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Dac` [tii s`-l cau]i, departele poate fi mai aproape decåt crezi. Nu-i nevoie s` parcurgi jum`tate din circumferin]a terestr` ca s` descoperi oameni, credin]e [i – întrucât subiectul ne preocup` – cl`diri aparte, cu alt` fire [i alc`tuire decât cele ce credem c` unanim ne înconjoar`. Saltul peste meridiane, de care suntem scuti]i, l-au f`cut cu veacuri în urm`, în momente diverse, cu n`zuin]e diverse, coloni[ti de felurite neamuri, avånd ca numitor comun legea islamului. Dup` trecerea multor genera]ii [i administra]ii, au devenit cu des`vår[ire ai locului, pe care, dup` vorba din b`trâni, l-au sfin]it. Printre altele [i cu un grup de monumente cu totul aparte: geamiile dobrogene.

If you know where to look, far, far away can be much nearer than you might think. You needn't look half a world away to discover people, beliefs and – since we're interested in the subject – unique buildings, different in both make and character from what we unanimously assume constitutes our surroundings. We no longer need to leap over meridians because the leap was in fact perpetrated centuries ago, at various moments in time, with diverse goals in mind, by colonists of different ethnicities, all linked by the common denominator that is the law of Islam. Many generations and administrations later, they were completely integrated in their new environment. They were now the people who, as an old saying goes, sanctified the place with their presence, but also with a very special group of monuments: Dobrogean mosques. Cristian Br`c`cescu

MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

11/19/12

MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

70 lei

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Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a României Geamii: Minarete pe cerul Dobrogei - Minarets in a Dobrogea sky ed. coord. pref.: Bruno Andre[oiu; texte: Cristian Br`c`cescu, Mihai Maxim; trad.: Smaranda Nicolau; foto: {erban Bonciocat; graf.: C`t`lin Artenie Bucure[ti: Igloo, 2012 Bibliogr. ISBN 978-606-8026-18-3 I. Andre[oiu, Bruno (coord.; pref.) II. Br`c`cescu, Cristian (text) III. Maxim, Mihai (text) IV. Nicolau, Smaranda (trad.) V. Bonciocat, {erban (foto.) VI. Artenie, C`t`lin (graf.) 726.2(498.8)(084)

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MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY


SUMAR / CONTENTS PREFA}~ /FOREWORD GEAMII DIN ROMÅNIA MOSQUES OF ROMANIA

6

SCURT ISTORIC /A BRIEF HISTORY COMUNITATEA MUSULMAN~ DIN DOBROGEA THE MUSLIM COMMUNITY IN DOBROGEA

8

INTRODUCERE /INTRODUCTION DOBROGEA, CU GEAMIILE EI

14

GEAMII DIN DOBROGEA /HART~

16

DOBROGEA AND ITS MOSQUES

MOSQUES FROM DOBROGEA /MAP

GEAMII MONUMENT ISTORIC

MOSQUES HISTORICAL MONUMENT

CAROL 1 - CONSTAN}A HUNCHIAR - CONSTAN}A ALI GAZI PA{A - BABADAG ESMAHAN SULTAN - MANGALIA MAHMUD - HÅR{OVA AZIZIYE - TULCEA HUNCHIAR - CERNAVOD~ MESTAN AGA - M~CIN MAHMUD YAZICI - ISACCEA ABDUL MEDGID - MEDGIDIA GIUMA - AMZACEA

18 34 42 60 78 88 98 112 124 136 146


GEAMII DOBROGENE DOBROGEAN MosQues

PEISAJ DOBROGEAN

152

DOBROGEAN LANDSCAPE ANADALCHIOI - CONSTAN}A F~UREI HAGIENI GR~DINA COBADIN TECHIRGHIOL CIUCUROVA DULCE{TI MOVILI}A COTU V~II TUZLA NISIPARI CIOCÅRLIA VALUL LUI TRAIAN OSMANCEA LAZU DOBROMIR TOPRAISAR ALBE{TI BREBENI ABRUD

CIMITIRE /CEMETERIES

155 156 160 162 164 166 168 170 171 172 173 174 176 178 179 180 181 182 184 188 190

CIOCÅRLIA DE SUS VADU GENERAL PRAPORGESCU

192 193 194

GLOSAR /GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAFIE /BIBLYOGRAPHY

196 198


MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

DOBROGEA, CU GEAMIILE EI DOBROGEA AND ITS MOSQUES

ac` [tii s`-l cau]i, departele poate fi mai aproape decåt crezi. Nu-i nevoie s` parcurgi jum`tate din circumferin]a terestr` ca s` descoperi oameni, credin]e [i – întrucât subiectul ne preocup` – cl`diri aparte, cu alt` fire [i alc`tuire decât cele ce credem c` unanim ne înconjoar`. Saltul peste meridiane, de care suntem scuti]i, l-au f`cut cu veacuri în urm`, în momente diverse, cu n`zuin]e diverse, coloni[ti de felurite neamuri, avånd ca numitor comun legea islamului. Dup` trecerea multor genera]ii [i administra]ii, au devenit cu des`vår[ire ai locului, pe care, dup` vorba din b`trâni, l-au sfin]it. Printre altele [i cu un grup de monumente cu totul aparte: geamiile dobrogene. Începând cu veacul al 15-lea [i pân` în contemporaneitate, geamiile jaloneaz` existen]a popula]iei musulmane în Dobrogea. Aceast` prezen]`, amalgam cu componente istorice [i etnice distincte, succede [i interfereaz` file de cronici datorate altor neamuri [i civiliza]ii. Pu]ine locuri în lume, niciun altul în România, au o mai mare densitate stratigrafic` decât acesta, adev`rat p`mânt al f`g`duin]ei pentru arheologi [i istorici. Vântul marilor stepe i-a modelat colinele, a vânturat semin]e de ierburi nomade [i semin]ii de noroade multicolore, din stepele Asiei [i din Levantul elenistic [i otoman. Frunz`rind istoria, s-ar zice c` Dobrogea are voca]ia de a fi col] de împ`r`]ie. Cinci imperii au acoperit-o, în momentul lor de flux maxim, f`r` a-i trece grani]a în partea cealalt`. Scithia Minor era loc consacrat de exil pentru cet`]enii romani incomozi. Publius Ovidius Naso, expediat la Tomis din motive înc` neelucidate, este vårful ilustru al aisbergului. Putem presupune c`, aidoma lui, o cohort` de exila]i anonimi au contribuit la prestigiul nefast al provinciei. Successor al Romei, Bizan]ul grecesc s-a str`duit sute de ani s`-[i sus]in` grani]a nordic` în Dobrogea, cu retrageri [i reveniri succesive, de la Aegissus [i Noviodunum la Enisala, Carsium, apoi Axiopolis [i Constantia, marcate prin limes-uri înc` vizibile. Cavaleria celui mai întins imperiu din toate timpurile, incizat pe hart` cu arcul [i cu iataganul de c`tre Genghis Han [i acoli]ii s`i, [i-a ad`pat ocazional caii în undele Senei; dar cel mai vestic teritoriu locuit stabil de urma[ii Hoardei de Aur, tot Dobrogea a fost. Apoi, timp de patru secole [i jum`tate, Dobrogea apare ca o mic` protuberan]`, un

D

If you know where to look, far, far away can be much nearer than you might think. You needn't look half a world away to discover people, beliefs and – since we're interested in the subject – unique buildings, different in both make and character from what we unanimously assume constitutes our surroundings. We no longer need to leap over meridians because the leap was in fact perpetrated centuries ago, at various moments in time, with diverse goals in mind, by colonists of different ethnicities, all linked by the common denominator that is the law of Islam. Many generations and administrations later, they were completely integrated in their new environment. They were now the people who, as an old saying goes, sanctified the place with their presence, but also with a very special group of monuments: Dobrogean mosques. Browsing through its history, one might get a sense that Dobrogea was destined to be the corner of an empire. At the height of their influence, five different empires spanned as far as Dobrogea, though neither actually crossed its borders on the other side. Schitia Minor was the consecrated exile spot for Roman citizens who caused any kind of distress to the authorities. Publius Ovidius Naso, shipped off to Tomis for reasons that remain a mistery, is merely the illustrious tip of that iceberg. Based on the laws of physics we may assume that an entire cohort of like-spirited exiles contributed to the ill repute of the province. Successor of Rome, Greek Byzantium struggled for hundreds of years to hold its Northern border in Dobrogea, in a series of retreats and comebacks, from Aegissus to Enisala, Novodiunum, P\cuiul lui Soare, all marked by invisible ‘limes’ (Latin for ‘limit’). The cavalry of the largest empire of all times, branded into the map with bows and arrows and yataghans by Genghis Khan and his acolytes occasionally let their horses drink from the river Seine; but the westernmost territory inhabited by the successors of the Golden Hoard was yet again Dobrogea. After that time, for four and a half centuries, Dobrogea appears as a small protuberance, a whim of the Danube on the border of the Ottoman Empire. Subjects of the Sublime Porte were never allowed to go beyond this line to settle in Karaiflak of Karabogdan, despite the Sultan's usual tolerance of Wallachia and Moldavia. The absence of mosques – at least up until the 1900s – in this region is both a consequence of this fact and testament to it. Finally, to finish off the list, we have two flash episodes of Slavic occupation: in the year 968 Tsar Sviatoslav pushed the border of Kievian Russia to Silistra and moved the capital to Pereiaslavec (Little Slavec in Slavonian - today Nuf`ru commune), where it remained up until 971 when he was defeated by Ioan Tzimiskes who re-established Byzantine rule;

14 INTRODUCERE


MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

capriciu al Dun`rii, pe frontiera Imperiului Otoman. Supu[ii Sublimei Por]i nu aveau îng`duin]a de a dep`[i aceast` linie, pentru a se stabili în Karaiflak sau în Karabogdan, oricåt de mari ar fi fost influen]a sau ingerin]a sultanului în Valahia [i Moldova. Absen]a moscheilor – cel pu]in pån` la 1900 – din aceste ]`ri e o consecin]` [i o m`rturie. În fine, pentru ca lista s` fie complet`, dou` fulgurante episoade de ocupa]ie slav`: în anul 968, ]arul Sviatoslav împinge grani]a Rusiei Kievene pån` la Silistra [i mut` capitala la Pereiaslave] (Micul Slave], în slavon` – azi comuna Nufaru), pån` în 971, cånd este înfrånt de Ioan Tzimiskes, care restabile[te domina]ia bizantin`; iar din vara lui 1877, pån` în aprilie 1878, cånd e preluat` de autorit`]ile române, Dobrogea a stat sub administra]ie militar` ruseasc`. În România sunt 67 de geamii [i moschei, cele mai vechi [i mai multe în Dobrogea. De[i era o provincie l`turalnic` a imperiului, multe geamii dobrogene sunt ctitorite de sultani. Moscheea din Timi[oara e ridicat` la 1670, pe cånd Banatul era pa[alâc. Celelalte geamii din ]ar` dateaz` din secolul XX. Ca program de arhitectur`, nimic mai simplu: orice loc curat, în care po]i p`[i descul], poate fi geamie. Ca volumetrie, a[ijderea: un cub, de care se alipe[te un cilindru ]uguiat. Semnifica]ia spa]ial` e clar`: sala de rug`ciune are propor]ia unui dreptunghi apropiat de p`trat; dimensiunea îndreptat` spre Mecca e pu]in mai mare. Comunitatea credincio[ilor e reunit` într-un spa]iu unitar, f`r` ierarhie. La anumite ore, chemarea la rug`ciune e lansat` circular, în toate z`rile, mai presus de orice alte cl`diri [i procup`ri. Minaretul, structur` special` [i specific` geamiilor, a c`p`tat de la p`mântul dobrogean dou` mari daruri: piatra de calcar, ce se las` blând rotunjit` cu unelte elementare, [i stabilitatea seismic` a blocului hercinic, care i-a stimulat svelte]ea. Geamia jaloneaz`, din veacul al 15-lea [i pân` în contemporaneitate, existen]a popula]iei musulmane în Dobrogea. Aceast` prezen]`, ce include componente istorice [i etnice distincte, succede [i interfereaz` file de istorie datorate multor alte neamuri [i civiliza]ii.

then, beginning in the summer of 1877 and ending in April of 1878, Dobrogea found itself under Russian military rule. Mirroring the evolution of the Ottoman Empire as surveyed by Dimitrie Cantemir, Dobrogean settlements also experienced spells of growth and flourishing, alternating with periods of recession. At the height of their glory, these towns boasted as many as five and sometimes even ten mosques. It is difficult to estimate their numbers in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is, however a known fact that there were 238 mosques in Dobrogea in the year 1900. At present there are 77 mosques in the region, of which the most and oldest were built since the 15th century. The mosque in Timi[oara was erected in 1670, back when the Banat was a pashalic. The other mosques in the country date back to the 20th century. Although a marginal province, Dobrogea held the interest of its rulers. The mosques in Tulcea, Medgidia, Cernavod`, Hår[ova, Mangalia, and the two mosques in Constan]a bear the distinctive mark of the sultans in the name or memory of whom they were built. For the most part, the interest the region held was economic. Through successive colonization, the barren, arid land of this sanjak had become, by the 17th century, the kingdom's granary. Most of the 250 tons of cereal swallowed up on a daily basis by the ovens of Istanbul was imported from Dobrogean markets and ports. ‘Geamia’, mosque – or ‘mesgid’ – means gathering, community, meeting. As far the architectural program goes, there is nothing simpler: any clean place where one may walk barefoot can become a mosque. In terms of volumetrics, likewise: a cube, to which a pointy cylinder is attached. The spatial significance is clear: the prayer room is rectangular, almost square shaped; the side pointing towards Mecca is wider. The community of believers gather in a unified space, without hierarchies. At the prescribed hours, the call to prayer is emitted circularly, in every direction, above and beyond any other building or pursuit. The minaret, a special structure specific to mosques, received two great gifts in Dobrogea: limestone, easily rounded with rudimentary tools, and the seismic stability of the Hercynic block to stimulate its slenderness. From the 15th century to this day, the mosque has been a measure of the existence of Muslim populations in Dobrogea. This presence, which includes distinctive historic and ethnic components, follows and interferes with pages of history that are owed to many more peoples and civilizations.

Cristian Br`c`cescu

15 INTRODUCTION


GEAMII DIN DOBROGEA MOSQUES FROM DOBROGEA

MONUMENT ISTORIC / HISTORICAL MONUMENT GEAMII PREZENTATE |N ALBUM / MOSQUES PRESENTED IN THE ALBUM

23 AUGUST ABRUD AGIGEA ALBE{TI AMZACEA BABADAG BREBENI CASTELU CERNAVOD~ CIOB~NI}A CIOCÅRLIA CIOCÅRLIA DE SUS CIUCUROVA COBADIN CONSTAN}A (ANADALCHIOI) CONSTAN}A (CAROL 1) CONSTAN}A (HUNCHIAR) COTU V~II CUMP~NA DOBROMIR DULCE{TI EFORIE SUD F~UREI FÅNTÅNA MARE GENERAL PRAPORGESCU GR~DINA HAGIENI

HÅR{OVA INDEPENDEN}A ISACCEA LAZU LIMANU LUMINA M~CIN MANGALIA MEDGIDIA MERENI MIHAIL KOG~LNICEANU MOVILI}A MURFATLAR NISIPARI OSMANCEA OVIDIU PALAZU MARE POARTA ALB~ SILI{TEA TECHIRGHIOL TOPRAISAR TULCEA TUZLA VADU VALEA DACILOR VALUL LUI TRAIAN VÅRTOP


MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

MOSCHEEA CAROL 1 CONSTAN}A

obrogea a \nceput s` fie cunoscut` opiniei publice europene abia \n secolul al XIX-lea, datorit` r`zboaielor ruso-turce. Fran]a a trimis \n 1828 o misiune militar` ata[at` suitei ]arului, iar \n 1854 trupe franceze au comb`tut al`turi de cele otomane. Dintre ofi]erii francezi, mul]i aveau o educa]ie ce dep`[ea zidurile caz`rmii. Atra[i de ineditul [i exotismul campaniei \n care erau angrena]i, au trimis imagini [i relat`ri. R`zboiul Crimeei a fost primul conflict asistat de coresponden]i de r`zboi – francezi, englezi, germani [i ru[i. Gravuri incizate dup` desene f`cute la fa]a locului au ap`rut \n jurnalele vremii. |n panorama „Gorod Kistendji”, litografiat` de letonul W. Georg Timm – dar [i \n altele – cele cåteva c`su]e ale a[ez`rii sunt dominate de minaretul unei moschei. Nu poate fi decåt moscheea Mahmudia, ridicat` \n 1823 de c`tre Hafuz Husein Pa[a, \n timpul domniei sultanului Mahmud II (1808-1839). I s-a p`strat numai locul mihrabului [i traseul peretelui sudic, perpendicular pe quibla, direc]ia spre Mecca. Au fost preluate de noua moschee, cea mai prestigioas` din ]ar`, construit` \ntre 1910 [i 1913 la st`ruin]a regelui Carol I, din fondurile regatului. Politica \n]eleapt` [i de sincer` bun`-voin]` a principelui Carol fa]` de comunitatea musulman` s-a v`dit \nc` din 1878, cånd, prin discursul adresat armatei [i administra]iei ce urma s` preia Dobrogea, a interzis cu str`[nicie orice act ostil fa]` de viitorii s`i supu[i, indiferent de religie sau de etnie, asiguråndu-le deplina respectare a drepturilor, a bunurilor [i a credin]ei. La marea expozi]ie aniversar` g`zduit` \n 1906 de parcul Carol din Bucure[ti, singurele cl`diri zidite din c`r`mid` au fost „Cetatea lui }epe[” [i „Moscheea Turceasc`”, restul pavilioanelor, din material perisabil, fiind demolate dup` eveniment. Moscheea a fost d`ruit` comunit`]ii islamice din ora[, care a folosit-o pån` \n 1959. D`råmat` pentru a face loc Mausoleului din noul Parc al Libert`]ii, ea a fost ref`cut` pe actualul amplasament din str. M`nescu. E astfel de \n]eles c` la ridicarea moscheii din Constan]a nu s-au precupe]it fonduri, competen]e profesionale [i festivit`]i publice. La 24 iunie 1910, un document oficial a fost depus \n funda]ie, dup` ceremonia religioas` [i cuvenitele discursuri, de c`tre muftiul jude]ului, asistat de Spiru Haret, ministru al Cultelor [i Instruc]iunii Publice, [i de ambasadorul otoman. Lucr`rile [antierului au fost conduse de inginerul Ion Niculcea. Victor G. Stephanescu, arhitect coordonator al expozi]iei din 1906, a \ntocmit proiectul, pentru care a fost decorat de c`tre sultanul Abdul Hamid II cu ordinul Medgidie, \n grad de comandor. |n planul [i \n volumetria moscheii putem descifra, adaptat, modelul \n

D

Dorbrogea only became known to European public opinion in the 19th century, thanks to the Russian-Turkish wars. France sent a military mission attached to the armies of the Tsar, and then in 1854 the French armies fought alongside the Ottomans. Among French officers, many were educated well beyond the walls of their barracks. Drawn to the exoticity of the campaign they were taking part in, they sent home pictures and stories. The Crimean war was the first military conflict ever to have been witnessed by war correspondents – French, English, German and Russian. Engravings made after drawings done on the spot were featured in the journals of the age. In the 'Gorod Kistendji' panorama lithographed by Letonian W. Georg Timm – and in other such works as well – the few households of the settlement were dominated by the minaret of a mosque. It could only have been the Mahmudia mosque, erected in 1823 by Hafuz Hussein Pasha, during the reign of Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839). All that was left of it was the place where the mihrab once stood and the trace of its southern wall, perpendicular to the quibla, the direction of Mecca. Both were integrated to the new mosque built in 1910-1913 at the request of King Charles the 1st – it was funded by the Kingdom and would soon become the most prestigious in the country. The wise and sincere policy of goodwill adopted by King Charles towards the Muslim community was evident from 1878 when in a discourse addressed to the army and administartion that was about to take over Dobrogea, he strongly forbade any hostile acts towards his future subjects, regardless of their religion and ethnicity, ensuring that their rights, possessions and faith would be fully abided. At the great anniversary exhibit hosted in 1906 in Charles Park in Bucharest, the only brick buildings were the '}epe[ Fortress' and the 'Turkish Mosque,' the rest of the pavilions having been built with perishable materials, to be torn down after the event. The mosque was given as a gift to the Islamic community in the city, who made use of it until 1959. Torn down to make room for the Mausoleum in the new Freedom Park, it was rebuilt on its current site on M`nescu Street. It is understood that no expense, professional competency or public festivity was spared in the building of the Constan]a mosque. On the 24th of June 1910, after the religious ceremony and the due discourses, an official document was filed for the laying of the foundation by the Mufti of the county, assisted by Spiru Haret, Minister of Religions and Public Instruction alongside the Ottoman ambassador. Works on site were led by eng. Ion Niculcea. Victor G. Stephanescu, the coordinating architect for the exhibit in 1906 was also in charge of this design, for which he received a decoration from Sultan Abdul Hamid II, with the order Medgidie and the rank of commandor. The plane layout and volumetric sketch of the mosque allows us to deciphre an adapted model of the same Greek cross enscribed in the

18 MoSCHEEA CAROL 1. CONSTAN}A


MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

cruce greac` \nscris` al bisericii domne[ti din Curtea de Arge[. Cupola central`, mult mai larg` decåt la bisericile romåne[ti [i str`puns` la baz` de ferestre arcate, poate fi comparat`, la alt` scar`, cu Sfånta Sofia din Constantinopol sau cu moscheea mare din Konia. Decorul arhitectural include elemente de inspira]ie arab`, neo-romåneasc` sau bizantin`, cu unele tu[e Jugendstil. Toate aceste apropieri sunt \ns` aproximative, proiectul fiind complex [i de o mare originalitate. Pentru conceperea acestei dificile structuri a fost solicitat eminentul inginer Gogu Constantinescu. La 1910, betonul armat era un sistem constructiv de avangard` (singurul precedent \n Romånia, micul pod din Parcul Carol, opera aceluia[i inginer, dateaz` din 1906). Grosimea diferen]iat` a cochiliei de beton, care \n centrul bol]ii scade sub 8 cm, denot` abilitatea proiectantului. Nu mai pu]in impresionant` este conforma]ia minaretului. Coaja exterioar` [i fusul central sunt legate prin treptele de beton, formånd o structur` unitar`. Cu fast regal, inaugurarea s-a ]inut pe 31 mai 1913, \ntr-o sfånt` zi de vineri. De la Bucure[ti au sosit regele Carol – care mai f`cuse o vizit` pe [antier \n anul precedent –, regina Elisabeta, Take Ionescu, ministru al Cultelor, Seffa Bey, ambasadorul Turciei, diploma]i str`ini, ofi]eri superiori [i al]ii. De la Istanbul, vaporul „Romånia“ i-a adus pe Mamut Esad Efendi, ministru al Cadastrului [i delegat personal al sultanului, [i o delega]ie de distin[i clerici musulmani. I-au \ntåmpinat cu onoruri: prefectul Irimescu, primarul Solacolu, consulul turc Kadri Bey, ofi]eri, magistra]i, cler musulman [i ortodox, o[teni, [colari, popor. Dup` slujba oficiat` de hatipul [i muezinii veni]i anume de la Istanbul, s-au ]inut discursuri urmate de r`spunsul regelui. |n curtea moscheii, fotograful Ioanide a imortalizat distinsa adunare. Au urmat dineuri de protocol [i vizite \n ora[. Dup` tradi]ie, s-au jertfit berbeci, a c`ror carne a fost distribuit` popula]iei nevoia[e. Festivit`]ile au durat dou` zile [i sunt fidel consemnate \n documente, \n pres` [i \n coresponden]a privat`. Edificiul merit` din plin ceremoniile cu care a fost inaugurat. Nu doar prin ingenioasa noutate a structurii mixte, din beton armat [i zid`rie, sau prin decorul judicios distribuit [i atr`g`tor, ci mai ales prin semnifica]ie [i prin felul \n care r`spunde menirii sale. |nainte de a p`[i \n curte, din arcada portalului, o inscrip]ie cu caractere arabe reaminte[te celor cucernici datorin]a celor cinci rug`ciuni zilnice. Pe fiece parte lateral` a cur]ii, cåte un portic cu arcade maure [i capitel de sorginte arab` ad`poste[te fåntånile pentru abdest. Trecerea din spa]iul bulversant al str`zii \n l`ca[ul de cult se face printr-o succesiune de trei por]i, tratate de arhitect \n mod distinct [i cu maxim interes. Prima este intrarea \n curte, mai sus-amintit`. A doua este un portal deosebit de \nalt, cu arcada zigzagat`, prin care se intr` \n vestibul; un bråu \n torsada, tipic arhitecturii vechi romåne[ti, e pozi]ionat vertical, drept fus al stålpilor de la baza arcadei. Ultima este u[a geamiei, cu batan]i din marmur` neagr`, articula]i cu imense ferec`turi de bronz.

church of Curtea de Arge[. The central dome, much wider than in Romanian churches and pierced at the base by arched windows, could be compared, on a different scale, to the Saint Sophia in Constantinopole, or to the great mosque in Konia. The architectural decorations include elements of Arabic, NeoRomanian and Byzantine inspiration, with some touches of jugendstil. All of these resemblances are, however, an approximation, as the project is very complex and original in the highest degree. To conceive this difficult structure, the help of eminent engineer Gogu Constantinescu was requested. In 1910, armed concrete was an avantgarde construction system (the only precedent in Romania was the small Charles Bridge, the work of the same engineer, dating back to 1906). The differentiated thickness of the concrete shell, reaching less than 8cm at the center of the vault, is proof of the great skill of its designer. No less impressive is the conformation of the minaret. The outter skin and the central spindle are linked with concrete steps, forming a unified structure. The regal display that was the inauguration of the mosque took place on the 31st of May, 1913, on a Holy Friday. King Charles – who had paid a previous visit to the site the year before – Queen Elizabeth, Take Ionescu, Minister of Religions, Seffa Bey, ambassador of Turkey, foreign diplomats, high ranking officers and others all came in from Bucharest to attend the ceremony. From Istabul, by ship, arrived Mamut Esad Efendi, Minister of the Cadaster and personal envoy of the Sultan, along with a delegation of distinguished Muslim clerics. They were greated with honors by: Prefect Irimescu, Mayor Solacolu, Turkish Council Kadri Bey, officers, magistrates, Muslim and Orthodox clerics, soldiers, school children and people of the town. After the hatip performed the ceremony and the muezzins, come all the way from Istanbul, gave their speeches followed by the King's response, in the courtyard of the mosque, photographer Ioanide immortalized the distinguished gathering. Protocol dinners and town visits followed. As was tradition, rams were sacrificed, their meat given to the needy. The festivities went on for two days and are faithfully recorded in documents, the press and private correspondance. The edifice is fully worth all of the ceremonies by which it was inaugurated. Not just for the novelty of the mixture between armed concrete and masonry or for its judiciously distributed and attractive decorations, but mostly for its significance and for the manner in which it responds to its calling. Before setting foot in the courtyard, from the arch of the gateway an inscription in Arabic reminds devout believers of their duty to perform their five daily prayers. On each side of the courtyatd, a portico with Mudéjar arches and an Arabic crown shelters the abdest fountains. Crossing through the confusing space of the street into the house of worship you pass beneath three different gates, each given a distinct and very interesting treatment by the architect. The first gate stands guard over the entrance into the yard, and we have mentioned it above. The second is an extremely tall portal with a zig-zagged arch, that allows access into the vestibule; a twisted belt typical of Romanian architecture is vertically positioned as pivot for the pillars at the base of the archway. The final door is that of the mosque itself, a blackmarble swinging door articulated with huge bronze locks.

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Interiorul e inundat de lumina ce curge de sus, din ochii cupolei, ca [i din ferestrele \nalte ale celor patru pere]i. O lumin` prielnic` pentru culorile vii, risipite din bel[ug pe cupol`, pere]i, stålpi, pardoseal`, mobilier. Atåt componentele constructive, cåt [i detaliile de arhitectur` sunt realizate cu o remarcabil` acurate]e. Elementul dominant e mihrabul. Cele 99 de \nsu[iri ale lui Allah sunt \nscrise cu litere aurii pe fond de cobalt \n chenarul ce-l \nconjoar`. Ni[a rotund` se \ncheie \n partea de sus cu o rev`rsare de stalactite – mici console specifice arhitecturii arabe. Mimberul – din care se predic` vinerea [i \n s`rb`torile mari – [i kürsür-ul – unde se fac lecturi din Coran – sunt sculptate de un membru al familiei Babic, renumit` pentru stranele [i iconostasele lucrate timp de decenii \n bisericile ortodoxe. Citate din Coran, transcrise cu \nflorituri pe care numai caligrafia arab` le cunoa[te, [i numele sacre ale lui Allah, Mohamed [i ale califilor, s`pate \n marmur`, pictate \n fresc` sau \nscrise pe lehva – medalioane octogonale prezente \n toate geamiile – \ntregesc ambian]a de ceremonie. |ntre numeroasele covoare ce cople[esc pardoseala, prima dona]ie fiind a sultanului Mehmed V, pentru inaugurare, se remarc` un colos de 144 mp. {i acest covor, mig`lit timp de 17 ani la Hereke, \n Turcia, este tot un dar imperial. Abdul Hamid, predecesorul sultanului Mehmed, l-a oferit, \n 1904, comunit`]ii din Ada Kaleh, de unde a fost adus cu mare greutate, c`ci atårn` aproape o jum`tate de ton`, \n 1967, \nainte de dispari]ia insulei. Dar nu gabaritul, ci lucr`tura, modelul [i culorile stinse de timp trebuie admirate cu prec`dere. Subsolul geamiei a fost destinat centralei termice, dotat` cu dou` venerabile cazane de tuci model Aetna, comandate la Frankfurt. |ndr`znea]a structur` proiectat` de Gogu Constantinescu s-a dovedit a fi vulnerabil` \n timp. Betonul, inegal compactat de lucr`tori neini]ia]i, [i atacat de aerul s`rat al m`rii, a \nceput s` se exfolieze, iar arm`tura s` prind` rugin`. |ntre 1957 [i 1958, s-au f`cut laborioase lucr`ri de consolidare, preconizate de acad. ing. Aurel Beles [i urm`rite pe [antier de arh. Eugen Chefneux. Minaretul, cu o grosime de numai 20 cm la baz` [i care scade spre vårf, a fost c`m`[uit. S-au ref`cut pavajul cur]ii [i trotuarul. |n 1966, s-au \nnoit \nvelitorile de la balconul minaretului [i de la poarta incintei, unde ap`ruser` infiltra]ii. Alte lucr`ri de consolidare s-au efectuat \n 1981 [i \n 1993, ambele coordonate de arh. Kemal Ghenghiomer. Prin aceste periodice interven]ii s-a p`strat integritatea monumentului. Moscheea Carol I, impregnat` de personalitatea ilustr` a fondatorului, reprezentativ` pentru cultul [i pentru comunitatea musulman` din Romånia, e \n acela[i timp un reper solid al debutului arhitecturii autohtone moderne.

The interior is flooded in the light pouring in from above, from the eye of the dome, as well as from the tall windows on all of the four walls. A good light for the bright colours lavishly sprinkled all over the dome, the walls, the pillars, the floor, the furniture. The components of the construction as well as the architectural details are done with remarkable accuracy. The mihrab is the centerpiece. The 99 qualities of Allah are enscribed in golden letters on a cobalt background in the frame that surrounds it. The rounded niche is covered in a wave of stalactites – small cantilevers, characteristic of Arabic architecture. The Mimber – from where sermons are held on Fridays and on every big holiday – and the kürsür, were readings from the Koran are carried out – are sculpted by a member of the Babic family, renowned for the pews and iconostases crafted, for decades, for Orthodox churches. Quotes from the Koran transcribed with flourishes encountered only in Arabic calligraphy, as well as the sacred names of Allah, Mohamed and the caliphs, carved into marble or enscribed on lehvas – octogonal medallions present in all mosques – fill out the ceremonial atmosphere. Among the many carpets ovewhelming the floor, aside from the very first donation to the mosque, owed to sultan Mehmed V and given on the occasion of the inauguration, one colossal 144sqm carpet stands out. Another imperial gift, this carpet was labored on for 17 years in Hereke, Turkey. Abdul Hamid, the predecessor of sultan Mehmed, offered it to the community in Ada Kaleh, from whence it was trasnported with great difficulty (it weighs nearly half a ton) in 1967, before the island disappeared. It is not its size as much as its fabric, model and now washed-out colours that invite and deserve admiration. The basement of the mosque was meant to shelter a heating station equipped with two Aetna woodstove boilers ordered from Frankfurt. The bold structure designed by Gogu Constantinescu proved, in time, to be vulnerable. The concrete had been unevenly compacted by uninitiated workers, then attacked by the salty sea air, until finally it began to expholiate and its armed braces began to rust. Between 1957-1958, extensive consolidation works were carried out according to a project by academician engineer Aurel Bele[ and overseen on site by arch. Eugen Chefneux. The minaret, measuring a mere 20cm at the base and getting gradually thinner towards the top, was lined. The courtyard pavement and sidewalk were repaired. In 1966 the covers for the minaret balcony and the enclosure gate were redone, having suffered damage from infiltration. Other consolidation works were carried out between 1981 and 1993, both coordinated by arch. Kemal Ghenghiomer. Throughout these periodical interventions, the integrity of the monument was preserved. The Charles the 1st Mosque, impregnated with the illustrious personality of its founder, representative for the Muslim culture and communities of Romania, is at the same time a solid landmark of the debut of modern local architecture.

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GEAMIA HUNCHIAR CONSTAN}A

orabia lui Iason, cel prigonit de oameni, dar ocrotit de zei, t`ia cu mare grab` talazurile Pontului Euxin. Pe lâng` Lâna de Aur, la bord se afla [i Medeea, fiica regelui Aietes, r`pite din Colchida. Palmele vâsla[ilor, zadarnic înf`[ate în cârpe umede, picurau sânge. Flotila regelui p`guba[ se apropia implacabil. Ingenioasa Medeea recurge la o stratagem` criminal`: î[i tran[eaz` fratele mai mic [i îi risipe[te trupul în valuri. Obliga]i de cutum` s`-i asigure funeralii princiare, urm`ritorii z`bovesc, iar nava Argos dispare la orizont. Aceasta e legenda mediatizat` a vechiului Tomis, factorie a negustorilor greci din Milet – secolul al VII-lea \.Hr. Mai întemeiat` documentar e ipoteza fond`rii ora[ului de c`tre Tomiris, regina sci]ilor. Cucerit de romani în anul 71 \.Hr. [i inclus în Imperiu din 106 d.Hr., Tomis devine capitala Scithiei Minor. În timpul marelui împ`rat Constantin (306337) prime[te numele de Constantia, purtat de mama, de o sor` [i de o fiic` a imperatorului. Küstendje [i Köstenge sunt translitera]ii turce[ti care au perpetuat onomastica latin` pân` în vremea de azi: Constan]a. Numeroase confrunt`ri ruso-turce pe care Dobrogea le-a suportat copios au distrus f`r` mil` ora[ul. Dup` r`zboiul [i ciuma din 1828 mai r`m`seser` 60 de case. Singurul monument p`strat din cele cinci secole de st`pânire otoman` e geamia Hunchiar. Zidit` la 1868, în timpul [i pe cheltuiala sultanului Abdul Aziz (1861-1876), s-a numit ini]ial geamia Aziziye. Nici soarta ei nu e lipsit` de vicisitudini. Bombardamentele din anii '40 o aduc în stare de semi-ruin`. Restaurarea f`cut` în anul 1956 de Direc]ia Monumentelor Istorice, proiectul fiind aportul arh. Rodica M`nciulescu, a salvat monumentul. S-au ref`cut zid`ria [i acoperi[ul. Pe baza urmelor din zid s-a reconstituit cafasul, ce urma a fi închis cu un mu[arabieh prin care femeile puteau privi f`r` a fi v`zute. Proiectul nu s-a finalizat, iar geamia nu a fost redat` cultului. Acesta e principalul merit al restaur`rii din 1993, condus` de arh. Kemal Ghenghiomer. În stânga intr`rii pe o marmur` încastrat` în zid, e sculptat` caligrafic monograma sultanului ctitor. Niciun alt ornament nu tulbur` fa]ada calm` a edificiului. Surprinz`tor [i aparent incomod, minaretul nu are ferestre. E îns` de crezut c`, lunecând în sus [i-n jos de cinci ori pe zi pentru a în`l]a chemarea la rug`ciune, pa[ii muezinului s-au deprins cu pietrele sc`rii [i f`r` ajutorul v`zului. În schimb, geamia are ferestre înalte [i dese. Spa]iul interior luminos [i deschis define[te arhitectura geamiilor, care nu cultiv` fiorul mistic [i profuziunea decorativ` asociate de obicei l`ca[elor de cult.

C

The ship of Jason, he who was cast off by mankind but protected by the Gods, was cutting through the waves of Pontus Euxin. Aside from the Golden Wool, Jason was carrying Medeea on board, daughter of king Aeëtes, kidnapped from Colchis. The palms of the rowers, though wrapped in wet cloth, were dripping blood. The fleet of the cheated king was drawing nearer with the implacability of fate. The ingenious Medeea then reverted to a murderous strategy: she killed and cut up her younger brother, throwing the pieces into the waves. Forced by ancestral law to ensure him a prince's funeral, the chasers lagged behind and the ship of Argos was lost on the horizon. This is the more publicized legend of old Tomi, a trading point for the merchants from Greek Millet in the 7th century B.C. A more documented hypothesis is that of the founding of the city by Tomiris, queen of the Scythians. During the reign of the great Emperor Constantine (306-337), it received the name Constantia, a name borne by the mother, one sister and one daughter of the imperator. Küstendje and Köstenge are Turkish transliterations that have perpetuated the Latin namesake until this day: Constan]a. The many Russian-Turkish confrontations that took place on Dobrogean land left the city in ruins. After the war and the plague, in 1828 only 60 houses were left standing. The only monument preserved through five centuries of Ottoman rule is the Hunchiar mosque. Built in 1868, during the reign and at the expense of Sultan Abdul Aziz (1861-1876), it was initially called the Aziziye mosque. Its fate was no less fraught than that of its town. The bombardments of the 1940s all but destroyed it. A restoration carried out in 1956 by the Direction of Historic Monuments according to a project by arch. Rodica M`nciulescu, saved the monument. The walls and roof were rebuilt. Based on the traces in the wall, the balcony was rebuilt and was about to be closed off with a bay window so that the women would not be seen from the outside. The project was never finalized and the mosque wasn't used for worship until the 1993 restoration, led by arch. Kemal Ghenghiomer. On the left of the entrance, on a marble slab encased in the wall we find a calligraphic rendering of the monogram of the founding Sultan. No other ornament disrupts the smooth facade of the edifice. Surprising and seemingly discomforting, the minaret does not have any windows. One would think, however, that sliding up and down the stone steps five times a day to raise the call to prayer, the muezzin may have become accustomed to them even without the use of his sight. Instead, the mosque itself has many very tall windows. The interior space is filled with light and open, which is characteristic of the architectural program of mosques, buildings that do not cultivate the mystic fervour and decorative profuseness usually associated with houses of worship.

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GEAMIA MAHMUD HÅR{OVA

n celebrul discurs de la Embaeh, 21 iulie 1798, Napoleon îi avertiza pe solda]ii francezi c` patru mii de ani îi vegheaz` din înaltul piramidelor. Sub Hâr[ova odihnesc [apte milenii de istorie, depuse în peste dou`zeci de straturi scormonite de arheologi. Nimic mai obi[nuit, pentru un ora[ dobrogean. A[ez`ri neolitice, o fortifica]ie getic`, un castru roman, o cetate bizantin`, un scaun episcopal, o factorie genovez` defileaz` gr`bit pe axa timpului. Din veacul al 15-lea, anticul Carsium e înlocuit în documentele otomane de toponimul Harisova, iar destina]ia militar`, f`r` a fi total abandonat`, se estompeaz` în favoarea comer]ului. Purtate pe mare de la Stambul, urcând pe Dun`re de la Chilia, caicele aduceau baloturi de m`tase, mirodenii arabe, pânzeturi de bumbac, covoare persane [i chilimuri de Anatolia. Le cump`rau aici negustori veni]i tot pe Dun`re, din amonte, de la Silistra, Nicopole, Provadia, Sofia, Plovdiv. Vindeau în schimb înc`l]`ri f`cute la Edirne, ]es`turi aspre de lån` din sudul Bulgariei, sau mai fine, de la Salonic [i Dubrovnik. Dep`[ind cu mult nevoile de consum local, comer]ul de schimb învioreaz` [i stimuleaz` evolu]ia a[ez`rii. Tihna ora[ului, care la 1651 aduna în jurul bazarului peste 1 600 de case, e tulburat`, începånd cu secolul al XVIII-lea, de frecventele r`zboaie ruso-turce. Cel mai sever episod s-a petrecut în 1828, când au fost distruse zidurile de incint` care protejau o suprafa]` de 42 de hectare. În urma aceluia[i conflict, încheiat prin Tratatul de la Adrianopol, de teama epidemiilor vehiculate de animale, se instituie de-a lungul Dun`rii un cordon sanitar, care îngr`de[te transhuman]a mocanilor ardeleni. De veacuri, pe la Hâr[ova (Vadul Oii) [i dinspre Br`ila (Ghecet) se scurgeau turme de oi, pe când caii aveau vadul lor, la Giurgiu [i la C`l`ra[i. Ca urmare a interdic]iilor, mul]i p`stori din }ara Bârsei, Trei Scaune [i din M`rginimea Sibiului au r`mas în Dobrogea. Harnici [i buni gospodari, în Hâr[ova au \ntemeiat, în partea de vest a ora[ului, un cartier pe care, cu mândria ardeleanului venit de la ]ar`, l-au botezat Varo[. În aceea[i perioad` de început al secolului al XIX-lea, se situeaz` [i construc]ia geamiei actuale din Hâr[ova, mai precis în anul 1812, sub domnia sultanului Mahmud, al doilea cu acest nume, pe care îl poart` acum [i geamia. În curte, în fa]` intr`rii, se afl` o fântân` cu ghizd hexagonal din beton, amenajat` recent, destinat` sp`l`rii dinaintea rug`ciunii. Ea înlocuie[te o fântân` mai veche, situat` pe latura de est a geamiei, care avea exact aceea[i form` [i care era ad`postit` sub un foi[or tradi]ional, numit sadirvan, cu

Î

In his famous speech at Embaeh on the 21st of July 1798, Napoleon warned French soldiers that four thousand years keep watch over their musings from atop the pyramids. Beneath Hår[ova rest seven millennia of history, deposited in layers upon layers now being rummaged through by archaeologists. Nothing could be more ordinary for a Dobrogean town. Neolithic settlements, a Getae fort, a Roman encampment, a Byzantine fortress, an Episcopalian Chair, a Genovese factory, all rolling hastily along the axis of time. Beginning in the 15th century, the ancient Carsium is replaced in Ottoman documents with the toponym Harisova, and its military function, though not entirely abandoned, is effaced in favour of commerce. Navigating the sea from Stambul, then winding their way up the Danube from Chilia, kayaks would carry bales of silk, Arabian spices, cotton cloths, Persian rugs and kilims from Anatolia. The buyers of such merchandise would also arrive here by way of the Danube, from upstream in Silistra, Nicopolis, Provadia, Sofia, Plovdiv. They would trade shoes made in Edirne, harsh wooly fabrics from the south of Bulgaria, or finer cloths from Thessaloniki and Dubrovnik. Far outweighing the needs of local consumers, the trade refreshed and stimulated the evolution of the settlement. The city flourished – by 1651, the city amassed around 1600 houses around the bazaar – but its peace was broken repeatedly in the 18th century by the Russian-Turkish wars. The most severe episode took place in 1828 when the enclosure walls protecting an area of 42ha were torn through. Following that same conflict, ended by the Treaty at Adrianople, for fear of epidemics carried by animals, a sanitary belt was established along the Danube, barring off the pasture trails of shepherds from Transylvania. For centuries, herds of sheep would pour through Hår[ova (Vadul Oii – meaning sheep's ford) and Br`ila (Ghecet), while horses had their own crossings in Giurgiu and C`l`ra[i. Following the interdictions, many a shepherd from Burzenland, Three Chairs and M`rginimea Sibiului settled in Dobrogea. Being hard workers and good householders, they set up in the western part of town, a neighbourhood that their Transylvanian pride came to call Varo[. The current mosque in Hår[ova was also built during that same period at the beginning of the 19th century, more precisely in 1812, under the rule of Sultan Mahmud, the second of this name, borne to this day by the mosque. In the courtyard, before the entrance we find a fountain with a hexagonal concrete basin, recently set up, destined for the ritual cleansing that precedes prayer. It replaces an older fountain situated on the eastern side of the mosque, that used to be the exact same shape, sheltered beneath a traditional kiosk named sadirvan, with a bell-shaped roof resting atop eight wooden pillars. The only sadirvan preserved today is the one in Medgidia.

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un acoperi[ în form` de clopot rezemat pe opt stâlpi de lemn. Singurul sadirvan p`strat pân` azi este cel de la Medgidia. Din curte se intr` în vestibul, ale c`rui ferestre, dispuse pe toate cele patru laturi, mai largi [i mai înalte decåt cele din sala de rug`ciune, sugereaz` ideea c` ini]ial a fost un pridvor deschis, asem`n`tor celor de la Isaccea [i Medgidia. Accesul în minaret se face la nivelul parterului, din vestibul – o alt` similitudine cu geamia din Medgidia – pe când la majoritatea geamiilor e situat în sala de rug`ciune, \n galeria de la nivelul superior. Spre est, un perete construit ulterior separ` o înc`pere adi]ional`. Sala de rug`ciune are în col]ul din stânga un podium rezervat femeilor, delimitat simbolic cu balu[tri sub]iri din lemn. Tot femeilor le e destinat` galeria perimetral`, adânc` de aproape cinci metri deasupra intr`rii [i ceva mai îngust` pe pere]ii laterali. F`r` a se distinge printr-un decor deosebit, câteva elemente de lemn preluate din arhitectura civil` de târg dau s`lii de rug`ciune un aer cald, primitor. Amintim numai stâlpii ce sus]in galeria, strunji]i mecanic [i încadra]i de console festonate; împreun`, stâlpi [i console schi]eaz` la intrare conturul unor arcade festonate delicat. Adâncit` în grosimea de aproape un metru a zidului, absida mihrabului e o simpl` ni[` cilindric` încheiat` cu o calot` semisferic` ce nu se reliefeaz` deloc în exterior. Prezen]a ei este marcat` totu[i printr-o ferestruic` divizat` în trei arcade, apari]ie insolit` pe fa]ada voit monoton`, f`r` niciun relief sau decor particular. Singurul loc în care preocuparea decorativ` este evident` e inscrip]ia votiv` amplasat` deasupra intr`rii în sala cea mare. Cele [apte rânduri de text sunt mig`los înscrise în casete echidistante [i încununate caligrafic de emblema sultanului Mahmud, încadrat` într-un medalion oval. La interior, alte inscrip]ii, la fel de ingenios pictate brodate, au un rol preponderent religios. Monumentul a suferit transform`ri [i a pierdut mult din aspectul originar. La ravagiile campaniilor militare din secolul al XIX-lea se adaug` [i incendierea ora[ului în timpul Primului R`zboi Mondial. Cel mai mult au avut de suferit acoperi[ul [i fa]adele. În anul 1967, la solicitarea Sfatului Popular [i a Muftiatului, Direc]ia monumentelor Istorice a întreprins lucr`ri de consolidare a [arpantei [i a zid`riei afectate de tasarea terenului. O restaurare recent`, din ultimul deceniu, a îndep`rtat igrasia ce urca din funda]ia veche de piatr` [i a îmbr`cat geamia într-un ve[mânt alb imaculat precum halatul de ceremonie al imamului. Z`log al statorniciei celor sosi]i aici cu veacuri în urm` [i identifica]i de genera]ii cu destinul ora[ului, într-un armonios tandem cu vestigiile antice [i medievale ale cet`]ii învecinate, geamia bicentenar` confirm` dimensiunea istoric` [i spiritual` a Hâr[ovei.

From the courtyard one enters the vestibule whose windows, laid out on all four sides, are wider and taller than those in the prayer room, suggesting that initially, this was an open porch, similar to those in Isaccea and Medgidia. One may access the minaret through the vestibule on the ground floor – another resemblance with the mosque in Medgidia – whereas in most mosques, the entrance into the minaret is situated in the prayer hall, one level higher. To the east, a wall that was added at a later date creates a separate chamber. The prayer hall has a podium for women in the left-hand corner, symbolically lined off by slender wooden balusters. The perimetral gallery is also reserved for women, five meters wide above the entrance and somewhat narrower along the lateral walls. Though it doesn't stand out through any special decorations, a few wooden elements borrowed from examples of civil architecture in the market give the hall a warm, welcoming air. We ought to mention the pillars supporting the gallery, turned in a mechanical lathe and framed by festooned cantilevers; together, the pillars and cantilevers in the entrance sketch the outline of delicately curved arches. Dug into the almost one meter thick wall, the apsis of the mihrab is a simple cylindrical niche topped off with a semispherical cap that cannot be seen from the exterior. Its presence is, however, marked through a small window divided into three arches, a unique appearance on the deliberately monotonous facade boasting no special reliefs or decorations. The only place where care was obviously given to the decoration is the votive inscription above the entrance into the great hall. The seven rows of text are painstakingly inscribed in equidistant cassettes and crowned with a calligraphic rendering of Sultan Mahmud's seal framed in an oval medallion. In the interior, other inscriptions just as ingeniously painted or embroidered serve a predominantly religious purpose. The monument suffered transformations and lost much of its initial aspect. To the ravages caused by the military campaigns of the 19th century we add the burning of the city during WWI. Most of the damage was suffered by the roof and the facades. In the year 1967, at the request of the Popular Council and the Mufti, the Direction of Historic Monuments carried out consolidation works for the roof structure and the masonry now affected by the initial tracing of the terrain. A recent restoration of the past decade removed the mould climbing up the old stone foundation and clad the mosque in an immaculate, white garment reminiscent of the Imam's ceremonial robe. A testimony of the constancy of the people who arrived here all those centuries ago and have for generations been identified with the fate of the city, in harmonious tandem with the ancient and medieval vestiges of the neighbouring fortress, this bicentennial mosque confirms the historic and spiritual dimension of Hår[ova.

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ai \ntâi, pu]in` filologie: pe turce[te, kara su, \nseamn`, ca [i cerna voda \n limbile slave, Apa Neagr`. De unde [i numele ora[ului, mai degrab` decåt de la un Negru Vod`, a c`rui domnie, pendulând \ntre istorie [i legend`, oricum nu putea trece dincolo de Dun`re. Drept pentru care scriem Cernavoda, f`r` „`”, chiar dac` tastatura are diacritice. Aceea[i semantic` (aks = negru, de origine tracic`) a dat numele cet`]ii Axiopolis, atribuit` regelui Lisimach – secolul al III-lea \.Hr. |n epoca roman`, Axiopolis era un redutabil sediu al flotei militare, iar \n preajma anului 1000 veghea limita vestic` a limes-ului bizantin ce traversa Dobrogea. |n veacurile 15-19 ora[ul poart` numele turcesc Bogazchioi (Gura Apei), râul Carasu fiind pe atunci navigabil. {i \n timpul domina]iei otomane au fost aici garnizoane militare, pe care nici Vlad Tepe[ [i nici Mihai Viteazul nu le-au iertat, \n campaniile lor ofensive purtate pe malul drept al Dunarii. Dar sunt [i alte \mpliniri române[ti ce merit` amintite: \n anul 1766, dasc`lul Ioan \nfiin]a la Cernavoda prima [coal` romåneasc` din Dobrogea, iar pe la 1770 episcopul Neofit traducea c`r]i grece[ti \n limba român`. |n 1864, s-a construit, cu sprijinul sultanului Abdul Aziz, o biseric` ortodox`, atât pentru românii, cât [i pentru cele câteva mii de bulgari, ru[i, greci, atra[i de construc]ia c`ii ferate. |ntre dughenele ora[ului, un francez remarca pe la 1870-80, cu mirare [i amuzament, existen]a unui café-chantant. Monsieur Leon-Francois-Antoine Aurifeuille, autorul acestei men]iuni, are o biografie fabuloas`. Copil din flori, matematician cu merite recunoscute \n teoria numerelor, a stat trei ani la Istanbul, unde a editat Revue de Constantinople. Cu pseudonimul Alfred de Caston a dat spectacole de iluzionism [i mentalism, dar a semnat [i c`r]i bine primite, precum La Turquie en 1873, Les Tricheurs, sau Les marchands de miracles, \n care divulga trucurile cartoforilor [i ale fal[ilor spiriti[ti. Comisia European` a Dun`rii, \nfiin]at` \n 1856, induce un flux de modernitate \n via]a ora[ului, trasând calea ferat` Cernavoda – Constan]a, ini]iativ` de anvergur` european`, finalizat` \n 1895 prin inaugurarea podului Carol I. Istoria podului \ncepe la 1883. Din dou` concursuri, s-au ales opt proiecte, \ntre care unul semnat Gustave Eiffel. |n toamna blajin` a acelui an, ora[ul nu poate oferi un sediu mul]umitor comisiei \ntrunite s` le examineze, a[a \ncât dezbaterile au loc la bordul vaporului {tefan cel Mare. Nici comisia nu poate hot`r\ un proiect câ[tig`tor. {ase ani mai târziu, la solicitarea lui M. Kog`lniceanu, Parlamentul \ncredin]eaz` lucrarea inginerului Anghel Saligny. La 9 octombrie 1890, regele Carol a[az` piatra de temelie [i tot el, la 14 septembrie 1895, bate

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First, some philology: in Turkish, ‘kara su’ means, like ‘cerna voda’ in the Slavic languages, Black Water. This is the more likely source of the name of the town, and not, as previously supposed, Voivode Negru Vod`, whose reign, pendulating between history and legend, could never have spanned beyond the Danube. This is why we spell the name Cernavoda, without the `, and not for lack of special keyboard characters. The same semantics generated the name of the fort of Axiopolis (‘aks’ means black, a word of Tracian origin), attributed to king Lysymachus, dating back to the 3rd century B.C. In the Roman age, Axiopolis was the impressive headquarters of the Roman military fleet, and around the year 1000, it guarded the western boarder of the Byzantine limes (‘limit’ in Latin) that ran through Dobrogea. In the 15th - 19th centuries, the town bore the Turkish name Bogazchioi (Water Mouth), as the river Carasu was then sailable. During Ottoman rule, military garnisons used to be stationed here, garnisons that neither Vlad the Impaler nore Mihai the Brave spared in their offensive campaigns on the right shore of the Danube. There are, however, other Romanian accomplishments worth mentioning: in the year 1776, teacher Ioan founded the first Romanian school in Dobrogea here, and then in 1770, this is where bishop Neofit translated Biblical texts from Greek into Romanian. In 1864, with the support of Sultan Sbdul Aziz, an Orthodox church was built for Romanians and the few thousand Bulgarians, Russians and Greeks drawn to the region by construction work on the railway. Among the many shops in town, around 1870-1880, a Frenchman remarked, with a mixture of wonder and amuzement, the existence of a cafe-chantant. Monsieur Leon-FrancoisAntoine Aurifeuille, the author of this mention, boasts a remarkable biography. Flower child, recognized mathematician in the field of number theory, he lived in Istanbul for three years, where he edited the Revue de Constantinopole. Under the pseudonym Alfred de Caston, he performed as an illusionist and a mentalist and signed well-received books such as La Turquie en 1873, Les Tricheurs, or Les marchands de miracles, in which he divulged the tricks of card gamblers and fake psychics. The European Danube Commission founded in 1856 brought about the tides of modernity to city life, tracing the Cernavoda – Constan]a railway, a European initiative, finalized in 1895 with the inauguration of the Charles the 1st Bridge. The history of the bridge begins in 1883. After two contests, eight projects were chosen one of which was signed by Gustave Eiffel. In the gentle autumn of that same year, the company was unable to provide satisfactory headquarters for the committee gathered to examine these projects, so the debates took place aboard the {tefan the Great ship. The committe was, however, unable to decide on a wineer. Six years later, at the request of M. Kog`lniceanu, Parliament assigned the project to engineer

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simbolic ultimul nit. Fastul inaugur`rii, cu Saligny privind din barc`, de sub pod, convoiul de 15 locomotive care-l testeaz` cu 80 km/or`, e relatat copios \n presa vremii, pres`rat` cu fragmente din discursul regelui: „S`vâr[irea podului peste Dun`re, dorit de un sfert de veac de Mine, (…) aceast` trainic` [i nepieritoare lucrare, (…) trebuie s` arate lumii c` vrednic este poporul Român de frumoasa sa chemare la gurile Dun`rii [i por]ile Orientului”. Nu mai pu]in vehiculat a fost [i dialogul anecdotic dintre chibzuitul suveran [i prim-ministrul s`u, dup` examinarea devizului: „– Cam scump, coane Lasc`re, cam scump. – Scump, maiestate, dar face!”. Când mai animat`, când mai domoal`, metamorfoza urbei din ultimile veacuri are un martor silen]ios, a[ezat molcom \n marginea timpului [i \n dosul [irului de pr`v`lii. „Geamia e trecutul; st` ascuns` prin case scunde [i magazii masive de piatr`, ca ni[te temni]i cu ferestruici mici [i z`brele groase. |n fa]a geamiei e pia]a larg` ca s` \ncap` c`ru]ele ferecate, \nc`rcate cu saci de grâu. Cernavoda are Dun`rea, are linia ferat`, are mai ales minunea de pod, dantela fin` de fier, suspendat` deasupra apei. Via]a gâlgâie. {uier`turile sirenelor se \ngân` cu acelea mai r`gu[ite ale vapoarelor ori acele mai scurte, mai stridente, ale locomotivelor.” Panorama apar]ine ilustrului geolog Ion Simionescu [i dateaz` din 1914. Geamia a fost construit` la 1756, \n timpul scurtei domnii a sultanului Osman III, poate cu \ndemnul sau doar dedicat` acestuia, dup` cum sugereaz` denumirea, ocazional folosit`, de „Geamia Hunchiar”. A fost cu siguran]` precedat` de geamii mai vechi, mai m`runte: \n cartea c`l`toriilor sale, Seyahatname, Evliya Celebi aminte[te „geamia mic`, dar dr`gu]`” din Bogazchioi. Fântâna ritual`, s`pat` \ntr-un cub de calcar , precede intrarea. Dintr-un larg vestibul, \n care se leap`d` \nc`l]`rile, se intr` \n sala de rug`ciune sau, pe scara din col], se urc` direct \n galeria femeilor. Câteva detalii individualizeaz` geamia din Cernavoda: ancadramentul mihrabului, compus din doi pila[tri [i un fronton arcuit; parapetul mimberului, ca [i cel care m`rgine[te zona de la parter rezervat` femeilor, tot din zid`rie lucrate, cu mari perfora]ii rotunde. Dar cel mai aparte element e tavanul b`tut \n [ipci, care nu e plan, partea central` fiind \n`l]at` \n forma unui trunchi de piramid`. {i minaretul de la Cernavoda este un unicat. Aceia[i zidari ingenui i-au rotunjit balconul \n forma unui cuib de rândunic`, s`ltat pe trei rânduri succesive de console zim]ate. Zid`ria fa]adelor e \nvelit` \ntr-o tencuial` sub]ire prin care se ghicesc vag blocurile de piatr`. Dou` pl`ci cu inscrip]ii, una pe baza minaretului, pe care \l dateaz` la 1886, iar alta pe fa]ada de vest, consemneaz` repara]ii [i consolid`ri ale geamiei. Ciubuce de tencuial` [i centuri de beton \mbr`]i[eaz` fa]adele, \ntr-o deplin` consonan]` vernacular` cu celelalte componente. |ntre celebrul cuplu neolitic al Gânditorilor (zi[i de la Hamangia, dar descoperi]i lâng` ora[, pe dealul Sofia) [i singura central` atomic` a României, modesta geamie din Cernavoda ]ine o dreapt` cump`n` a istoriei dobrogene.

Anghel Saligny. On the 9th of October 1890, King Charles set the cornerstone and then in 1895, he symbolically hammered in the final rivet. The tale of this impressive inauguration – Saligny watching from a boat beneath the bridge as a convoy of 15 locomotives crosses it in an 80km/h test run – is reported in the press of the day, sprinkled with fragments from the King's speech: "The completion of this bridge across the Danube, desired by Myself for a quarter century, (...) this solid and undying work, (...) must show the world that the Romanian people is worthy of its beautiful calling to the mouth of the Danube and the Gates of the Orient." No less circulated is the anecdotal dialogue between the Prime Minister and his frugal Sovereign after examining the estimate: "– A bit dear, Lasc`r, a bit dear. – Dear, your majesty, but worth it!" At times more lively, at times more low-key, the metamorphoses of the town during the past decades bears a silent witness, lazily resting against the edges of time at the back of a row of shops. "Mosques are the past; they lie hidden behind short houses and massive rock warehouses, like small-windowed, thick-barred dungeons. The square in front of the mosque is wide enough to fit carts headed with iron, laden with sacks of grain. Cernavod` has the Danube, it has the railway, it most especially has that wonder of a bridge, with its iron lacework, suspended above the water. Life bubbles. The whistle of sirens blends with the husky voices of ships or the sharper, brasher tones of locomotives." This description, dating back to 1914, belongs to the illustruous geologist Ion Simionescu. The mosque was built in 1756 during the short reign of Sultan Osman the IIIrd, perhaps at his request, perhaps simply in his memory, as the name still occasionally used to identify it would suggest: "Hunchiar Mosque". It was most certainly preceded by older, smaller mosques: in the book of his travels, Seyahatname, Evliya Celebi remembers "that small, but precious mosque" in Bogazchioi. The ritual fountain dug into a cube of limestone precedes the entrance. From a vestibule corner where shoes are discarded, one walks into the prayer room or, by the corner staircase, climbs directly up to the women's gallery. A few details make this mosque in Cernavoda unique: the framing of the mihrab, made out of two abutments and an arched gable; the mimber parapet, as well as the parapet lining off the area on the ground floor reserved for women, also with stonework showing off large, round perforations. But the most peculiar element is the ceiling fixed with slats - it isn't flat, instead its central part is raised in the shape of a truncated pyramid. The minaret in Cernavoda is also one of a kind. The same ingenuous stonemasons rounded off its balcony in the shape of a swallow's nest, raised on three successive rows of spiked cantilevers. The facades are covered in a thin coat of paint through which the stone blocks can be vaguely discenred. Two inscription plaques, one at the base of the minaret attesting its building date, 1886, another on the western facade, seem to account for reparation and consolidation works carried out on the mosque. Plaster beading and concrete belts embrace the facades, in full vernacular accord with the other components of the building. Between the famous Neolithic couple of the Thinkers (dubbed of Hamangia, but discovered near the city, on Sofia hill) and the only atomic powerplant in Romania, this modest mosque in Cernavoda maintains the bearing for the helm that is Dobrogea's history.

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ac` Delta e cel mai proasp`t p`mânt al României, M`cinul e a[ezat pe cele mai vârstnice roci, formate în paleozoic. Iar dac` mai toate geamiile dobrogene sunt zidite cu piatr` din carierele locale, cea din M`cin e singura construit` din lemn, adus pe cor`bii de dincolo de Dardanele. A[ezarea cu nume celtic, Arrubium (secolele II-I \.Hr.), inclus` în regatul geto-dac st`pânit de Rhemaxos [i Zyraxes, a devenit succesiv castru roman, cetate bizantin` [i comun` urban` otoman`, men]ionat` ca atare în documente din secolul al XVI-lea. În anii 1856-1859, dup` r`zboiul din Crimeea, un mare num`r de imigran]i t`tari spore[te sim]itor popula]ia ora[ului. În aceste condi]ii, Mestan Aga, b`rbat chivernisit, cu dare de mân` [i cu rang înalt în ierarhia otoman`, ia ini]iativa ridic`rii unei noi geamii, pe care s-o doneze comunit`]ii. Proiectul [i componentele construc]iei au fost croite la Istanbul, de me[teri turci, care au înso]it lemn`ria pe mare [i pe Dun`re, pentru a o asambla la fa]a locului, pe temelie de piatr`. O talp` de stejar, lat` cât funda]ia, stâlpi [i grinzi de dou` palme grosime, legate cu scoabe [i cuie b`tute pe nicoval`, alc`tuiesc structura pere]ilor, completat` cu paiant`. Materialul de baz` se reg`se[te pe fa]adele placate cu scândur`. Tot lemnul a fost îmbibat cu fiertur` din seu de oaie, formul` care dup` un secol [i jum`tate î[i p`streaz` tr`inicia. Un sacnasiu rezemat pe doi stâlpi de lemn, deasupra intr`rii, [i alveola mihrabului, îmbr`cate cu acela[i finisaj lemnos, formeaz` dou` mici protuberan]e pe corpul principal al cl`dirii. Pe fa]ada de vest cre[te turnul elansat al minaretului, zidit din blocuri de piatr`. Compunerea volumelor e f`cut` dup` criterii strict func]ionale, f`r` o preocupare anume pentru decor sau propor]ii. Singurul detaliu distinctiv este modul în care e rezolvat` intersec]ia fa]adelor. Rigiditatea muchiei verticale este atenuat` prin inser]ia unui trunchi rotund, u[or retras fa]` de planurile adiacente. Este o transpunere sui-generis în lemn a procedeului folosit de pietrarii care au construit cavoul lui Ali Gazi Pa[a din curtea geamiei de la Babadag. Sala de rug`ciune degaj` aceea[i simplitate enun]at` de exteriorul geamiei. Lumina p`trunde în voie prin ferestrele dispuse pe dou` registre în nava înalt` de aproape [ase metri. Aten]ia se concentreaz` asupra ni[ei mihrabului, înconjurat` de texte în caractere arabe, minu]ios caligrafiate, con]inånd m`rturisirea de credin]a [i numele primilor patru mari califi. În partea opus`, spa]iul destinat femeilor, m`rginit de stâlpi [i balustrade de lemn, e mai dezvoltat în adîncime decåt la alte geamii. Din galeria superioar` se urc`,

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Whereas the Delta is the youngest land in Romania, M`cin rests atop the oldest of Romanian rocks, dating back to the Paleozoic Era. And while almost every mosque in Dobrogea is built with stone from local quarries, the one in M`cin is built with wood brought over on ships from beyond the Dardanelles. This settlement with a Celtic name, Arrubium (2nd – 1st centuries B.C.), once part of the Geto-Dacian kingdom ruled by Rhemaxos and Zyraxes, was successively transformed into a Roman encampment, a Byzantine fortress and an Ottoman urban commune mentioned as such in documents dating from the 16th century. In the years 1856-1859, following the Crimean War, a great number of Tatar immigrants significantly added to the population of the town. Under these conditions, Mestan Aga, a well-to-do, generous man holding a high rank in the Ottoman hierarchy took on the initiative of building a new mosque to give to the community. Both the design and the components of the construction were crafted in Istanbul by Turkish masters who then accompanied the woodwork by sea, then up the Danube in order to assemble it on the spot, on a stone foundation. An oak base as wide as the foundation, pillars and beams two palms thick, tied with clamps and nails beaten down on an anvil, these elements make up the structure of the walls, that is then filled out with struts. The base material is found in the wood board plaques on the facades. All of the wood was soaked in a mutton tallow broth, a formula that still maintains its sturdiness a century and a half later. An oriel resting on two wooden pillars above the entrance, as well as the back of the niche of the mihrab, clad in the same wooden finishes, form two small protuberances on the main volume of the building. On the western facade grows the spindly tower of the minaret, built with stone blocks. The composition of the volumes is designed according to strictly functional criteria, without any special care for decorations or proportions. The only distinctive detail is the way in which the intersection of the facades is resolved. The rigidity of the vertical edge is softened by the insertion of a rounded tree trunk, slightly withdrawn from the adjacent planes. It is a sui generis transposition into wood of a procedure used by the stonemasons who built Ali Gaza Pasha's tomb in the courtyard of the Babadag mosque. The prayer room lets off the same simplicity expressed by the exterior of the construction. Light comes in playfully through windows laid out in two rows along the sides of the almost 6m high nave. Attention is drawn to the niche of the mihrab, surrounded by texts in Arabic script, a painstakingly etched calligraphy containing the confession of faith and the names of the first four great caliphs. On the opposite side, the space reserved for women, fenced off with wooden pillars and balustrades develops in more depth than in other mosques. From the upper

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pe trepte masive din acela[i stejar adus de peste m`ri, pân` în balconul minaretului. Intrarea în sal` e precedat` de un vestibul, dezvoltat ini]ial pe toat` deschiderea de opt metri a grinzilor, dar divizat acum într-o sal` de a[teptare [i un mic birou. O vedere panoramic` a M`cinului, gravat` în lemn dup` un desen de M. Könen [i tip`rit` în Illustrierte Zeitung din Leipzig la 1877, înf`]i[eaz` dou` geamii al`turate. Geamia cea veche, care era construit` din piatr` pe locul unui l`ca[ anterior incendiat în 1853, a fost demolat` în anul 1956, pe locul ei aflându-se acum Casa de Cultur`. Publicarea imaginii mai sus-amintite a fost prilejuit` de interesul stârnit de r`zboiul din 1877, eveniment al c`rui început [i sfâr[it au avut loc la M`cin. A fost primul ora[ de pe pe teritoriul otoman cucerit, la 11 iunie 1877, de Corpul 14 al armatei ruse[ti, sub comanda generalului Zimmerman. {i tot M`cinul a fost primul ora[ care a întâmpinat cu un arc triumfal, la 14 noiembrie 1878, primele coloane ale armatei române, datorit` faptului c` grosul armatei, împreun` cu statul major [i cu principele Carol, era cantonat la Br`ila. Patru decenii mai târziu, în timpul Primului R`zboi Mondial, Talip Talip, str`bunicul actualului imam din M`cin, a fost eroul unui act de devotament certificat printr-un decret regal. De[i [antajat cu pierderea unor case [i terenuri pe care le de]inea în Bulgaria, el a refuzat s` colaboreze cu serviciile secrete, deconspirând autorit`]ilor române pe spionii trimi[i cu trei saci de explozivi pentru a dinamita podul de la Cernavoda. Dup` ocuparea Dobrogei, în 1917, Talip a c`zut victim` unei crunte r`zbun`ri. Recunoa[terea meritului [i recompensele acordate urma[ilor de Regatul României au fost [terse brutal de vicisitudinile [i de prigoana ce a urmat anului 1947. Deposedat`, obligat` s` p`r`seasc` M`cinul, dup` trei genera]ii familia martirului Talip se reg`se[te în preajma geamiei lui Mestan Aga. Inscrip]ia votiv` de la intrare gl`suie[te: „Este f`cut` aceast` geamie de Mastan Aga [i d`ruit` întru folosul ob[tii; s` dea Dumnezeu s` mai fac [i alte lucruri bune.” Chiar dac` religia musulman` nu consfin]e[te statutul de ctitor, cu anumite privilegii ce se r`sfrâng [i asupra familiei acestora, numele întemeietorilor de geamii sunt rostite cu pio[enie în rug`ciuni la s`rb`torile mari sau în ocazii deosebite. Iar Mestan Aga se num`ra printre cei merituo[i.

gallery one climbs up massive oak steps also imported by sea, all the way up to the minaret balcony. A vestibule precedes the entrance into the hall, a space that initially took up the full 8m wide opening of the beams, but is now divided into a waiting room and a small office. A panoramic view of M`cin, engraved in wood after a drawing by M. Könen printed in Illustrierte Zeitung in Leipzig in 1877, shows two adjoining mosques. The old mosque, built on stone, on the site of a former place of worship that burned down in 1853, was demolished in 1956 and in its place we now find the Culture House. The publishing of the aforementioned image was brought about by an interest in M`cin stirred in the aftermath of the 1877 war, whose beginning and ending episodes both took place here. M`cin was the first city on Ottoman soil to be conquered on the 11th of June 1877 by the 14th Russian Army Corps commanded by General Zimmerman. Then, on the 14th of November 1878 it was also the first city to offer a triumphal arch greeting to the first troops of the Romanian Armies, then stationed in Br`ila, along with the General Staff and His Majesty King Charles. Four decades later, during WWI, Talip Talip, the great-grandfather of the current imam in M`cin, was the hero of an act of loyalty recognized by Royal Decree. Although blackmailed with the loss of houses and land he owned in Bulgaria, he refused to collaborate with the secret services, turning over to the Romanian authorities the spies sent to him with three sacks of explosive to blow up the bridge in Cernavoda. After the occupation of Dobrogea in 1917, Talip fell victim to a cruel sort of vengeance. The acknowledgement of his merits and the recompense entailed by his heirs was brutally wiped clean by the hardships and persecution that followed in 1947. Dispossessed and forced to leave M`cin, after three generations the family of martyr Talip now finds itself around the mosque of Mestan Aga. The votive inscription above the entrance says: "This mosque was made by Mestan Aga and given for the use of the community; let it please the Lord that I may make other good things." For even if Muslim religion does not sanction the statute of founder with privileges entailed by the family, the names of those who have built mosques are piously recited in prayers on important holidays or special occasions. And Mastan Aga is counted among the worthy.

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n sat între altele, a[ezat lene[ pe tipsia podi[ului sudic, p`streaz` spre amintire numele unei c`petenii locale, Hamza, la care se adaug` un sufix comun [i altor a[ez`ri dobrogene: Isaccea, Tulcea, Casimcea. Câ]iva tumuli neolitici [i urme de locuire roman` îi schi]eaz` fundalul arheologic necesar. De o parte [i de alta a [oselei, la oarece distan]`, se afl` dou` geamii, aferente cartierelor turcesc [i celui t`t`resc ale satului. Rug`ciunile zilnice se ]in alternativ, câte cincisprezece zile într-o geamie [i apoi în cealalt`. Cea mai veche e geamia turceasc`, zis` Giuma (vineri, în limba turc`), zidit` în 1850. La 1917, în vreme de r`zboi, minaretul a fost luat ca ]int` de tunurile inamice, aflate în satul vecin, [i doborât. Abia dup` zece ani a putut fi ref`cut, dar ceva mai scund. Tot atunci s-a desf`cut [i podiumul din sala de rug`ciune, destinat femeilor. Cu timpul, zid`ria masiv` din piatr` s-a fisurat [i plafonul a început s` cedeze. Ca m`suri de precau]ie s-au astupate ferestrele laterale [i s-a implantat un stâlp de lemn în mijloc, sub grinda principal`. Fa]ada estic` a fost înt`rit` cu un contrafort. Alte repara]ii s-au mai f`cut în 2004. Camera de rug`ciune e cât se poate de simpl`: alveola semicircular`, încheiat` cu o calot` conic`, a mihrabului [i stâlpul central ce sprijin` tavanul suferind sunt singurele elemente notabile. În schimb, spa]iile adiacente sunt mai dezvoltate decât la alte geamii, însumând o suprafa]` mai mare decât sala principal`. Un vestibul minuscul, cu bazin pentru ablu]iune, d` într-un coridor cu trei camere laterale: sala de a[teptare, sala de înv`]`tur` islamic` [i o anex`. La cel`lalt cap`t al coridorului e intrarea în sala mare. În minaret se intr` printr-o u[i]` de lemn, aflat` sus, sub tavan. Minaretul are trepte din piatr`, legate cu zid`ria. Solidare prin pilonul central, confer` turnului rezisten]a savant` a unei cochilii de melc. Pe dinafar`, minaretul î[i p`streaz` apareiajul de piatr`. Restul fa]adelor au fost zugr`vite, mai pu]in cåteva pietre încastrate pe fa]ada lateral`, lâng` turn, pe care mijesc dou` inscrip]ii incizate de o mân` mai pu]in deprins` cu pana sau cu dalta. E ultima tu[` ce completeaz` farmecul unei zidiri încânt`toare prin simplitatea ei. Sora mai tân`r`, de[i mai ridat` de adierea timpului, a geamiei Giuma a fost construit` în 1890. Un nou l`ca[ de cult la un interval de numai patru decenii indic` o cre[tere a comunit`]ii ce nu se explic` prin simplul spor natural. Mai plauzibil poate fi atribuit` imigra]iei t`tarilor din Crimeea, care din 1783 [i pân` în 1877 a alimentat continuu, cu câte un flux mai înalt dup` fiecare r`zboi ruso-turc, popula]ia islamic` a Dobrogei.

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A village among other villages lazily resting atop the flat southern plateau, named in the memory of local chief Hamza, to whose name a common Dobrogea suffix was added: Isaccea, Tulcea, Casimcea. A few Neolithic tumuli and traces of Roman dwellings sketch the necessary archaeological background. On either side of the road, quite some distance apart, two mosques are situated, attached to the Turkish and respectively to the Tatar neighbourhoods in the village. Prayers are held everyday, alternating 15 days in one mosque and 15 days in the next. The oldest of Turkish mosques, called Giuma (Friday in Turkish) was built in 1850. In 1917, during the war, the minaret was a target for enemy cannons stationed in the neighbouring village, and was destroyed. It took ten years to rebuild it, and the new one was shorter than the original. Also around that time the women's podium in the prayer room was taken out. With time, the massive stone masonry cracked and the ceiling began to give way. As safety measures, the lateral windows were obstructed and a wooden pillar was added in the middle, beneath the main supporting beam. The eastern facade was reinforced with a buttress. Other repairs were carried out in 2004. The prayer room is as simple as can be: the semi-circular alveolus of the mihrab, topped with a conic cap, and the central pillar supporting the ceiling are the only note-worthy elements. However, the adjacent spaces are more extensively developed here than in other mosques, covering a total surface larger than that of the main hall. A minuscule vestibule with a basin for ablution leads into a corridor with three lateral chambers: the waiting room, the Islamic learning room and an annex. At the other end of the corridor we find the entrance into the great hall. Access into the minaret is granted by way of a small wooden door situated at the top, beneath the ceiling. The minaret has stone steps, linked to the masonry of the walls. Connecting through the central pylon, they offer this tower the savant robustness of the snail's shell. On the outside, the minaret maintains its original stone fittings. The rest of the facade was painted over, except a few stones encased in the lateral facade near the tower, where two inscriptions can be seen, scribbled by the deft hand of a craftsman trained in the art of the wedge and chisel. This is the final touch, completing the charm of a building that is lovely in its simplicity. The Giuma mosque's sister was built in 1890, and although it is younger, it finds itself a bit more wrinkled by the passage of time. A new place of worship erected a mere four decades apart from the first would indicate an expansion of the community that cannot be explained by a mere natural increase in population, but is rather to be attributed to the immigration of the Tatars from Crimea, a constant provider of Islamic population to Dobrogea between 1783 and 1877, with demographic spikes following each Russian-Turkish war.

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oaja p`mîntului unduit` vag de geologii obosite, o vegeta]ie precar`, lipsit` de umiditatea vital`, sate m`runte, care dilat` distan]ele în orizontul plat [i deschis, îmbie firesc la o compara]ie cu podi[ul Anatoliei. În acest spa]iu v`duvit de repere spectaculoase, naturale sau cl`dite, abia ici-colo câte un coif de minaret împunge ca un creion bine ascu]it cerul dezesperant de albastru. Sunt construc]ii simple, nepreten]ioase, dar care semnaleaz` [i confer` identitate a[ez`rii. Iar în perspectiv` creioneaz` un peisaj cultural specific, definit pe un areal restrâns, str`juit pe trei laturi de Dun`re [i de Mare, deschise c`tre toate apele lumii. Un relief tocit, ierburi spinoase, oameni mode[ti, o arhitectur` re]inut`. Cercetate îndeaproape, î[i dezv`luie, cu simplitate [i altruism, calit`]i remarcabile. Geamiile rurale s-au construit pe teren comunal sau privat. Este cazul celei din Tuzla, zidit` pe terenul unei familii din sat, ai c`rei descenden]i, tr`itori în Istanbul, se pot l`uda cu dona]ia str`mo[ilor. Numele satului Tuzla (în limba turc`: s`rat) a fost croit pe seama lacului Techirghiol, îmbr`când în caftan vechiul Stratonis bizantin, care, la rândul s`u, acoper` situri romane [i neolitice. Geamia dateaz` din 1870. Scund`, privind sfios în p`mânt, ar trece neobservat` f`r` minaretul din calcar vechi, bronzat de soarele m`rii. |n compara]ie cu alte structuri similare pare robust; e îns` cel mai bine propor]ionat minaret din zon`. În materie de siluet`, excesele (vezi Rubens [i Modigliani) au fost rapid dezavuate. Cel de-al doilea minaret, ridicat în 2008 prin str`dania l`udabil` a Parlamentului României [i a unor sponsori priva]i, e tot un exces. În cerdacul geamiei, lâng` bazina[ul pentru abdest, sunt încastrate în zid dou` lespezi cu inscrip]ii în vechea limb` osmanl\, g`site sub temelia l`ca[ului. Un text din Coran îi îndeamn` pe credincio[i s` p`[easc` în geamie, pe calea credin]ei. Sala de rug`ciune e un bun exemplu al cerin]elor minimale de cult. Nimic altceva decât pere]i imacula]i [i lambriu proasp`t l`cuit. Pe tavan [i podea, tot lemn. Acoperit cu covoare pe care sunt desenate carpete de rug`ciune având în centru simbolul mihrabului, înconjurat de [apte chenare cu modele diferite. În curte sunt câteva monumente funerare de secol XVIII, recuperate din cimitirul ce acoperea cândva tot dealul din apropiere. Dup` apus, când luna ia locul soarelui, rolul minaretului e preluat de farul marin, care clipe[te prietenos marinarilor [i plimb`re]ilor nocturni. Cele mai multe geamii de sat, dac` nu toate, au fost cl`dite cu resursele [i mai ales cu osteneala enoria[ilor. La

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The earth's crust, vaguely wavy from worn out geologies, the precarious vegetation lacking in vital humidity, small villages dilating the distances on the vast open plain of the horizon, all of these naturally invite comparison to the Anatolian plateau. In this space devoid of spectacular landmarks, natural or built, here and there, the crest of a minaret pierces a heart-breakingly blue sky like a well-sharpened pencil. They are simple, unpretentious constructions that signal and provide the identity of the settlement. In perspective, they outline a culturally specific landscape, defined by a narrow area guarded on three sides by the Danube and the sea, open to all the waters of the world. Faded natural surroundings, thorny bushes, modest people, a reserved architecture – upon close investigation they reveal their remarkable qualities with simplicity and altruism. Rural mosques were built on public or private land. The latter is the case of the mosque in Tuzla, built on the land of a family in the village whose descendants, living in Istanbul, can still boast the donation of their ancestors. The name of the village Tuzla (meaning ‘salty’ in Turkish) given on account of the Tekirghiol Lake, throws its mantle over the former Byzantine settlement of Stratonis, which in turn covered Roman and Neolithic sites. The mosque dates back to 1870. Short, shyly looking down at the ground, it would pass unobserved were it not for the old limestone minaret, tanned by the sea sun. In comparison with other similar structures, it appears robust; it is, however, the best proportioned minaret in the area. In terms of silhouette, excesses (see Rubens and Modigliani) are usually and rapidly disavowed. The second minaret, erected in 2008 through the commendable efforts of the Romanian Parliament and private sponsors, is, however, excessive. The porch of the mosque, near the abdest (ablution) basin, two stone slabs found in the foundation of the building, inscribed in the old osmanl\ language are now encased in the wall. A text from the Coran invites believers to step inside the mosque by way of faith. The prayer room is a good example of the minimal requirements of worship. Nothing besides immaculate walls covered in freshly lacquered wooden panels. On the ceiling and floor, wood again. Covered in rugs on which prayer carpets are drawn with the symbol of the mihrab at the centre, surrounded by seven frames with different patterns. In the courtyard we find a few funeral monuments from the 18th century, recovered from the cemetery that used to cover the entire hill nearby. After sundown, when the moon takes the place of the sun, the role of the minaret is taken on by the lighthouse, cordially blinking at sailors or anyone out for a stroll in the moonlight. Most, if not all mosques in the village, were built with the resources and especially the hard work of the parishioners. In Techirghiol, a more recent construction dating back to 19341936 lists the names and contributions of everyone who took

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Techirghiol, construc]ie mai recent`, din anii 1934-1936, se mai [tiu numele [i contribu]ia fiec`ruia. La minaret, de pild`, a trudit hogea Nazif Geanakai, care a deprins pietr`ria în timpul deten]iei, condamnat fiind pentru asisten]a acordat` unor refugia]i t`tari din Basarabia. La înzestrarea geamiei, la repara]ii [i la împrejmuire au dat o mân` de ajutor [i locuitorii nemusulmani – ob[tea m`n`stirii Sf. Maria, meseria[i de la cooperativa din Agigea, [eful postului de mili]ie – o not` spontan` de stim` [i coeziune. A[ezarea e veche. Numele t`t`resc – Tekfür Gölu (Lacul V`rgat) – apare într-un firman trimis în 1560 de c`tre sultanul Soliman I lui Vod` L`pu[neanu. Dar [i aici legenda biruie asupra etimologiei. Povestea s`rmanului Tekir, b`trân, olog [i orb, [i a m`g`ru[ului sau la fel de neputincios, înzdr`veni]i subit de n`molul sapropelic e mult prea atr`g`toare. O sus]ine [i un episod confirmat de istorie: în 1854, Omer Pa[a, comandantul armatei otomane în r`zboiul Crimeei, face un popas la Techirghiol. „Alte]a sa nu mai e c`l`re]ul temerar care la începutul r`zboiului se f`cea remarcat prin elegan]a (…) [i dexteritatea cu care strunea cei mai frumo[i cai ai Turciei. Se spune c` grijile [i necazurile i-au albit barba [i i-au încovoiat trupul …” – a[a îl descrie gazetarul francez Eugène Jouve. Calit`]ile t`m`duitoare ale lacului nu se dezmint, iar mu[irul (grad militar echivalent unui mare[al) î[i va continua drumul vindecat de o afec]iune, probabil reumatic`, a bra]elor. La geamia f`r` minaret din F`urei (Kalaygi), zidit` [i cioplit` la anul 1854, te încânt` iremediabil c`ldura nativ` a materialelor – piatr` [i lemn – expuse ca atare, f`r` epiderma protectoare a tencuielii sau a vopsitoriei. Pridvorul, din care o parte a fost închis` cu zid pentru a se crea o înc`pere suplimentar`, este înalt pån` la strea[ina de dou` niveluri a geamiei [i evoc` amploarea pridvorului monumental de la geamia Esmahan Sultan din Mangalia. La rândul lor, stâlpii octogonali, ciopli]i din bard`, cu capiteluri [i baze schematizate, au asem`n`ri fire[ti cu arhitectura civil` de târg, cât` s-a mai p`strat, din ora[e valahe precum Câmpulung, Pite[ti sau chiar Bucure[ti, ca [i din sudul Dun`rii, m`rturisind aceea[i origine balcanic`. Cartierul Anadalchioi (adic` Satul Anatolienilor) a fost integrat în 1975 municipiului Constan]a sub denumirea alfanumeric` de Tomis 3. Împresurat` de betoane moderne, numai geamia ridicat` în 1870 perpetueaz` amintirea fostului sat de pescari. Înzestrat cu balcon de beton [i colivie metalic`, minaretul î[i p`streaz` demn silueta, menirea [i semnifica]ia simbolic`. Retras` în verdea]a gr`dinii, geamia

part in building it. For example, mullah Nazif Geanakai toiled on the minaret, having learnt stonemasonry while in jail serving a sentence for helping Tatar refugees from Besserabia. To equip the mosque, to repair it and fence it, the non-Muslim inhabitants lent a hand – the community of the St. Mary monastery, workers at the cooperative in Agigea, the chief of the Militia station – a spontaneous note of consideration and cohesion. The settlement is old. Its Tatar name, Tekfür Gölu (Tabby Lake) appears in a decree issued by Sultan Suleiman I to Vod` L`pu[neanu. Here too, though, legend prevails over etymology. The tale of poor Tekir, old, crippled and blind, and his likewise helpless donkey, both healed by the sapropelic mud, was simply too attractive. And it is backed up by history: in 1854, Omer Pasha, commander of the Ottoman army in Crimeea, made a stop in Techirghiol. "His highness was no longer the daring rider who stood out by the elegance (...) and deftness with which he steered Turkey's most beautiful steeds. It is said that worries and troubles whitened his beard and hunched his body..." – so French columnist Eugene Jouve describes him. The lake's healing powers did justice to their good name, and the Mushir (military rank equivalent to the marshal) continued on his road cured of what was most likely a rheumatic affliction in his arms. In F`urei (Kalaygi), the mosque built and carved in 1854 has no minarets, though it is still enchanting thanks to the warmth of its materials – stone and wood – exposed as such, without the protective derma of plaster or wall paint. The porch, of which part was closed off with a wall to create an additional chamber, reaches up the whole height of the two-level eave of the mosque and evokes the magnitude of the monumental porch in the Esmahan Sultan mosque in Mangalia. The octagonal pillars, carved with a hatchet, with sketched crowns and pedestals naturally resembling the civil architecture in the town, as far as it was preserved from Wallachian cities like Cåmpulung, Pite[ti or even Bucharest, as well as to the South of the Danube, confesses the same Balkan origin. The Anadalchioi neighbourhood (meaning Anatolian Village) was integrated into the town of Constan]a 1975 under the alpha-numeric name Tomis 3. Surrounded by modern concrete, the mosque erected in 1870 is the only thing preserving the memory of what was once an old fisherman's village. Equipped with a concrete balcony with a metallic birdcage, the minaret proudly bears its silhouette, purpose and symbolic significance. Hidden behind the green of the garden, the mosque seems to be one of those houses forgotten behind concrete apartment blocks. Seen from up-close, this seems to be a typical rural mosque, once imposing, with wide windows brightly lighting the slightly elevated main hall so as to make room for the wooden gallery of the women.

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pare una din casele vechi r`mase în dosul blocurilor. Privit` atent se arat` a fi o tipic` geamie de sat, impun`toare cândva, cu ferestre mari, care lumineaz` din plin sala u[or supraîn`l]at`, atât cât s` încap` în ea [i galeria de lemn rezervat` femeilor. Localitatea Cobadin, întemeiat` de coloni[ti adu[i din alte stepe ale imperiului otoman, [i-a p`strat numele originar, spre deosebire de altele, care dup` 1878 [i dup` 1948 au primit denumiri noi, conjuncturale sau chiar întåmpl`toare. Prosperul Cobadin avea în anii ‘30 patru geamii, vechi [i în paragin`. Au c`zut în timp, abandonate, dup` ce s-a ridicat actualul l`ca[, în 1934. Se remarc` prin exuberan]a cromatic`, tipic oriental`, a faian]ei ce împodobe[te peretele sudic, cu cele trei elemente de cult: kürsür-ul, mihrabul [i mimberul. Este una cele mai recente geamii prezentate în acest album, ca o verig` de leg`tur` cu cele ce le-au urmat, în trecutul recent (una chiar în Cobadin, în 1963) [i mai ales în ultimul deceniu. Alte geamii de sat, interesante prin aspectele surprinse în imagini, dar care au în primul rând o valoare de grup, sunt enumerate astfel: Abrud, 1914; Albe[ti (Akba[ – Cap Alb), 1865; Brebeni, 1871; Castelu (Borlak), 1870; Ciocârlia (Büyük Bülbül – Privighetoarea Mare), 1879; Ciocârlia de Sus (Küçük Bülbül – Privighetoarea Mic`), 1872; Ciucurova (Çukurova – Valea Adanca), 1922; Cotu V`ii (Kiragi – Arenda[ul), 1880; Dulce[ti (Küçük Tatligea; Tatlageac – dulce), 1891; Gr`dina, 1860; Hagieni (Hagilar), 1856; Movili]a (Musurat), 1870; Nisipari (Caratai), 1860; Poarta Alb`, 1877; Valu lui Traian (Hasancea), 1905. Geamii, minarete, fântâni, monumente funerare – sunt documente mai trainice [i mai evidente decât cele din biblioteci [i arhive, privitoare la via]a celor care le-au construit, a celor ce le îngrijesc [i le frecventeaz`. A le parcurge [i a le descifra este o aventur` pl`cut`, pasionant` [i – credem cu t`rie – necesar`.

The commune of Cobadin, founded by colonists from other steppes of the Ottoman empire, retained its original name, unlike other settlements that after 1878 and then again after 1948 were given new, sometimes conjectural sometimes even random names. During the '30s, the prosperous Cobadin had four mosques, old and derelict. Today they are crumbled to the ground, abandoned after the building of the current house of worship, in 1934. One may remark upon the typically Oriental chromatic exuberance of the tiles covering the southern wall, bearing the three worship elements: the kürsür, the mihrab and the mimber. This is one of the most recent mosques covered in this album, a link to the ones that followed in the more recent past (including another one in Cobadin in 1963) and then especially during the last decade. Other village mosques, though individually interesting when caught on image, hold rather a group value, and we enumerate them thus: Abrud, 1914; Albe[ti (Akba[ – White Head), 1865; Brebeni, 1871; Castelu (Borlak), 1870; Ciocârlia (Büyük Bülbül – Big Nightingale), 1879; Ciocârlia de Sus (Küçük Bülbül – Small Nightingale), 1872; Ciucurova (Çukurova – Deep Valley), 1922; Cotu V`ii (Kiragi – Tenant), 1880; Dulce[ti (Küçük Tatligea; Tatlageac – sweet), 1891; Gr`dina, 1860; Hagieni (Hagilar), 1856; Movili]a (Musurat), 1870; Nisipari (Caratai), 1860; Poarta Alb`, 1877; Valu lui Traian (Hasancea), 1905. Mosques, minarets, fountains, funeral monuments – these are more obvious and durable documents concerning the lives of their builders, care-takers and worshipers than the papers and scrolls that collect dust in libraries and archives. To 'browse' through them and decipher them is a pleasant, even thrilling endeavour that we – strongly – believe is necessary.

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155 GEAMIA ANADALCHIOI. CONSTAN}A


MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

156 GEAMIA DIN F~UREI


MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

157 GEAMIA DIN F~UREI


MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

164 GEAMIA DIN COBADIN


MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

165 GEAMIA DIN COBADIN


MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

186 GEAMIA DIN ALBE{TI


MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

187 GEAMIA DIN ALBE{TI


MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

192 CIMITIR DIN CIOCÅRLIA DE SUS


MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

193 CIMITIR DIN VADU


MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

BIBLIOGRAFIE BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ioan Adam, Constan]a pitoreasc` cu împrejurimile ei, Bucure[ti, 1908. Andrei Aricescu, Noi date despre cetatea de la Hâr[ova, în Pontica, IV, pp. 351-370, Constan]a, 1971. Cintian B`rbuleanu, Monografia ora[ului Babadag, Bucure[ti, 1998 M. Boca, Dobrogea veche în stampe [i gravuri (1826-1882), în Pontica, I, pp. 455-507, Constan]a, 1968. Stelian Brezeanu, O istorie a Imperiului Bizantin, Bucure[ti, 1981. Marin Ionescu-Dobrogianu, Dobrogia \n pragul veacului al XX-lea, Bucure[ti, 1904. Petre Diaconu, Date noi privind „Valul mare de p`månt” din Dobrogea, în Peuce, IV, pp.199-209, Tulcea, 1975. Neagu Djuvara, Între Orient [i Occident. }`rile române la începutul epocii moderne, Bucure[ti,1995. Radu Florescu, Ghidul arheologic al Dobrogei, Bucure[ti, 1968. Constantin G`venea, Amintiri [i imagini din Tulcea de odinioar`, Bucure[ti, 1983. Tasin Gemil, Românii [i Otomanii în secolele XIV-XVI, Constan]a 2008; Mihail Guboglu [i Mustafa Mehmet, Cronici turce[ti privind }`rile Române, Bucure[ti, 1966. Inalcik Halil, Imperiul otoman. Epoca clasic`, Bucure[ti, 1996. Adrian-Silvan Ionescu, Cruce [i Semilun`. R`zboiul ruso-turc din 1853-1854 în chipuri [i imagini, Bucure[ti, 2001. Ion Ionescu de la Brad, Excursion agricole dans la plaine de la Dobroudja, în Journal de Constantinopole, 1850. Nicolae Ionescu-Johnson, Însemn`rile unui marinar, Gala]i, 1958, Nicolae Iorga, Istoria bisericii române[ti [i a vie]ii religioase a Românilor, Bucure[ti, 1928. Ioan Mu[at, Istoricul ora[ului Cernavoda, Bucure[ti, 1938. Niculescu Varone, Monografiile ora[elor [i m`n`stirilor,1885-1938, Bucure[ti, 1939. Doina P`uleanu, Virgil Coman, Moscheea Regal` „Carol I” Constan]a 1910-2010, Constan]a, 2010. Adrian R`dulescu, Ion Bitoleanu, Istoria românilor dintre Dun`re [i Mare – Dobrogea, Bucure[ti, 1979. N. C. Munteanu-Sculeni, M`cinul [i \mprejurimile sale, Br`ila, 1930. Gavril` Simion, Ge]ii de la Dun`rea de Jos [i civiliza]ia lor, în Culturi antice în zona gurilor Dun`rii, Cluj-Napoca, 2003. Vasile Pârvan, Începuturile vie]ii romane la gurile Dun`rii, Bucure[ti, 1923. Laz`r {eineanu, Elemente turce[ti în limba român`. Influen]a oriental`, în Revista pentru istorie, arheologie [i filologie, Bucure[ti, 1885 Vasile Stavru Teodorof, Puntea dintre z`ri – Cernavoda dragostea mea, Constan]a, 1996.

www.patrimoniu.ro, www.inmi.ro, cimec.ro, www.monumenteromania.ro, antropolog.ro, culte.ro, muftiyat.ro, constanta.djc.ro, mangalia.ro, cernavoda.wordpress.com, noviodunum.ro, www.tulcea.djc.ro, primariatulcea.ro, deltadunarii.info.ro, info-delta.ro, graiuldobrogei.ro, mistereledunarii.wordpress.com, www.dezvaluiri.ro, haihui-prin-dobrogea.blogspot.com, tatar-tatarman.blogspot.ro, japanontop.com, numericana.com, wordpress.com, wikipedia.org

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MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

COLOFON COLOPHON

Geamii. Minarete pe cerul Dobrogei Mosques. Minarets in a Dobrogea sky este al optulea album din colec]ia igloopatrimoniu. is the eighth album in the iglooheritage series. board editorial / editorial board Bruno Andre[oiu, Adrian Cioc`zanu coordonator proiect / project coordinator Bruno Andre[oiu foto / photo {erban Bonciocat texte / texts Cristian Br`c`cescu, Mihai Maxim grafic` / graphic design C`t`lin Artenie prelucrare foto / image editing {erban Bonciocat, Robert Dumitru, Cristian David editare text / text editing Andreea Amzoiu traducere / translation Smaranda Nicolau, Andrea Nastac tiraj / copies 2000, h창rtie / paper 150 g/mp tip`rit la / printed by Masterprint, editura / edited by igloomedia, noiembrie 2012

MUL}UMIRI

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS Muftiatul Cultului Musulman din Rom창nia, Muftiu Iusuf Muurat, Institutul Na]ional al Patrimoniului, domnilor [i doamnelor: Teodor B`nic`, Usein Evren, Mustafa Gefer, Elmi Gemal, Halil Ismet, Josef Kovacs, Sanda Lazur, Omer Memnune, Osman Negeat, Meni[a Orhan, Talip Revan, Veli Revan, Ibram Salim, Omer Sebat, Memet Sebatin, Iuliu {erban, Dinci Hasan, Aynur Abduraman, Petra Vlad, Negoat Sali, Redin Abduraman.

199 COLOFON


9:26 AM

Page 1

Dac` [tii s`-l cau]i, departele poate fi mai aproape decåt crezi. Nu-i nevoie s` parcurgi jum`tate din circumferin]a terestr` ca s` descoperi oameni, credin]e [i – întrucât subiectul ne preocup` – cl`diri aparte, cu alt` fire [i alc`tuire decât cele ce credem c` unanim ne înconjoar`. Saltul peste meridiane, de care suntem scuti]i, l-au f`cut cu veacuri în urm`, în momente diverse, cu n`zuin]e diverse, coloni[ti de felurite neamuri, avånd ca numitor comun legea islamului. Dup` trecerea multor genera]ii [i administra]ii, au devenit cu des`vår[ire ai locului, pe care, dup` vorba din b`trâni, l-au sfin]it. Printre altele [i cu un grup de monumente cu totul aparte: geamiile dobrogene.

If you know where to look, far, far away can be much nearer than you might think. You needn't look half a world away to discover people, beliefs and – since we're interested in the subject – unique buildings, different in both make and character from what we unanimously assume constitutes our surroundings. We no longer need to leap over meridians because the leap was in fact perpetrated centuries ago, at various moments in time, with diverse goals in mind, by colonists of different ethnicities, all linked by the common denominator that is the law of Islam. Many generations and administrations later, they were completely integrated in their new environment. They were now the people who, as an old saying goes, sanctified the place with their presence, but also with a very special group of monuments: Dobrogean mosques. Cristian Br`c`cescu

MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

11/19/12

MINARETE PE CERUL DOBROGEI

MINARETS IN A DOBROGEA SKY

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Geamii. Minarete pe cerul Dobrogei  

Albumul igloo patrimoniu „Geamii. Minarete pe cerul Dobrogei” abordează o zonă a patrimoniului autohton mult prea puţin cercetată şi promova...

Geamii. Minarete pe cerul Dobrogei  

Albumul igloo patrimoniu „Geamii. Minarete pe cerul Dobrogei” abordează o zonă a patrimoniului autohton mult prea puţin cercetată şi promova...

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