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librarianship History books and letters library

Libraries Council (ancient and medieval libraries)

librarianship history books and letters library Libraries Council (ancient and medieval libraries)

By Igor Ljubas


Danish Royal Library, the Library of Congress in Washington, Library Marciana in Venice, Paris National Library, the Library of the British Museum, the National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg, Russian State Library in Moscow, the Russian National Library (Lenjinka), Medieval libraries, KneĹževske libraries, public libraries, Rome library, the library of Hilandar monastery, library of SANU, Matica Serbian National library of Serbia, the library of Trajan's Forum, Villa Papyrus, Celsius library, the House of wisdom, library of Ashurbanipal, library of Pergamum, Carigradska library, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, St. Gallen, the library Cave, Vatican Archives, Cairo Geniza, University of Leiden, Libraries in chains, Library Ivana the Terrible, Ancient records of books, archives, letters, manuscripts ..., Major figures in Serbian history and literature, and najznajÄ?ajniji oldest monument in the whole Slav, Anastasia Librarian 810 - 878, Johan Gutenberg. The earliest work in European literature, Who made the ancient library of metal and crystal books in tunnels beneath South America, Found Shakespeare's "First Folio" A thousand years before Homer: This is the oldest literary author whose name we know ... and it was a woman


Danish Royal Library Established in 1648 year and contains almost all the work was issued in Danish. The new part was built in 1999 and includes a concert hall, exhibition spaces and two museums. The Library of Congress in Washington, DC

Established in the year 1800 over time became the najznajÄ?anije Library of America. Affected in 1812 and 1851 fires since the mid-19th century, lost the character of research libraries closed. The central place occupies a reading room with a dome named after James Madison there is also a center for American cultural life.

Library Marciana in Venice Venice, a city whose residents traditionally invest in culture and are inteektualno and artistically inclined have their own symbol that stands on top of all these riches of an Italian city - Marciana Library.

The construction of the building began in 1537 and was completed in the next 50 designed by Jacopo Sansovino one of the largest collectors of classical manuscripts died suddenly and is a monumental work room and ended his library Vicenza Skamozio.

Marciana National Library is located at the end of St. Mark's Square with views of the Piazzetta San Marco in front of the elegant facades Dodge palate. In addition to about a million printed books, Marciana library contains about 13,000 manuscripts and about 1,500 print works with a lot of unique scripts. The Paris National Library Decision of the National Assembly from 1792 royal library was declared a national. The library has received a reading room modeled after the reading room of the British Museum. Library of the British Museum

The establishment of the museum 1753 England received its first national library. Antonio Pancini became a director of the British Museum. Thanks pancino museum has received regular annual budget. 1841 British Museum reading room receives. During the 20th century it developed as a national library.


National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg National Library The first public library has long been the largest institution in Russia today is one of the largest national libraries of the world in Russia's second largest in 1814 is open to readers in 1795 former Saltykov-Shchedrin library.

Russian etc. f State Library in Moscow

Established in 1862 the former Lenin Library and Reading Room of 1863 was organized as enlightening institution aimed at a wide readership its base layer is constituted a collection of books statesman of the late 18 and early 19 century after the revolution, the library has worked at the Museum has 40 million books.

National Library of Russia (Lenjinka) The largest public library in Russia. It has a universal collection of Russian and foreign documents on 368 languages. It has special collections with over 15,000 tickets, 350000 notations of sound recordings and collections of rare books, albums, dissertations, magazines and so on.

Briquettes library has unique specimens of world importance. Among other things, there is a very rare collection of manuscripts Giordano Bruno containing invaluable autobiographical sketches and works of the great Italian philosopher. 41,315,500 units librarianship material is kept in premises that are equal to the surface 9 football fields.

For the transport of computer equipment library would require 25 trucks. That would be just for a minute at each copy of this library would require 79 years without sleep and rest.

Length its shelf is 275 km which exceeds the total length of all lines of the Moscow metro.

The library has 37 reading rooms with a total of 2,238 places, of which 437 equipped computers.

For jobs in the reading rooms at the same time being able to deploy full of travelers from four passenger trains.

medieval library The original book library funds consist of biblical texts. The most famous Christian library was in Caesarea (Palestine's) had the same importance as the Alexandrian library in Hellenistic times. She had a collection of 30,000 books and manuscripts catalog.


Knezevic f Manchevski library

In order rulers who created the library belongs to the French King Louis IX councils. In Italy, emphasized the library of the monastery of Monte Casino in the Apennines, which was founded by Benedict of Nursia founded monastic order beneditikanaca. The library of the monastery of Monte Casino had about 3-4000 books.

public Libraries What we know today first appeared in England in the 19th century. English Parliament in 1850 approved the establishment of public libraries since then they in the world there are more. Rome library The first Roman library had its book fund composed mainly of Greek books. 28 BC Augustus founded the library in the temple of the god Apollo. The most important libraries in the imperial period it was founded by the Emperor Trajan. She had two departments Greek and Roman.

The library of the monastery Chilandar

Is the oldest Serbian medieval library which was established in the late twelfth century, when the monastery itself. Saved about 150 and 700 Serbian Charter. Library of SANU (Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts)

It was founded in 1842 simultaneously with the company srbrske slovenosti as library associations. The first collection of books received from Demetrius Tyrol who submitted their 14 and 75 collected books to its 1847 fund will be increased only by donations and publishing activities of the Society.

Matica Serbian The oldest Serbian national library and the first public and scientific library of the Serbs. Formed in 1826 in Budapest. The founder was Jovan Hadžić. The aim is rasporstranjivanje Nuts Serbian literature and education of the Serbian people and expelling colorful books from readers.

1830 sent the first editions of the first exchange of the Russian Academy. 1848 - 1849 Library imatic Serbian did not work. Jovan Djordjevic writer and secretary of Matica Serbian between 1857 and 1859.

Historian Jovan Radonić librarian from 1899 - 1905 by the rules in the library rule planned acquisition.

1958 independent institution.


As the central organizing professional examinations for libraries in Vojvodina belongs to her right to a mandatory item.

National Library of Serbia Established in 1832 and that same year there are about 800 books from the very beginning belongs to her legal deposit. For the first librarians set Filip Nikolic. By the alphabetical and systematic catalog. The library was increased by a gift from the 4000 book he received from the merchant from Odessa Jovana Treasury. 1838 was purchased Lukijana Mušickog library of 1,066 books. From 1861 - 1869, the librarian was Janko Safarik. He is seduced by modern interior in the library. 1886 Serbian Academy of Sciences received the control of the library and a librarian was appointed Milan Đ. Milicevic.

The longest was a librarian Jovan Tomić from 1903 to 1927. World War I Then evacuated to Nis to Sofia, where he returned after the war in Belgrade. World War II She had a collection of 1,424 copies of manuscripts orders over 100 on parchment from the 12th and 13th century. The collection of 2,000 letters and 1,800 old printed books and various magazines. Everything was destroyed 6 April 1941 in the German bombardment of Belgrade.

The most famous libraries of the ancient world

Libraries of Trajan's Forum As part of Trajan's Forum, the magnificent edifice made by order of Emperor Trajan, built two libraries - one for works in Latin, and one for those in the Greek language. According to estimates, in them there were about 20,000 scrolls.

Vila papyrus The so-called. Villa Papyri in Herculaneum, known for its collection of ancient writings, belonged to the father in law of Julius Caesar. The only one to survive from antiquity. After the eruption of Vesuvius

79.godine remained buried beneath 30 feet of volcanic ash. Discovered in 18th century, and much of its collection has yet to be deciphered. Celsius library


This is one of the most impressive buildings in the Roman Empire, was built about 125 years ago, and it was kept around 12,000 scrolls. According to some sources, was destroyed in the devastating earthquake that shook Efes 262, and according to others during the invasion of the Goths in the same year.

House of wisdom

Establishment Houses of wisdom attributed to Harun al-Rashid. Its headquarters was in Baghdad from the 9th to the 13th century and once owned the largest collection of books in the world. It was completely destroyed 1258.godine after the Mongol invasion. According to legend, the Tigris has for months been destroyed black ink books that have been thrown at her. library of Ashurbanipal Ashurbanipal, the former ruler of Assyria, founded the most famous library in 7.veku BC. Known as Asurbarnipalova library, was found in the ruins, seven meters below ground back in 1850 at the old capital of Nineveh. She had more than 22,000 clay plate, or about 2,000 books, including the famous '' Epic of Gilgamesh ''. Most of them are now kept in the British Museum in London. library of Pergamum The remnants of this, one of the most important library of the ancient world, are in Pergamum, on the territory of Turkey. At the time of its greatest prosperity during 1.veka BC, had about 200,000 scrolls (papyrus) and was located next to a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena. It is believed that consisted of four rooms, the largest of which was used for receptions and meetings. For it binds the legend according to which the Ptolemaic dynasty interrupted supplies of papyrus intended Pergamum, to slow down its growth.

Carigradska library Carigradska library is considered the last great ancient library sveta.Osnovao by the middle of the fourth century Flavius ​Julius Constantius, known as Constantius II.Velike losses suffered due to neglect and frequent fire, and destroyed 1204.godine, during the Fourth Crusade.

Alexandria library

Alexandria library was the largest the library the ancient world. It was in Alexandria , on the coast the Mediterranean sea In today Egypt . Founded in early III century BC by Ptolemy dynasty of kings. Spiritual initiator and organizer of the first was a Greek Demetrius from Falerone. During its existence the library managers were very learned people and writers, as organizer


classical epics: Zenodotus of Ephesus, poet and grammarian Lycophron from Chalkis and critic philologist Aristarchus of Samothrace.

Library Fund

The record came about 56 aging, confirms that the Alexandrian library in some form existed in 1. Ages

The Alexandria library there were books from the then entire civilized world: the part of the Greek literature and philosophy Translated books from Egypt, Persian and other literature. Translations are in opposite directions, some of which are particularly important in the Aramaic translations and Hebrew , Having thus saved part of Greek books. Books were located in the impressive complex of buildings, including the two main Museum and Serapis. The central part of which took place the research consisted of ten large hall. poet Kalimarh of Cyrene is made in the catalog of the library of 120 books. Estimates of the number of books and similar materials in the library of Alexandria vary widely and range to 700 thousand.

When the librarian Filaret in 3.veku BC wanted to include The Old Testament the library fund, gathered seventy-two Jewish who know Greek to translate, which testifies to the level of learning that epoch.

The destruction of libraries

The fate of the library is tragic. It was destroyed several times with several different parties.

Caesar's destruction 48.godine It is believed that Caesar the army 47 the aging BC destroyed the main part, the one in Museion . Christian destruction 391.godine Shortly after 387 aging, Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, the Emperor Theodosius I 391 . unuĹĄtavanje year ordered all pagan temples. Then Christians , Headed by the Patriarch of Alexandria Theophilos Burned Library of Alexandria. Apparently Arab destruction 642.godine


When it is Muslim Army won Alexandria 642 aging, after having defeated the Byzantine army at the Battle of Heliopolis, the commander asked caliph Umar what to do with the library, or from books. He gave the famous answer: "One or contrary to the Koran , Which means they are heresy, or agree with it, which means that they are redundant. "This scenario most of today's scientists dismiss ] , Given that there is no evidence that the library was in operation after the 4th century.

Restoring libraries 2002 . year of the old library, on the coast between the dilapidated apartment buildings, was created jedanaestospratnica of glass and concrete, the work of the Norwegian architectural firm Snohetta. Its shape resembles a giant solar disk, facing the Mediterranean. On the granite wall that faces south carved the letters most of the world's letters, which is a kind of promotion of national, cultural and linguistic diversity, which is kept in this building. The total area is estimated at 40,000 square meters. The finished project has the largest public library in the world, as well as specialized child, reading room of rare books, manuscripts, microfilms, and an integral part of the Museum (also made by the ancient model). One of the special treats "the Nobel room", located on the third floor, where you can enjoy the pearls of world literature, works created (and from the Royal Swedish Academy awarded) from 1901 to 2001. The realization of such an ambitious project has cost investors $ 220 million and lasted about 20 years.

Sankt Gallen

In the cathedral Firstabtai Sankt Gallen is one of the most important monastic libraries in the world in which today has 160,000 volumes of books, of which over 2,000 printed between 8 and 15 century. The library keeps the Ancient manuscript greatest epic poems of the Nibelungen. Hol library was made in the Rococo style and is considered the most beautiful sacred room of this type and style in Switzerland.

Forbidden Knowledge: These are the famous "secret libraries" of the world

human history marked by religious and political turmoil. In these turbulent times, the power of information and knowledge was equal, if not greater than, the military forces, which together with the enemy at the wrong end of the sword often ended and books.

However, because of the interests of individuals or simply by lovers of the truth, many of the books is "supposed" to be burned or destroyed, in fact only secret hidden in libraries around the world.

CAVE LIBRARY On the edge Chinese Gobi desert, Dunhuang caves in the network, there is a part called the "Thousand Buddha's Cave" messy caves were closed almost a thousand years, until 1900.taoistiÄ?ki monk Vang Juanlu has found a secret door


which took him to a chamber filled with manuscripts from the 11th century.

The then Chinese authorities were particularly interested in the discovery, and is do1910. when Beijing has occurred to me to see what it was like in the rest of the country about 20 percent of the original amount of the manuscript.

No one is sure why these manuscripts hidden, but it is assumed that it was done out of fear of invasion Karahanidskog Kanata. Vatican archives One of the most famous secret library in the world is certainly the Vatican archives. Although in recent years the Holy See has approved the public display of a large number of manuscripts, conspiracy theories related to the Vatican archives are still widespread.

The list of artifacts that conspiracy theorists believe that in the Vatican archives are alien skull, Christ's family tree, and even a time machine.

To put an end to these rumors, Vatican granted access to many experts and specialists, but documents from 1939 onwards remain inaccessible to the public, primarily because of the controversy over the period of Pope Pius XII, whom history remembers by the nickname "Hitler's Pope".

Cairo Geniza One collection in Cairo, for centuries it was secret, not because someone is going to hide it or because it is guarded by armed guards, but because until the 19th century, nobody of her not paying attention. Within the walls of the synagogue Ben Ezra in Cairo, stood 280,000 Jewish manuscript known as the "Cairo genizahwas (genizahwas: temporary storage of books in the synagogue or in a Jewish cemetery).

The manuscript was first noticed Romanian Jew Jacob Safir, who had further described in his book and on both of them attracted the attention of experts.

Cairo genizahwas enabled us incredible insight into the life of Jews in Egypt from the ninth to the nineteenth century and broke many prejudices rooted anti-Semitism of the ancient societies.

UNIVERSITY Leiden Erik quack, Dutch historian specializing in medieval books, described how in 2013 his students at the University of Leiden PRONAP 132 notes, letters and invoices with an unidentified court in the area of ​the Rhine. The records are from the year 1577 stood hidden linked in parchment.


Although they have no art value, documents of this type give a rare insight into the daily life of medieval society and as such are extremely valuable.

Libraries in chains Before them is a printing press in h committed a cheap and readily available books in the Middle Ages were incredibly valuable Before you can ht able to be mass-printed, each book is so f carefully prescribed to that required thousands of hours of work on we have one copy.

Hereford Cathedral Library Located in Hereford England, the greatest ht survived a library of this type today h preserve their goods in chains, rods and locks. It was founded in the year 1611. Year, with a rich collection of ancient manuscripts with illustrations that are h often decorated with gold, its most valuable specimens are anitponar of Hereford, the Cantos collection of XIII century and Hereford jevan ยน interface, copy Anglo-Saxon religious writings from 780 years. In addition, there is also the only one with h Vajklifove preserved copy of the Bible from the thirteenth century.

Library Librije in Zutphen In the church of Sv. Valburgisa in the Dutch town of Zutphen, which was built ยน One of the XI century, Librije library was created and in the XVI century, and remained unchanged until today. Old books sui still chained to the tables on which the h Italy.

Library Francis Trigi Located in Grantham, England, the first public library was founded in 1598 year. She had 356 books, registered in the catalog, of which 80 are on to this day retain chains. They way h in the sixteenth century, but ht are relatively new, changed during the restoration in 1884. The library has several collections of rare printed before 1500 years.


Library karaljevske grammar school As part of the school Glidfordu, was located in the gallery (now dean h reading room) in an old building, on the shelves made in 1897. The library itself was founded at the end of the sixteenth century, and until the eighteenth century added her know h important manuscripts. The oldest book contained herein was printed in Venice in 1480 year.

Wimborne Minster Library About 150 books in chains is the second Okovana library in the world to the h preserved until today. It was founded in 1686.

Malatestiana library Is in the Cesena in Italy, south of Ravenna and west of Rimnija foothills of the Apennines, about 15 km from the Adriatic Sea. Was opened in 1454 in a former Franciscan monastery. It still kept the book chains attached to an iron rod.

Library Welsh cathedral Over 2800 volumes of books published before the year 1800 in the field of geology, history of science and medicine, travel and language, is in Okovana library housed in an English Wales. The oldest book here Pliny's Naturalis Historia printed in Venice in 1427 year. The oldest book after it's anatomy, Vesalius De Corporis Fabrica Humanis from 1555 year and followed her world atlas Abraham Ortelisusa first published in England in 1606,


Library Ivana the Terrible

Real Wealth of Russia are not gas, oil, forests and its vast expanse. No, Russia is the richest country in the world because of its fortress capital, the Kremlin, also hides a secret scrolls and priceless that could completely change history

Many of the famous library of the ancient world destroyed by ruthless conquest of mighty army; Alexandria, which kept 500,000 books, destroyed the work of Julius Caesar and partly Christian emperors in the fourth century, a Carthaginian who is on their shelves had 200,000 scrolls Roman army after the Punic Wars.

The library in Istanbul because she could not suffer the same fate: as the invading Ottoman army thirsting for Christian blood, which has long resisted their attacks preparing for the final assault on the world capital of culture, literacy and civilization, The Greeks took care care about saving the greatest treasure that a city, state and nation can have: a book.

These were books from ancient Greece, Rome, Persia, India and other parts of Eurasia, written in Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Arabic, Egyptian, Persian and whom not all languages. All what we miss today as we entered into an ancient dice - Works Pindar, Polybius, Tacitus, Cicero, Virgil, Suetonius' Lives of the Twelve Caesars ", the lost Greek tragedy and comedy, many unique items, a total of over 700 books mostly set with jewels - was awarded to Sofia Palaeologus, niece of Emperor Constantine XI Dragash, with room to put in Moscow where he quickly married the Emperor Moscow Ivana III.

The value of this library was then as now priceless, just as you would and East romejskom empire reduced to a city of Moscow was an invaluable help in the defense of the last bastions of the Roman Empire, that made this project a young Sophia and running. Help however, never arrived, Constantinople he fell under the onslaught of the janissaries and other Ottoman forces, and is now known as Istanbul. After the fall of Constantine's capital, Russian monk Filofej Moscow declared the "Third Rome" and Ivan III launched a massive reconstruction Kremlin which until that point had mostly wooden palisade walls as well. Italian architects played a most important role, however, in its present form Moscow fortress and seat of the Russian government just can not thank them.

One of the key reasons why the reconstruction has started Sophia Palaeologus request her husband to build something where the books that she brought with her as dowry to be safe from fire which are otherwise often struck wooden Kremlin.


The second reason was linked to fears that the Vatican would in all ways try to seize the goods Moscow was far away, but not far enough; Catholic Poland was nearby, and is the capital of Russia should be better protected of violent attempts of appropriation of this library (this is especially proved to be prudent in the early 17th century, when Russia and the Moscow Kremlin for several years been occupied by the army of winged Polish-Lithuanian kingdom).

However, Ivan III went a step further and "Liberia" (as he called the library) built underground ; works is led maestralno Ridolfo di Fjoravanti, Italian architect who is skillfully stopped groundwater flows tributary of the Moscow walls and bricks. Nobody knows exactly how many rooms, rooms and tunnels hidden in the maze beneath the walls of the most beautiful and the most powerful fortress in the world. When he came to power Tsar Ivan IV, whom history will remember as the Terrible ( there are serious works that suggest the possibility that the whole story of this transgression of the Russian rulers Vatican pure fabrication), the Kremlin has been largely assumed its present appearance. Terrible has further expanded underground below the fortress, added a multitude of secret passages, tunnels and rooms, and allegedly killed all those who knew where it actually is the most important global library. When he died, probably a result of poisoning, he was the only one with the knowledge and the secret location of the famous library was him to his grave.

In vain the people Emperor Peter the Great, who moved the capital of the newly built St. Petersburg, search for underground chambers would not you find this cultural treasure: failed. During the last Romanov, Nicholas II, a great friend of the Serbian people, was made the first modern attempt to discover what, or archaeologist Ignatius Steletski failed to convince the government to start digging, although the 1914 in the archives of the city of Pärnu found a catalog of these books by Estonian Dabelov made during the emperor Ivana IV.

Steletski - already well-versed knowledge of the Kremlin underground examined by studying old maps and charts - but did not give up, however, i also tried to weather Stalin the construction of a massive and layered the Moscow metro. Purge has won its patron and the man who allowed him to search the library, and access to it any more is not enabled. Khrushchev expanded metro and ordered the engineers to work carried out carefully in order to save the library in case it is found, but no one has found it. However, in 1988 it was discovered buried treasure beneath the Kremlin of late Viking period, when Russia dominated dynasty Rurik Dynasty, hidden from the Golden Horde in the 13th century. This gave hope that there is still a chance that, despite all the digging, the library somehow missed. Mayor Yuri Luzhkov is the latest in a series of those who have actualized the search for her, Moscow is full of researchers who secretly and frantically running around the vastness of the underground city in search of this goods . The only thing I have now discovered a tunnel crowded with bones of victims (probably) Ivana IV the Terrible. On Question that you will find a library that could change our understanding of history and the world,

respond positively. We share their optimism. finally, perhaps some lost work in the cellars of the Kremlin hides the answer to the question of origin Srba


Ancient records of books, archives, letters, manuscripts ... 7 book that changed history Much of the knowledge that humanity has guarded for centuries been lost without a trace. The giants of the human race are their achievements and significant thoughts or keep and take with you to your death, you might write down so it is a wise guy in the midst of revolution or war burned, and perhaps are very well hidden somewhere.

Obviously, we will never find out what all the great reading material lost in time, but on some of them and knows something, although the facts surrounding their disappearance, to say the least, devastating.

Gospel of Eve, author unknown This is thought to be sexiest and kinkiest apocryphal books. It is also why he did not survive - the church had a lot to say about it, and to prohibit such concepts as "free love", "coitus interruptus" and swallowing semen in a ritual act, and all this is well explained in this gorgeously erotic book .

This book was so dangerous because it challenged the 2,000-year-old celibacy and "purity" by preaching Christianity. I've not read it because it was like Epiphany Church verodostojnici kicked out of traffic with the aim to prevent the whole world to have sex without sinful thoughts and swallowed a little semen. And what's worse, pulled up.

If this book is the work of God, then its creation and destiny to be the No. 1 question that we set when Jesus appears again. About the creation of spheres, Archimedes

It is assumed that this is a book in which he explained the creation of the wonders of ancient Greece a planetarium, astronomical clocks and all that have made life easier for himself.

We regret that it is no more because it describes the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient mechanical calculator was invented around the year 100 BC, which he never appeared in devices until some 1000 years later. It could not find a plan to create such a device, so that we could make your own in the garage, and maybe a machine to travel through time. Ma even if all these plans has in it, the fact that the book written by Leonardo da Vinci antiquity,


makes shivers down your spine. Even the most modern standards pales in comparison to the Greek concept of mechanics, and just imagine what he wrote all this.

All that remains of copies is buried somewhere or no longer exists because the Romans liked to burn books, especially those priceless library of Alexandria.

Rare books from the House of Wisdom ( Bait al-Hikma-)

In the library in Baghdad, the former Library of Congress, cover the rarest books (those that are not destroyed by then) on three continents. It was the intellectual center during the Islamic Golden Age (ca. 750-1258) There are Persians like to tend to their achievements in science, medicine, astronomy and technology, but also everything that ravaged somewhere along the way. For all that they were the greatest face through the centuries.

The catalog itself was a priceless library was like a university in which all entered that something nauÄ?ili.U it were written and hidden greatest achievements ever, and for many of them to our poor humanity will never hear. Who knows where we would be if we were just a little more careful. We in fact lag behind the old world, nothing we have not done much. It is assumed that the Romans had in their gardens plant that was the best means of protection against pregnancy, but was exterminated. How to Baghdad was the capital of mathematics and science, are probably destroyed and part of "Traveling through space" by Mohammed or "How do I cure AIDS" by Hippocrates. We'll never know.

And for all the wrong Mongoli.Sve what they found in the city when they captured him

1258.bacili in Tigar. Those who survived testified that the river was black from the ink well, almost a year.

The rest of the epic cycle, various authors

To the rest of the epic saga of Troy where the "Iliad" and "Odyssey". This whole saga has actually spectacular eight parts, and Homer has signed these two. The cycle is about Odysseus complete adventure for which Aristotle in his "Poetics" says Homer Clips describing only the most interesting parts.

It's amazing the impact of these stories on literature and music, theater, film, dance, people ... Even the "Iliad" perhaps the most famous non-religious witness in the world (if science does not prove that Zeus really on Olympus), and we know just a funny piece of .


Hermokrat, Platon The first two parts of Plato's trilogy were "Critias" and "Timaeus" suspected that the transcripts of the greatest thinkers. If "Hermokrat" had near perfect first two parts of the trilogy, then it referred to concepts such as molecules or golden section, and this book would certainly influenced subsequent thinkers. As the second book ends somehow "incomplete", in mid-sentence, it is expected that a third, lost, meet the fate of Atlantis, which, otherwise, is mentioned a lot in the first two.

Now no one has the slightest idea where the book could be. It is even speculated that Plato never completed. Ab urbe condita libri (O creation center), Titus Livius Detailed History of Rome from Trojan ancestors to the reign of Caesar Augustus 800 years later, it still implies that it's written down everything that is not anywhere else. The book has exactly 142 volumes and everyone who has ever touched and threw a curious look on her agree to be spectacular. When the Western Roman Empire fell, Livijevo work is only left to testify about everything that was happening. Now it does not.

Imagine that you find something like "Egyptian architecture" and solve the mystery of how the pyramids were built. E, this book would have done a similar thing. The whole history of Rome from that period would have been resolved.

Only one part of Livijevih historical studies helped Italy to create what we now call the Renaissance, and all his known works, and now they are worthy of admiration.

Europe had to be 1,000 years to realize that her old books will be needed after the fall of Rome, but when the Italians began sifting through the ashes and old suitcases, they found 35 books in this series. And the whole history of ancient Rome based on this data.

The book of the wars of God, by God himself (?) Lost book reportedly tells about the wars of Moses, Joshua and the Israelites who went to the Holy land. If she survived, she would have the same popularity as the Bible today because it is said to have been written by God (directly or indirectly). If you do not come up in the "Dead Sea Scrolls", the only place where we can look for his head.


Library Board: Institute of ancient manuscripts Matenadaran

Yerevan, Ararat addition, there is another historical compass - national treasure of ancient books and manuscripts "Matenadaran". He rises above the town, which on the basis of measured his life.

This building was built in 1959. The architect Mark Grigoryan was selected for the literary treasures of the city on what is usually built temples, which is not a coincidence. In Armenia, according to the book as referring to Russia by ikoni.Knjiga the Armenians svetinja.Ona the most important asset of every family, every village and town, and the Armenian alphabet, which was created in the fifth century, St. Mesrop Mashtots, is a national pride.

Formally speaking, the Matenadaran is not biblioteka.Po status and purpose to the academic institutes, research factories. Each research fellow Matenadaran must starojermenskim government, but preferably is and give other ancient languages.

Rohonci Codex: A mysterious book written in an unknown language Finding text unidentified in Hungary led to numerous attempts at identifying the author and deciphering its contents. Many scientists have studied the text, known as Rohonci code, trying to understand its meaning, but also to discover who and when wrote. However, these efforts are still not borne fruit, and the origin of the text and its meaning is still a mystery.

Rohonci codex was discovered in Hungary in the early 19th century. It is believed that it was in the personal library of Count Gustav Bothijanja before he donated a whole library of the Hungarian Academy nauka.Kada the Code appeared, it seemed to come from the medieval era.

However, the text of which appears to be an old Hungarian manuscript is completely insoluble. Mysterious text has led many to wonder what the manuscript is, who wrote it, and he had a purpose.

Many of these questions remain unanswered, because the author has not been identified, but the text has not been translated.

Overall, Rohonci code contains 448 pages nedeĹĄifrovanog text, which is similar to the old Hungarian language, as both are written from right to left and have similar combinations of letters.


Scientists claim that the manuscript could have been hindi or old Hungarian, although it lacks some features not from a not from another language. The number of different symbols is huge, with about 10 times more symbols than any other known alphabet.

Paper Code has a unique water Ĺžig.Svaka page contains a watermark that looks like an anchor, located in a circle, which is located in ĹĄestokrakoj zvezdi.Sam watermark layout dates back to the 1529-1540.godine, although it looks a code previously written .

This is why it is difficult to determine exactly when the text was written, although it is possible that the book was copied at some point. The code of the text in addition to containing about 87 and an illustration depicting the battle, landscapes and religious icons, which indicate the number of different denominations, including Christianity, Hindu and Islam.

Some experts say that the text had to be written by a culture in which all three religions were represented.

Attempts translation of the Code led to several theories. There is a lot of variation in these theories, since scientists have not yet agreed not over what it was in the text.

Researcher Marius Adrian Oancea gave the hypothesis that the text is written in old Hungarian alphabet and that the content has to do with the New Testament. This hypothesis is called a hypothesis about the old Hungarian alphabet. Mahesh Kumar Singh believes that the text is in fact a variation Brahmi manuscripts from India and that should be read from left to right, from top to bottom. This hypothesis is called Brahmi Hindi-hypothesis. Singh claims that he translated the first 24 pages to Hindi, then translated and 24 pages in Hungarian.

According to this translation, code starts apocryphal learning, followed by a meditative prologue, then the story of Jesus' childhood. Part Singovog translation includes:

"He bhagwan log bahoot Gharib yahan bimar aur bhookhe hai / inco protective sakti aur Himmat to such ye of lime which karmo when pura sake" Which translated into Serbian means:

"Oh my God! People here are very poor, the sick and hungry, and so give them enough power to meet their own needs ". However, Singov translation soon iskritikovan due to a lack of consistency, and many consider him the fraud.


Viorica Enehiuk also tried to translate the text, having come to the conclusion that the text reads from right to left, from bottom to top, and he's written Vulgar Latin dialect Dacia.

This hypothesis is called the Daco-Roman hypothesis. This translation concludes that the text comes from the 11. and 12. century and were written by Blake people who fought against the Hungarians and baked. Part of that translation includes:

"Child lis vivit neglivlu go go Itia niteren Titius suonares imi grows ucen" Which translated into Serbian means:

"In large numbers, in a fierce battle, without fear of going heroes. Breaking away with a great noise, killing Hungarians! ". Enehiuk was also criticized for its lack of consistency, and her work as linguists and historians considered "unscientific". Finally, Atila Njiri from Hungary, said that hand, when turned upside down, are Sumerian ligaturu.Njegova hypothesis called Sumero-Hungarian hypothesis. His translations include:

"Eljött az Istened. Száll az hours. ABOUT. Vannak a szent angyalok. Azok.Ó ". Which translated into Serbian means:

"Your God is došao.Gospod years. Oh, there are angels. "

Like others, Njirijev translation iskritikovan is also due to the lack of consistency. It is said that he was too free with the rearrangement of symbols, which would essentially be translated into infinitely many ways.

Methodical and computer translation attempts were also implemented. However, none of these attempts has not successfully translated the Code. Some researchers such as Levente Zoltan Kiraly, came to the adopted conclusions on the structure of the book, ie. that it relates to the life of Jesus. Although it has not given a final conclusion where a code encourages, helped to suppress the theory that the book itself is a scam.

It is possible that with further study, Rohonci Code will be able to fully grasp. For now, it is a text track one of the mysteries of the ancient past of mankind.


10 of the most mysterious ancient writings

Deciphering these files could reveal much about ancient cultures ... If decipher them in the right way, the old codes hundred thousand years may reveal much more about ancient cultures. Often written in the ancient language, strange grammar, these codes require careful analysis.

From Egyptian book full of magical spells to text written in an unknown language, site live Science presented a list of 10 most mysterious ancient manuscripts: 1. Liber linteus (linen book of Zagreb) Preserved in a pack of Egyptian mummies, Zagreb linen book is a manuscript written in ertruskom language that was used in Italy in ancient times. 2.200 years old mummy and wrapped packs are now in the Zagreb museum.

Canvas with about 1,130 words preserved in the five subsequent cut strips that has been wrapped in an Egyptian mummy, which is located in Zagreb. It is assumed to contain a series of ritual regulations concerning religious rituals Etruraca.Kako ancient Etruscan language is still poorly known, so far known only the meaning of certain words that mentioned sacrificial gifts and dates of certain festivities.

These bandages labeled open a clear possibility of strong communication between the ancient Etruria and Egypt. 2. The Gospel of Mary of happiness

This gospel is written Coptic language and is around 1,500 years old. It is a book that contains 37 prophecies, which are sometimes mentioned Jesus Christ. loading ... Unlike the other Gospels, this is not talking about the life of Jesus. At the beginning of the book writes that the texts it inspired Mary, "the mother of the Lord Jesus Christ, who is from the Archangel Gabriel received the good news." Book is located at Harvard University, but it is not known when the order arrived in the United States. It is believed was used for forecasting. 3. Dresden Codex Mayan text aged about 800 years comprises 39 beautifully illustrated sheets with text and images on both sides. A study published this year indicates that the code written in the phase of movement of the planet Venus to Maya people knew which day should be held to the holidays.


Maya had various rituals that are tied to specific days. Famed as their calendar and astronomical knowledge.

Code appeared in the eighteenth century in Dresden where it is still kept in the Royal Library. Much of the Mayan texts were destroyed by Christian missionaries, but the real mystery is how this text survived.

4. The Gospel of Judas When in 2006 translated and published this manuscript has caused quite a stir among the Bible scholars and members of Christian churches. It was Judas Iscariot displayed, not as traitors but as his faithful prijatelj.Prema text Judas is only carried out the command of Jesus because Jesus supposedly thought he must be sacrificed.

It was found that it was written sometime in the second century BC, probably by the Gnostic disciples of Jesus. 5. List of goods King Solomon This text has been recently translated from Hebrew and represents an alleged list of all the goods of the biblical King Solomon, as well as an explanation of how to find them.

Among the priceless treasures, is supposedly the Ark of the Covenant - containing boards with the commandments that God gave to Moses. However, according to the text, the goods will be able to detect only when the earth comes the Messiah, the Son of David.

6. Popol Vuh Popol Vuh or "Book Council" is the story of the creation of the world of Mayan mythology nation quiche whose descendants still live in Guatemala. This text is from the early eighteenth century with dots language it is translated the Spanish Dominican priest Francisco Jimenez. According to the myths described in the book world created by gods and Tepev Kukumac. They are after a lot of difficulty corn made heroes who won the gods of the underworld.

7. Copper coil This is one of the records found in caves near the Dead Sea. It talks about a large amount of treasures scattered across the Middle East. The coil is formed in the first century AD and it mentions gold, silver, coins and vessels. Scientists have found none of the above goods, but it does not mean it might not be found long ago.


8. Grolijer Code Code with Mayan hieroglyphics and illustrations is named after Grolijer club where it is subject. About the authenticity of the book has long been debated. Mexican Josue Saens claimed that he received from a group of smugglers who allegedly found in a wooden box in a cave. Although his experts say that it is a fake, he still bought and held.

It was later determined that the book is the old about 800 years and that it used the so-called "Mayan blue", which is only a few years ago synthesized in the laboratory, which means that the book is probably authentic.

9. Book ritual power This booklet of 20 pages is written in the Coptic language before about 1300 years ago. It contains a magic formula among them are love doing is to cure but also instructions to perform an exorcism.

It is believed that the text written by members of the Christian sect setijanaca that are especially adored the third son of Adam and Eve - Seta.U text mentions the mysterious creature Baktiota.

"I thank you and invoke these Baktiota: You're a big, trustworthy, master of forty-nine species of snakes," says the text. 10. Vojničev manuscript

Probably the most famous mysterious book is Vojničev rukopis.Ime is received by Wilfried soldiers who had pronašao.Utvrđeno that emerged in the fifteenth century. The book has 250 pages full of strange symbols and text that no one has yet deciphered. However, a scientist claims to have deciphered ten words in the book. In Vojničevom handwritten drawings are unusual plants, of which only a few can be identified. The pages are filled and various diagrams that associate with astrology and cosmology.

Ancient Rune letter - h Magical characters and mysteries


The earliest rune originating from 3 century pne.razlikuju the rune that were used in the Scandinavian countries and that are called "Futhark", of non-woven material used in the Anglo-Saxon people and which have been termed "futhorc" or "futhorc". When it comes to the origin of the word "Runa", it can be interpreted in many different ways. On one hand, the origin of this word with the Goths from their word "Runa" meaning "whisper" or "top secret", while on the other side in the Finnish language "Runo" means song. In the Baltic nation fleece indicating speech, and language staronordijksi knew the word "Run" which had several meanings such as wisdom, secret knowledge, magical characters ...

When it comes to the Anglo-Saxon etymology of the word "runes" on starosaksonskom it means mystery or secret, until all the old Celtic languages ​the word means secret or mystery.

Only later sense of the word "Run (a)" begins to be interpreted as it is now known to us, but it's like hieroglyphic character that was used to write secret traditions. Rune at first glance may remind you of classic letters that have been used through the centuries, but they have never been to, because while most of the letters can be phonetically pronounced, as is the case with several runs, though much of them remained in the form of a symbol which are known as glyphs.

The old Germanic alphabet, runes, literally means mystery, secret, whisper. Around it weaves a mystery for centuries because it is an unusual letter has deeper znaÄ?enje.Svaka runes, in addition to the phonetic voice, has its esoteric meaning, that is, each symbol has a certain characteristics.

Rune not only for writing but also for divination and magic. Until the 16th century, were used on the territory of Europe. They were built as a letter germaskih tribe, but quickly spread to the north of the continent today are the most well-known as the Viking alphabet. The oldest type of fleece is called "Elder Futhark" and contained 24 symbols.

The name is derived from the first letters of the alphabet 6: f, U, Th, a, r, k. With the conquest of Britain Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons and Utah have brought knowledge of runes, and thus caused the Anglo-Saxon runes, with 33 symbols. Records of the runes were found in the Balkans, Germany, Scandinavia, Britain and even in Greenland. Najzanimnjivije very old records have been found in North America, which once again confirmed the theory that the Vikings reached the "New World" long before Columbus. Wherever they went the Vikings used the runes to express. We found a variety of records, poetry and prose, on everything from large stone monument to household items. The letters are sharp angles and straight lines, because they are formed by engraving in stone and wood.


The source for this letter is not completely revealed. There exist similarities with the Etruscan alphabet, which developed in the north of Italy, but also with Greek and Latin. Scandinavians have their own story about the origin of the runes. Legend has it that the supreme god Odin spent nine days pierced by a tree in order to receive occult knowledge.

During the nine windy night, he learned the mystery of runes, which is then conveyed to the people. The belief in the divine origin of the runes led to their magical powers. The runes used for divination, fortune telling, so-called "watch fleece". Tacitus in his "Germania" wrote the whole process: cut a branch from a fruit and chop up into small pieces. On each piece of branch records after a fleece.

Then randomly throwing twigs on white fabric, a Master Rune of reaching out to the sky chooses three branches and read the signs that are on them. This divination is not in the true sense of fortune, because it was believed that runes only reveal the most likely outcome, but the man has to change if he does not like.

Were used for spells, but the Vikings are clearly written: "Man shall not use the rune to do, until you learn to read them well." The Masters were called before going to fight to elect rune that bring good luck and ward off evil spirits. The symbols are carved into swords, ships, shields, and the soldiers they left their battle believing that nothing can hurt power runes. Today you can find numerous monuments engraved with runes.

Often headstones marked with magic symbols of the deceased which will facilitate the transition to the other world. Norwegians have used runes in parallel with Christian symbols until the 17th century. At that time the church banned their use in order to eradicate any kind of superstition, paganism and magic.

Rune came out of widespread use, but not completely disappeared, but lately there are many attempts to use the door enigmatic Viking letter. When the Vikings, Germans and other peoples severoevropskih runes were the letter do not differ from our protosrpskog VinÄ?a letters Danube civilization, have been used in various magical rituals for iscelivanje as well as foretelling the future, and in many cases served as talismans.

We have already mentioned glyphs, which are rune that had phonetic meaning, but their meaning was purely symbolic. Some of these glyphs were Thor's hammer that was displayed as the Nazi swastika and the solar wheel, represented List from the circle in which the cross, and that marked the holy sites.

This symbol was later adopted by Christians, of course, in order to win and baptized folks who have used originally this symbol. Rune were then combined with various myths, but also with the philosophy and rituals of the then tribes. And as with other peoples we have other magical symbols, objects


and the words that were used in magical purposes, the same situation is with runes that were used to treat, throwing curses, divination future. She was not a rare situation that the runes were carved in the rocks around the village to village preserved from the magical influence of evil spirits, as well as the fact that the swords are inscribed runes that its holder gave superhuman strength and help in the fight and war.

Although the same rune considered powerful symbols, the peak power of runes represented the combination of runes in a magical symbol called bandrun.Međutim, it was a task that not everyone could make it more obavi.Da combine the runes into one, it was necessary to has specific and special knowledge. It must be known in detail the meaning of each rune, magic result of each of the individual non-woven material, as well as financial implications of combining of individual non-woven material with another.

Not only were these runes that were combined. In addition, the runes were combined and colorful presentations of sacred symbols that help in directing power runes and working in cooperation with the runic power, or used as a supplement or completion of magical rituals. These symbols were used as talismans for protection, or objects for meditation, or for any other type of magic.

He believes that they have magical properties, but few people know that there is a runic astrology.

Knows h random li h opportunities in Serbian history and literature f evnost

Zechariah Orfelin

1768, in Venice launches first Serbian newspaper Slavenoserpski magazine. His intention was to spread education in this magazine literary and scientific expertise considered by beginners Serbian bibliography. He worked in the printing house in Venice at Dimitrij Theodosius but had access when the Serbian writer of books printed. It was the engraver and the representative of the Baroque.

Lucian MuĹĄicki

He was a seminary teacher and librarian of the Metropolitan Library. By the retrospective bibliography Serbskaja Slovenost ,, ,, which included Serbian books from Oktoih Djurdja Crnojevic 1493. Do Dositej mezimce 1818. His body was never published but is available in four volumes in the archives SANU.

Ä? hour Days h and ht


He is a librarian and author of the bibliographic work in the National bibloteci Serbia from 1856 to 1585. Developed annual bibliography for 1856, 1857 and 1858 under the name ,, ,, Bibliography publishing them in the Gazette of society ,, ,, Serbian slovenosti 1857 1858 and 1859. Build has been divided into two parts the Serbian books and new books in other languages ​concerning Serbs.

Stojan Novakovic ht

He was in the history of literature and bibliography. His ,, Serbian bibliography of recent literature ,, which covers the period 1741 to 1867 is one of the retrospective national bibliography.

Was published by Serbian Learned Society in 1869. It contains 3291 bibliographic item that are listed chronologically and are listed only Cyrillic work so that some editions of Serbian authors omitted because they printed the Latin. Georgia Mihajlovi ht

As the first book of the extensive national project was published in Serbian bibliography of 18th century Georgy Mikhailovich, which started at the instigation of the Institute of Literature pruočavanje Serbian Academy of Sciences.

Gligorije Vozár ht He was the first Serbian bookseller and publisher in 1832 released the overall work of Dositej Obradovic in ten books. He opened his first bookshop in the time of Prince Milos Obrenovic. In his bookstore in 1832 founded the National Library of Serbia. He was a bookbinder state printing.

Vuk Stefanovic ht Karad f and h

Is najznajčajnija personality of our culture and literacy was born on 26 October 1787. 1818 Publishes his greatest pro Serbian Dictionary, Dictionary becomes crucial for the history of Serbian culture. 13 Eliminating unnecessary characters and introducing (j, lj, nj, c, f, dz) enabled education of the broadest masses of the people. Was observed in cultural public after the publication of the second book of Serbian folk songs folk pjesnarica. His followers have been Djura Daničić, Branko Radičević, Petar Petrović Njegoš. The country is Vukov language admitted in 1868 four years after his death.


dositej Obradovic ht 1740 - 1811

Born in 1740 in Banat ÄŒakovo years his work has more books, each of which represents a valuable spiritual heritage of the Serbian people. He wrote poetry and prose translated the moralistic or educational work with the publication of his autobiographical novel The Life and Adventures drew attention to himself and became a writer - an ideologue. Later in the book he was working with the common sense tips 1784 Letter pouÄ?itelno Mr. Georgi Joachim Kolikofera 1784,

Fables 1788, letter to Haralampije and Ethics Assemblies in 1803. In early 1808 he became director of schools in Serbia buys and recovering a house for a printing press. Dao is unlimited contribution to education and culture. Borac newspaper in the language died in 1811 in Belgrade, was buried in the Cathedral.

Sveti Sava 1175 - 1236

Born in 1175 in Trnovo was the first Serbian archbishop. He raised the Monastery Hilandar, which developed into the center of the literary and ecclesiastical education of medieval monks. Sveti Sava later resigned in karyes is for her and for Hilandar tipik srkveni written constitution.

As the first Serbian writer. Sava's church books translations enabled the creation of the Serbian literary language. Sava Serbian nation is one of the most popular and prominent historical figures of the Middle Ages. He died in Trnovo in 1236 year. Ć spread around and Methodius

They were Serbian luminaries who have put Glagoljica sastacljena mainly by Greek cursive letters from 9 miliskulnog century got its present shape uncials.


Originally it had 40 letters with Greek letters and later 38. Their original texts are not only surviving copies of the late 10 and early 11 century.

The oldest and najznajÄ?ajniji cultural monument in the whole Slovenehood

Miroslav gospel The Gospel is copied to the Hum Prince Miroslav probably for the personal use of the date of writing the gospel is unknown is taken even half of his reign from 1169 to 1197 year. It is a monument of Serbian reviews because it contains language and voice changes that have already been made in the Serbian vernacular. The Gospel is a code written on parchment of 180 sheets. The text is written in two columns per page decorated with red lines miniatures caps and flags. Thumbnails of the gospel are among the most beautiful medieval book miniatures. A Russian monk took a sheet of Miroslavovog gospel and took him to Russia as a souvenir. After the war he returned to the country and handed over to the museum. During the war, the Second World War is carefully guarded in Belgrade. Today it is exhibited in the National Museum in Belgrade, it is unique. Related is only in the 15th century in the monastery of St. Paul on Mount Athos as learned with the seal on the front cover.


Anastasia Librarian 810 - 878 He was the chief librarian and archivist of the Roman popes known for having a short time was highlighted as antipapa. He was known as a translator of official documents of Byzantine churches, as well as the author of historical works Chronographia Tripartita. Preserved letters or correspondence he had with Constantinople partrijahom Fotije.

Johan Gutenberg He was a copyist of books. For many years he lived as an emigrant in Strasbourg. There he published his first book printed technique of moving the letters after the year 144o. Gutenberg technique Psalter was printed in 1445 is the most beautiful books of the 15th century. This is the first book with information about the place and year of printing and the emblem of the printer. Printed Bible is believed to have survived 40 copies.

The earliest work in European libraries f evnost

Iliad as the culture of the ancient Greeks was the cradle for the creation of today's European civilization and beyond it is logical that the oldest literary work comes from the Greek.

Poems The Iliad and the Odyssey describes the Trojan War until the Odyssey deals with return of one of the warriors of the conflict, ie. Odysseus home.


Who made the ancient library of metal and crystal books in tunnels beneath South America It is believed that the system of tunnels and caves beneath Ecuador and Peru kept secret of ancient treasures, including two libraries, one of which contains metal books and other crystals.

Erich von Däniken in 1973, at the height of his fame, he claimed that he managed to enter the giant underground tunnels in Ecuador, which is said to extend across the entire continent. Is this evidence that our ancestors were much more advanced?

It is believed to be hiding in the structure of a library where books are made of metal, which is strange because in this area there are only "primitive" tribes that do not have a written language. Would library could be evidence of a lost civilization?

The story revolved around Janos "Juan" Moritz, aristocratic Argentine-Hungarian entrepreneur who claimed to have found a series of tunnels in Ecuador with the "Metal Library".

In a signed written statement on July 8, 1969, he stated that he met with Ecuadorian President, when he was allowed to photograph the evidence of their discovery and provide witnesses to confirm the discovery. Newspapers reported on the expedition organized by Moric.

Moritz in 1972, he met with Deniken and took him to a secret side entrance through which they were able to enter the large hallway maze. Von Daniken eventually failed to see the library, only the tunnel system, but your experience is recorded in the book "Gold of the Gods":

"All corridors form perfect right angles. They are somewhere in the narrow and wide somewhere. The walls are smooth and look like they were polished. The ceiling is flat and looks like it is covered with a kind of glaze ... My doubts about the existence of underground tunnels have suddenly disappeared and I felt incredibly happy. Moric said that the corridors, such as those through which we passed, stretching hundreds of kilometers beneath Ecuador and Peru. "

However, one of the potentially largest discoveries in the world did not have a happy ending. journalists der Spiegel- ai Stern- and interviewed Moritz, who denied that he and von Daniken ever been in a cave, which has plunged Denikenov credibility.

For many, the incident proved that von Daniken inventing lies. No one took into account the fact that von Daniken, if he had lied, he would not allow it to be so easy to detect.


He could have said that he could not reveal his source, and der Spiegel and stern There would not be able to do anything. Instead, it appears to be wrong about Moritz, only to reach the international controversy from which he never pulled.

There are several discrepancies in the story. First, Moric denied only that von Daniken was in a cave, but not that there is a network of tunnels. der Spiegel Moritz is 19 March 1973, asked who took him to the library, to which he replied that he may not reveal.

Moritz is also noted that the library houses one tribe.

In short, Moritz von Daniken said that he had discovered the cave and showed them to him. Then he said he saw the cave, to which it is someone I can not identify, he took, but he denied that von Daniken was with him.

The logical conclusion would be that the Moritz von Daniken have proved, thanks to which we all find out what he did, and made sure that the one who showed him a cave and who probably did not want anyone else to know to not be angry at him.

One small step for Armstrong's giant leap for mankind

By 1975, the career of the famous author was completely faded. Is it possible that someone went and despite his footsteps? It is possible to. It's Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon. He wanted the truth about the controversy metal library comes out.

There appears no one person, Stanley Hall, who decides fon Denikenovu book, and then made friends with Moritz. Moritz has confirmed that he met Daniken in 1972 and took him to Kvenke of Guayaquil, where they met with Father Carlos Crespi and saw his collection of mysterious artifacts.

There was not enough time to Daniken take the "right location", and he instead showed a small cave at 30 minutes from Kvenke, claiming to be associated with a network of tunnels. It seems that this would solve the controversy between Daniken and Moritz, but not the controversy over the libraries themselves.

Where is the library? Moritz expedition in 1969 led to oilbird Cave (Cueva de los tayos), for which he said that water to the metal library.

However, the metal library was not detected in 1969. That is why Hol decided to organize an Ecuadorian-British expedition to investigate the cave oilbird, purely for scientific purposes.


The expedition took place in 1976, at a time when fon Denikenov reputation had already been extensively damaged, but Hol is intended to fit with Moritz.

What is Hol wanted? If there really is a Metal Library of a lost civilization, the first step would be to map the site. This was the main objective of the expedition, not a treasure hunt.

Hall used his professional expertise to explore this famous cave, using an army of Great Britain and Ecuador, a team of geologists, botanists and other specialists.

How is Neil Armstrong became involved in all this?

"The expedition was necessary to know the leaders," said Stanley Hall. "The first is suggested Prince Charles, who was a graduate of archeology, but it was easier to get to Neil Armstrong, because he, like me, of Scottish origin. He was more than interested to join the expedition. "

When the expedition was concluding, on 3 August 1976, Armstrong entered the tunnel system. Although he did not seek, team members did not meet the metal library. If they manage to find it, you would have changed the whole perspective of humanity's history and origin.

For Armstrong would be the second major contribution to mankind.

However, the team recorded 400 new plant species, but also the tomb inside the cave. The tomb dates from the year 1500 BC, and is believed to be in the sun during the summer solstice illuminated this tomb.

"We should not expect perfection. I've learned to never believed, but I tried to arrive at the truth through simplicity, because simplicity is the essence of truth.

I have tried to achieve this knowledge, not to make a living, but in order to earn a life worth living "- Stanley Hall.

A third man

Everything revolved around Juan Moritz, but he was in fact the wrong focus. He failed to find the metal library from 1969 until 1991, when he died.

It was clear that Moritz was not the source of the story, just as von Daniken noted that on page 53 of his book. He is also the der

Spiegel confirmed that it is unnamed people took to the cave. Who did it?

After Moricz died, Hall decided to make the "third man" who has gone to ground. Hol had only the name of the Ä?oveka- Petronio Jaramillo, and that was all.


"Moritz died in February 1991," said Hall. "I had a name and I grabbed the phone book, but in Quito was very much Jaramillo. I was able to find his mother. It was September 1991 when she gave the number of his son. I called him. He wanted to meet with me and said that we can not see you for three days. "

Jaramillo confirmed that Moritz arrived in Guayaquil in 1964, together with lawyer Dr Gerardo Pena Mateus. Moric Mateus told me his theory that the Hungarian people the root of civilization.

Through acquaintances, Andres Fernandez-Salvador Zaldumbidea and Alfred Mobius, Moricz met Jaramillo in Mobijusovoj house, where he heard Haramiljovu story. Hall was angry that failed earlier to meet with Jaramillo.

Jaramillo and Hall came to the conclusion that if there was Moritz who has turned his attention to cave oilbird (where in fact there is not a library), the expedition in 1976 made the find of the century, rising to the heavens Armstrong. However, it is double-edged sword, because if there were Moritz, the story would have ended like this.

Halls greatest desire is to return to the past and to sit down and talk to Moritz and Jaramillo. He realized that the Moric from the outset intended to celebrate with a metal library.

When Hall showed Moritz manuscript on an expedition in 1976, Moritz refused to return it. This was interrupted by their friendship, but Hall did not understand why until 1991, when it found that Jaramillo mentioned in the manuscript.

It was a name that Moritz never wanted to publish the man whom he mentioned in an interview with a German newspaper in 1973. Moric was incredibly stubborn, but equally so loyal. However, it is clearly mistaken when he thought he could make the discovery of the century.

underground goods

Jaramillo and Hall became friends, even though they both agreed Jaramillo can not be disclosed prematurely. Still, he was willing to discuss the contents of the site and other topics that are of interest to Hola.

Hall of Jaramillo learned the whole story about the library, which does not in the Cave oilbird. Jaramillo said that the first time at the library in 1946, when he was 17 years old.

He showed the library's uncle, whose name has not been evident, but he was known as "Blanquito Pelado".


He was apparently on friendly terms with the local population Suar, who invited him to see the secret as a form of gratitude for your kindness the kindness he has shown to the tribe.

Jaramillo has since been in the tunnel system at least once. Then he saw that the library consisting of thousands of large, metal books stacked on the shelves, where each weighing about 20 kilograms.

There was a second library, consisting of small, smooth, transparent crystal, parallel grooved channels and stacked on sloping shelves.

It was composed of the zoomorphic and human statues, metal grids of different shapes, but also locked "door", probably the tomb, covered with a mixture of colored gemstones.

There was a large sarcophagus, sculpted from the rough, transparent material, which contained a large plated skeleton of a human being. In short, amazing hidden treasure was located, as it is preserved for some impending disaster.

Jaramillo once took seven books from the shelves so that they studied, or because of their weight could not bring them back.

Jaramillo never presented physical evidence for their claims, which could explain why he did not want to know the whole story.

Hol asked him why he never made a picture, what is Jaramillo said that it would not prove anything.

Other discoveries, such as the famous cave lair in the US, proving that looks not the same as believing.

Still, Jaramillo said he left his initials into seven books, so that they may one day prove that he was there, if the library is found.

Plans and obstacles expedition

Jaramillo and Hall have agreed to join forces to try to come to the library.

The first contact was established with various ambassadors and politicians, then he turned and scientific communities.

The plan was to Jaramillo led the team to the sites where they would about 3-4 months recorded content sites.


The report with recommendations is all that would be obtained in this expedition, in which intervened and UNESCO. However, Peruvian jets bombed in 1995. Ecuadorian military base, and the project had to be postponed.

Hol in 1997 used a more anthropological conference to promote the idea of ​the expedition. Six anthropologists were interested.

However, that same year, there was a change of political regime in Ecuador (in the halls thinking up). Hall found that his family can not live in this new political reality, which is why he came back to Scotland. However, despite this, the planning of the expedition continued.

The expedition is the first major obstacle encountered in 1998. Hall received a phone call from Jaramillo's mother, who told him that Petronio was killed. Is it possible that he was killed because of plans for the expedition?

South America is very poor, as anyone knows who has ever lived there. One day, Jaramillo was carrying a lot of cash with them and was robbed on the street, not far from his home. Random violence has prevented one of the largest discoveries in the world.

It seems that fate did not want to Jaramillo and Hall found a mysterious cave.

Location

They died and Moritz and Jaramillo, there's only Hol, who is in his sixties. Should I go alone to the metal library? Hol not want mildly. However, according to Jaramillo, the library was full of treasures and gold.

Moritz also was not interested in the goods, but the historical significance of the library.

However, many treasure hunters have tried to come to the cave. Count Pino Turo has come into contact with Jaramillo sixties in the same way that the Moric came to him.

Turo was obsessed corridor tracks (Hall of Records) he was talking about Edgar Cayce, a metal library to fully confirm predictions Casey.

However, Turo failed to agree to Jaramillo, pressing him to provide details that Jaramillo did not want to reveal. Thus Turo went to ask about Caves oilbird and found nothing.

One of the most active researchers of today is Stan Grist, who also knew Juan Moritz. He wrote in 2015:


"As I write these words, negotiate with people Suara located near Caves oilbird, which we license is required to investigate the cave. Plans to launch an expedition next month in order to found a secret entrance that leads to the Metal Library ".

"Many people have entered the cave through a known vertical entrance at the top of the mountain. However, I have concluded that it is almost impossible to get to the Metal Library that way. The only secret entrance through which this is possible is the entrance under the water! ".

Hol is Gristovu statement said Jaramillo has always claimed to be the entrance of the river below.

However, this river is not near Caves oilbird. This river is Pastaca.

Though Hall never revealed the true location of Jaramillo, he organized after his death, put to Maria Petronius, Haramiljovim son, would not the two of them together take advantage of all the known information about the site. Unfortunately, the road had to be canceled.

Hol is once again back in 2000

He said that he Jaramillo said that, although the entrance to the cave is located under the river, not wet.

Hol after the death of the two key protagonists several times went to the Amazon to investigate, and one could even lose his life.

The need for cooperation

What happened next? Hol had 64 years when he last traveled to the region and slowly began to believe that he would never know the epilogue of the story.

However, he did not want to make the same mistake as Moric, but on 17 January 2005, informed the Ecuadorian authorities on the location of the cave that fits Haramiljovom description, hoping to find something expedition.

For all who are interested, location coordinates are 77 ° 47 '34 "West and 1 ° 56' 00" south. Their curiosity can fully satisfy the use GoogleEartha. However, to know where something is not the same thing and find something.

Hall believes it will take decades until people fail to find this place. He says that the expedition in 1976 succeeded only because it was in power the military regime:

"Democratic bureaucracy would prevent an expedition and before approaching the river."


It takes a sense of cooperation and openness. Too many people have tried to use the library as evidence for their theories, whether they involve aliens, Hungarians conquering the world or Hallway record Edgar Cayce.

Probably therefore doomed expedition. It is possible that all the answers for the library found in the library. That's why it's called a library.

Found Shakespeare's "First Folio" SAINT OMER - rare and extremely valuable, "First Folio", or the collected works of William Shakespeare, considered the most significant work of English literature, was found in a small town in France. The book is 200 years lay in the library in Saint-Omer, near Calais, in northern France. They found that the librarians who were planning the exhibition on the historical ties of the region and England.

"The book is missing several pages, including the title page," said Remi Kordonije librarian. He said due to the loss of the first page and introductory diela librarians katalogizilirali book as nespecijalno old edition.

"Folio" is the first release that includes 36 of the 38 known of Shakespeare's drama, which was originally printed in 1623, seven years after the death of the writer.

Shakespeare's friends and fellow actors John Hemings and Henry Condell, hosted a "First Folio" and considered that thanks to Shakespeare's works remain available for generations. This is the only source for 18 of his plays, including the tragedy "Macbeth" and the comedy "Buru".

It is believed that it was done 800 copies, of which 233 believed to exist today, conveyed BiBi-Si.

The issue found in France, there are several hand-written notes in connection with the amendment of certain terms in the text. Interestingly, the "First Folio" is the rarest of books owned by the library in the town of Saint Omer. This library owns Gutenberg "Bible", of which less than 50 copies survived until today.


A thousand years before Homer: This is the oldest literary author whose name we know ... and it was a woman Its text was so important that it is thousands of years influenced the development of world literature

Ancient Sumerian poet Enheduanna unique in the whole human history - It is the first literary author whom we know by name. Although there are many songs and stories that have been written before in her life, Enheduanna was the first person to sign on his work. And what a job!

Her article "Evaporation Inane" was so significant that for centuries has influenced the writing of hymns (ancient literary form of honoring God or a significant person).

Enheduanna lived in the mid 23 century BC. It was the Sumerian High Priestess, and writings on the Sumerian clay tablets describe as "the daughter of Sargon of Akkad" - a relationship that is interpreted literally and ritually.

Its name is a combination of the words "En" (High Priestess), "Hedda" (decoration) and "ana" (heaven). It is known to itself the embodiment of the goddess Ningal or earthly wife Nane moon god. In addition to being the oldest literary author in history, Enheduanna is known for its valuable artistic hymns, especially those written in honor of the goddess Inanna, who are also the oldest written description of the deity. Through the celebration of his personal relationship with Inanna, Enheduanna gave oldest preserved traces of the individual consciousness of his inner life.

Its most important task during life was to reconcile the gods of the Sumerians and Akkadians, after Sargon won a very important city of Ur. She not only was able to make it, but also set standards for poetry and form of prayer that will deeply to enjoy the Bible and the Homeric hymns, and thus the entire course of world literature.


The idea for writing this book was born after passing the state exam for librarians work at the library where I worked and hours of research to write about all of this that I saw the light of day I was collected in one place. Igor Ljubas 05/04/2017 for future generations

Education does not consist of how much you remember or know how. It consists of a rigid to distinguish how much you know and how many do not.

Anatole France

librarianship History books and letters library Libraries Council (ancient and medieval libraries)  
librarianship History books and letters library Libraries Council (ancient and medieval libraries)  
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