ND; Architectural Technology
MIP ACADEMIC PAPER Prepared By: Igeshen Govender Student Number: 207155381
Lecturer: Mrs H. Voulgarelish, Mrs J. Morkel Subject: CTD & STW
17 October 2011
I hereby declare that this assignment is the original work of the author. All information directly or indirectly quoted from other sources has been fully acknowledged.
Signed: Dated: 17 October 2011
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ITEM 1 2 3
Introduction Methods of Investigation Findings
PAGE 4 5
• International Academic Design-Build Project
• Green Schools
• Multi-Grade/Small Rural Schools
• Process followed at St. Michaels Primary School Conclusion Bibliography
INTRODUCTION The Second year Architectural students were given a project which was compiled by Mrs H.Voulgarelish and Mrs J. Morkel to which has to be submitted on different hand in dates
for the various aspects. The project that was issued to us students was to find, analyse and compile an Academic paper on: •
At least one international academic design-build project
At least three successful green schools
At least three successful multi-grade or small rural schools
And the process followed at St. Michaels Primary School
The purpose of this project will allow for us students to broaden our constructional knowledge by gaining a better understanding and by familiarizing ourselves with the: background/history of the various schools, organisational aspects within the building, a good understanding of sustainability, different construction processes/methods and to identify unforeseen problems, students perceptions, teaching methodologies and pedagogic rationale which will help us during our constructional phase upgrade at the St. Michaels Primary School in Grabouw. This Academic paper will not only include my observations gathered from the precedent studies but also the constructional issues within the design-build project.
METHODS OF INVESTIGATION The following methods were used for the gathering of information:
Precedent Study and Literature
Precedent Study and Literature –Information was obtained from precedent studies from the selection of particular schools of my choice whilst adhering to the requirements on the brief. Class notes and architectural dictionaries were used for constructional terms. Photographs/Pictures – From the selection of schools that I chose and analysed I did consider paying attention to the pictures, as we all say that a picture can say more than a thousand words! Referring to them helped me in analyzing the various aspects within the different schools.
FINDINGS 1. INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC DESIGN-BUILD PROJECT
1.1 OUTDOOR CLASSROOMS AT CAMPELL HALL, VIRGINIA: BACKGROUND Campbell Hall functions as a School of Architecture facility. The two upper floors provide for a studio space and faculty offices whilst the second floor contains the majority of administrative offices, a review space including the latest East Addition providing for three distinctive floors to a digital visualization lab. The third floor is occupied by lecture halls, wood shop, the A & A supply store, a Fine Arts CafĂŠ, departmental assistants and classrooms. The building was officially completed in 1970 and named after Mr Edmund S. Campbell who was a director of the McIntire Departments of Art from 1972 to 1950. During this historical time the architecture program was part of the department of art. Later on in 2008 the school completed three formal additions to the building namely to the south and east whilst the landscape connected them which completed the building. Amazingly is that the additions were designed by their own faculty in collaboration with the SMBW Architects of Richmond, Virginia. Which now brings us to the background of the Outdoor Classrooms project; in 1999 the Dean of the faculty gathered the team that produced a feasibility study for creating additions to the Campbell Hall which were designed by members of the schools faculty. Since then several distinct projects have been obtained by faculty members, students, colleagues and the architect of SMBW Architects.
An outdoor classroom space designed and built by Professor of Architecture, Mr Peter Waldman accompanied with the help of his students and fellow faculty members/colleagues was the most recent addition to be constructed to date in August 2004.
ORGANISATIONAL ASPECTS The outdoor classrooms officially known as “The Eric Goodwin Passage” is located adjacent to the North terrace whilst aligned on one side with an interior corridor of Campbell Hall and on the other with an tree memorializing Carlo Pelliccia who was an admired professor at the school. Mr Eric Goodwin, a former member of the Class of 2002 passed away during his final year of study at the school of architecture. During the course of the year his classmates established the Eric Goodwin Memorial Fund to support Design/Build projects designed by the faculty and to be installed at Campbell Hall. The successful completion of The Eric Goodwin Passage was made possible by grants/funding from Allied Concrete, the W.l. Lysons Brown Jr Charitable Foundation and the Eric Goodwin Memorial Fund at the School of Architecture. STUDENT PERCEPTIONS AND PARTICIPATION The students from Professors Waldman’s studio were exceptionally amazing with their participation and input throughout the various options for the design. Final designs were released in early June and began construction by Professor Waldman and the assistance of volunteers and students. The students went through a hard time preparing presentations and documents to the governing bodies of the university in order to obtain a secure permission to build. Students researched on solar and lunar phases to assist on the location/siting of the project. Most importantly students kept a good record of documentation of every step of the design development and construction process.
THE PEADAGOGIC RATIONALE Regarding “The Eric Goodwin Passage” to the Pedagogic Rationale, research shows that individual project-based learning units promote excitement and deep learning of the targeted concepts such as the current one. However, in achieving deep, flexible, transferable learning of cross disciplinary content and constructional/science practice, it requires a learning environment that consistently, persistently and pervasively encourages both educators and students the use of such content and practices over an extended period of time. By means of developing a project based project such as the present, we provide an extended exposure to other building companies and educational institutions which in aid allows them in obtaining different ideas in creating and developing future based projects and sustaining the environment with the use of natural materials THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION The North facing terrace is a study in opposing and symbiotic themes. Professor Waldman accompanied by his students incorporated two walls with circular openings on either side of a slender passage. The larger wall to the east appears dark grey in colour and stands at an 83-degree angle whilst the smaller wall to the west, has a yellowish tone and stand vertically at 90-degrees. In part, the larger grey wall is positioned at an angle to recall the tilt concrete method by which the walls were filled, left to set and later raised above the ground. Each wall defines a space and functions for different activities. The “rooms” are located outdoors but provide a semi sheltered environment
adhering to the interior spaces. The east side is sheltered from the afternoon sun by the larger wall and vine scrim roof which provides for a public space completed with a seminar table for presentations, group discussions and social gatherings. During their afternoon studio sessions, the wall can function as a pin-up space for their drawings and notes. The west side is more private, secluded and a contemplative space containing a bench for seating and a similar surface area for more intimate conversations and solitary reflection. Both walls are supported by a series of mild steel pipes forming a trellis which also serves as a frame for landscaping such as the ivy and wisteria plants. Between the walls, the narrow passage floor is covered with a layer of oyster shells creating a distinct texture recalling Mr Eric Goodwin’s love of the beach. Prof. Waldman noticed that the projects intention “is very similar to what the ancients did at Stonehenge. We are reinforcing the connection with the sun. The very first lesson of architecture is to locate yourself in respect to the passage of the sun and moon.” The large circular openings in each wall create fascinating shadows and concentrated beams of sunlight at different points throughout the day. The structure is aligned with true north, thus giving a point of departure for studies of light and shadow. The professor however that over time students will install brass plaques which would indicate the equinox and other astronomical phenomena. SUCCESSFULNESS OF THE PROJECT From my personal point of view I strongly think that The Eric Goodwin Passage was an excellent and successful project. The project was appropriate to launch the construction of the building addition since it’s a unique example of the intersections
between architecture and landscaping architecture which are being explored in the new department of Architecture and Landscape Architecture within the school. What I really admired was their own faculty members all contributed to the overall design and to which it was all in aid and dedicated to the late Mr Eric Goodwin 2. GREEN SCHOOLS 2.1 SOMERSET COLLEGE & PREPARATORY SCHOOL: BACKGROUND Somerset College functions both as a college and school and was registered for the EcoSchools Programme at the beginning of 2008. In doing so, the school then joined a vast community of thousands of schools around the world who are also concerned in the well being of the environment to pro-actively care for it. The Eco-Schools Programme was official launched in 2003 in South Africa, supported by the WWF-SA and the Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA) which is endorsed by the Department of Education and funded by Nampak. Currently there are approximately 1000 schools registered with the program including the Somerset College Preparatory School. The Green/Eco-School international programme forms part of the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) which was originally started in Europe during 1994. Approximately 6000 schools have earned green Eco-School flags in more than 47 countries around the world with over 21 000 schools that are registered with the programme. The South African initiative differed tremendously from the programmes that operate in Europe in a way that it has been re-orientated in focusing more on strengthening the national curriculum and supporting its implementation which in aid supports the educators.
DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING The building is set on a 32 hector plot against the backdrop of the breathtaking Helderberg and Stellenbosch mountain ranges, close to Somerset West and occupies a Pre-primary, Preparatory and Senior School.
In the pictures, itâ€™s bold, unique and stands out within its open air landscape thus blended well within the context of the vineyards and mountain. The theme of the buildings are all crisp white walls with grey corrugated roof sheeting tucked along two parapets. All very symmetrical referring to the windows and doors especially the dominant window feature at the entrance of the Church. From a distance one would not say itâ€™s a place of education because of its unique design of the building and its location between the vineyards.
WHY THE SCHOOL IS DESCRIBED AS SUSTAINABLE AND/OR GREEN It is described as a sustainable and green school since environmental issues are integrated with their curriculum and pupils equipped with the information and skills that they require to become environmentally responsible citizens of the future.
The schools practices what it preaches to an extent to which it has an active recycling programme in place as well as having a board of members who are committed to care about the energy and water they consume, the waste they produce, the food they serve, the traffic that gets attracted and the challenges and opportunities for people living in this local community. Thus it is part of the schools and campus strategic planning in becoming more and more sustainable to such an extent where they installed energy saving devices and using grey water to which it has been awarded the Green Eco Flag, reflecting the commitment of the entire school community towards the environment.
HOW SUSTANABILITY WAS ACHIEVED The school obtained its sustainability/Green Eco Flag by its positive view and commitment in continuously improving their environmental performance by having an active recycling programme as well as an energy saving system and the usage of grey water. Both teachers and learners are committed towards an ongoing process of developing lesson plans and learner-centred activities that were aligned with the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). This then led the school to choosing three focus
areas and developed plans and school improvement plans keeping record of their progression in portfolios. These portfolios were then assed at the end of every year of 2008 and then gained their Eco-School status and to which awarded with their green flag. The school how ever keeps their flag and status for a year, after which another portfolio has to be re-submitted and assessed. COULD THIS PROCESS/METHOD BE APPROPRIATE FOR SCHOOLS IN S.A Regarding their actively recycling programme I strongly think that this method would be or better yet should be implemented in all schools throughout South Africa. Where as not only the teachers but the learners will be doing their part in creating a better environment, since it never to late to start making a change resulting in you feeling a much greater person in doing your bit. At present I do know a few schools in South Africa such as Mondeor Eco School, Newberry House Montessori School and the Macassar High School which has this recycling system on their school property where one could recycle plastic bottles, glass and paper, so I do urge schools that are not recycling do so by contributing in recycling these types of materials resulting a lower cost of re-producing theses material from scratch. 2.2 ST MARYâ€™S DIOCESAN SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, KLOOF: BACKGROUND St Maryâ€™s Diocesan School for Girls belonging to the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE)
is located in Kloof, KwaZulu Natal which is a prestigious private school with exceptional facilities, offering a wide range of choices in the academic fields, sporting to cultural spheres to students from Grade R to Grade 12. The school offers a balance in many facets such as – the mind and body, the temporal and spiritual; between discipline and freedom; tolerance and understanding; between tradition and innovation; leadership and service and even climate. St Mary’s has a strong environmental ethic for over 20 years where as environmental principles underpin the formal curriculum and the overall management within the school as well as extensive indigenous gardens that surround and contribute to the biodiversity. DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING The school is situated in over 9 hectares of beautiful lush green grounds, 660 metres above sea level overlooking Durban and the Indian Ocean, 24 kilometres away. The buildings however are very outstanding amongst the greenery, bold, steep pitched roofs, and double volume spaces throughout the school which almost has this “Amazon Resort” feeling with all the shaded areas. WHY THE SCHOOL IS DESCRIBED AS SUSTAINABLE AND/OR GREEN There were many factors considered that described St Mary’s as an Eco School such as: •
The school has wonderful gardens containing many indigenous plants which attract butterflies and moths which need certain plants as host plants for their caterpillars. Many of the host plants are trees in the school vicinity. These leaves are most important because
the caterpillars (larvae stage) eat the leaves to develop into adult butterflies which then drink nectar from flowers. •
Succulent gardens can also be found around the school containing plants such as Aloes and Bulbines which contain fleshy leaves that store water leaving them well adapted to the humid climate.
Indigenous trees all contain labels such as Cape Chestnut (Calodendron capensis), Yellow Wood (Podocarpus henkelli), and Umdoni (Sygium cordatum) etc and used for teaching which is located outside the Life Sciences laboratories.
The school also grows their own vegetables in a Hydroponics garden which was started in 2009 and continued throughout 2010 and developed by one of their educators, Mr Bill Clark.
Also is a special garden providing food for the free-roaming Vervet monkeys.
Vervet Monkeys surely became a huge problem around the school property to an extent where two educators came up with an idea and created a “monkey garden” on the perimeter next to the Art block to lure the monkeys away. Fruit trees and shrubs occupy the garden providing the monkeys with food, a water trough had also been placed under the trees since it was a common problem that they come to the school grounds to find water. Each year, girls in Grade 8, 9 and 10 spend one week on “Environmentalism” which is a carefully planned programme that introduces students to their surrounding environments; from the CBD to the lush green valleys and bushes; from impoverished communities to the seats of power. In addition, there are many subject
particulars and cultural outings, as well as holiday visits both within the South Africa and Internationally. These are just a handful of some of their sustainable factors to which awarded them with their “Green Flag Status” as well as their motivation, dedication and commitment from both their students and educators HOW SUSTANABILITY WAS ACHIEVED In 2008 St Mary’s achieved a silver medal for their Eco school programmes although they aim was to achieve a gold medal status in 2009. Ms Bridget Ringdahl from the Wildlife and Environment Society (WESSA) assessed the schools portfolio as an Eco School and personally came to congratulate the girls and presented St Mary’s Diocesan School for Girls, Kloof with the much sought “Green Flag Status.” Been granted their “Green Flag Status” St Mary’s had showed a range of work done in the following five themes: •
Global and local issues
Nature and biodiversity
Community and heritage
COULD THIS PROCESS/METHOD BE APPROPRIATE FOR SCHOOLS IN S.A I surely think that having gardens within a school is an appropriate way of cutting down costs 16
within the school. It also helps students reconnect with the natural world, learn how life works, and pick up valuable food production skills. It would also be better if schools install green house, to extend the schools growing season. Schools should reclaim by replanting trees in the portions of the fields that arenâ€™t used for sports (with permaculture, by planting fruit trees and bushes to which native species should be used.) such as the pictures alongside which is the Hydroponics garden at St Maryâ€™s. So I strongly think that all schools within the South Africa become aware of the factors affecting g the environment and start developing vegetable gardens.
2.3 GORDON ROADS GIRLS SCHOOL (GRGS), KWA-ZULU NATAL: BACKGROUND
Gordon Road Girls School (GRGS) was established in 1912 and specializes in the education of girls between the age of 3-13 years old from various religious, cultural and economic backgrounds.
GRGS embraces and understands the importance of community service and are involved in various projects together with the SPCA; Feed the Babies Fund and the Collection of gifts over the festive seasons to name a few. The school also has a twin school in Umlazi, Durban which is called Vumokuhle Primary to which they assisted in setting up the Grade R Class by donating stationary, toys, library books, clothing and school furniture just to get the school started. The staff from Vumkuhle Primary is often invited to attend various workshops as guests at GRGS focusing on three main aspects, namely Emotional Intelligence, Discipline and Whole Brain Leaving. Networking between the two schools had taken place for the past 8 years to which they have shown a keen interest in the solar panels that has been installed at GRGS.
DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING The school buildings are very geometric, block like forms that are located between a suburban area. Nestled between the tall tress are the bold outstanding snow white walls, its monopitched roof extended covering external corridors also providing for an Sport club house located next to a tennis court and swimming pool. WHY THE SCHOOL IS DESCRIBED AS SUSTAINABLE AND/OR GREEN
Gordon Road Girls School are highly passionate about the use of alternative energy in our beautiful sunny South African climate. They are currently hugely successful with their recycling projects and various other Eco-programs. The school also takes part in Science Expo’s held by the KwaZulu Natal Ethekwini Council at the Botanical Gardens where they have had their very own “Energy Detectives” showcase their work at the Mercury’s Grideye Energy Save Competition which they had won to which the prize money was invested in building a small Solar Powered Panel for the school. HOW SUSTANABILITY WAS ACHIEVED Achieved by their dedication and commitment from both the students and educators, through their hard work of voluntary work to taking part in Science Expo’s and using their winning’s in investing in solar panels, which set a great example towards the community since it would eventually become energy self-sufficient in a way that the students will familiarize themselves with renewable energy technologies for the future. By this the school is proud of being a Green School and were amazingly thrilled when they were awarded a “Green Flag” by the Wildlife and Environment Society (WESSA) as well as an Eco School Certificate. COULD THIS PROCESS/METHOD BE APPROPRIATE FOR SCHOOLS IN S.A It’s highly recommended and appropriate for much needed schools in South Africa to install Solar panels which would reduce their daily energy consumption. Even a wind turbine would be as useful as Solar Panels which do not have to be a full scale but more like a demonstration project for the students. To add to this energy matter would be to install motion detectors in the classrooms to make the lights go out/turn off when there’s nobody in the room which will also save and
reduce the schools usage to an extent where even energy efficient heating could complement this energy conservation measures. 3. MULTIGRADE/SMALL RURAL SCHOOLS 3.1 PANGINDLELA JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, MQANDULI: BACKGROUND Following three years of research into the state of education at poor rural schools such as Pangindlela Junior Secondary School in South Africa, The Nelson Mandela Institute introduced the “Magic Classrooms” project in 2008 to address such problems that had been identified. Research conducted by the Institute revealed a pattern of a under achievement amongst the students in these rural schools whereas one of the main contributing factors was that classrooms were ill-equipped to provide a suitable learning environment. After three years of applied research and training in rural schools, the first pilot Magic Classroom was launched in the Pangindlela Junior Secondary School, on the occasion of Nelson Mandela’s 90th birthday on 18 July 2008. Presently there are more than 70 vibrant and colourful Magic Classrooms within our South African boarders, Qunu, Mqanduli and Bizana, all located in the Eastern Cape Province ranging from Grade R to Grade 3. TEACHING METHODOLOGY & THE CONTRIBUTION OF ARCHITECTURE
Unlike multi-grade classrooms, Pangindlelala Junior Secondary is classified as a rural school whereas one teacher/educator teaches a single grade and not two grades in a single classroom simultaneously. The way architecture contributed to the teaching methodology has had a tremendous impact on their learners in a way that the Magic Classrooms are more organised, spacious, vibrant and colourful and creates an environment that makes learning and teaching fun in aid allows for the learners to excel in their school work. WHY THE SCHOOL IS DESCRIBED AS SUCCESSFUL Being under the Nelson Mandela Institute and being the first school that was launched with the Magic Classrooms, the objectives were to: •
Encourage Xhosa based bilingualism
Encourage interaction in the classroom on all levels
Making it easier for teachers to differentiate between individuals and group needs
Creating both productive and playful spaces enhancing the foundation phase
Through Magic Classrooms, classrooms were re-designed to suit various learning requirements and to allow for reading and other such activities to take place more effectively. Learners are provided with a space to store their personal belongings, which was aimed for them to encourage their responsibility. One can clearly see that with the aid of these Magic Classrooms that was constructed, it clearly had a positive impact on the school, the teachers and the learners in a way that it brightened the whole learning environment with its organised teaching methods and spaces.
WHAT ALTERNATIVES THERE ARE FOR THE CLASSROOM SITUATION There are a range of alternatives that can be altered and added within the classrooms depending on the overall dimensions of the space. By the use of clever methods one can use a single classroom and create divisions providing for a reading/art corner whilst incorporating clever method for seating. Children enjoy exploring objects, by climbing onto, opening, pulling etc, by creating academic and playful spaces it creates a more enthusiastic learner where he/she will be more attentive in learning in such a bright environment.
3.2 IPETLENG SECONDARY SCHOOL, FREE STATE: BACKGROUND Ipetleng rural Secondary School located in the Free State, South Africa has become the latest addition to a community of 24 schools in Africa linked to world class learning as part of the New Partnership of Africaâ€™s Development (NEPAD) e-Schools initiative. The NEPAD e-Schools initiative is a public private initiative involved in the transformation of all rural African secondary schools over the period of the next ten years through the provision of ICT hardware, software, digital content and teacher development programmes. TEACHING METHODOLOGY & THE CONTRIBUTION OF ARCHITECTURE
The school thatâ€™s part of the NEPAD project is equipped with a computer laboratory containing at least 20personal computers, a server and network infrastructure, as well as peripherals such as scanners, printers and whiteboards. By the usage of these computers, this project is aimed to create critical mass of African youngsters with the information and communication technology skills that are crucial in the business world these days. Itâ€™s more than providing the students with computers in a way that the teachers would be re-skilled in this new method of teaching so that their skills can filter down to the learners. The contribution of architecture through this project is that laboratories were specially built in housing the latest form of technology were one could see what this space functioned as with a bright academic environment.
WHY THE SCHOOL IS DESCRIBED AS SUCCESSFUL Forming part of the NEPAD institution and according to the programme manager of the Oracle Consortium, Ipetlang Secondary School were already benefiting from the systems, and are using the software tools in adding more value to their learning experiences at school. They are delighted that the school is using the system not only for accessing learning material such as virtual laboratories, subject tutors and television programmes but are managing the learning delivery process more effectively. WHAT ALTERNATIVES THERE ARE FOR THE CLASSROOM SITUATION
I think that schools should have computer laboratories for academic learning since the availability of photocopiers, printers and a software build database which monitors student progression and administration where as schools will begin to integrate the learning environment with the learner and curriculum management. 3.3 CHRIS HANI SECONDARY SCHOOL, WESTERN PROVINCE: BACKGROUND Chris Hani Secondary School known and functions as a rural facility to which its location is on the outskirts of Cape Town, in the township known as Khayelitsha. The school approximately accommodated for 1 676 students which was obtained during the year of 2006 and had a staff of 52 educators to which I strongly believe that the numbers have grown tremendously to this present day.
TEACHING METHODOLOGY & THE CONTRIBUTION OF ARCHITECTURE The teaching method of Chris Hani Secondary functions as any normal urbanized secondary school, in a way where as it is not categorized as a multi-grade school, but to which educators respectively have their own individual classrooms where they are responsible for educating one class of students but differentiating in the subjects within that grade. The way the architecture contributed to Chris Hani Secondary School is that it was built to accommodate a large amount of pupils, resulting in comfortable teaching spaces (classrooms), to a spacious library and multi-purpose hall as well as a sports field. So I strongly agree that the school was planned and designed well according to the special and functional requirements of the building.
WHY THE SCHOOL IS DESCRIBED AS SUCCESSFUL Although the school is described and known as a rural school because of it location and type of students, one would not say that the school would be successful but as seeing the increase of students and educators the school has amazingly grown and continues to grow gradually with the high marks achieved by their students, they continue to work hard and be committed to making their educators proud resulting in providing the school with a good name. WHAT ALTERNATIVES THERE ARE FOR THE CLASSROOM SITUATION Presently the classrooms are designed cleverly to accommodate for a large amount of pupils although the amount of pupils tend to increase each and every year, time to come there would be a problem regarding special issues but it would be a great intervention if one could create outdoor learning spaces within the school property whereas students can familiarise themselves academically with the environment. 4. ST MICHAELS PRIMARY SCHOOL 4.1 ST MICHAELS PRIMARY SCHOOL, OUDE BRUG, ELGIN: BACKGROUND To be continued… DESIGN-BUILD PROCESS To be continued… THE CONTRIBUTION THAT THIS INTERVENTION WILL HAVE
To be continuedâ€Ś
CONCLUSION My conclusion that was obtained within this Academic Paper is firstly that this investigation of analyzing the different schools broadened my knowledge in a number of various aspects of how these schools operate differently whilst compared to one another which would help us students individually with ideas of constructing a structure at the St. Michaels Primary Schools in October. Secondly analyzing the schools not only helped in obtaining ideas in upgrading the St. Michaels project but also for our general knowledge I obtained a better and clear understanding on Green Schools and how one could improve/upgrade their schools in making it a Green sustainable school.
In the end I’ve really gained some valuable information from this Academic Paper and to which I enjoyed working and spending time on.
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