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IHDP Annual Report

ISSN 1727-8953 Edited by Magalie Armand and Douglas F. Williamson Layout designed by Carolyn Louise Smith Photos: Cover: copyright © Ngoc Thai Dang/UNEP/Still Pictures Page 6: copyright © Maxime Vige Page 10: Sam Dhargalkar Page 18: copyright © gaborracz Page 21: copyright © Shawn Ray Harris Page 43: copyright © Klaas Lingbeek- van Kranen Page 62: Page 66: Page 73: Page 78: Bruno Leivas Page 79: copyright © Jürgen Sack Page 80: International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change IHDP Secretariat United Nations University UN Campus Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10 53113 Bonn, Germany P: +49 (0)228 815 0600 F: +49 (0)228 815 0620 Website: Email: This document is printed on Starline matt PEFC certified paper

 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Table of Contents Foreword by the Chair & the Executive Director of IHDP p. 4 IHDP Highlights 2006/2007 p. 6 IHDP Strategic Plan 2007-2015 p. 10 New Scientific Initiatives p. 18 IHDP - Core Projects p. 21 Global Environmental Change and Human Security (GECHS) Industrial Transformation (IT) Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDGEC) Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Global Land Project (GLP) Urbanization and Global Environmental Change project (UGEC) Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) and ESSP-Joint Projects p. 43 ESSP Global Carbon Project (GCP) Global Environmental Change and Food Systems (GECAFS) Global Water Systems Project (GWSP) Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) Global Change System For Analysis, Research And Training (START) Endorsed Networks p. 62 Mountain Research Initiative (MRI) Population-Environment Research Network (PERN) Young Human Dimension Researchers (YHDR) Capacity Development p. 66 Science-Policy Interaction p. 73 Communication, Public Information and Outreach p. 78 People p. 79 IHDP Budget and Contribution Income p. 80

Foreword by the Chair & the Executive Director of IHDP The past year has been a period of renewal and development for the International Human Dimensions Programme. To mark the close of its first decade in 2006, IHDP’s sponsors organized an external review with the assignment of assessing the Programme’s performance during the period 1996-2006 and providing advice regarding priorities for the second decade. The review committee concluded that IHDP has come of age scientifically. It also made a number of recommendations, highlighting the value of developing a Strategic Plan to guide the efforts of the Programme during the coming decade and adding capacity development and science-policy interaction to cutting-edge science as programmatic priorities to form the three pillars of IHDP’s workplan for the second decade. The result of this effort is the newly published IHDP Strategic Plan 2007-2015. Scientifically, this period has been highly productive. The Programme’s original core projects have continued to move toward the synthesis phase. During this period, IDGEC – like LUCC before it – passed through the synthesis process with a focused effort to harvest the project’s scientific legacy. Several volumes of IDGEC results are forthcoming. At the same time, a new core project – Urbanization and Global Environmental Change or UGEC – began during this period. A particularly satisfying development is the rise of new initiatives likely to become important research endeavors in the near future. Scientific planning is currently underway regarding: (i) Earth System Governance, an initiative designed to build on and expand the efforts of IDGEC, (ii) Integrated Risk Governance, an activity proposed by the Chinese National Committee, and (iii) Vulnerability, Resilience, and Adaptation, an effort to highlight and upgrade work on a topic that IHDP has treated as a crosscutting theme for some years. IHDP has also played a prominent role in the activities of the Earth System Science Partnership. A priority has been the introduc-

 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

tion of more human dimensions content into the new project on Human Health and Global Environmental Change. A noteworthy feature of all these scientific endeavors is the prominence of efforts to experiment with new organizational arrangements to supplement the standard format of core projects. The Programme has moved forward in the areas of capacity development and science-policy interaction even as efforts have been underway to work out an overarching framework for these activities in the Strategic Plan. The International Human Dimensions Workshop (IHDW) in Thailand during October 2006 confirmed the role of these workshops as the flagship of IHDP’s capacity development efforts. A science-policy conference in Berne in September 2006 and a Policy Dialogue on climate in April 2007 in Bonn inaugurated the new phase of IHDP’s activities designed to explore the two-way relationship between the science and policy communities. Taken together, these activities constitute a promising start toward implementing the approach for the second decade set forth in the Strategic Plan. A major focus of attention during this period has been the addition of the UN University as a third sponsor joining ISSC and ICSU and the subsequent relocation of the IHDP Secretariat from the University of Bonn to the new UN Campus in Bonn. The Programme owes a substantial debt of gratitude to the University of Bonn for adopting IHDP in 1996 and providing a home during the first decade. At the same time, the move to the UN Campus offers exciting opportunities both to strengthen IHDP’s own staff and to interact regularly and informally with a range of people active in the policy arena. As the second decade gets underway, IHDP will further cement its role as a key player in efforts to generate new knowledge regarding human-dominated or socio-ecological systems and to bring this knowledge to bear on a range of prominent policy issues like climate change and the loss of biological diversity. Oran R. Young, Chair, IHDP SC Andreas Rechkemmer, Executive Director, IHDP

IHDP Highlights 2006/2007 New Scientific Committee Members IHDP is happy to welcome two new members to its Scientific Committee. Leena Srivastava (Ph.D.) is Executive Director at The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi and Senior Vice President of TERI-NA (The Energy and Resources Institute, North America), Washington, DC, USA. She has been the Dean, Faculty of Policy and Planning, TERI School of Advanced Studies, since June 2000 and she teaches doctoral courses in Energy Policy and Planning and Infrastructure Economics. From November 1992 to January 1994, she was the Vice-President, TERI-NA. Dr. Leena Srivastava is a member of the Expert Committee to formulate Energy Policy set up by the Planning Commission of the Government of India. She also serves on the Research Advisory Committee of IGES (the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan), the International Advisory Board of the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy in Germany, and is a member of the Scientific Steering Committee of the IHDP-IT Programme (International Human Dimensions Programme - Industrial Transformation). She was a Coordinating Lead Author for Working Group III of the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and is currently the Anchor for Sustainable Development and Climate Change for the Fourth Assessment Report. She has a number of publications to her credit and is on the editorial boards of several international journals dealing with issues related to energy and the environment. Dr Srivastava holds a Ph.D. in Energy Economics from the Department of Management Studies at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. Dr. Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker, a former professor of interdisciplinary biology who was the founding president of the University of Kassel in Germany, and also a former member of the

 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

German Parliament where he served as chair of its committee on the environment, is presently Dean of the Bren School at UC Santa Barbara. Von Weizsäcker has served as policy director at the United Nations Centre for Science and Technology for Development, director of the Institute for European Environmental Policy, and president of the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, and Energy. He is a member of the Club of Rome, a global think tank devoted to the improvement of society, and has served on the World Commission on the Social Dimensions of Globalization. Dr. von Weizäcker is a winner of the Italian Premio de Natura as well as a recipient of the Takeda Award “Techno- Entreprenevial Achievement For World-Environmental Well-being“, and has been awarded the Edinburgh Gold Medal of WWF International.

New institutional affiliation and sponsorship model At the beginning of 2007, the United Nations University (UNU) joined ICSU and ISSC as a third institutional sponsor of IHDP. Under this arrangement, the UNU now hosts the IHDP Secretariat at its premises at the UN Campus in Bonn. The three sponsors oversee and guide the overall development of the Programme. They are responsible for the appointment of the members of the (SC) and the selection of the Executive Director (ED). The Secretariat in Bonn has now officially been recognized as the 14th UN Agency in Bonn and is a part of the United Nations University.

IHDP Secretariat moves to UN Campus Bonn IHDP’s new affiliation with UN has allowed IHDP to occupy, as an in-kind contribution, one half of the 16th floor of the Langer Eugen building, formerly of the German government. Along with magnificent views of the surrounding landscape, the UN campus in Bonn also grants IHDP access to a wide array of other UN agencies in the building.

IHDP presents a new corporate image

IHDP also proudly presents a new logo and corporate image as part of its updated Communications Strategy. 

Major Activities & other news and developments IHDP has in recent years already begun to expand its portfolio of activities. The new Strategic Plan 2007-2015 defines the pathways and strategic priorities for ongoing and innovative cutting-edge science, calls for closer ties to and collaboration with policy and decision makers, and enhances the programme’s capacity development, public information and outreach activities. In the recent past, IHDP has organized and taken part in several important events. IHDP has begun new activities to strengthen its role as a facilitator in science-policy-practice interactions. The Berne Symposium in September 2006 was the first meeting of its kind and as such was a great success; IHDP envisages holding a series of workshops in the upcoming years along similar lines, bringing together key representatives from the scientific and policy/practice communities. These forums aim at identifying gaps, increasing exchange and communication and showcasing IHDP’s ability to address and answer questions of societal relevance. At the inauguration of IHDP’s new secretariat in Bonn in April 2007, IHDP held a scientific symposium, followed the next day by the first Bonn Dialogues, a series of science-policy-practice dialogues. The first Bonn Dialogue brought top scientists and practitioners together in the wake of IPCC’s WG 2 to discuss adaptation, mitigation, and migration in the face of climactic change. It was titled Climate Change: Control, Adapt or Flee? and brought together a closed, high-level panel to discuss during the day, and was followed by a moderated public session at the Deutsche Welle in the evening. IHDP will be continuing these activities in the future. The next Bonn Dialogues, entitled “Melting Ice, Vanishing Life: the impacts of environmental change on human society and biodiversity” in conjunction with the International Polar Year is scheduled to take place in late November. The next science-policy workshop, following in the Berne tradition, will take place in Santa Barbara California at the Bren School of USB and will be titled, “Energy productivity and efficiency in the age of climate change”. In December of 2006, IHDP’s core project IDGEC held a synthesis conference in Bali, Indonesia after completing its ten-year cycle. The IDGEC Synthesis Conference was the culmination of almost ten years of research on the role of institutions in human/environment interactions. The Synthesis Conference set out to not only present and disseminate research findings, but also to synthesize such findings with an eye to exploring the policy relevance and identifying gaps in this knowledge. The conference was carefully crafted to attain these goals. Concerted efforts were made to attract a diverse group of participants who would bridge the science-practice, senior-junior, and North-South divides. Attendance stood at approximately 150 participants from 35 countries. IDGEC also co-convened three workshops on December 5th, one day prior to the start of the Synthesis Conference. The IHDP Secretariat was represented at various meetings and conferences, promoting  • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Human Dimensions research and perspectives. In September 2006, IHDP Scientific Committee Chair Professor Oran Young gave a lecture called “Resilience, Vulnerability, and Change in Environmental Governance Systems” in Bonn at the Center for Development Research. This lecture was part of an IHDP Roundtable with twenty-five participants to introduce them to Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Research. This roundtable was followed by another event in Bremen in February 2007 with forty participants and was sponsored by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Professor Young and IHDP Executive Director Dr. Andreas Rechkemmer took an active part at the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) Chairs and Directors meeting in Tutzing in June 2006. At the ESSP Open Science Conference in Beijing in November 2006, IHDP lead scientists Oran Young and Leslie King spoke in plenary sessions. In January 2007, IHDP Secretariat Scientific Officer Falk Schmidt gave a presentation at an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Forum in Vienna. In February, Mr. Schmidt also participated actively in Berlin at the European Union International Symposium: Climate Change and the European Water Dimension. Also, in February, Dr. Rechkemmer gave an address in Paris at the Friends of the Earth International Conference presided by Jacques Chirac. Later that same month, Dr. Rechkemmer gave a presentation in Lisbon at the Sustainable Development Brundtland Report Plus 20 Conference. IHDP continued in its tradition of capacity development with the 5th International Human Dimensions Workshop, co-organized with the core project IDGEC in Chiang Mai. The workshop focused on “Institutional Dimensions of GEC: Water, Trade, and Environment.” In the workshop participants learned about the role of institutions in causing and mitigating global environmental problems. The substantive focus was on water and trade. IHDP is now planning its next Open Meeting, scheduled for 15 – 19 October, 2008 and to be held in India at the India Habitat Centre of New Delhi. TERI (The Energy and Resources Centre) is local host and co-organizer of this Open Meeting. It will also be accompanied by a modified IHDW preceding the meeting - consisting of 4-6 parallel four-day workshops on various aspects of HDGEC science. The Open Meeting will be titled “Social Challenges of Global Change,” and each of the four days will be focused on a big question or challenge: having to do with resources, social equity, demographics and institutions needed to address these issues. With the theme of the 7th Open Meeting, “Social Challenges of Global Change,” IHDP is deliberating reaching out to new communities in the social sciences, policy arena and private sector, while at the same time incorporating its core research issues into a collaborative, cross-cutting fabric. More information on the upcoming 7th Open Meeting and 6th IHDW in 2008 can be found at

IHDP Strategic Plan 2007-2015 Goals and Objectives At its 13th Scientific Committee meeting, held from 26th to 30th of March in Norwich, UK, a great amount of time was devoted to discuss the first IHDP Strategic Plan. As IHDP just entered its second decade of existence, a general stock-taking and strategic realignment was particularly useful. Building on the achievements of the first decade, this commonly produced and shared Strategy positions IHDP even better for its second decade and makes sure that the overarching goal, expressed in the new IHDP Vision, is being met: “To provide international leadership in framing, developing, and integrating social science research on global environmental change and to promote the application of the key findings of this research to help address environmental challenges.” To some extent the Strategic Plan 2007–2015 is also an answer to the external review organized by ICSU that concluded that the first decade of IHDP was very successful as far as community building is concerned. As a result of this, as the review panel further concludes, the visibility of human dimensions research has increased dramatically in an area that was for a long time largely, if not solely dominated by natural sciences. Over the years IHDP has emerged significantly and became a strong player in the field of global environmental change research. It has spread its activities widely – e.g. to the realm of capacity development –, but often without sufficient coherence and guidance. Other activities are increasingly important – such as science policy interactions – and need to be addressed and areas where IHDP can make a unique contribution to the debate identified. Therefore, cutting-edge science, capacity development and science policy interactions have been identified as the three pillars of IHDP’s second decade and it was decided that this plan should cover the period from 2007 to 2015, a milestone year for many global efforts 10 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

and initiatives. Thus, the overarching goal of this Strategic Plan 2007-2015 is to chart an innovative course in all three areas and show how they can be integrated into a coherent program in which the whole is substantially greater than the sum of the parts.

The Planning Process Already in December 2005, Potsdam, the Officers and Project Leaders Meeting (OPL) kick started the discussions on how to respond to the external review and the well-known challenges and problems identified. These discussions were transformed in Norwich, 13th SC meeting, into the three priority areas of IHDP’s work mentioned above. In Norwich three working groups were formed according to the three areas identified. The fundamental decision was taken that the IHDP Strategic Plan 2007–2015 should be developed collectively by the Scientific Committee, supported by the Secretariat, whereby the SC exercised its role as being the central body for ensuring Programme wide scientific coherence and guidance. An Executive Committee Meeting, held in conjunction with the first IHDP Science Policy Workshop, Berne, September 2006, reviewed and adjusted the input provided by the working groups, followed by an intense re-drafting period, mainly done by the Chair and members of the Secretariat. A first full draft was presented at the 2006 OPL meeting, held back to back with the ESSP Open Science Conference, Beijing, November 2006. While the general structure and main messages of the Strategic Plan were already fixed, this meeting harvested feedback from projects’ perspectives and concentrated largely on the “backbone” of the plan: the vision, mission, expected outcomes, and strategies (as presented in its first section). With the “consensus of Beijing”, the plan was sent back to the Scientific Committee and was opened for another round of intense (electronic) discussions, again managed by the Secretariat and generally guided by the Chair. Final discussions took place at the 14th SC meeting, March 2007, Angra does Reis, Brazil, where the plan was basically adopted. Formally it was approved by the SC end of May and its general dissemination started in summer 2007.

Introducing the SP 2007-2015 The Strategic Plan 2007 – 2015 is firstly the general IHDP reference document for the next eight years of the Programme. It is secondly a “public” document as well, introducing IHDP to several partners. In this regard the IHDP Strategic Plan 2007-2015 will be used widely to win new partners, supporters and friends. Addressing large-scale environmental issues and finding ways to foster sustainable devel11

opment requires a concerted effort on the part of researchers who focus on human behaviour. The aim of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) is to provide leadership in framing, developing, and integrating social science research on global change and to promote the application of key findings to help address environmental challenges. It is the purpose of the Strategic Plan to guide IHDP’s efforts in this realm during the period 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the plan provides guidance for those endeavouring to implement IHDP’s goals in three principal areas: cutting-edge research; capacity development, community building, and outreach; and science-policy interaction. The IHDP Strategic Plan 2007-2015 also defines IHDP’s governance structure, including its institutional sponsors and main bodies, such as the SC or the Secretariat, and specifies their distinct roles. Finally, not only current activities are captured by the plan. A separate succinct insert is going to update the plan on a biannual basis by introducing and briefly explaining envisaged future activities and aligning them with the overall plan. Cutting-edge Research IHDP’s scientific portfolio includes three distinct elements: core projects organized around substantive themes; collaborative projects carried out jointly under the auspices of the Earth System Science Partnership; and crosscutting themes dealing with issues relevant to many of the core and collaborative projects. Research conducted under the auspices of IHDP is predicated on the premises that global change research should address major social and economic science concerns, shape a social science of global change, and contribute knowledge to meet a number of major challenges currently facing societies. The originality of IHDP’s approach lies in three features of its work. The Programme places social forces at the center of the debate regarding global environmental change. The ensuing research features a multi-scalar approach in space and time, ranging from towns to the whole Earth and from seasons to millennia. It also promotes the development of knowledge through comparative and interdisciplinary research and synthesis and encourages several methodological innovations. Thus, the Programme’s strategy for the conduct of cutting-edge research emphasizes the importance both of linking research to prominent concerns in the social sciences and of collaborating with colleagues in the natural sciences to develop greater understanding of the dynamics of complex socio-ecological systems. Capacity Development, Community Building, and Outreach The second pillar of IHDP’s strategic plan encompasses efforts to strengthen and broaden the worldwide network of researchers working on the human dimensions of global environmental change. Work in this area involves sharpening the skills of individual researchers, organizing periodic gatherings of the human dimensions research community, and disseminating information 12 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

to all those interested in this field of study. The International Human Dimensions Workshop (IHDW), organized regularly and oriented foremost, but not only, toward young scientists from the developing world, is the flagship of IHDP’s work in the area of capacity development. Furthermore, IHDP has assumed full responsibility for the organization and management of the Open Meeting of the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Research Community. This triennial event has become the pivotal mechanism for members of this research community to interact face-to-face, to discuss the implications of recent scientific findings, and to explore opportunities for new research initiatives. IHDP’s outreach programme currently includes a regular newsletter, the annual report, an electronic magazine, science plans and reports for individual projects, scholarly articles on crosscutting themes, and syntheses of scientific findings. The next phase will feature an effort to develop a more extensive and coherent portfolio of publications that may include a book series, a scholarly journal, and a mechanism for bringing IHDP findings to the attention of the policy community. Science-Policy Interaction Efforts to enhance two-way communication between scientists and members of the policy community and the attentive public constitute the third pillar of IHDP’s Strategic Plan. One goal is to ensure that policy perspectives are taken into account starting with the framing of research agendas and running through to the dissemination of scientific results. A second goal is to ensure that practitioners are aware of policy-relevant science and motivated to take the results of rigorous research into account in framing issues for consideration, selecting policies, and implementing them in various settings. IHDP pursues these goals both through science-policy dialogues designed to enhance mutual understanding between scholars and practitioners and through input into public forums concerned with specific issues (e.g. the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the Conferences of the Parties of various multilateral environmental agreements, and a variety of subsidiary bodies).

Implementation Strategy IHDP Secretariat: Implementing the Strategic Plan After finishing the initial cycle of planning for IHDP’s second phase of work, the Secretariat now has the onus of implementing the strategy defined in the Strategic Plan 2007-2015. Mandate of the IHDP Secretariat The IHDP Secretariat (UNU-IHDP) facilitates the development of IHDP’s Programme, im13

plements the strategic priorities and coordinates processes of communication. Its core functions encompass co-ordination of research activities, capacity development, organization of major events and policy dialogues, and dissemination of outcomes and results of IHDP activities. Following the Strategic Plan guidelines, the IHDP Secretariat will allocate programmatic resources towards generating and fostering: • New knowledge relating to the human dimensions of global environmental change and their impacts on society, and an enhanced role in the integrated modeling of human-environment systems, • Well-funded research programs on the human dimensions of global environmental change, and a new generation of researchers interested in the human dimensions of global environmental change, • A new generation of communicators able to disseminate relevant knowledge regarding the human dimensions of global environmental change to practitioners, policy-makers and the public The IHDP Secretariat, as the main implementation body of IHDP, will take action to incorporate the three strategic goals of the Strategic Plan 2007-2015 into operations throughout the network. Strategic focus during the initial phase until 2010 is the build-up of effective structures and capacities to meet the challenges set by the Strategic Plan. More than before, activities of the IHDP Secretariat will be clustered and structured, making the three-fold strategy visible both organizationally and financially. Value Added by the IHDP Secretariat The IHDP modus operandi and strategy deliberately place facilitation of original research over carrying out of research activities. This niche was chosen based on the firm belief that there will always be a prominent role for single-investigator projects in generating knowledge pertaining to the human dimensions of environmental change. There is no need for an enterprise like IHDP to stimulate or guide such efforts. Its role centers on providing leadership in the selection and development of themes for focused research and in stimulating the scientific communities interested in these themes to coordinate their efforts. IHDP cannot assume that the necessary efforts will flourish by themselves, and therefore, has an integral role in addressing these issues. Global change research is a vast and complex area with a multitude of stakeholders. Successful international collaboration requires systematic analysis and identification of potential candidates for productive partnerships. Yet, individual establishment of collaborative research is time-consuming and management-intensive, siphoning valuable resources from the scientific community. The IHDP Secretariat provides highly specialized services and efficient structures for international collaboration in order to reap the full scientific benefits of the networks of research activities. 14 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Partners & Clients IHDP has three core groups of partners and clients, namely the scientific community, partner organizations, and policy-makers. Policy-makers at all levels need better knowledge of the demographic, economic, institutional, and technological roots of behavior, a clearer picture of the determinants of human responses, and a better understanding of the dynamics of the coupled human-biophysical systems. IHDP is committed to integrated research approaches, reflecting the interconnectedness of environmental changes with social systems. It is no longer sufficient to engage in research on the biophysical elements of dynamic systems on the assumption that human actions are largely exogenous to the workings of these systems. What is required is a science of socio-ecological systems in which the impacts of human actions are fully integrated. Core partner organizations include several international bodies, in particular bodies and conventions of the UN System, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD), and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). A core challenge for the next phase is to create reliable scientific input especially on climate change and sustainability pathways, primarily in the energy sector. The IHDP scientific community aims to contribute major impulses to the scientific and political debate on Global Change. As international partnerships and are increasingly indispensable in addressing critical science problems, the community needs stronger international collaboration, access to international research infrastructure, comprehensive data, cutting-edge methodologies, as well as greater visibility to globally engage in the political debate. The IHDP Secretariat’s Activity Portfolio Branding and Portfolio Strategy IHDP’s strategy of developing core projects dealing with substantive issues (e.g. Human Security, Urbanization, Industrial Transformation) and directing attention to crosscutting themes (e.g. vulnerability, resilience, adaptation) combines with methodological innovations to produce a distinct brand of science. The originality of IHDP’s approach to global change science can be summarized in three points. Firstly, it develops research that places societies at the center of the debate. Secondly, it develops a multi-scalar perspective in space and time, from millennia to individual seasons, and from the whole earth to the individual town or village. Thirdly, it furthers theoretical development by comparative, inter-disciplinary research and synthesis. Reflecting the strategic goals, the activity portfolio of the Secretariat is hence grouped into three activity clusters: 1. Integrated Social Science Research on Global Environmental Change 15

2. 3.

Capacity Development and Knowledge Networks Knowledge Dissemination, Awareness and Policy Interaction

Integrated Social Science Research on Global Environmental Change The IHDP project portfolio on Integrated Social Science Research reflects projects aimed to implement IHDP’s first strategic goal of generating “new knowledge relating to the human dimensions of global environmental change and their impacts on society, and an enhanced role in the integrated modeling of human-environment systems”. The IHDP Secretariat assists the research projects and functions as an intermediary between the Scientific Committee and its subsidiary bodies and the projects. It facilitates the development of the IHDP core research projects, fosters cross-linkages between these projects and co-ordinates scientific initiatives, workshops and other activities. It ensures up-to-date communication and monitors the work of the projects on an ongoing basis. One core focus in the process is to bring IHDP’s strategic directions to bear in each sectored activity. The Secretariat fulfils its role in a pro-active manner, initiating new activities that are picked up by the network later. The Secretariats operational planning arranges around four areas of activities: • Coordination of IHDP Core Projects on Social Challenges of Global Change • Support for Joint Projects engaged in the development of an integrated Earth System Science • Support for Collaborative Projects focused on Human Dimensions of Biophysical Change • Development of new initiatives regarding Integrated Sustainability Pathways The Scientific Portfolio for the next years includes the transition of three cross-cutting themes into full IHDP research projects. Starting as initiatives based on questions emerging in research activities during Phase I, the questions of Earth System Governance (ESG) and Integrated Risk Governance (IRG) in particular translated into highly innovative research agendas. They met strong demand from scientific and political audiences alike, and quickly turned into IHDP flagship activities. Capacity Development and Knowledge Networks In its Strategic Plan 2007-2015 IHDP has called for a renewed focus on the capacity development arena in the second decade. Being a “network of networks”, the IHDP Secretariat is in an excellent position to play this role on behalf of the entire human dimensions of global environmental change research community, beyond support for individual research topics. In the context of a global network for cutting-edge research on complex issues with high political relevance, ‘capacity’ is a multi-dimensional concept. For Phase II of its operations, IHDP capacity development activities aim to achieve five distinct objectives. First, workshops such as the IHDW train emerging scholars in state-of-the-art 16 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

human dimensions issues and methods, as well as in the Programme’s collaborative approaches. Second, IHDP leverages existing capacities in still nascent research areas by supporting promising individual and institutional endevours on a case-by-case basis. Third, IHDP helps to create sustainable research communities by bringing existing capacity together in national and regional networks. Fourth, the IHDP Secretariat will intensify activities to bridge the chasm between the scientific and the political spheres; it will create platforms for dialogue and actively foster common understanding and collaboration. Finally, IHDP will assess potential capacity development in interdisciplinary research, in particular regarding concepts combining natural and social sciences. Science-Policy-Interaction, Knowledge Dissemination and Outreach The IHDP Secretariat’s activity portfolio on Science-Policy Interaction, Knowledge Dissemination and Outreach reflects IHDP’s mission to facilitate dialogue between science and policy and its mandate to create awareness and disseminate the research results of the network. The importance of a coherent communications strategy for IHDP’s production and dissemination of knowledge and information is evident. As a scientific organization promoting integrated social science research on the human dimensions of global environmental change, IHDP relies on efficient and effective communication with internal IHDP members, partners, and external groups. As facilitator and agent in capacity development, IHDP requires appropriate tools to attract scientists, potential donors and a wider public. As stakeholder in the global science-policy dialogue, IHDP needs accepted platforms for productive interaction of scientists and practitioners. IHDP has a variety of tools at its disposal for the achievement of its goals, including the Annual Report, the IHDP Website, the newsletter Update, its E-zine, Press Releases, Brochures, Science Plans, Special Strategy Policy Papers, and publications. IHDP must continue to produce these tools for dissemination and communication of IHDP; further develop their quality; and focus on the development of new tools. To provide focused support for each of the three target areas of IHDP’s communication strategy, and to reflect the renewed focus on science-policy interaction in the Strategic Plan, the IHDP Secretariat will cluster its communication activities accordingly into 1) Science-Policy-Interaction; 2) Publication and Knowledge Dissemination; and 3) Information, Public Awareness and Outreach activities.


New Scientific Initiatives Integrated Risk Governance (IRG) Recent and ongoing research on extreme events focuses predominantly on understanding the causes of these events and assessing the adequacy of the engineering, medical, and financial arrangements needed to cope with the resultant emergencies. The stress on governance in IHDP’s Integrated Risk Governance initiative is meant to direct attention to a number of additional concerns, including policies designed to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and communities to the impacts of extreme events, decision-making processes relating to the establishment and deployment of response capabilities, and institutional arrangements (e.g. insurance schemes) capable of protecting individuals from the worst impacts of extreme events, while avoiding the problem of moral hazard. IHDP is organizing a Scientific Planning Committee to assess options for developing Integrated Risk Governance into a new IHDP core science project. The planning process will make a concerted effort to identify and take advantage of links both to other IHDP activities (e.g. the GECHS project, the VRA crosscutting theme, the ESG initiative) and to other groups working in this field (e.g. the UNU Institute for Environment and Human Security, the ICSU initiative on Natural and Human-induced Environmental Hazards and Disasters). This effort is led by Professor Peijun Shi of Beijing Normal University operating under the auspices of the Chinese National Committee.

18 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Earth System Governance (ESG) The development of a new project on Earth System Governance (ESG) is underway. This project will build on the legacy of IDGEC but will expand its coverage to include three new dimensions. ESG will shift the focus from institutions to governance; governance will become a cross-cutting theme of interest to both core and ESSP projects, and the new project will direct attention to the themes of Architecture, Agency, Adaptiveness, Accountability, and Allocation. The IHDP Scientific Committee has authorized the establishment of a Scientific Planning Committee to carry this initiative forward under the chairmanship of Professor Frank Biermann of the Free University of Amsterdam. This committee met for the first time in conjunction with the May 2007 Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. The committee has a mandate to produce a draft ESG Science Plan in time for external review, revision, and adoption by the IHDP Scientific Committee at its October 2008 meeting in New Delhi.

Vulnerability, Resilience, and Adaptation (VRA) Following a successful workshop held at Arizona State University (ASU) in February 2005, the IHDP Scientific Committee has decided to create an ongoing cross-project activity dealing with vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation. Consultation with the Resilience Alliance (, led to a decision to build this networked activity from three institutions: the MISTRA Institute in Stockholm, the Tyndall Centre in the UK, and ASU in the US. The aim of this activity is to develop links with at least one person involved in each of the core projects who is interested in VRA, to bring these people together, and to use the VRA framework to look at issues engaging each of the core projects. IHDP will issue a call for participation in this activity in the near future. The call will contain more information both about the conceptual framework and the proposed activities.

GEC&HH and Health Task Force The current ESSP GECHH Science Plan, although excellent, is not sufficiently reflecting the broad range of social science/human dimensions research that already exists in this field. This is why IHDP has decided not to become a sponsor when the project was launched at the ESSP Open Science Conference, Beijing, November 2006. However, given the importance of this


theme – and its literal linkages to the “human dimensions” – the decision was taken to convene a task force with the aim to upgrade the Science Plan accordingly by introducing and adding specific questions and issues. A first IHDP task force meeting was held in conjunction with the Bonn Conference “Towards Sustainable Global Health”, May 2007. It brought together a group of experts to draw upon their wealth of expertise and experience to better integrate and centralise human dimensions research in this project. The results of this task force will be submitted to the first ESSP SC meeting, October 2008, for its approval and it is envisaged that IHDP becomes the forth sponsor of the project and will be adequately represented at its SSC.

iHOPE The IHOPE (Integrated History of People on Earth) was conceived by Robert Costanza, Kathy Hibbard, Lisa Graumlich, Joao Morais, Will Steffen and other IGBP scientists. Its first scientific workshop was held in June 2005 in Dahlem (near Berlin) in Germany. The aim of the project is to obtain better knowledge about the co-evolution of ancient societies with their environments, by analyzing this co-evolution at three different time-scales: millennia, centennial and decadal, and to use the knowledge thus gained in looking at the future. The project is part of IGBP’s AIMES initiative, and the IHDP Scientific Committee has decided to co-sponsor it. Currently, a platform is being developed that will make the project’s data available over the web. To do so, a casestudy on the Southern Rhone Basin is being adapted. Other case-studies are being identified in different parts of the world (Japan, East-Asia, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, etc.).

20 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

IHDP - Core Projects Global Environmental Change and Human Security (GECHS) Introduction and Project Development GECHS works to place environmental changes within the larger socioeconomic and political contexts that cause them by examining how these shifts shape the capacity of communities to cope with and respond to change. Our research focuses on the way diverse social processes such as globalization, poverty, disease and conflict combine with global environmental change to affect human security. Human security is increasingly recognized as a key concept that captures the challenges posed by global environmental change. It is a variable condition where people and communities have the capacity to manage stresses to their needs, rights, and values; environmental change becomes a human security concern when it undermines the needs, rights, and values that are important to individuals and communities. By working at the interface between science and practice, our goal is to promote the understanding of global environmental change as an issue of equity, sustainability and human security. Project Development Individual research projects fall under the umbrella themes of conflict, cooperation and governance; multiple, interacting processes of change; and vulnerability, resilience and adaptation. Several projects focus on adaptation to climate change as a social process. We are addressing how multiple interacting processes of change create a context for vulnerability, and how different worldviews and values pose limits to adaptation as a response to climate change. Other 21

research focuses on water issues, especially how management responses at multiple scales influence human development and security. One opportunity being pursued through GECHS activities is to provide an opening for new communities working in the areas of ethics, equity, human rights, and post-normal science to engage with global change research. Highlights and Activities in 2006 & 2007 Highlights in 2006 January: Climate Change and Official Development Assistance, a dialog between researchers and practitioners to discuss the climate-poverty links relevant to mainstreaming adaptation to climate change into official development assistance. March: Human Security Research in Norway: Perspectives and Possibilities, a reception to celebrate the opening of the International Project Office at the University of Oslo. May: Understanding the Global Water Crisis, a roundtable discussion at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars to discuss the escalating water crisis experienced around the world and the threat of growing water scarcity. June: Inaugural issue of the GECHS newsletter published on the theme climate change and human security. September: Southern Africa Vulnerability Initiative (SAVI), a coordinating meeting to finalize the SAVI strategic plan, and to discuss publications and proposal development. September: Climate Change, Equity, and Human Security, a session held at the annual conference for the Norwegian Association for Development Research focusing on how climate change equity is not simply a North-South issue, but rather an issue that cuts across national boundaries and therefore needs to be addressed at different scales and units of analysis. September: Water’s Role in Conflict and Cooperation, GECHS SSC members Ken Conca and Patricia Kameri-Mbote published separate policy briefs as part of a new series targeting practitioners and coordinated by the Navigating Peace Initiative at the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Environmental Change and Security Program. November: How to Avoid War over Water, a roundtable discussion held in conjunction with the launching of the 2006 Human Development Report. November: ESSP Open Science Conference, session on Global Environmental Change, Natural Disasters, Vulnerability and their Implications for Human Security in Coastal Urban Areas coordinated jointly with LOICZ and UGEC. December: Climate Change Adaptation in Nordic Countries, a workshop highlighting adaptation as a social process with the aim of developing collaborative research efforts and initiatives across the five Nordic countries.

22 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Activities in 2007 Climate Change, Humanitarian Disasters and International Development: GECHS hosted a policy roundtable together with the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research in Oslo (CICERO) which brought together experts from the climate change, disaster and development communities to identify opportunities for meeting the combined challenge of these three disparate yet interacting realms. This activity was sponsored by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Potentials of and Limits to Adaptation in Norway (PLAN): A research project involving several GECHS Associates has received funding from the Research Council of Norway in the amount of NOK 26 million (approx EUR 3.25 million) over the next four years. PLAN is a large, coordinated social science-based research project that will analyze the potentials of and limits to adaptation as a response to climate change in Norway. The project will provide an empirical and theoretical understanding of adaptation as a social process, with an emphasis on its potential to reduce negative impacts and realize the potential benefits of climate change. The project was officially launched with an international workshop in Oslo on 12-13 April 2007. Shifting the Discourse: Funding has been secured from the European Science Foundation to organize an exploratory workshop on “Shifting the Discourse: Climate Change as an Issue of Human Security.” The workshop will take place in Oslo, 21-23 June 2007 and will bring new communities together to address the equity, ethical and human security dimensions of climate change. An edited book will be produced as an outcome. Additional funding for the workshop has been secured through Ethics Programme at the University of Oslo. Selected Publications 1. Barnett, J. (2006), “Climate Change, Insecurity and Justice” in Adger, W. Paavola, J. Mace, M. and Huq, S. (Eds.) Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, pp 115-129. 2. Conca (2006) Governing Water: Contentious Transnational Politics and Global Institution Building. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 484 pp. 3. Mehta, L. (2006), “Water and human development: capabilities, entitlements, and power” in Human Development Report 2006 Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and Global Water Crisis. UNDP: New York, pp 388. 4. Neumayer, E. and I. De Soysa (2006), “Globalization and the right to free association and collective bargaining: An empirical analysis” in World Development, 34(1): 31-49. 5. O’Brien, K. (2006), “Are we missing the point? Global environmental change as an issue of human security” in Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 16(1): 1-3. 23


7. 8.

O’Brien, K., et al. (2006), “Questioning complacency : climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in Norway” in AMBIO: a journal of the human environment, 35(2): 50-56. Seager, J. (2006), “Noticing gender (or not) in disasters” in Geoforum, 37(1): 2-3. Wang J.X., et al. (2006), “Incentives to managers or participation of farmers in China’s irrigation systems: which matters most for water savings, farmer income, and poverty?” in Agricultural Economics, 34(3): 315-330.

SSC Karen O’Brien (Chair), University of Oslo, Norway Jon Barnett, University of Melbourne, Australia Hans Georg Bohle, University of Bonn, Germany Ken Conca, University of Maryland, USA Indra de Soysa, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway Patricia Kameri-Mbote, University of Nairobi, Kenya Alexander Lopez, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica Lyla Mehta, University of Sussex, UK Kwasi Nsiah-Gyabaah, Sunyani Polytechnic, Ghana Joni Seager, York University, Canada Jinxia Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Project IPO Linda Sygna, Executive Officer Global Environmental Change and Human Security Project, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1096, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway Email: or Website:

Industrial Transformation (IT) Introduction and Project Development Industrial Transformation has been established in 1999 as one of the core projects of IHDP. Having gone through a phase of community building, in recent years IT begun to focus its work on the way transformations to sustainability unfold and how ongoing changes can be influenced so that they lead to sustainable development. Since much of the research in that field has been performed in and for the OECD countries, while this is the rapidly developing Asia that is most 24 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

challenging from sustainability perspective at a global scale - the IT project took special focus on this region. Particular attention is given to they way in which current processes of urbanisation and industrialisation can be harnessed to stimulating more sustainable systems of provision. Highlights and Activities in 2006 & 2007 Main activity of the IT project was research on transitions towards sustainability in Asia and the influence of globalization processes on this change. Given multiple challenges that Asian nations face – they are in need of appropriate research and policy framework that could help in investigating the problems and designing possible alternative pathways. In Europe the socio-technical approach towards radical change and phrasing of transitions as system innovations received increasingly much attention from the researchers and policy makers. IT investigates whether these approaches could also be used in the Asian context and under what conditions. One of the highlights in this process was an international workshop co-financed by KSI (Dutch Knowledge Network on System Innovations) on this theme. The meeting took place on 5-8 July 2006 in Chiang Mai, Thailand and was co-organized by USER/Chiang Mai University. One of the most interesting outcomes of this process so far is the realisation that conventional theories of economic development (cf. Rostow, Lewis, ‘balanced growth’ theories), which argue that national economies move through stages involving capability-accumulation and structural change, are not necessarily applicable in the Asian context. According to these theories development implies growing resource-intensity of economies early in the process of development, with major environmental impacts. Asian development is already influencing the global demand for resources, and is having major impacts on local, regional and global environmental quality, including the global climate. Globalisation however provides with new contexts: new actors, different interrelations between them, at different levels. It also provides with main pressure on environmental quality through global value chain, regulation, international institutions and this way opens up opportunities for various development pathways, which do not necessarily have to follow the conventional trajectories. Investment patterns, government policies, the diffusion of new technologies, infrastructure development, urban planning and consumer behaviours are expected to play important roles in opening the alternative pathways. Recent developments in innovation theory related to sustainability have focused on the problem of cumulativeness and path-dependency in socio-technical regimes in industrialized countries. Socio-technical regimes are relatively stable configurations of institutions, techniques and artefacts – as well as rules, practices and networks – that determine the ‘normal’ development and use of technologies. This ‘sustainability transitions’ literature argues for a multi-level framework for analyzing ‘systems innovation’ taking place over the longer-term. It stresses the role of ‘socio-technical experiments’ in transforming prevailing socio-technical regimes (such as electricity systems or urban transport systems) operating within the specific economic and 25

institutional conditions that shape the rate and direction of change. In doing so, the ‘systems innovation’ approach seeks to analyze broader technological and industrial changes significant to environmental sustainability, placing them in a broader institutional and governance context. By drawing on recent advances in this field, IT strives (i) to propose mechanisms by which pathways of growth in Asia may deviate from convergence on a standard model and (ii) to contribute with proposals for a research agenda in this context. The scientific considerations will be brought together in a special issue of Technological Forecasting and Social Change journal including seven papers co-authored by regional experts and scholars in European and US universities. Other activities that IT is involved in include a series of debates under general theme of ‘Cross-thinking about sustainability’. In 2006 three debates took place. They concerned issues of globalization as a driver for sustainability, hyper-mobility and sustainability of meat production. Each of the debates always brings participants ranging from researchers, ministry and industry representatives, through NGOs, international organizations to even a Dutch political party for animals. Through partnership with the Dutch newspaper TROUW, KSI (Dutch Knowledge Network on System Innovation) and the NGO HIVOS the coverage of the event is quite wide. Reports from these meetings are available from the IT website. Activities in 2007 The work on Asian transformations to sustainability reveals a number of interesting issues for further examination. Such an interesting issue is the role of experiments in bringing about sustainability and why in Asia, despite quite a number of sustainability experiments, not much happens in that direction. The scientific committee of IT is currently discussing possible follow up themes. The process will resemble the current model of scientific work connected with an international workshop of experts and compilation of findings in an international peer review journal. This time however IT will try to reach out with the findings to a different community of scholars. IT will also continue organisation of the public debates. This activity proves to be an excellent way of getting civil society involved in the scientific discussions on the ways and conditions under which we can reach sustainable development. In the year of preparations to the upcoming biannual Open Meeting of the human dimensions research society, IT will work on a programme and a set up of a training for young scholars in the field of the researched transformations towards sustainability. Selected Publications 1. Bai X. (2007). Guest Editor. Special issue on Industrial Ecology and Global Impacts of Cities (Editorial). Journal of Industrial Ecology. 11(2): 1-6. 26 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007


Bai X. (2007). Integrating Global Concerns into Urban Management: The Scale Argument and the Readiness Argument. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 11(2): 15-29. 3. Bai X. (2007). Rizhao: Solar Powered City. World Watch Magazine. 20. March 2007. 4. Bai X, Shi P. (2006). Pollution Control in China’s Huai Basin: What Lessons for Sustainability? Environment. 48(7): 22-38. 5. Bai, X., O’Riordan, T. (2006). China and the agony of the sustainable transition, Environment. 6. Berkhout, F. (2006). Normative expectations in systems innovation. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 18(3-4), 299-311. 7. Dhakal, S. (2006). Urban Transportation and the Environment: in Kathmandu valley, Nepal integrating global carbon concerns into local air pollution management, IGES, 1-45. 8. Fischer-Kowalski, M. and H. Haberl (eds.). (2007). Socio-ecological Transitions and Global Change. Trajectories of Social Metabolism and Land Use. In Advances in Ecological Economics, series editor: Jeroen van den Bergh. Edward Elgar. 9. Olsthoorn, X., Wieczorek, A., (eds) (2006). Understanding Industrial Transformation. Views from different disciplines, Springer. 10. Rock, M. and Angel, D. (2007) Grow first, Clean up later? Industrial Transformation in East Asia. Environment. 11. Young, O.R., Berkhout, F., Gallopin, G.C., Janssen, M.A., Ostrom, E. & van der Leeuw, S. (2006). The globalization of socio-ecological systems: An agenda for scientific research, Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 304-316. SC Prof. dr. David Angel, Clark University, USA Dr. Xuemei Bai, CSIRO, Australia Prof. Dr. Frans Berkhout (SSC Chair), Vrije University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Prof. Dr. Patrick Criqui, University of Grenoble, France Prof. dr. Jose Roberto Moreira, The Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO), Brazil Prof. Dr. Edward A. Parson, University of Michigan School of Law, USA Prof. Dr. John Robinson, University of British Columbia, Canada Prof. Dr. Fred Steward, Brunel University, England Prof. Dr.Weidong LIU, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Project IPO Industrial Transformation (IT) Anna J. Wieczorek, Executive Officer IT International Project Office, Institute of Environmental Studies , De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands 27

Email: Website:

Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDGEC)

Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change

The IDGEC Synthesis Conference: Institutions for Sustainable Development in the Face of Global Environmental Change By Heike Schroeder The IDGEC Synthesis Conference was the culmination of almost ten years of research on the role of institutions in human/environment interactions. It was held from 6-9 December 2006 in the beautiful and serene setting of the Grand Hyatt Hotel in Bali, Indonesia. The conference objectives went beyond those of a typical scientific conference. The Synthesis Conference set out to not only present and disseminate research findings, but also to synthesize such findings with an eye to exploring the policy relevance and identifying gaps in this knowledge. The conference was carefully crafted to attain these goals. Concerted efforts were made to attract a diverse group of participants who would bridge the science-practice, senior-junior, and North-South divides. Attendance stood at approximately 150 participants from 35 countries. The Synthesis Conference was the culmination not only of the ten years of research but also of a two-year synthesis process. To help with the goals of disseminating findings, applying science to policy and policy to science, and mapping a future research agenda, IDGEC built a number of partnerships. In this context, IDGEC co-convened three workshops on December 5th, one day prior to the start of the Synthesis Conference. The first, co-organized with the Global Carbon Project (GCP), applied IDGEC’s analytical framework to the issue of urban and regional carbon management and developed a collaborative research outline. The second workshop, co-organized with the IHDP/IGBP project on Land-Ocean Interaction in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ), also made use of the IDGEC framework to better understand the intricacies of coastal governance. The third workshop, convened by the Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB) team, shared and discussed the informal knowledge and intelligence gathered by ENB reporters on a number of MEA processes. The IDGEC Synthesis Conference kicked off in the afternoon of December 6th with a traditional Balinese opening ceremony featuring Balinese gamelan music and a Pendet dance, which presented an offering in the form of a ritual dance. Local host Agus Sari chaired the Opening Plenary. IHDP representative Falk Schmidt welcomed participants on behalf of IDGEC’s “proud” parent organization. IDGEC’s founding chair, Oran Young, gave a comprehensive overview of the IDGEC project and charged participants with achieving the objectives of the conference. Ir.

28 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

I Nyoman Sucipta, Assistant to the Rector of Bali’s Udayana University offered warm words of welcome. Amanda Katili Niode, Special Staff of Environmental Impact Management and Technical Assistant to the Environment Minister of Indonesia, pointed to the importance of IDGEC’s research to her ongoing work in the Environment Ministry of Indonesia. The conference was declared open by the sounding of a traditional Balinese gong. December 7th was devoted to synthesizing what we know now about the roles institutions play in causing and solving environmental problems that we did not know at the outset of the project. Keynote speakers (Arild Underdal, Ronald Mitchell, Oran Young, Victor Galaz, Sebastian Oberthuer, and Joyeeta Gupta) provided “teasers” of their keynote papers in plenary and longer versions of these papers in parallel sessions. They were countered and appraised by respondents from both scientific and knowledge broker perspectives. Summaries of the keynote papers are included in this issue of the IHDP Update. In the morning of December 8th, participants presented their research on applications of the IDGEC framework to human/environment interactions in the marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric domains. The afternoon’s theme was policy and learning. Scientists, knowledge brokers, and practitioners debated issues such as institutional questions relating to energy and climate change in India and China, traditional ecological knowledge and GEC, and teaching global environmental change and governance. An additional session dealt with institutions as a crosscutting concern in the GEC research community. On December 9th, the final conference day, sessions explored emerging research areas. The first half-day, led by Louis Lebel, focused on institutional change and stasis, the second half-day, led by Frank Biermann, explored future directions in research on institutions and governance, including questions regarding institutional architectures, agency beyond the state, allocation, and adaptation. The Synthesis Conference concluded with plenary presentations distilling IDGEC’s scientific legacy (Oran Young), communicating key findings to policymakers (Simon Tay), and mapping Research Foci, Themes and Flagship Activities of IDGEC


future research directions (Frank Biermann). To celebrate the excellent achievements of the conference, the IHDP invited all participants to a Balinese fisherman’s dinner on the beach. By all accounts, the conference was a major success. Balinese hospitality, scientific analysis, and originality in mapping a new research agenda on institutions and governance went hand in hand during these inspiring few days in Bali. The organizers would like to thank our sponsors for their generous support and the participants of the 2006 IDGEC Synthesis Conference for their enthusiasm and for their invaluable contributions. The conference papers, posters, and presentations archive will remain active on the IDGEC website at Scientific Steering Committee Dr. Joyeeta Gupta, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Song Li, Senior Environmental Specialist, Africa Region, The World Bank Dr. Jyrki J. Luukkanen, Finland Futures Research Center Yasuko Matsumoto, Kyoto University Dr. Sebastian Oburthür, Vrije Universiteit Brussel Agus P. Sari (Chair), Country Director, Ecosecurities Indonesia Simon S.C. Tay, Singapore Institute of International Affairs The former IPO was hosted at the Bren School of UCSB Oran R. Young, Principal Investigator/Director Heike Schroeder, Executive Officer Website:

Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Introduction and Project Development Since 1993, the IGBP project “Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)” has studied Earth’s heterogeneous, relatively small but highly productive, dynamic and sensitive coastal zone. During its first decade of research, LOICZ focused on the measurement of biogeochemical fluctuations into, and within, the coastal zone. Now in its third year as a joint IGBP/IHDP core project, LOICZ has evolved into an interdisciplinary collaborative effort of several hundred coastal zone scientists and managers within a wide spectrum of Earth System Sciences, from biochemical and geophysical to social and economic dimensions. With its primary objective “to provide the knowledge, understanding and prediction needed to allow coastal communities to assess, anticipate and respond to the interaction of global and local pressures which deter30 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

mine coastal change”, LOICZ is an important promoter of interdisciplinary coastal zone research around the globe. Aiming to overcome traditional disciplinary fragmentation, in particular between natural and social sciences, LOICZ organizes the biochemical, geophysical and human dimensions of coastal change around five scientific themes and three priority topics and crosscutting activities. Project Development With the move of the LOICZ-IPO to the GKSS Research Center in Germany in 2006, the project has consolidated its regional activities for Europe. The IPO now fosters national and European networks and LOICZ involvement in Arctic research. These activities link to Europe through the GKSS EU department and the ENCORA network. Moreover, LOICZ’s Regional Nodes in Singapore and Sri Lanka continued to enhance regional networking in Asia and integration of young scientists. Scientific workshops coordinated by the nodes addressed issues of science dissemination and communication in a training and capacity building effort. The nodes in Asia continued with their fundraising activities and strengthened links with regional organizations such as the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN). In the recent past, developing science communication capacity and integrated ecosystem assessment have been central project components. Activities included the support of two science communication courses; one associated with the Eramus Mundus Masters of Water and Coastal Management and one associated with START. Both courses were attended by a wide geographical student body (from 31 countries). LOICZ members also successfully supported the effort to grow the number and diversity of symbols in the overall effort to develop a global symbol language: the web-based symbol library ( has been accruing more users, with currently more than 30,000 registered users from 219 countries. A major effort to update a national assessment of US estuaries was undertaken as part of the National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment. This approach included LOICZ style conceptual diagrams and typology. A report is being finalized and will be released later this year. Furthermore, LOICZ nurtured the interdisciplinary nature of coastal research in various sessions at the ESSP Open Science Conference in Beijing and through active involvement in the IDGEC Synthesis Meeting in Bali. Furthermore, final policy and management digest of LOICZ biogeochemical assessments culminated in the formal report to UNEP: The Role of the Coastal Ocean in the Disturbed and Undisturbed Nutrient and Carbon Cycles – A Management Perspective. This report draws on the outcomes of a LOICZ workshop held in Brisbane in early 2006, to provide conclusions for managers from the LOICZ Budgeting and Typology Projects. Associated with the 2006 SSC meeting, LOICZ held a German mini-symposium that attracted 77 national scientists from 17 institutions and representatives from the Ministry for Research and Education. Various, current high-end approaches to national research on processes and dynamics in coastal areas were 31

presented and a platform for exchange provided. Also in 2006, LOICZ’ central database of affiliated projects went online. The database, accessible through the LOICZ web site, provides basic information, search tools and regular updates to the wider community as well as to LOICZ for its reporting requirements. Other services included the set up of an advanced computer server for a coastal typology data base and coastal portal and the redesign of the LOICZ Newsletter. Highlights and Activities in 2006 & 2007 In 2006/2007, LOICZ has been engaged in a number of scientific activities, among others: • 17. LOICZ SSC Meeting and Mini-Symposium, Geesthacht/Germany (June 06) • Presentation of LOICZ to several hundreds of visitors during the GKSS Open Day, Geesthacht/Germany (Sep. 06) • Participation at the Summer School “Diversity of Coastal Habitats”, Sylt/Germany (Sept. 06) • Participation at the Earth System Science Congress, Beijing/China (Nov. 06) • 1. Concept Workshop “Coastal Governance”, Rhode Island/USA (Nov. 06) • Participation at the IDGEC Synthesis Conference, Bali/Indonesia (Dec. 06) • Participation at the Conference “Integrated Budgeting of Nitrogen Fluxes in Regional Watersheds”, Paris/France (Jan. 07) • Science-Practitioners Workshop with ODRA, SPICE, Miedzyzdroye/Poland (March 07) • 2. Concept Workshop “Coastal Governance”, Cork/Ireland (May 07) • Joint LOICZ/GWSP Scoping Meeting “Deltas at Risk”, Durham/USA (May 07) • Participation at the Summer School “Persistent Pollution: Past, Present and Future”, Göhrde/Germany (May 07) • 18. LOICZ SSC Meeting and Mini-Symposium, Vancouver/Canada (June 07) • Sponsorship of 5. Study Conference BALTEX (CLIVAR), Saaremaa/Estonia (June 07) • Participation at the Summer School “Diversity and Functioning of Coastal Habitats”, Sylt/ Germany (July 07) • IMBER/LOICZ Continental Margins Open Science Meeting, Shanghai/China (Sep. 07) • Opening of LOICZ Regional Node East Asia, Yantai Coastal Institute/China (Sep. 07) • SCOR/LOICZ WG 122 Final Synthesis Workshop, Boulder/USA (Sep. 07) • Workshop “Arctic Coastal Zones at Risk”, Tromsø/Norway (Oct. 07) Selected Publications 1. Langmead, O.; McQuatters-Gollop, A. & Mee, L.D. (2007): European Lifestyles and Marine Ecosystems: Exploring challenges for managing Europe’s seas. University of Plymouth Marine Institute, Plymouth, UK. 2. Gordeev, V.V.; Andreeva, E.N.; Lisitzin, A.P.; Kremer, H.H.; Salomons, W. & Marshall 32 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Crossland, J.I. (2006): Russian Arctic Basins. LOICZ Reports and Studies No. 29, Geesthacht. 3. Juda, L.; Hennessey, T.M.; Olsen, S.B. & Sutinen, J.G. (2006): A Handbook on the Governance and Socioeconomics of Large Marine Ecosystems. University of Rhode Island. 4. McFadden, L.; Nicholls, R.J. & Penning-Rowsell, E.C. (2006): Managing Coastal Vulnerability: An Integrated Approach. Elsevier. 5. Olsen, S.B.; Tiruponithura V. Padma, T.V. & Richter, B.D. (2006): Managing Freshwater Inflows to Estuaries: A Methods Guide. USAID, The Nature Conservancy, and the Coastal Resources Center at the University of Rhode Island. 6. Pacyna, J.M. & Mano, S. (2006): Fluxes of Trace Gases in the European Coastal Zone: Current Understanding and Future Needs. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Studies 70 (3): 335-337. 7. Restrepo, J.D. & Syvitski, J.P.M. (2006): Assessing the effect of natural controls and land use change on sediment yield in a major Andean river, the Magdalena River drainage basin, Colombia. Ambio (35): 65-74. 8. Snoussi, M.; Kitheka, J.; Shanghude, Y.; Kane, A.; Arthurton, R.; Le Tissier, M. & Virji, H. (2007): Downstream and Coastal Impacts of Damming and Water Abstraction in Africa. Environmental Management 39 (5): 587-600. 9. Thomas, J.; Jones, A.; Saxby, T.; Carruthers, T.; Abal, E. & Dennison, W. (2006): Communicating Science Effectively: A Practical Handbook for Integrating Visual Elements. IWA Publishing. 10. UNEP/GPA (2006): Ecosystem-Based Management: Markers for Assessing Progress. UNEP/GPA, The Hague. SC chairs and co chairs Dr Jozef M.Pacyna Chair, Center for Ecological Economics (CEE), Norway Dr Liana Talaue-McManus, University of Miami, USA Prof. Felino Lansigan, University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB), The Philippines Prof. Nancy N. Rabalais, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Louisiana, USA Project IPO LOICZ International Project Office Dr. Hartwig Kremer, Chief Executive Officer GKSS Research Center, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-StraĂ&#x;e 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany E-Mail: Website: 33

Global Land Project (GLP) Introduction and Project Development GLP—a joint project of IGBP and IHDP—took its first steps in 2006 to establish itself as a fully functioning research programme. The successor to the Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC) and Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE) projects, GLP opened its international project office (IPO) in Copenhagen in September 2006. Anette Reenberg was appointed as chair, Tobias Langanke as executive officer, and Lars Jorgensen as administrative officer. GLP studies the human transformation of ecosystems and landscapes. It looks at the links between decision-making, ecosystem services and global environmental change that define important feedbacks from human-environment interactions at the local and regional scale, and to and from the global scale. GLP research aims to improve the understanding of land system dynamics in the context of Earth System function by measuring, modelling and understanding the coupled human-environmental system. Furthermore, these studies will better predict the consequences of future land system change. GLP’s International Project Office (IPO) in Denmark manages the project’s growing network of scientists, and is creating a database of scientists interested in GLP’s research. The IPO also coordinates research through GLP’s three new nodal offices located in Aberdeen, UK (focus on integration and synthesis) and Sapporo, Japan (focus on vulnerability, resilience and sustainability of land systems) and Beijing, China (focus on land use - and ecosystem interactions). The nodal offices provide infrastructural, personnel, and scientific input and support in the process of implementing the GLP science plan. Nodal offices have a clear thematic focus and the GLP’s Scientific Steering Committee provides scientific oversight. Through its strong communication and outreach efforts, GLP informs and updates its scientists and a broader audience of international researchers. The project published its first newsletter in September 2006 and launched its website in October. In 2006, GLP held two SSC meetings: one in Rome, the other in Beijing during the Earth System Science Partnership’s Open Science Conference. The SSC meeting for 2007 will be held in Copenhagen in October 2007. To supplement the ongoing endorsement and networking activities, a number of activities were held in 2007 or are planned for the coming months. These include a workshop and a seminar for junior researchers in Sapporo, a workshop and two conferences co-organized by GLP in Copenhagen and a number of activities that are planned by the Aberdeen nodal office and the Beijing nodal office. Highlights and Activities in 2006 & 2007 IPO • First SSC meeting held in Rome in February 2006 34 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

• • • •

Selection of Prof. Anette Reenberg (Copenhagen University, Danmark) as Chair of GLP Planning for and successful organisation and running of second SSC meeting in Beijing (November 2006) Successful funding and establishment of IPO in Copenhagen by September 2006 (appointed EO: Tobias Langanke, AO Lars Jorgensen) After early resignation of SSC member (Emma Archer, South Africa) a replacement with a similar profile was found and is now our latest member of the SSC – (Cheikh Mbow, Senegal)

Network • About 520 individual scientists registered in the database so far (May 2007). • The endorsement process as our main starting point for implementing GLP is established and operational. More than 20 projects, networks and activities are endorsed so far. First cooperation between projects and GLP is currently being established. • Information and outreach to interested projects and networks by Newsletter and updated website More then 3000 individuals from the former GCTE and LUCC projects were contacted. • April 3-6th 2007 GLP networking and presentations at annual team meeting of the NASA funded LCLUC programme (Land Cover- Land Use Change). • Ongoing process of establishing a database with details of interested scientists Nodal Offices • Establishment of 3 nodal offices: Aberdeen, UK (focus on integration and synthesis), Sapporo, Japan (focus on vulnerability, resilience and sustainability of land systems) and Beijing, China (focus on land use - and ecosystem interactions). Activities • Participation of SSC members in GLP specific sessions at the ESSP Global Environmental Change Open Science Conference (Beijing, November 2006): • Session N9 (Climate change and rising CO2: How serious is the future threat to biodiversity). Convenor and presentation by Leadley. • Session N25 (Biodiversity, land management and ecosystem responses). Convenors Diaz, Leadley and Ojima, presentations by Diaz, Ojima and Haberl. • Session N33 (Integrated coupled Human-Environment Research. Developments in Land Science). Convenor Ojima and Turner, presentations by Turner and Kerr. • Session N41 (Future directions in Ecological Systems modelling). Convenor Leadley, presentation by Kerr. 35

• •

• •

Second Conference of the University of Copenhagen Rio-initiative, Climate Change and Sustainable Development in LDC’s, Department of Geography, University of Copenhagen, May 7-8 , 2007. Co-organized by GLP. shtml Planning for workshop on “Globalisation and Land use” in Copenhagen in October 2007, planning for several workshops to be hosted by the nodal offices in Sapporo and Aberdeen. Copenhagen organized workshop of the Danish Network for Land System Science (LASYS) with international participation. Results in special issue of the Danish Journal of Geography (Vol.106 (2)) on “Land Systems Research in Denmark (Anette Reenberg as Guest Editor for the special Issue. Activities of the Sapporo nodal office: Sapporo Nodal Office of the Global Land Project manages research related to vulnerability, resilience and sustainability of land systems: The Sapporo GLP Nodal Office participated in: the GEOSS Symposium on Integrated Observation for Sustainable Development in the Asia-Pacific Region on January 11-12 at Tokyo. An International Workshop on Governance and Land systems sustainability was held at Sapporo on February 27, 2007. The workshop explored a new paradigm of governance for the sustainability of land systems. GLP Sapporo Nodal Office also participated in a Symposium organized by the Center of Excellence Project of Hokkaido University on Ecological Vulnerability on February 20, 2007 An advanced institute for junior researchers on Integrated Land Systems modeling will be held in September 2007. Activities of the Aberdeen nodal office: Planning for two workshops this late 2007/early 2008: a) design of integrative models of natural and social systems in land change science, and b) data and model integration for coupled models of land change.

Selected Publications Publications leading to the establishment of GLP (Synthesis Reports of the predecessor projects): 1. GLP (2005) Science Plan and Implementation Strategy. IGBP Report No. 53/IHDP Report No. 19. IGBP Secretariat, Stockholm. 64pp. 2. GCTE synthesis Report: Canadell, J.G., Pataki, D.E. and Pitelka, L.F. (Eds.), Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World. Springer, 2007. Chapter 25.The Future Research Challenge: the Global Land Project Dennis S. Ojima, • William J. McConnell, • Emilio Moran, • Billie L. Turner III, • Josep G. Canadell and • Sandra Lavorel 36 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007


LUCC synthesis Report: Lambin, E.F. and Geist, H.(Eds.), Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. Local Processes and Global Impacts. 2006. Springer. Global Change – The IGBP series. Authors from GLP SSC: Abha Chhabra, Tom Veldkamp, Helmut Haberl, Billie Turner and Jotaro Urabe

GLP special issues: 4. Reenberg, A. (Guest Editor). Special Issue Danish Journal of Geography: Danish Network for land Systems Science. Vol.106 (2), 2006. 5. Verburg Peter H., Mark D.A. Rounsevell and A. Veldkamp, 2006. Scenario based studies of future land use in Europe, (Editorial). Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 114: 1-6 6. Pennock D.J., and A. Veldkamp 2006. Editorial: Advances in landscape-scale soil research. Geoderma 133: 1-6 A large number of publications for 2006 was submitted by GLP SSC members. These publications have the respective SSC member as author (or co-author) and deal with issues related to GLP relevant topics. However they are not directly based on activities of GLP. SC Anette Reenberg (Chair), University of Copenhagen, Denmark Richard Aspinall, Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK Andre Bationo, CIAT (TSBF-CIAT), Nairobi, Kenya. Gilberto Câmara, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil Abha Chhabra, Indian Space Research Organisation, India Sandra Myrna Diaz, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina Helmut Haberl, University of Klagenfurt, Austria Suzi Kerr, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research, New Zealand Paul Leadley, Universite Paris-Sud XI, France Jiyuan Liu Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Cheikh Mbow, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal Dennis Ojima, Colorado State University, USA John R. Porter, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Billie Turner II, Clark University, USA Jotaro Urabe, Tohoku University, Japan Tom A. Veldkamp, Landscape Centre, The Netherlands Project IPO Dr. Tobias Langanke, Executive officer Anette Markan Reenberg, Chair 37

Global Land Project (GLP), Geocenter Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark Email:,

Urbanization and Global Environmental Change project (UGEC) Introduction and Project Development The IHDP Urbanization and Global Environmental Change (UGEC) core project seeks to provide a better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between global environmental change (GEC) and urbanization at the local, regional, and global scales through an innovative conceptual and methodological framework. To capture the benefits of urbanization and mitigate as well as adapt to negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts, a stronger collaboration between academics, political decision-makers and practitioners is encouraged. As urbanization represents a critical topic of special policy relevance in today’s world, the UGEC core project represents an unrivalled opportunity for addressing critical issues of worldwide importance that have not received adequate attention so far. The four focus areas of UGEC are: • Urban processes that contribute to GEC • Pathways through which GEC affects the urban system • Interactions and responses within the urban system • Consequences of changes within urban systems on GEC Today, more than half of the world’s population lives in cities. It is clear that the development of urban areas hold the key to many of the challenges faced in interactions with environmental change. UGEC targets the generation of knowledge directly applicable to those challenges. Project Development An NSF grant was awarded to ASU for the establishment of the International Project Office at ASU in 2006. In its first months of operations, the Urbanization IPO has begun assisting the Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) of the UGEC project in developing and administering the goals of the project. The IPO took shape with the hiring of the project’s Executive Officer on November 1st, 2006. The International Project Office of Urbanization and Global Environmental Change project supports the scientific framework proposed by the UGEC project the goal of which is to integrate disciplinary contributions in social, engineering, natural and health sciences in order to under38 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

standing the complex interactions between global environmental change and urban processes. The framework offers an interdisciplinary approach and methods for creating an effective network that links researchers from across the globe. Furthermore, it targets a stronger collaboration among academics and policymakers to craft policies for mitigation of and adaptation to the consequences of complex interactions between urbanization and global environmental change. The project has taken the first steps in the building of an expanded international network of scholars and policymakers that better understand urbanization and environmental change processes. To build this network by bringing together a large and diverse group of scholars, the project participated in international conferences and meetings (such as the Earth System Science Partnership Open Science Conference on “Global Environmental Change: Regional Challenges” which took place in Beijing, China in November 2006, the joint IGBP/IHDP meeting held in Brazil in March of 2007 as well as the annual Association of American Geographers meeting in April of 2007. Furthermore, the project held its 3rd and 4th Scientific Steering Committee meeting in July of 2006 and April of 2007 respectively giving the opportunity to UGEC SSC members and project associates to interact with related scholars from the Canadian British Columbia and Southwestern US regions. The IPO is currently in the process of preparation of several international workshops (on urban adaptation to climate change, urban growth and environmental change modeling and one on urbanization and global environmental change in Latin America). The project established several research tools that help advance the UGEC scientific agenda: a Working Papers series was established (the series is titled “Urbanization and Global Environmental Change – International Working Paper Series, ISSN: 1935-9160). The project’s Seminar Series was inaugurated in April of ’07; this series will host lectures from US and international researchers on topics related to the UGEC themes. The project’s e-Newsletter was established in February of 2007 and will be circulating bi-monthly. The project also plans to soon host its own online bibliographic database system for the emerging UGEC themed literature. Communication tools such as listservs, an electronic newsletter, and a website ( to alert participating researchers to funding opportunities and other benefits of network association were established early on in 2006 and the beginning of 2007. Such tools target the provision of opportunities to scholars and practitioners to present the results of their research available in a timely fashion and receive feedback from a broader international counterpart community. These tools will also promote the goal of a dynamic IPO that ensures the flow of information among the UGEC SSC, the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) and its core projects, and the wider GEC research community. Additionally, the IPO is continually evolving a network of project associates and endorsed project so that it includes a group of dyna mic project participants that provide a broader diversity of scientific (thematic and regional) expertise in various disciplines and sub-disciplines and 39

practical expertise (practitioners and decision-makers). The project also participated in the publication efforts of the IHDP Update themed “Global Environmental Change, Natural Disasters, Vulnerability and their Implications for Human Security in Coastal Urban Areas” published in 2007. You can find more information on the above on our project’s website at

Highlights and Activities in 2006 & 2007 Activities of UGEC in 2006/07 - Highlights The project held two SSC meetings and participated in several academic activities during 2006/07: June 2006 3rd UGEC SSC meeting at University of British Columbia, Canada November 2006 The UGEC Project established its International Project Office (IPO) November 2006 Earth System Science Partnership Open Science Conference on “Global Environmental Change: Regional Challenges”. UGEC participated with two sessions February 2007 Established the bimonthly UGEC E-Newsletter March 2007 Established UGEC International Working Paper Series March 2007 Joint IGBP/IHDP SC Meeting and 14th IHDP SC meeting April 2007 Established UGEC Seminar Series - Series inaugurated with a talk by Peter Marcotullio on ‘Urbanization, Increasing Wealth and Energy Transitions’ April 2007 4th UGEC SCC meeting at Arizona State University, USA May 2007 Participation of two UGEC SSC members in the International Symposium of Urban Climate Change Research Network September 2007 Workshop Series Begins with ‘Urban Adaptation to Climate Change’ Involvement of UGEC in Broader IHDP Activities Joint efforts with other IHDP core projects include but are not limited to: • The collaboration between UGEC/GECHS/LOICZ has led to a joint publication of the IHDP Update themed “Global Environmental Change, Natural Disasters, and their Implications for Human Security in Coastal Urban Areas” published in 2007. • Planned collaboration with the GLP for the “Forecasting the magnitude, location and form of urban growth” workshop. • Planned collaboration with the GCP for the “Urbanization and GEC in Latin America” workshop. Selected Publications 1. Boraine A, Crankshaw O, Engelbrecht C, Gotz G, Mbanga S, Narsoo M, Parnell S, (2006) 40 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007



4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12.


14. 15.

The state of South African cities a decade after democracy, Urban Studies 43 (2): 259284 Boucher A, Seto KC, Journel AG, (2006) A novel method for mapping land cover changes: Incorporating time and space with geostatistics, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44 (11): 3427-3435 Part 2 Civerolo, K., Hogrefe, C., Lynn, B., Rosenthal, J., Ku, JY, Solecki, W., Cox, J, Small, C., Rosenzweig, C., Goldberg, R ., Knowlton, K., Kinney, P., 2007, Estimating the effects of increased urbanization on surface meteorology and ozone concentrations in the New York City metropolitan region, Atmospheric Environment 41 (9): 1803-1818 Guèye C., Fall A S, and Serigne Mansour S. Tall, 2007, Climatic perturbation and urbanization in Senegal , 173 (1), pp. 88-92 Grimmond, S., 2007, Urbanization and global environmental change: Local effects of urban warming, The Geographical Journal, 173 (1), pp. 83-88 IHDP Update Newsletter (2006-2). – Focus: Urbanization and Global Environmental Change Kraas, F., Megacities and global change: Key priorities, The Geographical Journal, 173 (1), pp. 79-82 Kraas, F., Nitschke, U., 2006, Megacities as engines of global change, Internationale Politik, 61 (11): 18-28 Leichenko RM, Solecki WD, 2005, Exporting the American dream: The globalization of suburban consumption landscapes, Regional Studies 39 (2): 241-253 Loew, A., S. Niebergall, R. Singh, T. Krafft, W. Mauser, V. Seelbach, F. Kraas, 2006, Vulnerability in Megacities: An interdisciplinary approach to analyse the urban water system in Delhi, India, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 02207. Parnell S, Robinson J 2006, Development and urban policy: Johannesburg’s city development strategy, Urban Studies 43 (2): 337-355 Sanchez-Rodriguez, R. and Bonilla, A., (Eds.) (forthcoming, 2007), Urbanization, Global Environmental Change, and Sustainable Development in Latin America. Sao Paulo, Brazil. Inter American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) and United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP). Sánchez-Rodríquez, R.; Seto, K.; Simon, D.; Solecki, W.D.; Kraas, F. and G. Laumann (2005): UGEC (Urbanization and Global Environmental Change) Science Plan. IHDP Report No. 13. Bonn. Solecki, W. D., Leichenko, R. M., 2006, Urbanization and the metropolitan environment: lessons from New York and Shanghai, Environment, Vol. 48; n.4, pages 8-25. Simon, D., 2007, Urbanisation and global environmental change: new intergenerational challenges, International Journal of Green Economics, 1 (3/4), pp. 299 - 306 41

16. Simon, D., 2007, Cities and global environmental change: Exploring the links, The Geographical Journal, 173 (1), pp. 75-79 17. Wang, W., Krafft, T., Kraas, F., 2006, Global Change, Urbanization and Health, China Meteorological Press

UGEC International Working Paper Series (ISSN: 1935-9160) available at Number




WP 07-01

March 2007

David Simon

Global change and urban risk: the challenge of African cities

WP 07-02

April 2007

Susan Parnell, Global environmental change - conceptualisDavid Simon and ing the challenge for cities in poor countries Coleen Vogel

SC Roberto Sanchez-Rodriguez (co-chair),UC-MEXUS, University of California Irvine, USA/Mexico Karen C. Seto (co-chair), Stanford University, USA Cheikh Gueye, Environnement et Developpement du Tiers Monde (Enda-tm), Senegal Frauke Kraas, University of Cologne, Germany Ooi Giok Ling, National Institute of Education, Singapore Susan Parnell, University of Cape Town, South Africa David Simon, Royal Holloway University of London, U.K. William Solecki, Hunter College of the City University of New York, USA Xue Desheng, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, China Yan Xiaopei, (SSC membership: 2005-07) Zhongshan University, China IPO Michail Fragkias, Executive Officer UGEC International Project Office, Urbanization and Global Environmental Change (UGEC) - an IHDP Core Project, Arizona State University, PO Box 873211, Tempe, AZ 85287-3211 Tel: (480) 727-7833 Fax: (480) 727-9680 Website:

42 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) and ESSP-Joint Projects ESSP Governance activities ESSP The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) is a partnership of the four international global environmental change research programmes of ICSU: DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP, and WCRP. ESSP works towards an integrated study of the Earth System, the ways that it is changing, and the implications for global and regional sustainability. The ESSP contributes to this endeavour through a number of activities: (i) joint projects on food, carbon, water, and health; (ii) integrated regional studies, (iii) capacity building, and (iv) open science conferences. The ESSP Open Science Conference “Global Environmental Change: Regional Challenges” took place in Beijing in November 2006. The conference attracted over 900 scientists, policymakers, and journalists. The next generation of Earth System Science researchers were also in attendance following the successful Young Scientists’ Conference, organised by START and the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). Major outcomes of the ESSP OSC included the launch of the new ESSP Joint Project on Global Environmental Change and Human Health (GECHH), and the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) initial Science Plan. The ESSP OSC delivered a message of urgency to governments to take action on issues of global environmental change and sustainable development. At the ESSP Chairs and Directors Meeting that convened during the OSC, it was agreed to establish a new governance structure with the creation of an ESSP Scientific Committee to be chaired by Rik Leemans of Wageningen University (the Netherlands). The ESSP SC will meet for the first time in October 2007.


Contact: Martin Rice, ESSP Coordinator Email: Website:

Global Carbon Project (GCP) Introduction and Project Development Achievements The project is in full swing with a range of scientific activities, both initiated by the GCP and its partner organizations and materializing in output of individuals or parts of the SSC. Two most successful activities of GCP are on vulnerability of carbon pools and the Urban and Regional Carbon Management (URCM). GCP is in the process to start a new initiative on bio-energy and land use in carbon context. Challenges The main operational challenge will be the transition from the current team of co-chairs to a new leadership in addition to a major rotation of SSC members. Five members of the SSC were already replaced in 2006 and 5 more will need to be replaced by the end of 2007. GCP will try to become more relevant both in South American and Africa despite the initial difficulties to develop a relevant agenda for these regions. Both Antonio Nobre from Brazil and Guy Midgley from South Africa will be key new SSC members to support a larger engagement. An initial conference is planned next year in South Africa attached to the 7th SSC meeting. Constraints After the tragic death of Prof. Mingkui Cao, director of the GCP affiliated office in Beijing, we have a new director. This transition has slowed down the activity of the office which was playing both a regional role in Asia Pacific and a leading role in regional carbon budgets. As always the IPO’s are working with very limited funding and support. Highlights and Activities in 2006 & 2007 Please refer to the website Selected Publications 1. Global Carbon Project (2006c) The Global Carbon Cycle. Policy Briefing. GCP report no. 5. 2. Global Carbon Project (2006b) GCP Overview 2005-06. GCP report no. 4 3. Global Carbon Project (2006a). What can be learned from champions of ozone layer for 44 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007


urban and regional carbon management? GCP report no. 3, Tsukuba. Plummer S, Arino O, Simon M, Steffen W (2006) Establishing an Earth observation product service for the terrestrial carbon community: the GLOBCARBON initiative. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006) 11: 97–111.

Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) Michael Raupach, Co-Chair, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Australia Annan Partwardhan, Co-chair, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, India Philippe Ciais, Commissariat a L’Energie Atomique, Laboratorie des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, France Christopher Field, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, USA Patricia Romero Lankao, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México Corinne Lequere, Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany Nebojsa Nakicenovic, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria Yoshiki Yamagata, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan Yi Qe, Tsinghua University, China Antonio Nobre, Escrtorio Regional do INPA, INPE-Sigma, Brazil Guy Midgley, South African National Biodiversity Institute, South Africa Thomas Johansson, Lund University, Sweden Pierre Friedlingstein, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France Cheng-Tung Arthur Chen, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan Project IPO Pep Canadell, Executive Director Rowena Foster, Centre Manager Global Carbon Project International Project Office Australia, CSIRO Earth Observation Centre, GPO Box 3023, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia Tel.: 61-26246-5631; Fax: 61-2-6246-5988 Email:; Website: Global Carbon Project International Project Office Japan Shobhakar Dhakal, Executive Director Centre for Global Environment Research, National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa; Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 Japan Tel: 81-298-50-2672; Fax: 81-298-50-2960 Email:; 45

Global Environmental Change and Food Systems (GECAFS) Introduction and Project Development The ESSP Joint Project “Global Environmental Change and Food Systems” (GECAFS: was launched in 2001 as a Joint Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). The GECAFS goal is to determine strategies to cope with the impacts of GEC on food systems and to assess the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of adaptive responses aimed at improving food security. Highlights and Activities in 2006 & 2007 Scientific highlights during 2006/07 included: • A set of Prototype Caribbean Scenarios prepared and published (GECAFS Rpt 2) funded by ICSU and UNESCO. • Food System conceptualisation for GEC research completed (Ericksen, submitted). • Notions of vulnerability of food systems to GEC developed (Ericksen, submitted). • Analysis of Case Study food systems in the IGP completed (Ericksen, in prep). • A major, multi-authored paper on global environmental change and the dynamic challenges facing food security policy in Southern Africa (Mano et al.) submitted. • An analysis of the role of agronomic research in climate change and food security policy in the developing world (Ingram et al, submitted). • Initial analysis of IGP vulnerability to GEC undertaken (Dixit at al; APN project – ongoing). Other achievements during 2006/07 included: • The establishment of the “Food Systems” concept as a framework for GECAFS research. • The adoption of GECAFS concepts as a central component of a ESF/COST Forward Look “European Food Systems in a Changing World” aimed at identifing resereach prorities over next decade. • The completion of preparatory food systems research in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) with funding from the CGIAR Challenge Progamme on Water and Food; and the launch of follow-up research in the IGP with APN funding. • The establishment of a GECAFS Advisory Committee for Vulnerability and Adaptation of Food Systems. • The publication of the GECAFS Southern African Science Plan and Implementation 46 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

• • • •

Strategy (GECAFS Rpt 3). The drafting of Science Plan and Implementation Strategies for the IGP and Caribbean. The full re-design and publication of The design and launch of a web-based GECAFS Forum which attracted over 100 subscribers by end January 2007. The organisation of about 25 meetings, workshops and seminars in 10 countries.

In addition to setting a comprehensive, interdisciplinary GEC research agenda on the links between environment and food security, GECAFS established, from the outset, formal research partnerships with three international organisations concerned with GEC, food and agriculture: the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research (CGIAR); the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); and the UN World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). GECAFS continued to develop strategic linkages with these organisations during 2006/07: for instance, GECAFS, on behalf of ESSP, co-designed a major planning exercise to build a firmer structural relationship between ESSP and CGIAR. Another strategic interaction involved planning for a 3- to 5-year project with the FAO to develop databases for food security information and policy support. GECAFS also helped to design the European Science Foundation/COST Forward Look on European Food Systems in a Changing World (2006–2007). Selected Publications 1. Linking glacial melt to food on our table, published in the Summer 2007 issue of the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council’s magazine, Planet Earth. Jodie Harris (August 2007) 2. GECAFS Working Paper 5, Global environmental change and the dynamic challenges facing food security policy in Southern Africa, R.T. Mano, J. Arntzen, S. Drimie, P. Dube, J.S.I. Ingram, C. Mataya, M.T Muchero, E. Vhurumuku and G. Ziervogel (July 2007) 3. Poster: “Scenarios to Aid Regional Food Security Policy Formulation”, presented at IPCC TGICA meeting on “Integrating Analysis of Regional Climate Change and Response Options: Expert Meeting on Regional Impacts, Adaptation, Vulnerability, and Mitigation”, Nadi, Fiji, June 20-22, 2007 4. GECAFS Report 3 / GECAFS Southern Africa Science Plan and Implementation Strategy. (September 2006) 5. GECAFS Working Paper 4, On the Role of Scenarios in GECAFS Decision-Support, T. Henrichs (August 2006) 6. GECAFS Working Paper 3, Assessing the vulnerability of food systems to global environmental change: a conceptual and methodological review. P. J. Ericksen (July 2006) 7. GECAFS Working Paper 2, Conceptualising Food Systems for Global Environmental 47

Change (GEC) Research. P. J. Ericksen (June 2006) GECAFS Working Paper 1, A Short Review of Global Scenarios for Food Systems Analysis. M. B. Zurek (March 2006) 9. GECAFS Report 2, A Set of Prototype Caribbean Scenarios for Global Environmental Change Research on Food Systems. (March 2006) 10. GECAFS Brochure. (March 2006) 11. Climate Change and Food Security. Published in Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B (2005) 360, 2139–2148, P.J. Gregory, J.S.I. Ingram, M. Brklacich. (January 2006) 8.

SC Ahsan Ahmed, Bangladesh Unnayan Parishad Hans-Georg Bohle, University of Bonn, Germany Angela Cropper, Cropper Foundation, Trinidad & Tobago Barbara Huddleston, UN-FAO, Italy John Ingram, Secretary, GECAFS IPO, UK Anne-Marie Izac, Vice Chair, Future Harvest Alliance Office, CGIAR, Italy Jim Jones, University of Florida, USA Diana Liverman, Chair, Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, UK Richard Mkandawire, New Partnership for Africa’s Development, South Africa Mahendra Shah, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria Luis Vieira, EMBRAPA, Brazil Project IPO Diana Liverman, Chair of the GECAFS Executive Committee John Ingram, GECAFS Executive Officer: GECAFS IPO, Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Centre for the Environment, Oxford, UK Tel: 44 1865 285 175 Email: or Website:

Global Water System Project (GWSP) Major Activities And Achievements Work has been continued and progress has been made on a series of fast-track activities, consoli48 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

dated to achieve near-tem progress in the early Phase of the Project. These are as follows: 1. Digital Water Atlas 2. GWSP Water Indicators 3. Workshop on Global Water Governance 4. GWSP - LOICZ Collaboration 5. Advanced Institute on Global Environmental Change and Water in the Context of the MDGs 6. Co-operation with Important International Water Organisations 7. Global Water System Lexicon (Glossary) New Directions In order to ensure product delivery during Phase 2 of the Project (2007-2010), the Executive Committee at its meeting in February 2007 identified three Integrative Study Areas (ISA) within which the implementation of the tasks of the Scientific Framework will be coordinated and the delivery of truly integrated and interdisciplinary research results will be secured. ISAs are targeted towards the production of scientifically outstanding and highly policy-relevant results. For the delivery of these results an integration of activities across themes and sub-themes of the

Conceptual Model

Other Interests...

Governance & Adaptation Strategies

Climate Change

Simulation modelling

Global Water Needs: Humans and Nature


Global Catchment Initiative: Bringing the Global Perspective to River Basin Research and Management


Global Scale Initiative: Ranking of threats to the GWS

Other methods...




Manifested & projected changes

Thresholds, abrupt changes, tipping points

Other relevant results

Policy Outreach & Capacity Building


Scientific Framework as well as across disciplines is a prerequisite. In this way, the ISAs are a strategic tool for the overall integration and synthesis of project results. The three Integrative Study Areas are: • Global Scale Initiative: Ranking of Threats to the Global Water System • Global Catchment Initiative: Bringing the Global Perspective to River Basin Research and Management • Global Water Needs Initiative: Humans and Nature Challenges And Constraints The major challenge that GWSP faces is that currently the number of scientists who are involved in integrative or systems approaches is limited and that many scientists have no or limited experience of working in a multi-disciplinary way. A new generation of scientists will have to be educated in a novel way. Of course, this is related to the question of funding, because there are very few specific funding programmes that open an avenue to multi-disciplinary and/or integrative research. The limitation of funding for integrative research currently constrains the number of research activities that would do justice to the complex issues outlined in the GWSP Scientific Framework. This was recently recognized by IGFA, but IHDP may wish to reiterate these programmatic infrastructure aspects as opposed to question of amounts of funding in future discussions. GWSP needs to clarify the concept of the Global Water System and to broaden the recognition and support of the scientific community for the project. GWSP needs to strengthen and consolidate the interaction with the other ESSP Programmes and their projects as well as with the ESSP Joint Projects. GWSP efforts will be needed to educate a new generation of scientists that will address the understanding of the complex global water system. Selected Publications 1. Alcamo, J.; Flörke, M.; Märker, M. (in press): Future Long-term Changes in Global Water Resources Driven by Socio-Economic and Climatic Changes. Hydrological Sciences. 2. Arthington, A. H.; Bunn, S. E.; LeRoy Poff, N; Naiman, R. J. (2006): The Challenge of Providing Environmental Flow Rules to Sustain River Ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 16(4), pp. 1311-1318. Available online at: 3. Bernhardt, E., S.E. Bunn, D.D. Hart, B. Malmqvist, T. Muotka, R.J. Naiman, C. Pringle, M. Reuss, and B. van Wilgen. 2006. The challenge of ecologically sustainable water management. Water Policy 8 (5):475-479. 4. Chen, J. (2006): Global Water System Hotspots in the Asian Region – Mega Cities and Dams. Proceedings of the 2nd GWSP-Asia Network Workshop, June 8-11, 2006, Guang50 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

zhou, China. Available online at: the GWSP website ( Craswell, E. T. (2006): Water and Poverty in Southeast Asia – The Research Agenda from a Global Perspective. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development Vol. 1 No.2: 1-11. 6. Craswell, E. T.; Bonnell, M.; Bossio, D.; Demuth, S.; van de Giesen, N. (Guest Editors), 2007: Integrated Assessment of Water Resources and Global Change – A North-South Analysis. Water Resources Management. Volume 21, Number 1 (Special Issue). 373pp. ISSN 0920-4741. Springer Netherlands. 7. Craswell, E. T.; Bonnell, M.; Bossio, D.; Demuth, S.; van de Giesen, N. (Editors), 2007: Integrated Assessment of Water Resources and Global Change – A North-South Analysis. Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-4020-5590-4. 8. Oki, T.; Kanae, S. (2006): Global Hydrological Cycles and World Water Resources. Science 25 August 2006: Vol. 313. no. 5790, pp. 1068 - 1072; DOI: 10.1126/science.1128845. 9. Pahl-Wostl, C.; Gupta, J.; Petry, D.; Gleditsch, N. P. (Guest Editors) (submitted): Global Governance of Water: Trends, Processes and Ideas for the Future. Global Governance, special issue. 10. Sullivan, C. et al. (2006): Mapping the Links between Water, Poverty and Food Security. Report on the Indicators workshop held at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK, 16-19 May 2005. GWSP Issues in Global Water System Research, No. 1. GWSP IPO, Bonn. Available online at: no1_lowres.pdf 5.

SC Joseph Alcamo (Co-Chair), Professor, Director of the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany Charles Vörösmarty (Co-Chair), Professor, Director of the Water Systems Analyses Group, University of New Hampshire, USA Dennis Lettenmaier, Professor, Water Resource Engineering & Hydrology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, USA Robert J. Naiman, Professor, Aquatic & Fishery Sciences, College of Ocean & Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, USA Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Professor for Resource Flow Management, Institute for Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrück, Germany SSC: Stuart Bunn, Director of the Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Australia Joyeeta Gupta, Free University of Amsterdam and UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands Felino Lansigan, School of Environmental Science & Management, University of the Philippines, 51

Los Banos College, Philippines Changming Liu, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources, China José Marengo, CPTEC / INPE (Center for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies / National Institute for Space Research), Brazil Christer Nilsson, Leader of Landscape Ecology Group, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Sweden Jay O’Keeffe, WWF Chair of Freshwater Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Resources, UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands Taikan Oki, Institute of Industrial Science, Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, University of Tokyo, Japan Hong Yang, EAWAG (Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology), Switzerland Project IPO GWSP IPO, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany Phone: +49 (0) 228 73 6188 Fax: +49 (0) 228 73 60834 Email: Website:

Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) Introduction and Project Development MAIRS began its activities in 2006. These scientific highlights are related to how MAIRS perceives key research issues in monsoon Asia and to the formulation of its Initial Science Plan (ISP). There are no research results to disseminate for the time being. In the MAIRS context, we underscore the following principles: 1. MAIRS promotes research on coupled human–natural environmental systems in monsoon Asia and their dynamic linkages to the Earth System. This characterization defines our Niche in the ESS partnership. The task translates into three leading questions: • Is the Asian monsoon system resilient to human transformations of land, water and air? • Are societies in the region becoming more, or less, vulnerable to changes in the Asian monsoon? • What are likely consequences of change in monsoon Asia on the global climate system? 2. The System studied by MAIRS is “the environment and people in monsoon Asia” because 52 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007




the interactions between atmospheric, terrestrial and hydrological processes in parts of monsoon Asia are strong; intensive economic development and use of natural resources is a common feature across much of monsoon Asia — its ancient civilizations co-determined responses to environmental change. MAIRS will focus on issues that are important across monsoon Asia. Moreover, scientists from South, Southeast and temperate East Asia have complementary knowledge and skills to address these issues. The formulation of a Vision for MAIRS received ample attention; the statement had to be neither too broad nor too specific and needed to consider what the ultimate benefit of MAIRS research would be and for whom. We concluded that MAIRS will significantly advance the understanding of the interactions between the human-natural components of the overall environment in the monsoon Asia region and implications for the global Earth System in order to support the strategies for sustainable development. The Vision follows from pre-MAIRS meetings (“improved understanding”), but has been given a direction as well (“to support strategies for sustainable development”). Themes for research were identified as “rapid transformation of land and marine resources in the coastal zones” (Coastal Zones); “multiple stresses on high mountain ecosystems and biophysical resources” (Mountain Zones); “degradation of land resources in semi-arid zones due to climate change and use” (Semi-arid Zones); and “changes in resource use and emissions as a result of rapid urbanization” (Urban Zones). The key questions for these themes are: • What are the effects of rapid transformation of land and marine resources in the Coastal Zones in the context of global change? • What are the drivers and impacts of global environmental change on the ecologically fragile and human systems of the Mountain Zones of monsoon Asia? • How will the Semi-arid Zone change over the next two to three decades in the context of changes in water availability, air quality, food production, provision of ecosystem goods and services as well as the occurrence of extreme natural events and hazards? • Are Urban Zones changing, or altering, the vulnerability of societies to potential changes in the Asian monsoon? Integration is both a concept and an approach. Despite very important resource management issues in monsoon Asia related to aspects of environmental change, including air quality and health, water degradation, natural disasters, threats to food security, energy and loss of biodiversity, we opted to focus on zones instead. The reason being that societies and people experience every aspect of environmental change simultaneously and everyone is affected by regional environmental change. Therefore, MAIRS themes are highly integrated. Identification of the themes was a benchmark step in 2006. 53


Integration distinguishes the Integrated Regional Study from the ESSP joint projects that focus on individual key aspects of environmental change (and at the global scale). MAIRS themes offer the opportunity to integrate research from joint projects as well as from other issue-driven projects into the complex reality of geographic zones. MAIRS is a program to initiate and promote research. The program seeks to develop proposals for new research to answer questions framed in the ISP. These proposals will be outlined in planning workshops to which leaders from ongoing projects or relevant networks will be invited. One or more SSC members will lead such planning workshops. The workshops will also address possible funding mechanisms for the new activities, and identify additional research partners, in particular from monsoon Asian countries, who should be on board.

Major Activities And Achievements A major activity was the development of the ISP. The foundation for the plan was laid out in the pre-MAIRS workshops, led by START, in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The outline of the plan was the outcome of an expert workshop held in Kunming, China, in April 2006, and it was approved at the first SSC meeting. A drafting team developed the outline further and reviewed drafts in July. From then onwards, emphasis was on production of the publication itself; the SSC had a clear preference for an ISP “with its own style”. The ISP was presented at the Open Science Conference (OSC) in November 2006. The Beijing Statement of the Open Science Conference on Global Environmental Change mentions the initiation of MAIRS to examine the threats of environmental change on populations and the environment in monsoon Asia. Another main activity was the establishment of the SSC. START identified candidates, in consultation with the GEC programs, invited them to join and provided terms of reference. The first SSC meeting was held in April and the second during the OSC in November. “Implementation of MAIRS” by START refers to the establishment of the SSC, to its pre-MAIRS workshops to prepare a research program and to its contributions to the ISP. The SSC initiated a Workplan for 2007 and 2008. Working groups are being set up for the Themes. IPO’s from ESSP joint projects and GEC-projects are informed regularly of updates in the form of a Rolling Workplan. We held a short workshop in November 2006 to elaborate the ISP with research needed in the Mountain Zone. Several research proposals were drafted. A report is available. In April 2007, a workshop was held on ‘Flood Disaster Management in Urbanizing monsoon Asia’ in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Practiconers and scientist from S.E. Asia discussed achievements and problems as well as improved interaction. A report will be available soon. In June we participated in the development of the East Asia dryland observation network for research in the Semi Zrid Zone. 54 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

We started in 2007 with a newsletter called ‘MAIRS Update’. It is disseminated via GoogleGroups and by email. Selected Publications 1. Fu, C.B., F.W.T. Penning de Vries, Ailikun, C.T.A. Chen, L. Lebel, M. Manton, A. Snidvongs and H. Virji, 2006. The Initial Science Plan of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study. MAIRS Working Paper 1. MAIRS-IPO, IAP-CAS, P.O. Box 9804, 100029 Beijing, China (80 pp). 2. Fu, C.B., F.W.T. Penning de Vries, Ailikun, C.T.A. Chen, L. Lebel, M. Manton, A. Snidvongs and H. Virji, 2007. The Initial Science Plan of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (in Chinese) MAIRS Working Paper 2, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China (67 pp). 3. Manton, M. and Ailikun, 2007. Report on a Planning workshop on MAIRS Mountain Zone implementation. MAIRS Working Paper 3. MAIRS-IPO, IAP-CAS, P.O. Box 9804, 100029 Beijing, China (57 pp). Achievements/Challenges/Constraints MAIRS has been put on the map for many Earth System scientists in Asia, including those related to the ESSP. It has also been accepted as the ESSP’s first IRS. Moreover, the ISP provides contents and direction for the development of research proposals. In other words, MAIRS momentum has been created. Increasing awareness among Asian societies about global environmental change and potential impacts inspired by the Stern report and many national studies, has created a very receptive audience for MAIRS. It will be a challenge in the years to come to use this momentum to produce results and generate impact. We should manifest several research projects based on the ISP so new research can commence. It is also necessary to collaboratively find practical ways to induce added value while linking with different ESSP projects in the region. Research funding is a challenge for any new program. We aim to mobilize national program funding as well as international funding. The rate at which MAIRS will progress in 2007 and make use of the momentum created will depend, in part, on whether it has adequate funding for the workshops mentioned and for other activities. The MAIRS working groups have considerable challenges. Involving younger scientists to support the busy senior members is urgently needed. SSC Prof. Congbin Fu, Chair, Institute of Atmospheric Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Prof. Dr. Michael Manton Vice-Chair, Monash University, Australia. Prof. Dr. Jun Matsumoto, Vice-Chair, University of Tokyo, Japan 55

Prof. Dr. A.P. Mitra, Vice-Chair, India National Physical Laboratory, India Prof. Dr. Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, China-Taipei Prof. Dr. Pavel Kabat, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Netherlands Prof. Dr. Toishio Koike, University of Tokyo, Japan Dr. Louis Lebel, Chiang Mai University, Thailand Prof. Shaw Chen Liu, Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, China-Taipei Prof. Dr. Frits Penning de Vries, Ex-Officio Member, Executive Director MAIRS IPO Dr. Karen C. Seto, Stanford University, USA Prof. Liqin Shao, Ministry of Science and Technology, China Prof. Dr. Anond Snidvongs, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Project IPO Prof. Dr. Frits Penning de Vries, Executive Director MAIRS IPO, 40# Hua Yan Li, Qi JIa Huo Zi, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chao Yang District, P. O. Box 9804, Beijing 100029, P. R. China Tel: +86-10- 62031641 Fax: +86-10-62036133 Email: Website:



Global Change System For Analysis, Research And Training (START) Introduction and Project Development START regional project offices (4 centers and 2 secretariats) are located in Africa, Asia, Oceania, South America, and the Mediterranean. START’s Regional Centers are based at: • East Asia- the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, China; • Southeast Asia Regional Center- Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand; • Southeast Asia Secretariat- the National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan; • South Asia- the National Physical Laboratory in New Delhi, India; • Oceania- the University of the South Pacific, Fiji; and • Africa- the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Besides regional research and capacity building, each center/secretariat serves as a regional information node and as a secretariat for the regional coordinating committee. MEDIAS-France in Toulouse, France, serves as a coordination node for START activities in the Mediterranean region.

56 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

In addition, following approval by the Pan-Africa Regional Committee for START, the following 3 regional thematic nodes have been established in Africa: • Regional node for Climate Modeling and applications based at the University of Cape Town, South Africa; • Regional node for coastal and wetland issues based at the University of Ghana’s Center for Wetlands in Legon-Accra Ghana; and • Regional node for Paleoclimate based at the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi, Kenya For more information, see the START Annual Report and Highlights and Activities in 2006 & 2007 Major Activities And Achievements Research: During 2006, START supported around 70 regional research projects on the following themes (many of the projects directly contribute to ESSP’s core and joint projects): • Land Use Change and its Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems; • Regional Climate Variability and Change; • Regional Changes in Atmosphere; • Coastal Zones; • Global Change and Water Resources; and • Assessments of Impacts of and Adaptations to Climate Change. Highlights: 1. The project on Assessment of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC) is now complete and final reports are under preparation. Activities during 2006 focused on producing scientific and technical papers and reports from the 24 regional projects. In addition to reports and working papers already published, AIACC has already yielded 60 peer-reviewed publications. For more information, please visit: http://www.aiaccproject. org 2. START, at the request of the ESSP, completed its initial; task to establish the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Studies (MAIRS) project. For more information, please visit: 3. In addition, START has supported or jointly conducted the following joint activities with the Core and Joint projects of the ESSP family: • WCRP: START provided funding support to several AMMA-related projects of African scientists; a CLIVAR-Africa-related workshop (held during 2006 in Daressalaam, Tanzania); and an ARGOS free-drifting profiling floats-workshop for West Africa (also to be held during late 2006 in Ghana). In addition a number of 57

other small grant and PhD fellowship awards have been made to African scientists. Details are available on the START website • IGBP: In the context of the global LAND project and the Joint Carbon Cycle project, START supported regional GOFC/GOLD networks in African and Asia. • IHDP: With funding from NEDO/Japan, START organized and conducted a workshop on the Industrial Transformation in Asia at the UNU in Beijing during January 2006. Two studies related to the steel, paper/pulp and electronic industries were completed. Moreover, a synthesis session of the Advanced institute on Vulnerability and Risk Management was conducted in Delhi in conjunction with the 2nd WSSD session. • Diversitas: Two African Doctoral Fellows have completed their PhD degree requirements on topics pertaining DIVERSITAS. In addition, START has made small grant awards to several African scientists working on issues pertinent to DIVERSITAS Core Themes. • Essp Joint Projects: • AFRICANESS: During November 2006, START’s Pan-African Secretariat organized a workshop on behalf of the IGBP to develop a science plan for AFRICANESS. • MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Studies): See above under 1.3. Also, in collaboration with IPRC and START’s East Asia Regional Center, a proposal for an advanced institute: Advances in Monsoon Science was prepared and submitted to APN • CARBON: South China Sea Carbon Cycle Project is funded through SARCS/START; 7 individual projects were completed under the supervision of Prof. A. Chen (JCP SSC member). A training session for young scientists, held during November 2005 in Taiwan, on water and carbon cycles in Southeast Asia focused on issues of fluvial transport and the carbon cycle in the context of the impacts on primary productivity in the South China Sea. • WATER: In collaboration with GWSP, GECHS/IHDP and the International Foundation for Science, a curriculum was designed for an Advanced Institute on 
Global Environmental Change and the Vulnerability of water resources in the context of the Millennium Development Goals Capacity Building: During 2006, some 1,000 scholars from developing countries were involved in various START activities, including regional science planning and research workshops, collaborative research networks, short term fellowships, visiting scientists and lecturer awards, African dissertation/ 58 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

PhD fellowships program, small grants program, and young scientists awards. Full details are available on the START website ( A highlight this past year was the 2nd International Young Scientists’ Global Change Conference organized together with CMA and ESSP and supported by many donors (see START website for more information). Major funding donors for this event included USCCSP, US NSF, APN, IAI and DGIS/The Netherlands. This conference took place November 5-8, 2006 at the Science and Technology building on the China Meteorological Administration campus in Beijing, China. The conference offered a prestigious platform for young scientists from 35 countries around the world to present their research findings to one another and leading scientists in the field. It was intended, and succeeded to stimulate competition, encourage excellence, reward outstanding performance, and foster the development of personal and institutional networks. All YSC participants also took part in the Earth System Science Partnership’s Open Science Conference, “Global Environmental Change: Regional Challenges” (November 9-12, 2006, Beijing International Conference Center). Distinguished invited keynote speakers for this young scientists conference were Prof. Congbin Fu and Nobel Laureate Paul Crutzen; and sessions were chaired by leading members of the global change research community. Awards were granted for the most outstanding contributions in three categories, best paper, best poster, and best CMA young scientist poster Selected Publications 1. A special issue of Climate Research: Advances in Applying climate prediction to agriculture (CR Special 16, Vol 33, No. 1, December 21, 2006) See AIACC project description above and the website for complete listing. Goals And Plans For Major Activities In 2007 And 2008 The START SSC considers and approves work plans for the overall START program. The START SSC meeting during November 2006 approved the work plan for 2007. Information on the 2007 work plan is available from the International START Secretariat. Among the major actions for 2007 are: 1. Needs Assessment workshops in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa related to climate risk management 2. Initiation of 14 ACCCA regional projects 3. Implementation of an MS-level curriculum on climate change and biodiversity conservation in Africa 4. Supporting further development of the MAIRS program 5. Conducting a three week Advanced Institute on 
Global Environmental Change and the 59

6. 7.

Vulnerability of water resources in the context of the Millennium Development Goals in collaboration with IHE-UNESCO, IVM/The Netherlands, GWSP, GECHS and IFS and initiating follow-on research projects Continuing START’s African Doctoral Fellowships program and small grants programs in Africa (and in Asia in collaboration with APN) Securing continued funding for START’s research driven capacity building portfolio

SC Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) Gordon McBean Co-Chair, Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, University of Western Ontario, Canada Graeme Pearman, Co-Chair, CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, and Monash University, Australia Paul Crutzen, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany Joyeeta Gupta, IVM Vrije University, The Netherlands Mohamed Hassan, Third World Academy of Sciences, Italy Roger Kasperson, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden Renee van Kessel-Hagesteijn, WOTRO/Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research, The Netherlands Nobuo Mimura, Center for Water Environment Studies, Japan Daniel Murdiyarso, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia Mohamed A. Salih, University of Leiden and the Institute of Social Studies, The Netherlands Ex-officio Members Gerard Begni, Interim MEDCOM Secretariat, MEDIAS-France-CNES, France Ann Henderson-Sellers, World Climate Research Programme, World Meteorological Organization, Switzerland Congbin Fu, TEA START Regional Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Andreas Rechkemmer, IHDP Secretariat, Germany Kanayathu Koshy, START Oceania Secretariat, Interim Chair, START Oceania Committee, University of the South Pacific, Fiji C. H. Liu, Southeast Asia START Regional Committee, Taiwan Central University, Taiwan A. P. Mitra, South Asia START Regional Center, National Physical Laboratory, India Amir Muhammed, South Asia START Regional Committee, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Pakistan Eric Odada, Pan-African START Secretariat, University of Nairobi, Kenya Anond Snidvongs, Southeast Asia START Regional Center, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand 60 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Kevin Noone, IGBP Secretariat, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden Shem Wandiga, Pan-Africa Regional START Committee, Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Kenya. Project IPO International Project Office (IPO) International START Secretariat, 2000 Florida Avenue NW, #200, Washington DC, 20009, USA Tel: +1 202 462 2213; Fax: +1 202 457 5859; Email: Website:


Endorsed Networks mri

Mountain Research Initiative (MRI)

mountain research initiative

The MRI is an IHDP endorsed Initiative. It is a joint endeavor of IGBP and IHDP, the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), and the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme (UNESCO-MAB). It is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ). The ETHZ and the University of Lausanne (UniL) support the Initiative by providing free office space. Activities 2006/2007 Regional Global Change Research Networks (GCR Networks) The GLOCHAMORE Research Strategy (the final product of the EU / ENRICH Project (FP6): Global Change and Mountain Regions) laid out a global template for global change research in mountain regions. In 2006 the MRI broadened its focus from strategy development on a global level to include the initiation and support of regional networks of global change researchers. It is through these regional networks that the strategy is implemented. During 2006, MRI allocated substantial funds to the GCRNs and launched efforts in the Americas and Europe, while partnering with other entities in Monsoon Asia. 1. The Americas - The American Cordillera Transect for Global Change Research 2. Europe - Global Change Research Network in European Mountains (GCRN_EM), FP7 Mountain Lists: ( V11.pdf ). GCRN_EM website: Teberda Workshop MRI participated in a regional research framing workshop held by the 62 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

3. 4.

Russian Academy of Science in Teberda NP in the Russian Caucasus on 28-31 May. This participation as well as contacts with other researchers in Europe has greatly expanded the number of possible GCRN_EM sites from 7 to 16, in both a N-S transect (from Spain to Sweden) and an E-W transect (from Scotland to the Caucasus). Global Change Research Network in African Mountains (GCRN_AM). Workshop website: Mountain Component to Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). (website:

Other projects On a global level MRI is collaborating with important global entities in order to coordinate and enhance research on global change in mountains. The influencing of funding is another task on the global level. 1. Mountain Invasions Research Network (MIREN) MRI collaborated with Prof. Dr. Hansjörg Dietz for the launching of MIREN through several staff meetings. In September 2006 MRI facilitated the cooperation of MIREN with the American Cordillera Transect. Dr. Greenwood participated at the MIREN meeting in Oregon, September 2006. 2. Mountain Forum In 2007 MRI has begun to work together more closely with the Mountain Forum. It provides content for the MF online library (e.g., the Newsletter of the American Cordillera Transect), and forwards recently pulished articles on global change in mountains. 3. Influencing funding • World Bank • Lobbying for the inclusion of mountain topics in the 7th Framework Program of the EU (FP7) International Project Office (IPO) Dr. Gregory B. Greenwood, Executive Director The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich MRI, c/o Forest Ecology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, ETH-Zentrum CHN G71, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland Université de Lausanne, MRI, Décanat, Faculté des Géosciences et de l’Environnement, Amphipôle, office 312, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Skype: greggreenwood Website:


Population-Environment Research Network (PERN) Since January 2006 PERN has held a cyberseminar on household demographics, livelihoods and the environment (April 2006) and co-organized a scientific workshop on urban population-development-environment interactions in Nairobi, Kenya (June 2007). The network saw two scientific papers published that were based on cyberseminars or PERN resources. An article based on the April 2006 cyberseminar and co-authored by PERN’s coordinator and several invited experts recently appeared in Global Environmental Change. A forthcoming article in the Annual Review of Environment and Resources by PERN’s coordinator and three PERN members assesses the state of the art in population and environment research. Two new cyberseminars are in final preparation, one on population and the environment in the Sahel (September 2007) and the other on population and hazards (October 2007). Since January 2006 PERN’s membership has grown from about 1,200 to 1,400 members, it’s eLibrary holdings have grown from 2,000 to 2,200 records, and nine What’s New Bulletins were published. For more information, please visit:

Young Human Dimension Researchers (YHDR) The Young Human Dimensions Researchers (YHDR) is a network of junior academics endorsed by IHDP. This open and international network was founded as a consequence of the 2001 Open Meeting in Rio de Janeiro and has since then been a catalyst for capacity building and networking activities in the field of Human Dimensions research. Main events included pre-conference meetings at the 2003 and 2005 Open Meetings in Montreal and Bonn, national and regional events in Belarus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sub-Saharan Africa and informal gatherings at previous Berlin Conferences. The network communicates through its own list server (see below), through which job offers, conference announcements, requests for co-operation and other related issues are exchanged. Organisation: YHDR is a self-organising bottom-up initiative of young researchers. Everybody is welcome to initiate YHDR activities. There is no organisation, no hierarchy and no budget. But there is a strong network and the eager willingness of related people and organisations to support the capacity building and networking initiatives any of you might want to take. Secretarial support is offered by IHDP, the list-server is hosted by CIESIN. Who is ‘young’? This is the most frequently asked question and we have no concise answer. Generally, YHDR’s are not more than 35 years old and their latest degree (Master or PhD) has been achieved not more than 5 years ago. However, none of these barriers are exclusive. If you feel like belonging to a peer-group of PhD students and post-docs, you are certainly welcome. 64 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

YHDR List Server: The YHDR mailing list currently reaches about 200 young scientists and senior eavesdroppers. You can subscribe to the yhdr list-server on the following website: http:// You will have to confirm your registration by reacting on the email you then receive. If you have any problem to register to the yhdr list, please send an email to with the request in the subjection line “subscribe to YHDR� and Alex de Sherbinin will take personal care to register you. YHDR Coordinator: For further questions about YHDR, initiatives or ideas, please contact Sliman Abu Amara:


Capacity Development Seed Grant Programme Thanks to generous support from ISSC-UNESCO, IHDP was able to continue its long-standing seed grant programme in 2006 and 2007, grants going to the following activities: • An IHDP/MRI Side Event at the CONCORD Conference in April 2006, Mendoza, Argentina • Capacity Building for a Ugandan Human Dimensions Research Programme plus founding workshop, June 2006 • A National Inventory and National Workshop on HDGEC Research in Zimbabwe, October 6th 2006 • “1st Workshop on Human Dimensions on Environmental Change in Argentina,” 8-10 August 2007 at the Lujan University in Lujan (Buenos Aires province) These events were all co-organized by IHDP and local partners as mentioned above. Applications for 2008 – 2009 seed grants will be open at the end of 2007.

IHDW 2006 The 5th biennial International Human Dimensions Workshop (IHDW) took place from October 13th to 26th in Chiang Mai, Thailand. As IHDP’s flagship capacity-building activity, it targeted young scientists, mainly from developing countries. IHDP has a demonstrated ability in carrying out such events and has created a pathway for a long-term and sustainable investment in order to broaden its network and particularly to reach out to scientists from the developing world. The 2006 IHDW was organized by IHDP (Secretariat) and APN, with the scientific lead taken 66 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

up by IHDP’s IDGEC project, and scientific and host support from Louis Lebel, head of the USER Institute at Chiang Mai University. The overall theme of IHDW 2006 was “Water, Trade, and Environment – the Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change.” This kind of international composition of actors has had proven effectiveness, particularly since the decision made at the 2004 IHDW in Costa Rica to take the IHDW outside of Germany and hold it in a developing country where the issues discussed can be demonstrated first-hand. Composition of participants and trainers: More than 140 young scientists from all over the world applied. An expert panel of eight reviewers chose 41 participants. 13 came from Asia/Pacific, 8 from Latin America, 8 from Africa, 4 from Eastern Europe, 9 from “the global North” (the latter had to secure their own funding for travel but had local expenses covered). Besides the regional balance, gender was also balanced - about 30% were women (while just about 25% of the applicants were women). The age ranged from 22 to mid 40s, given the criteria that the last degree (up to PhD) had to be completed within the past 5 years. • Trainers had been invited by all three organizers. Almost 20 people, about half of them from the region, were present in Chiang Mai, most of them for about 3 to 4 days. A mixture of people familiar with IDGEC research, more practice-oriented trainers as well as real experts in the fields of water and trade, provided the participants an impressive array of knowledge and expertise. The trainers gave plenary lectures, convened topic-specific working groups and interacted with participants on a bilateral basis, which was highly appreciated by the participants. • IHDW 2006 has clearly demonstrated its potential and its brand-like reputation. Composition of sessions, methods, and “tools” The two main components of the IHDW 2006 were plenary sessions and working groups, consisting of up to 8 people. The main focus of attention was “institutional analysis,” complemented by discourse analysis, rights-based approaches as well as scenario building and negotiation games. In addition a “participants’ seminar series” took place, in order to develop individual or group-based research proposals. A “trainer’s table” was established at the end of each day, and another vital component were the 4 field trips to water-related sites in and around Chiang Mai. Finally, several side-talks and meetings took place throughout the workshop. The final half-day long session was organized by the participants themselves, which presented both the outcomes of the 2 weeks’ work and comprised participant evaluations. A further special segment within the two-week workshop was a Science-Practice Dialogue.


“Dialogue Event” An integral part of IHDW 2006 was a 1 ½ day dialogue event, aiming at bringing Science and Policy together using ongoing (infrastructure) developments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in the region (sub-basin of the Mekong) as “real-life examples” to inform practice by science and confront science with “reality”. In order to meet the needs of the region, additional participants had been invited (e.g. from Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam). Besides plenary speeches and panel discussions, 6 different working groups developed different scenarios at different levels (local, regional, global) with different environmental and social impacts. Leaving aside the undisputable value of this meeting for the region alone, this Dialogue was of further value to the participants as well. Some of them were facilitators of the working groups and performed very well in handling interdisciplinary and intercultural groups. All participants could use this exercise in order to test their theoretical assumptions and world views. Given the highly complex nature of the topic and the political sensitivity, the “Dialogue” was a large success. The next (6th IHDW) will be held back-to-back with the 7th Open Meeting in Delhi, India, from October 12 – 15 2008.

Visiting Scholars programme Although it has had several informal visiting scholars in past years, IHDP is now formalizing its Visiting Scholars programme here at its new Secretariat location at the UN Campus in Bonn. The new UN Campus provides ample office space and technical equipment that was not otherwise available in the previous offices. Applicants interested in the visiting scholar program are expected to be perspective doctorates or possess a doctorate already (a Ph.D., or academic equivalent) at the time of application, to have published in their field of expertise, and to have developed a detailed research outline for their fellowship project. The applicants should have a scientific background with a main focus connectable to Global Environmental Change issues and IHDP interests. Scholar visits are typically 1- 2 years in duration; however, a period of 6 months could also be considered. Fellows on this track make at least one public presentation of their work and complete a substantial piece of writing (typically an article or book) for publication. The sending organization can give input on each visiting scholar’s requirements; an exchange of information and an adjustment of the particular research matters is preferable. IHDP affords the visiting scholars from around the world the opportunity to pursue a period of reflection, research and professional exchange within the structure of the international IHDP scientific network. Fellows are expected to devote their time to working on a project related to the prospects of Global Environmental Change and to subject matters of IHDP interests. At the 68 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

start of their fellowship, and again at key stages throughout their stay, fellows consult with IHDP staff on the theme and scope of their project, the progress they are making, any difficulties they may be encountering, and so on. Fellows are expected to make every effort to complete their project within the agreed-upon timetable. If you are a potential donor or sending organization for this program, please contact Lis Mullin in the IHDP Secretariat ( for more information.

National Committees 2006 and 2007 proved to be an active time for IHDP’s more than 60 national committees and national contact points. Founding workshops occurred in Uganda and Tanzania, the UK National Committee was officially re-started in November 2006, and Argentina inaugurated its National Committee in August of 2007. Work is underway also to explore options for national committees and founding workshops in several other countries in 2008, such as Italy, Spain, Costa Rica, and Colombia. In addition, a new strategy for IHDP National Committees is being envisaged within the realm of the new IHDP Strategic Plan 2007 – 2015, which should harness the results of surveys which circulated to the national committees earlier this year. As in past years, a National Committee meeting is planned to be embedded within the 7th IHDP Open Meeting, taking place October 2008 in India. List of National Committees (NC), National Contact Points (NCP), and Global Change Committees (GCC) Region: Northern America Canada (NCP) Dr. John Robinson USA (NC) “US Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change of the National Research Council”, Dr. Thomas Wilbanks (Chair), Dr. Paul Stern (Scientific Secretary) Region: Latin America & The Caribbean Argentina (NC) Dr. Elda Tancredi (Chair), M. Sc. Nélida da Costa Pereira, Lic. Claudio Tuis, Lic. Cristina Luchetti, Vanina Turco, Dr. Claudia Natenzon; FLASCO – Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Dr. MarÍa Isabel Andrade, M. Sc Jorge Martinez Bolivia (NC) Dr. Javier Gonzales Iwanciw (Chair) Brazil (NC) Dr. Paulo de Goes Chile (NCP) Prof. Alejandro León Stewart 69

Costa Rica (NCP) Prof. Edgar E. Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Dr. Alexander López Ramirez Ecuador (NCP) Dr. Alejandro Guillén Guatemala (NCP), Mr. Aracely Martínez Rodas Mexico (NC) Prof. Patricia Romero Lankao (Co-Chair), Prof. Roberto Sanchez-Rodriguez (CoChair), Prof. Dr. Roberto Martin Constantino Toto, Dra. Virginia García- Acosta Venezuela (NCP) Prof. Hebe Vessuri Region: Europe Austria (GCC) Prof. Karl Steininger (Chair) Belarus (NCP) Dr. Maria Falaleeva Mr. Anton Shkaruba, Prof. Galina Martsinkevich. Ms. Irina Usova, Dr. Liudmila Elizarova, Mr. Viktar Kireyeu, Mr. Valery Maroz, Ms. Svetlana Novik, Ms. Natallia Tupitsyna Bulgaria (NC) “Bulgarian Human Dimensions Committee (BHDC-BAS), Contact: Prof. Marieta Staneva Czech Republic (NCP) Dr. Josef Sejak (Chair), Ms. Barbora Cechova (Scientific Officer) Finland (GCC) “Finnish Global Change Research Support Group, FIGSU”, Prof. Jyrki J. Luukkanen, Dr. Marja Outi Järvelä France (GCC) “French Committee for Global Change, CNFCG”, Dr. Robert Delmas (Chair) Georgia (NCP) Dr. Khatuna Chikviladze Germany (GCC), “German National Committee on Global Change Research, NKGCF”, Prof. Wolfram Mauser (Chair), Dr. Thomas Krafft (Scientific Secretary), Italy (NCP) Prof. Elio Manzi,Prof. Sergio Conti, Prof. Berardo Cori, Prof. Gisella Cortesi Netherlands (GCC) Prof. Rik Leemans (Chair), Ms. Alice de Gier (Scientific Secretary) Norway (GCC) Dr. Karen O’Brien Portugal (GCC) Prof. Nelson Lourenço, Dr. Carlos Machado Romania (GCC) Prof. Dan Balteanu, Prof. Silviu Negut Russia (NCP) Dr. Maria Ananicheva (Scientific Secretary) Slovak Republic (NCP) Dr. Tatiana Kluvánková-Oravská Spain (NC) Prof. Ana Yábar Sterling (Chair), Prof. Mercedes Pardo Buendia (Scientific Secretary) Sweden (NCP) Prof. Carl Folke Switzerland (NC) Prof. Ruth Kaufmann-Hayoz (Chair), Martine Stoffel (Scientific Secretary), Prof. Dr. Angelo Bernasconi, Prof. Dr. Paul Burger, Dr. Yvan Droz, Prof. Dr. Laurent Goetschel, Prof. Heinrich Kuhn, Markus Maibach, Prof. Stéphane Nahrath, Prof. Dr. Kerstin Odendahl, Prof. Dr. Urs Wiesmann, Prof. em. Dr. Andreas Zuberbuehler Turkey (NCP) Dr. Salvas Alpay United Kingdom (NC) Dr. Ken Green, Dr. Emily Boyd, Prof. Kate Brown, Dr. Sarah Cornell, Gary 70 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Grubb, Melissa Leach, Administrator: Harriet Le Bris, Prof. Diana Liverman, Dr. Jouni Paavola, Prof. Ken Peattie, Dr. Mark Pelling, Prof. David Simon, Murray Simpson, Prof. Fred Steward, Dr. Paul Trawick, Bridget Woodman Region: Africa Botswana (GCC) Dr. Opha Pauline Dube (Chair), Dr. Raban Chanda Burkina Faso (NCP) Dr. Madiodio Niasse Cameroon (NCP) Dr. John W. Forje Congo, DR (GCC) Prof. Philippe Noki Vesituluta, Prof. Nsalambi Nkongolo (General Secretary - International Relations) Côte d’Ivoire (NC) Dr. Abdourahamane Konare (Chair) Egypt (NCP) Dr. Aboul-Fetouh Shalaby Ghana (NCP) Dr. Kwasi Nsiah-Gyabaah Kenya (NC) Mr. Paul Ongugo (Chair), Dr. Margaret Hutchinson (Scientific Secretary) Mauritius (NC) Prof. Toolseeram Ramjeawon (Chair) Nigeria (NC) Prof. Samuel Babatunde Agbola Senegal (NCP) Dr. Mame Demba Thiam South Africa (GCC) IHDP NCP within “South African Scientific Committee for Global Change, SASCGC” Dr. Coleen Vogel Tanzania (NCP) Mr. Aloyce Lukulu Masanja Uganda (NCP) Prof. Abwoli Y. Banana Zimbabwe (NCP) Dr. Hector Chikoore Region: Asia Bangladesh (NCP) Prof. Aminur Rahman, Prof. Taifur A. Chowdhury, Dr. Islam Faisal, Dr. Iftekhar Hossain, Ahmed Kamaluddin, Dr. Abul Kashem, Dr. A. Rob Khan, M.A.R. Talukdar China (NC) “Chinese National Committee for IHDP, CNC-IHDP”. The Secretariat for the Chinese National Committee for the IHDP, Academic Secretary, Bangbo Cheng Prof. Quansheng Ge (Secretary General), Prof. Xueqin Zhang (Deputy Secretary General), Prof. Fang Cai, Prof. Congbin Fu, Prof. Erda Lin, Prof. Yanhua Liu (Chair), Prof. Jiahua Pan, Prof. Xizhe Peng, Prof. Honglie Sun; CNC-IHDP/CNC-IGBP Land Change Science (LCS) Working Group, Prof. Xiubin Li (Group Leader); CNC-IHDP/CNC-IGBP LOICZ Working Group, Prof. Chongguang Pang (Executive Officer); CNC-IHDP GECHS Working Group, Prof. Tianxiao Zhao (Executive Officer); CNC-IHDP IT Working Group, Prof. Weidong Liu (Group Leader); CNCIHDP Working Group for Urbanization Project, Prof. Xiaopei Yan (Group Leader); CNC-IHDP Working Group for Risk Governance, Prof. Peijun Shi (Group Leader); “Committee for IHDP in Taipei, China”, Prof. Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao (Chair), Dr. Chung-Huang Huang (Scientific Secretary) 71

India (NCP) Prof. P.S. Ramakrishnan, Dr. Leena Srivastava Indonesia (NC) Dr. E.G. Togu Manurung (Chair), Dr. Bambang Hero Saharjo (Scientific Secretary) Japan (NC) Prof. Yoshinobu Kumata, Chair, Dr. Hideo Harasawa (Deputy Chair),Ms. Ryoko Kita (Scientific Secretary) Laos (NCP) Mr. Sithong Thongmanivong Malaysia (NCP) Prof. Sharifah Mastura Syed Abdullah Nepal (NC) Mr. Kumar Rajbhandari (Scientific Secretary), Prof. Narendra Raj Khanal (Chair), Dr. Sharad P. Adhikary Pakistan (NCP) Dr. Nasim Akhtar (Chair) Philippines (NC) Prof. Felino Lansigan (Co-Chair), Prof. Ben Malayang (Co-Chair) Thailand (GCC) Prof. Kasem Chunkao Vietnam (GCC) Dr. Nguyen Huhu Ningh Region: Oceania Australia (NCP) Dr. Ros Taplin Fiji (NCP) Dr. Biman Chand Prasad (Chair), Dr. Mahendra Reddy (Scientific Secretary) New Zealand (NCP) Dr. John Campbell For more information on IHDP National Committees, National Contact Points, and Global Change Committees, please visit:

72 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Science-Policy Interaction General activities 1st IHDP Science Policy Workshop The Berne Symposium was the first meeting of its kind and as such was a great success; IHDP envisages holding a series of workshops in the upcoming years along similar lines, bringing together key representatives from the scientific and policy/practice communities. These forums aim at identifying gaps, increasing exchange and communication and showcasing IHDP’s ability to address and answer questions of societal relevance. The Berne Symposium attracted an audience of 40 selected personalities, both from science and policy arenas. Concretely, representatives of 5 IHDP national committees or IHDP national focal points attended, as well as members from other research institutes and representatives of UN agencies and international NGO’s not yet affiliated formally with IHDP, such as IUCN. The meeting was held at the premises of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF), which kindly sponsored and logistically supported this meeting. The participants both listened to thought-provoking key note presentations on the sciencepolicy interface, such as the opening by Oran R. Young (Chair of the IHDP Scientific Committee), and also became actively involved in three thematic working groups, representing IHDP’s core research agendas: climate change and energy; adaptive water governance; and land use, human settlements, and urban growth. While the first day elaborated more on general challenges to bridge the gap between the “two communities,” the second day was devoted to identifying concrete processes, topics, pitfalls, and particularly IHDP’s niche within this field of work. In the end, the “Berne Summary” – containing the major findings of the workshop – was presented and discussed in plenary. This summary addresses types of research products that could fos73

ter the exchange between science and policy, focuses on policy processes and urges to identify “impact pathways” for effective engagement. Furthermore it puts a lot of emphasis on “concrete mechanisms,” such as strategic alliances of IHDP and other players in this field as well as ways to institutionalize this work within IHDP. Finally, it names very concrete follow up activities for successful work. The two days of Berne took place in a very inspiring, hands-on atmosphere. The participants got involved in intense discussions, within the working sessions as well as during the social events of the meeting. Several new contacts were made leading to a definite broadening of IHDP’s networks and an engagement with new partners. The feedback from the participants was very positive and contained very constructive suggestions for implementation and future improvements as well. In a word: IHDP will strive to maintain the momentum and sprit of Berne for an interesting series of effective workshops and dialogues! IHDP’s 2nd Science Policy Workshop IHDP’s 2nd Science Policy Workshop will take place in March 2008 in Santa Barbara, California, at the Bren School School of Environmental Science and Management at the University of California SB, where both IHDP’s Scientific Committee member Professor Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker and IHDP’s Chair Professor Oran R. Young are placed. While the 1st IHDP Science Policy Workshop in Berne, Switzerland in September 2006 was about the general nature of Science Policy Interactions, the Santa Barbara workshop will go one step further and will focus on a specific, most relevant thematic cluster: climate change, energy, and emissions scenarios. The outcomes of Berne, gained during intense discussions between scientists and practitioners in the field of global environmental change, were fed into the IHDP Strategic Plan 2007-2015, which identified Science Policy Interaction as one priority area for IHDP. Given the importance of the theme and current awareness as well as the far-reaching expertise of IHDP’s network of top international scientists, the focus on climate change, energy, and emission scenarios provides a fruitful arena to showcase IHDP science and the value added of the decision to make the realm of Science Policy Interactions a priority area. The workshop will firstly introduce cutting-edge IHDP research (for example, several IPCC lead authors are from the IHDP network) and secondly confront scientific findings with practitioners’ evidence. It is envisaged to invite high-level policy-makers from different regions, namely California, China, and Germany/ Europe, and to produce an offical outcome document, e.g. a “call”, a position paper, or a declaration. In bringing together different players with different perspectives, mutual learning and understanding becomes possible. Scientists can prove their theoretical assumptions and can break new ground for innovative ideas and concepts. Practitioners thus get the chance to think differently about daily practices and to reflect about issues taken for granted in their working contexts, often dominated by routine. 74 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Early 2008 is a perfect time to pick up the various results produced within the 2007 released 4th IPCC Assessment Report, the annual UNFCCC SBSTA meetings, Bonn, Germany, and the 13th COP of the UNFCCC, to be held in Bali, Indonesia, December 2007, where discussions and negotiations about a “Post Kyoto Regime” will begin in earnest. IHDP was and will continue to be present at these events and will use its position of being the leading network of social scientists in the field of global environmental change research for bringing together an outstanding composition of people for its 2nd Science Policy Workshop. Currently it is envisaged to convene a two-day long workshop, surrounded by other IHDP-related meetings. In order to ensure high-quality and a productive working atmosphere, not more than 30 participants will be invited. Participants will represent (interdisciplinary) science, governments, other UN agencies, and NGOs. Sufficient time and space will be allocated for informal discussions to kick off new, promising strategic partnerships between the world of Science and Policy. The first “Bonn Dialogues”, a day of expert talks in the wake of the Brussels meetings of the IPCC’s second working group, initiated a meaningful dialogue on the reactions to the impacts of climate change. The event, jointly organized by the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), and the German Committee for Disaster Reduction (DKKV) in partnership with the City of Bonn, brought high-level participants from the science and policy sectors together to discuss mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change issues. This was the first in a series of high-level, expert panel discussions on global environmental issues. The next Bonn Dialogues will take place later this year, is titled “Melting Ice, Vanishing Life: The Impacts of Environmental Change on Human Society and Biodiversity will focus on the International Polar Year and the issues surrounding the polar regions. These talks, involving both closed expert panel discussions during the day followed by public debate in the evenings, intend to increase awareness and dialogue on environment and human security issues, as well as cement Bonn as a locus of international dialogue. The first Bonn Dialogue: Climate Change: Control, Adapt or Flee? Over the course of the last years and especially the past year and recent months, the consensus on the issues surrounding climate change and the likely impacts those changes will herald, has been growing increasingly strong. The Stern Report from England announced the economic impacts of climate change, the costs of addressing it now, and the much greater costs of addressing it later. The IPCC’s first working group, after five years of further research from the top scientists in the world, stated more conclusively than four years ago that the Earth’s climate is being altered by the effects of humankind’s activities. 75

“A global assessment of data from 1970 has shown it is likely that anthropogenic warming has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems.” Now the IPCC’s second working group has given the world a clear picture of what these changes may likely mean to populations, especially vulnerable ones, around the world. The prospects are ugly. Changes in climate will vary regionally and will have both positive and negative effects for different populations. It is highly probably that populations with limited adaptability in poorer places and developing countries will be hit the hardest by climate change impacts. Consequences from climate change effects on water security, food security, and human health are all expected to be harsh for the most vulnerable of the world’s people. It was under these circumstances, following the increasing volume, clarity, and unanimity of voices on climate change and its impacts, that the first Bonn Dialogues was held to discuss the possible human reactions to these changes. The questions from the title of the dialogue are clear, “In the face of a changing climate and its effects, will humans try to mitigate the situation by decreasing the emissions that exacerbate climate change? Or will humans adapt to their new climate, learn to live a different style of life in response to changed conditions? Or, lastly, if the impacts of climate change make conditions intolerable, where will populations go and what will they do?”

International Assessment and policy advise The IHDP has been active in creating awareness and fostering research and dialogues on climate change. More important, many scientists from the IHDP community have been actively involved in the preparation and writing of chapters of the Fourth Assessment Report. Participation of a number of IHDP Scientific Committee members have been key contributors to Working Group II of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Through their science, they have tried to include a focus on some of the human dimensions aspects of climate change, including issues of vulnerability, adaptive capacity, institutional capacity, social transformations, and human security in relation to climate variability and change. These approaches both compliment and extend the impacts-led approach that has been the focus of some of the earlier reports. Thus while not making the IHDP headlines, the roles and contributions of IHDP scientists in this assessment report has been substantial: • Professor Martin Parry, once Chair of the IHDP SSC, co-chaired the 4th Assessment, WG 2. • Coleen Vogel, previous Chair of IHDP SSC was a Coordinating Lead Author of the Africa chapter in WG 2 and is also part of the overall Synthesis panel bringing together Working Groups 1,2 and 3. • Karen O’ Brien, Chair of GECHS, was a Lead Author of the chapter on Assessments of 76 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity. Frans Berkhout, Chair of IT, was a Lead Author on the chapter on Industry, Settlement and Society. The two Coordinating Lead Authors for this chapter were two human dimensions stalwarts and colleagues, Patricia Romero Lankao and Tom Wilbanks. • Joseph Alcamo, a co-Chair of the Global Water Project, an ESSP project, also was the Coordinating Lead Author on the chapter dealing with Europe. These are just a few of the scientists that have played a very active role in the production of the Fourth Assessment Report. Many other members of the IHDP community have also played important roles in writing or reviewing chapters, either as part of Working Group II or on other related chapters from other working groups, including Working Group III on Mitigation of Climate Change. •


Communication, Public Information and Outreach New IHDP communication Strategy The following principles will guide IHDP’s communications activities: • To produce clear, concise, accurate, well-written, attractive, engaging information and reports. • To produce materials of interest to a range of audiences from members of the IHDP network to participants in other global change research programs, the broader scientific community, policymakers, the media, and the attentive public. IHDP has a variety of tools at its disposal for the achievement of its goals. IHDP will disseminate information through the use of • its Annual Report, • the IHDP Website, • Update, • its E-zine, • Press Releases, • Brochures, • Science Plans, • Special Strategy Policy Papers, • Books • Etc. IHDP must continue to produce these tools for dissemination and communication of IHDP materials to meet IHDP’s communications goals and it will continue to develop the quality of its current tools and focus on the development of new tools. 78 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

People IHDP - Scientific Committee and Secretariat • Kate Brown, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom • Geoff Dabelko, (Vice-Chair) Environmental Change and Security Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, One Woodrow Wilson Plaza, 1300 Pennsylvania Ave. , Washington D.C., USA • Carl Folke (rotating off at the end of 2007) Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden • Roberto Guimaraes, (Vice-Chair) School of Public and Business Administration, Getulio Vargas Foundation, Fundação Getulio Vargas – EBAPE, Praia de Botafogo 190, Sala 522, 22.253-900 Rio de Janeiro, BRASIL • Gernot Klepper, Kiel Institute of World Economics (IFW), Kiel, Germany • Tatiana Kluvankova-Oravska, (rotating off at the end of 2007) Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAS), Institute for Forecasting, Bratislava, Slovak Republic • Leena Srivastava, TERI (The Energy Resources Institute), New Delhi, India • Sander van der Leeuw, (Treasurer) School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402 , USA • Hebe Vessuri, (Vice-Chair), Department of Science Studies, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas 1020-A, Venzuela • Coleen Vogel, (rotating off at the end of 2007) University of the Witswatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa • Ernst Ulrich von Weizsaecker, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara CA, USA 79

Oran Young, (Chair) Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

Ex-Officio Members of the IHDP Scientific Committee • Dr. Heide Hackmann, International Social Science Council ISSC / CISS, Paris, France • Prof. Thomas Rosswall, ICSU (International Council for Science),Paris, France • Prof. Karen O’Brien, (Chair of the GECHS Project), Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway • Prof. Anette Reenberg, (Chair of the GLP Project), Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark • Prof. Frans Berkhout, (Chair of the IT Project), Institute of Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands • Prof. Jozef Pacyna, (Chair of the LOICZ Project), Center for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway • Dr. Andreas Rechkemmer IHDP Executive Director, Bonn, Germany • Prof. Roberto Sanchez-Rodriguez, (Co-chair of the UGEC Project), Roberto SánchezRodríguez, Director and Professor of Environmental Studies, UC MEXUS, University of California, CA 92521, USA • Prof. Michel Loreau, (Chair of DIVERSITAS), McGill University, Montreal, Canada • Prof. Carlos Nobre, (Chair of IGBP), Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos – CPTEC, INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil • Dr. John Church, (Chair of WCRP), Antarctic CRC and CSIRO Marine Research, Canberra, Australia • Prof. Rik Leemans, University of Wageningen, the Netherlands

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IHDP Budget and Contribution Income The total income of IHDP in 2006 was US$ 1,024,496.25; plus additional special contributions to the IHDW of US$ 109,000.00. In 2007 the overall income for the Secretariat increased slightly to US$ 1,133,762.50. The most important development in the Programme’s financing was a marked shift in and diversification of its donor base. The German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) remained the most important donor, but significantly cut its contribution in 2007. Therefore, its share in the overall budget fell from two-thirds during the initial years to about 50% in 2006 and less than 40% in 2007. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) extended its role as second core partner. American scientists and well-known science centers always formed a central part of IHDP’s scientific community. In 2007, the NSF awarded IHDP a significant increase in funding; matching the strong interrelations with greater ownership. Due to this developments, the U.S. share in IHDP funding sharply rose from 14% in 2006 to 21.6% in 2007. IHDP fully acknowledges the internal policies and priorities of its core donors to leverage individual grants through parallel funding. In the last year, the Secretariat has been successful in broadening respectively internationalizing its donor base. Additional income included national contributions by several European countries, such as The Netherlands, Spain, Norway, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, and Finland, as well as contributions by China and multilateral donor agencies such as ISSC. Switzerland granted a specific fund for the first high profile Science Policy Dialogue Workshop 2006 in Berne. The IHDW in 2006 was supported by several multilateral donor agencies such as APN, IIAI, START and IFS.


Expenses From the total expenditure in 2006 and 2007 (estimated US$ 2,16 million, including the IHDW 2006), about 21% were spent on contributions to core and joint projects, including expenses for the synthesis phase of IDGEC and the development phase of several new projects and initiatives. Travel and scientific meetings accounted for 13% of expenses, outreach and publications, including the new Strategic Plan, for roughly 9%. Nominally, only 1% of the overall budget was spent on Capacity Development activities; including the IHDW increases the share to 11% in 2006. Academic personnel engaged in the Programme’s core activities accounted for about 37%, operating cost and administration for roughly 18% of expenses.

Outlook Over the next years, IHDP will seek to further broaden and internationalize its donor base; the goal of this strategy is to achieve full global ownership for the Programme. IHDP’s research already proved its high relevance for Asia, and several countries expressed strong interest in joining the ranks of our donors. Negotiations are well-advanced, so Asian contributions are expected to play a more prominent role in the future. In Europe, encouraging negotiations are 82 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007

under way both with potential partners for new cooperation and with established partners for increased contributions in the light of IHDP’s successes and challenges. In contrast, some world regions do not yet provide substantial contributions to the IHDP network, notably Africa and Latin America. Both regions will be the focus of regional activi-ties over the next years; both to strengthen Global Change research capacities in these regions, and to increase Latin American and African ownership for the Programme Income 2006 by Donor Origin Asia

other sources

Switzerland Spain Norway Netherlands France Finland Austria



Income 2007 by Donor Origin other sources Asia Switzerland Spain Norway Netherlands


Finland Austria Germany



84 • IHDP Annual Report 2006-2007


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