, Costa Rica This report is the result of workshop presentations and panel discussions of tourism experts. The exposed papers showed particular analysis of different tourist destinations referred to the following countries: Costa Rica, Italy, Japan, Mexico, China and Switzerland. Statements were made by scholars, public administrators and practitioners. The main conclusion obtained is that it is possible to create value in promoting the development of the tourist activity. However, this objective must take into consideration the following issues: 1. The creation of value from the tourism activity is based on the approach of sustainability, conservation of resources, the involvement of the community and a vision of long term economic logic. It was expressed the importance of having certifications in this issue, for instance Costa Rica is recognize by the “Happy Planet Index” as a country with great concern on sustainable development. 2. One of the key points identified for attaining good governance is the coordination of actors. Tourism deals with a multiplicity of actors, therefore many interests deal with the development of a tourist destination, the challenge is to reconcile them. These actors must be involved in the management and implementation of public policy. In this regard there were presented two opposite cases, one of them showed a failure in creation value, where governmental actors have no administrative capacities to reach agreements with the other governmental actors, private and local community. On the other hand, in another region in another part of the planet, it was identified an excellent collaboration between public actors, private associations and the community conducting to a successful tourist performance 3. It was point out as an area of opportunity the necessity of improving coordination among different levels of Government. The lack of coordination has been one of the impediments for improving the performance of tourist destinations. For instance, in a presentation was mentioned that it is not possible that the competencies for cultural resources preservation were in the municipality level and the competencies on natural resources conservation were maintained at the regional level. In this context, it is very difficult to articulate agreements. Tourism needs both natural and cultural resources for its development 4. The Government intervention is essential to facilitate the possibility of economic development of natural resources for tourism purposes. The condition is that this has to be done under the paradigm of sustainable development. The goal of tourism public policies should be done looking for continuous improvement of public services and collaborative engagement of social governance. In many cases it would require administrative innovation creating a new institutional arrangement, in some case the current government structures no longer respond to the new demands of civil society. 5. Public budgets to support of the tourist destinations. The creation of infrastructure financed by Governments is a key element to create value. A good quality infrastructure allows good operational levels of tourist activity. The problem here is the scarcity of resources and the absence of a vision of tourism as a priority among other economic activities. In cases where Governments have identified this vision, tourism has been successful in providing benefits not only for tourism operators but to the communities. 6. Good performance of tourism indicators does not necessarily benefit local communities. This should be taken into consideration in the development plans of the tourist destinations. Sometimes, tourism can be the source of economic deterioration, environmental degradation and social degeneration. Public tourism policies in some cases, no longer lead to poverty alleviation and a reduction in income disparities due to local institutional weakness. It was said to be careful of the apparent success of the tourist destinations. Often the development of tourism has not been translated into social and economic well-being, 7. In the field of marketing, it was pointed that tourist brands create value. It is very significant to have a brand recognized by the market for a tourist destination, this causes a greater flow of tourists. However here it was remarked that an international brand, not necessarily generates greater flow of tourists, sometimes national brands are most powerful and recognized. What is good in the global not necessarily is good in the local. This was commented in particular cases submitted by Japan and Mexico, where marks created in a domestic way have generated greater recognition than international ones, including those granted by Unesco. What is important to note is that governments are becoming more interested in create brands of tourist sites as a way of creating value, these marketing initiatives enhance the value of natural and cultural assets that are the main attractions for moving people. It was clearly concluded that brands could determine consumer choice. 8. Inclusion of local communities. Novel concepts were proposed in this regard as the «including model», “our city”, “including city”, “live international city”, an “eco city”. The main purpose of these initiatives is to improve people´s livelihood Again it was clearly pointed the involvement of local people in tourist planning decisions 9. Tourism allows the economic conversion of some sites. As an example, it was pointed out the case of Mexico city that has change his industrial profile (in the 50´s) into a friendly city for tourists. 18

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Notes indicatives sur les plateformes politiques

Issue papers on Policy Platforms

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mĂŠrida - June 2012

19


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Plate-forme politique sur La gouvernance démocratique pour le développement socio-économique Philosophie « Lien » entre le point de vue scientifique et le point de vue pratique: les praticiens partagent des informations avec les académiques qui reçoivent ces renseignements – discussion sur les données contextuelles. Objectifs Un débat animé par les praticiens utile pour les praticiens et les académiques, présentant les connaissances sur les thématiques du secteur publique relatives à la gouvernance démocratique pour le développement socio-économique et fournissant un large éventail de points de vue pour un débat se voulant contradictoires. Les contributions seront axées autour des questions d’administration publique suivantes (il n’est pas nécessaire de traiter tous les points) :

1. Le rôle de l’administration publique dans le soutien des politiques de développement socio-économique;

2. La synergie de la démocratie et de la bonne gouvernance tout en les identifiant comme ingrédients de base pour le maintien du développement socio-culturel et économique ;

3. Le lien entre la réforme du secteur public et la stratégie nationale de développement durable ;

4. L’efficacité, l’efficience et la qualité du secteur public dans la mise en œuvre des priorités socio-économiques du pays;

5. Quelle est l’importance de la bonne gouvernance pour la croissance économique? La croissance économique peut-elle être durable sans bonne gouvernance? Coresponsabilité des acteurs clés (secteur public, secteur privé, l’Etat, ...) ;

6. Le rôle de l’Etat pour assurer le développement socio-économique et la cohésion sociale ;

7. Les bonnes institutions contribuent à la bonne gouvernance et au développement socio-économique. Comment mettre en place des institutions, un cadre de règles, une réglementation et des incitations qui encadrent les comportements économiques et le processus décisionnel socio-économique ?

8. La gouvernance démocratique vs mesures d’austérité pour rétablir le développement socio-économique après une période de crise

Débat animé par le président: organiser un débat autour des questions principales telles que :

1. Quel est le rôle de l’administration publique pour assurer le développement socio-économique et la cohésion sociale ?

2. Comment développer un leadership approprié pour gérer ces défis?

3. Changements de politique et de développement des capacités pour une gouvernance appropriée à mettre en œuvre la stratégie nationale de développement socio-économique.

Policy Platform on Democratic Governance for Socio Economic Development Philosophy « Bridge » between the scientific point of view and the Practitioner point of view: Practitioner sharing information and Academics receiving information – context debate Objectives Practitioner’s debate useful for Practitioners and Academics, presenting knowledge of public administration issues on the topic of Democratic Governance for Socio Economic Development by providing a range of points of view in a contradictory debate. Possible Public Administration Issues to be covered (there is no need to address all the matters):

20

1. The role of Public Administration in supporting socio economic development policies;

2. The synergy of democracy and good governance while identifying them as basic ingredients for maintaining sociocultural and economic development;

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

3. The link between the public sector reform and national strategy for sustainable development;

4. The effectiveness, efficiency and the quality of the public sector in implementing the socio economic priorities of the country;

5. How important is good governance for economic growth? Can economic growth be sustainable without good governance? Co-responsibility of the key actors (public sector, private sector, the State, …)

6. The role of State for ensuring socio economic development and social cohesion;

7. Good institutions contribute to good governance and socio economic development. How to establish the institutions, the framework of rules, regulation and incentives that constrain economic behaviours and socio economic decision making process?

8. Democratic governance vs. austerity measures for restoring socio economic development after a period of crisis.

Debate animated by the Chair: Organise a debate around key questions related to the fields:

1. What is the role of Public Administration for ensuring socio economic development and social cohesion?

2. How to develop an appropriate leadership to manage these challenges?

3. Policy changes and capacities development for an appropriate governance to implement the national strategy for socio economic development.

Plate-forme politique sur L’e-gouvernement comme un instrument pour renforcer la confiance Philosophie « Lien » entre le point de vue scientifique et le point de vue pratique: les praticiens partagent des informations avec les académiques qui reçoivent ces renseignements – discussion sur les données contextuelles Objectifs Un débat animé par les praticiens utile pour les praticiens et les académiques, présentant les connaissances sur les thématiques du secteur publique relatives à L’e-gouvernement comme un instrument pour renforcer la confiance et fournissant un large éventail de points de vue pour un débat se voulant contradictoires. Les contributions seront axées autour des questions d’administration publique suivantes (il n’est pas nécessaire de traiter tous les points) :

1. L’e-gouvernement est-il un instrument pour moderniser l’administration publique et ses relations extérieures ?

2. L’e-gouvernement renforce-t-il la confiance des citoyens dans l’administration publique et le secteur public ?

3. Les gouvernements entrent-ils dans les mécanismes de cyber-confiance? A quoi pourraient-ils ressembler dans le cyber espace?

4. Quelles sont les relations entre e-gouvernement, transparence, confiance et responsabilisation

5. Comment la confiance peut-elle être renforcée par l’utilisation de nouveaux développements en matière de TIC ?

6. Les développements en matière d’e-gouvernement, politiques de cohésion socio-économique et sociale questionnent le rôle de l’Etat dans la coordination des politiques publiques

7. La route vers le développement socio-économique doit-elle passer à travers la réforme et l’informatisation du secteur public? Comment les programmes d’administration électronique peuvent soutenir la politique de développement économique?

8. Les investissements dans les TIC et dans les mécanismes de l’e-gouvernement en période d’austérité ?

Débat animé par le président: organiser un débat autour des questions principales telles que :

1. Quelle pourrait être la stratégie de renforcement de la confiance avec les outils des TIC?

2. Comment mieux coordonner les réformes en matière d’e-gouvernement et le développement socioéconomique?

3. Quels sont les changements de politique et de développement des capacités nécessaires pour la mise en œuvre des réformes en matière d’e-gouvernement en tenant compte de la stratégie socio-économique?

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

21


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Policy Platform on E-Government Instrument to Strengthen Trust Philosophy « Bridge » between the scientific point of view and the Practitioner point of view: Practitioner sharing information and Academics receiving information – context debate Objectives Practitioner’s debate useful for Practitioners and Academics, presenting knowledge of public administration issues on the topic of E-Government Instrument to Strengthen Trust by providing a range of points of view in a contradictory debate. Possible Public Administration Issues to be covered (there is no need to address all the matters):

1. Is E-government an instrument to modernise Public Administration and its external relations?

2. Does E-government reinforce trust of citizens in public administration and public sector?

3. Do Governments enter in cyber trust mechanisms? How could they look like in the cyber space?

4. What are the relations between E-Government, Transparency, Trust and Accountability

5. How trust can be reinforced by using new ICT developments?

6. E-government developments, socio economic and social cohesion policies question the role of the State in coordinating public policies

7. Does the route to socio-economic development pass through the reform and informatization of the public sector? How e-government programs can support the economic development policy?

8. Investments in ICT and E-Government mechanisms in period of austerity?

Debate animated by the Chair: Organise a debate around key questions related to the fields:

1. What could be the strategy for strengthening trust with ICT tools?

2. How to better coordinate E-government reforms and Socio Economic development?

3. What are the policy changes and capacities development needed for implementing E-government reforms taking into account the socio economic strategy?

Plate-forme politique sur La valeur publique, le cas du tourisme Philosophie « Lien » entre le point de vue scientifique et le point de vue pratique: les praticiens partagent des informations avec les académiques qui reçoivent ces renseignements – discussion sur les données contextuelles Objectifs Un débat animé par les praticiens utile pour les praticiens et les académiques, présentant les connaissances sur les thématiques du secteur publique relatives à la valeur publique, le cas du tourisme et fournissant un large éventail de points de vue pour un débat se voulant contradictoires. Les contributions seront axées autour des questions d’administration publique suivantes (il n’est pas nécessaire de traiter tous les points) :

22

1. Comment créer de la valeur publique ?

2. Quel est le rôle du secteur public dans la mise en œuvre des politiques publiques qui offrent une valeur publique ?

3. Définition des objectifs de services publics vs définition de la valeur publique

4. Donner un sens de la valeur publique dans le cadre de la politique du tourisme?

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

5. La politique du tourisme et de développement socio-économique: revisiter la définition de la valeur publique

6. Comment la politique du tourisme contribue à la cohésion sociale ?

7. Les politiques touristiques dans le contexte de crise économique - les défis à relever

8. La politique touristique et les autres politiques sectorielles (politique environnementale, politique des transports,…) : créer une valeur publique commune?

Débat animé par le président: organiser un débat autour des questions principales telles que:

1. Comment créer de la valeur publique ?

2. Quel est le rôle du secteur public dans la définition de la valeur publique ?

3. Quels sont les principaux défis pour les gestionnaires publics dans la prise en compte des impacts de la crise économique sur le secteur du tourisme - la redéfinition de la valeur publique en temps de crise ?

Policy Platform on Public Value, the Case of Tourism Philosophy « Bridge » between the Scientific point of view and the Practitioner point of view : Practitioner sharing information and Academics receiving information – context debate Objectives Practitioner’s debate useful for Practitioners and Academics, presenting knowledge of public administration issues on the topic of Public Value, the case of tourism by providing a range of points of view in a contradictory debate. Possible Public Administration Issues to be covered (there is no need to address all the matters):

1. How to create Public Value?

2. What is the role of public sector in implementing public policies which deliver public value?

3. Definition of the objectives of public services vs. definition of public value

4. Making sense of public value in the context of tourism policy?

5. Tourism policy and socio economic development: revisiting public value definition

6. How tourism policy contributes to social cohesion?

7. Tourism policies in the context of economic crisis – challenges to be faced

8. Tourism policy and the other sectorial policies (environmental policy, transportation policy,…) : creating common public value?

Debate animated by the Chair: Organise a debate around key questions related to the fields:

1. How to create public value?

2. What is the role of the public sector for the definition of public value?

3. What are the main challenges for public managers for taking into account the impacts of the economic crisis on the tourism sector – redefinition of public value in crisis times?

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

23


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Conférence Braibant

Braibant Lecture

24

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

discours présenté lors de la conférence braibant Par bernardo kliksberg Chers amis, c’est pour moi un très grand plaisir d’être au Mexique et de me trouver à Mérida, à l’occasion d’une rencontre entre deux institutions qui sont un modèle de lutte en faveur de certaines des causes les plus emblématiques du monde, à savoir l’Institut international de sciences administratives qui réunit une majeure partie des pays du monde pour défendre l’idée d’une réflexion sérieuse et profonde, à partir d’angles divers, sur l’État en tant qu’acteur absolument central de l’histoire contemporaine, et l’Institut d’administration publique du Mexique, l’INAP, une des institutions les plus appréciées par tous les latino-américains qui, par sa trajectoire historique, son éminence et son haut niveau de qualité, d’impact et de contribution, constitue l’hôte idéal pour accueillir une réflexion profonde en ce moment historique dans le cadre du partenariat entre les deux institutions. C’est également une très grande satisfaction personnelle de rencontrer de très chers amis mexicains et d’autres pays, que je vais me permettre de mentionner très rapidement et avec lesquels nous collaborons depuis de nombreuses années, notamment dans certaines des instances les plus importantes du Mexique et d’Amérique latine pour promouvoir un débat profond sur l’État et envisager des applications pratiques. Permettez-moi de nommer Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza, ancien président de l’Institut international dont le concours nous a été extrêmement précieux, Alejandro Carrillo Castro qui a consacré tous ses efforts à l’administration publique, mon très cher ami Natividad González Parás, ancien gouverneur et fervent défenseur de ces causes et Carlos Almada, très cher collègue et ancien Secrétaire général de l’Institut international des sciences administratives. La liste est trop longue pour être énumérée ici, mais je ne peux passer sous silence certains amis provenant d’autres pays, tels que Bianor Cavalcanti, infatigable créateur d’institutions, qui vient de mettre en place un centre très important sur l’innovation dans les politiques publiques qui aura très certainement une très grande répercussion en Amérique latine, et mes collègues de longue date José Sulbrandt et Nuria Punilto, qui sont parmi les meilleurs chercheurs de la région en matière d’administration publique. Je me réjouis également de la présence de tous les participants à ce congrès transcendantal qui réunit plus de 800 participants de 65 pays de toute l’Amérique latine, de l’ensemble du continent, dont mon pays, l’Argentine, d’un extrême à l’autre du continent. Ce moment est, à mon sens, très important particulièrement propice à une réflexion qui émane de la conjoncture, de la seule conjoncture qui va un peu plus loin que le moyen et le long terme sur la planète, un moment où il serait bon d’évoquer certaines des voix les plus éminentes de la pensée mondiale, et notamment, par exemple, Maïmonide qui, il y a 1000 ans, a écrit le Guide des Perplexes. Un guide pour perplexes est plus que jamais nécessaire aujourd’hui car le monde est plongé dans une perplexité phénoménale. Nous assistons actuellement à trois types d’évolution totalement contradictoires, contexte dans lequel une recomposition de la réalité devient très difficile. D’une part, nous assistons à un développement absolument prometteur, positif pour le genre humain dans les divers aspects des révolutions scientifiques et technologiques sans précédent auxquelles nous participons, des ruptures épistémologiques, des changements de paradigme, dans un large éventail de domaines tout à fait essentiels, dont beaucoup sont absolument nouveaux. Ces domaines sont la robotique, l’informatique, les sciences des matériaux, les communications, la génétique, la biologie sous toutes ses manifestations, la chimie organique. Les journaux du monde entier annonçaient hier que la nanotechnologie était en mesure de conduire, à court terme, à de nouvelles thérapies pour lutter contre le cancer et d’en rendre certaines beaucoup plus efficaces. C’est mon père, récemment décédé à l’âge de100 ans, qui m’a enseigné la nanotechnologie et qui s’en montrait très soucieux; en effet, il considérait que la nanotechnologie est infinie, c’est-à-dire que la possibilité de réduire est infinie et l’effectivité de certaines inventions dans ce domaine de pointe est très prometteuse pour le genre humain. Nous vivons dans un monde qui a radicalement changé en 10 ans, en particulier dans la façon de se communiquer, de produire des biens, de créer des services, ainsi que dans les possibilités d’intégration du savoir. Nous disposons, par exemple, des plus grandes bibliothèques qui n’aient jamais été disponibles à aucun être humain dans toute l’histoire du genre humain, de la bibliothèque de Google à Wikipedia consultée chaque jour par 400 millions de personnes. Celle-ci vient de célébrer ses 10 ans, et est une organisation sans but lucratif qui n’est cotisée sur aucun marché boursier, etc. The Economist l’a qualifiée de donation majeure dans l’histoire du genre humain, car elle donne accès au savoir à tout le genre humain grâce à l’effort de plus de 100.000 bénévoles actuellement. Tout ceci est absolument positif et prometteur et doit être soutenu par tous les moyens possible ; certaines personnalités mexicaines, amis très chers, ont apporté d’importantes contributions depuis leurs hautes fonctions gouvernementales, telles que l’apport de Natividad González Parás à la recherche scientifique et technologique pour le progrès du Mexique, en sa qualité de gouverneur de l’État de Nuevo León. 2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

25


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Le développement que nous venons d’évoquer se heurte toutefois à deux types de tendances tout à fait contradictoires. Selon une vision plus naïve de la science et de la technologie, le seul fait de produire des inventions scientifiques et technologiques à un taux d’innovation sans précédent dans l’histoire du genre humain va suffire à modifier la réalité de la vie des gens et à l’améliorer, du moins en partie. Mais la planète entière est aujourd’hui confrontée à des écarts sociaux d’une ampleur effarante. Selon les estimations de l’Unicef, en ce moment même où nous sommes réunis, et tout au long de notre conférence, cinq enfants meurent chaque minute de dénutrition, et la semaine dernière, toujours selon l’Unicef, 10 000 enfants sont morts chaque jour par manque d’aliments et d’eau potable; ce sont des morts absolument évitables et ce sont quatre millions de vies d’enfants par an. Ceci entre totalement en contradiction avec les avancées extraordinaires en matière de production d’aliments et de développement dans de nombreux domaines technologiques appliqués qui concernent précisément la préservation de la santé, la diminution de la mortalité infantile et de la mortalité maternelle. Une troisième évolution totalement contradictoire est le fait qu’en ce moment même, 130 présidents des pays du monde entier sont réunis à Rio de Janeiro à l’occasion du sommet Rio+20 et sont confrontés à des informations absolument alarmantes selon lesquelles la cinquième partie des coraux de la planète ont subi des dommages irréversibles, ainsi qu’à d’autres constats catastrophiques de destruction écologique. Le moment est donc à la perplexité totale: le constat est, en effet, d’un succès absolu en matière de développement scientifique et technologique qui nous rend capable d’extraire le maximum de cette nature aux secrets infinis que la divinité nous a confiée et, d’autre part, d’une incapacité profonde de mettre ces progrès au service de l’amélioration du bien-être d’une partie importante du genre humain et de modifier radicalement le rapport déprédateur de nombreuses économies vis-à-vis de la nature. Mon ami, le philosophe Edgar Morin, a essayé de synthétiser cette situation et m’a fait l’honneur d’écrire le prologue de certains de mes livres; un des esprits les plus brillants de la planète, directeur émérite de l’institut national de recherche scientifique de France, Morin a tenté de condenser cette situation dans une métaphore. Selon Morin, le monde actuel est un astre errant, un astre qui évolue dans l’univers chargé d’instruments de luxe, d’une quantité croissante d’instruments de luxe très sophistiqués, de grandes avancées scientifiques et technologiques, mais qui est néanmoins à la dérive, dit-il, en raison de problèmes de gouvernail, car c’est l’éthique qui doit être à la barre et c’est précisément dans ce domaine que se présentent les plus grandes carences. C’est précisément ces carences que j’ai humblement essayé d’aborder dans mes 52 livres qui cherchent tous à parvenir à une vision partant de l’appréhension de la réalité, en y ajoutant cette lecture éthique fondamentale. Pour Morin, le monde est une sorte de Titanic, de luxe, doté de tous les conforts, de toutes les possibilités, mais qui connaît des problèmes de gouvernail, car c’est l’éthique qui devrait le conduire à bon port et c’est là que se présentent de profondes fissures. Dans cet exposé, je vais aborder cinq points essentiels. Je vais d’abord tenter d’illustrer ce que j’appelle le fossé social, qui est l’un des grands enjeux sociaux auxquels le genre humain est aujourd’hui confronté. Je vais me centrer sur sept droits qui devraient être garantis et ne le sont pas pour le genre humain, bien qu’il existe toutes sortes de possibilités de développement scientifique et technologique pour les garantir de façon solide, alors que ce n’est pas le cas. En ce moment même, une des propositions centrales de la conférence de Rio+20, parallèlement à notre réunion, est de considérer l’accès à l’eau et à l’assainissement comme des droits humains. Il ne s’agit pas seulement de les considérer comme des droits économiques, qui peuvent exister ou non, mais comme des droits humains inviolables, tout comme les droits politiques à la liberté, conquis après des années de lutte dans l’histoire. En premier lieu, je souhaite aborder sept droits qui ne sont pas garantis et qui devraient pourtant l’être. En deuxième lieu, je vais aborder certains mythes sur l’État. En effet, l’État et les politiques publiques sont des acteurs clés de la garantie desdits droits. En réalité, le seul acteur historique pouvant garantir solidement et de façon pérenne ces droits est l’État, conjugué à la responsabilité sociale des entreprises privées et à une société civile civile mobilisée travaillant de concert avec les universités. L’État est cependant un et plusieurs, l’État est un acteur absolument central. Je souhaite décrire quatre mythes actuellement sous-jacents au débat sur l’État et qui ont des répercussions très pratiques, étant au cœur du débat entre austérité et relance, un débat qui se déploie sous nos yeux et qui a fait partie intégrante du programme du G20 au Mexique au cours des derniers jours. En troisième lieu, j’aborderai la réforme de l’État du XXIe siècle, c’est-à-dire, une réforme de l’État après avoir surmonté quelque peu certains des mythes qui l’entourent, c’est la voie la plus évidente pour réfléchir de manière créative et en faisant preuve d’imagination, c’est l’axe de ce congrès si important à savoir comment faire renaître un État adapté au monde actuel et à ces trois contradictions centrales résultant de la coexistence entre des possibilités technologiques phénoménales et de même, une dette sociale énorme et un danger de déséquilibres radicaux dans les rapports des économies à l’écologie.

26

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

En quatrième lieu, je souhaite m’intéresser à l’avenir, tel que présenté sur les scénarios économiques actuels et enfin revenir sur mon point de départ, l’éthique, en évoquant des principes de sagesse spirituelle susceptibles de pouvoir guider le genre humain en ce moment. Ce programme pourrait s’étendre sur un semestre académique, vous jouez ici un rôle extrêmement utile et nous apprenons tous de ce congrès, aussi, j’essaierai de proposer un cadre différent, selon une logique bien différente de la logique conventionnelle. Je vais provoquer, renverser la logique sur la manière de penser certains de ces problèmes clés. Si vous êtes intéressés aux deux livres récents cités, vous trouverez dans mes propos davantage d’informations, il me semble qu’il y a quelques exemples de scandales éthiques, c’est un livre à succès international, traduit dans plusieurs langues, c’est mon livre le plus récent et vous pouvez le trouver sur Internet et ce livre a été écrit conjointement avec Amartya Sen. Vous trouverez davantage de détails sur les réflexions que je vais présenter à présent. En premier lieu, je souhaite présenter les droits qui ne sont pas garantis. Bien qu’heureusement, on observe actuellement une consolidation croissante des droits politiques des êtres humains, des droits à vivre en démocratie, au moins sept droits ne sont aucunement garantis bien qu’ils soient complètement fondamentaux. Le premier est le droit à l’alimentation: une nutrition adéquate est essentielle, et sa privation est la plus grave que l’on peut infliger aux êtres humains. D’après les données les plus récentes de la FAO, 25 millions de personnes dans le monde pâtissent de la faim. Une grande partie de ces personnes sont des enfants qui ne consomment pas les nutriments de base nécessaires. Les 1000 premiers jours de vie d’un enfant sont décisifs et si dans ce laps de temps, cet enfant ne dispose pas des nutriments de base, cette carence alimentaire aura des conséquences très graves. Par exemple, comme l’a prouvé l’UNICEF, les connexions internes neuronales dans son cerveau ne se formeront pas correctement et il souffrira de graves retards qui marqueront le reste de sa vie d’un handicap important. Sa structure osseuse ne se formera pas convenablement et il souffrira de rachitisme et d’autres maladies très affaiblissantes. Les dernières estimations montrent que les enfants dénutris passent 160 jours sur 365 jours malades et que chaque année, 4 millions d’enfants meurent pour avoir été privés des nutriments fondamentaux. Savez-vous quel serait le coût de donner chaque jour à chaque enfant une tasse contenant les six micronutriments indispensables? 0,25 centime de dollars exactement. Pourtant, l’humanité dépense un milliard et demi de dollars par seconde en armes. La comparaison est frappante avec la situation de famine à grande échelle. Malgré des améliorations sur plusieurs points, les avancées enregistrées sont loin d’être à la hauteur des besoins. Dans mes travaux, je qualifie souvent ce phénomène de « faim inexplicable », car entre autres facteurs, au cours des trente dernières années, la population mondiale a augmenté de 70 %, argument souvent invoqué, mais la disponibilité de calories – c’est-à-dire la production de calories et leur disponibilité par habitant – n’a augmenté que de 17 %. Si l’on distribuait équitablement toutes les calories disponibles sur la planète aux 7 milliards d’habitants qui la peuplent, chaque habitant aurait droit à 2 800 calories, soit plus que l’apport minimum en calories par jour estimé à 2 500 calories par jour et par personne. Il est possible de nourrir toute la planète, il n’y a pas d’excuses pour affirmer le contraire: les théories malthusiennes poussiéreuses sur la croissance de la population ne peuvent plus être invoquées. La science et la technologie sont allées beaucoup plus vite. L’excuse de la disponibilité des aliments ne peut non plus être avancée. À l’image de ce livre très connu et cité dans les débats publics « Qui a piqué mon fromage ?», on pourrait demander « Qui a piqué mes calories ? ». En effet, si les calories étaient raisonnablement distribuées, l’accès aux aliments ne serait pas la cause principale de privation alimentaire. La production alimentaire doit se voir accorder une place de premier plan. Aujourd’hui, les avancées technologiques et les connaissances scientifiques nous ouvrent des possibilités inédites de produire hors-saison et de battre des records de productivité dans de nombreux secteurs de l’agroalimentaire. Néanmoins se pose le problème de l’accès aux aliments. D’après les calculs de la Banque mondiale, 1 345 000 000 de personnes gagnent moins de 1,25 dollar par jour et n’ont donc pas accès à une alimentation de base. Ces personnes vivent dans l’extrême pauvreté ou dans l’indigence. Il en découle qu’elles n’ont pas accès aux aliments, ce qui est très bien décrit dans un article du New York Times, paru il y a quelques jours et portant sur la situation au Congo qui pourrait aussi bien être la toile de fond d’un autre pays. D’après le New York Times, les Congolais appellent cette privation alimentaire des « coupures d’électricité » – délestage en Afrique francophone. Interviewée, la famille Berbok explique que ce jour-là, les deux aînés mangeront, tandis que le lendemain, ce sera au tour des trois cadets. Les « coupures d’électricité » évoquent l’interruption de l’apport de calories et de protéines, rationnées au maximum dans la famille. (...)

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

27


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

« Bien sûr, ils vont se plaindre et le soir, ceux qui n’ont pas mangé seront très faibles », souligne cette mère qui ne peut pas faire autrement. Le père, agent de police, ne gagne que 50 dollars par mois, ce qui ne suffit pas pour acheter un panier alimentaire de base. Dieudonné Nsala, père de cinq enfants, a également été interviewé. Il travaille comme administrateur au ministère de l’Éducation et gagne 60 dollars par mois. Son loyer seul coûte 120 dollars par mois. Il explique que souvent, deux jours par semaine, ses enfants ne mangent pas du tout. D’après l’article du New York Times, la moitié de la population congolaise ne mange qu’une seule fois par jour et un quart des Congolais ne mange qu’un jour sur deux. Cet accès insuffisant aux aliments est causé, entre autres facteurs, par l’exclusion des personnes vivant en situation de pauvreté absolue et la spéculation sauvage qui sévit actuellement sur le marché alimentaire. Ceci a entraîné une hausse considérable du prix des aliments, dès lors moins accessibles pour la population aux revenus les plus bas. Certains des aliments les plus importants sont de moins en moins accessibles. Une étude de l’UNCTAD révèle que, sur les marchés à terme de denrées alimentaires, seuls 2 % des contrats se concrétisent. 98 % relèvent de paris sur l’avenir, c’est-à-dire de spéculations sur le marché qui provoquent une forte inflation. Le rapporteur spécial des Nations Unies pour le droit à l’alimentation, Olivier de Schutter, a beaucoup insisté sur ce point. Le magazine Der Spiegel, une publication européenne phare, souligne dans un article récent que la bourse de Chicago est la principale bourse d’aliments de la planète. « C’est dans la salle des négociations de la principale bourse de matières premières du monde que l’on décide de l’avenir des prix des aliments et par la même occasion, de la destinée de millions de personnes. La faim de la planète est gérée, tout comme la richesse de certains, de cette enceinte. » C’est un problème d’éthique. Morín observe qu’il n’y a pas de gouvernail conduit par l’éthique. Plus il y aura de production, le mieux ce sera, mais un problème fondamental demeure: l’accès. Amartya Sen a remporté le prix Nobel, entre autres, pour avoir été le premier à aborder cette question en 1980 dans un ouvrage intitulé Pauvreté et famines. Il a démontré, en se penchant sur plus d’un siècle d’histoire, que la famine n’est pas forcément causée par des problèmes de production, mais qu’elle est surtout liée à l’accès aux aliments. Il a avancé une hypothèse centrale pour le congrès qui nous réunit: dans une société où la démocratie est solide, où il existe des médias indépendants, une société civile organisée, de véritables partis politiques, etc., il n’y a pas de famines, car dans ce cadre de pressions sociales et de contrôle social, les politiques publiques ne pourraient assumer le coût politique énorme d’une famine dans une société démocratique active. Ainsi, plus il y aura de démocratie et de vie démocratique dans une société, moins ses citoyens souffriront de la faim. Tant qu’elle persistera, comme d’autres maux de la pauvreté dont je parle dans mes livres, la faim provoquera des dommages irréversibles. Certains dommages sociaux sont réversibles, par exemple, on peut alphabétiser des personnes adultes. Il n’en va pas de même pour la faim qui, tout comme d’autres problèmes que je vais aborder à présent, produit des dégâts indélébiles. Tout d’abord, le droit à l’alimentation n’est pas garanti. Un prêtre et penseur brésilien, Frabeto, très respecté et connu, a expliqué cela très clairement: Dieu a construit un monde où toutes les espèces voyaient leur survie garantie par des circuits alimentaires assurant leur reproduction. La seule espèce n’ayant pas réussi à garantir ces circuits alimentaires pour une part importante de la planète – un habitant sur sept –, est le genre humain. Le droit à l’alimentation n’est pas garanti, aussi insolite et étonnant que cela puisse paraître. Deuxièmement, le droit à certaines circonstances essentielles pour la vie, les « déterminants sociaux » de la santé, n’est pas garanti. J’ai fait partie des sept personnalités désignées par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé pour orienter et conduire le Congrès mondial sur les déterminants sociaux de la santé, tenu il y a quelques mois au Brésil et auquel ont participé plus de 160 pays. Nous sommes arrivés à la conclusion que 80 % des maladies sont causées par le manque de déterminants sociaux et pourraient être évitées. Le 20 % restant correspond aux maladies qui doivent être prises en charge par le système hospitalier et médical, mais 80% résulte de l’absence de certains déterminants sociaux. L’eau est en tête de ces déterminants: dans le monde, 900 millions de personnes sur cette planète n’ont pas accès à l’eau potable. Je viens d’échanger quelques mots avec mon cher ami Ignacio Pichardo qui réalise des travaux très importants sur les forêts et l’eau, thèmes sur lesquels il a concentré son parcours professionnel très fécond. Comme dans beaucoup de régions du monde, au Mexique, l’eau est un problème très important. La manière dont nous avons géré l’eau jusqu’à présent a entrainé des déséquilibres dans beaucoup de régions du globe, un déficit qui touche 900 millions de personnes. La moitié des lits des hôpitaux du monde sont occupés par des personnes qui ont bu de l’eau polluée. Comme on ne peut vivre sans boire de l’eau, souvent, les enfants boivent de l’eau souillée sur le chemin parfois très long qu’ils empruntent pour se rendre à l’école, dans des villages qui se consacrent à la petite agriculture et dans beaucoup de zones pauvres. Cette consommation est absolument fatale, notamment chez les enfants particulièrement touchés par les maladies gastro-intestinales et la diarrhée infantile, principale meurtrière des enfants en bas âge. 28

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Bien que le droit à l’eau ne soit pas garanti, on peut applaudir des avancées technologiques non négligeables, notamment à Jérusalem où j’étais la semaine dernière. L’Université hébraïque de Jérusalem, fondée par Albert Einstein, a reçu, malgré sa petite taille, cinq prix Nobel au cours des dernières années. Par ses travaux, cette université a énormément contribué à la baisse du coût de désalinisation de l’eau moyennant des méthodes très perfectionnées. Au Japon et dans d’autres pays, on emploie actuellement des méthodes très avancées pour filtrer tout à fait efficacement l’eau contaminée. Aujourd’hui, 2,4 milliards de personnes n’ont pas accès au chauffage et sont ainsi très exposées aux déséquilibres climatiques et aux hivers très rudes. 1,5 milliard de personnes vit actuellement sans électricité. Toute la population du Sahara africain, soit plus de 700 millions de personnes, consomme l’équivalent de l’énergie électrique mise à disposition des 30 millions d’habitants de l’État de New York. Près de 3 milliards de personnes ne disposent pas d’installations sanitaires. Eau, installations sanitaires, chauffage, électricité: ces quatre facteurs sont, entre autres, des déterminants sociaux de la santé. Il est invraisemblable que pour la première fois dans l’histoire de l’humanité, un congrès comme Rio+20 souhaite faire de l’eau et des installations sanitaires des droits humains, à internaliser dans chaque législation comme obligations de tout État démocratique: garantir à sa population ces deux facteurs absolument fondamentaux. Le troisième droit non garanti est le droit à l’éducation. Même si l’on peut se réjouir des progrès considérables dans les divers aspects que j’ai mentionnés, les écarts restent très creusés et on est encore loin de répondre aux besoins. Je parle notamment de la situation en Amérique latine. En Amérique latine, des progrès considérables ont été accomplis: plus de 96 % des enfants sont scolarisés en enseignement primaire. La scolarisation est donc presque universelle. Il n’en va pas de même pour le cycle secondaire: seuls 50 % des adolescents sont scolarisés jusqu’au terme du cycle secondaire, soit un enfant sur deux. Cette proportion est encore plus faible dans le quintile le plus pauvre de la population, où un jeune sur trois seulement termine le cycle secondaire. L’éducation est décisive pour les individus, leurs familles et pour les peuples, surtout au XXIe siècle où les connaissances, la capacité de les gérer, la capacité de créer des technologies, les transférer et les adopter vont avoir une importante croissante. Pourtant, 50 % de la population n’a pas le diplôme le plus élémentaire: celui d’avoir été au bout de sa scolarité secondaire. La CEPALC a démontré dans ses analyses qu’un individu scolarisé pendant moins de 12 ans est condamné à la pauvreté et ne pourra sortir de ce que j’appelle dans mes travaux un « piège de pauvreté ». C’est la situation de milliers de jeunes en Amérique latine qui dès l’enfance, sont obligés à travailler à cause de la situation économique difficile de leur famille. D’après l’OIT, 14 millions d’enfants âgés de moins de 14 ans travaillent en Amérique latine. Ce contexte les empêche de terminer leur enseignement primaire ou secondaire, et s’ils ne complètent pas leur cycle secondaire, ils ne peuvent pas avoir un emploi adéquat et se faire une place sur le marché du travail. Les entreprises, tout comme les organismes publics, sont de plus en plus exigeantes – et ont raison de l’être– en termes de formation, car il faut être préparé pour gérer les nouvelles technologies. En l’absence de politiques publiques qui garantissent le droit à terminer l’école secondaire, ces jeunes resteront totalement marginalisés du système. Parmi ces politiques, on peut citer la Bolsa escola au Brésil, devenue Bolsa familia. Ce programme, devenu une référence internationale, prévoit d’allouer aux familles ce que les enfants gagnaient en travaillant et en étant exploités, afin qu’ils aillent à l’école, ce que la famille doit s’engager à faire moyennant contrat. Le nouveau programme argentin Asignación Universal est une initiative présidentielle concernant 4 millions d’enfants pauvres dans le pays. Le programme reconnait concrètement le droit à la scolarité, en s’associant aux familles pour s’assurer que les enfants restent dans le système scolaire et finissent leur scolarité. On peut citer d’autres références très parlantes dans d’autres pays de la région et du monde. Néanmoins, au XXIe siècle, le droit à l’éducation n’est ni un luxe, ni une option: sans éducation, il n’y a pas d’avenir. Les revenus et les possibilités d’accès au marché du travail des individus sont déterminés par leur niveau de formation, ce qui a été prouvé par des calculs économétriques. Certains pays extrêmement avancés ont fondé tout leur développement sur une politique publique forte, par une politique d’État en matière d’éducation, de santé, de recherche scientifique et technologique. C’est le cas de la Finlande. La Finlande est toujours en tête du classement PISA, alors que ce pays n’a pas de ressources naturelles importantes ou de matières premières stratégiques. Il y a 40 ans, les Finlandais émigraient vers d’autres pays d’Europe, comme l’Italie, pour survivre. La donne a changé et la Finlande est désormais en tête dans bien des domaines technologiques, notamment la téléphonie mobile, son activité la plus importante: chaque année, les exportations finlandaises de téléphones portables se montent à 45 milliards de dollars.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

29


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

La Finlande a surtout investi en éducation de qualité, en protection de santé universelle et en recherche scientifique et technologique. L’éducation doit impérativement être considérée comme un droit à garantir au XXIe siècle. En quatrième lieu, le droit au travail, et notamment à un travail décent, est loin d’être garanti dans la pratique. Le dernier rapport de l’OIT publié il y a quelques jours sur l’état du travail dans le monde en 2012 est très inquiétant. La crise de 2008-2009 a fait disparaître 50 millions d’emplois. 80 millions de personnes sont entrées sur le marché du travail et près de 200 millions de personnes sont au chômage, un chiffre record depuis que l’OIT mesure le niveau de chômage. Une analyse rapide nous montre que dans la zone euro, le taux de chômage est en moyenne de 10,8 %, soit 25 millions de chômeurs. Aux États-Unis, il y a eu des avancées, quoique fluctuantes et peu significatives. Dans ce pays, le taux de chômage de 8,1 %, contre 4,9 % fin 2007. Le taux de chômage a donc pratiquement doublé en cinq ans. Le chômage des jeunes est devenu l’une des bombes à retardement les plus dangereuses de notre temps. Dans certains pays – non seulement dans les pays les moins avancés, mais aussi dans les pays développés–, le droit des jeunes à un premier emploi est entièrement mis en question. Depuis 2010, le chômage des jeunes européens a augmenté de deux tiers, d’après un rapport de l’OIT. Le chômage des jeunes atteint comme vous savez des niveaux frappants, notamment en Espagne où 50 % des jeunes et 24 % de la population active dans son ensemble sont au chômage. En Grèce, on observe la même proportion, 50 % des jeunes sont au chômage et dans presque toutes les économies développées, le taux de chômage des jeunes dépasse 20 à 30 %. La Grèce double donc le taux de chômage déjà extrêmement élevé des autres pays. En descendant démocratiquement dans la rue, les jeunes de nombreux pays protestent contre une situation qui a des effets dévastateurs. En effet, l’emploi n’équivaut pas uniquement à des revenus: pour les jeunes, avoir un emploi, c’est aussi avoir leur place dans le monde, une place où apprendre, développer son potentiel et sociabiliser, construire des réseaux d’amitié et de vie. Les priver de cela, les mettre à l’écart, c’est créer une bombe à retardement. Une dirigeante du mouvement des indignés en Espagne disait il y a quelques jours: nous sommes très en colère contre les dirigeants politiques, toutes fractions confondues, car ils nous ont abandonnés, nous avons le sentiment que nul ne se soucie du droit à l’insertion, pourtant fondamental. Cette négligence se paye au prix fort, notamment en Amérique latine. Dans cette région, 20 % des jeunes sont en marge du travail et en marge du système d’enseignement. La presse a baptisé ces jeunes « Ninis », car ils ne sont ni sur le marché du travail ni dans le système d’enseignement. Tout au long de ma trajectoire – certains me qualifient de « destructeur de disques durs »–, j’ai attaqué les discours conventionnels sur l’État et sur d’autres aspects de la réalité. Ce surnom « ninis » est une honte. Que veut-on dire par là? Dire que ces jeunes ne sont ni ici, ni là, revient à dire qu’ils ont fait ce choix, alors qu’ils n’ont rien choisi du tout. Ces jeunes ont été jetés dans le fossé, les taux de chômage et de désertion scolaire en témoignent. Le prêtre brésilien qui travaille dans les favelas avec les enfants de la rue s’indigne aussi contre les appellations « enfants en situation de risque », « Ninis ». Pour lui, ce sont des enfants rejetés de la société, qui ne sont accueillis nulle part et qui n’ont de possibilités nulle part. Nous en venons à la politique publique, car par une politique publique ferme, on peut véritablement changer la donne et garantir le droit à un premier emploi. D’ailleurs, l’un des premiers programmes lancés par le président brésilien Lula s’intitulait « Premier emploi ». Le programme Chile joven est une alliance entre l’État et les entreprises privées au Chili qui encouragent ces dernières à engager pendant un certain temps des jeunes exclus, pour les former. Ce programme a eu d’excellents résultats: 80 % des jeunes ont ensuite été engagés par les sociétés et ce programme a été imité dans d’autres pays. Voilà donc pour le quatrième droit, le droit au travail. Le cinquième droit est le droit à ne pas être victime de discrimination sexuelle. Le droit des femmes d’avoir réellement les mêmes possibilités que les hommes. Des progrès indéniables ont été accomplis, mais on ne peut ignorer les énormes écarts qui subsistent. Les femmes sont entrées massivement sur le marché du travail, ce qui représente une avancée fondamentale. Aujourd’hui, les femmes dépassent les hommes en niveau de formation, en moyenne elles sont scolarisées plus longtemps, et ce, dans de nombreux pays du monde. Pourtant, sur le marché du travail, leur salaire est 30 % inférieur à celui des hommes à responsabilités égales, elles sont victimes de graves discriminations et doivent redoubler d’efforts pour être reconnues au niveau professionnel. Par exemple, en Amérique latine, même si la proportion de femmes qui travaillent a énormément augmenté, moins de 5 % des cadres supérieurs sont des femmes.

30

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

D’autre part, on observe un nouveau phénomène que je ne détaillerai pas ici, mais qui est longuement abordé dans le livre Scandales éthiques. J’appellerai ce phénomène « femmes au bord de la crise de nerfs »: les femmes sont entrées sur le marché du travail, travaillent d’arrache-pied, mais n’ont pas été libérées de toutes les autres tâches qu’elles accomplissaient. Personne ne les aide à réaliser ces autres tâches, elles doivent garantir le bon fonctionnement du foyer, s’assurer que les enfants soient scolarisés, qu’ils aient de bons résultats, prendre soin des personnes âgées, etc. En Amérique latine, les hommes ne prennent en charge que 4 % des tâches domestiques. 96 % de ces tâches sont réalisées par des femmes. Dans quelques rares pays, comme la Suède ou la Norvège, la situation est bien différente: les tâches sont presque également réparties – 50/50– entre hommes et femmes. Manuel Castells explique merveilleusement bien la situation, soulignant que les femmes sont discriminées de différentes formes et qu’en outre, les tâches domestiques ne sont pas prises en compte dans la comptabilité nationale et aucune valeur ne leur est attribuée. Au quotidien, lorsqu’une femme dit « je suis femme au foyer », la sensation ou l’expression de son interlocuteur est qu’elle ne vaut rien. Pour Manuel Castells, si toutes les femmes qui ne font « rien », qui sont le pilier de la famille, cessaient de faire ce « rien », toutes les villes que nous connaissons seraient immédiatement paralysées. Je peux ajouter à cela que sans ce pilier fondamental, la première institution de l’histoire, la famille, cesserait de fonctionner et rencontrerait de graves difficultés. Les femmes sont discriminées sur le marché du travail et cette discrimination va jusqu’au féminicide, une forme extrême de violence contre les femmes qui reste malheureusement très fréquente dans le monde. La semaine dernière, en Argentine, statuant sur le cas d’un conjoint qui a assassiné sa femme de 25 coups de poignard après avoir appris qu’elle le quitterait pour quelqu’un d’autre, un juge a déclaré que l’état d’altération émotionnelle profonde de l’homme était une circonstance atténuante dans ce crime. Ce type de décision est également fréquent dans d’autres pays, marqués par une structure machiste troglodyte, active en permanence, selon laquelle la femme est la propriété de l’homme. Très souvent, les cas de violences domestiques qui se soldent par des meurtres sont causés parce que la femme choisit de quitter son conjoint pour quelqu’un d’autre. Les hommes se demandent donc comment quelque chose qui leur appartient peut prendre des décisions sur sa propre vie. Nous avons un long chemin à parcourir pour atteindre une véritable égalité des genres. Malgré les progrès importants, ce droit n’est toujours pas garanti. Sans parler des discriminations légales qui subsistent. Comme vous savez, dans certains pays du monde, les femmes ne peuvent pas conduire, car cette activité leur est interdite. Le sixième droit non garanti est le droit à vivre en harmonie avec la nature. Le sommet de Rio+20 se penche sur les chiffres suivants. On peut souligner le réchauffement de la planète, la pollution de l’atmosphère par les gaz à effet de serre, l’augmentation de la température moyenne de la terre et son impact sur les phénomènes climatiques, toutes les formes de déséquilibre naturel et surtout, l’impact le plus grave de ces facteurs sur la désertification et sur la transformation de terres arables en terres totalement arides. On calcule qu’un tiers de la population mondiale pourrait, si rien n’est fait pour contrer la situation actuelle, être touché dans quelques années par la désertification. Ceci pourrait entraîner des phénomènes de migration de masse au moment où les pays développés sont le moins accueillants à l’égard des immigrants. Le changement climatique n’est pas une hypothèse de travail, c’est une réalité au quotidien. Un tiers des réserves mondiales de récoltes est perdu, un cinquième des coraux est totalement abîmé. La problématique des forêts est également cruciale. La politique publique peut vraiment faire la différence, il ne s’agit pas ici de théories. Le Costa Rica est une fierté pour l’Amérique latine, c’est un exemple à Rio+20, car ce pays a très rapidement doublé son couvert forestier grâce à des politiques publiques ciblées. Actuellement, le Costa Rica est en deuxième place du palmarès mondial de l’équilibre écologique. Dans ce petit pays latino-américain, la politique publique a tout misé sur l’écologie, devenue l’une des principales sources de revenus et de développement. On ne peut prédire ce qui adviendra de notre planète, en témoignent les débats actuels tout comme la difficulté de parvenir à des consensus raisonnables sur ce droit qui n’est pas encore garanti. Sur les quelques pays, comme les pays scandinaves, qui se sont fixé des objectifs très exigeants de reconversion totale de leurs économies vers des énergies propres et un équilibre écologique, un pays se démarque. Le pays, avec le Costa Rica, où l’équilibre écologique est le mieux préservé? C’est le Bhoutan.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

31


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Le Bhoutan, un petit pays de 800 000 habitants situé entre la Chine et l’Inde, est très connu pour sa mesure du niveau de vie de ses habitants en bonheur national brut. On évalue l’état de l’économie en fonction du bonheur des Bhoutanais, dont une dimension centrale est l’équilibre écologique et un rapport harmonieux à la nature. Le Bhoutan a inscrit dans sa constitution que 70 % de la surface du territoire doit être couverte de forêts et ce pays est l’un des seuls au monde à avoir une empreinte carbone positive, c’est-à-dire qu’il produit plus d’oxygène pour l’environnement qu’il n’en consomme. J’ai été très familiarisé avec l’expérience du Bhoutan. Dans ce pays, il existe un département consacré à l’évaluation des politiques publiques. José Sulbrandt travaille depuis plusieurs années à l’évaluation des politiques publiques. L’idée est de savoir, à chaque fois que l’on approuve un décret ou une loi, si le bonheur national brut va augmenter ou diminuer. Le bonheur national brut est calculé sur la base de 80 indicateurs liés aux politiques publiques. Dans nos pays, nous continuons de mesurer les effets sur la pauvreté de certaines décisions. Nous sommes bien loin du Bhoutan. Le septième et dernier des droits – vous aurez constaté que pour chacun de ses droits, je souligne à quel point les politiques publiques peuvent contribuer à améliorer la situation – est le droit à l’équité, un droit inventé par Kliksberg. Je ne suis pas seul dans cette croisade, mais au contraire très accompagné. Aujourd’hui, nous devons imposer le droit à l’équité. L’Église catholique a publié une encyclique économique consacrée aux grands thèmes économiques et concentrée sur les inégalités. Elle qualifie les inégalités actuelles de « disparités blessantes ». Je souhaite vous citer quelques derniers chiffres. Je suis l’un des rares économistes à assommer le public non pas de données financières pouvant être lues chaque jour dans la presse, comme les indicateurs boursiers, mais d’informations méconnues. D’après The Economist, actuellement, les 1 % les plus riches de la planète détiennent 43 % des actifs, tandis que les 50 % les plus pauvres détiennent 2 % des actifs. Un pour cent de la population détient donc presque la moitié des richesses tandis que la moitié de la population mondiale ne jouit que de 2 % de ces richesses. Les 10 % les plus riches détiennent 83 % des actifs et du patrimoine de planète. C’est le pire coefficient Gini de l’histoire de l’humanité, les disparités n’ont jamais été aussi marquées. L’OCDE a publié il y a peu un rapport sur les inégalités dans les 50 pays membres de l’OCDE, dont le Mexique. Pour la plupart, leur coefficient Gini a fortement baissé au cours des dernières années. Aux États-Unis, une étude récente montre qu’après la crise de 2008, 2009 et le processus de forte dérégulation, concentration, dégrèvement fiscal indistinct imposé pendant le mandat présidentiel précédent, 400 personnes ont plus de richesse que 150 millions d’Américains. Ces 400 personnes figurent sur la liste Fortune pour leur patrimoine. L’un des milliardaires les plus riches du monde, Warren Buffet, âgé de 82 ans fait montre d’un grand courage moral et n’a de cesse d’écrire sur ces disparités. Il a publié il y a peu un article de fond dans le New York Times qui a fait un tollé aux États-Unis. La richesse est très mal répartie: il y a 30 ans, les 1 % les plus riches des États-Unis détenaient 9 % du produit national brut, contre 25 % à l’heure actuelle. Warren Buffet souligne que chaque année, il verse 16 % de ses revenus en impôts à l’État, tandis que sa secrétaire verse 36 % de ses revenus au fisc, car les avantages fiscaux accordés sauvagement aux plus riches pendant la période présidentielle précédente ont ébranlé la structure fiscale, creusant les écarts. Lorsqu’il a présenté le projet de loi actuellement au congrès et visant à augmenter les impôts aux 1 % des plus riches afin d’éviter les coupes budgétaires dans le social, Obama l’a appelé loi Buffet en honneur de Warren Buffet qui a interpelé ses collègues. Warren Buffet a légué sa fortune à la fondation Gates pour lutter contre les maladies des pauvres et ne cesse d’inviter, comme il l’a fait dans son article du New York Times, à la réflexion les personnes les plus riches aux États-Unis. L’un de ses articles publiés par le New York Times est adressé au congrès des États-Unis et s’intitule « Arrêtez de dorloter les grosses fortunes » (Stop Coddling the Super-Rich). Warren Buffet revient sur l’argument selon lequel l’augmentation des impôts des 1 % les plus riches des États-Unis va décourager les investissements. En sa qualité de conseiller d’investissement le plus prestigieux de l’histoire, détenteur du fonds Berkshire, le plus important depuis 50 ans, il souligne n’avoir jamais vu dans sa carrière qu’un investisseur privé dont les affaires fonctionnent cesse d’investir parce que ses impôts ont été augmentés. Pour lui, c’est un faux argument. La population a le droit d’exiger son droit à une équité raisonnable dans le monde actuel. Platon soulignait déjà que les écarts ne devaient dépasser un rapport de 3 à 1. L’équité présentée l’année du Jubilé, dans un texte biblique, est une équité raisonnable. Si elle n’est pas assurée, on renie un droit approuvé par les Nations Unies à l’unanimité en 1989.

32

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Les Nations unies ont approuvé à l’unanimité le droit de tout être humain au développement, non pas au développement individuel, mais au développement, et à jouir du développement économique. Nous savons aujourd’hui que l’iniquité va à l’encontre du développement et se veut un obstacle tenace contre le développement, réduisant les marchés internes, l’épargne nationale, filtrant le système d’enseignement et produisant de graves disparités répandues partout. Nous savons même, de nouvelles recherches l’ont prouvé, que l’iniquité augmente le nombre de divorces en raison des instabilités psychiques accrues. En somme, l’iniquité est déconseillée de toutes parts. Les graves iniquités privent une grande part de la population du droit au développement. Actuellement, les États-Unis battent leur record historique en taux de pauvreté: 15,3 % de la population, soit 45 millions de personnes, sont pauvres et subsistent grâce à la prime alimentaire surgie de la crise des années 1930. Les sept droits que je viens de vous expliquer ne sont pas garantis. Cette liste est bien sûr incomplète, mais ces droits sont fondamentaux: le droit à l’alimentation, le droit à l’eau, aux installations sanitaires, aux déterminants sociaux de la santé, à l’éducation, au travail, à une réelle égalité des genres, le droit à vivre en harmonie dans la nature et le droit à une équité raisonnable. Nous avons besoin de vivre en fair-play et non dans ce monde de « disparités blessantes ». Ma deuxième grande réflexion est liée à l’État: quel est son rôle dans tout cela ? Il agit sur tout, je l’ai déjà évoqué sous divers aspects, mais je vais désormais me concentrer sur son action. Une grande part de la population mondiale voit actuellement dans les politiques publiques la possibilité de garantir ces droits fondamentaux. Je ne parle pas de termes abstraits, mais je crois à l’assortiment de politiques publiques de plus en plus actives et d’un État intelligent. L’une de mes publications s’intitule « Vers un État intelligent et une entreprise privée de plus en plus responsable socialement ». Il s’agit donc d’un État de plus en plus inclusif et intelligent, d’un marché de plus en plus responsable socialement et d’une société civile mobilisée. La politique publique est absolument décisive en la matière, personne ne peut garantir, aussi efficacement et largement qu’elle, ces droits fondamentaux. Néanmoins, la ténacité d’au moins quatre mythes sur l’État nous empêche d’avancer dans ce domaine, je les aborderai brièvement. Le premier mythe, toujours d’actualité et qui revêt différentes expressions, est que l’on peut se passer des politiques publiques. Lorsque l’on annonce des décisions comme la suppression de 700 000 postes de fonctionnaires au cours des cinq prochaines années en Grande Brteagne, ou des réformes économiques, lorsque l’on impose à la Grèce de licencier immédiatement 150 000 fonctionnaires, cela parait une décision sans conséquence, comme si les fonctionnaires ne remplissaient aucun rôle dans la société. Ces fonctionnaires, pour la plupart, des maîtres d’école, des infirmières, forment les réseaux de protection sociale de la société. Si aux États-Unis, les tea party refusent de nouveaux impôts et s’acharnent à abroger toute proposition de taxation, ils ne peuvent nier le déficit, et comment diminuer le déficit ? Ils proposent au congrès de diminuer de deux tiers toutes les dépenses liées à la couverture sociale aux États-Unis. Ainsi, s’ils obtenaient une majorité, les tea party pourraient sonner le glas du programme Food Stamp. Le projet de loi est déjà bloqué par le Sénat et le Président. Ce type de raisonnement est poussé à l’extrême chez les tea party et par l’un de ses principaux idéologues, actuellement très influent au congrès des États-Unis, M. Norkisth, président du principal groupe de réflexion du mouvement Tea Party sur les questions économiques, suggère de remplir d’eau une baignoire et d’y noyer l’État. Je ne souhaite pas réfuter théoriquement, ou en reprenant toute l’histoire de l’État, la thèse selon laquelle on peut se passer de l’État, mais présenter des arguments très concrets. Si la crise survenue en 2007 aux États-Unis a fait diminuer le PNB, a fait chuté de 14 % le commerce mondial, a mis le monde dans de grandes difficultés après la faillite de Lehman Brothers, c’est avant tout à cause – toutes les analyses et le congrès même des États-Unis l’ont prouvé – de la dérégulation sauvage, c’est-à-dire, l’absence de réglementation raisonnable, les régulations ayant été démantelées au profit des marchés financiers. Ceci a produit une bulle immobilière, une bulle des hypothèques et une bulle des dérivés. Le congrès et le président Obama répètent souvent que la crise a été causée par l’avarice effrénée de certains. C’est une expression pratiquement biblique, on pense à la cupidité des commerçants du temple, qui en l’absence de réglementations étatiques, ont instauré des systèmes très pervers dans l’économie américaine. Sans le plan de réactivation de la première année du président Obama, d’après les calculs de Krugman et de Stiglitz, le taux de chômage aurait atteint 14 %. Grâce au programme mis en œuvre par le président Obama, le taux de chômage n’a pas dépassé 10 % et a même reculé à 9,8 %. Cependant, les injections de réactivation critiquées par certains ont dû s’achopper à la résistance d’autres secteurs politiques. Néanmoins, grâce à elles, on a évité que l’économie passe d’une récession à une dépression, ce qui est une différence fondamentale non pas pour les États-Unis, mais pour le monde entier.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

33


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Les États-Unis produisent 26 % du produit brut mondial, aussi, on craint que le manque d’action étatique en Europe précipite la chute de l’économie. Pour avril-juin, les prévisions indiquent que l’ensemble de l’économie européenne va chuter de 0,5 %. Certaines des économies les plus importantes, comme la Grande-Bretagne et l’Espagne, sont en récession technique, c’est-àdire que depuis deux trimestres successifs, leur produit brut chute. On prévoit que pour l’économie espagnole, le produit intérieur brut va chuter de 1,7 % courant 2012. Que serait-il advenu des États-Unis sans une politique publique de réactivation ? Quel aurait été l’impact sur l’économie mondiale ? Que se passerait-il maintenant avec l’État de Floride aux États-Unis ? La Floride a connu une bulle immobilière très importante. Ceci a profondément miné ses finances actuellement dans un état presque catastrophique. Aux États-Unis, l’État central intervient activement pour aider les états régionaux en cas de situations de ce type. L’État central a donc renfloué généreusement l’économie de la Floride. Voici d’autres exemples concrets. Dans les années 1980, les fonds d’épargne aux États-Unis ont fait massivement faillite et l’épicentre de ce bouleversement se trouvait au Texas. Si à ce moment-là, le président en fonctions n’avait pas agi énergiquement par le biais de politiques publiques, il n’y aurait pas eu d’issue. Dès lors, si on peut se passer de l’État, c’est sur la planète Mars, car sur terre, l’histoire ne nous fournit aucune preuve empirique étayant cette thèse. Bien entendu, il doit s’agir de politiques publiques intelligentes, bien gérées, effectives et à l’abri de la corruption. Ces politiques doivent souvent être conçues de concert avec les sociétés privées. Par exemple, l’un des succès indéniables de l’administration Obama est d’avoir sauvé de la faillite totale l’une des industries les plus importantes aux États-Unis: l’industrie automobile. Celle-ci était au bord de la faillite totale et c’est bien grâce aux politiques publiques qu’elle n’a pas sombré. Des villes entières, devenues de véritables déserts, ont été sauvées de la disparition. Il semblerait donc que ce premier postulat soit un mythe, en ce sens qu’il n’est nullement fondé sur des preuves empiriques. Le deuxième mythe est que l’État est condamné à l’inefficacité. En effet, l’action de l’État a atteint son apogée en les années 1990 en Amérique latine, mais dans le monde entier, les exemples abondent. L’activité publique est par nature inefficace. Je ne trouve pas vraiment de preuve empirique en faveur de ce postulat dans le Sud-Est asiatique, par exemple, où l’État a joué un rôle très important à l’heure d’encourager l’économie au travers d’instruments fondamentaux: les avancées scientifiques et technologiques et les exportations. Je ne trouve pas non plus de preuves au Brésil, où au cours des huit dernières années, l’État a sorti 30 millions de personnes de la pauvreté, les transformant en classe moyenne par le biais de politiques publiques agressives pour la protection des familles que je citais tout à l’heure. On peut notamment citer des programmes tels que Bolsa Familia ou le programme proposé par la présidente Roussef « le Brésil sans misère ». La présidente s’indigne du fait que le Brésil soit considéré comme une puissance économique, dépassant la Grande-Bretagne dans le classement, et septième économie mondiale en termes de produit intérieur brut, alors que 17 millions de personnes vivent encore dans une situation de pauvreté absolue. Il n’y a, pour elle, aucune raison de se réjouir. On propose, par le biais du programme « Brésil sans misère », d’atteindre en trois ans l’objectif du millénaire de réduire quasiment à zéro la pauvreté absolue. Un État inefficace ? Un État qui pourtant a pu, par le biais de Fome-zero (Faim zéro), sortir 45 millions de personnes qui n’avaient rien à manger de la misère. Ou l’État qui grâce à Bolsa Familia et à d’autres instruments d’encouragement économique, a amélioré la situation dans une telle mesure. Au Costa Rica, un État inefficace ? Un État qui a réussi, en misant systématiquement sur l’éducation et la santé ainsi que sur l’équilibre environnemental, à devenir une référence internationale dans de nombreux domaines. Un État inefficace en Argentine ? En 1990, l’Argentine a connu l’un des cas de corruption les plus connus, le pot-de-vin de Siemens au gouvernement Menem, enregistré aux tribunaux américains. Siemens a reconnu publiquement des pratiques illicites en lien aux documents d’identité des Argentins, pour créer en fait un nouveau document d’identité pour lequel les Argentins allaient payer le prix fort. Des sommes d’argent ont été déposées sur les comptes privés de certaines personnes de haut niveau du gouvernement. Siemens a dû demander des excuses publiques sur cet épisode. L’État argentin a désormais donné un document d’identité à toute la population, vous pouvez vous rendre dans une pharmacie, un supermarché, une librairie et obtenir votre carte d’identité dans un délai très court et pour très peu d’argent. Ceci a été lancé par l’État, ce n’a pas été un processus privatisé. Au Mexique, l’État a une tradition importante. L’INAP a étudié beaucoup d’exemples. L’État est inefficace par nature ? Aucun secteur économique est d’inefficace par nature ! Tout comme le secteur privé n’est pas efficace par nature, ni les individus. Les directeurs vont souvent d’un poste à l’autre, il y a des preuves. L’institut l’a d’ailleurs largement étudié. Le troisième mythe très répandu est que l’État providence est le coupable de la crise européenne actuelle, coupable de ce qui s’est passé aux États-Unis. Dire que c’est de la faute de l’État-providence semble raisonnable: voilà un bouc émissaire. Ce mythe invite à démanteler l’État-providence.

34

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Pourtant, ceci est sans rapport avec les preuves empiriques. En effet, les pays où l’État-providence est le mieux implanté sont les pays qui ont été le moins touchés par la crise. L’Allemagne a un État-providence bien plus important que la Grèce, si l’on en croit les dépenses sociales exprimées en pourcentage du produit national brut. Il suffit de faire le constat de la situation en Allemagne et de la situation en Grèce. Les pays scandinaves sont les pays où l’Étatprovidence est le plus développé, et ce sont les pays les moins touchés par la crise. Le Canada, dont l’emprise sociale de l’État est bien plus répandue et a proportionnellement beaucoup plus de poids qu’aux États-Unis, a été bien moins touché par la crise. Où sont les preuves ? On nous vendait la fable du modèle du ruissellement de la croissance, dans les années 1990, on nous disait que ce ruissellement allait se produire, qu’il suffisait d’avoir patience: cela ne s’est jamais avéré. Aujourd’hui, on essaie de nous dire que l’État est coupable, mais cela ne correspond pas à la réalité. Je suis prêt à accepter n’importe quelle hypothèse, je serais extrêmement heureux si la recette de l’austérité absolue fonctionnait, j’aimerais qu’elle fonctionne. Je serais le premier à l’applaudir, mais il se trouve qu’au cours des cinq dernières années, où l’on a appliqué à l’économie grecque cette recette, cette économie a chuté de 25 %, le chômage est de 24 % et les intérêts payés par l’économie grecque pour la dette qui était censée diminuer grâce au plan d’austérité et les emprunts n’ont cessé d’augmenter. Les économistes purs ne connaissent pas certaines données que je suis de très près. Le taux de suicide en Grèce a augmenté de 40 % au cours des six derniers mois. Ces données très concrètes se retrouvent en Italie, où le taux de suicide a doublé. Ce sont pourtant deux peuples caractérisés par leur joie de vivre et leur culture ancestrale. Cette hypothèse selon laquelle l’État-providence est coupable est très effective pour laver le cerveau de la population, démanteler l’État, mais les résultats ne sont pas visibles. Le dernier mythe est que le fonctionnaire public est l’ennemi. Le fonctionnaire public, ses pots-de-vin, sa vulnérabilité, sa corruption et ses capacités de gestion insuffisantes sont vus comme des obstacles. Il faut réformer l’État, le rendre plus efficace, nous travaillons tous à cela. Dans notre cas, nous travaillons avec nos amis, main dans la main depuis plus de 30 ans à des réformes de l’État. Il nous faut un État bien meilleur que l’État actuel. Les fonctionnaires sont des amis et non pas des ennemis. Je peux témoigner personnellement du même constat de Sir Douglas Bass, chef de la fonction publique anglaise pendant de longues années, qui a fait l’objet d’un mémoire. Douglas Bass peine à comprendre comment, malgré tous les obstacles, l’esprit de service est resté inébranlable au sein de la fonction publique anglaise. Je vois cela en Amérique latine. On y observe une grande motivation de service des fonctionnaires, ils aident la communauté et la société. Ce mythe n’a donc aucun rapport avec la réalité. En outre, même si dans de nombreux pays, les fonctionnaires publics sont toujours les plus mal rémunérés, ils sont très engagés vis-à-vis de la société. Nous avons abordé sept droits à garantir, nous avons réfléchi sur quatre mythes sur l’État. Mon troisième et dernier point est qu’une nouvelle réforme de l’État est nécessaire et il est indispensable que nous en discutions, abordions chacun des domaines techniques et essayions de les rendre plus efficients, améliorant la productivité et intégrant de nouveaux instruments de technologie informatique. Ne laissons cependant pas de côté la réflexion stratégique, la réflexion technique ne doit pas aller au détriment de la stratégie. Quand je parle de réflexion stratégique, je parle d’une réflexion sur le rôle même de l’État à ce tournant historique, un rôle marginal, un rôle central, avec quels partenaires. Je suggère que nous devons, ensemble, dans le monde entier, forger un État intelligent, qui ne vende pas de la bière et de l’alcool, mais qui agisse dans des domaines stratégiques, soit capable de produire des décisions stratégiques et soit également inclusif, accueillant l’ensemble de la population et travaillant pour elle. Cela demande bien sûr que soient garanties certaines caractéristiques: l’État doit être transparent, à l’abri de toute forme de corruption, décentralisé et doit rendre des comptes en permanence. Surtout, et c’est un critère qui me semble indispensable, cet État doit être responsable de ses actes et être là où sont les gens. On peut citer l’exemple de la banque des pauvres créée par Muhammad Yunus et qui a révolutionné le monde: 500 millions de personnes reçoivent aujourd’hui des microcrédits. Son fondateur a recherché le moyen d’allouer des crédits à ceux qui étaient en marge du marché des crédits. Il ne faut pas un immeuble ou de grands bureaux, ni une équipe de bureaucrates: il lui fallait simplement être là où sont les pauvres. Tous les employés de la banque vivent dans les quartiers où vivent les pauvres, les coûts de fonctionnement sont absolument infimes. Je crois totalement à un État responsable de ses actes, au plus près des gens, un État dont les formulaires puissent être lus par la population ciblée, non pas rédigés dans la langue des fonctionnaires, mais un langage du peuple, un État dont les bureaux n’ouvrent pas uniquement à l’heure où la population gagne durement sa vie et ne peut s’absenter de son travail.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

35


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Au Brésil, un bateau sillonne l’Amazone pour atteindre des endroits reculés et y donner tous types de prestations publiques: c’est un bel exemple de ce que je veux dire par un État qui soit présent. Néanmoins, il est nécessaire de discuter le sens stratégique de l’action. L’État doit garantir les sept droits que j’ai cités précédemment. Dans un État démocratique, c’est une obligation constitutionnelle et juridique, la plupart des États que vous représentez ne remplissent pas cette obligation dans la pratique quand bien même ils se devraient de garantir le droit à l’alimentation, à l’eau, aux installations sanitaires. Ces éléments doivent être des priorités. Trop souvent, l’importance de l’eau potable a ignorée, il en va de même pour les installations sanitaires qui sont pourtant essentielles pour la santé des citoyens. L’État doit aussi garantir l’accès à l’éducation, la santé publique. Il doit encourager par tous les moyens –partenariats, partenariat public-privé– le droit au travail. L’État doit veiller à l’équilibre écologique et travailler pour améliorer l’équité. Pour cela, les investissements en santé et en éducation sont clés. Investir en éducation et en santé, c’est véritablement autonomiser la population. Une population autonomisée aura beaucoup plus de chances de se développer. L’État doit mobiliser et encourager tous les fronts de la société pouvant y participer, c’est une responsabilité dont il ne peut se défaire. L’État doit être intelligent et encourager l’économie, les petites et moyennes entreprises, les exportations, améliorer la valeur ajoutée de la production interne tout en veillant à son front social. L’heure est venue d’en finir définitivement avec cette vision du social comme collatéral, selon laquelle une fois que le développement économique sera garanti, il y aura des espaces pour le développement social ou que le développement social est une condition sine qua non du développement économique, ou encore que le développement social est utile pour les campagnes électorales. Il me semble, si je peux me permettre, que le social est le moteur du développement économique durable. Le succès des pays scandinaves, ou d’économies comme l’économie japonaise, israélienne, ou coréenne se fonde sur le potentiel de la population, dont la qualité, la productivité et la possibilité de contribution ont été améliorées. Pour cela, il faut allouer des ressources et confier leur gestion à des cadres de qualité afin de renforcer le potentiel de la population. Un grand nombre de programmes novateurs et de possibilités sont actuellement en cours. Nous étudions avec la fondation Getulio Vargas la nouvelle vague d’innovations en matière de gestion sociale. Souvent, par le biais de partenariats public-privé, l’État peut vraiment contribuer à améliorer la situation. Il nous faut un État intelligent et inclusif. Enfin, pour finir mon quatrième point; nous avons évoqué les sept droits, des mythes sur l’état, et ébauché une réforme de l’État pour le XXIe siècle. Si nous n’agissons pas, les prochaines années peuvent être très dures pour l’humanité. Les États-Unis, comme l’a souligné le président Obama, sont très inquiets des événements en Europe, 20 % des exportations des États-Unis étant dirigées vers l’Europe. 30 % des investissements en Amérique latine viennent d’Europe. L’Europe produit 21 % du produit brut mondial. Les voies suivies jusqu’à présent ont produit les résultats que l’on a pu observer. La pression pour assurer la relance vise à parvenir à des équilibres raisonnables, mais accompagnés d’une réactivation importante. Réactivation est synonyme de politiques publiques, de travail efficace d’une qualité croissante. L’avenir du monde est totalement lié à l’économie mondiale. Tous les pays ont affiché des chiffres négatifs au cours des derniers mois, le produit brut et le rythme de croissance ont chuté sur l’ensemble du globe. D’après les calculs que la Banque mondiale vient de remettre, tout est très lié à cet axe. Si la politique publique a été, à un moment de l’histoire, importante, elle est, en cette heure historique, décisive. Une dernière réflexion pour finir. Au début de mon intervention, je parlais d’éthique. Que nous apprend la sagesse spirituelle de la race humaine ? Dans le fond, la discussion sur l’état est liée aux rapports entre les êtres humains. On a demandé au sénateur à la tête des Tea Party au Sénat des États-Unis, qui a préparé le projet actuel de budget et a entièrement recoupé le budget destiné à la sécurité sociale, au Medicare, au Food Stamp (Programme de bons alimentaires), etc. ce qu’il penserait si demain, une jeune personne au bord de la mort, gravement malade, ne savait pas où aller si toutes les institutions où elle aurait pu se faire soigner n’existaient plus à cause des coupes budgétaires. Il a répondu que si la personne malade en est arrivée là, c’est de sa faute. Au fond, il y a donc un clivage entre une vision qui brise tous les liens de solidarité, entièrement individualiste et égoïste et une vision véhiculée par toutes les cosmogonies spirituelles de l’histoire, selon lesquelles, pour Moïse et Jésus de Nazareth, nous sommes responsables les uns aux autres, ou selon Bouddha et la philosophie orientale, celui qui offre une rose à un autre garde son arôme dans la main et en est ainsi parfumé. Dès lors, vivre de manière solidaire, en assumant la responsabilité de vivre en harmonie avec la nature de l’être humain, c’est enrichir la vie de contenus. L’État est action collective par définition, c’est nous additionner les uns aux autres pour mener des actions collectives au travers de politiques publiques qui nous rendent responsables les uns vis-à-vis des autres.

36

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Aujourd’hui, le débat est animé: doit-on laisser les exclus livrés à leur propre sort, les accusant d’être pauvres, doit-on laisser les jeunes en marge du marché du travail et du système professionnel, laisser de côté tous les malheureux des classes moyennes vulnérabilisés par cette situation de volatilité et d’instabilité économique ou au contraire, doit-on renforcer la solidarité et la responsabilité ? Il y a quelques jours, à l’occasion du prix que m’a remis l’université hébraïque de Jérusalem, j’ai pensé à son fondateur, Albert Einstein l’un des plus grands esprits de l’histoire de l’humanité, qui a toujours considéré que c’est l’éthique qui devait présider à la science et la recherche scientifique. Il me semble qu’il y a déjà bien trop longtemps déjà, l’économie a cessé d’être éthique. Il est l’heure que l’éthique dirige à nouveau l’économie. Merci beaucoup.

Speech presented during the Braibant Lecture Par bernardo kliksberg

Dear Friends It gives me great pleasure to be in Mexico, to be in Mérida and to be a part of these two institutions that are a model of struggle for some of the best reasons in the world, the International Institute of Administrative Sciences brings together many of the countries in the world in defence of serious and deep reflection from various angles on the State, an absolutely central actor to the contemporary history and the National Institute of Public Administration of Mexico, INAP, one of the most beloved institutions by all Latin-Americans with a very important historical background, and with a high level of quality, impact and contribution, there could not be better host for an important reflection on this historic moment of the State, that the conjunction of both institutions. It gives me great personal pleasure to be surrounded by dear Mexican friends and other nationalities. I will quickly point out some of my close Mexicans friends with whom I have been working with for many years, many of them in some of the most relevant positions in Mexico and Latin America for a serious debate on the State with practical applications. With Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza, former President of the International Institute, who has brought us so much, for Alejandro Carrillo Castro who has done so many things for the Public Administration, my dear friend Natividad Gonzalez Parás, former governor and prominent fighter for these causes, for Carlos Almada dear partner and former General Secretary of the International Institute of Administrative Sciences. The list is extensive so surely I cannot deploy at this time, but by some friends from other countries like Bianor Cavalcanti, he is a tireless creator of institutions and has come to create a leading centre for innovation in public policy that will arouse much interest in Latin America, for my fellow partners of many years of working together José Sulbrandt and Nuria Cunill some of the best researchers on public administration issues we have in the region. And for all of you who come from 65 countries that are in this momentous congress, there are more than 800 participants gathered, I repeat, from 65 countries across Latin America, from my whole continent, my country Argentina, from one end to the other of Continent. I think it is a very important time for reflection coming from the context, of the only context that measures a little further in the medium and long term on the planet, because it is a moment that if we went to some of the most unique voices of the world we should, for example, quote Maimonides who wrote a thousand years ago the Guide for the Perplexed. We need a guide for perplexed now because the world is plunged into a great perplexity. There are three completely contradictory developments at this time and is very difficult to reconstruct a reality with such contradictory developments. In one hand the totally hopeful development, positive for the human race in all facets of the scientific-technological unprecedented revolution of which we are object participants, the epistemological rupture, paradigm shifts, in a lot of key areas and many of them quite new. From robotics, computer science, materials science, communications, genetics, biology in all its expressions and organic chemistry. Yesterday the world’s newspapers announce that nanotechnology was able to implement in a short time new cancer therapies that would allow greater effectiveness of some of the expressions.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

37


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

My father, rest in peace, taught me the Nanotechnology, at his hundred years, recently was very concerned, bear in mind that, because nanotechnology, he said, is infinite, that is, the possibility of reducing is infinite and the effectiveness that some of the inventions are taking in this field is very promising fully tip to mankind. We are in a world that has changed in 10 years, that has been radically in the way you communicate, in which it produces goods, generates services, in the possibilities of knowledge integration. We have the largest libraries that no human being has had in the history of mankind. From the library of Google to Wikipedia which is accessed by 400 million people every day now, recently it turned 10 years and is a nonprofit organisation, is not traded on any market, and so on. The Economics called it the largest donation in the history of mankind, access to knowledge on the part of mankind is an effort of more than 150,000 volunteers currently. All this is quite positive and hopeful, must be supported in every possible way and some of the Mexican personalities, my dear friends have made very significant bets from high governmental positions like Natividad Gonzalez Parás, for example, to the scientific-technological research for Mexico advance, from his position as governor of the State of Nuevo León. However, on the other hand, there are two totally conflicting developments with this development we are talking about. A very naive view of science and technology would say that only by generating scientific and technological inventions to the higher rate of technological innovation that mankind has had, will modify the reality of people’s lives, it will favourably modify the reality of a part of people’s lives. But the planet has immeasurably high social gaps. Right now, according to UNICEF estimates five children per minute die of malnutrition, during the time that we will be here, according to UNICEF last week 10,000 children die per day from lack of food and drinkable water, these are absolutely avoidable deaths, and these are four million children annually. This is totally conflicting with phenomenal advances in food production in many areas of technology development fairly applied to the preservation of health and lower infant and maternal mortality. A third completely contradictory development is that at this time there are 130 presidents of the world gathered in Rio de Janeiro in Rio +20 Summit finding out some information that is quite alarming, as the fact that the fifth of the collars of the planet have been irreversibly damaged and other very significant ecological destruction data. It is time to utter perplexity, a success in terms of scientific and technological development to extract the maximum power of this kind of infinite secrets that Divinity has given us and, on the other hand, a strong inability to use it to improve life opportunities of a large part of mankind and to establish a different relationship of this depredatory relation that current economies have for the nature. My friend the philosopher Edgar Morin tried to condense this situation, he has prefaced some of my books, one of the world’s most important minds, Emeritus Director of the National Institute for Scientific Research in France, has tried to summarize this with an image. He says, today’s world is a wandering star, it is a star that is on the universe carrying deluxe instruments, increasingly sophisticated luxury instruments and major scientific and technological advances, but is adrift, because the rudder should be driven by ethics and there are important gaps. I have humbly dealt those gaps in my 52 books, which all have a vision from understanding reality, adding that critical ethical reading. For Morin it is a kind of Titanic, deluxe, with all amenities, with all the possibilities, but instead of being driven by ethics its rudder shows very important cracks. In this presentation I am going to speak about five basic points. First, I will try to show what I call the social gap, these social challenges that mankind has ahead. I’m going to fix my attention on seven rights that should be guaranteed but they are not even if there is every possibility to provide a solid guarantee with scientific and technological developments. Right now one of the central proposals, alongside with our meeting, of the Rio + 20 Conference is to consider water and sanitation facilities as human rights. In considering them, these kind of economical resources that may or may not exist, but consider them inviolable human rights like political rights to freedom, earned after so many struggles in history. First I will show seven rights that are not guaranteed and they should be. Second, I will discuss some myths about the State. The State and public policies are central to the possibility of guaranteeing these rights. Actually the only historical actor who can give long-term solid guarantee to these rights is the State in combination, I always talk to articulate the State with the social responsibility of the private sector and civil society mobilized with universities, but the State is one and other actors, but the state is absolutely a central actor. I’m going to take four myths that are out there at the moment in the current debate on the State that has very practical implications and which are at the heart of the debate between austerity and recovery that is happening before our eyes and that was part of the G20 agenda in Mexico in recent days.

38

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Thirdly I will try to focus on what would be a reform of the XXI Century State, meaning a state reform after overcoming some myths about the state that is the cleared path to think in an imaginative and creative way, and is the hub of this important congress, how to do a reform of the newly state that is appropriate to this world with these three central contradictions of phenomenal technological possibilities and at the same time, a huge social debt and danger of radical imbalance in the relation of economies with ecology. Fourth I will make some remarks on the future, as presented in the current economic scenario and finally, I will end up with what I began, with ethics, and I’m going to refer to which guides for perplexed can get some major spiritual wisdom of the human kind now. This agenda is at least for a semester, you are doing a very useful task and we are all learning from this congress, I will try, to frame differently, in a different logic many of the things that are normally seen from a very conventional logic. I will provoke, to change logical ways of thinking about some of these key issues. And if some of you would be interested in the two recent books that were mentioned, you will find a significant extension, I think there are some examples of ethical scandals, it is an international bestseller, it is in several languages, is the latest of my books and you can find it via Internet, first the people who wrote jointly with Amartya Sen, there they will find extended reflections of what I will do. Firstly, non guaranteed rights. Today there is a growing; fortunately, there is a growing strengthening of political rights in the human race, rights to live in democracy. But there are at least seven rights that are not guaranteed in any way and they are absolutely basic. The first is the right to feeding, without proper nutrition there is no way, is the most radical deprivation that may be infringed on human beings. According to figures from the latest FAO data, there are a thousand 25 million people in the world suffering of hunger. Major contingents of this are the children that I referred above lacking the necessary basic nutrients. The first thousand days of a child’s life are critical, if during those thousand days of life they do not have the basic nutrients then he or she will have very serious damage, among others, as verified by UNICEF, they will not going to form interneuron connections in the brain and will suffer of severe brain damages for the rest of their life, significant disabilities. They will not lay the foundation for their bone structure, a healthy bone structure and will suffer from rickets and other diseases absolutely debilitating. The latest estimate is that malnourished children spend 160 days per year sick and four million as I mention before died every year for something as basic as the lack of essential nutrients. Do you know how much is the cost to give to all the world’s children a cup with the six key micronutrients every day?, Just USD 0.25 cents. Humanity is not doing it, instead humanity is spending a million and a half dollars per second on weapons, contrast the two figures, this hunger scale in which figures are very important improvements in all seven points I will mention, there are improvements but they are in no way enough to match the needs. I frequently refer to this picture in my work as unexplained hunger because among other things in the last 30 years the world’s population grew a lot and usually appeals to this argument, it grew 70 percent, but the availability of calories, calories production and calorie availability per capita grew by 17 percent. Which means that if you distribute all the calories from all seven billion inhabitants on the Earth, today there are 2,800 calories per capita; approximately, the minimum required is 2500 per inhabitant? It is possible to feed the entire planet, there is no excuse in terms of the old Malthusian theories of population growth, science and technology have gone much faster, and there is no excuse not even in terms of the availability of food. One might say as this famous book used in Public Administration «Who Stole My Cheese?», Who stole my calories, because if there was a reasonable distribution, hence the focus of food deprivation is an issue that has to do with access to food. The higher the production the better, and we must make every effort in order to give to food production an absolutely privilege, and there are currently very important technological developments that allow us to do unusual things such as to produce out of season, to apply scientific knowledge, to have food productivity records in many fields. But there is an issue of access, according to World Bank estimates there are 1,345 billion people living on less than 1.25 dollar a day, that have no access to minimum food earning less than a 1.25 dollar a day, they are, in what we call extreme poverty or indigence. That means that the food is far from them, I illustrate it with a note that the New York Times published a few days ago, referring to the Congo, and as it refers to the Congo it can develop the same kind of representation of reality elsewhere. The New York Times says: «The Congolese call them power cuts. We interviewed the Verboc family, they explained us that on day only the two oldest children would eat, and tomorrow the other three children will. Power cuts means that the supply of calories and protein are interrupted are rationed to the maximum in the family. «

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

39


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The New York Times says «They will protest each other, and at night, those who did not eat will be very weak. Says the mother, but we cannot do anything, the father works as a policeman, earns USD $ 50 a month, with that we cannot provide the minimum food requirements «. Nezala was interviewed, the father of five children, he works as an administrator at the Ministry of Education, earns $ 60 a month, the rent only is $120 per month. Explain that two days a week the boys don´t eat at all. In the whole country, according to the New York Times, half of the population eats only once a day and a quarter only once every two days. This means lack of access, the lack of access is determined by the severe exclusion that means extreme poverty and is determined by the fact that among other things there is a wild speculation on the market of food that has been one of the factors, not the only, but has been one of the factors that has placed the food prices further from the population with the lowest income levels. Some of the most basic foods are increasingly distant. An UNCTAD study says that in the future food markets that have grown strongly, only 2 percent of contracts are converted into real contracts. The 98 percent are betting the future, which means basically to put a mirror on the market with significant impacts on the final raising of prices. The United Nations has a global rapporteur exclusively on the subject of food, Olivier De Schutter, who has repeatedly insisted on this point. Der Spiegel Journal, the largest European journal has published a recent article regarding the Chicago exchange market, which is the main food market on the planet. He says: «Here in the dealing room of the largest commodity market in the world, food prices are decided and thus the fate of millions of people. Hunger in the world is organizsed here, plus the wealth of the few. « It is an ethical problem when Morin says there is not a rudder driven by ethics, the more production the better, but there is a fundamental problem of access. Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize, among the key considerations for being the pioneer in raising the issue in these terms in 1980 in a book called Famine and Poverty, she showed a study of over one hundred years of history in which the hungers doesn’t have to do with the production, but mainly with the access. And he drew a very important hypothesis to us at this congress, that if there is a society with a strong democracy, with independent media, an organised civil society, genuine political parties, etc., there are no famine because public policies in this social pressure and social control context could not generate the great political cost that means an active democratic society due to significant hungers. The recommendation is when there is more democracy and more democratic life in a society, there is a significant preventive regarding hunger. While hunger continues as other ills of poverty, as I call it in my book, it produces irreversible damage. There are social harms that may be reversible, the literacy of older age citizens can be achieved, but hunger produces irreversible damage, and other issues that I’ll explain right away. First, the right to food is not guaranteed, a Brazilian priest who is a deep thinker, Frabeto, highly respected and well known, has put it in very special terms, Frabeto says: God has built the world in a way that all species have their survival ensured, they have food circuits through which they ensure their survival and reproduction. The only species that has failed to secure these food circuits for an important part of the planet, we’re talking about one of every seven people on the planet, is the human race. The right of food is not guaranteed; it appears to be unusual and is for perplexed people. Second, rights to very fundamental aspects of life that today we call the social determinants of health are not guaranteed. I was one of seven prominent personalities appointed by the World Health Organization to guide and lead a world congress of social health determinants that took place a few months ago in Brazil with over 160 countries. We conclude that 80 percent of diseases are caused by a lack of social determinants and they are preventable, and 20 percent are diseases that have to take care by the hospital system, the medical system, but 80 percent are caused by the lack of certain social determinants. These include first, the water; there are 900 million people without drinkable water on the planet. We talked recently with my dear friend Ignacio Pichardo who is doing some very important work on forests and on water as he has done in his very productive and fruitful career, water is a major problem in Mexico, it is in a lot of areas of the globe. The result of how this issue is being addressed in a significant number of places in the world shows an imbalance, a deficit that affects 900 million people, half the world’s hospital beds are occupied by people who have taken polluted water because it is impossible to live without drinking water, it is estimated an infinite amount of lost school hours from distant villages, to places of small farmers and poor in many areas is quite fatal and, particularly for children because of their impact on gastrointestinal diseases, childhood diarrhoea is the main murderer of young children. 40

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

While water is not guaranteed and there are major technological advances, in Jerusalem, where I have been last week, one of the contributions that the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has made, which has received five Nobel prizes in recent years, is a small size university that was founded by Albert Einstein, originally. It has made a momentous contribution in lowering the costs of water desalination and today we have very advanced methodologies to desalinate, in Japan and elsewhere are very advanced methodologies for filtering water contaminated with absolutely effective methods. There are 2,400 million people without access to heating, for them, climatic imbalances and harsh winters represent a situation of total vulnerability. There are 1,500 million people without electricity. All the African Saharan population of over 700 million consumes the same power that the state of New York which has about 30 million inhabitants. There are nearly three billion people without sanitary facilities. These four factors, among others, are social determinants of health. Water, plumbing, heating access, and access to electricity. It seems unusual to convene a congress as Rio + 20 at this time in the history of mankind in which for the first time they say that water and sanitation facilities have to be enshrined as human rights, that the laws have to internalize, that is their obligation as a democratic state to guarantee these two absolutely central supplies for all its inhabitants. Third right not guaranteed. The right to education, there is significant progress, in all the fields that I have mentioned there is progress and very positive ones, but the gaps are far from what we need. I refer specifically to the case of Latin America. In Latin America there has been a breakthrough, this is that almost all children, over 96 percent are entering elementary school; there is an almost universal enrolment to elementary school. But it turns out that only 50 percent finishes high school in Latin America, that is, only one of every two finish high school. And if we take the poorest 20 percent of the Latin American population, the proportion is much lower, only one of every three children graduates from high school. Education is crucial for individuals, for families and for the people in a century where everything is going to be based increasingly on knowledge and the ability to manage knowledge, to generate, transfer, and adapt technology. And it turns out that we have a population where 50 percent doesn’t have the most elemental graduation, which is high school. In its analysis CEPAL showed that someone with less than 12 years of schooling is doomed to be poor, not able to emerge from poverty and is caught in what I call in my books a poverty trap. And the situation of multitudes of young people in Latin America that are forced to work because of the situation of households, according to the ILO there are 14 million children under 14 years of age working in Latin America, in this situation it s very difficult for them to finish elementary school or high school; if they do not finish they would not have an employment, there is no place in today’s job market. Reasonably, for companies and the public sector as well, the standards in terms of education are higher every time, education is required in order to cope with new technologies, etc., they are left outside, entirely separated, unless you have public policies that guarantee the right to finish high school. For example, the Bolsa Escola in Brazil was later transformed into Bolsa Familia, a public policy, transformed into an international reference, a public policy that is centred in compensating families for what their kids earned working under exploitation and they made a contract with the family to ensure that children go to school. Today the new Universal Assignment program in Argentina, a presidential initiative that covers four million poor children in the country, giving them the right to education in a practical way, that is, the State works with the family to ensure that children remain in the school system until they finish. There are other important experiences in other countries in the region and the world. But the right to education in the XXI century is not a luxury or an option, without education there is no future. For people the various receipts and accessibility to the labour market by level of education have been econometrically proved. There are highly developed countries that have based their entire development in a greater public policy through state policy in education, in health and in scientific and technological research as Finland, for example. Finland always tops the Pisa table, it is the first and Finland has no important natural wealth of any kind, and for 40 years the Finns migrated to other countries in Europe, in Italy, for example, to subsist somehow. Today is the most advanced country worldwide in a lot of areas of technology, starting with the cell phone, it’s most important company export 45 billion dollars a year on products related to the cell phone world. And the most crucial investment has been in education quality, in universal health protection, and scientific and technological research. Education cannot be regarded as anything but a right that must be guaranteed in the XXI Century.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

41


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Fourth, the right to work, that is currently fully questioned and the right to a decent job. The latest ILO report a few days ago regarding the employment situation in the world in 2012 is quite disturbing. During the 2008-2009 crises 50 million jobs have been destroyed. There are 80 million new applicants who came to find work in the labour market; there are at least 200 million unemployed, the highest rate since the ILO measures unemployment levels. Making a very quick review, the last vacancy rate in the Eurozone was 10.8 percent, that means 25 million unemployed. In the United States there have been improvements, but very volatile and very weak, the rate is 8.1 percent. In late 2007 the rate was 4.9 percent, is nearly double of what it was at the end of 2007. The youth unemployment has become one of the biggest potential bombs of our time; the right of young people to a first job is fully challenged in a number of economies, not only in poor economies, but in many developed economies. Youth unemployment rose from 2010 in Europe by two-thirds, according to the ILO report. Youth unemployment has reach radical levels as you all know, in Spain with 50 percent of unemployed youth, 24 percent of its overall employment and 50 percent of unemployed youth. In Greece with the same proportion of 50 percent of unemployed youth and in almost all developed economies the youth unemployment rate is higher than 20 to 30 percent; it doubled the highest average unemployment rate observed today. When young people protest in many parts of the world in every possible democratic way, they are referring to a situation that has devastating impacts because employment is not only revenue, the revenues are very important, but a job is to have a little place in the world, is the place where young people learn, where they develop their potential and socialize, where they built their friendship networks and their life networks. Depriving them of that, to leave them outside is to create a time bomb. A leader of the movement of the “indignados” in Spain said a few days ago: “We are very angry with the political leaders of all sectors because we have been abandoned; we feel that nobody is dealing with this right, the right to integration is a fundamental right”. It has high costs; I go back to Latin America. In Latin America, 20 percent of young people are outside the labour market and out of school. Often the press has given them a name; it them the Ninis, neither in the labour market nor in the education system. Throughout my career some call me the destroyer of hard drives, many years I have come to face many conventional languages concerning the State and on other aspects of reality, this Ninis issue is shameful. What is the meaning of calling them Ninis? We say, they are not here nor there, it is like if we were saying that they chose not to be in any place and they did not choose anything in most of the cases. At these rates of youth unemployment and dropout and educational rates related to structural issues, they did not choose, they were cast aside. The Brazilian priest who works in the slums with children from Rúa, etc. says: that children at risk, Ninis, children who are kicked out of society, there is no place to contain them, where there are real opportunities. We arrive immediately to public policy, as soon as there is a strong public policy a substantial change of this situation can be achieved, guaranteeing the right to a first job. One of the first programs of Lula´s administration was called First Job. The big young Chile problem, an agreement between the state and private companies in Chile to fund private companies to take on excluded young people, for a time it had excellent results, more than 80 percent of young people were hired after by companies and it has been replicated in other countries. Fourth right, the right to work. Fifth right, the right to non-gender discrimination, the women’s right to really have the same chances and opportunities as men. We have come a long way, there are certainly significant progresses, but it would be almost foolish not to see that there are huge gaps. Women have entered massively to the labour market and that is a major advance and women now outnumber men in educational attainment, they have more average years of schooling than men in many parts of the world, but in the labour market they earn 30 percent less than men for equal responsibilities and are severely discriminated, that is, they have to do many merits. For example in the case of Latin America, in relation to all business managers, less than 5 percent are women and the percentage of working women has grown phenomenally. On the other hand, it has created a new situation, I have no time to stop, the book Ethical Scandals has a lot information about that, but it has created a new situation that I call women on the verge of a nervous breakdown, because women have entered the labour market, making great efforts, but at the same time no one has released the from all the other tasks. Nobody goes with them to all the other tasks, they have to ensure the perfect home, that children go to school, take care of the older and every other task in which they are implicated.

42

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

In Latin America the percentage of domestic work developed by men is 4 per cent, 96 per cent of the household tasks are run by women. There are few countries in the world, not many, where the situation is very different, in Sweden or Norway is almost 50 and 50 percent. Manuel Castells has a wonderful phrase about this. He says not only that they are discriminated in various ways, but household chores are not counted in the national accounts, there is no actual value, they are worthless. And also in everyday life when people meet someone says: I am a housewife, a feeling or expression is: you do not do anything, and so on. Manuel Castells’s phrase is: “if all women who do nothing, will stop doing this nothing, all the cities we know will be immediately paralyzed. I add, the most important institution of history will stop operation, the family would have very serious difficulties, if it didn´t have this pillar to rely on”. The discrimination against women goes from the situation in the labour market until the extreme condition that is femicide that still has unfortunately, an effective presence on the planet, that is, violence against women. Last week a judge in Argentina ruled in the case of a spouse who murdered his wife with 25 stab wounds because she said she would put together another couple, that the relationship did not allow for more and he murdered her; the judge ruled saying that he was in severe emotional state of disturbance and that therefore that should be taken into account. Behind that, and it is not the only ruled it also occurs in other countries, in the background there is a sexist and troglodyte structure that works actively and permanently, it is the idea that women are property of men, many of the domestic violence murders happen because women try to have another couple, as something that is of their property, they make decisions about their own life, and so on. There is a long way to effective gender equality, it is a right that is not guaranteed, there are major progresses, but it is a right that is not guaranteed, I don’t even speak of legal discrimination in many countries. As you know, women cannot drive along the streets in some countries of the world because they are forbidden to drive. The sixth right not guaranteed is the right to live in harmony with nature. Some of the figures that are being addressed at Rio + 20 are figures like these. Global warming, the poisoning of the atmosphere by greenhouse gases, the sum of the average temperature of the Earth with impacts on hurricanes, all forms of natural imbalance and, on the other hand, with a major impact perhaps deeper, the most structural on desertification, on arable land conversion to totally arid lands. An estimated one-third of the world’s population may be affected in a few years by desertification if we follow the course of the current situation, and it can produce a giant mass migration phenomenon at a time when there is also the worst immigration politics of many decades. Climate change is not a working hypothesis, it is functioning every day, a third of the world’s pinches reserves have collapsed, a fifth part of the corals is totally damaged. The subject of forests is absolutely crucial. Public policy can make a total difference, we are not theorizing, Costa Rica is a Latin America proud, it is one of the countries in Rio + 20, it is a reference country because it has doubled its forests area through public policies in this direction within short time. And is currently the second country in ecological balance worldwide. A small Latin American country where public policy bet on this cause now is an important source of economic livelihood, on the other hand, the development that this led. It is not guaranteed in any way that what will happen to our planet, is being seen through the current debates, and there are very serious difficulties to reach some reasonable agreements and there’s a right not guaranteed. The few countries in the world that have set demanding goals as the Nordic countries, etc., of complete conversion of their economies, clean energy and to keep a lot of balances, and there is one that is leading the world. The best country in the world that works in terms of ecological balance, along with Costa Rica is Bhutan. Bhutan is a small country between China and India, with 800,000 inhabitants which is the famous country that measures gross product in terms of happiness. How much does the country produces in terms of happiness of its inhabitants, one of the central dimensions of happiness is the ecological balance, the harmonious relationship with nature. And Bhutan established in its constitution that 70 percent of the country’s land must be forested with forests, it is one of the few countries in the world that has a positive ecological footprint, it provides more oxygenated to the environment than what it extracted from it. I had very close contact with the experience of Bhutan and this country has a unit of public policy, of public policy evaluation, José Sulbrandt conducts for many years an evaluating public policy, that every time a decree or a law is adopted, it measures whether it increases or decreases happiness.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

43


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

There are 80 indicators of happiness gross product. Consistency of public policies in this field. In many of our countries we are still measuring how much poverty increases in order to take some of the decisions, we are at a considerable distance. The seventh and last of the rights and you have seen that I have been pointing out in each of them how public policy can make a substantial difference. The seventh and last of those rights is the right to equity, I call it, a right invented by Kliksberg, but I’m not alone in this, I have company in the world. Today we have the right to raise equity. The Catholic Church published an economic encyclical on major economic issues of mankind devoted to inequalities and it called the current inequalities, the hurting inequalities. The latest data, I am one of the few economists in order to annoy the audience not with the financial data you read every day in the newspapers and you find out if the stock market fell or did not fall, but the data that you will not read every day in newspapers like these. At this time the richest 1 percent of the human race has 43 percent of all assets, according to the magazine The Economics, on the other side the 50 percent with the lower income has 2 percent of all assets, 1 percent accounts for almost half and half of the population has 2 percent. If you take the wealthiest 10 percent of the human kind they have 83 percent of all assets, all assets of the planet. Gini coefficient is the worst in the history of mankind, there has never been such phenomenal distances. According to a recent report of the OECD on the inequality of the 50 countries that comprises the OECD in which Mexico is included, the Gini coefficient has fallen very hard for the vast majority of the countries in recent years. In the United States a recent assessment says that after the 2008-2009 crisis and a very strong process of deregulation, concentration and indiscriminate tax breaks that occurred in the previous presidential term, at the moment 400 people have more than 150 million Americans. The 400 are on the list of Fortune, among the world’s largest fortunes. Lets say that one of the biggest billionaires in the world, absolutely morally courageous, Warren Buffet, 82 years old, does not get tire of writing and has recently published an article in the New York Times that has caused a big discussion in the United States about this. Not only that wealth is distributed completely wrong, 30 years ago the richest 1 percent in America had 9 percent of gross national product, now has about 25 percent of gross national product. Buffet says: I pay taxes every year just 16 percent, my secretary pays 36 percent tax, because tax breaks to favor the richer during the previous presidential administration totally distorted the tax structure and it became a tax structure that favors this kind of situations. When Obama introduced the bill that is in Congress to raise taxes 1 percent for the wealthy, so they wouldn’t have to cut social spending, he named it the Buffett Law because Buffett is the one who address to his colleagues on this subject. Buffett donated his fortune to the Gates Foundation to combat diseases of the poor, and he is also, calling permanently, in the New York Times to the very rich to reflect. The New York Times article for the Congress of the United States is called: “No more pampered, my friends and I do not need to be pampered more”. And he says: They come to me with the argument that the 1 percent tax will discourage investment. I am the most prestigious investment advisor in history; his found has been the most successful for over 50 years, the fund of Berkshire. He says: I have been an advisor for 50 years and I have never seen a private investor with a good deal that stop investing because you raise taxes. There is a right to claim, a right to a reasonable equity in today’s world. The Equity that Plato claimed for example, he was already concerned with this problem, he said that the distances should not be bigger than 3 to 1. The equity raised in the year of Jubilee, in the biblical text, a reasonable equity; otherwise the right adopted unanimously by the United Nations in 1989 is being denied. The United Nations unanimously adopted the right of every human being to development, not to personal development, but development, to enjoy economic development. Today we know that inequality is against development, inequality produces a fierce obstacle for development, reduces domestic markets, the formation of national savings, filters the education system and produces large gaps everywhere. We know about new researches that increase the number of divorces, creates psychic instability, totally contraindicated everywhere. Large inequities deprive the right to development to significant sectors of the human kind. Currently the United States has the highest rate of poverty since poverty has been measured, 15.3 percent of the population which means 45 million of people that live due to the food voucher that emerged from the crisis of the 30s. 44

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

These seven rights are not guaranteed. The list is incomplete, but these one are a starting point, the right to food, the right to water, to health facilities, to social determinants of health, the right to education, the right to work, the right to effective gender equality, the right to live in harmony with nature and the right to a reasonable equity. Something that means fair play or to call otherwise that are not hurting inequalities. And my second great reflection. What does the state has to do with this? Everything, and I have been mentioning in different ways. A big part of the human race see in public policies the possibility of having those seven basic rights guaranteed, not the public policy in the abstract, I believe in a great dialogue between public policy increasingly active and I call the public policies, I call to a smart State. One of my books is named Towards a Smart State and a private company that has higher levels of corporate social responsibility that is, between a State increasingly inclusive and intelligent and a socially responsible market and mobilized civil society. But public policy is absolutely crucial in this, no one can guarantee in the scale or with the effectiveness in which the public policy can the basis of these seven fundamental rights, however we are still discussing at least four myths that I will mention very quickly on the State. A myth that continues to appear in different forms is that you can dispense from the public policy. For example, when it is decided in England that over the next five years 700,000 public servants will be to lay off or decided on economic reforms, although they are imposing on Greece’s the immediate dismissal of 150,000 civil servants, it is like they do nothing, like the do not comply with any of the society´s function. It turns out that many of them are teachers, nurses, the social safety nets of society. When the tea party in the United States says that there can be no new taxes of any kind, but for now zero taxes, there is a very serious deficit so, the question is how to do to lower the deficit. The basic proposal formally presented to Congress, is cut by two thirds everything that represents social coverage in the United States. And this means, for example to end the food stamp program, if the tea party were to have the majority. The bill is already being pre-vetted by the Senate and the President. That kind of reasoning is taken into extremes in the case of the tea party and one of its major ideologues in the Congress of the United States says nearly every day that what needs to be done with the State is put it in the bathtub, fill it with water and drown it. His name is Norkisth and he is the president of the tea party main think tank on economic issues. Yes there is the argument that the State is absolutely expendable. I am not going to answer theoretically, or traveling across State history, no, I will answer in a very practical way. If the 2007 crisis in the United States that brought down the global GDP, which fell 14 per cent of world trade, which put the world in a very big crossroads, after the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, etc. and that was due in large part, according to all the analyzes and the Congress of the United States. They say, it was in large part because of the wild deregulation, the fact that there were no reasonable minimally regulations, were dismantled for financial markets, that allowed them to produce the housing bubble, the mortgage bubble and derivatives bubble. The Congress and President Obama are fond of repeating, that the crisis was caused by unbridled greed. It is an almost biblical expression, the unstoppable greed of merchants from the temple, one would say, without government regulation of any kind, very perverse incentives were unleashed on the American economy. Without the Obama’s first year recovery plan the calculations of Krugman and Stiglitz are that the unemployment rate would have risen to 14 percent, when it was possible to maintain the unemployment rate at 10 percent, then 9.8 percent and so on. The difference is that the reactivating injection criticized by some, not enough, due to all the resistance of the other political, etc., the injection made the difference in reactivating the economy so it wouldn’t go from a recession into a depression, which is a difference absolutely essential, not for America, but for the world. The United States produces 28 percent of the global GDP; there is a very serious fear that the lack of state action in Europe allows the economy to continue falling now. The measurement for April to June is that the European economy as a whole will fall 0, 5 percent. And some of the larger economies such as England and Spain are in technical recession, they had two successive quarters of falling in the gross product, the Spanish economy, according to the estimates would fall 1.7 percent during the year 2012. If it weren´t for the reactivating public policy, What would have happened in the United States and what impact it would have on the world economy? What happens now for example with the state of Florida in the United States? The State of Florida has had a major housing bubble. That has profoundly affected its finances; which are almost disastrous. In the United States the central state actively intervenes to help regional states when such situations occur.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

45


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The central state’s economy seriously rebalanced Florida’s economy, for example; in the 80s there was the great failure of the savings banks in the United States, if you remember that was centered in Texas. At that time if that other president had not acted forcefully in public policy there wouldn´t have been an exit, the State is dispensable. Where? Maybe on Mars because in the Earth there is lack of empirical evidence in favor of this view, public policies have to be smart, well-managed, zero corruption, very effective. Concerted many times with private companies, such as one of the greatest successes of the Obama Administration which is not disputed by anyone, having rescued from total collapse one of the most important industries of the U.S. the auto industry that was virtually on the brink of total collapse and was public policy that rescued it. Whole cities were saved that would have become virtually deserted. The first myth that public policy can be dispensed do not has any empirical consideration. The second myth is that the State is doomed to be inefficient, that everything done in the state had its heyday in the 90s in Latin America, but around the world all the time appears under different expressions. Public activity has to be naturally an inefficient activity. I do not find much empirical evidence in Southeast Asia, for example where the state has played a major role in boosting the economy through instruments that have been fundamental in the science-technology advancing and in exports. I cannot find much evidence of that for example in Brazil where the state in the last eight years reduce in 30 million the population in poverty, who became middle class through very aggressive public policies directed at protecting the seven rights that I mentioned earlier as Bolsa Familia and now with the great proposal of President Rousseff: Brazil Without Misery. She often says Brazil is considered an economic boom; it has moved the UK in the table and it is the seventh largest economy in gross product. But she says, there is no reason for celebration, because we have 17 million people in extreme poverty. It is proposed that in three years; through a great plan called Brazil Without Misery they will accomplish the Millennium Development Goal of reducing almost to zero the extreme poverty in Brazil. Inefficient State, through Fome-zero the State could change 45 million people who could not eat in Brazil, or the State through Bolsa Familia and other instruments as enhancers to significantly improve the situation. Inefficient state in Costa Rica, for example, which has become through its systematically bet on education, health, and the environmental balance, an international reference in a lot of fields. I can continue mentioning in each of our countries. Inefficient state in Argentina, in the year 90 there was one of the most notorious cases of corruption, the Siemens bribery to Menem’s government, it is registered in the American courts, Siemens has acknowledged publicly to create new identity documents for Argentineans. They were going to have to pay the most overpriced identification on the planet and the deposits in private accounts of some high level government of the time, was verified in the American courts and Siemens made a public apology on this episode. The Argentinean government now gave an ID for the entire population, you can go to a pharmacy, a grocery store, a bookstore, anywhere and get your ID in a very short period and the cost is absolutely negligible and it was made by the State, not through a private process. The State, in Mexico is a very important tradition; the INAP has studied many of the great moments of that tradition and so on. That the state is inefficient by nature, no economic sector is inefficient by nature, nor the private sector is efficient by nature and also as often mentioned, managers rotate from place to place, there is evidence. The Institute has studied this significantly. The third myth is that the major fault relies on the Welfare State, that the fault of the current European crisis and the blame for what happened in the U.S., belongs to the Welfare State, that seems reasonable. We already have someone to blame and trace the path towards dismantling the Welfare State. It has nothing to do with the empirical evidence. It turns out that most countries with welfare state are the ones that the crisis has affected less. German has more Welfare State than Greece; if you measure the percentage of social expenditure of the GDP, the Welfare State of German is higher than the one Greece uses to have. Germany is as it is and Greece is as it is. The Nordic countries are those with the largest Welfare State, and have been the least affected by the crisis, absolutely. Canada was much less affected, it has a much more widespread and a much larger percentage of the Welfare State than the United States has and has been much less affected by the crisis. Where is the recognition? As we sold the fable spill model, you remember in the 90s, everything was going to pour, we needed to have patience, the reality never happened. Now we sell the idea that the fault is, the data does not match the reality. I am willing to accept any hypothesis; I would be overjoyed if the recipe of absolute austerity worked, I wish it work. I would be the first to applaud, but it turns out the Greek 46

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

economy, during the five years that has been applying the recipe, it fell 25 percent, unemployment is about 24 percent, the interest of the Greek economy debt that were supposed to go down with the austerity plans have been rising all the time and, moreover, there is evidence that orthodox economists do not count, but I do and I still following up closely. The suicide rate in Greece rose 40 percent in the past six months and that is very specific and the suicide rate doubled in Italy, two countries characterized by their joy of life precisely as powerful cultures, etcetera. This hypothesis focuses on the fault of the Welfare State is very effective to sell to the people, disarm the State, but the results are not. The last myth is that the public servant is the enemy. The public servant is the major obstacle with their perks and their levels of vulnerability, corruption and lack of management capacity. The State must be reformed, it has to be more efficient, we are all working, in our case with all our friends for over 30 years and have worked in many state reforms, and we need a much better state than the one we have, etc., but the public servant is the friend, not the enemy. I give my personal testimony of the same that the chief of the English civil service chief for many years did, Sir Douglas Bass, who inspired a book on his memoires as head of English service. And he says: I cannot explain how despite all obstacles there has always been a so important motivation of service in the English civil service. I see it in all Latin America. He does not find a service motivation, the idea that he is helping the community and society is so powerful for humans, this myth is not consistent with anything in addition public officials in many places are still the lowest paid. Despite all that they operate with the level of commitment in which they operate. My third and final point. We talked about seven rights to guarantee, we reflected on four myths about the State. My third and final point is that we need a new reform, it is essential that we discuss here each of the technical areas and try to make more efficient, improve productivity and to incorporate new technological tools. But let’s not slip strategic thinking, that technical reflection does not displace the need for strategic thinking. And when I speak of strategic thinking, I mean a reflection on the role of the state in the same historical moment, a marginal role, alongside, in the center, with what alliances. And I suggest, we have to go in the planet towards a smart government, as I call it, that does not sell beer, or sell alcohol, or anything like that; that has presence in very strategic areas and has the capability to produce strategic and inclusive decisions that truly contains all the population and truly works for all the population. It means that certain basic technical requirements must be transparent, all forms of corruption must be totally eradicated, and it must be decentralized and permanently accountable. A key requirement for me is a state, which is present where the people are. The great success of the Bank Muhammad Yunus, bank of the poor who revolutionized mankind, 500 million people today receive microcredit, the great success when he thought: how do I give credit to those people that anyone does? I do not need a large office building, or a body of bureaucrats, no; you have to be where the poor are. All the bank works with agents who live in neighborhoods where the poor live, it doesn´t have a bureaucratic cost and are absolutely minimal. I believe totally in a state that is where the people are, that has forms that can be read by the people it is trying to reach, not in the language of officialdom, but in the language of people, a state that work at times where people who make hard life can go, not at the times that are prohibitive for those who cannot miss working hours, etc. This example of Brazil in a boat going down the Amazon and it gets to where no one comes; with all kinds of public services at the same time is an example of what a state with face is. But today it is necessary to discuss the strategic direction of the action. The state has to ensure the seven previous rights. In a democratic state is an obligation, is a constitutional and legal obligation, most of the states to which you belong are not being met in practice, must guarantee the right to food, water, sanitary facilities, they must be priorities. Very often drinking water has not been a priority, even less the sanitary facilities that are critical to health. The State has to guarantee education, access to education, public health, has to stimulate by all means with consultations, public-private consultations, the right to work. It has to ensure ecological balance and has to work to improve equity. To improve equity we are not proposing anything but a strong bet on health and education investment. Investing in education and health really empower the people. And a population empowered means that you will have many more opportunities. The state has to mobilize and empower all fronts in society who can collaborate on that, but the state has an absolutely responsibility.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mĂŠrida - June 2012

47


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The State has to be smart, key areas of economic empowerment, empowerment of small and medium enterprises, exports, adding more value to its own production and at the same time cover and contain the social front. It is time to stop seeing the social as collateral, as if once you have that economic development, there will be spaces for social development or once you have economic development the social development will actually happen or social development is useful for election campaigns. The social, in my humble opinion, is the engine of sustained economic development. The success of the Nordic countries, the success of economies like Japan, like Israel, like Korea are based on an enhancement of its population, have risen fully the quality, productivity and the ability to supply its population . And for that we must allocate resources to handle serious and high quality social management to enhance the population. There are lots of innovative programs and opportunities, currently underway, we will be studying with the Getulio Vargas Foundation in the near future, a new wave of innovations in social management, through which the state often in public-private partnerships can improve the situation completely. We need a smart State and an inclusive State. I finish my fourth point, we have seen the seven rights, we have seen myths about the state, and we have seen a government reform for the Twenty First Century in general. If we don´t do any of these things the next few years can be very hard to mankind. The United States, as the President said, are quite concerned about what happens in Europe, 20 percent of U.S. exports go to Europe. The 30 percent of all investments in Latin America come from Europe. Europe produces 21 percent of global GDP. The paths that have been followed so far have produced the pressure for recovery, meaning, to make a reasonable balance, but also work with them in a major revival. And recovery means public policy, means the work you all do, with increasingly higher quality and with the greatest possible effectiveness. The world’s future is closely linked to the world economy today. All countries have declined in recent months; have lowered their gross product and the growth rate virtually worldwide, according to the World Bank everything is linked to this axis. If public policy at some historical moment was important, at this historic moment is decisive. My final thought. I said at the beginning, I started with ethics and said there is a planet without an ethical rudder. What does the spiritual wisdom of the human race teach us? Deep in the discussion of the state there is a very important discussion about the relationship between human beings. The leader of the tea party in the Senate of the United States was asked who made the current project budget and cut completely, social security, Medicare, food stamp, etc., leaving people without protection. Asked on television: Senator, if tomorrow a young person who is dying and is seriously ill comes and, under the proposed budget that you have there is no place in the country where someone will take care of him, because you are cutting all the places for that care. What would do you tell him? And he answered that this situation is their responsibility. Basically what we have is the struggle between a vision that cuts all ties of solidarity, an absolutely individualistic and selfish vision that cuts the bonds of solidarity and says everyone can get by however they can, and a vision that is in all mankind’s spiritual worldview and says through the voice of Moses and Jesus of Nazareth: we are responsible for each other, or what does it says through Buddha and the Eastern philosophy, about the one that gives a rose to another keeps the scent in his hand, he is the one that is scented. So, to live in solidarity and taking responsibility is to live in harmony with what the human being is by nature and is to enriching life contents. The state is collective action by definition, is to carry out all join collective action through public policy that involves taking responsibility for one another. Today it is in the midst of the debate if we let the excluded from the land to their own fate, if we blame them for being poor, to the young people for being out of the labor market and employment system, to all the homeless and middle classes that are in danger in this volatility situation and of economic vulnerability, or whether on the contrary reinforce solidarity and responsibility. A few days ago during this award given to me by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem I remember its founder, Albert Einstein who cared, perhaps the greatest mind on the history of mankind, always about the idea that ethics had to direct science and scientific research. That without it, I would say today, that for too long the economy was out of the ethics control; it’s time for ethics to redirect the economy. Thank you very much

48

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Résumés de papiers présentés pendant le congrès

Abstracts of papers presented during the congress

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

49


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Subtheme 1 – Democratic Governance for Socioeconomic Development The Function of China’s Urban Street Offices in Community Public Service Construction Zhenyu Luo Sichuan Administration Institute, People’s Republic of China; 1007244543@qq.com Chengdu is the capital city of Sichuan province and located in central Sichuan Basin. It is the center of technology, business, finance, transportation and communication hub in southwest of China. It is established in 1921 and now with a total area of 1.24 square kilometers and governing 9 districts, 4 cities and 6 counties and the population is 12.579 million. Qingbaijiang District is located in the north of Chengdu (18 kilometers away) and it is the main industrial area. The urban street offices is an institution established by the people’s government of municipal district or city not divided into districts. The main functions of urban street offices are: improving the work for city residents, improving the communication between government and city residents, and reporting to the government about the objections and requirements of residents in time. This article attempts to analyse the construction of the urban street offices in community public service of Qingbaijiang District. It analyses deeply through literature survey, field research and combining theory with practice. Then reveals the primal problems and causes, and makes suggestions on relevant policies to solve the problems through analysing the specific issues.

The Exploration of Chinese Deliberate Democracy and Local Governance: Experience from the village’s council in Chengdu City Yi-fan YANG1, Yue DONG2, Zi-yi WANG3 1 Southwest Jiaotong University, People’s Republic of China; 2Southwest Jiaotong University, People’s Republic of China; 3 Sichuan Normal University, People’s Republic of China; tuboyang@gmail.com Local governance and local democracy have become noticeably and widely used analytic concepts among public administration and public policy. Some institutional innovations similar to the Western citizen conference are forging ahead in rural China. “Village’s council” innovated by Chengdu City of West China is one typical case among these innovations. Based on the analysis framework of deliberate democracy and consensus conference, this article describes the process of the case of “rural property right system reform” in Qionglai, Chengdu city and analyses its functions and value, and then points out the dimensions of its improvement respectively. The article argues based on Chengdu case that “village’s council” is an effective mechanism to give rural people access to basic rights, going further with democratic decision-making, management and supervision, and “village’s council”, as a kind of Chinese deliberate democracy, indicates the gradual shaping of deliberativecooperative local governance model in rural China. The article author comes to a conclusion that if China’s governing elites can change the experiences of “village’s council” created by Chengdu’s leaders and people into the laws concerned, we could know the possibility of greatly promoting the participation capability of citizens, forming rational speculation and the civic virtue of positive participation.

Economic Goals and the Policies to Achieve Them: Influences of Unofficial Actors on Local Economic Development Policy Making Darrin Hugh Eugene WILSON Florida Atlantic University, United States of America; dwilso92@fau.edu Local government is one of the most personal forms of governance and where citizens have a more direct impact on policy making compared to other levels of government. One of the policy decisions that must be made in local communities is the direct of economic development efforts. Elected officials and economic development agencies, with input of individual citizens and interest groups, go through the policy process from problem identification to implementation for which policies will be used to grow the local economy. There are several policy tools used to encourage economic growth, however these tools fall into two different expected outcomes of how to grow the local economy: new business creation within the community or expand locally established businesses.

50

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

This paper aims to investigate two aspects of local economic development policy making in the State of Florida (U.S.). First, determine the unofficial policy actors and how they influence economic development policy making. Second, conclude which economic development tools and expected outcomes are advocated by the unofficial actors and what factors influence which policies they advocate for. Methodology: A mixture of surveys and interviews of local economic development policy stakeholders is used to explore the previously stated research questions. Qualitative analysis is used to explain the outcomes of the study.

Global Governance in the local environment Jaime ESPEJEL MENA Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Mexico; jaimeespejel@hotmail.com The depoliticization of States for the abuse of the implementation of recommendations or instruments left in the hands of individuals solving activities or problems that are public in nature, creates and recreates the presence of a hollow state to lose its political nature that is, its executive capacity, public and political is replaced by the skill, negotiation or submission, the resolution of problems. The state is no longer the center from which to develop policy. Rethinking the field, instruments, institutions and practices from which to produce and develop new policies or public actions encouraged to think about the individual, representation in political parties, business groups, through the State or the nation. The conditions of political interaction, trade and security facing States today, reflect the changes or adjustments of institutions, rules and programs that guide society. Changes in the mechanisms that guide, regulate and cohesive society can be grouped into three broad themes or principles: 1) changes in the relationship between public and private sectors, 2) the state is no longer the main actor in the policy public and 3) emergency social networks among the actors involved. This document is part of the second issue, the necessary institutional reassessment of the state in a context of integration, economic, social, cultural, and above all, political. For there to be coexistence between people in the same territorial space in which culture is produced and reproduced through free and responsible actions, that is community-have to present a true social pact between the actors of civil society and political society , where each recognizes responsibilities commensurate with their rights with respect to the whole community. In this sense, the primary function of the so-called governance is to build and provide cohesion to the community. This is not enough that governance is legal, but also has to be considered legitimate. The actions of public power and the limitations it imposes can not simply be held or sanctioned by a vote. They must also be considered necessary, effective and be thought of holistically. No serious problems can be treated in a single area. Governance is the relationship between areas covered. Everything is both global and local. This simple check puts into question deep-rooted prejudices and evidence. For example, there would be no democracy without clearly attributed to each area of governance (global, regional, national or local), exclusive jurisdiction of which only becomes responsible. The key to the governance of tomorrow will not be the principle of division of powers between levels, but on the contrary, cooperation among fields. The governance of a particular territory forms of development manifests the integral or not. That is, the unit or plant produces one type of governance, but governance founded on diversity, local autonomy and decentralization is the only one associated with the comprehensive development and full development is complete or not.

MUNICIPAL REFORM IN THE POLITICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES Julio CĂŠsar HERNANDEZ MARTINEZ, Fernando PEREZ RASGADO INAP, Mexico; fpr_fortamun@hotmail.com From the genesis of the Mexican municipality, the permanent constituent of 1917 proposed in the legislative debate, reforms to strengthen political, social and economic development. However, such reforms have not been sufficient and now require a deeper reworking, particularly in relation to constitutional reforms of federalism with a Territorial Vision.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mĂŠrida - June 2012

51


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

An inclusive, plural and democratic Federalism is required to distribute economic power to the greatest degree, as well as to act to strengthen the city, as its cornerstone. It must also actively incorporate the system of political organization of the state and territorial development, as an effective instrument of governance. Territorial development can be promoted «From Home», by the mayors, exercising the powers of the constituent promoted in 1983 and 1999. A structural reform of the Mexican municipality is necessary to extend its powers to allow for good governance of the following institutional developments; sustainable economic development, inclusive social development, sustainable environmental development and sustainable rural development. For these reasons, the inter-municipal association in globalized territories requires the political will of mayors, to generate their own social power to make effective management of territorial development. This will allow them to develop their skills and potential as well as the professionalization of the City Administration server. In this context, the association of municipalities is a territorial development strategy that promotes social participation and collective action of the basic cell of our political-administrative system: the free municipality. Furthermore, it is demanded of the legislative initiatives to promote a Territorial Federalism vision to strengthen the Federal Pact. It is essential to consider the 2008 reform of Article 134 of the Constitution of the United Mexican States in relation to expenditure in the order and control of municipal government.

The government action in public administration and management techniques. Dr. Victor Manuel Martinez Chavez INAP México; victor.martinezch@cfe.gob.mx These two approaches: As said Luis Aguilar Villanueva, where orientation is the first to claim the nature of public administration and the second seeks to recover and rebuild the administrative capacity of public administration. Hence, these trends highlight of which is designed to rebuild the public work of public administration, implementing administrative techniques (strategic planning, Balance Score Card, zero-based benchmarking, public policy and others), both its origins and application from the private sector, which is the leitmotif of his techniques and tools for application in public administration, what changes are the approaches, the universe and its objectives. In this second approach as action interacts to join the previous one, highlighting the second is the action of rebuilding administrative capacity in public administration, supported by governments with management techniques. These approaches interact to respond in a holistic diagnosis administrative, where the central axis are public servants, citizens and the international community, in both scenarios the actors mentioned above question and criticize government action and government, giving origin and to greater attention from top management to social concern for the future with the support of knowledge of the facts (detected its strengths, opportunities and threats), so that democratic governments in their tasks interact under the management techniques , public policies in response to the public. Given these approaches synergy of interaction invite scholars, researchers, public servants to make participation a priority attention to the action of citizens to assess their chores in public actions with the support of management techniques so that the public interacted with an attention to the action of citizens in order to assess their public actions chores so that citizens interact. Giving greater attention to this second approach the traditional action with a view to local public administration, highlighting the action of government in their administrations, their organizations, processes, programs and public personnel, under the support of their management techniques, reflected in their manuals of organization, processes, procedures and operations.

52

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Governance for the Governability Miguel GUERRERO OLVERA INAP, Mexico; mguerreroolvera_2002@yahoo.com.mx The characterization of the rules of behavior as a fundamental element for the maintenance of social order has been strengthened by the characterization of those rules as institutions, that is, as formal rules (constitutional, property rights or contracts) and informal (such as custom or mental models) that regulate the behavior of individuals, highlighting in this context, the functionality of governance as a strategy of government under the consideration that it deserves to be noted that Joan Prats governance «is the network between institutional rules (for example, election procedures and decision making) and the results of this in terms of effectiveness and efficiency (for example, implementing regulations) and legitimacy (assessment of citizens of their institutions)» Governance becomes more relevant for the characterization of it Renate Mayntz presents «a new form of government more cooperative in which public institutions and non-public, public and private actors participate and cooperate in the formulation and implementation of the political and public policy « , where corresponds to the governability capacity of government to be granted by the institutional framework, what follows that, for the same author, governance is understood as the ability to formulate and implement public policies by part of a government. Under this new form of government, far from being the use of violence as an permanent exercise, the state has led her to proceed toward finding the largest possible degree of legitimacy, in this democracy has played a key role as the public administration; same as during the century before us, has gone through various stages that account for this: a bureaucratic model in line with its interventionist character, his search for stability and central features and taxation rather channeled by quantitative parameters; a managerial model seeking of response to instability and turbulence conditions that characterize today a globalized world that has made decentralization and autonomy in managing its defining feature quest for qualitative parameters, and is now beginning to delineate a management model consistent with a more participatory society that claims to be the object of attention not only political, but an active part, as a subject, the creation and implementation of the public agenda, making the government an actor, not exclusive, the public agenda setting under revenue sharing arrangements in the private sector and civil society organizations. From the management model to a governance, model has been derived from the exclusive attention of public management and organizational issues of efficiency, and its inattention to social participation processes for restricting only accountability practices, most of the sometimes under a commercial basis and market-type competition, which would result in its failure to accommodate the new demands of social involvement they demand that society and its organized groups upgraded to become active participants in defining and implementing the public agenda. It is in this context that the policy has come to occupy again the linchpin of public reflection and administrative, from the perspective that to be the rightful political activity through which divergent interests are reconciled to the necessary consensus, with what was to come to scene the governance, as appropriate way to increase the capacity of any government, of governability. As the central feature of governance the manifest as a non-hierarchical form of coordination between actors, not only government but also from the private sector and civil society, is that the effectiveness and legitimacy of public proceeding is determined today by the quality of the interaction between these sectors, from public management thereby become more than a matter of efficiency and profitability, an exercise in coordination and interaction capabilities for the formulation and implementation of programs of general interest. Governance involves new and different form of government, characterized by the interaction between a plurality of strategic actors, by the relations horizontal, finding a balance between public authorities and civil society and society by participation in government society in general, not a single actor, be it political, economic, social or cultural. Unlike the new public management, which focuses on analyzing the structure and functioning of public organizations, the theory of governance emphasizes the interactions between these different levels and between private organizations and civil society, while ever considering the person, the citizen, as the ultimate reference of all public action. Without simultaneously considering the abandonment of the structure, functions and processes of administrative organizations, but the study and reform of these organizations are in the field of interactions between the public-private-civil, is say, the challenges that this interaction has to update the public and traditional governorship capabilities. With the above, and the contributions of governance, public administration reprises his role as an instance of exercise of government, now linked with the processes of governability, which include social participation necessary source of legitimacy, and can be characterized the latter, therefore, as a legitimacy by participation.

Oriol Prats, Joan «The concept and the analysis of governance» Institutions and Development Review No. 14-15 IIG, Barcelona, Spain, 2003, p. 242 Mayntz, R. (2001) “El Estado y la sociedad civil en la gobernanza moderna”, en Reforma y Democracia. Revista del CLAD, n. º 21, 2001, p. 9

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

53


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Pending Issues in the Building of Democracy Edna Rosa RAMIREZ GAXIOLA Mexico’s National Politechnical Institute, Mexico; ednarosarg@yahoo.com.mx It is key that in a democratic regime the functioning and works of public administration must meet citizens’s needs so that the relationship between the state and its citizens is in balance. Individuals, however must be able to express their demands through society’s institutions. Mexico’s society is showing a variety of social entities that are now part of the «third sector.» This is a global phenomena not unique to Mexico. This «third sector» has gained power in recent years and it is the result of the lack of defense mechanisms, government excesses or omissions in public administration. Thus, it has now become a key and underlying factor in the public administration. Based on the economic experience of developing nations where large employers and institutions exist, these social entities can now do tasks that the public administration cannot longer do or is unable to put into practice, so public institutions that used to be strong now they appear weak or without future. The objective of this essay is to show that the predominant democratization idea of the regime left out key and important topics for the political functioning of the state and the key working of elements of democracy, such as the exertion of justice, public administration and social networks. Leading thinkers and politicians of Mexico’s democracy did not take into account the key importance of democracy’s governability to establish and foster social order: the ability of a legitimate democratic government to meet its basic constitutional objectives, operating in a scheme with checks and balances, limiting social powers and connecting its own agenda with citizens’ needs. More than anything else, democracy is a political system with institutions and rules that defines and fosters relationships amongst the power of the state and citizens’ liberties. Democracy also allows for the election of legitimate government and government’s operation. In order to create and foster social order it is necessary to build institutional order from the top. Otherwise, new governments that come to power with leaders who claim to have enough public moral and administrative abilities will be incapable of creating social order where the relationships among state and citizens are in harmony.

Flying Blind? Evidence for good governance public management reform agendas, implementation and outcomes in low income countries Shaun Francis GOLDFINCH Nottingham University Business School, United Kingdom; shaun.goldfinch@nottingham.ac.uk While considerable resources and attention has been allocated to recent ‘good governance’ public administration reform in low income and fragile states, there is little evidence as to what degree this agenda has been implemented, nor if it has led to improved services and outcomes for populations. To address this lacuna on the relationship between reform agenda, implementation, and outcomes, we conduct a review of the large but almost entirely qualitative literature on good governance reform in the 49 countries classed as low income by the United Nations. Our literature search reveals that only a small number of articles actually link good governance public sector reform agenda with implementation. Fewer still assess outcome. We then conduct our own empirical analysis of the relationship between reform agenda (using data from the literature review), implementation, service delivery and outcomes, particularly as measured by performance on Millennium Development Goal indicators. We report that there is little, if any, empirical evidence that supports the claim of reform enhancing service delivery.

Service Delivery in Unequal Societies – The Limits to Equity and Inclusion: A Case Study from Cape Town, South Africa Chris Peter TAPSCOTT University of the Western Cape, South Africa; gmelck@iafrica.com The effective and equitable delivery of public services remains a challenge for all countries but it is especially problematic in developing states with highly diverse and unequal populations. The design of more inclusive administrative systems in such states is all too often underpinned by the notion of a universal citizenship which homogenises the needs of citizens, regardless 54

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

of their socio-economic standing, and this is reflected in the quest for Weberian symmetry in the delivery of public services. This paper looks at two programmes aimed at improving service delivery to the City of Cape Town in South Africa. The first, a corporate works management system established to record and channel citizen concerns about public services and the second a system of participatory public housing delivery. The cases illustrate that the models introduced have failed to take into account the different needs of different segments of the community and, at least in the first case, have served to exclude the poor who are most in need of assistance. The paper also points to the pitfalls that confront states attempting to import international best practices into administrative systems without rigorous review of the context in which they proved successful elsewhere. This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken through key informant and focus group interviews conducted in five localities in the City of Cape Town. Those interviewed included community members, members of community participatory committees, local government councilors and relevant municipal officials and project developers. The qualitative data is augmented with official data from municipal records on citizen usage patterns.

Perceptions of Public Officials and citizens of the Public Decision-Making Process in the Midwest United States Jeff Alan EHRLICH, Rebekkah STUTEVILLE, John JUMARA Park University, United States of America; jeff.ehrlich@park.edu Citizen participation and local, state, and governmental decision-making is often regarded as an essential feature of democracy in the United States. The importance of citizen engagement in public and civic life is grounded in the United States’ heritage; yet the process which the public and decision-making officials encounter is often less than democratic. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to elicit the responses of public officials and compare the shared or conflicting views as they relate to those held by community members who attend publically held meeting and forums. It is also important to recognize the prolific culture and trust found with these types of public forums; trust with federal government officials has declined almost 50% with the public between 1960 to 1990 (Putnam, 2000). In order to get to the essence of the study, a comparative and contrasting format will be implemented in order to get to the views and opinions held by each group. The overarching research question is; does an opportunity exist for the general public and public officials to work collaboratively in an authentic effort of public discourse in the United States? Limited research exists that approaches the topic in a comparative and contrasting method. Data will be collected via focus groups and personal interviews with similar questions. Responses elicited from the groups will be compared and contrasted using coding and theming conventions found in qualitative research. This research, conducted in the Midwest United States strives to compare and contrast the views held by the general public and those held by officials related to public meetings. The study also seeks to identify what common ground, if any, exists between the expectations between the various public groups and officials. In turn, studying the cultural and views held by each group is one way for those in other organizations that hold public meetings such as school boards, healthcare facilities, and others to apprehend the research as beneficial in similar type meetings and cultural considerations.

Challenges in Governance Reform of Public Budgeting in China:Transparency, Accountability and Public Participation Guangjian XU, Yifang Wei, Fuxiu Liao, Tianjian Li Renmin University of China, China, People’s Republic of; xgj@ruc.edu.cn With the deepening of the budget reform, China’s public budgeting system has made significant progress and generated considerable effects. The government is gradually improving its public finance transparency and some local governments have also probed into public budget reform from different aspects.But compared with the principles of international governance, there are still many challenges in financial transparency, accountability and public participation in China. The participatory budgeting has only been experimented in a few city-level or county-level governments. How to establish a transparent, democratic, and accountable public budgeting system has become an important challenge for China’s governance reform. Good governance requires transparency, reliability and accountability as well as the public participation during the whole public budgeting process. This paper makes a systematic study on the issue of governance reform of public budgeting in China from the aspects of transparency, accountability and public participation and the impacts on the economic and social development.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

55


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

This paper includes three parts. The first part is about the situation and problems of the governance reform of public budgeting in China. Firstly, from the aspects of transparency, accountability and public participation, there is a detailed analysis of the progress and effects China’s public budgeting governance reform has made. We also discuss the basic status of budget audit and accountability, the basis practices and characteristics of participatory budgeting in some typical areas like Wenling City, Jiaozuo city and Minhang District. Secondly, the paper explore the outstanding problems appear in the governance reform of public budgeting in China as well as the negative impacts on healthy economic development and social harmony. The second part analyzes the factors constraining the governance reform of China’s public budgeting. On the one hand, the imperfectness of China’s multi-level government budget system, government accounting system and so on, have become one of the important factors that constrain the progress of reform of public budgeting. On the other hand, distorted behavior of local governments and interests groups has restricted the advance of budgeting governance reform. In addition, due to historical and political reasons, China’s laws and regulations related to budgeting and taxation emphasis more on the state secrets than the citizens’ rights to know information. The information disclosure of budget is usually inadequate. This part explores the deep-seated restricted reasons for the governance reform of China’s public budgeting mainly from the institutional defects, history, traditions etc. The third part makes policy recommendations to enhance public budgeting transparency, efficiency, accountability, and public participation in China based on the exiting problems and constraints using the public governance theoretical models.

REGULATION AND EXTENSION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL and CITIZENS RIGHTS on the context of the EUROPEAN UNION. Molina del Pozo CARLOS F. Universite d’Alcala (Madrid), Espagne; carlosf.molina@uah.es I.FUNDAMENTAL AND CITIZENS RIGHTS 1. Introduction On this part, he explains in a concise way the difference between fundamental rights and citizens rights. 2. Analysis of the european citizenship on the Treatys. Here, he explains the concept of citizenship in the field of the Treatys (European Union Treaty and the Working European Union Treaty). 2.1. Meaning and limits of the european citizenship. 2.2. Rights protected by the European Union. He makes a list of the rights protected by the Union nowadays. II. POSSIBLE EXTENSION OF THE CITIZENSHIP CONCEPT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION On this point, he explains about the possibility of extend that concept in the future. III. CONSIDERATION OF ANOTHER POSSIBLE CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS Some rights that could be included in the field of European Union.

TRANSPARENCY DIRECTED TO ACCOUNTABILITY AND DEMOCRATIZATION THROUGH CITIZEN PARTICIPATION Victor Manuel NAJERA INAP, Mexico; victormnajera@gmail.com Since the great political changes that the country has experienced in the last two decades, it is a commonplace to assure that the public institutions and the civil servants responsible for their operations must respond to the citizens about their performance. The democratic idea implies —among other things— that anyone who exerts a role of authority or responsibility on public institutions is not free to act according to his/her free will. Civil servants are obliged to subject their decisions and acts to the directives of the law, which involves that anyone who is given a delegate authority or mandate may be supervised at any time by other institutions that are empowered to watch over the fulfillment of the law (and of course also by public scrutiny or, in other words, by the citizens who granted them that authority). As a consequence the concept of transparency refers to a characteristic that enables organizations, in the practice, to make their operations —as well as the decisions made by their responsible— visible for the public and to other institutions. This derives

56

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

in the observation and the surveillance of a more attentive, more participative and better informed citizenry1. Nonetheless, it is necessary to point out that the existence of ways for citizen participation without access to information invalidates the practice of this participation as a source of influence over public affairs. Besides, when understood in this way, transparency is a form of public reason which contributes to the formation of social consensus (without losing the idea of plurality it implies), it is also a meeting point for authorities and citizens to ratify their trust in the social and political contract that rules them. This is the reason why transparency is considered one of the basic criteria to measure the quality of democracy. Without it the citizens are not always able to act (directly) in a critical and active way and, at the same time, not all public benefits or services may be object of the direct influence and participation of the citizenry. In this context, accountability is understood as the anticipatory process by which civil servants inform and justify their plans of action, their performance, their achievements, and by which they are subjected to the rules that penalize or reward them2. “Accountability mechanisms minimize the risks that any process of authority or the exercise of power inevitably implies”3. These notions include, in one hand, the obligation of the politicians and civil servants to inform about their decisions and to justify them publicly and, on the other hand, the informative aspect which involves the ability of penalizing them4. As a consequence the immediate link between transparency and accountability is seated on the obligation of the civil servants to be liable for their actions which “necessarily, means an increase in the capabilities of the citizenry to exert their power through surveillance and to inhibit the conducts that attempt against public interest”5. Therefore, thinking about Transparency and Accountability as mechanisms for democratization, which implies a parallel process in which citizen participation stands out as well, is necessary and enriching for the understanding of our globalized world and for the search of appropriate mechanisms of development.

From crisis management to strategic planning at sub-national level. Citizen participation as a catalyst. The case of Nuevo León, Mexico, and Hurricane “Alex”. Carlos ALMADA NIPA, Mexico; carlosf.almada@gmail.com This paper intends to explain how Nuevo Leon (capital city is Monterrey) a north eastern state of Mexico is trying to institutionalize the strategic planning (15 years) of economic and social development with emphasis in citizen participation in the making and implementing of public policies. This effort takes impulse from the experience obtained by handling the macro-emergency caused by the Hurricane Alex in the 2010 summer. The paper will firstly refer to the conceptual frame and to the context. 1) The importance of the citizen participation in the public interest affairs to create synergies with the economic and social forces. How this involvement gives concrete content to democratic life and promotes transparency and accountability; 2) It will state the particular difficulties that this means in a intermediate development country, with a federal system and in the middle of a political transitional period expressed in different political affiliations at national, sub-national and local levels as well as in “divided governments” which makes more difficult the intergovernmental relations and congressional agreements 3) The paper will also explain the strategic character of Nuevo Leon within México (8% of national GDP; 15% of industrial exports; 60% of the México-USA bilateral commerce crosses trough its territory), the condition of its public finances, the correlation between its electoral forces and the weakness of an open and deliberative political culture; 4) As part of a complex environment the public security crisis that has recently affected Mexico as a whole and also the State of Nuevo Leon will also be discussed in broader terms putting emphasis in its institutional implications. The consequences of the hurricane will be analyzed in its social scope (victims, displaced people, destroyed homes); the disruption of basic utilities supply; the decrease on levels of industrial production, and the collapse of railroad and highway infrastructure. The paper will stress the national crisis that the prolonged disturbance of commerce exchanges with the United States of America at the northeastern border could have caused. It will also mention the local tensions created by the severe damages (approximately 2 billion USD) to public facilities.

1. Giménez Cacho García, Luis Emilio. Transparencia y Derechos Laborales. Cuaderno de Transparencia No. 12. México, IFAI. 2007, p. 9. 2. Ackerman, John M. “Sociedad Civil y Rendición de Cuentas” en Elecciones y Ciudadanía en el Distrito Federal (Colección Sinergia). Instituto Electoral del Distrito Federal, México, 2006, pp.13-21. 3. Peruzzott, Enrique. La política de Accountability social en América Latina. Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, p. 4. 4. López Ayllón, Sergio. El acceso a la Información en materia electoral. (Cicle of Conferences: Los retos del Poder Judicial de la Federación, 2)TEPJF, México, 2008, pp. 13-14. 5. Giménez. Op. Cit. 2007, p. 26.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

57


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

It will be explained that this phenomenon was faced in conditions of institutional weakness because of the absence of metropolitan governance mechanisms, a scarce institutionalization of intergovernmental coordination, and the insufficiency of the then prevailing model –only governmental- to manage disasters. It will be also explained the heavy financial restrictions as calculated damages only at the state of Nuevo León were the equivalent to five times the yearly budget of the Federal Agency for Disasters and the chronic insufficiency of the state and municipal budgets mainly due to a highly centralized national fiscal system. The calculated damages represented approximately seven times the public works state budget. This paper will seek to explain the institutional and operative complexities to access the federal reconstruction funds as well as the necessity to create a ground of mutual understanding between political and social actors to effectively manage a severe catastrophe with possible systemic consequences. It must be said that Nuevo León was at the vortex of four different crisis: a natural disaster (the highest rain drop in ninety years); an unprecedented outburst of crime and violence; severe lack of fiscal resources; and a demonstrated insufficiency of institutional and managerial resources. This demanded an heterodox and rapid response. The answer to achieve a convergence of efforts and to avoid politicization was the creation of a Citizen Board for Reconstruction headed by the Governor and integrated with top level business men, experts, university authorities and the federal Minister of Social Development representing the President of Mexico. The Board performed as a permanent work-table of citizens and federal, state and municipal officers working in nine different sub-committees. It functioned under the federal applicable operational rules for disasters relief and the federal and state laws related to public works and procurement. The intention was to become more flexible, within the regulatory limits, in allocating contracts for reestablishing basic utilities (drinking water, sewerage, electricity, public transportation, roads, schools…) to deliver humanitarian aid and to restore highways and rail flow. The first condition to effectively act was mutual trust. This was the added value of the Citizen Board. Its participation was beyond a mere consultative work and took part in six principal aspects: 1) Definition of priorities (three-year ahead reconstruction plan) using the Delphi method for consulting its members; 2) Ex-ante control to grant their fiat to urgent public works contracts; 3) Ex-post control to assess building quality; 4) Lobbying of federal funds and loans ; 5) The fostering of better coordination among federal, state and municipal officials; and 6) The creation of citizen consultation mechanisms such as a detailed informative web site to receive complains and suggestions. As relevant indicators to evaluate the added value of this mechanism the following ones will be analyzed: percentage of effecting in Nuevo Leon of granted funds; the compliance of time-table execution; the appearance, or not, of social unrest; the number of citizen queries and claims through transparency mechanisms and if it has been or not possible to upgrade the technical specifications of the infrastructures. The comparison between levels of effecting of granted funds of other Mexican states affected by hurricane “Alex” will let us know the relative usefulness of this response mechanism. It is suggestive that the Board itself – created by a State executive decree - has decided to evolve from an ad-hoc organ to a permanent Board of Strategic Planning which would also be chaired by the State Governor, and having a combination of officials, university authorities, experts and citizens as its members. This formula and the scope of the Board are already traced in a draft act that is currently under discussion at the State Congress. The main purpose is to achieve social consensus over the desirable future regarding the productive structure and social welfare levels in a way that these are expressed in a Long Term Strategic Plan of Nuevo León. The plan is intended to reduce discretionary or even arbitrary decisions in the allocation of investment public funds. This would be fostered by the approval by the Board of multiannual strategic projects and priorities concerning key sectors like security, health and education. The Board would be responsible for consulting and informing society and to establish the key indicators that compared nationally and internationally mark progresses and warn about meaningful corrections. The Board would present the draft plan to the Governor, who would modify or amend it in terms of his constitutional and legal capacities. The State Congress will deliberate about this draft act during its 2012 spring session.

Community Engagement in Health Services Delivery and Governance: Experience from the Philippines Derick W BRINKERHOFF RTI International, United States of America; dbrinkerhoff@rti.org This paper assesses the experience of a demonstration project directed by the author in the Philippines from June 2009 to July 2010 that introduced community input to health service quality assurance initiatives in cooperation with provincial and municipal governments. The project established Quality Assurance Partnership Committees (QAPCs) in three public health facilities in two provinces. The paper situates the Philippines demonstration within evolving perspectives on citizen engagement in service delivery and governance. It summarizes the QAPC project, and explains how citizens were engaged at the facility level in improving health service quality, while also contributing to increased responsiveness and accountability on the part of health providers. The paper concludes with some lessons from the QAPC experience that are potentially applicable to other efforts to improve service quality and governance.

58

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Community participation in health has a long history in the developing world. Early notions viewed participation mostly as community members receiving benefits from investments in improved health services. Subsequently, participation expanded from the community’s passive consumption of benefits to include its more active roles in project implementation, self-help, and service delivery. Communities came to be involved in co-financing, co-managing, and co-producing health services. In health as in other sectors, beginning in the 1990s, views about participation reflected broader changes in the role of government, public sector reforms, and the emerging emphasis on democratic governance. At this time, responsiveness and accountability began to enter the discourse. Market-driven reform metaphors recast communities from collective recipients of health services to individual consumers/customers − “users and choosers” (Cornwall and Gaventa 2001). Democratization through decentralization brought governments closer to local citizens, and created mechanisms for local expression of needs and exercise of rights, and public decision-making processes to respond to local demand (Brinkerhoff with Azfar 2010). Such changes created space for communities to participate as empowered “makers and shapers” of health decision-making (Cornwall and Gaventa 2001. Today, communities are central to health market and governance reforms. Paying attention to increasing accountability and responsiveness has become a stronger common thread in both types of reforms. While community engagement to increase accountability and responsiveness is intrinsically desirable from a good governance perspective, important questions: a) whether communities have the capacity to exercise an accountability role given the information asymmetries and power differentials between communities and health professionals; and b) whether community participation has impacts on efficiency, effectiveness, and health outcomes. The QAPC demonstration project affirms what other experience has revealed regarding service delivery outcomes and citizen participation. The demonstration project revealed a number of facilitating factors associated with the QAPCs’ ability to enhance service delivery. These include integration with existing performance improvement programs, commitment from local officials and facility staff, community enthusiasm for serving as QAPC representatives, explicit incorporation of capacity building for community members, and the positive enabling environment established by decentralization. The lessons from the QAPCs for service delivery offer confirmation, first, of the benefits of engaging communities in co-producing health services. Second, the QAPC experience corroborates the need to pay attention to the contextual conditions that support or impede the ability of communities to contribute positively to service delivery and health outcomes. The governance innovation that the demonstration project sought to test was the inclusion of an accountability dimension with the service co-delivery model inherent in the QAPCs. Several governance-related lessons emerge. First, engaging community members simultaneously as partners in service co-delivery and as accountability actors engenders some degree of role conflict. Second, QAPCs, as an “invited” as opposed to “demanded” space − where community members are offered the opportunity to participate in arenas defined by public officials − structurally limits their ability to fulfill a substantive accountability function by defining the terms of their engagement. Third, QAPCs offer an accountability mechanism that enables what Ackerman (2004) calls “co-governance,” which brings non-state actors (in this case community members) into the workings of public sector entities (here, public health facilities) to collectively address performance issues. References - Ackerman, J. 2004. Co-governance for Accountability: Beyond “Exit” and “Voice.” World Development 32(3): 447−463. - Brinkerhoff, D. W. with O. Azfar. 2010. “Decentralization and Community Empowerment.” In E. Connerley, K. Eaton, and P. Smoke, eds. Making Decentralization Work: Democracy, Development, and Security. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 81−115. - Cornwall, A. and J. Gaventa. 2001. From Users and Choosers to Makers and Shapers: Repositioning Participation in Social Policy. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, IDS Working Paper No. 127.

The importance of social participation in programs for a new culture for health Amalfi MARTINEZ MEKLER INAP, Mexico; coplade@gmail.com Citizen participation is essential in Mexico to achieve democratic governance. It is a right contemplated in the Constitution and has been on the public agenda for over three decades. Building social participation is not easy, especially if it is to be authentic, legitimate and active. There is not an existing culture of inclusion, and there is apathy, two situations that challenge forms of organization in favor of ways to influence public policy. This presentation discusses the importance of participation and social responsibility based on a research conducted to understand the point of view of users / beneficiaries of six government programs of prevention and health promotion, as fundamental elements for socioeconomic development. In Mexico the health sector is decentralized: at the federal level it generates all the regulations, but the programs are operated at the state level. Therefore the first users are the State Coordinators of Health Services, and the beneficiaries are the people who receive that care.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

59


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The changing epidemiology, the increased life expectancy and social transformation require a paradigm shift in the health system: from a curative reactive approach to one based on prevention and coordinated action. This «New Culture for Health», is under implementation, and it is important to evaluate its impact. It is clear to all that the actions of the state are insufficient to address the health problems and expectations of citizens. For a democratic governance in this field, a country requires: • Schemes of responsibility between state and nonstate actors in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of public policies. • Strengthening of social capital (human resources), to empower citizens and allow them to identify the specific needs of their environments. • New approaches to collective action so as to demonstrate the rationality of cooperation and encourage citizen involvement in the provision of public services. • A new public management where there is control, efficiency, and democracy in government-society processes. • A social participation that can monitor the actions of government, and be able to propose public policies The results of the study demonstrate that at the state level there is acceptance and understanding of the programs. The problem is their implementation and coordination with a functional operational structure and sufficient flexibility to solve regional characteristics and conditions. There is a need for a better management in addition to recognizing the importance of professional health promoters and voluntary citizens who are some of the leading figures in direct contact with the urban and rural population and local authorities.

Governance and Poverty Alleviation:An Empirical Study on the Poor Residents in Cities of China Wenhui CHE Chinese Academy of Governance, People’s Republic of China; che@nsa.gov.cn Poverty is the perpetual challenge to human beings. The speed and level of poverty alleviation is an important measure of the high civilization and benign development of a society. Since the reform and opening-up, especially since the 1990s, China’s economic and social development have made tremendous achievement, but accompany with the economic restructuring transition and the fierce market competition, a poverty group has sprouted up across the cities which are widely distributed, diverse and increasing. The statistics shows China urban poor communities are close to 30 million people, the “poor city” takes up the 26% of the cities at country-level and above, takes up 32.4% of the cities at ground level. The existence of urban poverty and the expansion of poverty population bring enormous risks to social harmony and sustainable development. According to the theory of right from an Indian economist Amartya Sen, the paper analysis the right of the China’s urban poverty groups, from the point of view of income growth, employment opportunities and social support networks, to explain the reasons of China urban poverty and make some useful suggestions to government governance. The paper argues that to solve China’s urban poverty problem, government should begin from several aspects as below: the first, to reduce the unemployment rate of urban poverty groups; the second, to entitle the poverty the right of inheritance and transfer of the private social relationship network; the third, to establish the social security system and social assistance system.

Assessing the Voting Experience of Egyptians Abroad Post the 25 January Revolution Laila Mostafa ELBARADEI, Dina WAFA American University in Cairo, Egypt; lbaradei@aucegypt.edu For the first time ever in modern history, Egyptian citizens abroad were allowed to vote in the recent parliamentary elections 2011 held in Egypt post the 25 January Revolution. It was not an easy win by all means. Nearly one year has passed since the start of the Revolution, and still many perceive it as still ongoing (Ghoneim, 27 Dec. 2011). Many of the original Revolution calls for ‘Bread’, ‘Freedom’ and ‘Dignity’ have not been realized as yet. Nevertheless, one of the positive actions taken by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF), which is now in charge of managing the transition period, has been permitting Egyptians abroad to participate in the post revolution parliamentary elections. With millions of Egyptians residing abroad, this decision is considered a significant step forward.

60

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Although there seems to be a lack of accurate records for the actual number of Egyptians abroad, official estimations for permanent emigrants being 2.7 million (CAPMAS, 2001, as quoted in IOM, 2010), while non-official estimations reaching up to more than 8 million (25 Yanayar web page, 2011; Al-Arabia T.V., 19 Oct. 2011), what was surprising however, is that in the recent parliamentary elections just held, only a fraction of those residing abroad actually registered to vote; around 350 thousand registrants only (Elections Egypt website). Something must have gone seriously wrong. The link between citizens’ inclusion and participation in elections and democratic governance seems like an ipso facto. Logically we cannot assume to have a democracy if we deprive a large section of citizens, those residing outside the country’s boundaries, from their voting rights. This is especially the case when expatriates represent a significant percentage of the population, are responsible for sending in remittances that positively impact the economy, have not necessarily chosen to leave the country except to seek a better quality of life out of poverty, and are linked to their home countries through cultural and family ties. The purpose of the current research paper is to figure out how to improve on the recent experience of overseas voting in Egypt. The main research question is: to what extent the recent experience of Egyptians abroad participating in the election process was conducted efficiently and effectively. The main research question has been broken into a number of investigative questions, as follows: • What is the link between citizens’ inclusion and participation in elections and democratic governance? And what are the main issues in the current debate about defining citizenship? • How is overseas voting conducted in different countries that are experienced in the process? How was overseas voting for parliamentary elections conducted in Tunisia, a leader in the Arab Spring? •  What was the background for the Egyptian overseas voting? What pressures were exerted to demand such a right? How was it implemented? •  How are the elections perceived by overseas Egyptians? What were the main obstacles and challenges they perceived, before, during and after the elections? • What are possible areas for improvement and lessons learnt for the future? The methodology utilized relies on a literature review investigating other countries experiences with non-resident citizens’ voting, in addition to an empirical online survey of a sample of non-resident Egyptian citizens to solicit their opinions and perceptions of the voting process, and a number of in-depth structured interviews with informed sources. The sample used was based on purposive targeting of Egyptians abroad in various countries first relying on the researchers’ personal network and acquaintances. Next, the snowballing sampling technique was used to reach a wider group, through asking respondents to forward the survey link to other Egyptian citizens abroad. Additionally, the survey was posted on the web pages created by Egyptians abroad in several countries, such as ‘Egyptians in Bahrain’, ‘Egyptians in Boston’, Egyptians in Saudi-Arabia’, ‘Egyptian Overseas Group’, ‘Egyptians in France’ and others. An Arabic version of the survey was prepared as well to be circulated in hard copy or through email, for those Egyptians abroad who do not master the English language. The research has already started and the goal is to continue with the survey until a sample size of approximately 300 respondents is reached. To the extent possible, the researchers will try to have the sample’s general features match the distribution of Egyptians abroad, the voters population as best estimated, not necessarily the percentage distribution of those who actually registered themselves for the election process. The survey tool has been approved by the Institutional Research Board of the American University in Cairo. The Link between Democracy and Participation in Elections This part of the research will examine the arguments in the literature both for and against expats voting in addition to who has the right to vote(Baubock, 2005; Lopez-Guerra, 2005; Tager & College, 2006; Kull, 2008; Boccagni, 2011). International Experiences with Overseas Voting This section surveys the main experiences with overseas voting in other countries. A set of criteria are examined including: eligibility, accessibility, levels for permissible expats voting, systems utilized, main hurdles encountered, impact on voter turnout, and public opinion. An emphasis will be placed on Tunisia, the leading country of the remarkable Arab Spring, which is working its way to democratic governance(Tunisia Live Net, 20 Oct. 2011). The Egyptian Experience with Overseas Voting This section will deal the difficult process Egyptians went through until they gained the right for expats voting. The Empirical Study Results and Findings Already the researchers have started circulating the online survey to a purposive sample of Egyptians abroad, as explained earlier. By the 9th of Jan. 2012, three weeks after uploading the survey, we had received 200 responses from 20 different countries. Conclusion and Policy Recommendations: Once the research is concluded, we will be able to come up with a number of policy recommendations for improved overseas elections management.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

61


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

References - 25 Yanayar Web Page (2011). “Transnational Voices: The Geographical and Political Map for Egyptians Abroad”, http:// www.25yanayar.net Retrieved 29 Dec. 2011. - Abdel Wahab, Ashraf (2011). Acting Minister of State for Administrative Development, interview, ministry premises, 25 Dec., 12:00 noon. - About My Vote UK Website. http://www.aboutmyvote.co.uk/faq/overseas_voters.aspx Retrieved Dec 26, 2011. - Ahram Online (8 Dec. 2011). “Egypt expats begin 2nd round voting”. http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/33/100/28820/ Elections-/News/Egypt-expat.. - Al-Arabia TV (19 Oct. 2011). www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5Gic25bypc - Australian Electoral Commission. http://www.aec.gov.au/Enrolling_to_vote/overseas/index.htm. Retrieved Dec 26, 2011. - Baubock, Rainer (2005). “Expansive Citizen Voting beyond Territory and Membership”. Political Science and Politics, Vol. 38(4), pp. 683-687. - Boccagni, Paolo (2011). “Reminiscences, Patriotism, Participation: Approaching External Voting in Ecuadorian Immigration to Italy”. International Migration, Vol. 49 (3), pp. 76-98. - CAPMAS (2001). “ The Permanent Migration of Egyptians 2000”. As quoted in: IOM International Organization for Migration (2010). A Study on the Dynamics of the Egyptian Diaspora: Strengthening Development Linkages. Cairo: IOM. - Elections Department Singapore. http://www.elections.gov.sg/voters_overseas.html. Retrieved Dec 26, 2011 - Elections Egypt Web site. http://www.elections2011.eg/ - Ghoneim, Wael (27 Dec. 2011). Talk Show Al-Asheira Massaen with Anchor Mona El Shazly, Dream2 T.V., 10:00 p.m. - International Institute for Democracy and Development Assistance (2006). A Preview of the Forthcoming IDEA Handbook on External Voting. http://www.idea.int/elections/upload/External_voting_Preview_withlayout_07june06_final.pdf - Kull, Christian A. (2008). “Who should Vote Where? Geography and Fairness in Migrant Voting Rights”. Geographic Research, Vol. 46 (4), pp. 459-465. - Lopez-Guerra, Claudio (2005). “Should Expatriates Vote?”. The Journal of Political Philosophy, Vol. 13(2), pp. 216-234. - Mac Donald, Karin and Michael Murakami (2008). «Administering the Overseas Vote». Special Public Administration Review Symposium on Election Administration, Sept. – Oct., pp. 802 – 813. - Migration Policy Institute. http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/remittances/Egypt.pdf Retrieved Dec 31, 2011 - National Association for Change website. http://taghyeer.net/who-we-are/ Retrieved Jan 9, 2012. - Narayan, Deepa (2002). Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: A source book. The World Bank, Washington, D.C. - Tager, Michael & Marietta College (2006). “Expatriates and Elections”. Diaspora, Vol. 15 (1), pp. 35-60. - Tunisia’s Elections Successfully Launched Abroad Tunisia Live.net http://www.tunisia-live.net/2011/10/20/tunisias-electionssuccessfully-launched-abroad/ Retrieved Dec 26, 2011

L’évaluation des politiques publiques (EPP) et des systèmes de gouvernance au Maghreb à la lumière du printemps arabe: étude de cas Mohamed HARAKAT Université Mohammed V, Morocco; harakatmohamed@yahoo.fr A l’heure de la crise l’évaluation des politiques publiques (EPP) et des systèmes de gouvernance constituent une condition fondamentale des réformes stratégiques au développement humain et durable dans tous les pays du monde. Dans les pays du Maghreb plus particulièrement le principal défi consiste à améliorer la gouvernance participative en vue du développement socioéconomique et de l’éradication de la pauvreté au regard de la forte corrélation entre gouvernance démocratique et gouvernance économique et cognitive. L’EPP s’inscrivant dans l’espace de la « bonne gouvernance située » ne peuvent être menées à terme sans l’adoption d’une nouvelle stratégie participative d’évaluation (des projets, des programmes, des actions, des politiques , des, des compétences et des risques) en termes de coût , d’ avantage , de performance de convergence et de transparence . L’efficacité, l’efficience et la performance des institutions publiques constituent la base solide de la mise en œuvre des priorités socioéconomiques de ces pays d’où l’intérêt de ce projet. I - Intérêt du projet de communication : Les pays du Maghreb ne disposent pas d’une culture d’évaluation des politiques publiques. L’institutionnalisation de celle-ci est tributaire de la mise en pratique d’une bonne gouvernance globale cognitive et stratégique pour atteindre les objectifs de développement permettant d’assurer des services de qualité , l’emploi , la cohésion sociale et l’épanouissement de l’homme .

62

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

L’évaluation émancipée, objective, pragmatique et participative des systèmes de gouvernance n’est pas du tout inconnue à l’échelon des organisations internationales (Nations unies, Banque mondiale, FMI, Union européenne), des Etats, des collectivités locales, des ONG, des citoyens et des universités. Les pays du Maghreb ont fait maintes fois l’objet d’évaluation de la par des organisations internationales. Mais ce sont les structures internes qui ne sont pas en mesure d’opérer l’EPP pour plusieurs raisons techniques et politiques. À l’ère de la mondialisation, des soulèvements populaires dans le cadre du « Printemps Arabe » et des crises où le capitalisme d’Etat revient en force l’analyse sociologique et stratégique et démocratique de l’action publique l’EPP revêt aujourd’hui une importance cruciale tant dans le processus de son élaboration, que sa conduite et sa mise en œuvre . Les pays du Maghreb n’ont pas une culture et une tradition bien développées de l’EPP et des systèmes de gouvernance d’une manière plus large. Les taches assignées actuellement à celle-ci sont de plus en plus nombreuses et complexes. Il s’agit d’une démarche transdisciplinaire cognitive (fondée sur la connaissance et le savoir), pédagogique, créative, constructive, interactive et surtout démocratique. C’est une logique constante d’intelligence collective. Il ne s’agit pas d’une entreprise de « spectacle public » mais d’intelligence émancipée et partagée. Elle est au cœur de la nouvelle citoyenneté. « Evaluer c’est évoluer ». Dans cette perspective, au regard du « Printemps Arabe » de démocratisation et des risques auxquels se heurtent les pays du Maghreb et les pays arabes d’une manière générale ceux-ci sont appelés à consolider leurs capacités stratégiques et institutionnelles dans le cadre de leur processus de développement économique et social. Le retour du capitalisme d’Etat entraine aujourd’hui d’autres bouleversements, notamment le renforcement des liens entre l’entreprise et des impératifs de développement durable et de la transparence. Ces facteurs peuvent militer ensemble en faveur de l’évaluation. En l’occurrence cette dernière devra s’inspirer des méthodes et approches savantes de stratégie, de gouvernance des humanités et notamment de valeurs d’éthique dans le processus de création de richesse et d’équilibre de pouvoir. Dans une période de crise profonde et « silencieuse » de l’éducation, l’enseignement est devenu victime de l’économie. La démocratie a tout à y perdre. La prise en compte des risques liés à l’environnement constitue aujourd’hui pour l’Homme une source d’angoisse ; qu’il s’agisse des phénomènes de catastrophes naturelles, météorologiques, de maladie ou des résistances culturelles et mentales. Le concept de risque entant que concept sociologique ne peut être traité comme une pure réalité objective. Il se propose comme acte, engagement performatif plutôt que comme fait brut. Un risque se prend, se court, se refuse, après avoir été envisagé, calculé, et couvert. Le risque c’est un style d’être au monde. C’est le caractère d’engagement moral, idéologique et pratique qui nous intéresse dans le risque. II – Problématique et objectifs du projet : Quel est l’apport de la bonne gouvernance à la croissance économique ? Peut-on assurer la croissance économique en l’absence de bonne gouvernance ? l’émergence de l’évaluation globale des systèmes de gouvernance au Maghreb s’accompagne d’un défi de taille en rapport avec les apprentissages acquis et la nature des projets et politiques de développement envisagés dans ces régions( attentes des citoyens et exigences de la génération face book et twitter , partenariat économique, paix sociale, processus démocratiques, violence et terrorisme ) qui se heurte notamment à un déficit institutionnel et stratégique de taille. En l’occurrence les recherches en la matière ne font que concrétiser la pauvreté pour ne pas dire la misère de la réflexion stratégique dans les pays du Maghreb. Ce projet est ambitieux. Il consiste à : • Présenter une brève présentation de quelques modèles et expériences étrangers, d’EPP et des systèmes de gouvernance ainsi que les pouvoirs qui leur sont confiés en matière de la reddition des comptes , de reporting et de débat public en vue de réfléchir sur leur adaptabilité au contexte institutionnel et socio culturel maghrébin ; • Faire l’état des lieux des structures et mécanismes institutionnels mis en place en matière d’EPP et des systèmes de gouvernance dans les pays du Maghreb ; •  Définir le fonctionnement et le rôle assigné aux systèmes d’évaluation (parlement, cours des comptes, Think tanks, ONG, citoyens, universités) dans le processus de développement socio économique dans ces pays; •  Réfléchir sur le pourquoi ce besoin d’évaluation est croissant ? pourquoi son développement est difficile à l’épreuve de la nouvelle citoyenneté et des nouvelles mutations ?; quel est son apport à la consolidation de la démocratie et la promotion du débat public et du reporting ;

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

63


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

 éfinir les contraintes auxquelles se heurte le développement de l’EPP des systèmes de gouvernance dans les pays maghréD bins et notamment au Maroc ?; •  Analyser les perspectives et les conditions de développement de l’EPP plus particulièrement au Maroc ,à la lumière des dernières réformes constitutionnelles initiées •  Contribuer à l’évaluation des modalités mises en place pour renforcer les capacités techniques et l’indépendance relative des institutions d’évaluation des systèmes de gouvernance dans le processus de développement d’une culture de reporting , de reddition de comptes et de l’ assistance apportée tant au parlement et au gouvernement qu’ à l’opinion publique et aux citoyens. •

III – Méthodologie du projet : Le projet adopte une démarcher une démarche déductive inductive à la fois analytique et pragmatique fondée sur l’étude du cas marocain à la lumière du Printemps Arabe et ses révélations en matière de la réforme des institutions de l’Etat notamment dans le domaine de l’instauration des instances de gouvernance et d’EPP.

Policy Analysis Styles in Brazil Christina ANDREWS Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil; christina.andrews@unifesp.br This paper presents a review of the main methodological approaches — or “styles”— used for policy analysis in contemporary Brazil. The purpose of this review is topoint out the origins and development of policy analysis in the Brazilian context. Two methodological styles — economic and sociopolitical — are discussed through examples of policy analysis studies developed in Brazil in the past 20 years. The review initiates with an historical account of the emergence of policy analysis in Brazil, and the reasons why it developed independently from the Anglo-Saxon policy analysis tradition. Up to today, classical authors in the field of Policy Analysis — such as Harold Lasswell, Charles Lindblom, Theodore Lowi, YehezkeI Dror, and March and Olsen — have not been translated into Portuguese. The only exception is Herbert Simon, who had his book Administrative Behavior translated and published in Brazil in 1957 thanks to a cooperation program between the Brazilian government and the USAID. 1 Consequently, public officials that have worked with policy analysis in Brazil in the past 60 years did not have contact with this literature during their academic studies. Policy Analysis as a specialized field emerged in the early 1950’s in the US, having as its landmark the publication of the book The Policy Sciences: Recent Developments in Scope and Method. 2 It soon was regarded as a tool for decision making in government. In Brazil, however, the intellectual and political attentions during the 1950’s were focused on economic development strategies. During the 1950’s and early 1960’s, policy analysis in Brazil and in Latin America was influenced by the works of United Nation’s Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean (ECLA-CEPAL).3 Therefore, while Policy Analysis in the Anglo-Saxon world emerged from Political Science, in Brazil and in other Latin-American countries Policy Analysis meant, above all, the analysis of policies aimed at promoting economic development. This emphasis on economic development lasted for several decades, until it found its limits in the economic downturn of the late 1970s, a period marked in Brazil by the failure of the II Development Plan and by the debt crisis. 4 As a consequence of the changes in the global economic environment and the long period of recession in Brazil that followed it, the 1980s came to be referred to as the “lost decade”. During this period, in Brazil as well as in other Latin-American countries, developmentalist policies were replaced by macroeconomic adjustment policies under the influence of the Washington consensus. Though developmentalism was forgotten, Economics remained as the discipline guiding policy analysis, this time under the influence of neoclassic theory. It was only by the end of the 1980s that policy analysis began to make used of the methods from other social science disciplines. The promulgation of the 1988 constitution marked not only the end of the authoritarian rule but also the introduction of the conception of social rights. As a consequence, policy analysis began to incorporate methodological styles from social sciences disciplines other than Economics. Nevertheless, due to the fact that policy analysis emerged in Brazil without having contact with the Anglo-Saxon tradition in the field, Economics remained as an important influence. Thus, the two main styles in Policy Analysis in Brazil are the “economic style” and the “sociopolitical style”. The former style refers to the policy analysis studies that used methods borrowed from Eco-

64

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

nomics — such as cost-benefit analysis — and other quantitative methods. The later refers to the studies that use qualitative methods traditionally associated to Anthropology, Political Science and Sociology. The two styles, however, present pitfalls; policy analysis remains a field that is underdeveloped in Brazil. While the sociopolitical style is seem in numerous academic studies, microeconomics and its methods are the preferred tool for policy analysis in the federal government. In the past 15 years, a new socioeconomic context emerged in Brazil. The reduction of poverty, the relevance of social policies, and the discovery of large petrol reserves all put new demands on public policies. The article concludes with recommendations in order to accelerate the development of policy analysis in Brazil as a field of inquire and of policy guidance. 1 Simon, Herbert (1957). Comportamento Administrativo. Rio de Janeiro: USAID. The book is currently out of print; the latest edition is from 1972. 2 Lerner, Daniel & Lasswell, Harold D. (Eds.) (1951). The policy sciences: Recent Developments in Scope and Method. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 3 One important work of this period was the essay by Raúl Prebisch, “Economic Development in Latin America and its Principal Problems”, first published in 1949. See Prebisch, Raúl (1950). The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems. New York: ECLA, UN Department of Social Affairs. 4 Carneiro, Ricardo (2002). Desenvolvimento em Crise. São Paulo: Editora da UNESP & IE - UNICAMP.

U.S. Voluntary Organizations Promoted by Mexican State Governments: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy Implementation. Adrian M. VELAZQUEZ University of La Verne, United States of America; avelazquez@laverne.edu Historically, the United States has been a common destination for immigrants from every corner of the world. Nowadays, immigrants predominantly arrive from Latin American countries, especially Mexico. While arguments can be cited both in favor and against immigration, the proliferation and consolidation of ethnic/immigrant non-profits in the U.S. has been rising “in the last three decades in a more open and accommodating society” (Hung, 2007, p. 707). Hung’s (2007) analysis of Asian-American and Hispanic non-profits in major U.S. Metropolitan areas provides an excellent macro-level perspective of different types of immigrant organizations. Hung’s (2007) use of electronic databases of the Bureau of the Census’ consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSA) provided a snapshot of the composition and functionality of immigrant non-profits. Hung (2007) posited that the Hispanic community usually focuses on service agencies. However, truly understanding the mission and services they provide to immigrants living in the U.S. requires more details. Bielefeld (2000) and Froelich, Knoepfle and Pollak (2000) have demonstrated the reliability of the information contained in the voluntarily-filed Form 990, the annual report of non-profit organizations generating revenue of $25,000 or more, to introduce other alternatives for researching non-profits at the macro-level. Cortes (1998) also analyzed Hispanic non-profits using Internal Revenue Service (IRS) electronic data, such as tax returns. Such an approach ultimately leaves out of analysis those community organizations not duly registered as non-profits or those who choose not to file Form 990. The author of this study will use a contrasting approach. This paper analyzes the organizational structure, mission, vision, legal framework, funding processes, and community activities of one model of Hispanic non-profit organization based in the U.S., which is directly supported by the state government of Guanajuato, Mexico. An in-depth analysis of this type of organization will provide a much needed perspective on the features of the model to provide community services. It will also offer insight on the organizational processes that shape these voluntary organizations, as promoted by public funds and guidelines issued by the Guanajuato state government. The paper will also provide information on the role non-traditionally international governmental entities play in the composition and activities of U.S. based voluntary organizations. The State of Guanajuato in Mexico is one of the states in the neighboring country that annually contributes a high number of immigrants to the U.S. (Zúñiga Herrera, Leite Neves, and Acevedo Prieto, 2005). Given this phenomenon, the state government of Guanajuato has an interest in providing services and resources for Guanajuato-born Mexican immigrants living in the U.S. It also needs to maintain contact with these immigrants to provide alternatives for the use of remittances.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

65


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

One way of accomplishing this is through the changing relationships between voluntary organizations, founded by Guanajuato former residents living abroad, and the state government. Service-focused voluntary organizations coordinate, through immigrant specific governmental educational programs and public works, the development of projects in Mexico at the immigrants request. These projects are funded using a structured shared financial responsibility between the immigrant community abroad and the municipal, state, and federal governments. Reciprocally, Guanajuato’s state government finances U.S.-based community-oriented activities, services, and projects. Currently, close to fifty voluntary organizations of people from Guanajuato operate in multiple locations in the United States. Highly populated Mexican immigrant areas even have state government officials permanently coordinating activities and providing services to these organizations. These officials also serve as a link between the state of Guanajuato and the voluntary associations, and are included in the payroll of the state government. With the proliferation of such entities and the rising number of Mexican immigrants in the U.S., it is important to understand more about the issues state governments represent and legal framework under which these organizations operate. The goal of this work is to present an in-depth analysis of the voluntary organizational model supported by the Guanajuato state government. Special emphasis is given to analyzing policies and regulations governing the financial and technical support provided to U.S. based voluntary organizations, along with practical considerations on implementation. The methodology involves document analysis along with original data obtained from interviews with state government officials and community leaders in charge of voluntary organizations. With the addition of other state governments in Mexico using similar models to stay in contact with natives and provide services to their populations, the need to obtain more information on this topic is crucial. Alternatively, it will also present a discussion on how these organizations promote integration/adaptation of Mexican immigrants to the United States. This work should provide useful information to conduct further research on this type of organization, as well as to expand the inquiry to other ethnic/immigrant groups. References - Bielefeld, W. (2000). “Metropolitan nonprofit sectors: Findings from NCCS data.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29: 297–314. - Cortes, M. (1998). “Counting Latino nonprofits: A new strategy for finding data.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 27: 437–458. - Froelich, K. A., Knoepfle, T. W., and Pollak, T. H. (2000). “Financial measures in nonprofit organization research: Comparing IRS 990 return and audited financial statement data.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29: 232–254. - Hung, C. R. (2007). “Immigrant Nonprofit Organizations in U.S. Metropolitan Areas.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 36: 707-729. - Zúñiga Herrera, E., Leite Neves, P. and Acevedo Prieto, L. (2005). “Migración México – Estados Unidos: Panorama regional y estatal.” [Migration Mexico – United States: Region and State Perspectives]; Consejo Nacional de Población. Secretaría de Gobernación, México. Available on-line from http://www.conapo.gob.mx/ publicaciones/migra2006_01/migracion.htm Internet

Leadership , governance , and public policy : socio ecnomic priorities and public administration - the case of Qatar Abdallah Yousef ALMALKI Institute of Administrative Development, Qatar; dr.aalmalki@iad.gov.qa This paper is dealing with the development of Qatar`s political and administrative, as well as its social and economic sectors. The paper is an attempt to show that, although Qatar is a traditional society, this heritage is an asset rather than an obstacle to development. The tribal tradition when combined with some features of modernity can play a major role in the development of the state, and this is very much evident in the case of Qatar. Public administration, although it is not that old in Qatar, has been and will continue to play a major role in Qatar`s development. A state in transition, Qatar is aware of its past as well as of the requirements of the future and the political leadership is trying to get the best out of the two worlds. The process, for the most part, has been a smooth one – there have been a continuous cooperation, consultation between the governor and the governed. Public revenues from the sale of oil and gas has been the major factor in providing the means for social development. But funds alone don’t make changes covering the landscape of Qatar`s society. It is the combination of the political as well as public administration that made the difference.

66

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

The future for Qatar is promising toward more public participation which should build on and solidify what has been accomplished so far. Finally, this paper is attempting to bring to light a different view from one developing country which is a traditional society in a state of transition which holds on its Arabic and Islamic tradition without conflict. The paper presents a platform for a comparative perspective.

Good governance and management autonomy Carlos MATUTE Mexico; cmatutegonzalez@yahoo.com.mx Good governance means that social power holders behave following the principle of non-intervention in the rights of communities or individuals in the pursuit of the common goal of a historically determined society. Autonomy is the principle that legitimizes the behavior of each individual or community. Autonomy is the right to undergo voluntarily legal order and it exist with independency of rule imposed by the political authority in a territory. In this sense, an essential element in a plural and democratic State is to assume the existence of this sphere of rights to any person, individual or collective. Autonomy is as the ideological foundation of the political institutions and is the rational weapon against the legal system inspired in the principle that «a social group most obeys habitually orders backed by threats of the person or sovereign people». The main consequence of man freedom is autonomy. In community dimension, this concept is the expression of its existence. But in a restrictive interpretation, autonomy´s first expression is individual rights and the awareness of community identity given by the positive rule. The relationship of command and obedience legitimated has its roots in the man freedom, which is the concept that explain and justify legal system. The purpose of law is to create rational spaces. The idea of autonomy differentiates persons and establishes rules of linkage between them. In hobbesians terms, legislate is put fences to keep walkers on the road and avoid them to fall over the cliff rather than to stop them and prevent them from behaviors which are prejudicial to others. Generally, man obeys to his unruly desires, audacity or lack of discretion. Law is historical and relativity matter. There is no identifiable motivation, nor an exclusive cause. There is not a norm of behavior, nor a nature determination that explain emergence, maintenance or disappearance of a collective person with technical, functional or regional autonomy. Random, the particular circumstances and the values of an era are the variables that give meaning and content to the legal form and social structures. Autonomy, which is a common notion in the legal orders, has two dimensions: The individualist autonomy arises from the essence of man. It expresses itself as negative and positive freedom and it is exercised in a check and balance between reason and ethical values. The community autonomy is the aspiration to independence, so it seeks to avoid absolute subordination and looks for good governance. The purpose is to fulfill liberty in conditions of equal distribution of political domination. In negative terms, freedom stands as a limit to the tyranny. So in a plural society political independence is not a monopoly of the Government, neither the public affairs. In positive terms, it looks after ideal of good governance, which is all the possibilities of individual and collective autonomy and a limit to the tyranny of any kind. Autonomy as a legal concept is a technique that is used to recognized individual rights and to grant authority to a community. Traditionally, the exercise of the first would be considered in private law and the second in public. In its simplest expression is negative freedom and in the more complex is positive freedom. The individual can do everything what is not forbidden and authority can do only the conduct that is previously authorized by a rule. However, to the extent that the public and private terms are many-sided and ideological notions, public law and private are just techniques of development and application of legal norms. In that sense, the ideal of right and good is more than avoid doing harm, so autonomy is a concept useful to determine the relationship between negative and positive freedom, between the individual and the community and communities among themselves. Will´s autonomy is a fundamental legal principle that individuals employ to exercise their rights and oppose these to other individuals and groups.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

67


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The management autonomy is the basic legal tool for a group or community if they pretend to obtain a minimum of differentiation with respect to others or to change the relationships of hierarchy and coordination. This claim for identity is based on regional, functional, materials, professionals or technicians reasons. In this sense, my paper is related with two patterns of exercise of autonomy in the modern State. First one, the authority defines the social purpose and imposes it by means of laws, sentences and authority acts. There is a concentration of power, which affects preferences of individuals and groups. Second one, the civil society expresses its interests that usually are partial and selfish and obtains them with the power of money and privileges. There is a concentration of the market. In the first, authority/ government has priority and precedency. In the second, it pass to the background. Theoretically these models are opposites. What is the only concept shared by both models? It is autonomy. Absolute autonomy is called sovereignty that the State claims for itself and paradigmatic relative autonomy is the individual´s will and the free market. The democratic constitutional legal order establishes an intermediate model based on the recognition of autonomy to communities and public agencies. At least the management autonomy must be grant to government offices and public powers must be given to non-governmental entities. The first group includes administrative tribunals, the supervisory agencies of public services as the Federal Telecommunications Commission (COFETEL), the regulation of markets to prevent monopolistic practices as the Federal Competition Commission (COFECO) and the regulation of financial services (CNSF)(, CNBV, CONSAR and CONDUSEF), among others. In the second group, the political parties, religious associations, organizations of civil society, private welfare institutions, trade unions, chambers of Commerce, professional corporations, private companies that deliver public services, among others are considered. The principle must be “No autonomy should grow so much that could be capable to cancel the others autonomy nor obtain unfair on advantages”. This principle is valid in the case that autonomy´s source is the law or the market. The intention of the paper is make an approach to the process of determining the concept of autonomy in legal orders. There is a typology and degrees of autonomy in rules and judicial precedents, that can be classify, but is not possible to define with exactitude. The degree of autonomy is the result of the confrontation between individuals, groups and communities that defend its own interests and ideology. So there is the importance of defining with more accuracy management autonomy. This type of autonomy is granted to public entities to create a public administrative system that could aim good governance by the distribution of social power and assure the principle of non-intervention in the rights of communities and individuals. BIBLIOGRAPHY - Ackerman, Bruce. “The New Separation of Powers”, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 113, No. 3 (Enero, 2000), pp. 633-729. - La nueva división de poderes. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 2006. - Casamiglia, Albert. Racionalidad y eficiencia del derecho. Biblioteca de Ética, Filosofía del Derecho y Política, México, 2003. - D’Ors, Álvaro. Nueva introducción al estudio del derecho. Cuadernos civitas, Madrid, España, 1999. - De Vergottini, Giuseppe. Derecho Constitucional Comparado. México, UNAM-Segretariato Europeo per le Publicación Scientifiche, 2004. - Díaz, Elías y Ruiz Miguel, Alfonso. Filosofía política II. Teoría del estado. Enciclopedia Iberoamericana de Filosofía. TrottaConsejo de Investigaciones científicas, Madrid, España, 1996. - Haberle, Peter. El Estado Constitucional. México, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2001 - H.L.A. Hart. El concepto de derecho. Segunda edición. Buenos Aires, Argentina, Abeledo-Perriot, 1963. - Luis Vigo, Rodolfo. De la ley al derecho. Segunda edición. Porrúa, México 2005. - Pettit, Phillip. Republicanismo. Barcelona, Paidós, 1999. - Rawls, John. Liberalismo Político. México, Facultad de Derecho, UNAM y Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1995. - Schmidt-Assmann, Eberdhard. La teoría general del derecho administrativo como sistema. INAP-Marcial Pons, Madrid, España, 2003. - Schmitt, Carl. Teoría de la Constitución. México, Editorial Nacional, 1952. - Schmitt, Carl. El Leviatán en la doctrina del Estado de Thomas Hobbes. Biblioteca de Ética, Filosofía del Derecho y Política, México, 2008. - Tönnies, Ferdinaand. Community and civil society. Cambridge, USA, 2001. - Tsebelis George. Jugadores con veto. Como funcionan las instituciones políticas. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 2006. - Valls Hernández, Sergio y Carlos Matute González. Nuevo Derecho Administrativo. 3ª. ed.; México, Porrúa, 2011.

68

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Does good governance promote the inclusion of the private sector in the provision of public goods and services? Theory and empirical findings Andreas J. KNORR1, Rahel SCHOMAKER2 German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer, Germany; 2German Research Institute for Public Administration Speyer, Germany; knorr@dhv-speyer.de

1

In several ways, good governance is pivotal for economic development, as there is much evidence that sound governance structures and democratic participation in a country are able to promote growth in terms of GDP, attract foreign direct investment (FDI), and so on. Therefore, democratic governance and accountability is not the ending point after a country undergone economic and social developed, but the starting point for a more sustainable development. In our proposed paper, we provide some theoretical considerations as well as empirical evidence that the quality of governance, which includes not only the level of “politics” itself, but also the administrative level, is relevant not only for the macro-level development (increase of GDP and FDI), but also on a mi-cro-level: a stronger participation of private enterprises in service provision and the introduction of public private partnerships depends to a high degree on the institutional quality in a country. This is as more rel-evant as the improvement of public services or core infrastructure can be seen as a multiplier for further growth. As factors like the quality of bureaucracy are often linked to democratic participation and gov-ernment’s accountability, we will target this issue separately. Our paper is structured as follows: After a short introduction, we provide insight from the theory of “new institutional economics” to explain why sound governance, especially the quality of bureaucracy, regula-tory quality, or corruption control, is important to foster a stronger inclusion of the private sector. In a second step, we provide some empirical evidence, in particular with a view on the less developed coun-tries of the world. A conclusion and policy considerations conclude our proposed paper.

The Administrative System of MArket Policy in Mexico Hilda ABURTO MUNOZ INAP, Mexico; hiburto@gmail.com The administrative system of market policy in Mexican public sector is my main concern in this paper. It is just as difficult to understand as an isolated issue as other infraestructural decision making systems. It cannot be analyzed simply as an institution or an organizacional arrangement, but must be regarded as an integral part of the economic policy making for the past 30 years. Three important changes accompanied new aproaches in Public Administration: a) economic developement came to an end b) the introduction of supporting democracy lines have been applied through several political reforms and c) the State has come to a new course of action known as structural weakness. It is only by a complete examination of the condicional relations between a policy’s material content (“policy”), its decision making processes (“politics”) and its structural framewok of implementation (“polity”) that we can hope to be able to explain present time in Mexico. In the Mexican case political and administrative matters are so closely related and institutionalized that it is difficult to isolate specific decision-making rounds and implementation processes. These are almost always iterative processes, already functioning policies, wich must be respected by changes and reforming efforts. So in the field of Governance we are dealing with a larger degree of conflict and continuity; social integration and centrifugal forces that must be regarded as a whole. I will examine that institucional conditions are just as important as policy design and political strategic planning within this area. Politicians are unable to manipulate the institucional conditions in a quick and easy way, and have to take into account the selective perception of organisations and administrative units of problems and solutions as well as respect the multi-levelled and implementation arrangements. Anticipation is important: The participants of the policy making process are usually extremely good at estimating institucional feasibility. Proposals that will colide with the institucional rules very seldom end up positive decisions. A theoretical point is then that the appearance and strenght of institucional capabilities of the market system influence the definition of problems and the creation of interests. Consecuently, an análisis of the administrative system will also tell us much about political inertia and the constellation of actors and mechanisms of blocking. To this it must be added a historical argument of power politics: That with the increased unemployement and political right wing tendency there has been a loss of power of social organisations and more power to party bureaucracies to the extent that instability has emerged in the system. 2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

69


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Subtheme 2 – E  -Government, Instrument to Strengthen Trust Electronic Government - Web 2.0 supported electronic participation (esp. participatory budgeting) and trust in Government Kai MASSER, Philipp Nitzsche, Adriano Pistoia German Research Institute for Public Administration Speyer, Germany; kmasser@foev-speyer.de In recent years the importance of E-Government has, both in literature and in practice, steadily increased. From an administrative perspective, the initial primary purpose of E-Government was to increase efficiency and effectiveness through higher productivity, faster processes, and simultaneous cost reductions. However, creating satisfied «customers» and encouraging citizens to participate have increasingly become primary concerns of E-Government. In this context, the Web 2.0 has recently taken a greater influence on E-Government. Not only the advanced functionalities and applications but also the changing usage patterns in the Web 2.0 facilitated a new range of E-Government solutions. An internationally important application that could hardly be realized without these new possibilities is the «Electronic Participatory Budgeting (EPB)». In general, EPB is understood as the involvement of citizens in the decision making processes on the spending of a defined public budget by means of modern information and communication technologies (especially the Web 2.0). Past studies have shown that the Web 2.0 integration into German Participatory Budgeting Projects is still at an early stage. Nevertheless the Web 2.0 based approaches to Participatory Budgeting intent to foster trust in (local) governments. Citizens’ engagement and the transparency of government action, especially the budgeting process, shall be enhanced. On the other hand side, the problem of the digital divide is far from being solved. Like other approaches to citizens’ participation and democratic involvement, Web 2.0 Participatory Budgeting favours small and well organized groups with higher education and income. Therefore, EPB might weaken the trust in the system of local self government, also because it is (partly) in conflict with the system of elected representatives. In our paper we want to analyze (main features, performance) four typical approaches to EPB in German local government with regard to their impact on decision making and trust in local self-government.

LA PROTECTION DE DONNEES PERSONNELLES COMME CONDITION POUR GARANTIR LA CONFIANCE DES CITOYENS A L’EPOQUE DU GOUVERNEMENT ELECTRONIQUE. Gabriela VARGAS INAP, Mexico; gvargas@inap.org.mx Nul ne doute des énormes avantages sociaux et culturels qui ont pu etre obtenue avec l’arrivée des Technologie de l’information et communication comme outils d’amélioration de la gestion publique et de la relation État-citoyen, même dans un pays comme le Mexique, dont la culture de la méfiance, implique des efforts et ressources énormes que l’autorité doit mettre en oeuvre pour parer a ce probleme. La montée de l’e-gouvernement a été telle que la Charte ibéro-américaine du gouvernement électronique (eGovernment), a déclaré que les citoyens ont le droit d’interagir électroniquement avec les pouvoirs publics, en tenant compte que l’administration a l’obligation de répondre à toute procédure, quelle que soit leur nature ou portée, et dans les mêmes conditions que les moyens traditionnels. Il confirme également que le mode électronique ne peut pas affecter de quelque façon le degré de fiabilité des procedures engagees, mais en plus doivent apporter des valeurs ajoutées comme la vitesse et la disponibilité de l’information que la plupart des institutions ont en leur possession. Bien que nous ayons donc une simplification et plus d’agilité dans les opérations et les services qui sont effectuées quotidiennement, de nouveaux défis se presentes. Generalement le développement rapide de technologies de l’information, implique des violations a notre vie privée et ce pour l’absence de politiques et de mécanismes qui permetrait de l’inhiber. Le droit à la vie privée est relativement nouveau et il est considéré comme un droit de troisième génération. Rechercher a garantir la protection des personnes physiques à l’égard du traitement de ses informations, et d’assurer dans le même temps, le droit à l’autodétermination informative, ce qui signifie au titulaire le droit de décider lesquelles de ses données peuvent etre rendues publiques, comme à qui appartiennent les données et pour quoi. A considerer que ce droit dans certains cas n’applique pas, comme ce peut-être le cas pour des urgences sanitaires ou de sécurité nationale.

70

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Pour cette analyse, je me réfère en particulier dans le traitement des données personnelles détenues par le gouvernement, contenu dans la Loi fédérale sur la transparence et l’accès à l’information. Dans tous les pays à différents moments et de différentes manières, le mauvais traitement des renseignements personnels des citoyens par des fonctionnaires, se sont produites la plupart du temps pour le manque de protocole de securite. S’il est vrai que sur le plan international, récemment un cadre s’est développé avec l’objectif de generer ces protocoles de securite, dans notre pays nous debutons a peine. Il est intéressant de noter que jusqu’à Juin 2002, annee de la creation de la loi fédérale sur la transparence et l’accès à l’information, personne ne parlait de la responsabilité des institutions publiques, des mécanismes d’accès de classification et de la protection adéquate des données personnelles. Dans le cadre de la réforme de l’article 6 de la Constitution en 2007 pour assurer l’accès à l’information gouvernementale dans les fractions II et III, il est reconnu le droit à la protection des données personnelles et sont constitués de façon à limiter le droit d’accès à l’information. Ces fractions indiquent que les informations relatives à la vie privée sera protégée, et que tout le monde a le droit d’accéder et de rectification ses données personnelles. De même, l’article 16 reconnaît et réglemente le droit à la protection des données personnelles, en disant je cite l’article: • [...] • Toute personne a droit à la protection des ses données personnelles, l’accès, de rectification et d’annulation de ceux-ci, et pour exprimer leur opposition aux termes établis par la loi, qui établira les exceptions aux principes régissant le traitement données, pour des raisons de sécurité nationale, des dispositions d’ordre public, la santé et la sécurité publiques ou pour protéger les droits d’autrui. Comme on le voit, au niveau des politiques le Mexique a fait de grands progrès dans ce domaine, mais il reste encore a faire dans la pratique. Ce n’est pas un secret de parler de la vulnerabilite du registre des electeurs avec la publicaction sans autorisation prealable de l’IFE. Il est aussi de notoriété publique l’absence de mesures de sécurité dans les systemes de la RENAVE (Rehistre vehiculaire), ainsi que l’absence de protocoles permettant de sauvegarder des images stockées dans la réception des bâtiments public et privé, où il est devenu une exigence dans certains cas, prendre des photos pour entrer, cependant en retour nous ne recevons pas d’engagement écrit sur la prise en charge, la garde ou la destruction le cas échéant, de telles informations. Alors que l’autorité dans l’exercice de ses fonctions a les pouvoirs pour collecter ce type d’informations, soit pour la fourniture d’un service ou pour des questions statistiques ou de recensement, il est vrai aussi qu’à ce jour, il n’est pas évident dans la pratique que des mécanismes permetent aux citoyens de connaître précisément l’utilitè de l’information que nous fournissons pour un certain nombre de procedures administratives. Actuellement, les protocoles de sécurité des bases de données détenues par toute autorité sont essentiellement d’ordre technique. Et dependent des mecanismes et des protocoles de traitement et transfert qui sont mises en places par les responsables de la securite informatique. Si nous ajoutons maintenant qu’il est de plus en plus courant de voir la presence d’entreprise d’Outsourcing pour la prestation de divers services, impliquant la transmission à des tiers de bases de données personnelles détenues par l’autorité, le problème revêt une importance accrue, car ces entreprises ne sont guère familière à leurs obligations à la nouvelle Loi de protection des données à caractère personnel. Si vous ajoutez également la nécessité de simplification et d’optimisation des services publics, avec des transferts de plus en plus frequents de donnees personnelles entre leurs differents bureaux. On observe alors un vaste réseau de services transactionnels ou des consultations. Le trafic de ces informations augmentera de façon exponentielle. Il est important de reconnaître qu’il y a peu de mécanismes pour la consultation et l’échange de données entre les institutions et qui permetent un environnement d’interopérabilité. Des conventions telles que la création récente entre l’UNAM et l’IFE pour l’evaluation des résultats électoraux, ou l’INEGI auprès de l’IFE pour localiser les zones de risque ou de conflit, sont des exemples de l’échange accru d’informations pour générer une action gouvernementale efficace, et qui représentent certainement des avantages sociaux. Par conséquent, toute initiative du gouvernement électronique devrait tenir compte que l’État possedent des systèmes qui garantissent un excellent niveau de fiabilité et de stabilité des applications développées, accompagnée des conditions politiques et juridiques a leur développement, et regit par le principe directeur de la protction des droits des citoyens.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

71


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

L’utilisation des TIC par l’Etat devrait être controle afin d’eviter une presence trop ecrasante dans le domaine des renseignements personnels sous le couvert d’une obligation administrative; ex. sécurité nationale. Savoir quelle information peut m’etre exigé pour la realisation d’une procedure ou pour mener à bien un service public, quel est le responsable de proteger mon information est un droit de chaque citoyen qui doit se conformer aux principes de légalité, d’équité, de proportionnalité. Tout le monde sait que l’Etat a l’intention de créer un registre national de la population, il en existe d’ailleur un pour les enfants disparus, et un autre pour le contrôle de l’immigration, cependant il ne faut pas ignorer la mefiance du public à l’egard de l’autorité qui supervise le traitement et le transfert de bases de données personnelles. En seulement quelques années nous sommes passés d’une culture de l’opacité à une culture de la transparence. Toutefois, il ne faut pas oublier que l’esprit de la loi est la transparence et l’accès à l’information de l’Etat par les citoyens et non pas la transparence des citoyens pour l’Etat.

The Road to Open Government: Exploring the Growing Influence and Use of Social Media in Government Prepared by: Dr. Robert P. Taylor, CEO and presented by Maria DAVID-EVANS IPAC, Canada; rmancini@ipac.ca As we begin to recover from recent economic turmoil, all orders of government and other public sector organizations are facing challenges that are increasingly complex. The public sector must learn to adapt and exploit new technologies that are rapidly changing the environment in which we live, work and play. IPAC has recently undertaken research to document the use of social media in Canadian Government and the impediments to its broader application. Our research has found that while currently there is very limited use of social media, there is a clear interest in exploring wider application of such technologies. There are many forces driving governments to transform themselves but must contend with and overcome a variety of barriers. British Columbia is a case example of a Canadian jurisdiction that has embraced the concept of Open Government. IPAC has also recently introduced its own secure social media platform called Public Service without Borders.

How to Pass Environmental Protection Information to the Online Public? Xiao Song Dong Sichuan Administration Institute, People’s Republic of China; 1007244543@qq.com I Introduction The protection and development of environmental resources and social responsibility is an area of growing importance for publics, governments, and the society at large. Persuading publics to act in an environmentally-responsible manner is a particularly challenging task, as the beneficiary of pro-environmental/social behavior is not always directly the public herself but often society, other publics, or the planet. Few scholars have considered the impact of the form of the online information delivery on communication effectiveness in environmental protection. This paper reports results in the online situations, to provide detailed understanding of the views of online public in information communication progress. The objective of this article is to examine the impact of psychology distance factors on online environmental policy delivery. We develop a model that enables us to better understand the factors that drive the public online information behavior by decomposing search behavior into the internal psychological effect. This literature has primarily focused on three points: (1) we investigate factors, which are the citizens’ internal psychological aspects of the online information search such as risk aversion, professional knowledge and search ability; (2)the internal psychology are the key factors for the public search behavior, and we would empirically indicate the impact of it; (3) we prove that there are significant choice differences of online browsing strategy between heterogeneous citizens,and we analyze the probability distribution of the citizens’ demographic characteristics in choice the online browsing tool. Our aim is to identify the respective role of each type of factors in determining the citizens’ choice of online browsing strategy. In this paper we highlight the role of the psychology distance factors that should guide the degree of access to environmental protection policy.

72

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

II Online Channel of Environmental Protection Information and Psychology Distance III Methods and Variables IV Empirical Estimation V Discussion These findings provide evidence for the importance of internal psychology distance factors in determining the online path and channel to environmental protection information. Search ability influence online browsing behavior. If one individual citizen with higher search ability start his online browsing, he will tend to use. VI Conclusion These findings provide a clearer picture of how psychology instance affects the public to obtain environmental protection information in the web. In addition, this paper indicates that the government needs to understand the characteristics of the public information behavior and release the environmental protection information in the appropriate online channels.

eHealth in the Public Sector: An Empirical Analysis of the Acceptance of Germany’s Electronic Health Card Linda MORY German Research Institute for Public Administration Speyer, Germany; mory@foev-speyer.de Given the increasing importance of eHealth as an integral part of eGovernment, this contribution concentrates on the issue of acceptance regarding the introduction of the German electronic health card (eHC). The starting point of this study is the high discrepancy between the considerable potentials of the introduction of the eHC and the low level of acceptance by service providers, i.e. physicians. A brief introduction highlights the relevance of the subject and the differing acceptance rates of patients and physicians. Based on both the technology acceptance model and the relevant literature, important factors influencing the attitude towards and the potential use of the eHC are conceptualized and integrated in a research model. The model contains the dimensions of perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use. These dimensions are expanded by other external factors or determinants in the context of the eHC. For the construct of perceived usefulness five external factors are discussed and empirically analyzed: social influence of the environment, efficiency of the system, productivity and performance expectations, involvement in the implementation and the cost-benefit ratio. The construct of perceived ease-of-use contains three external factors: compatibility of the system, usability of the system and manageability of the system. The empirical examination was conducted throughout Germany through an online survey of physicians. Overall, 502 responses were collected and included in the analysis, which was carried out with structural equation modeling using EQS. The empirical results show that the relevant determinants of the acceptance of the eHC in Germany, such as efficiency and usability of the system and the cost–benefit ratio, were properly identified. Moreover, specific implications for research and practice could be deduced.

Governance of e-government: implications of a new sector of public management for trust and accountability David C.G. BROWN University of Ottawa, Canada; davidcg.brown@rogers.com In 1993 the Canadian federal government established a Chief Information Officer (CIO) in Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS), the central agency of government that has policy oversight of management practices across the ;public service. This was an institutional response to the technological changes in the 1980s and 1990s represented by the Internet. Although its responsibilities have varied over time, the CIO has led efforts to harness new information and communications technologies (ICTs) in internal administration and service to the public. The CIO has policy responsibility for management practices in the federal public service with respect to the management of information technology and of information, including freedom of information, privacy and security as well as for service to the public and internal services to government. In the past the CIO’s mandate has also included policies governing the management of government communications, including publishing and media relations.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

73


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The paper presents the CIO as an institutional case study of how one national government has organized itself to address forces that are faced by all governments. It argues that the CIO’s range of current and past responsibilities creates a functional “map” that defines a new public administration sector on a par with traditional fields of financial management and human resources management. Although situated in an internal governance model that is based on these older fields of public administration, the CIO introduces several new elements, notably the extent to which it touches on service to the public as well as partnerships with the private sector and other levels of government in Canada. The sector includes several areas of management practice that are intended to increase citizen trust in government and the accountability of public administration. However conflicts within and among these policy areas also limit the extent to which those objectives can be realized. The paper is based on research for the author’s doctoral dissertation on the CIO, completed in 2011. This in turn was informed by the author’s earlier experience as a career member of the Canadian public service. The research draws on government documents and publications, academic commentary and key informant interviews.

Building and Leveraging Trust to pursue Org Mandates by Architecting Ent. Syst. for Evidence based Operations & Transacting Knowledge Jayakumar KARUPPUSAMY Ministry of Science & Technology Government of India, India; kjaykay@yahoo.com In the course of pursuing outcome driven performances, building organizational capacity, or for pursuing a transition to knowledge based organization culture, it is necessary to build trust and partnerships with internal and external stakeholders, to facilitate accomplishment of goals and prescribed organizational mandates. It would be necessary to institutionalize progressive practices associated with such performance culture; through an enterprise support system that sustains evidence based professional methods. Enterprise systems designed with transparent methods for dissemination of information, allocation of work, measurement of performance and associated incentives for efforts and contributions that are made by various stakeholders are a pre-requisite to build trust, energize and promote organizational productivity. Trust results as a consequence of reinforcing experiences associated with objective methods and professional approaches to decision making. Such approaches rely on policies, practices developed and tweaked over time, on the basis of objective methods, rationale and supporting analytics/evidences that efficiently and effectively marshal relevant facts to help in ; (i) making it evident that decision making has been based on objective transparent methods (ii) disseminating the basis and underlying knowledge that helps avoid common errors/ misgivings (iii) pruning unproductive paths of reasoning (iv) ordering search for facts that fill the knowledge gaps (v) eliminating redundancy or extraneous aspects that obstructs clarity on issues (vi) reducing ambiguities (vii) leveraging and exploiting knowledge from complementary domain areas and (viii) examining options to resolve problems from multiple perspectives or levels of abstraction or granularity Elements of formal organizational constraints such as restrictive rules and policies can affect the performance and capacity of the enterprise to leverage and transact knowledge effectively and build trust in the enterprise systems. The more insidious constraints however, are the less apparent influence of organization culture, prior learning, habits, attitudes, peer influence and the pervasive effects of growth in organizational size. Modern organizational functioning is plagued with examples of dysfunctionalities, failure and poor strategic decision-making. These are often the result of misleading data, faulted logic, interpretation/ observation, inadequate analysis, misplaced assumptions and unsupported intuitions. The approach presented emphasizes the need for design and implementation of mechanisms for processing knowledge structures and handling transactions of information and knowledge resources for the purpose of explanation, prediction, and troubleshooting to be built in the enterprise solution that would lead to build up of trust and leveraging such trust for enhanced performances in organisations.

74

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

What Capacity-Building needed for the trustful CIO?: How to educate and train new generation of CIOs in Japan Hiroko KUDO Chuo University, Japan; hirokokd@tamacc.chuo-u.ac.jp Japanese e-Government as an instrument of public sector reform has rather a short history. In this paper, the author picks up one important aspect and figure of ICT use in public sector; the CIO in government, as is it a key figure of successful introduction, adaptation and governance of ICT in public sector, however has not yet been studied much from public sector managerial point of view. Prior to this paper, the author wrote some papers on CIO, mainly focusing on its function for e-Government, but in this paper the focus is on how to educate and train capable CIO, since the capacity-building of the public servants is becoming one of the most serious issues for e-Government. The very first part is a literature analysis on CIO and its role and function in public sector. The paper takes Japan as an example of this and first describes its e-government policy and its status, focusing on the issues raised by the government and by the public. Chronological reconstruction and analysis of major policies regarding public sector reform and e-governance in Japan are provided to identify its peculiarity. Japan and many developed countries have similar characteristics in their political and administrative systems, and had experienced similar political and administrative reform in the last decade. Political instability with frequent changes of governments, no significant changes in political power structure with one party dominance over years, and diffusion of corruption and interest politics, have been common characteristics of political system in some of these countries. Since the beginning of Nineties, Japan has changes in many ways; longer duration of governments, political power structure changes with rise of oppositions, guaranteeing accountability and transparency through reforms, have been realized. Japan has implemented series of political and administrative reforms, electoral reform, public sector management reform, fiscal reform, public service reform, and decentralization. The role and function of CIO has been established already for a decade in Japan, however the role has remained marginal with some exceptions. Analysis is directed to understand the state of CIO, through questioner among public servants working with and without contact to ICT in public organizations and through semi structured interview among officers in charge of ICT management. Finally the paper analyses the recent trends and issues of education and training of CIO in Japan. The tendency echoes that of public servants training, however with some peculiarities due to the characteristics of CIO. The paper tries to conclude with some findings and policy recommendations.

E-JUSTICIA Alejandro ETIENNE LLANO Supremo Tribunal de Justicia del Estado de Tamaulipas, Mexico; alejandroetienne@msn.com “E-JUSTICIA” is the Supreme Court of Justice of Tamaulipas’ comprehensive modernization project which includes electronic systems inside the judiciary that permits following, planning and elaboration of statistics in real time about every judge’s work, and also provides electronic services to citizens and attorneys which facilitates and guarantees access to a fair trial and justice. That double aspect makes it possible for a person involved in a legal process, from the very first encounter with our Supreme Court, to control electronically the process and the administrative issues that arise around it; all as a consequence of the interconnection of the electronic services and the electronic systems. This study will be based on the Tamaulipas´ Judiciary experience by showing all the data and the efforts which helped in achieving better results, reducing procedures times and allowing attorneys from different states and communities to reduce costs in their litigation activity. I. - Inside the Judiciary In order to make courthouses and administrative areas work, and to obtain a better overview about our justice and strategically plan the executive decisions, we have developed the following electronic systems: 1. Civil and Family Law Courthouses, Criminal Courthouses and Upper Courthouses Administration Systems: They allow to identify the status of a process and the due dates of terms through colored alarm-codes. They include a simplification of the steps required for each process, administrative users and statistics that the personnel is enforced to express in their reports. With just selecting an option the system generates files and lists what a specific area of the judiciary needs;

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

75


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

2. Income control: It allows to have an efficient control of the financial resources that the Judiciary receives through the Auxiliary Fund, simplifying daily operations and budget control; 3. Incentives and Judge Performance Evaluation: This electronic system permits detailed knowledge of judges, secretaries and all courthouse personnel activities. The objective is to distinguish those who show an outstanding performance according to the Judiciary’s requirements and increase their productivity and the quality of their performance. Several indicators are evaluated like punctuality, permanence and upper court resolutions. Also, Court’s Secretaries are evaluated in areas like work on-time, electronic system use, on-time document sending, etc.; 4. Electronic Process Communication: Tamaulipas is a very large state and in most processes judges have to send information and legal documents such as formal requests or rogatory letters. Through traditional post office it may take one to three business days to send and receive information. Nowadays, with the Electronic Process Communication system, our Courts may send formal requests just within seconds; 5. Terms and Stats: It allows real time monitoring of all courthouse’s work on just one screen. With this system you can see which processes is each courthouse working on, and whom is making the documents related to the trial and the type of document it is; 6. Online Internal Inspection: It permits to supervise online and on a daily basis. A screen was created to show an opticalcolored alert system that detects the fulfilling of terms for official documents and resolutions. This helps substantially in the decision making process to prevent and correct problems and is quite important to supervise adequately the jurisdictional functions allowing to improve the justice service to citizens. The systems established and functioning inside the judiciary, allowing adequate judicial and administrative activities control, makes possible to maintain accurate records of the information generated every day in each court in the Tamaulipas state. The generation and maintenance of real data has allowed us to be accountable to the society with greater efficiency, since the software development systematizes the information continuously available to the public and also shows the progress they achieved and opportunity area in Judiciary´s activities. II.- Electronic Services Information technologies have allowed the efficient improvement of the justice service, making it easier to access any process. It has also helped in developing electronic services that allow lawyers to make their work easier and more friendly through the following electronic operational systems: 1. Electronic File: With this service, a lawyer may see the file as it appears in court. It allows to consult all information available for all processes in PDF format, such as promotions, texts, court documents, opposite attorney documents, etc. It also provides an unique service for each attorney consisting in useful tools that help having control over the process. It has a personal agenda and Notes tool that facilitates trial management, incorporating reminders and terms for each process; 2. Personal Electronic Notification: If the attorney authorizes it, all Court’s communications can be done through the electronic system. A notification is sent by the Court to the lawyer’s account, who has a cryptographic token that is recognized by the program and opens up the documents generated with the day, hour, minute and second that the notification was done. Using an Advanced Electronic Signature each lawyer creates a unique username for this service; 3. Electronic Document Submission: After the lawsuit is filed, this service allows the attorney, back from his office, to send documents to the courtrooms without the need of doing t physically. When the lawyers are authorized in a process, they are able to send digitalized promotions to the courts in an electronic fashion using an Advanced Electronic Signature; 4. Process Server’s Head Office: When a lawsuit is initiated the counterpart has the right to know the content of what the opponent claims. According to Mexican law, every lawsuit must be notified by the officer in charge. In Tamaulipas we call him/her the “Process Server”. The Judge sends the lawsuit and other documents to the Process Server’s Head Office. In this Judiciary unit, utilizing a georeferenced system, the work is randomly distributed between the process servers, optimizing resources by time and distance through precise calculation in a computer-based cartography system. In Tamaulipas Judiciary we assumed the commitment to notify Court´s agreements within 72 hours of their expedition and lawsuits in no more than 5 business days. During 2011, a total of 122,494 notifications were made and from that number, 121,969 were accomplished in a period less than 72 hours. That means we had an efficiency of 99.57%. After taking a sample from 3 Judiciary Districts, we can affirm that after the implementation of the Process Server’s Head Office, processes’ length was reduced in an average of 38% for family law trials and 39% in civil procedures.

76

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

5. TRIBUNATEL: It is a call center that provides guidance and information in every judicial related matter such as complaints, legal terms, directory and orientation. It also provides assistance on-site, and through email and chat. During 2010, we attended over 2,000 calls, 290 on-site requests and 111 persons by chat. III.- Process Certification Tamaulipas Judiciary is presently certificated in 28 legal and administrative processes by the ISO 9001:2008 Standard. We have a certified Filing Office for the reception of every lawsuit and its attachments and relative documents, its digitalization and its communication to courthouses. The reception of documents, filing, notification, summons, answers, evidence, arguments, resolutions and appeals are certified in 29 courts, including Collegiate and Unitary Courts. This certification grants us to have a standardized jurisdictional process, and has helped in measuring with accuracy the steps in trials of civil and family law. The measurement includes times for notifications, resolution bring-ins, and notifications publication, quality of resolutions, attention and cleanliness. Conclusion There is no doubt that judicial activities are extremely important in a democratic society as ours that is because citizens bring a large variety of disputes before the Judiciary. Given that relevant attribution, in the Supreme Court of Justice of Tamaulipas, through the use of technologic tools and E-JUSTICIA, we have achieved the complete standardization of processes and a correct measurement of them. Taking advantage of technology has permitted us to discover areas of opportunity in the decision-making process and the development of new tools to facilitate the judge’s work and it also allows us to monitor, plan and produce statistics of the trials under our Supreme Court of Justice jurisdiction. These tools make it possible to do a real and concrete observation of the courts performance, which in turn helps us take the correct decisions in the administrative areas in order to provide the justice service in an efficient manner. This with the firm intention of continuing to act with transparency and accountability in the management of the resources at our command, performing regularly accountable to the public, who is the main target of the activity of the judiciary.

Online Contentious Administrative Trial. Developing the capacity of the Public Administration to strengthen the trust of the citizens and the improvement of the mechanisms of transparency and accountability. Gladys MORALES RAMÍREZ UNAM, Mexico; gf.moram@gmail.com The online contentious administrative trial, created in Mexico by decree on June 2009, is one of a kind trial that uses tecnology to make more efficient the stages of a contentious administrative procedure (notifications, evidentiary, resolutions, etcetera). This electronic juridical procedure constitutes the most modern, economic and expeditious way to access the administration of justice for mexican citizens. As a matter of fact, from the year 2000 the number of cases submitted to the Federal Court of Fiscal and Administrative Justice increased almost three times, in a period of seven years the number of cases went from 37,511 to 118,006. As the number of judges and the staff of the Court hasn’t increased in proportion of the cases, the resolution of them has been delayed, violating the constitutional right of mexicans to access to justice promptly and expeditiously. So, a solution needed to be found. Considering that the Informatic Tecnologies (IT’s) are a way to improve public managment, increasing the effectiveness and quality of public services (National Developing Plan 2006-2012), the mexican president decreed the creation of a trial that could be fully substantiated throught Internet, the «online contentious administrative trial». This paper analizes the operation and technical requirements of the online contentious administrative trial decribed on the laws, as well as the advantages it represents for developing the capacity of the Public Administration to strengthen the trust of the citizens and the improvement of the mechanisms of transparency and accountability. On the other hand, considering that, at least in Mexico, the new tecnologies as the Internet are often seen as a non personal way of communication and, on the other hand, a great amount of the population doesn’t have access to it, in fact, many mexicans don’t even have electricity, the present paper also approaches the disadvantages of this informatic tool regarding to technical and juridical issues.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

77


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Finally, the reader will find a serie of activities that the author considers the mexican goverment should impulse in order to achive sustancial results with the implementation of this online trial, such as the technical training of public servers and lawyers and the improvement of the law system in general.

E-government developments in the Czech Republic: challenges for accountable (e-) government David SPACEK1, Juraj NEMEC2 Masaryk university, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Czech Republic; 2Matej Bel University, Faculty of Economics, Slovakia; david.spacek@econ.muni.cz

1

E-Government represents one relatively fashionable field of research. Its literature is vast. The terms like e-government and egovernance usually refer to initiatives of governments that build on possibilities of new ICTs to serve as an (due to digital divide still to a certain degree alternative) instrument for practical achieving of improvements in governments, their bureaucracies and decision- and policy-making and evaluation processes in many ways - e.g. by simplification and shifts of administrative burden from citizens to public administration, speeding up of processes, reduction of costs, enhancement of inclusion in public decision-making, control empowerment, making necessary administrative interactions and burdens more comfortable etc. In e-government policies, legislation and projects of EU member states, we may distinguish following trends: establishment of new / revision of existing national portals that sometimes innovate their service delivery mechanisms (e.g. by using mobile IDs, by enhanced possibilities of personalization) or focus on a specific field of communication between government and businesses / citizens (including projects from the areas like e-procurement, e-invoicing, e-health, e-justice, e-environment and others) • piloting e-participation and e-democracy projects (including the community building projects), • promotion of more internationally recognized eIDs, • searching for instruments enhancing effectiveness and efficiency inside public administration (e.g. promotion of open standards and software solution, more complex managerial information systems as well as new institutional arrangements for e-government coordination and evaluation etc.). •

These trends bring fragmentation of e-government theory and practices which are hard to coordinate / integrate and raise questions about accountability of government as well as management and development of e-government itself. In the proposed paper, we will discuss what have happened in the post-communist development of e-government in the Czech Republic, following the lines outlined above, in order to address our three core research questions for the Czech conditions: Have changes facilitated trust of all actors into the cyber space? Have changes helped closing the gap between government and citizens? Have changes improved service delivery mechanisms? The synthesis will define main reserves and challenges of future development.

Overcoming the Digital Divide in Developing Countries: An Examination of Ghana’s Strategy to Promote Universal Access to ICT Kwaku Ofosu-Adarkwa1, Frank Louis Kwaku OHEMENG2 Accra Institute of Technology; 2University of Ottawa, Canada; fohemeng@uottawa.ca 1

The emergence of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in developing countries has been hailed as a major means to solving the underdevelopment of many of these countries. The assumption is that many of the developmental problems confronting developing countries such as corruption, delays in service delivery, public sector accountability and so on can be overcome with ICT, particularly, the internet and cell or mobile phones. It is thus believed that e-government or digital government will provide governments of developing countries with an effective and efficient channel to facilitate their internal administrations and improve their external services, thereby increasing transparency and generating a higher degree of trust for governments. Furthermore, there is a firm belief that digital government or e-government can enhance information flows in the public sector and encourage active, as well as effective public participation by citizens, especially in public policy making which in turn enhances government-citizen relations. 78

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

A major problem with the ICT, however, is what has been described as the digital divide: the existing gap or the difference in Internet literacy and aptitude between the citizens; or simply as the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities. Although this phenomenon is not confined to only developing, its incidence is more pervasive among them.. To address this problem, a vast majority of developing countries have or are developing policies that are geared toward reducing this gap to ensure that all citizens or at least, a greater number of their citizens benefit from the ICT. Ghana is one such country. The Ghana government has developed a policy to this effect. The objective of this paper is to examine the policy by considering the local definition of the digital divide and the steps that are being taking to address this phenomenon in Ghana. In essence, the focus of this paper is to examine the prospects and challenges of the Ghana government’s attempt at addressing the digital divide. The methodological approach to the study is three folds. First, we will review the extant literature that discusses the concept and implication of the digital divide. Second, is a careful examination of the policy content in its present form. The final methodological approach is an in-depth interview of policy makers and the ICT experts to understand the challenges confronting the government in this area and to assess whether the policy is sufficient enough to address the problem.

E-Government and Humanism Manuel QUIJANO INAP, Mexico; quijanomanuel@gmail.com An unavoidable challenge that is being faced today by the el e-government is its inclination to standardize and unify society. For us, the routine nature of interacting with computers seems to be so ordinary that we only become aware of their errors when it does not allow for exceptions to our needs and demands. The importance of Tele Public Administration to bring together Citizens and Government and vise versa is undeniable. Yes even if it is true that the advantages for both parties are many, there are still some notes for critical reflection. Maybe the first one is that democracy is governed by majorities without diminishing the role of minorities. This implies that the democratic condition of minority inclusion is left hanging in the air. In other words, there are some minority groups that are still unaware of e-government details, given their age, because they not have computer equipment at their disposal, or simply due to a legitimate rejection to new technologies. Reasons are countless, but the truth is that many human groups survive excluded from the new ways of communication. Regardless the degree of a Nation’s development, it is well known that today, some social groups exist, who have been able to cross the threshold of a new way of human contact through computers, and that in that same country also exist ways for social exclusion and alienation by not assimilating the new Information Technologies. I do not think it is desirable, nor democratic, for governments to standardize Citizens demands and needs and even less fair, to measure them according to a one dimensional point of view, given all processes are equal, and they must not allow for exceptions or discretionarily to take place. Nevertheless it is not the same a process exception that the peculiarity of strategic or priority matters, likewise the urgent than the necessary are not the same, nor are culture than education, neither the texture and contexture of political matters. If what is required from the government arena is for Public Administration to be effective and efficient, to fight corruption and impunity, and obtain measurable results in terms of quality, quantity and opportunity, there is no doubt, electronic or public management is a great working tool, given it does not allow for errors or ingenuousness to occur. However, we human beings are deeply and incurably narcissistic, and for us the idea that in some occasions we can get personalized attention is very pleasant, given that – in effect – aside from being vane, there are certain occasions when it is genuine and fair for the machinery of the great State apparatus to be tolerant of human errors, or of particular contingencies of what is possible or desirable. The routine nature of human work, in the public arena, requires certain degree of understanding that goes hand on hand with maturity and politics. As a matter of fact, what is not logical, is a component that has historically been found in acts of government, and due to those “injustices” we require a way of approximation to the humanistic definition of e-government. In a nut shell, one must be very foolish to try to define public e-government, without human errors, because without the passions and emotions the said concept can’t simply be defined. I with enthusiastic applaud, and welcome with open arms e-government, if and only if minority groups are granted a legal, administrative and political status in case of those who do not accept the said way of and interrelation with the bureaucratic public apparatus.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

79


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Leap-frogging using modern information and communication technologies (ICTs): Transferable strategies from the global North to the global South Sunday Akin OLUKOJU Athabasca University, Central African Republic; solukoju@athabascau.ca Shampa (2007) submits that E-governance highlights several elements of good governance such as transparency, accountability, participation, social integration, public financial management reform and development. However, Smith (2011) opines that there is little empirical evidence about the interaction of ICT implementations on institutional trust of the public sector. Consistent with the idea of promoting transparency and accountability via «leap-frogging» using modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) to force information into the digital form for easy access (R. Alcock, personal communication, March 31, 2009), this study will review the impact of modern technologies in promoting the unconventional approach of forced disclosure or exposure. A country in the global North (Canada) will be examined to verify whether e-governance truly facilitates an efficient, speedy and transparent dissemination of information to the public and other agencies for performance of government administration activities. The intended outcome of this study is to identify effective, innovative and transferable approaches successfully deployed in the global North that will help combat corruption, change the regime of secrecy and lack of accountability, as well as mitigate the recurring public financial mismanagement prevalent in the global South. Shampa, P. (2007). A case study of E-governance initiatives in India. International Information & Library Review, 39(3/4), 176-184. Smith, M. L. (2011). Limitations to building institutional trustworthiness through e-government: a comparative study of two e-services in Chile. Journal of Information Technology (Palgrave Macmillan), 26(1), 78-93. NOTE: The idea of using ICTs to help developing countries “leap-frog” was first shared with me by Hon. Reg Alcock, former Canadian Federal Cabinet Minister and Chairman of the Treasury Board, and who was at the time of our chat, the Dean of the Asper School of Business, University of Manitoba, Canada.

Development of E-government services in Iran: A Comparison of Adoption Constructs Lotfolah FOROUZANDEH Vice-presidency for Management and Human Capital Development, Iran, Islamic Republic of; piltan.mehrnaz@yahoo.com This survey has been conducted to observe what factors effect e-government adoption in Iran. The present research includes Demographic factors i.e. age, gender and education, IT knowledge, internet access, Trust, perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use and System and Web characteristics i.e. Reliability, Self-Service and linkage. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used to examine the relations. The results indicate that IT knowledge, Internet access, Perceived usefulness and Self-Service have a significant direct effect on e-government adoption. The results are significantly useful for successful deployment of e-government. Further research can also be applied using the obtained results to identify the indirect effects of the constructs. At the end some suggestions are offered to governors for good implementing of e-government in Iran.

80

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Subtheme 3 – Public Value, The case of Tourism Towards Sustainable Tourism: How to harmonise conservation of cultural heritage and natural resources with promotion of tourism, from Italian cases Hiroko KUDO Chuo University, Japan; hirokokd@tamacc.chuo-u.ac.jp The paper analyses the role of local governments in exercising tourism-related policies. Since tourism-related policies are multi-disciplinary and involves not only various level of governments, but also various departments and institutions, the network analysis of these actors is essential to understand the governance of tourism policy. Thus the paper analyses relationship among actors, including those of private sectors in implementing tourism policy. The analysis is realized in three phases: 1) legislation (policy level), 2) institution (function and competence level), and 3) implementation (action, monitoring, control, and evaluation). The paper focuses on two cases in two Italian Regions, especially on their tourism policy, cultural heritage management and conservation of natural resources. In relation to this, the paper also refers to their cultural policy in general and their environmental policy and management. The research includes, 1) collection of related legislations, policy documents, related data and materials, 2) questioners and semi-structured interview to public managers of related fields (tourism promotion, cultural heritage management, culture and environment), and 3) policy simulation and analysis. The third phase is elaborated as follows: 1) analysis of the institutional system (i.e.: outlining main key-players); 2) outlining keyperformance indicators in the system, and the factors impacting on them. To what extent the planning & control system can support interaction and collaboration between the system’s key-actors? Is it possible to foster “joined-up-government” mechanisms both at institutional and inter-institutional level to improve the system’s performance?; 3) analysing past performance indicators reference behaviour modes: is it possible to envisage any recurring patterns of behaviour in the relevant system’s key performance indicators? What main (tangible and intangible) strategic resources have been affecting the observed results?; 4) developing conceptual system dynamic models and preliminary simulation models to be used in group model building sessions with a selected group of key actors in the relevant system; 5) building simulation models to support policy making at various levels in the relevant system; and 6) using simulation models through facilitated strategic planning and policy-making sessions with key-actors. The first empirical case is the experience of Emilia-Romagna Region. The Region is well known for its public management excellences in many fields as well as its rich social capital, cited in the famous work of Robert Putnam. The excellent collaboration among actors in the Region has resulted in successful tourism, converting from the traditional mass tourism to sustainable agritourism. The paper analyses its policy, programmes, institutions, and social capital. The second and difficult case is that of Sicily, which has rich historical heritages but many issues regarding their management.

Managing Place Brands to Create Public Value through Sustainable Tourism – the Case Study of Toya-Usu Geopark in Hokkaido. Thomas Edward JONES Meiji University, Japan; tjones@meiji.ac.jp ‘Eco-brands’ have become an important point of differentiation; they allow consumers to make ‘sustainable’ lifestyle choices by certifying services, products and even places, and are also increasingly employed by governments who see ‘place branding’ as a way of creating public value via marketing approaches that leverage intangible assets such as cultural heritage and protected areas. Yet the popularity of place branding has resulted in a plethora of broadly similar labels emerging in multi-sector fields such as tourism, so that without careful evaluation it is unclear if they provide valuable reinforcement of sustainable targets or invite unnecessary overlap. This paper focuses on two protected area systems; National Parks and Geoparks. It attempts to clarify core differences between national and international ‘eco-brands’ to find out if combining designations at the same site does indeed provide reinforcement or instead increases wasteful redundancy.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

81


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The case study area in question is Toya-Usu in Hokkaido, which was among the first batch of Japanese Global Geoparks to be designated in 2009. The spa town of Toya is economically dependent on tourism, but is precariously positioned at the foot of Mt. Usu, a highly active stratovolcano which last erupted in 2001. The aim is to use the Toya-Usu case study to compare and contrast its new Geopark status with its prior role within the Shikotsu-Toya National Park, drawing wider conclusions for sustainable tourism. The paper opens by reviewing some characteristics of National Parks as a type of eco-brand, before identifying constraints to effective protected area management including:i) lack of clear-cut sustainable development goals; and ii) narrow range of institutional mechanisms to facilitate holistic management. Next, to see if the Geopark model addresses these shortcomings, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders sought to reveal key differences in Geopark management, including:i) an agenda more firmly focused on ‘sustainable’ development; ii) a broader range of stakeholders included in the management structure (e.g. Tourism and Citizen Committees). Research methodology and empirical techniques: The methodology employed in-depth interviews with expert informant stakeholders from different sectors, including representatives from national and local government; the private sector (businesses and services); scientific and educational committees; and citizens’ groups and NGOs. Additionally, quantitative data was sought though a questionnaire survey conducted on Park Volunteers, an autonomous organization involved with the day-to-day management of parks. As well as assisting salaried Rangers with protected area management, the Park Volunteers also play a key role in bridging the gap between (government) providers and (citizen) users of services, and therefore have hands-on knowledge of the core issues at stake.

Le papillon « Monarque » : échec d’une tentative de création d’une valeur publique. Cecilia CADENA INOSTROZA1, Susana ESQUIVEL RIOS2, Graciela CRUZ JIMENEZ2 1 El Colegio Mexiquense, A.C., Mexique; 2Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México; ceciliacomplutense@gmail.com Au Mexique, la nécessité de politiques de protection à l’environnement qui puissent équilibrer les besoins sociaux avec la responsabilité publique sur les ressources, ont mis en évidence le manque de capacité du gouvernement pour arriver à créer une valeur publique. Le rapport analyse les difficultés pour réussir à articuler les intérêts de divers acteurs pour mettre en route une politique de tourisme durable. Nous avons obtenu des informations empiriques sur la Réserve de la Biosphère du Papillon Monarque dans les régions du Michoacan et de l’état de Mexico. Vu depuis l’optique des réseaux de politique publique, nous avons analysé la relation et la position de différents acteurs dans le processus de cette politique. Ce qui nous intéressait c’était de connaître le rôle de l’acteur gouvernemental comme possible générateur de valeur publique. Nous sommes arrivés à la conclusion que dû au manque de capacité de négociation, la politique publique ne s’est pas établie avec des objectifs de conservation, et, par conséquence, il n’a pas été possible de créer une valeur publique.

Tourism: Sacred Cow or Silver Bullet? The Cancun Effect Linda M AMBROSIE University of Calgary, Canada; lambrosi@ucalgary.ca The policy goals of Cancún were to generate foreign currency and mitigate migration to Mexico City. In view of the heavy public sector investment to create Cancun in the 1970s, the fundamental question is the outcome of expenditure in terms of the well-being of local residents. Longitudinal data are analyzed to determine if dedicated tourism-resort investment generates sufficient revenue for social improvement and increased well-being plus surplus for further development. Or is tourism a source of economic deterioration, environmental degradation and social degeneration? I hypothesize that public sector mega-resort development no longer leads to poverty alleviation and a reduction in income disparities due to local institutional weaknesses and the current characteristics of a global industry.

82

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Although an initial boon to the national economy, since 1995 investment in the region has been a net burden partly due to the new tourism models of floating and fixed all-inclusives. Cruise ship visits have exploded in the past fifteen years with a six-fold increase in passengers. While utilizing local infrastructure, polluting heavily and damaging reefs, they provide little local employment and pay no taxes. Permanent all-inclusive hotels pay increasingly small amounts of tax due to transfer agreements and a malleable product mix of ground services, food and lodging that is modified on paper to lower tax burden. All-inclusives employ fewer personnel than regular hotels thus generating less payroll taxes which are eroded still further by minimum-rate pay and tax-free benefits. Despite industry complaints of over-taxation the construction of hotels in Cancún and environs has exploded from 200 rooms in 1972 to more than 64,000 rooms by 2007. The volatility inherent to tourism due to seasonality, consumer tastes, and various crises (recessions, hurricanes and H1N1) are aggravated by local institutional factors like a push for GDP growth, nepotism and the lack of accountability. The apparent success of resorts like Cancún has fueled construction but now under the all-inclusive model. In their euphoria and a myopic race for votes, local politicians push for more federal funds and increase local debt to support a bloated inefficient public sector. Cancun’s per capita debt has more than tripled in five years due to state and municipal borrowing. Both the municipality and the state were declared bankrupt in early 2011. The confluence of industry and local governance factors critically erodes tax compliance reducing funding for social projects and environmental protection in a country where tax effort is one of the lowest of the OECD countries and Latin America. The study shows that while Cancún initially provided economic benefit by creating jobs, foreign currency and surplus tax revenue, the development has not translated into proportionally greater security (economic, social and physical), more social programs or improved education, especially since the mid-90s.

Constructing “Our Sanya”: Continuous Improvement of Public Services and Collaborative Engagement of Social Governance Tao Sun1, Yang Zhou2, Fan Wu1, Lei Zhai1 Nankai University, People’s Republic of China; 2Sanya Municipal Government, People’s Republic of China; suntao@nankai.edu.cn

1

Hainan is the largest special economic zone and the only provincial-level tropical island in China. In January 2010, the State Council issued the official document of “A Number of Opinions on Promoting the Development of International Tourism Island of Hainan”. Hence, Sanya city of Hainan as China’s exclusive tropical seaside «professional tourist city», during its transformation of “Tourist city--International city--International tourism city”, Sanya government faces the intensive and arduous task for promoting tourism in order to achieve the public value for “inclusive growth”, to strengthen the functions of public services, and to improve the mechanism of social governance. To this end, this study explores the development model of “leading the rural by urban, promoting the agriculture by tourism, interactive and coordinated development of urban and rural”, with the purpose of adapting to Sanya’s economic situation, social structure, demographic characteristics, as well as its double-stranded historic mission of “modernization” and “post-modernization”. This study at first constructs the concept of “We” in terms of interests groups in Sanya, namely, government agencies, public sectors, local residents of urban & rural, transient population for winter hibernation, tourists, minority ethnic groups, social organizations and enterprises, then analyzes the vision of Sanya’s becoming an international tourism city. Using for references of some development experiences of typical international coastal tourist cities, this paper delineates Sanya’s issues of “prefecture city directly management of towns”, state-owned farms, distinctive ethnic minority groups, the complexity of large scale of recurrent population and foreign tourists, the citizenship of “migratory birds type” crowd, also points out the unsoundness of public service facilities and the weakness of agricultural infrastructures. Based on the research methods including fieldwork, focus groups, in-depth interviews, and a set of total 1400 survey questionnaires conducted in Sanya from November 2011 to January 2012, this study proposes some policy recommendation for Sanya’s continuous improvement of public services and collaborative engagement of social governance, in the meanwhile, suggests conversion strategy for enhancing democratic decision-making and administrative innovation, so as to improve people’s livelihood and promote the equalization of basic public services. The public vision for “Our Sanya” should be “a well-knit city with intensive development, an all-round well-off city, an international and inclusive city, a live city, and an eco-city”.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

83


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Switzerland Tourism: Model of Maximizing the Public Value Zhiwei LIU Chinese Academy of Governance, People’s Republic of China; drliu2004@sina.com The Switzerland tourism is considered to be a model of promoting and maximizing the public value. This paper will analyze how the public value is generated and delivered, and the analysis is elaborated through economy, politics, society, and culture. 1. The economic miracle of a country poor in natural resources Switzerland is a landlocked mountainous country which is sparsely populated and has a narrow area, so it was rather poor and undeveloped. In the ancient time, Swiss were always employed as foreign mercenaries, and risked their own lives to make a living. Nowadays, Swiss government and the people turn the badlands into world-famous sceneries for travel and holiday. Tourism becomes the major economic pillar of the country, and the per capita income continuously ranks atop in the world, creating a remarkable economic miracle. 2. The political miracle of a country composed by several nations Switzerland has several nations. The German-speaking people live in the valleys in the north; the French-speaking people live on the plateau in the west; the Italian-speaking people live in the mountains in the south. However, with the highly developing of the tourism, those people’s differences in language, culture, history, and character have made them the attracting elements to the tourists from all over the world. Thus the different people share the same profit of tourism, rather than contend with one another, creating a remarkable political miracle. 3. The social miracle of a country extraordinary in services The advanced tourism in Switzerland promotes the development of tertiary industry. The government, in its leadership role, has arranged a perfect infrastructural foundation, esp. an accurate transportation system, constructed convenient and comfortable accommodation facilities, and provided plenty of wonderful souvenirs. The Switzerland tourism is now a complete framework formed by travel, transport, cuisine, lodging, shopping, and entertaining, which supplies the best service, and it becomes the most populous brand worldwide, creating a remarkable social miracle. 4. The cultural miracle of a country sustainable in developing By fully using the special resources of Switzerland, the government is committed to develop two types of industries: the “small but delicate” industry which is less in consuming resources and high added value, such as watch, army knife, cheese, and chocolate; the “non-smoke” industry which is low-carbon and sustainable, including tourism, financial sector, and exhibition industry. The developing mode of Switzerland is a good example for other countries, creating a remarkable cultural miracle.

84

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

panel ouvert organisé pendant le congrès

Open panel organized during the congress

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

85


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The congress programme included also an open panel proposing new, innovative and controversial issues. The proposal had to stimulate the dialogue between the regional groups of IIAS and to respect the balance between the different continent by mobilising chairs and participants from over the world. Panel: Rethinking Public Sector Reforms in Democratic Developmental States Frank Louis Kwaku OHEMENG1, Francis Y. Owusu2 University of Ottawa, Canada; 2Iowa State University; fohemeng@uottawa.ca

1

Public sector reforms in developing countries (DCs) have a long history. In the 1950s and 1960, these countries sought to change the public sector with policies that expanded the role of the state in development. By the early 1980s, however, the public sector in many of these countries was seen as over bloated, inefficient, and distortionary, and the fulcrum for organizing “neo-patrimonial” and “clientelist” relations. Consequently, a number of them decided to pursue policies such as privatization, commercialisation, retrenchment, organizational restructuring, and pay reforms as part of public sector reforms under the Washington Consensus idea. Despite these reforms, the public sector could not enhance their development. The failure of these policies led to a new emphasis on good governance in the early 1990s under a Post-Washington Consensus (PWC) banner. The PWC reforms aimed to turn public service organizations into efficient, effective, and outcome-based organizations, geared toward improving service delivery. Unfortunately, by the late 1990s, these objectives have also not been realised. The failure of these policies that sought to reduce the role of the state in the economy has led to calls to bring back the state into development. The renewed interest in the role of the state derives from the experiences of developed countries, as well as that of the Asian countries that had benefitted, and continue to benefit from state-led development. Indeed, there is now a realization that addressing the developmental challenges and public sector performance in DCs would require the state to re-orient it objectives and to put fostering development first − along the lines of the developmental states in East Asia but from a democratic perspective. This approach, referred to as the democratic developmental state (DDS), is different from the statist approach implemented in many developing countries in the 1960s and 70s. Hence, the developmental state model, with its democratic credentials, seems to be the appropriate one for the many DCs looking for ways to pursue development agendas. If the DDS is the route to development in these countries, then what kind of public sector is needed in a DDS? This panel is an attempt to contribute to discussion. Specifically, we seek empirical and theoretical papers that explore strategies for developing effective public sector for DDSs. Key questions to be answered include: what public sector strategies have been implemented in developing countries in the past 50 years and how effective have they been? What has been the role of the state in these reforms and what are the issues and dynamics? How is the public sector being transformed in countries with democratic developmental agenda? What have been the effects of such polices on public services delivery? What are the effects of the reforms on organizational restructuring and development and human resource management? What are the prospects of the DPS enhancing development?

Strategic Management and the Developmental State in Sub-Saharan Africa: Thinking Beyond Botswana Charles Conteh Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada cconteh@brocku.ca Abstract This paper proposes a framework of strategic management as a conceptual tool that will deepen our appreciation of the prospects and challenges of the developmental state in sub-Saharan Africa. The discussion examines some of the implications of using strategic management as a conceptual and practical tool of development management in countries where the boundaries of the public sector are becoming increasingly porous and blurry. The paper also examines the extent to which the conceptual framework of strategic management would allow us to construct credible alternatives to bureaucratic authoritarian states in addressing the perennial challenges of administrative responsiveness and accountability to citizen aspirations. The framework developed in this paper is drawn from the author’s previous work on Botswana, but is currently being applied empirically to a comparative study of a few countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on the post-conflict contexts of Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa. Because the study is still being undertaken, however, the cases are not included in the present discussion (but will be discussed during the presentation at the conference.

86

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Résumés des papiers présentés pendant le congrès sous l’appel ouvert

Abstracts of papers presented during the congress under the open call

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mérida - June 2012

87


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

The Open abstracts was dedicated to authors who submitted an abstract for consideration to the 2012 International Congress of IIAS, but do not believe that their topic fits under any of the panel or special workshop topics. How Canada Reponds to Natural Disasters Abroad: A Model of Interdepartmental Collaboration Aaida MAMUJI University of Ottawa, Canada; aaida.mamuji@uottawa.ca The rising number of natural disasters, and the increasing number of people affected by them, has compounded the need to study the international disaster response systems of governments. For over a decade, Canada has been working on a system of interdepartmental collaboration to coordinate its international disaster-relief interventions, requiring close collaboration between a number of federal departments. These include the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT); the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); the Department of National Defence (DND); as well as other federal level departments, as required. This system is referred to as the whole-of-government approach and as detailed in its Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), results in daily task-force meetings upon disaster onset, providing a platform for prompt, government-wide action. It also includes mechanisms for consultation and engagement with members of Canadian civil society. Recently, Canada gained international recognition for its disaster-relief intervention in response to the January 12th, 2010 earthquake in Haiti, where the whole-of-government system was applied. It resulted in interdepartmental collaboration between nine federal level departments, with over 2000 Canadian Forces personnel deployed to Haiti to aid in relief efforts. What lessons can be drawn from Canada’s system for response to humanitarian crisis? This paper outlines the Canadian whole-of-government framework for response to natural disasters abroad, and highlights how it promotes: i) structural and ideational coherence; ii) joint decision-making; iii) shared accountability; and, iv) incorporation of civil-society. Drawing attention to the contentions surrounding the increased use of military assets in disaster-relief efforts and the role of media, this paper also raises concerns about the power of political leadership to sway disaster-relief interventions away from humanitarian principles. This paper is particularly useful for countries seeking to strengthen their systems for responding to natural disasters abroad.

To which Extent the Government guarantees Safety and Security?: From Japanese experiences Hiroko KUDO Chuo University, Japan; hirokokd@tamacc.chuo-u.ac.jp What is the “Community Planning for Safety and Security” in Japan? Since Japan has high risk of natural disasters, including earthquake, frequent heavy rain and flood, given its territorial conditions, which became much more serious in recent years, because of the concentration of population and economic activities in a few metropolitan areas and also because of the climate changes, it has become more and more important to guarantee citizen safe and secure society. Especially the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995 reminded the Japanese population the necessity of city planning, which enables protection towards possible disasters. Disaster prevention and risk control in case of disaster became important goals in city planning. The government introduced various policies, plans, and projects to realize both infrastructure and policy measures on this regard. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) has been in charge of both “hard and soft” policies regarding “Community Planning for Safety and Security”. The policy has a wide range of field, from earthquake resistant city planning to crime-free community planning, thus involving different levels of local governments and other Ministries. As the policy in question is very complex, so is the structure of the institutions involved. This paper aims to explain which institutions are responsible for what policy to which extent and to clarify the labyrinth of this policy and related organizations. They used to involve also the neighbourhood associations and/or self-governing bodies, however recent attention on privacy and growingly indifferent urban society have been making them difficult to operate.

88

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

Municipalities are responsible for various related policies: disaster prevention, training of residents and commuters, maintenance of facilities, guaranteeing evacuation of citizens in case of necessity, checking buildings and subsidizing earthquake resistant renovation projects, helping commuters who cannot go back to their home in case of disaster, first aids, and especially guaranteeing the safety of the citizen. They collaborate with the Regions and with the Ministries on this regard; however they are the first administrative bodies to respond directly to the citizen and thus, have significant importance. The paper first analyses policy and plans of Japanese government to guarantee safety and security, and institutions involved and their network. The paper points out the characteristics and issues of current system. Then the second part is the analysis of the impact of deregulation policy on this field and reregulation which followed some scandals. Finally, the paper illustrates the current situation of related policy, plans, and projects, which were partly revised and strengthened after the East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 and analyses the network of stakeholders and their interactions.

Explaining the varying support for governmental modernization Michiel S DE VRIES Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; m.devries@fm.ru.nl Governmental modernization is necessary in order to accomplish socio-economic development. However, just like any organizational change, in order to be effective the modernization of government also needs internal support, that is, the support of its employees. In order to get that support it is necessary to know what underlying factors determine whether public officials support or oppose such modernization. This is the question addressed in this paper. It explores the varying support amongst Dutch public officials for modernization of government, in this case to be narrowed down to the issue of performance measurement. We focus on the support for the introduction of performance measurement, because it was one of the main issues of New Public Management to introduce such performance measurement in the public sector in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness thereof (Hood, 1991, 1995; Bouckaert & Pollitt, 2004; Bouckaert et al. 2009). As such this became, next to hands-on management, an emphasis on output and controls that objectives are met, disaggregation of and competition within the public sector, copying private sector management styles and input discipline, a symbol of modernized government. Not everyone agrees with the introduction of performance measurement in the public sector. Neither scholars (see among others Haque, 1998; Loeffler and Bovaird and Loffler, 2003) nor practitioners within the public sector. In the Netherlands, a survey conducted by the ministry of home affairs in 2010 with a response by approximately 30,000 public officials out of all branches of government, showed that the support for and opposition against the use of performance measurement is equally split among public employees: 50% of the public officials is in favor and 50% is against the use of performance measurement. This paper makes use of these data and provides an explanation for this variance. It argues on the basis of statistical analyses that modernization might be necessary out of socio-economic reasons for society as a whole, but that it needs to be legitimized internally by pointing to the added value thereof for public sector employees personally. This paper gives shows which factors are important in this respect and makes recommendations how to increase internal support for modernization.

THE RISE OF EXECUTIVE AGENCIES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE CIVIL SERVICE IN GHANA Frank Louis Kwaku OHEMENG1, Felix Anebo2, Augustina Adusah-Karikari3 1 University of Ottawa, Canada; 2University of Ghana; 3Ghana Institute of Public Administration and Management; fohemeng@uottawa.ca Since the 1980s, the role and character of the state has been questioned and the public sector, in particular, and to rid itself being inefficient, ineffective, and unaccountable. Consequently, both developed and developing countries have embarked on public sector reforms highly influenced by the NPM ideals. The reforms focused particularly on the extent to which service delivery should be undertaken in a more efficient, effective, and accountable manner. In the mid 1980s, when SAP began in Africa, the public sector became the main target of reforms. The sector was considered overly bloated, inefficient, and distortionary. Hence, it was thought that the African economies could not be adjusted without the rationalisation of the sector in terms of its mandate, role, and modus operandi.

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mĂŠrida - June 2012

89


29ème Congrès international des Sciences administratives

Since the mid 1990s, however, the pendulum has swung back. It has been recognised that an important variable affecting development in Africa is the quality of the public sector. As a result, there has been the need to find alternative ways of organizing and managing the sector after the experience of the 1980s. The alternative vision has sought to create a decentralized, customer-oriented, and managerial public sector, with the creation of autonomous agencies as single-purpose bodies and to build the sector’s capacity. This process has resulted in the removal of some key parastatals from the mainstream public service in a number of African countries. A number of reasons have been proffered for the creation of such agencies; including improving the quality and cost of services available to citizens; adopting commercial and business principles in service delivery; and signalling that there is the need for objectively and more operational autonomy, while retaining accountability in the delivery of services. Although some African governments are doing this at an increasing pace, there remains a lack of empirical proof of the benefits to the public sector, especially the sector’s performance. Also no systematic studies have been done on the overall effect of ‘agencification’ on the rest of the public sector, especially the civil service. In this paper, we will address this research deficit by examining the extent to which, and the way in which, the creation of autonomous agencies has affected the civil service in Ghana. The paper attempts to answer two questions: What is the effect of agencification on the functioning and performance of public sector organizations? Has the adoption of agencification really addressed the failures and shortcomings of the civil service? The paper challenges the assumption that the agencification will increase the efficiency, effectiveness, and the quality of service delivery. Rather, what is being witnessed is the feeling of despondency among civil servants, which continues to affect their morale, as well as their overall performance. This in turn is affecting the capacity of the service with respect to the implementation of its core functions.

Creating Supportive Environment for Innovation: A Conceptual Model Study SUN RIU Chinese Academy of Personnel Science, People’s Republic of China; jinba869@163.com Innovation and creativity is becoming a topic of ever-increasing interest to organization and researcher. Various scholars have recognized the importance of innovation to organization’s competence. Researchers conceptualized and studied it from different prospects. How to foster innovation within High-Tech firms is a critical aspect of organizational effective management. This paper expands on this line of thinking on the organizational innovation and aims to explore determinants of work environment that are relevant with organizational innovation. In this paper, we attempts to examine the determinants of innovation in work environment and addresses the ways in which innovation is fostered in firms.Furthermore, we develop a model to expound the mechanism of innovation in work context.

90

Congrès international de l’IISA, 2012 - Rapport mérida - Juin 2012


29th International Congress of Administrative Sciences

2012 International Congress of IIAS - Report mĂŠrida - June 2012

91


www.iias-iisa.org Rue Defacqz 1, bte 11 B-1000 Bruxelles, Belgique e-mail: info@iias-iisa.org

Report- 2012 IIAS International Congress / Rapport - Congrès international de l'IISA, 2012,  

2012 International Congress of IIAS-Socio Economic Priorities and Public Administration Mérida - Mexico June 2012 Report Congrès internati...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you