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The Sustainable Waterfront:: By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Sustainability or resilience


Project Brief The project breif is to investigate how could Auckland develop a sustainable port. This document is part of a two phase approach capturing the investigations into the site and issues.

One of the most commonly used and widely adopted definitions of sustainable development is “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” This widely accepted standard definition was coined by the U.N. World Commission on Environment and Development, in the Brundtland Report (1983-1987).

Our present way of living is not sustainable as we are depleting the Earth’s natural resources and physical systems so they may be irreversibly damaged. For some time now sustainability has been a catchphrase used by scientists, environmental activists, and those with an interest in the workings of the complex ecosystems on earth. It shapes debates about business, design, and our lifestyles.

Fundamentally, sustainability is about the relationship between people and planet; we are inextricably part of this planet; our societies and our economies depend upon healthy biological and physical systems. As a concept, ‘sustainability’ refers to states or processes that can be maintained indefinitely. Sustainable development refers to a balance between economic, social and environmental concerns.

Sustainability is a worthy goal; living within our means, whether economic, ecological, or political; but it is an inherently static position. It presumes that with the right combination of behaviour and technology we can maintain things as they are now, and that once we find a measure of stability, we have to stay there. A new paradigm that is based around adaptation to changing conditions, termed resilience, is developing. As we look ahead, we need to strive for an environment, and a civilization, able to handle unexpected changes without threatening to collapse. Such a world would be more than simply sustainable; it would be regenerative and diverse, relying on the capacity not only to absorb shocks like the popped housing bubble or rising sea levels, but to evolve with them.

The second part is the design phase into particular areas to create a sustainable port. The direction of the initial research areas and deisng ideas are captured at the end of this report.

What is the next phase in the development of the Auckland Waterfront?







Resilience accepts that change is inevitable and in many some cases unavoidable, and instead focuses on the need to be able to withstand the unexpected. Like sustainability, resilience encompasses both strategy and design, guiding how choices are made and how systems are created. Principles of resilience include: • Diversity: Not relying on a single kind of solution means not suffering from a single point of failure. • Redundancy: Never leave yourself with just one path of escape or rescue. • Decentralization: Centralized systems look strong, but when they fail, they fail catastrophically. • Collaboration: We’re all in this together. Take advantage of collaborative technologies, especially those offering shared communication and information. • Transparency: Don’t hide your systems; transparency makes it easier to figure out where a problem may lie. Share your plans and preparations, and listen when people point out flaws. • Flexibility: Be ready to change your plans when they’re not working the way you expected; don’t count on things remaining stable. Ultimately, resilience emphasizes increasing our ability to withstand crises. Sustainability is a brittle state; unforeseen changes, natural or otherwise, can easily cause its collapse. Resilience is all about being able to overcome the unexpected.

By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Global and National Context


Maritime Shipping Routes and Strategic Locations

New Zealand is outside of the busiest global shipping routes that tun through the northern hemisphere, particularly between North America, Europe, and Asia. The adjacent map indicates the density of shipping occurring across the globe (AA).

New Zealand New Zealand has a export based economy, particularly in primary goods. As a remote trading nation New Zealand requires a competitive port sector in a global context.


New Zealand the main ports are: Northport; Auckland, Tauranga, Napier, Taranaki; Wellington, Nelson, Lyttelton, Otago, Timaru;band South Port. Ports of Auckland is currently the largest in the country.

Bosporus Suez

North Port Auckland


Bab el-Mandab




Taranaki Napier Nelson


Good Hope Shipping Density High




None Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University Source: Shipping density data adapted from National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, A Global Map of Human Impacts to Marine Ecosystems.

Otago South Port

By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Eastward consolidation

Ports of Auckland




POAL play a vital role in Aucklands and New Zealand’s economy creating over 11 billion a year in flow-on benefits, supporting 155,000 jobs and 22% of the regional economy (13% of NZ economy) (BB). It is New Zealand’s largest port, handling 61% of the upper North Island container trade, and 37% of NZ’s total container trade. POAL has the largest and most advanced port side infrastructure. POAL activities includes Onehunga as well as two inland ports at East Tamaki and Wiri.

POAL need to conitually impove its operation to ensure that it meets growth and changes occuring in the port and shipping industry. Along side this is the continual demand from the wider Auckland Community who seek greater access and improved waterfonr environments which are gernally at odds with a working port.

POAL plan to continue an eastwards consolidation of their operations. Since 1996 70 hectares or land and wharf space has been released. POAL has developed a development plan to guide long term planning of its operations. This plan is consistent with Local Council’s over arching vision for the whole waterfront. In the past there have been suggestions of a second port for auckland, the development plan outlines ongoing use and intensification of existing sites can meet the growth demands in the foreseeable future and is the best economical and environmental option.

Key issues and conisderations that POAL have identified for thier activities are (CC): Hub economics - As hub ports become more common New Zealand needs to develop its Hub infrastructure. As New Zealand’s largest and most advanced port POAL is a first logical choice. A risk for New Zealand is the development of a Australasian hub port occurring in Australia which would have time a cost implications for both imports and exports. If POAL becomes a hub this would have implications for both dealing with capacity issues noted below, but would also need to support increased coastal shipping to secondary ports. Vessel sizes - there is an ongoing trend for vessels to become larger and large. Currently the largest ship visiting NZ have a 4,100 TEU capacity. Ships are currently being built that will have a 12,000 TEU capacity. It is anticipated that vessels ranging from 6-7,000 TEU capacity will be visiting NZ in the short to medium term. These vessels can be up to 320m and have a draft of 14m. This will demand ongoing improvements to channel depths, berth length and depths, efficient berth operations, and yard capacities (particularly peak capacities for large vessels). Transport - ongoing improvements to the rail network are required, including improvements and efficiencies for dock side operations, the later being a key constraint. Cruise ships - there has been a significant increase in cruise ships visiting New Zealand. Furthermore the size of cruise ships is also increasing. 2-3 berths are required for the medium - long term for these ships. Vehicle imports - vessels that import/export vehicles are predominantly starboard quarter ramp vessels (need to have bow north and west facing berths) and require large amounts of land space unless decked parking is provided.

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Analysis POAL development plan is economic focused, with the emphasis on efficient port activities. Additional to this is a environmental and sustainable driver with a number of programmes already in place. These programmes are focused around efficiencies (e.g. fuel efficiencies, land use and CO2 reduction). Water quality and ecology is less evident in long term planning.

Key aspects of the development plan include improvements to capacity: new terminal operating plant/systems; incremental reclamation; supplemented with car stakers or car park buildings; and inland ports. The Developement plan notes the inherit uncertainty of port planning with a number of factors that can have a dramatic effect on port supply and demand, and operations (e.g. technology changes).

POAL have incorporated a number of community programmes. These programmes are generally education or tourism based. However, opportunities to integrate with the community in regards to built form and activities are not.




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The Cruise industry docking areas appear to have less emphasis on the role the port has as a gateway to Auckland and New Zealand for international visitors. While long term planning is in place, it is focused on the ability to cater for the number of ships and ship size “does not need to be high quality or luxury building - cleanliness and serviceability are key requirements”. Opportunities exist to enhance the gateway to Auckland along side the practicalities of port activities. Importing vehicles is currently occurring on wharfs that are close to the CBD. Plans to establish multi deck carparking buildings could be further explored to reduce the impact of this building type on this prime and highly visible site.



By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Auckland Regional Holdings (ARH)

ARH Role


The ARH is a statutory investment management entity, which owns POAL along side other macro investments (DD).

ARH have identified similar port operation issues as POAL have e.g. hub ports, larger ships, supporting transport infrastructure, berth length etc (as outlined above).

Their objective is to “act in the long term interests and benefit of the Auckland Region”(EE). ARH provide signifcant funding from these investments to the Auckland Regional Council (ARC) for various projects e.g. stormwater and transport inititatives.


ARH documents have a strong emphasis on the national port sector and how it is opperated in the context of global market and need to New Zealand to be competitive. ARH identifiy that (FF): • uncertainty about port sector in NZ is a sigifnicatn risk for NZ- no central lead • co-ordination of investment amongst different ports to avoid duplications or miss key system requirements • rationalosation of NZ port sector needed (how each port functions within the system)

ARH are srtong advocates in a systems approach for the port sector in New Zealand. Putting in place a co-ordinated approach would help decision making throughout the industry which can then drive forward the required response through implementation. This is a logial step for the port industry to ensure that NZ can respond to the changing and competative industry.

ARH believe that POAL is a logical contender to a hub port due to its current size and proximity to key local import and export markets.

The maner in which ARH are set up provides a economic and investment based thinking and development.

ARH have identified the benefits of key stakeholders preparing an overall mater plan, and formation of a single entity to implement waterfront development increase the success of the water front area. While each stakeholder currently has their vision which are generally consistent, there areas that are less developed.

Again the vital economic importantance of the ports over shadow the environemental and community conflicts that occur around port activities. While noted specific strategies are not identified for these challenges.

Location of ports in relation to City Centres (50 largest port cities)

40% Within


40% 10km

80% betwen 0 - 10km of city centre





Local Territorial Authorities (ARC and ACC)



The Auckland Regional Council and the Auckland City Council have developed a vision document for the water front - Auckland Waterfront 2040.

For the development of Council’s vision there were several consultation phases undertaken to capture public views for the development of the water front.

The vision for the waterfront is for “a world-class destination that excites the senses and celebrates our sea-loving Pacific culture and maritime history. It supports commercially successful and innovative businesses and is a place for all people, an area rich in character and activities that link people to the city and sea”(GG).

Key aspects that came from public consultation were (GG):

While the Councils recognises the importance of the POAL activities as a vital economic role in the region and country, the focus of their vision document is on redevelopment of the waterfront for mixed use activities.

• • •

Key principles for the vision document are (GG): • • • • • • • • •

Public access and enjoyment Heritage and local character Views Transport and linkages Environment Mix of uses and activities Working waterfront Port Marinas and recreation

The Auckland Regional Freight Strategy highlights some high level need to improve rail and sea freight.

• • •

Public access improvements Quality of open space, landscape and urban design Strong interest in the environment and associated improvements (e.g. water quality) Improved public transport and walk/cycle opportunities Support a range of activities Support marine industry and working water fronts

Analysis The Councils vision document emphasizes the need to redevelop the waterfront into a high quality urban environment while still achieving a working waterfront environment. While there is a different emphasis the Councils vision, it is generally consistent with POALs development plan of consolidating port activities to the east and progressively releasing land to the west for other uses. There is limited discussion on the wider demands on port capacity and needs or the various roles that the Councils have to support these. Public consultation identified a strong interest in environmental improvement. The visionary document notes environmental issues need to be address it appear less developed and direction is limited. While the regional frieght strategy provides some highlevel goals to improvae rail and sea fieght acitivies, it is light on implementation issues.

Regional Analysis 1:200,000 @ A3 The most predominant topographical element in the region is the Waitakere Ranges.

Mapping the sand formations along the coastline of auckland, reveals the limited potential for port locations close to the city.

The isthmus has generally undulating terrain. Volcanic cones are scattered through the isthmus giving it its recognisable topographical character.

It must then be considered vital that some way of integrating the port into the city, in its current location is found so as to maintain the optimum situation sustainability wise.

1.... Sand 2... 3... 4... 5... 6... 7.... 8... 9... 10...

Most of Auckland’s urban region is situated between the Waitakere ranges in the West, and the Hunua ranges in the Southeast. Auckland is situated on the low lying topography in the region. The contours expressed are 20m distances but this map does start to make apparent the effects sea level rise could have on the Auckland city landscape.

1.... 2... The Auckland Region has a large number of stream 3... systems that drain into the Waitemata 4...Harbour, and Harbour, Manukau the coastal environment. 5... 6... from the Many of these originate Waitakere Ranges and Hunua Ranges, While on7.... the isthmus there are smaller 8... systems that originate from volcanic cones 9...contained or are relatively self within local catchments. 10... Streams and water bodies 1.... 2... 3... 4... 5... 6... 7.... 8... 9... 10... 20m Contours

The Waitakere Ranges, Hunua Ranges and a number of gulf islands contain significant areas of vegetation. Within the Auckland Isthmus vegetation is limited to scattered remnant forests and patches of exotic vegetation. Vegetation is generally limited to esplanades and parks. There are a number of regionally significant parks in the Auckland Isthmus, such as the Auckland Domain and Cornwall Park.

1.... Productive vegetation 2... Parks 3... and open space 4... 5... 6... Native vegetation

There are no significant areas of productive vegetation within the Auckland region. This is one example that demonstrates how Auckland is dependent on resources that are produced in areas remote from it that must be and transported to it. This demonstrates one angle that Auckland would be particularly vulnerable in a world less dependent on oil.

Roads Motorways Rail Train stations

The region has a rail line that runs north to south. This bypasses the North Shore, running through Waitakere. A motorway network connects the regional externally and internally. These main transport infrastructure lines bypass the Western Bays ward. The motorways; SH1 and SH16; create the Southern and Eastern boundaries of the ward, cutting it off somewhat from the adjoining suburbs. As the world becomes less able to consume oil, quality public transport will become increasingly important. We can see from this map that Auckland city is heavily reliant on the private motor car which poses huge problems for the future.

By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Site Analysis

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Controur Aucklands waterfront coastal edge is located at a point were 4 large ridge lines used to meet the sea. The topography of the Waterfront site is majority flat space due to it being comprised mostly of reclaimed land.

1m Contour 20m Contour

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Hydrology The Auckland waterfront sits at the end of 2 large and 2 med size catchments. Although the site is not strictly part of any of these catchments, it recives all stormwater from each. It is demonstrated in the next map that the natural stream pathways in the various catchments are no longer as they appear on this map as the built up nature of the catchments has meant that the water has become eingineered.

Stream Catchment Boundary

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Constructed Water Flow


The Built up nature of the catchments feeding into the waterfront sight has ment that the water flow in these areas is 100 percent constructed and controlled.

The most significant insight gained from mapping the cadastrals of the waterfront is the size of the lots. Areas like Queens wharf provide huge potential as spaces that large open for development in the CBD are very rare.

The constructed nature of the waterpaths and the built up nature of the catchments topography means the remainging waterfront property may be our city’s last chance to impliment wetlands to treat the stormwater flowing from these catchments.

Man Hole Drain Stormwater Inlet/Outlet

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum













Road and Rail































































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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calem Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Vegetation and Open Space Vegetation in the inner Auckland region is limited really to parks and open spaces. As we narrow down to the Waterfront area, there is almost no vegetation in the area except for the few trees in the areas open spaces. This presents the idea that there would be fairly limited ecology in the Auckland CBD and waterfront area. Development of the waterfront area could look at this issue and something the waterfront strip could include.

Federal St Park Victoria Park

Te Taou Reserve Middle Reserve

Parliament Reserve

Ngaoho Reserve

Gladstone Park Te Uringutu Reserve Gladstone Park Dove Myer Robinson Park

Gwilliam Pl Reserve

Constitution Hill Fraser Park

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calem Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Historical Reclamation

Soil Warnings The soil warnings map shows us that a huge portion of the waterfront is reclaimed land.

The Auckland waterfront has a History around reclamation. The environmental benifits of reclamation, coupled with this historical movement could give precident for more reclamation to occur along the waterfront.

It is important to note this when designing spaces in this area as the ground is not true soil, trees have to be planted in pits, water will not permiate etc.

The Ports of Auckland have a plan to undertake a large reclamation which is perhaps not a most desirable form. perhaps the historical pushing out of aucklands edge could provide some substance for gaining permit to shift the shape of that reclamation.

Weak Ground Dump site Reclaimed Fill

Map Produced by Jessica Chang

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

People Flow Views from CBD

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Map Produced by Jessica Chang

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Map Produced by Jessica Chang By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Solar Radiation

Wind Analysis

Despite the abundance of good sunlight within large areas of the Waterfront area there is virtually no use made of solar energy for home heating or electricity generation purposes. As energy supply is predicted to become less certain in the future it will become increasingly important to utilise a diverse range of energy sources.

Low Medium High

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Sea Level Rise Reclaimed land tends to sit not very high above sea level. As we can see from this map, Sea level rise will have a huge impact on the Waterfront site. The predicted 1m rise in Sea Level begins to have effect on the site at points and most certainly would have huge effects during surge tide periods. The is one of the most important factors to consider when designing new waterfront development.

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Waterfront Case Studies Auckland

Public Development City Centre Port Edge Connectivity

Singapore Gardens by the Bay

Amsterdam Borneo-Sporenburg

Toronto Waterfront

Copenhagen Norhavn Waterfront






­ Gardens by the Bay(1) ­

Singapore Grant Associates

Following an international design competition, the team led by Grant Associates was selected to prepare the masterplan for Marina South Gardens in Singapore as part of the National Parks Board Gardens by the Bay project. This is the largest garden project ever undertaken in Singapore, and a landscape project of world signifi cance. It is intended to raise Singapore’s profile and cement its image as the leading garden city in the east. It is therefore integral to the future planning of Singapore as a major global and business centre. The masterplan takes its inspiration from the form of the orchid, and has an intelligent infrastructure that allows the cultivation of plants that would not otherwise grow in Singapore. The centrepiece of this infrastructure is the cluster of Cooled Conservatories along the edge of Marina Bay. The Cool Dry and the Cool Moist Conservatories showcase Mediterranean, tropical montane and temperate annual plants and flowering species. They also provide a flexible, flowerthemed venue for events and exhibitions. The Supertrees are magical vertical gardens ranging from 25 metres to 50 metres in height. These structures are an iconic landmark for the Gardens and Singapore. They are also the environmental engines for the Conservatories and Energy Centre, containing solar hot water and photovoltaic collectors, rainwater harvesting devices and venting ducts. The dual theme of Marina South is ‘Plants and People’ and ‘Plants and Planet’. Each narrative encompasses the length of the gardens, with the Conservatories providing the focus and main educational message.

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

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By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Borneo-Sporenburg(2) Amsterdam West 8

Two peninsulas in the eastern part of the Amsterdam docks, were to be exploited for water-related activities, as well as 2500 low-rise dwelling units, with a density of 100 units per hectare. For a new interpretation of the traditional Dutch canal house. West 8 suggested new types of three-storey, ground-accessed houses deviating from the usual terraced house in being strongly oriented to the private realm by incorporating patios and roof gardens. By repeating this type in a great variety of dwelling modes and with maximum architectural variation, an animated street elevation emerges with a focus on the individual. At a larger scale, a delicately balanced relationship exists between the repetition of the individual dwellings, the roofscape and the great scale of the docks. Three immense sculptural blocks take their place as landmarks in the vast expanse of houses West 8 successfully created a framework for high density living that satisfies all the demands of an ordinary household. They were committed to creating unique structures within a unified whole. In order to insure this, West 8 set design codes, a range of criteria, upon which access, parking, private open space, storey height, plot width and building materials would be designed. Those codes also specified that dwellings should be designed by a diversity of architects. Thus, more than 100 architects were participating; developing new housing prototypes and the resulting designs include patios, roof gardens and striking views of the waterfront. On the masterplan design the Borneo Sporenburg plan is divided into low-rise buildings in three zones and architecturally distinctive high-rise residential buildings within these zones, creating significant landmarks. The design of the apartment blocks and the low-rise dwellings was specific to the scheme. Even more, this variety of house types, the distinctive apartment blocks and the waterfront add character to the peninsulas and make the neighborhoods easy for visitors to be navigated. The low-rise housing structures are arranged into strict branded blocks which are sub-divided into individual plots, each containing an inside void that comprises 30 to 50 percent of the plot.

Magok Waterfront(3) Seoul, South Korea McGregor Coxall

As part of the Han River Renaissance, the Seoul Metropolitan Government and SH Corporation jointly organised the International Design Competition for the Magok Waterfront. McGregor Coxall prize winning design for the competition aims at establishing a balance between the apparently irreconcilable contradictions between urban growth and the needs of the environment. Underpinning the design is the philosophical paradigm known in Korea as Eum and Yang where Eum and Yang are opposites, part of Eum is in Yang, yet part of Yang is in Eum. Eum and Yang are interdependent. Eum and Yang consume and support each other. The design locates Eum and Yang on opposite sides of the harbour, yet each exists to support the other. This proposal recognises the interdependency and interconnectedness of the urban and natural systems and puts forward a design that shows how these objectives are compatible in ways that are sustainable and sustaining.

Toronto Waterfront(4) Toronto West 8

West 8 in joint venture with DTAH received the prestigious recognition in winning the Toronto Central Waterfront Innovative Design competition. Connectivity between the vitality of the city and the lake and a continuous, publicly accessible waterfront are the focal points of the plan. The first phase of realization is now underway and includes the design and reconstruction of Queen’s Quay Boulevard and the design of public space wave decks and timber bridges at seven heads of slips.

Nordhaven(5) Copenhagen Marcovermeulen

Copenhagen is an attractive and dynamic city which is rapidly expanding and changing. By 2025 the numbers of inhabitants will have grown by 45.000. This calls for a clear vision how to incorporate new houses and enterprises in the region. The city faces several challenges how to realize these new developments. In recent years increased commuting in the region has put the infrastructure under great pressure. By 2025 car traffic will be up for 30-40% if nothing will be done to prevent it. Nordhavnen is intented to counter the trend to increased commuting in the region and facilitate new housing and enterprises. Because of the close proximity of the inner city, Nordhavnen can set new standards on sustainable urban development and put Copenhagen on the global map of leading environmental metropolis. In order to meet these ambitions, we have defined two conceptual elements which together form the hart of our proposal: Connectivity Waterfront promenade The eastern waterfront of Nordhavnen is linked with the inner city of Copenhagen by a series of iconographic bridges which together form a powerful connection between new and old Copenhagen. A scenic route through various public spaces along the waterside will stimulate people to either walk, cycle or use the public transport. The waterfront promenade will be one continuous carpet of vivid mixed programs such as city beaches, museum, hotels, offices and housing, sports and events. Stretching from the cruisers terminal to Island Brygge and even further to Sydhavnen, the promenade will be a true landmark in Copenhagen. It will become a significant part of more sustainable lifestyle of the people of Nordhavnen.

Sustainability Natural resources The containment of CO2 and the efficient usage of world’s natural resources can both beaddressed at the scale of urban planning. With the recycling of waste and solar energy comes another important topic for sustainability: Water. This element can, when taken into account at the very beginning of urban design, contribute to a sustainable environment. Grey and black water from households and other dwellings can be recycled into irrigation water (for the greenhouses for example). The condensation from these structures can, in turn, be filtered into drinking water. These energy sources can be fully implemented if and when the urban design takes into account all its necessities. This is precisely the reason why a network of canals has been introduced in the design of Nordhavn and why, on four central locations on the site, large greenhouses have been projected. Furthermore, these components generate urban conditions of great value. Sustainability is thus not only achieved by reducing the usage of motorized vehicles (althoughwe applaud the idea), but implemented as a core structure for urban planning. One of the sources of CO2 emission is the motorised vehicles.One of the areas in which this emission can be contained and reduced to a minimum is car parks. An efficient way of reducing this emission is by letting trees absorb the CO2. By combining these two functions, an interesting structure emerges: a car park underneath a contained garden or greenhouse.

The emissions of the cars are filtered by the trees and the oxygen can then be released to the atmosphere. The greenhouse in itself offers a greater contribution to the topic of sustainability (and to urban program, but we’ll deal with that later). A greenhouse captures solar energy. This energy can be captured in a collective heating system which then provides heating for –for examplehouseholds on one hand and energy through Micro turbines. Energy can also be generated through the usage of gasifiers which ‘digest’ waste from the cruise ships and the dwellings. By introducing such a system on site, transportation of massive amounts of waste can be avoided. The biogas emitted is captured to be transformed into energy. The emitted CO2 can then be reduces through the greenhouses. A third source of energy is the seawater: although the water has a low temperature, only a few degrees need to be subtracted from the sea in order to heat –for example- household boilers. The residual heat can be returned to the sea without affecting biological life (quantities are simply negligible). The system simply works as an inverted fridge. To make Nordhavnen sustainable the constant temperature of the surounding water is used to generate energy. The existing docks are perforated in order to let water reach deep into the urban fabric. New and exciting network of canals, docks and marina’s will form a firm casco on which the new city is built. Furthermore the water will be of an additional value for all the new neighbourhoods and the public space. Water not only improves the image of Nordhavnen and makes it sustainable, it also enriches the flora and fauna on the site.

Harbour Tunnel (6) Copenhagen SLA

As part of a larger project group organised by Sund & Belt, SLA has carried out preparatory studies for a harbour tunnel in Copenhagen Harbour. The primary purpose of the tunnel will be to take heavy traffic from the city centre and thus calm the inner city. The preparatory studies resulted in four architectural and urban design solutions that connect the tunnel with Copenhagen city centre. SLA tion which ban

has prioritised the supplementaof the solutions with initiatives create new, untraditional green urspaces in Copenhagen harbour.

The extra land model consists of a closed vehicular ramp to the tunnel in connection with the existing quay. As can be seen from the illustration, this development further enhances the city environment with an extended public harbour park. The spiral design is a closed traffic development that creates a luxuriant public park in the harbour development. This new urban space is planted with exotic plants and combined with an openair pool thus creating a different and island-like oasis in the centre of the harbour The four models are all placed with Langebro (bridge) as an example. The circle design is shown here, which consists of a circular road with two ramps to the tunnel. The bridge itself is retained, but the traffic over it is re-routed. This solution creates the conditions for a new, exciting urban space on the bridge for cyclists and pedestrians.

East Darling Harbour(7) Sydney McGregor Coxall

In 2005 McGregor Coxall proposal for the East Darling Harbour International Design Competition was one of 30 selected from over 140 local and international entrants to be part of a public exhibition of the most promising schemes. The design strategy for this 22 ha waterfront site proposes an innovative park and urban development for the 21st century that levers Sydney into the global economy. It establishes East Darling Harbour as an incubator site at the heart of Sydney that nurtures the leaders of the new economy and the pioneers of the new creativity. The design provides an environment conducive to the JAZZ sustainability model which enables the project to move beyond triple bottom line practice. The scheme proposed a staged implementation strategy that progressively removed the existing industrial sheds allowing for incremental and authentic regeneration.

Innovations in contemporary port development

Port Operations

Increasing Capacity

A port is a place where ships are able to load and unload cargo onto other transport infrastructure such as trucks, trains, or other boats. They include cargo ports, cruise ship ports, or fishing ports (1,2). The port of Auckland is an international trade port, with throughput primarily focused on containers. Shorter loading and unloading times and easy onward transport are some of the reasons for the increasing proportion of container shipping globally. Bulk and breakbulk cargoes also form an important part of port activities. Of non-containerised volume, the most significant component is new and used vehicles (11).

There are a number of ways that a port can increase capacity, the most obvious of which is to increase the number of available berths and corresponding terminal space. The Port of Auckland development plan includes a reclamation plan that will add wharf space to the Fergusson and Bledisloe terminals over the medium term. Material dredged from around the port and shipping channels that occurs as part of normal port maintenance will be used for reclamation. In the long term the area between the terminals will also be reclaimed, increasing available berths and terminal capacity (6).

Container ports or terminals are designed around a standardized unit of freight, the shipping container, which is either 20 or 40 foot in length, which allows for efficient handling of freight as all equipment in the port are designed to handle them. Auckland containers are loaded and unloaded from ships via large container cranes onto the port then moved to other areas for transport or storage via straddle carries. Shipping containers are weatherproof and are stacked in rows along the port awaiting export or transportation following import (1,2).

Port productivity and throughput can also be increased in other ways without increasing port space. New terminal stacking systems can increase capacity per hectare of container terminals by up to 250%. Two of these systems include Rail Mounted Gantry (RMG) Cranes and Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) Cranes. RMGs can stack five or more containers high and six to ten containers wide. They can load road trucks directly at the landside end of the stack, and straddle carriers to and from the quay cranes, at the seaside end of the stack. RTGs up to six high and six to eight wide, serving road trucks on one side of the stack, and tractor-trailer units to/from the quay cranes on the other side of the stack (11,5,9).

Planning is important to efficient yard operations, with the aim being the greatest throughput of containers with the minimum of double handling. Yard planning software ensures that container are positioned on the terminal in the optimal configuration for incoming ships, and when placed on ships is best positioned for ensure optimal handling at subsequent ports of call (6).

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The configuration used for the loading and storage of containers for import and export on the terminal can be optimised by the use of Terminal Operating Systems (TOS). TOS can increase productivity by optimising placement of containers on terminals ensuring double handling is kept to a minumum. There are a number of different container configurations that can be used to increase productivity that are dependent on the import and export mix of at a given port.

Some configurations are: Yard separation by grouping (import vs export), Horizontal separation on each block, Vertical separation on each block, Diamond-type separation on entire yard (9). Ports around the world are facing an increasingly competitive and challenging operational environment. Pressure on shipping lines to increase fuel efficiency has ships sailing slower, which allows for less port time. Mooring and berthing software in conjuction with TOS can increase productivity of port operations by ensuring quicker turnaround times for ships and therefore freeing up available berths (5). Automation at ports is increasing with the use of robotic gantries and optical readers which enables ports to streamline repetitive activities and increase productivity (4). Increased use of information management tools allows for better coordination between ports, shipping companies and suppliers. Technologies such as common data exchange or electronic messaging (SMS) enable ports to orchestrate continuous chains of activities avoiding stop-start and idle time. Ports are also moving to more flexibile operating hours with some ports working 24/7, which provides some flexibility to accommodate disruptions due to weather or mechanical faults (5).

Larger Container Ships


Waterfont development

A challenge that ports face in the 21st century is remaining physically accessible to new generations of ships which are deeper, longer and wider than their predecessors. This may require vast dredging schemes and the construction of new terminals. Around the world massive investments are being made in new container terminals, efficient harbour facilities and better connections to the hinterland.

Hubbing is a concept that is well esablished in the global shipping market, driven by the trend for larger vessels to call at fewer ports directly; with the associated economies of scale; as well as the increasing degree of containerization even at smaller ports. The proportion of containers that are shipped to large container hub ports from smaller feeder ports is therefore increasing globally (3,11).

The Docklands project in London established a model for the reuse of obsolete port areas, inspirating similar projects in other port cities. Projects like this took run down and disused port areas and returned them to the city for office, housing and recreational purposes with the actual working port moving out of the city (13).

Between 1990 and 2005 the average size of container ships increased from 1,250 to over 2,200 TEU. Ships with a capacity of over 13,000 TEU are planned for the future. The cost of transport is less per container when using ships with greater capacity. The largest vessels currently calling at New Zealand ports are capable of carrying 4100 TEU (3, 11).

Containers are reorganized at hub ports and transported to other hubs, or to their final destination port; this ‘hub & spoke’ network can be envisioned in the New Zealand context whereby a small number of ports could act as international hub ports and regional ports would be serviced by a coastal shipping network. As larger ships service New Zealand trade routes, shipping companies are expected to increasingly hub at fewer ports here (3,11).

To ensure that ports have the capacity to handle larger vessel sizes the following require carefull planning: channel depth; berth length and depth; berth or quayside capability, which is the ability to load and unload large containers while minimising vessel time in port; and yard capability, or the space required to accommodate the storage volumes generated by large container ships (3,11). Congestion in and outside the ports due to temporary capacity overloading with larger ships may result in longer turnaround times. This can be minimised by both efficient yard operation and by increasing storage capacity of ports through the use of inland ports connected by rail, such as the Wiri inland port terminal associated with the Port of Auckland (3).

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The Port of Auckland is the best option for an international hub port in the North Island, and is well-placed for this role. The New Zealand supply chain is reliant on major international hub ports emerging in the best locations within New Zealand. New Zealand importers and exporters would benefit from the economies available from larger ships. Investment is therefore necessary for the Port of Auckland so that it can respond to changing shipping industry requirements and is able to handle larger ships. This would reduce the likelihood that, over time, more New Zealand imports and exports would be hubbed through Australian ports instead (3).

These waterfront developments have been perceived in many cases of having driven a wedge between cities and ports. A visitor to a city like Rotterdam or Antwerp may not immediately realise that these are major seaports. Old port cranes and other port paraphernalia may be reminders of previous port activity, but its may not be obvious that there is still a thriving port now located somewhere outside of the city (13). The further a port is from a city centre the greater its carbon footprint, so some now question whether this a sustainable approach for the future. With the expected growth rates in cargo traffic there is a constant need for more space and port capacity. New greenfield sites are not easily available, and there is also strong environmental pressure to limit port expansion. Maintaining the port close to the city in an already established position is therefore desireable. To ensure its ongoing operation within the city, the Port of Auckland must esure that the port is as clean, quiet, safe and secure as possible.There also needs to be some buy-in from the public that the port is an integral part of a vibrant waterfront and contributes to Aucklands identity and to its long-term prosperity (13,11).

By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

The Top-10 Port Environmental Issues

Environmental initiatives

Sustainable port development The 10 main environmental challenges facing ports identified in a 2004 ESPO surveys were: 1. Port Waste Management The wastes that are problematic for ports include oil and oily waters; noxious liquids; special, controlled and hazardous wastes; sewage and garbage. Wastes are generated by the activities carried out in a Port, e.g. shipping, storage, maintenance, waste management. 2 & 3. Dredging and disposal of dredged materials Dredging consists of periodic removal of material from the seabed in approach channels to port and harbour basins to ensure the safe access for vessels. Dredging also requires the disposal of the excavated material. Dredging can cause adverse environmental effects as a result of the dredging process on the seafloor and also as a result of the disposal of the dredged material. Dredging can lead to a reduction in water quality such as acute chemical toxicity, increase of suspended sediments, release of organic matter, nutrients and or contaminants. It can cause turbidity, smothering or removal of organisms, and changes to ecosystems. But dredging and disposal can also have some positive effects including removal of contaminated sediments (eg. by incorporation into concrete) or used to regenerate beaches, mudflats or other habitats.

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4. Dust Port operations can increase particulate emission leading to visual, physical, chemical, or health hazards for employees and the public. The most common sources of dust are open storage, handling and spillages of dry bulk cargoes.

8. Hazardous cargo Hazardous and dangerous cargo have environmental risks which vary dependant on the characteristics of the chemicals stored; the method of storage, the location, size and management of the storage site.

Good environmental management is crucial for continued public support for port operations. Environmental legislation is being tightened in many countries, so ports are forming partnerships to share information regarding best practice for port operations in compliance with legislation and environmental risk reduction.

5. Noise Mechanical or industrial activities carried out in ports generate noise which can impact on employees, wildlife and the public. High levels of noise can constitute an occupational hazard, resulting in complaints from worker or the public and may contribute to a negative public image of a working port within a city.

9. Land issues with port development A lack of space in ports may result in a need for port expansion which may have detrimental impacts on the environment; destruction of natural areas close to ports, e.g. wetlands or dune systems, disturbance to ecosystems. Relocation of port infrastructure can generate social conflicts, or landscape visual impact. Port infrastructure, traffic and lighting etc give ports an industrialized feel that may conflict with residential or recreational areas.

The European Sea Ports Organisation (ESPO) represents seaports of the European Union. EcoPorts Foundation (EPF) is a non profit organisation established in 1999 by a group of 8 large European ports for the benefit of ports and port communities which aim to:

6. Air quality Ports operations generate emissions from machinery and ships during transport and materials handling. Once emissions enter the atmosphere they can create air pollution affecting the local climate, buildings, human health, wildlife, and the global environment. 7. Bunkering/ refuelling Refuelling is a normal activity that takes place in ports and can result in oil spills. Fuel spills can effect the environment having detrimental effects on water quality and sediment quality, human health, wildlife, fisheries and recreational pursuits. Heavy metals in fuels become stored in sediments and are taken up into the food chain affecting whole ecosystems.

10. Ship discharge/ bilge Discharge from the bilge of a ship, i.e. the lowest inner part of a ship’s hull, can contain water, oil, dispersants, detergents, solvents, chemicals, particles and more. If this water is released to the port, it can mean a potential threat to the water quality.

1. To contribute to the development of a sustainable logistics chain.

publicly available environmental policy setting out their strategies and methods of achieving them. This will contribute to promote a “corporate social responsibility” on the port. 6. To encourage port administrations to conduct appropriate environmental impact assessments for port projects and appropriate strategic environmental impact assessments for port development plans to assess, at an early stage, how their effects on the environment can be minimised. 7. To stimulate continual improvement in the port environment and its port environmental management by promoting the use of Environmental Management Information System tools.

2. To encourage wide consultation, dialogue and cooperation between port administrations and the relevant stakeholders at local level to foster acceptance of port projects by the local community.

8. To promote monitoring, in order to measure objectively identifiable progress in environmental port practices.

3. To generate new knowledge and technology and to develop sustainable techniques which combine environmental effectiveness and cost efficiency.

9. To promote environmental reporting as a means of communicating environmentally good behaviour to stakeholders and government institutions.

4. To enhance cooperation between port administrations in environmental management techniques and implementation to avoid unnecessary duplication, and enable port administrations to share the costs of environmental solutions.

10. To intensify the communication about environmental improvements achieved by ports, with the aim to create a better understanding of the role of ports and their efforts towards sustainability (13,14).

(Issues identified in ESPO 2004 review).

5. To increase awareness of environmental concerns and to integrate sustainable development into ports’ policies, by encouraging port administrations to prepare a

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Some recent initiatives being taken by ports to reduce environmental impact include: Shore side power: Providing shore-side electrical power to a ship at berth while its main and auxiliary engines are turned off lowers port emissions from ships and reduces port noise. Ultra low-sulphur diesel: Using ultra low-sulphur diesel with biodiesel from vegetable oil reduces noxious emissions. Standard diesel fuels have a high sulphur content which releases particulates that pollute air and water while bio-diesel fuels are a cleaner burning alternative. Hybrids & electric motors: Hybrid vehicles are replacing standard vehicles at some ports. Hybrid models increase fuel economy resulting in less fuel consumption and lower maintenance costs. Electric Cranes are also used which reduce emissions at ports. Removing cargo from roads: Inland ports connected by rail or river barges to seaports can reduce the proportion of cargo on roads and reduce truck traffic around ports. The Amsterdam Barge Shuttle is an inland container barge, equipped with its own heavy container crane. Wiri inland port is connected by rail, reducing road trips. Beneficial Reuse of Dredge Material: Dredged material can be used in concrete, locking in polutants; to create Artificial Reefs; for Restoration/Wetlands Creation, or for Brownfields Site Remediation (13,14).

By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Issues on the Auckalnd Waterfront Site Issues Throughout this document a number of issues have been identified. The following provides a summary of the key issues and challenges for the port area and the Auckland waterfront to become a more sustainable development: • •

• •

• • • • •

Stormwater - treatment of water and improvement to water quality entering into the marine environment Energy - as a large operation there a high energy use, opportunities exist to continue energy efficiency programmes and incorporate new technologies to reduce energy demand (e.g. solar and wind generation) Reverse sensitivities - as development occurs around the port there will be increased demands to address port activities (e.g. noise and light pollution, and views) in a urban environment Urban cohesion - Situated in the centre of New Zealands largest city is ideally for a key port, however, as a heavy industrial use it is challenging incorporating activities into the diverse urban environment surrounding it Retaining port activities and allow for future growth - the port is of vital economic importance and as such needs to be able to grow and operate as a port in a changing and competitive industry Waterfront vitality - how to retain NZ maritime history and role of port and marine industry within the CBD, and keep ongoing activity along the waterfront. Transport connections (Walking and Cycling) - integrating continuous quality walking and cycling routes through the city and out along Tamaki Drive for transport and recreational needs Coordinated approach - agreed and coordinated approach to the port (regional approach) as well as NZ shipping coordination and role and needs of each port within the larger system. Fuel consumption - opportunities to reduce carbon use through increased use of rail and coastal shipping rather the trucking.

By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

City + Port Integration :: Jack Haldane-Willis

Research Question: Macro: The auckland waterfront is attempting to build a

How can a Public Open Space New Public space

waterfront with a range of mixed use activities. I would suggest that the future proposal for the whole waterfront fails to truely impliment a waterfront space of truely mixed uses. Integration of public space, residential space and commercial space has been achieved but there is a sharp devide between these spaces and the working port. The port since history has been the beating heart of a cities waterfront, it seems impossible to design a mixed use waterfront without some integration of the city and the port infrastructure.

Port Reclamation Mixed use (Res + Commercial)

Micro site question:

be Imbeded in the

There is a tension created by the segrigation of the port from the rest of the waterfront. This tension has raised debate as to weather the port is appropriately placed in its current location. Ports of Auckland believe it is as studies on potential other locations for the port conclude that the cost of moving and the lack of another suitable site make the current site one of aucklands few options for a large port terminal. I think that a huge amount of resolve would come of some integration between the port activities and the city. For the purposes of this assignment i am going to concentrate on how a public space can be integrated into the heart of the working port industry, how the boundary between this space and the port can be softened and what techniques can be employed to blend the port into the surrounding waterfront.

Schematic Future for Aucklands Waterfront

Heart of the Port Heavy Industry? By :: Gyles Bendall : Jack Haldane-Willis : Calum Nesbitt : Bernie Ranum

Factors reducing port - city integration

Factors reducing social - port interaction Security Views

Since the Terrorist attacks that occured in New York City on September 11 2001, security has increased at all the points of entry and exit to different nations.


Ports are seen a nations point that is particularly seceptible to potential acts of terror. The ramifications of this have been a need to increase security around ports with strict monotoring of who enters and exits port areas.

Efficiency Having large ships docked at the port costs a huge amount of money. It is a high piority interest for the ports to have a high productivity and efficientcy rate. This is a limiting factor for integrating the port with the surrounding city as containment and segregation of the port reduces the amount of effort on the ports behalf to manage safety of all people on site, therefore giving more time to productive tasks.

Safety is probably the most limiting factor for the integration of the port with the rest of the city. The port is a heavy industry that uses heavy machinery. Just like a construction site, there is regulation that requires the seperation of the public from this activity to maintain their safety. If the port is to be integrated with the rest of the city the methodology for this seperation should be come apparent but transparent.

In combination with access, there is limited oppurtunity to view the happenings of the port. We all know the processes that go on inside the gates of the port but i personally have never seen for example a ship being offloaded.

Additional to this, ports deal with goods coming into and out of the country. Security measures have to be in place to ensure illegal imports and exports are reduced globally. The current methodology (fences, gates, blockages) for implimenting the above security measures creates what i think is an unnessecary amount of segrigation between the port infrastructure and the rest of the city.

Access to these types of activities can be exciting to watch and provide perspective on the running of our city.



if there was oppurtunity for seeing these activities on the Auckland waterfront i think this could reduce the debate around the ports place on the auckland waterfront.

The city of Auckalnd is separated from its working waterfront by a historical red iron fence. We are spoilt in Auckland in terms of our ability to access the waters edge from so many locations within our city, so much so it has become for us an expectation that access to the waters edge will be granted. Although access to the water is granted at many points along the auckland waterfront, the denial of this access along such a long length is viewed as a negative point and an obsticle to the enjoyment of the whole waterfront. The main purpose of the fence is to seperate the port of Auckland infrastructure and the public. It is therefore seen as the port being responsible for the denial of the publics access to this section of the waterfront and also to the happenings of the Auckland port infrastructure. This stimulates negative opinions about the ports place on Aucklands waterfront.

For a long period in history Aesthetics have played a large role in how different parts of the urban fabric are accepted, cherished or disliked. The Auckland port provides for some a working, pulsing peice of infrastructure that can be an exciting to watch if a view into the site can be obtained. For others the port represents a large carpark type landscape located on premium waterfront property and is an obsticle to their enjoyment of that landscape. The latter of these two differing opinions is probably the one most often expressed by the people of auckland. We are left with the question, with the port most appropriately placed for its functioning, do we move it to cater for the desire of the public or is there an alternitive to shift the way in which the port is percived?

Waterfront potentials Open space Ferry Terminal Continued Port Use Mixed Use

Although the tank farms site has been masterplanned already, it has not been built. If neccessary it would be possible to integrate some port activity at this site. Some adjustment to the wharf structure and the proposed park (e.g lifting the park 1 story) could see this site used for perhaps the veihcle trade section of the port.

There is a potential for the smaller wharf structures within the port property to form a public open space that enables a very direct relationship between the port and the public.

The port property offers some of the most interesting waterfront landform along the city edge. the proposed reclamation will destroy this detail. shifting the proposed reclamation would retain a more interestingly shaped waterfront.

There is limited potential for Princes wharf as it is heavily built up already. There is however meant to be public space incorperated into this development. It is hardly used. there could be a project in getting this public space to work and be used.

chosen site and question

potential methods for solving issue Wetlands The obvious problem solved by implimenting wetlands would be the treatment of the stormwater that currently flows directly into the harbour. A secondary use would be the treatment of the stormwater from the Port property. Wetlands will also be used to provide a soft barrier, seperating the public and the port infrastructure.

Shift the Reclamation Shifting the reclamation will allow for the retention of some of the most interesting waterfront property that is most suited for placing the public within the port context. This is an important move toward gaining public acceptance of the port.

The Aesthetical Port

Some effort will be placed into giving the port a clean industrial aesthetic. This will attempt to blend visually the port in with the rest of the city, but at the same time highlighting the ports beauties, cranes etc.

Access Two open spaces will be provided in the heart of the port infrastructure. The access and view into the port industry provided by this will allow some appreciation of the port activity. The integration of the port and a social space will reduce the dominance of the port industry over the waterfront.

Research Component - Edge Dynamics :: Gyles Bendall Research Question

How can port edge conditions and Quay Street be redeveloped to improve the urban environement. This focuses on the social aspect of ‘sustainability’ and the role of ports within the urban environment, and how they can be better integrated into Auckland

The subSite

The subsite of this research project is the Quay street corridor, including the edge of the port activities along the northern bourdary, Quay Street, and the southern urban edge of Quay Street (currently rail land and poor quality development).

What is the problem

The existing urban area along the western end of this corridor has a range of uses and highly active, however, to the east Quay Street rapdiliy changes to a vast area of grey and has a distinct industrial look and feel, and the connenction to the sea is lost. Urban development is poor and there is very low activity (except traffic). Beyound the port Tamaki Drive starts and there is a change to recreational activities along the street edge and reconnection with the sea occurs.

How will this site be changed

This sub project will seek: • opportunities to rearrange port activities to enhance egde conditions • to investigate options to bring the marine environment back along the edge • to retain urban activity along this corridor • to retain port activities, and celebrate a working waterfront. This will evovle through site analysis, mapping and case studies to explore existing strengths and opportunities for the site.

Research Site (corridor)

Route Experience - The Existing Conditions The following provides a walking experience of the site. As described below there are currently two distinct precints along the site, one highly urban and the other industrial.

People Active frontages Interest Diversity Grey

Working boats evident, however seperated from viaduct area. Working activity. Built form of low quality but active (workers). Water on both sides. Sense of sea and marine activity. Open views to sea.

High quality built form and open space. Viaduct active and busy. Areas further west less active. Mix of residential, tourism, hospitality, and marine activities. High degree of active frontages. Views into Viaduct and inner wharf environent. Marine activity based on ‘super’ yatchs (berths and some maintenance) and tourism. General feeling of open access to most areas (except lower wharf area). Marine activities dominant.

High quality built form. Tall buildings (CBD). Foot paths busies throughout this zone. Ferry and bus transport zones. Mixture of views to water and marine activity and building along water front. Access available on both sides. Variety of business, tourism and transport activities. Direct access to Queens St. Gernal feeling of open access to most areas except behind ferry terminal. Built form on oppisite side of road has active fontages. Mixture of commercial business and retail.

Reduced pedestrain activity, but still present. Port activities begin. Reduced sense of marine activities do to static nature of port opertations and disconnection from water. Barrier between pedestrian zone and ports begin. Speration from water and marine activites pull focus towards road, where the busy road environement increase in dominance. Built form on opposite side of road reuced in scale. Increase heritage buildings. Reduced active frontages.

Feeling of disconnection. Large distances from port activieis wth large expanses of grey (including rail sidings) between pedestrian and port acitivies. Fences along port edge noticable physical barrier (particualarly due to proximity to path edge) and sense of disconnetion from port activities and are ‘unwelcoming’. Some areas of built form coming up to road egde, however, these are generally blank, none active frontages. Busy road enviornment dominanting. Built form on opposite side of road increaseing in size and quality. However, these do not relate to road edge due to separation of rail corridor inbetween. Closer to th western end builings come up to road edge but lack active frontages.

Feeling of disconnection. Large distances from activities with large expanses of grey between pedestrian and port actiites. Mitigation planting encroaches onto pedestrian space.

Wide open grey areas, rail, road, intersection, and open grey port areas. Limited points of interest and not human scale.

Busy road environemtn dominating

Busy road environemtn dominating.

Some development on opposite side of road. Poor quality, car based retail and limited residential above. Seperated by wide road environemtn and carparking before built form.

No development on opposite side of road.

Increase activity from recreation (walking, running

and cycling). Many coming from the east stop at Teal Park turn around and head back along the open water front edge. Rescue centre and restaurant provides some activity and interest. Walk access along wharf edge narrow, fishing activities present. Road environement busy, but less dominating with parked cars providing barrier, and open views to water enhances sense of escape, interest, and openess. No development on opposite side of road.

Calum Nesbitt Individual Research Question How to create a more succesful interaction between the current port development and the public relm, in particular the planned redevlopment of Captain Cook Wharf? Currently the wharf is poised to be developed as a new car park, for housing the import of vehicals from abroad. Possibly the most seen section of the port from the public eye, it seems the perfect location for a much for subtle approach to design. Being able to keep both the port development and public opinion positive is incredibly difficult, however offering the port its neccessities whilst also offering the public a brand new development, be it parkland, wetland or shoping development, guarantees a much more cohenrant future for the waterfront of Auckland Right: Location of design proposal 2nd Right: Basic diagram showing possibile development Bottom Left: Proposed demolishion and reclamation of land Middle Bottom: Current port edge 3rd Bottom: Proposed port edge, with two level shared surface Bottom Right: Connectivity neccessary for development

Diagram to illustrate the possibility of housing the car stacking unit within a landform. The landform could be independent from the port thus allowing no constraintes on design or shape. This would intergrate perfectly with the surrounding land, especialy the interaction between Quay Street and the foot of Queens Street.

Captain Cook Wharf Size:

Above the ground and in site of the city a new parkland

75m x 275m 20625m2

Car Capacity: Approx 1500 The current method of vehical storage on Captain Cook Wharf is very limited. Creating a building or car stacking units is the right direction for the port to develop. However the propsed car park, will increase the negivtive stance that much of the public feels towards the ports exspansion. Integrating the parking development more succesfuly with the public, i.e. a raised parkland etc, will begin to merge the two opposing sides together. A simple therory is that a one story building could house just as many cars but with half the floor plan, and again a two storey twice as many cars, a quarter of the wharf being used.

Car Park hidden by raised parkland

An Illustration showing the connectivity needed with my proposed redevelopment of Captain Cooks Wharf. The idea of having a shared surface between oublic and private, can only really be resolved by the intropduction of hight for th eoublic space. Keeping everything on one level and simply being seperated by a fence is just returning to the exsisting negitive approach taken by the current port.

Captain Cook Wharf

Container Ship Acces

Proposed site for car park

Pedestrian Acces

Rail Acces

A new development on Captain Coks Wharf will act a s a catalyst, imediatly improving the adjacent land on Quay Street. This will gradually incraese the street scape along Quay Street, currently very car orientation and certainly not pedestrian frendly. The right shows the possibilties of implementing a car stacking unit sucken below Captain Cook Wharf, allowing for the roof of the structure to be cover with a parkland etc for public access. Below is illustrating the new influx of pedestrian access if the wharf is developed. The streetscape can begin to be devloped to incarese the theme along the waterfront. Lifting the pblic out of the city to a raised platform allows them to interact as best they can with the activties of a modern day port. The space could also house a built sturture similar to the Boston Arts Centre with its huge empahaisi on light and glass. The images right, The Hight Line, New York, a succesful parkland rising above a heaveily dominated industrial zone. Far right are two images showing lookout installations in the Chile landscape, the idea of the structures is to submerge the user into a portrait of the mass landscape infront of them, this theme could work incredibly well with the views to Devonport & Ranigitoto.

Returning Quay street to a more traditional walkway, central gardens, lime tree walkways, reducing the cars to single lanes on shared surfaces. All of these begin to take the emphaiss away from the vehical and back to the pedestrian, this increasing the attractive waterfront. Similarly to the approach of the parkland being a catalyst, if the first section of pedestrianisation was at the base of the new development at Captain Cooks Wharf it would begin to evolve and spread up into Queens street and the CBD and along Quay Street to the East.

Olympic Sculpture Park Seattle, an excellent example of how two large rail and road barriers have been able to incorporate there design. Both rail and road are avoided by green bridges, allowing both pedestraina ccess and poening a wildlife corridoor to the waterfront. The site for this development is also within sight of seattles main port, very similar location to Captain Cook redevelopment.

Allianz Munich Stadium, Vogt designed the walkway to cover the stadium parking unit, can just see the parking structure to the right of this image. The design was heavliy struture towards pedestrians, crowds of football fans, aswell as creating an ecologly for hundreads of species, in a location often not associated with such activtites.

Maratime Youth Museum, A further example of roof top development. Plot=BIG+JDS developed the roof of this development to incraese the interaction between the built form and the public.

Portland Bureau of Environmental Services, began redevlopeming their streetscape by implementing a network of sidewalk stormwater systems. They realised an issue with the amount of their stormwater run off and through clever design and installation, managed to rejuventate large portainos of their streets. This method could easily be placed with in Queens or Quay street adjacent to Captain Cook Wharf.

The use of Amsterdam tree soil, eleviates the issue of having tree within the urban context. Trees and landscaoe in general are being pushed from our cities, materials such as this allows for this trend to be haulted. The theme of improving streetscape on the Quay Street will relie heavily on the installation of soft landscaping.



the port is the most dominant feature along the waterfront


Fences, roads and rail lines physically separate the port from its surrounds

what techniques could help integrate the port with the wider landscape?

port bus/res ind

Research question:

port precinct

the port from Bledisloe to Fergusson wharves after eventual consolidation

How can the working port be integrated with the surrounding zones in the city?

surrounding zones


The public has a negative image of ports. In the public’s perception, ports are polluting, inaccessible and unattractive sites where one should stay away from... ... the port needs to do something about its image.

How can the working port be integrated with the surrounding zones in the city? The surrounding zones can roughly be divided into business/residential, industrial and recreation


Bernie Ranum 1305201




1 4






gateways interfaces

Map showing maximum heights in Port Precinct as per ACC District Plan: Central Area

MAXIMUM HEIGHT Boundary of Precinct

how can flows into and out of the site be exploited?




what experience could a port precinct create?

gateways into port precinct

what can be done to blur the boundaries? could areas be swapped?

integration with surrounding zones



15m above mean street level


18m above mean street level


18m above mean street level (permitted activity) Exceeding 18m to a maximum of 24m above main street level (restricted controlled activity )


18m above mean street level (permitted activity) Exceeding 18m to a maximum of 24m above main street

height controls

level (restricted controlled activity )

could the port build up (or under) rather than out under existing controls?



gateways integrate





gateways gateways




interfaces how can existing views be exploited?

Research question:


can the internal infrastructure of the port be rationalised to fit with its surrounds?

How can the working port be integrated with the surrounding zones in the city?

internal reorganization

create a port precinct that is accessible and integrated with its surrounding zones use the port activity to activate the surroundings


Seattle Olympic Sculpture Park


Bernie Ranum 1305201

References (1) How ports work - container terminals - BIMCO. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from Area/Education/Seascapes/ Maritime_Matters/container_terminals.aspx (2) Engber, D. What does a port operator do, anyway? Slate Magazine. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from (3) Heymann, E. (2006). Container shipping. Overcapacity inevitable despite increasing demand. Deutsche Bank Research. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from (4) Stocker, D. Productivity benefits through crane automation. Port Technology International – The key resource for the ports and terminals industry. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from (5) Kennedy, P. Flexibility: unlocking technology benefits. Port Technology International – The key resource for the ports and terminals industry. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from (6) Vega, R. Optimising complex terminal operations through advanced software applications. Port Technology International – The key resource for the ports and terminals industry. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from http:// (7) Froese, J. Effective operations in ports. Port Technology International – The key resource for the ports and terminals industry. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from (8) Cederqvist, H. Quantifying the benefits of yard automation. Port Technology International – The key resource for the ports and terminals industry. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from (9) Song , J. Efficient yard operation methodology in consideration of RMG characteristics. Port Technology International – The key resource for the ports and terminals industry. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from http:// (10) Verhoeven, P. Port cities in transition. European Sea Ports Organisation (ESPO). Retrieved February 27, 2010, from (11) Port development plan 2008 - Ports of Auckland. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from port_development_plan_2008.pdf (12) Port sustainability review 2009 - Ports of Auckland. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from sustainability_review_2009.pdf (13) EcoPorts 2008 Conference Programme. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from (14) European Sea Ports Organisation - 2004 Review. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from

15 Grant Associates, Gardens By The Bay & Supertrees, 28/02/2010, 16 West 8, Borneo-Sporenburg, 28/02/2010, projects/urban_design/borneo_sporenburg/ 17 McGregor Coxall, Magok Waterfront, 28/02/2010, 18

West 8, Toronto Central Waterfront, 28/02/2010, http://w

19 Studio Marcovermeulen, Nordhaven, 28/02/2010, http://www. 20 SLA, Cophenhagen Harbour Tunnel, 28/02/2010, http://www.sla. dk/planlaeg/tunnelgb.htm 21 McGregor Coxall, East Darling Harbour, 28/02/2010, AA BB Ports of Auckland; Information Booklet; 2009 Ports of Auckland; Annual Review; 2009 Ports of Auckland; Sustainability Review 2009 - Contributing to Our Success; 2009 CC

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Auckland Port Study