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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-73251-2 - Active Grammer Level 1 With Answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Frontmatter More information

active

GRAMMAR LEVEL 1

With answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Series editor: Penny Ur

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-73251-2 - Active Grammer Level 1 With Answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Frontmatter More information

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521732512 © Cambridge University Press 2011 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2011 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-73251-2 Paperback with answers and CD-ROM ISBN 978-0-521-17368-1 Paperback without answers and CD-ROM Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-73251-2 - Active Grammer Level 1 With Answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Frontmatter More information

Introduction

What is Active Grammar? 7Yj_l[=hWccWh_iW]hWccWhh[\[h[dY[WdZfhWYj_Y[i[h_[i\ehi[YedZWhoijkZ[dji WdZkd_l[hi_joijkZ[dji$?j_iZ_l_Z[Z_djej^h[[b[l[bi"Yehh[ifedZ_d]jej^[b[l[bi e\J^[9ecced;khef[Wd<hWc[mehae\H[\[h[dY[\ehBWd]kW][i9;<$B[l[b' Yehh[ifedZije7'Å7("B[l[b(je8'Å8("WdZB[l[b)je9'Å9($J^[Xeeai]_l[ Yecfh[^[di_l[Yel[hW][e\]hWccWhWj[WY^b[l[b"m^_b[WbieYel[h_d]h[WZ_d]" Yecfei_j_edWdZZ_iYkii_ed$J^[XeeaiWh[ik_jWXb[\ehijkZ[djim^eWh[ fh[fWh_d]\eh9WcXh_Z][;IEB[nWci$

How are the books organised? ;WY^kd_j_dYbkZ[i š Wi^ehjfh[i[djWj_edj[njm^_Y^i^emij^[]hWccWh_dYedj[njWdZfhel_Z[i Wkj^[dj_YYedj[dj_dWh[WiikY^Wi][e]hWf^o"^_ijeho"ieY_WbijkZ_[iWdZiY_[dY[$  š [Wio#je#kdZ[hijWdZ]hWccWh[nfbWdWj_edim_j^fb[djoe\[nWcfb[i$ š J_fXen[im^_Y^^_]^b_]^jYecced[hhehiehej^[h_dj[h[ij_d]\WYjiWXekjj^[ ]hWccWh$  š ]hWZ[Z]hWccWhfhWYj_Y[[n[hY_i[i"cWdoe\m^_Y^Wh[_dj^[ijob[e\ 9WcXh_Z][;IEB[nWci"W_c[ZWjXk_bZ_d]ijkZ[djiÊYedÓZ[dY[$ š WCoJkhdWYj_l_jo"m^[h[ijkZ[djiYWdWYj_l[boWffboj^[]hWccWhjej^[_hemd [nf[h_[dY[i"ef_d_ediWdZf[hiedWbfh[\[h[dY[i$  š WCoJ[iji[Yj_edm^_Y^WbbemiijkZ[djijeY^[Yaj^[_hkdZ[hijWdZ_d]e\a[o fe_dji$ 7bie_dYbkZ[Z_dj^[Xeea š h[]kbWhH[l_[mkd_jim^_Y^fhel_Z[YedjhWij_l[fhWYj_Y[e\fh[l_ekikd_ji$ š Wd7dim[ha[o$ š j^[7ff[dZ_Y[i"m^_Y^_dYbkZ[W=beiiWhom_j^Z[Ód_j_edi\ehWbb^_]^b_]^j[Z mehZi_dj^[kd_ji$ J^[9:#HEC_dYbkZ[i š [njhWWYj_l_j_[i\ehWbbj^[]hWccWhYel[h[Z_dj^[Xeea$ š fh_djWXb[fhe]h[iij[iji$

How do I use the book? OekYWdmehaj^hek]^j^[Xeeakd_jXokd_j\hecKd_j'$7bj[hdWj_l[bo"oekYWd ki[Wdokd_jeh]hekfe\kd_jii[fWhWj[bo_\oekmWdjje\eYkiedWfWhj_YkbWhWh[W e\]hWccWh$ J^[XeeaYWdX[ki[Z\ehi[b\#ijkZo"eh_dj^[YbWiiheec$<ehj[WY^[hi"W Yecfh[^[di_l[edb_d[j[WY^[hÊi]k_Z[]_l[ifhWYj_YWbj_fied^emjeki[j^[ cWj[h_Wb_dYbWii$ mmm$YWcXh_Z][$eh]%[bj%WYj_l[]hWccWh

?djheZkYj_edÿ

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-73251-2 - Active Grammer Level 1 With Answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Frontmatter More information

Contents

Introduction

3

19 Be going to

48

?Êc]e_d]jeki[cW]_Y$

1 Word class and word order

6

?dj^[mehbZjeZWo

20 Modal verbs: can, could, be able to 8

7h[oekcoied5

3 Present simple 1: statements

:eoekb_a[peei5

5 Present continuous I^[Êim[Wh_d]WXh_]^jo[bbemZh[ii$

6 Present continuous and present simple ?ÊcmWba_d]Å?ZedÊj^Wl[WYWh$

7 Imperatives IjWoYWbc

R1 Review: present simple and present continuous 20

Past 8 Past simple 1: was / were

22

>[mWiWfefkbWh^[he$

9 Past simple 2: regular past forms

26 28 30 32

66

68 70 72

76

D[_j^[hZe?$

78

9^eYebWj[_iXWZ\ehoek"_idÊj_j5

80

Verbs 82

>Wl[oek]ejW\Wlekh_j[YheYeZ_b[5

84

:eoek][jWd]ho5

86

J^_daWXekj_j

36 Phrasal verbs 46

74

>emYebZ_ij^[9^Wdd[b5

35 Prepositional verbs 44

?^ef[oekÊbb[d`eooe]W$

18 Present continuous with future meaning

30 How …? questions

34 Make, do and get 42

The future 17 Will, shall, won’t

29 What? and Which?

33 Have and have got 40

I_Yaf[efb[e\j[dki[Zjeib[[f_dj[cfb[i$

R3 Review: present perfect and used to

28 Be like and look like

R6 Review: questions and answers 38

J^[YecfWdo^Wi_dl[dj[Zj^[CWYWdZj^[_FeZ$

16 Used to

27 Object and subject questions

32 Question tags 36

J^[o^Wl[b_l[Zj^[h[\ehY[djkh_[i$

15 Present perfect or past simple?

26 Question words: Where? When? Why? How? Whose?

31 So and neither 34

>Wl[oek[l[hjh_[ZckijWhZ_Y[Yh[Wc5

14 Present perfect 3

64

7h[X[[jb[i_cfehjWdj5O[i"j^[oWh[

M^_Y^e\j^[c_ij^[gk[[dX[[5

J^[oÊl[Wbh[WZo_dl[dj[Z_j

13 Present perfect 2

25 Yes / no questions and short answers

M^WjZe[iMebl[h_d[beeab_a[5

;l[hoed[mWijWba_d]WXekjj^[Wbb_]Wjehi$

R2 Review: past simple and past continuous 12 Present perfect 1

Questions and answers

M^eijkZ_[ZWj>e]mWhji5

J^[oifea[9[bj_YbWd]kW][i$

11 Past continuous

62

>emZ_Z^[Z_[5

24

I^[b_l[Z_dWjh[[$

10 Past simple 3: irregular past forms

60

M[cWod[l[hadem¾

R5 Review: modals 18

58

Oeki^ekbZjWa[eùoekhi^e[i$

24 Modals of possibility: may, might 16

56

?^Wl[jeijWo^[h[$

23 Should, ought to 14

54

9ekbZm[]eedWiW\Wh_5

22 Must, have to and can’t 12

52

>emYWdZe]i^[bfki5

21 Modals for requests: can, could, may 10

CWoX[oekadem^[h$

4 Present simple 2: negatives and questions

50

Modal verbs

Present 2 Be

R4 Review: the future

88

7\h_[dZjej_Zokfoekhheec$

I^[ÊiÔo_d]je=bWi]emjecehhem$

Ā

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-73251-2 - Active Grammer Level 1 With Answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Frontmatter More information

37 Verbs with two objects

90

J[bboekh\h_[dZij^[jhkj^$

38 Verb + -ing or verb + to-infinitive; like and would like

92

94 96

Articles, nouns, pronouns, etc. 40 Countable and uncountable nouns

102

:eoekademj^[Wdim[h5

43 Articles 2

104

114 116 118

124 126 128 130 132 134

;Wj^[Wbj^_bo$

57 Comparative and superlative adverbs

136

M^_Y^m_bb\Wbb\Wij[h5

58 -ed and -ing adjectives

138

?i_j[nY_j_d]5

59 Too and enough J^_iY^W_h_ijeeie\j$

162 164

69 Defining relative clauses

166

7XWbb]Wc[j^Wj_ifbWo[Z_dcWdoYekdjh_[i

168 170

M^Wj_iĆ"ćĀĀacbed]WdZcWZ[e\ijed[5

71 Time and sequence adverbs: first, then, afterwards 172

J^[bem[ijfe_djed;Whj^

56 Adverbs of manner

160

Relative clauses

70 Linking words: and, but, or, so, because

?jÊid[Wh[hj^Wdoekj^_da$

55 Superlatives

68 Say and tell

Linking words and sentences

$$$medZ[h\kb]ebZ[di^e[i$$$

54 Comparatives

67 Reported speech

122

?jÊiWmedZ[h\kbfbWY[$

53 Order of adjectives

158

?ÊZj^hemWYWa[Wj^_c_\^[Z_ZdÊjijef$

R13 Review: reported speech; say / tell; relative clauses

Adjectives and adverbs 52 Adjectives

156

?\oekijkZoY^[c_ijho"oekÊbbd[l[hijefb[Whd_d]$

120

?jÊiWl[hokdkikWbXeea$

R9 Review: pronouns; possessives; quantifiers

Conditionals

I^[jebZc[jec[[j^[h$

M^ei[XW]_ij^_i5

51 There and it

154

7beje\hkXX_i^_ifheZkY[Z$

I^[iW_Zi^[mekbZd[l[h^Wl[WfWhjoW]W_d$

Co]h[Wj#]hWdZ\Wj^[hÊib[jj[hi

50 Whose?, my, mine

152

Reported speech 112

?ZedÊjademj^[cWdZj^[oZedÊjademc[$

49 Possessive ’s

64 Passive: present and past simple

R12 Review: the passive; conditionals

7beje\\kd

48 Subject and object pronouns

150

The passive

110

IWodej^_d]$

47 Much, many, a lot of, a little, a few

148

=[jeùj^[XeWjWdZim_cjej^[_ibWdZ$

66 Second conditional

J^[h[Wh[dejhW_diehXki[i$

46 Something, everywhere, nobody, anyone

146

?j^Wff[d[ZWjd_]^j$

106 108

J^_i_ic[$

45 Some, any, no, none

62 Prepositions of time: at, in, on

65 Zero and first conditionals

FbWocki_YWdZmWjY^j^[X_hZi$

R8 Review: nouns and articles 44 This, that, these, those

144

?Êl[b[\jcoa[oiWj^ec[$

R11 Review: prepositions 100

>[Wj[ĄćiWdZm_Y^[i_dj[dc_dkj[i$

42 Articles 1

61 Prepositions of place

63 Prepositions of movement 98

M^[h[Ze[iiWdZYec[\hec5

41 Plural nouns

R10 Review: adjectives and adverbs

Prepositions

?cW]_d[Wijeho$

R7 Review: verb structures

142

M[WbmWoi^Wl[Zh[Wci$

B[Whdjeif[WaWdobWd]kW][_djmem[[ai

39 State verbs

60 Adverbs of frequency

140

7\j[hbkdY^m[l_i_jj^[F[]kY^[MWj[h\Wbb$

72 Both, either, neither

174

J^[oXej^b_l[_dW\WdjWiomehbZ$

73 Word order

176

Ekji_Z[j^[fehjjeZWo

R14 Review: linking words and word order

178

Appendices L[hXj[di[i

'.&

?hh[]kbWhl[hXi

'.'

If[bb_d]0l[hXi

'.(

If[bb_d]0WZ`[Yj_l[i"WZl[hXiWdZdekdi

'.)

=beiiWho

'.*

=hWccWh_dZ[n

'.,

Answer key

'.-

ā

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-73251-2 - Active Grammer Level 1 With Answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Excerpt More information

1

Word class and word order In the world today

In the world today, people speak around

750

2,700 different languages.

million people use the English language. More than But only about million people speak it as a first language. About

About

350

885 million people speak Chinese as their first language.

80% of the information on the world’s computers is in English.

26

There are letters in the English alphabet. The sentence The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog uses all 26 letters.

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Word class and word order ý 7dekdYWdX[i_d]kbWh[$]$mehbZehfbkhWb[$]$ Yecfkj[hi"f[efb[$ ;nWcfb[ie\dekdiWh[0 cWd"]_hbf[efb[ \enWd_cWbi Yecfkj[h"b[jj[h"bWd]kW][j^_d]i mehbZfbWY[i ikYY[iigkWb_j_[i þ 7fhedekdYWdh[fbWY[Wdekd$ ;nWcfb[ie\fhedekdiWh[0 ?"c["oek"i^["^_c"_j"m["j^[c ÿ 7dWZ`[Yj_l[Z[iYh_X[iWdekd$ ;nWcfb[ie\WZ`[Yj_l[iWh[0 gk_Ya"Xhemd"Óhij"Z_ù[h[dj"]eeZ Ā 7Z`[Yj_l[ikikWbboYec[X[\eh[j^[dekd$ WÓhijbWd]kW][DEJWbWd]kW][Óhij 7Z`[Yj_l[i^Wl[defbkhWb\ehc$ Z_ù[h[djbWd]kW][iDEJZ_ù[h[djibWd]kW][i

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ā 7l[hXYWdh[\[hjej^[fWij"fh[i[djeh\kjkh[$ ;nWcfb[ie\l[hXiWh[0 if[Wa"`kcfWYj_edi X["b_a["ijWoijWj[i Ă 7dWZl[hXYWdZ[iYh_X[Wl[hX"WdWZ`[Yj_l[ehWm^eb[ i[dj[dY[$;nWcfb[ie\WZl[hXiWh[0 YWh[\kbbo"ibemboWZl[hXij^WjZ[iYh_X[Wl[hX l[ho"[njh[c[boWZl[hXij^WjZ[iYh_X[WZ`[Yj_l[i ^em[l[h"iec[j_c[i"bkYa_boWZl[hXij^WjZ[iYh_X[ i[dj[dY[i ă 7i[dj[dY[kikWbboYedjW_diWikX`[YjIWdZWl[hXL$ >[ImedL$ M_bb_WciImWiLj^[m_dd[h$ Ekhj[WcI_ifbWo_d]L_dj^[X_]ijWZ_kc$ Ą CWdoi[dj[dY[iYedjW_dWdeX`[YjE$?dj^[i[ i[dj[dY[ij^[mehZehZ[h_iILE$ I^[ImedLj^[hWY[E$ ą 7Zl[hXim^_Y^Z[iYh_X[Wl[hXkikWbboYec[Wjj^[[dZ e\Wi[dj[dY[$ CoXhej^[hif[Wai;d]b_i^gk_Yabo$

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-73251-2 - Active Grammer Level 1 With Answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Excerpt More information

Practice 7 <_dZ[nWcfb[ie\dekdi"fhedekdi"l[hXi"WZ`[Yj_l[i WdZWZl[hXi_dj^[\ebbem_d]i[dj[dY[iWdZmh_j[j^[c X[bem$ Ă˝ Ăž Ăż Ä&#x20AC; Ä 

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Coi_ij[hWdZ?bel[Yecfkj[h]Wc[i$ Wbbj^[j_c[$   W M[fbWoj^[c   X J^[cfbWom[   Y FbWom[j^[c CokdYb[if[Wai\ekh $   W Z_Ăľ[h[djbWd]kW][i   X bWd]kW][iZ_Ăľ[h[dji   Y Z_Ăľ[h[djibWd]kW][i Xej^if[Wa;d]b_i^m_j^c[$   W m[   X j^[c   Y j^[o Cocej^[h_iIfWd_i^WdZco\Wj^[h_i@WfWd[i["Xkj ?b_a[j^[XeeaWdZco\h_[dZb_a[i jee$   W Xeea   X ^_c   Y _j 9Wj"hWXX_j"Ze]WdZidWa[Wh[ $   W WZl[hXi   X dekdi   Y fhedekdi CoJ[ijWdim[hi0'W(W)Y*Y+X

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2

Be Are you my son?

J^[A_d]l_i_jij^[

fh_dY[eh_i^[j^

King: I don’t unders tand! Are you my so n? Tom: No, I’m not a prince, I’m poor. King: Are you sure? Your clothes are not very old! Tom: They’re not m y clothes. They’re Edward’s clothes. H e’s poor now. King: Oh no! This is terrible! Is it true? Tom: Yes, it is. I’m re al You aren’t my father ly sorry, King Henry. , you’re my King.

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?

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-73251-2 - Active Grammer Level 1 With Answers Fiona Davis and Wayne Rimmer Excerpt More information

3

Present simple 1: statements Maybe you know her.

There’s a new girl at sch ool. Maybe you know her. She has beautiful black hair down to her waist . Her big, brown eyes are pools of chocolate.

Jhk[eh<Wbi[5 BWobWb_l[i_d;]ofj$ 7dim[h0<Wbi[

?

We her every day. er and I see st si y M r a. yl of ou name is La on the corner The new girl’s e apartments th in s ppy. ve ha li is e . Sh pe she think she’s 15 r school. I ho te af ry ra lib e es to th . Her mum street. She go hool together sc to k al w ey Egypt. I don’t ung brother. Th e comes from Layla has a yo Sh . ol ho sc r ins in Cairo. eaner at ou that it never ra ys works as a cl sa d da y M about Egypt. know much

Present simple 1: statements ý Ki[j^[fh[i[dji_cfb[\eh0 Åj^_d]ij^WjWh[WbmWoiehkikWbbojhk[ ?jd[l[hhW_di_d9W_he$ Åh[]kbWhehh[f[Wj[Z[l[dji J^[omWbajeiY^eebje][j^[h$ ÅijWj[i"m_j^l[hXiikY^Wi\[[b"^Wj["adem"b_a[" beea"bel["fh[\[h"j^_da"kdZ[hijWdZ"mWdj$ M[j^_dai^[Êiāą$CWoX[oekadem^[h$ þ Ki[j^[_dÓd_j_l[m_j^ekjjem_j^?"oek"m[WdZj^[o$ 7ZZ#im_j^^["i^[WdZ_j$ ijWj[c[dj

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j^_dai

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Practice A Change the infinitive without to of these verbs into the correct present simple form with it. 1 4 7 10

play it ptoijS fix teach wash

2 do 5 miss 8 think

C Complete Layla's letter using the correct present simple forms of the verbs in brackets.

3 enjoy 6 say 9 try

Every morning 1

1

Wiki

breakfast for my brother and me. I (walk) to school with my 2

3

brother. We girls. They always 1

B Complete these facts about Egypt. Use the correct present simple forms of the verbs in the box.

4

5

buy come have have live show study visit

(see) the same two (say) 'hello'. (feel) lonely sometimes, but I

really like my new school. The school (have) a very good library. My brother ' (go) to primary school. He always (wear) his 6

1 Egypt fi&5 a population of around 80 million. 2 17 million people in Cairo. 3 The name 'Egypt' from the Greek word 4 5 6 7 8

(make)

8

Egyptos.

9

old red coat. My mother work early in the morning. She (work) very hard.

Around 6,000,000 tourists Egypt every year. Every tourist presents from a night market. Egypt about 100 pyramids. Tourist guides people the pyramids of Giza. An egyptologist is a person who Egyptian history from a long time ago.

Thank you for the card. You (write) very good letters. Write again soon! Love, Layla

(go) to 1 0

1 1

about your school morning.

1 Every morning I 2 3

4 5 6 7

(vave breakfast with ituj famitij. I always You never My teacher The school My friends sometimes We

| Circle the correct option. I 1 to the shops. a They walks b She walk c He walks 2 Layla's mum by bus. a go b gos c goes 3 in Cairo. a It never rains b It never rain c It's never rain 4 big brown eyes. a Layla have b Layla haves c Layla has 5 Her mum English. a study b studys c studies 3C 3fc Bf

37

:T

: S J B M S U E iisai

Aw

Present simple 1 11


Present simple 2: negatives and questions

4 n

Do you like zoos?

o n cv

Do you (ike zoos? Do you think zoos are a good idea? Welcome t o A n i m a l The in

park

danger.

animals

World

i s different

Park

from

i n California,

other

zoos.

When i t i s p o s s i b l e , we r e t u r n

to their

USA.

We h e l p

animals

young

homes. We h a v e m o r e t h a n in

t h e park.

30

gorillas

A mother

gorilla

doesn't

h a v e many b a b i e s .

gorilla

stays

three You

with

often find They

colobus

have b e a u t i f u l white

atotot money.

monkeys i n

a r e i n danger

c o l o b u s monkeys and

for

years.

zoos. they

A baby-

i t s mother

because

f u r . Young

don't

fur - their

have

black

fur i s

white.

Find t h e n a m e s o f t h e a n i m a l s in t h e p h o t o s .

m

Xa>|uoui snqo]03 e pile B||uo8

Present simple 2: negatives and questions 1

To m a k e n e g a t i v e f o r m s in t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e , use a n d doesn't

2

+ t h e i n f i n i t i v e f o r m w i t h o u t to o f t h e v e r b .

They don't A mother

don't

have gorilla

black and white doesn't

have

Does

the park cost

3

U s e do or does or doesn't

1/ You / W e / T h e y

d o n o t ( d o n ' t ) believe

He/She/It

d o e s n o t (doesn't) believe

T h e r e is no -s o n t h e m a i n v e r b a f t e r does o r think...

Does she know?

a lot of

money?

babies.

negative X

She doesn't

To m a k e a q u e s t i o n , use do or does in f r o n t o f t h e subject. Do you like zoos ?

fur.

many

E :J9MSUV

N O T She doesn't

N O T Does she knows ?

thinks...

doesn't.

in t h e a f f i r m a t i v e s h o r t a n s w e r a n d

don't

in t h e negative short answer.

Yes, I do. No, he

doesn't.

question ?

s h o r t answer / X

Do

Yes, (1) d o .

1 / y o u / w e / t h e y like...?

No, (1) d o n ' t . Does

he / she / i t

like...?

Yes, (he) does. N o , (he) d o e s n ' t .

12


Practice

A Underline t h e correct o p t i o n .

B

D

1

I don't know /doesn't

2

M o s t trees don't grow/doesn't

3

Do/Does

Sara u n d e r s t a n d this?

4

Do/Does

y o u w a n t t o t a l k a b o u t it?

5

The price don't include/doesn't

6

I don't think/doesn't

7

We don't see/doesn't

8

They don't live/doesn't

know the answer. grow very quickly.

n o t eat have

include

service.

think he's very nice. see o u r g r a n d p a r e n t s very o f t e n . live very near.

present s i m p l e f o r m s o f t h e v e r b s in b r a c k e t s . WW

1

living here. Black r h i n o s groups. T h e y

Yes, I

Yes, b u t t h e y

tyt

U.p

n o t go h o m e

at 6.30 every m o r n i n g . bananas all t h e t i m e . They

3

The gorillas in t h e park are all f r i e n d s . They Yes, it does. The park

5

Yes, t h e y d o . W e

m o r e t h a n 5 0 gorillas. a baby g o r i l l a in t h e park

Yes, b u t s o m e t i m e s a m o t h e r her baby. T h e n w e help t h e baby.

(prefer) t o live alone.

Yes, I give t h e baby m i l k every f o u r hours, day and night. I

8

(use) t h e

I

in t h e evening. I sleep at t h e park. m y j o b ! N o day is t h e same!

mum

horns as medicine. A mother black r h i n o (not have)

5

many babies. A baby (stay) w i t h

6

its mother f o r t h r e e t o f o u r years. The m o t h e r r h i n o (not stay) w i t h t h e father.

7

Rhinos

(not f i g h t ) w i t h o t h e r animals in

8

the park. In fact, t h e y are f r i e n d l y animals. C Make p r e s e n t s i m p l e q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e w o r d s , t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s in y o u r n o t e b o o k u s i n g s h o r t answers. 1

a mechanic / f i x cars Dees a mechanic {iÂŁ cars?

2

y o u / w o r k at t h e w e e k e n d Oojoa worfc.

J

W h a t d i d t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ask? M a k e p r e s e n t s i m p l e q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e w o r d s in b r a c k e t s a n d w r i t e t h e m in y o u r n o t e b o o k . 1

P o j S M f c t ap earUjf*

(early)

2

? (bananas)

3

? (fight)

4

?(a l o t o f gorillas)

5

?(have babies) ? (stay w i t h its m o t h e r ]

6

? (drink milk)

7

'(like)

8

N o w t h i n k o f a t least t h r e e m o r e p r e s e n t s i m p l e q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e g o r i l l a k e e p e r a n d w r i t e t h e m in y o u r n o t e b o o k .

attkt, wukudL

3

a vet / l o o k a f t e r animals

4

zoo k e e p e r s / w o r k in shops

5

a young colobus m o n k e y / have w h i t e f u r

6

w e / g o t o school o n Sundays

7

nurses / w o r k in a h o s p i t a l

8

have

love

4

7

Black rhinos are in danger because o f t h e i r horns. People 4

1 2

6

( n o t live) in

3

g o t up

at t h e m o m e n t .

(have) a large n u m b e r o f rhinos 2

not fight

not look after

like a l o t o f o t h e r f r u i t , t o o .

Complete t h e t e x t a b o u t black rhinos using t h e correct

We

R e a d p a r t o f an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a g o r i l l a k e e p e r . C o m p l e t e h e r a n s w e r s , u s i n g t h e v e r b s in t h e b o x .

y o u / d o sport in t h e evening

Circle t h e correct option. 1

A:

2

We

b W a n t you

M y sister a doesn't like

4

b don't visit

c doesn't visit

zoos. b doesn't likes

She says t h e animals a n o t have

5

c Do you want

zoos very o f t e n ,

a aren't v i s i t 3

B: No, I d o n ' t ,

t o go t o t h e zoo?

a You w a n t s

c d o n ' t like

a v e r y happy life,

b doesn't have

c d o n ' t have

A: D o t h e rhinos f i g h t w i t h o t h e r animals? B:No, a doesn't t h e y

'.VSOTWSVVVWWW

b it doesn't DCJ

Of

EÂŁ

c they don't (\l

0\ :SJ9AASUE j;S3J_

A"\AJ

Present simple 2 1 3


Mark: Hi, Monica. Are youlookingfor Nicole' „ i f Y« ,ve'rewairingforherartheparry. iar k: No, she isn't. She's lying on the

» Monica: Are you serious Everyone's arriving now. Mark: She isn't feeling well.

M o ^ ^ a s ^ e ^ ^ X

O

W h o is ill?

a Mark

b M o n i c a c Nicole

plavinghis new gmtar and some peop 'strange g ^ B i a ^ i . ^ ^ ^ ^ yellow dress and a green hat. She s... a y Mark: Wait a minute... Nicole is coming now .J See you there, Monica.

:j3Msuy

Present continuous 1

statement

The present continuous describes a t e m p o r a r y activity in progress at o r around now. She is lying on the sofa now. future

present I'm reading

this book at the

moment. Mark is speaking Are you 2

on the phone.

Monica

You / W e / They a r e n o t (aren't / 're n o t ) w o r k i n g

He / She / It is fs) w o r k i n g

He / She / It is n o t (isn't /'s n o t ) w o r k i n g

question ?

s h o r t answer / X

A m 1 working?

Yes, 1 a m .

is washing

Is he / she / i t w o r k i n g ?

N o , (he) is n o t (isn't /'s n o t ) .

coffee.

/ am not watching

TV.

Is Monica

her hair?

washing

A: Are they drinking are.

Yes, (he) is.

her hair.

M a k e negatives, questions and

B: Yes, they

Yes, (you) a r e . N o , (you) a r e n o t ( a r e n ' t / 're n o t ) .

TV.

short f o r m s like this:

14

You / W e / They a r e ('re) w o r k i n g

Are you / we / they working?

o f the verb.

We are drinking 3

1 a m n o t f m not) w o r k i n g

No, 1 a m n o t f m not).

s t a t e m e n t s w i t h am / is / are + / am watching

negative X

1 a m ('m) w o r k i n g

listening?

M a k e present continuous -ing form

/

coffee?

I f a v e r b e n d s i n -e, d r o p t h e -e. dance

-* People are dancing.

NOT...

danccing

I f a verb ends in o n e v o w e l and o n e consonant, d o u b l e t h e consonant. stop

The train is stopping.

NOT...

stoping

See page 182 f o r more spelling rules.

See Units 6 and 18 f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e present continuous.


Practice

A Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1

She is walking/are

2

People is singing/are

D

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences using t h e present continuous o f t h e verbs in t h e box. Some are negatives or questions.

walking d o w n t h e s t r e e t . singing t o o l o u d l y .

3 We isn't waiting/aren't

waiting

4

I am running/is

5

Hello? Are I speaking/Am

carry

in t h e r i g h t place.

talk

running because I'm late. I speaking t o Lucy?

much. A t the m o m e n t I am living/are

8

/s that boy smiling/Are

living w i t h m y f r i e n d .

is not crijituj

4

The cat I

8

He

9

She

A: Be q u i e t ! W e

6

A: W h e r e ' s R o b e r t ?

or questions. 'Hello, Dad. Yes, I'm s t i l l at t h e party. W h a t ' s happening? (sit) on the sofa. G e o f f

2

(tell) some f r i e n d s

about his holiday and he

pictures. Diego and B i a n c a

Everyone Economics at university?

A: Can I p h o n e y o u at t h e h o t e l ? B: N o , I

/

answers.

very loudly. I'm glad she

(sing) - she is a

7

terrible singer! W a i t . . . N i c o l e

(come) in t h e

8

door. She looks O K now. Everyone Anyway, w h a t a b o u t y o u , Dad?

(smile).

9

(do)

1 0

anything interesting? I see. Great, t h e y

1

Is i t raining?

2

3

A r e y o u w e a r i n g jeans?

4

A r e any o f y o u r f r i e n d s s i t t i n g near you?

5

A r e y o u f e e l i n g hungry?

Yes, i t is.

(shout), she j u s t speaks

6

there.

A n s w e r t h e questions in y o u r n o t e book using short

pictures because t h e y t h i n k t h e y are b o r i n g . W h a t ? O h , that's Helen. S h e

a b o u t her purple hair. Alice

10

(look) at t h e

5

you

9

(show) t h e m t h e

4

a letter.

B: N o , there's n o t h i n g dangerous in m y suitcase.

hard today, ( n o t w o r k )

continuous o f t h e v e r b s i n b r a c k e t s . S o m e a r e n e g a t i v e s

m y red dress?

A:

8

a c o m p u t e r upstairs, (carry)

C Complete t h e t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t

very w e l l t h i s season.

a n y t h i n g dangerous w i t h y o u , Sir?

some m i l k , (drink)

(dance) b u t I

very w e l l .

Sarah,

7

a g o o d t i m e , ( n o t have)

i ddhdh^

this film?

B: H e

very fast, ( n o t run)

1

write

B: T h e y

t o school, (walk)

Well, everyone

wear

t o listen t o t h e radio!

5

now. ( n o t cry)

5 They 7

I

3

o u r holiday, (plan)

I

6

2

(rain)

3 We

study

B: Sorry.

o f t h e verbs i n b r a c k e t s . 2 The baby

watch

stay

A: M y t e a m are l o s i n g again!

B Complete t h e s e n t e n c e s u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s It's raining.

play

flrejjoa watcfvuuj

that boy smiling a t me?

1

try

1

6 The guests is not enjoying /are not enjoying t h e p a r t y 7

feel

A r e y o u w a t c h i n g TV? Klo, I'm. w t .

6

Is y o u r m o b i l e p h o n e r i n g i n g ?

7

A r e y o u w r i t i n g t h i s w i t h a black pen?

8

Is y o u r w a t c h / t h e clock s h o w i n g t h e r i g h t t i m e ?

9

A r e y o u l i s t e n i n g t o any music?

1 1

(bring) the f o o d . I'm h u n g r y ! I'll p h o n e later. Bye.'

|

Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1

w e l l , so I w a n t t o stay in b e d .

2 A:

t h e guitar?

B:Yes, he is.

3 Everyone at t h e p a r t y

a aredanceing

4 A: Is Bianca w e a r i n g a y e l l o w dress? 5

Mark

t o Monica.

a I amn't feeling a Is D i e g o p l a y i n g

B:Yes,

a isn't l i s t e n i n g

b I aren't f e e l i n g

c I'm n o t f e e l i n g

b D i e g o is p l a y i n g

b dancing

a she wears b not listening

c Is p l a y i n g D i e g o

c is dancing b she are

c she is

c d o n ' t listen eg ~>y ->i

EÂŁ

ox : s j 9 M 5 u e \\<&\_ X

Present continuous 1 5


Present continuous and present simple

6

I'm walking -1 don't have a car.

Good. I never d r i v e in Paris. The traffic is terrible.

ine t h e correct o p t i o n : Paris is a bad / good

"

'

place f o r cars. pEq IJ9MSUV

Present continuous and present simple 1

Use t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e t o t a l k o r ask a b o u t t h i n g s t h a t are a l w a y s o r u s u a l l y t r u e . Do you speak We don't

2

English ?

have a car.

Use t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e t o t a l k o r ask a b o u t regular or repeated events and habits. Sandra

phones

Do you drink 3

her mother coffee

in the

day.

morning?

He's w a l k i n g t o w o r k t o d a y .

It d o e s n ' t r a i n on t h e m o o n .

It i s n ' t r a i n i n g at t h e m o m e n t .

D o y o u ever r e a d c o m i c s ?

She's r e a d i n g a comic now.

1 have t w o brothers.

I'm h a v i n g a shower.

Charles plays t h e piano.

Charles i s n ' t at h o m e . He's p l a y i n g in a concert. A: W h a t are y o u d o i n g ?

o f f r e q u e n c y [always,

B: I'm a t a x i driver.

B: I'm d r i v i n g t o t h e a i r p o r t .

never, sometimes,

here in

dream

etc.).

summer.

about

you. T h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e is m u c h m o r e c o m m o n t h a n t h e

Use t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s t o d e s c r i b e a n

p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s , a n d in m o s t cases y o u s h o u l d use

a c t i v i t y in p r o g r e s s n o w / a r o u n d n o w , o r a n

the present simple.

unfinished activity. Are you reading They are building

/ think

this page. (= n o w ) a shopping

W e r a r e l y use t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s f o r v e r b s w h i c h are a b o u t s t a t e s , n o t a c t i o n s , e.g. believe,

know, like, love, need,

understand,

want.

/ know

English. N O T I'm

Do you need

seem,

See U n i t 3 9 .

a pen?NOT

knowing... Are you needing... ?

it's nice. N O T I'm

She is Turkish

centre. (= i t is

N O T . . . she's

n o t f i n i s h e d yet)

16

He usually w a l k s t o w o r k .

A: W h a t d o y o u do?

I sometimes

5

present c o n t i n u o u s

W e o f t e n use t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e w i t h a d v e r b s It never snows

4

every

present s i m p l e

â&#x20AC;˘

thinking...

and she comes

from

Istanbul.

coming...

See Units 3 and 5 f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on the present simple and present continuous.


Practice

A Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n .

B

playing

D

present simple or present continuous

1

They play/are

2

Are you having / Do you have breakfast every m o r n i n g ?

rugby t w i c e a w e e k .

3

It snows/is

4

Your guide speaks/is

5

We don't know/aren't

6

The DJ plays/is

7

Do you like /Are you liking t h e f o o d ?

8

\'mnot laughing /don't

o f t h e v e r b s in b r a c k e t s .

snowing so w e can't go skiing. speaking

Hi, Rita,

t h r e e languages.

knowing t h e way.

playing

"the sun

laugh, I'm crying / cry.

is great. He

It's raining a l o t

b and I'm w e t .

She always has lunch

a - please p h o n e later,

She's having lunch

b at school.

A: Do you buy c o m p u t e r

a

games?

( s t u d y ) t h r e e hours in t h e morning and

a cafe on King S t r e e t . 1 How are y o u ?

B: No, I d o w n l o a d t h e m

I don't w o r k .

a

It's Sunday,

I'm not w o r k i n g .

b

I'm a s t u d e n t .

11 A: W h a t is she d o i n g ?

a

B: She's reading,

12 A: W h a t does she do?

b

B: She's a s t u d e n t .

1

A: I

<font utuierstaiui

(work)

1 1

Y o u are o n h o l i d a y . In y o u r n o t e b o o k , w r i t e a t e x t message t o y o u r f r i e n d . D e s c r i b e w h a t y o u are d o i n g a n d w h a t y o u a r e w e a r i n g . Tell y o u r f r i e n d w h a t y o u d o every day and w h a t you like / don't like.

simple o r p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s . S o m e are n e g a t i v e s o r q u e s t i o n s . understand

(live) here!

1 0

/â&#x20AC;&#x201D;H3B

C Complete t h e d i a l o g u e s u s i n g t h e v e r b s i n t h e b o x i n t h e p r e s e n t

rain

(not

9

Love, Julio

f r o m t h e Internet.

need

(sit) in

8

t h i s summer? Write soon.

computer game?

know

(go) on excursions

7

think) a king r e a l l y

B: Yes, I'm in t h e shop.

b

A: Are you b u y i n g a

5

( n o t speak) English w i t h an accent. We

in t h e a f t e r n o o n . Now 1

a in M o z a m b i q u e ,

carry

(come) f r o m

4

M a n c h e s t e r t o o b u t he

It rains a l o t

agree

(shine) and everyone (wear) T-shirts. Our teacher

She is speaking F r e n c h - ^ ^ b because her m o t h e r is f r o m Paris.

9

(have) a lovely t i m e in

Manchester. The weather is nice and warm today,

m y f a v o u r i t e song.

She speaks French w e l l ^ ^ a because t h e t o u r i s t doesn't k n o w Italian,

10

fc.M*M$

1 1

Match t h e pairs.

7

Complete this postcard w i t h t h e

wait

E x a m p l e : I'm tijwuj bij t(ve poet, I swim every ctotj.

wear

these i n s t r u c t i o n s .

B: W h y not? They l o o k clear t o me. 2

A: London is a very expensive city. B: Yes, I

3

A:

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

w i t h you. you

any help?

1

a coat.

2

B: No, I'm O K , thanks. 4

A: She A: 1 hey

6

*5

A: W h e r e is t h e H i s t o r y M u s e u m ? A:

Terry

3

A: It's a lovely day f o r a picnic. B: We're lucky t h a t i t

A:

it. b doesn't understand

a car? B: Yes, b u t I never drive in Paris.

a A r e y o u have

f o r me?

4

b D o y o u have

W h e n w e are in Paris, w e always

by

metro.

B: Y e s - y o u ' r e late. 8

He has a map, b u t he

c A r e y o u having

B: Sorry, I 7

c are l o o k i n g

c isn't understand

a p i a n o up t h e stairs.

B: Help t h e m - it's very heavy.

f o r t h e Eiffel Tower, b look

a isn't understanding

B: That's strange - it's very c o l d t o d a y . 5

The t o u r i s t a is l o o k i n g

a are go 5

b are g o i n g

c go

It is o f t e n sunny in Paris, b u t t o d a y i t a are rain

b is r a i n i n g IS t

c rains K

°Z T :sjaMsue jjsai Xyv E

Present continuous and present simple 17


Imperatives

7

Stay calm!

C^Stay calm!

below is for US teenagers.

Inside Stay inside. Sit under a table or stand against a wall. Don't stand near doors or windows. Never take an elevator.

Outside

V

â&#x20AC;˘ An earthquake 1 in California

Always stay where you are. Don't run inside.

H

Find a clear place away from buildings and trees Lie down on the ground until the earthquake stops

In a car Slow down and stop the car in a clear place.

9

H

Don't stop on a bridge.

U n d e r l i n e t h e correct o p t i o n : A large earthquake is 1 /

not possible in

possible

Stay inside the car until the earthquake stops.

California.

aiqissod jaMsuy

Imperatives

R e q u e s t s w i t h imperatives often sound not very polite to English

U s e i m p e r a t i v e s for:

speakers, even if you add 'please'. It's better to use other structures, e.g:

- instructions Answer

the

Could

questions.

- advice Stay

inside the car.

- orders Be

quiet!

- invitations Come

in and have put your

bag over

there.

bag over

putting

there?

your

bag over there ?

See U n i t 2 1 f o r t h e use o f can and could for requests.

2

U s e t h e infinitive w i t h o u t to f o r i m p e r a t i v e s . T h e r e is usually no subject. Lie down

3

on the ground.

N O T You lie down on the ground-.

M a k e negatives by adding don't Don't

4

Always Never Always

18

you mind

â&#x20AC;˘

a coffee.

- requests Please

you put your

Would

I Do not stand and never take an

near

(do not) in f r o n t .

windows.

can be used at t h e beginning o f t h e imperative phrase. elevator.

stay where you are.


A W h a t do you d o i f t h e r e is a fire i n t h e h o m e ?

B

Y o u are visiting a f r i e n d t h i s w e e k e n d . C o m p l e t e

Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n .

y o u r friend's advice w i t h an appropriate verb in t h e

1

Panic! /Don't

i m p e r a t i v e or negative i m p e r a t i v e .

2

Leave/Don't

3

Take time/Don't

4

Close/Don't

panic! leave t h e house quickly.

1

take time t o collect y o u r t h i n g s .

5

If a door is h o t , open/don't Go back/Don't

7

Phone/Don't

open i t . G o t o t h e w i n d o w .

go back inside. phone t h e f i r e f i g h t e r s .

turn left 1

have

turn down

A:

Turn

3

The s t a t i o n is always busy.

4

pick up

put

a sandwich o n t h e t r a i n - t h e y ' r e very expensive.

5

negative i m p e r a t i v e f o r m s o f t h e v e r b s i n t h e b o x . go shopping

late. The t r a i n always leaves o n t i m e . your ticket before you come.

Complete t h e d i a l o g u e s w i t h t h e i m p e r a t i v e o r

forget

t o bed early t o n i g h t .

2

close all d o o r s b e h i n d y o u .

6

yO

The t r a i n arrives at p l a t f o r m 2 d o w n t h e stairs and

out of

t h e m a i n entrance.

take

6

worry

l e f t and t o t h e car park.

t h a t music

7

&W!

in t h e car park. I'll meet you there.

B: I can't hear y o u . The music's t o o l o u d ! 2

A: It's my exam t o d a y .

3

A: I feel really b o r e d . W h a t can I do?

I t ' l l be O K . B:

! That's w h a t I d o w h e n I'm bored!

4

A: Please

your feet on the

seat. 5

y o u r notebook.

A: These cakes are lovely. B:

6

two!

A: I'm ready t o go now. B:

a great h o l i d a y ! t o send a postcard.

7

Examples:

Srifuj a buj coat, Dont drive into tfve centre,

A: Look at t h a t snake! Can I t a k e i t h o m e ? B: No! Never

8

G i v e s o m e advice t o t o u r i s t s . W r i t e t h r e e imperative s e n t e n c e s and t h r e e negative imperative sentences in

Sorry.

a snake!

A This is the road

now!

B: W h a t d i d y o u say?

mm m • • '

•••••|

Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1

! It's 8 o'clock and you're late.

2 A: Can I go t o a party t o n i g h t , M u m ? a you aren't 3 |

b Going

b G e t s up

c G e t up

noisy w h e n y o u c o m e h o m e .

c d o n ' t be a D o n ' t never run

4 A: Excuse me? W h e r e is t h e t o i l e t ? a Go

I

b be n o t

across t h e r o a d .

a You g e t up

B: O K , b u t please

B:

b N e v e r run

c Don't running

up these stairs and t u r n l e f t . It's t h e r e .

c You g o i n g

5 A: Sorry. I can't help y o u t o d a y . I'm very busy.

B:

a Don't worry

b D o n ' t be w o r r y _

_

E

c Doesn't w o r r y _

_

S fr 1£ Z a x B

3

_

_

: S J 3 M S U B

_

U l^W

J

sa

Imperatives

19


-J^ J Review: present simple and present continuous A

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e correct f o r m o f t h e verb. Be c a r e f u l w i t h s p e l l i n g . 1

M y sister

2

(play) t e n n i s every w e e k a n d

watckes

I'm very g o o d at sports, b u t I d o n ' t like w a t c h i n g s p o r t o n TV.

I'm. not wnj joo4 at sports, but I tiU

(run) very fast. I t h i n k

watching sport on TV.

(try) t o catch t h a t b i r d .

M y uncle

(work) in a f a c t o r y . H e

2

(fix) b r o k e n c o m p u t e r s . 4

1

(watch) t e n n i s matches o n TV.

L o o k at t h a t cat! It it

3

Change t h e s t a t e m e n t s i n t o negatives and t h e negatives i n t o statements.

ploys

always

C

T h e baby

M y b r o t h e r plays t h e guitar, b u t he isn't very g o o d at singing.

(cry) again. She always (cry) w h e n she's hungry.

5

Look! Everyone

(have) a great t i m e at

t h e party. Some p e o p l e are some 6

4

A n n and R o b e r t like L o n d o n and they're

(dance), and

M a r k usually

(study) very hard f o r exams, ( n o t study) t o n i g h t .

He

p l a n n i n g t o stay t h e r e .

(make) a m o d e l .

Alice really

( n o t w a n t ) her yoga course t o

end. She 8

W e are very happy. O u r t e a m is w i n n i n g .

(chat).

b u t he 7

3

(say) it's great.

Daniel

5

(have) an easy l i f e . He j u s t (relax) all day and

Lucy is very g o o d at dancing. W e e n j o y her shows.

(go)

t o parties at night. 6 B

Underline the correct option.

night.

Chris: H e l l o ? Sue:

Hi Chris. It's Sue. Are/ l

Do y o u at h o m e ? Chris: N o , l'm not/I

7

don't.

2

Are I Do y o u have m y

3

Biology book?

8

Chris: Your B i o l o g y book? I t h i n k I have i t b u t l'm not 1I don't remember isn't/doesn't

5

6

Tony doesn't eat hamburgers. He doesn't eat a l o t o f meat.

4

Sue:

T h a t song is very g o o d . I w a n t t o listen t o i t again.

I'm at school. W h y ?

Sue:

M a r c u s is p l a y i n g a c o m p u t e r game at t h e m o m e n t . He plays c o m p u t e r games every

where. Just a m o m e n t . . . no, i t

in m y bag.

9

/ s / d o e s i t o n y o u r desk at h o m e ?

Joanna has a s w i m m i n g c o m p e t i t i o n next week, so she is p r a c t i s i n g very hard today.

Chris: A h , yes. S o r r y . A r e / D o y o u need i t ? 7

Sue: Yes, I d o . W e have a big Biology t e s t t o m o r r o w . l'm 8

not/1

don't u n d e r s t a n d Biology, so I need t o study.

Chris: No, y o u aren't/don't. 9

Mrs Williams

10

isn't/doesn't

at school t h i s week. She's i l l . Sue:

Really?

Chris: Yes. So t h e t e s t ^isn't/doesn't Thursday. You aren't/don't 12

20

t o m o r r o w . It's next need t o study t o n i g h t .

10

I d o n ' t go t o school by bus - I w a l k . So I d o n ' t have t i m e t o read magazines on t h e way.


D Complete t h e e m a i l w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e o r t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s o f t h e v e r b s i n b r a c k e t s . e e e

0

s

Delete

I I

Q

a

Reply Reply All Forward Print

Hi Luis Thanks for your e m a i l . I ' m r e a l l y p l e a s e d t h a t y o u 2

1

kÂŤJJÂŤjU$

( e n j o y ) y o u r E n g l i s h c o u r s e in t h e U K . (your English / get) better?

We're all fine h e r e - a s a l w a y s . I (not / h a v e ) much free time at 14 ( p r a c t i s e ) h a r d for t h e t e n n i s c o m p e t i t i o n - o n l y t h r e e w e e k s to go a n d about it. I really ( w a n t ) to w i n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n t h i s y e a r . B r i a n playing w e l l , but 1 (not think) I a m . s 9 (you / r e m e m b e r ) my 'baby sister' Maria? Well, can you believe We (still / t h i n k ) of h e r a s a little c h i l d , but s h e ' s v e r y g r o w n - u p io ( l e a r n ) to play t h e v i o l i n , a n d s h e ' s a l r e a d y q u i t e g o o d . S h e now, while 1 (write) this email. Right, time to stop w r i t i n g . I h a v e l o a d s of w o r k to d o ! S e e y o u s o o n . 5

5

6

the moment. I'm really nervous (think) I'm

7

ZIIIIII

1 1

s h e s 13 n o w ? now. S h e ( p l a y ) right

1 2

Angela

E

Cross o u t all t h e w r o n g o p t i o n s . 1

Carl work/works

2

v e r y hard m o s t days, b u t he

doesn't work/works

at t h e w e e k e n d . He

M y cat sleep/sleeps

all day and go/goes

She never catch/catches 3 A: Do/Does

W e always visit/visits

relax/relaxes.

She live/lives

o u t all n i g h t .

doesn't

t o a private

Sam and Leo play/plays never win/wins.

5 A: Do/Does

y o u know/knows

B: Maybe. Do/Does A: Yes, she

doesn't

him.

she have/has

non-stop f o r weeks. I

S t u a r t and Paula like/likes

enjoy/enjoys

A: Do/Does

Frances?

don't/

dancing?

dancing, b u t Paula

don't/

it.

y o u r c o m p u t e r stop/stops

B: Yes, i t do/does.

l o n g b l o n d e hair?

v e r y o f t e n here, b u t

it.

B: W e l l , S t u a r t love/loves

t e n n i s every w e e k , b u t Sam

Leo always beat/beats

like/likes

A: Do/Does

school in t h e city. 4

snow/snows

s o m e t i m e s i t rain/rains

t o y o u r school?

She go /goes

o u r g r a n d m o t h e r in t h e w i n t e r .

on a farm.

It don't/doesn't

birds - she's t o o slow.

Caroline go/goes

B: No, she don't/doesn't.

don't/

I want/wants

very o f t e n ?

t o b u y a n e w one.

do/does.

F W h a t do t h e p e o p l e say i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s ? C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h the i m p e r a t i v e o r n e g a t i v e i m p e r a t i v e o f t h e w o r d s i n t h e b o x . be late 1

be quiet

bring

come

drink

go o u t

look at

It is lunchtime. W h a t d o y o u say t o y o u r y o u n g sister? (dash

y o u r hands b e f o r e y o u eat.

touch

wait 6

t h e p o t - it's h o t ! 3

The p a r t y starts a t 8 7

Please

y o u r friend's w o r k . 5

You receive an i n v i t a t i o n t o a friend's party. W h a t does t h e i n v i t a t i o n say? t o m y p a r t y o n Saturday.

I f y o u e n t e r A u s t r a l i a , t h e r e are some t h i n g s y o u can't fresh f r u i t into t h e country.

8

Y o u need t o s h o w y o u r passport at t h e a i r p o r t . T h e r e are a l o t o f p e o p l e t h e r e . W h a t does t h e sign say?

4 A student is t r y i n g t o see his friend's answers. W h a t does t h e teacher say?

!

have w i t h y o u . W h a t does t h e sign in t h e a i r p o r t say?

You are s i t t i n g in t h e e x a m r o o m . Everyone is t a l k i n g before the exam. W h a t does t h e t e a c h e r say?

Y o u r f r i e n d w a n t s e v e r y o n e at t h e p a r t y o n t i m e . W h a t does t h e i n v i t a t i o n say?

2 Your young sister w a n t s t o help w i t h t h e c o o k i n g . W h a t do y o u say?

wash

Please 9

here.

Y o u are ill. W h a t does t h e d o c t o r say? Stay at h o m e -

10

T h e d o c t o r w a n t s y o u t o have m o r e w a t e r . W h a t does he say? t h r e e glasses o f w a t e r every day.

Review 1 21


Past simple 1: was /

8

He was a popular hero.

Robin

were

Nobody knows. In the film, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Robin w a s rich - but this probably w a s n ' t true. We know that he w a s a popular hero in the 13th century. It's possible the real man w a s born before then.

is a famous hero. He is the subject of stories and I films. But was he a real man?

^ o w w c t t t c M e m M e n ? Little John and Will Scarlet w e r e famous Merry Men. Robin Hood w a s the leader of this group of men (and women).

m

w e r e RODinfloofl a n u Bis

M e m

M e n i a m o m ? . They w e r e famous for robbing rich people. But Robin Hood and his Merry Men weren't robbers - the money w a s for poor people. C o m p l e t e t h i s sentence: T h e r e are m a n y

a b o u t Robin H o o d . mum

Past simple 1: was / were 1

4

Was is t h e past o f am and is. He was the leader. Was I

2

question ?

asleep?

Who was Robin

a robber?

for robbing

rich

people.

there?

Who were the Merry

W e r e you / we / they

famous?

(were not) f o r t h e

negative.

W h o w a s he? W h e r e w e r e you?

true.

They weren't

robbers. statement /

Yes, (they) were. N o , (they) weren't.

Men ?

U s e wasn't (was not) and weren't This wasn't

Yes, (he) was. N o , (he) wasn't.

Were is t h e past o f are. Were you

22

short answer / X

W a s 1 / he / she / i t

Hood?

They were famous

3

M a k e q u e s t i o n s and s h o r t a n s w e r s as follows:

was I were negative A

1/He/She/It

was

w a s not (wasn't)

You/We/They

were

w e r e not (weren't)

Shakespeare

born was born in 1564

and died in 1616.


Practice

A Complete t h e sentences using was, wasn't, were or

D

weren't. 1 Chiara and her sister 2

It

were

here a m o m e n t ago.

worried about you.

t h e w o r s t film

o f the summer! 5 A:

Ben at f o o t b a l l practice o n M o n d a y ? ! And where

6 A:

happy t h e r e .

3

you?

y o u r parents angry?

a camp

4

near a large t r e e . Today t h e f o r e s t a p o p u l a r place f o r t o u r i s t s

5

B: No, he

home

m o s t p e o p l e , b u t R o b i n and his Their home

it a good film? It

was

a safe place f o r

2

friends

late.

B: No, i t

1

forest

at h o m e , so i t was q u i e t .

4 A:

Sherwood Forest

M e n . In t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y t h e

at m y uncle's house. M y cousins

B:The train

weren't.

f o r Robin H o o d and his M e r r y

a h o l i d a y last w e e k and w e

3 A: You're here at last! I

C o m p l e t e t h e t e x t w i t h is, are, was, were, wasn't or

t o visit, and t h e t r e e

still there.

6

Some p e o p l e say t h a t Robin H o o d and M a i d M a r i a n lovers. In f a c t , Robin

7

already m a r r i e d !

8

But d o y o u prefer t o believe t h e stories? Then y o u can still

B: No, they B Robin Hood's e n e m y , t h e Sheriff o f N o t t i n g h a m , is

see St Mary's Church w h e r e t h e y

married.

9

St Mary's C h u r c h and S h e r w o o d F o r e s t

c i t y o f N o t t i n g h a m in t h e centre o f England.

asking him some questions.

MV TURN!

Complete the questions and t h e short a n s w e r s . Sheriff: W h e r e

were^OU

1

born?

Robin: I'm n o t t e l l i n g y o u ! Sheriff: W e r e y o u at h o m e yesterday? Robin: No, 1

In your notebook, w r i t e s e n t e n c e s using was, were,

2

wasn't and weren't

Sheriff: W e r e y o u w i t h y o u r f r i e n d s ? Robin: The M e r r y M e n ? Yes, 1 Sheriff:

3

in t h e f o r e s t ?

4

Robin: No, w e Sheriff: W h e r e

near t h e

1 0

5

yesterday?

6

Robin: W e '

in y o u r c a s t l e !

I

we

it

the weather

about a place y o u have visited.

the t o w n

t h e streets

t h e shops

the people

E x a m p l e : (Oe visited 6at(i. Tfietownwas beautiful

Sheriff: Where's m y m o n e y ? Robin: I'm n o t t e l l i n g y o u ! C Complete t h e sentences using wasn't or weren't

and an

appropriate adjective f r o m t h e box. S o m e t i m e s m o r e

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

than one answer is possible. afraid

clean

in a hurry

friendly

1 A: W h e r e

h o t hungry

a were you

very b i g

1 The t o w n was p r e t t y b u t i t

all yesterday evening?

B: A t t h e cinema. 2

wasn't venj by

a wasn't I

b were not

a were born A: M u m , w h e r e

5 The weather was sunny b u t i t

a I was

7 The hotel was nice b u t t h e r o o m s 8 The shop was busy b u t w e

c weren't

3 B o t h Shakespeare and G a l i l e o

4 The dog was very big, b u t t h e c h i l d r e n

6 The beach was great b u t i t

c you were

very g o o d , b u t Kevin C o s t n e r

was excellent.

2 The restaurant was nice b u t I 3 The f o o d was g o o d b u t t h e w a i t e r s

b was y o u

The film

b was b o r n

in 1 5 6 4 . c are b o r n

born?

B: In N o t t i n g h a m , b were I

c was I

A: W e r e t h e M e r r y M e n very rich? B:No, a they weren't

b were not

c t h e y wasn't

eg at EÂŁ ez e x

: S J 3 M S U E

il l s s

Past s i m p l e 1 2 3


Past simple 2: regular past forms

9

She lived in a tree.

[ail

I criminal iWe asked Julia, 'Why did you decide to do it?'Julia replied, 'It seemed the right thing to do. They didn't need to cut the tree down. I told them not to do it but they didn't listen to me. I believed I was right.'

O

U n d e r l i n e t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n : Julia lives

/ doesn't

live in a t r e e t o d a y . 9A|i ^usaop :J9Msuy

Past simple 2: regular past forms 1

Use t h e p a s t s i m p l e f o r p a s t a c t i o n s , s t a t e s a n d g e n e r a l t r u t h s . / phoned

2

Julia

4

yesterday.

Did you stay

at the party long last

Once people

didn't

believe

night?

the world

was

round.

past invented

years

future

minutes

yesterday.

discovered

weekend?

America

500

ago.

Spelling W h e n a v e r b e n d s i n -e, a d d -d. die -> died

A d d -ed t o m a k e t h e p a s t s i m p l e ( r e g u l a r ) f o r a l l p e r s o n s . Use did not a n d t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t to t o m a k e t h e n e g a t i v e a n d use did t o m a k e a q u e s t i o n . W e u s u a l l y say a n d w r i t e didn't

i n s t e a d o f did not in

love ->

loved

W h e n a v e r b e n d s in a c o n s o n a n t (b, t, m, etc.) a n d -y, d e l e t e t h e -y a n d a d d -led. copy -»

i n f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s , e.g. a n e m a i l t o a f r i e n d .

try -*

statement /

negative X

started

did not (didn't) start

question ?

s h o r t answer

D i d 1 / y o u / he / she / i t / w e / t h e y s t a r t ?

Yes, (1) d i d .

copied tried

W h e n a v e r b e n d s in a s i n g l e v o w e l (a, e, i, o, u) a n d a s i n g l e c o n s o n a n t , d o u b l e t h e last c o n s o n a n t . stop -» prefer

//

N o , (1) d i d n o t ( d i d n ' t ) . 24

arrive

Colombus

ago.

paper.

I/You/He/She/It/We/They

ago, are

months /10 years)

She didn't

present The Chinese

/two

Did you clean the car last

one minute

yesterday,

(a few

s o m e t i m e s used w i t h t h e past s i m p l e .

T h e p a s t t i m e c o u l d be r e c e n t o r d i s t a n t . We finished

Past t i m e expressions, e.g. last (night / week /year),

stopped preferred

See page 182 f o r more spelling rules.


MV TURN!

Practice A W h a t was M a r g a r e t ' s l i f e l i k e i n 1 9 7 0 w h e n she w a s young? W r i t e past s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t s (/) a n d n e g a t i v e s (X) using t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b e l o w . 1

/ w o r k in a shop

1

Ski worked in. a sksp.

2

X like her j o b

2

She didn Hike her job,

3

/ l i v e in a f l a t

3

4

X want a house

4

5

/ prefer flats

5

6 X watch TV much

6

7

7

/ enjoy dancing

8

/ dance t h e Salsa

8

9

/ learn Spanish

9

10 X stay at h o m e much

past simple. S o m e are n e g a t i v e s o r q u e s t i o n s . 1

I was t i r e d , so I d_i_d_A. t _ w O ^ L L t o w o r k . youw

t h e m a t c h last n i g h t o n TV?

3

Yesterday she w

4

The rain _s

5

Tony was very q u i e t . He

all day in t h e f a c t o r y . , so t h e t e n n i s s t a r t e d . '_

X_

to

anyone. 6

a b o u t t e c h n o l o g y . Change t h e i r answers i n t o past s i m p l e sentences. S o m e are n e g a t i v e . Question

Answer

|

Did you watch a DVD last Saturday night?

8 7 yes 13 no

Did you use t h e I n t e r n e t yesterday?

7 0 yes 30 no

Did you download a song last week?

19 yes 81 no

Did you play a computer game yesterday?

35 yes 6 5 no

Did you email a f r i e n d last week?

58 yes 42 no

Did you like computers five years ago?

9 0 yes 10 no

1

8 7 teenagers

watched a DVD last Saturday nujht.

2

13 teenagers didn't watch a DVD last Saturday nujht.

3

3 0 teenagers

4

1 9 teenagers

5

35 teenagers

6

5 8 teenagers

7

1 0 teenagers

N o w answer t h e questionnaire in your notebook.

Last summer w e _t

a r o u n d Europe

by train. 7

A hundred British teenagers answered a questionnaire

10

B Complete t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e v e r b in t h e

2

I

A:

Jane g

t h e test?

1

(didn't watcd a DVD last Saturday ntjht. / watched a DVD last Saturday ni^ht.

B:No,she f a i l e d . 8

IJ

9

A:

t o t h e concert as a podcast. t h e children j _

all t h e i r breakfast?

B: Yes, they w e r e hungry. 10 The party was t e r r i b l e , I

'_

J

it.

C Complete t h e t e x t u s i n g t h e p a s t s i m p l e o f t h e v e r b s i n brackets. tiv&d

1

(live) in a f r i d g e

for 40 days f r o m D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 8 t o February 1 9 9 9 - a world record. A r e p o r t e r ' New Year in the f r i d g e ? ' T r a v i s (reply),'No. 1

that it was N e w Year: my w a t c h Two years ago, Travis (try) a n o t h e r

world record - 6 0 hours in a freezer. This t i m e h e

(fail). 'The

8

freezer was j u s t t o o c o l d . I

in t h e tree f o r 7 3 7 days, b was stayed

She

w h e n she finished her p r o t e s t ,

(not know)

4

b cried

c cry

t o journalists? a D i d she t a l k e d

b Talked she

A: D i d she save t h e tree? a saved

5

c is stayed

b save

c D i d she t a l k

B: Yes, she

c did

A: Julia, was it boring? B: Yes, i t was. I a didn't watched

T V f o r t w o years, b don't watched

c didn't watch 3

S

^t^E

qz

Ei

:SJ3MSUE

iisax^w

( n o t like)

9

it,'Travis s a i d . ' l

3

6

(not work) because i t was so cold!'

She a stayed a cryed

(celebrate) 4

5

7

2

(ask) Travis later,

you

3

• ••••

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n . 1

Travis C a r t e r

'

QB3BL

1 0

(prefer) the fridge.' Past s i m p l e 2 2 5


r

10

Past simple 3: irregular past forms

They spoke Celtic languages.

W h e r e

d i d E n g l i s h

Old English Modern English

c o m e

f r o m ?

he on pa duru eode he went to the door

The ancient Britons spoke Celtic languages like Welsh. The Romans made Britain a colony in 43 AD but Latin didn't become the language of the common people. Not many of the ancient Britons knew Latin and they didn't feel happy with a new language. In the 5th century AD, the Romans left Britain because they had problems at home. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes then went to England from Denmark and Germany. They brought their own Germanic languages. These languages became Old English. The story of English began.

FRANCE

T r u e o r F a l s e ? E n g l i s h is a L a t i n language.

Past simple 3: irregular past forms 1

M a n y past s i m p l e v e r b s do not e n d in -ed. T h e y have

present

past

present

did and t h e infinitive w i t h o u t to.

past

be

was / w e r e

become

know

became

knew

begin

began

leave

left

bring

make

brought

made

buy

mean

bought

meant

come

pay

came

paid

do

did

put

put

say

eat

ate

said

see

get

got

saw

speak

give

gave

spoke

go

went

take

took

have

tell

had

told

hear

heard

think

thought

They didn't

made feel

Did they speak

Britain

a colony.

happy. Latin ?

statement / Y o u sang. She t o l d her b r o t h e r .

negative X You d i d n o t (didn't) sing. She d i d n o t ( d i d n ' t ) t e l l her brother.

The army w e n t home. question ?

The a r m y d i d n o t ( d i d n ' t ) g o home. s h o r t answer / X

D i d 1 / y o u / h e / s h e / i t / Yes, (1) d i d .

w e / t h e y sing?

26

3S|E-| M S M S U y

irregular f o r m s . For negative and q u e s t i o n f o r m s , use The Romans

N o , (1) d i d n o t ( d i d n ' t ) .

m

See page 1 8 1 f o r a list o f irregular verbs.

1


Practice

Circle the 1 2 past simple f o r m s in t h e w o r d s e a r c h

R e a d t h e notes about a typical teenager's day in 1 0 0 0

puzzle, then write t h e i r infinitive-without-to f o r m s .

A D . W r i t e f u l l s e n t e n c e s in t h e past simple. S o m e are

h

e

a

r

d

t

r

t

u

i

0

y

P

a

w

s

q

d

k

s

a

w

t

s

f

h

J

k

I

h

b

r

0

z

s

P

0

X

g

0 0

k

e

w

I

m

b

u

s

f

m

e

e

g

d

g

a

f

h

0

n

h

t

t

t

J

1 2

e

e

c

w

u

d

n

a

y

g

m

J

i

e

m

a

d

e

k

c

g

k

I

f

k (c

a

m ~e)

i

t

U *•

3 4

n

k

s t a t e m e n t s (/) and s o m e are negatives (X).

come

A teenager in 10OO AD / g e t up: 5 . 3 0 / breakfast {bread and water) X go t o school / go to work

5 6 7 8

/ work begin: 6 . 3 0 / lunch (meat) / g e t home: 5 . 0 0 / make clothes: evening »/ before bed: tell s t o r y t o sister X sleep in a bed / sleep on t h e floor

9

I

10 11 12

B The most famous poem in O l d English is

U 1 H 1 11 I I | | i l ;» ;» *» .» »« .» « «• «. *. «, * „

Beowulf.

She^ot ap at 5 3 0 and

Complete the t e x t using t h e c o r r e c t past s i m p l e f o r m of the verbs in brackets. Beowulf ago. He

was

1

(be) a g r e a t f i g h t e r 1,000 y e a r s (win) m a n y battles against

2

monsters and dragons. G r e n d e l was a t e r r i b l e m o n s t e r from Denmark. H e

(have) b i g t e e t h

3

and he was v e r y s t r o n g . G r e n d e l (not sleep) a n d He

(not eat).

5

/ W h a t did y o u do y e s t e r d a y ? A n s w e r t h e questions

(drink) blood. K i n g H r o t h g a r of

6

Denmark Beowulf

in your n o t e b o o k using past s i m p l e short a n s w e r s

(pay) B e o w u l f t o k i l l G r e n d e l .

7

a n d s e n t e n c e s . T h e n w r i t e t h r e e m o r e questions

(go) t o D e n m a r k ,

8

a n d a n s w e r t h e m in t h e s a m e way.

(fight) t h e m o n s t e r a n d k i l l e d it. K i n g

9

Hrothgar

(give) B e o w u l f a l o t o f

10

money. B e o w u l f

(leave) D e n m a r k a n d

1 1

(not c o m e ) b a c k .

1 2

He

4

(become) a K i n g . Finally,

1 3

Beowulf died because a d r a g o n k i l l e d h i m .

1

D i d y o u g e t u p early?

2

D i d y o u speak English?

3

D i d you buy anything?

4

D i d y o u go a n y w h e r e in t h e evening?

K)& I didn't, l^ct up at 10 o'clock. /e&, I did. I said 'tfetta' to iwj €njtisk teacher.

5

Did you forget anything?

6

D i d y o u see any f r i e n d s ?

.•.M.MAM.MJ | Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n | 1 A: Did they f e e l happy? B: N o , t h e y I

2 Where

from?

v e r y angry.

a d i d t h e Saxons come

3 A : D i d B e o w u l f speak O l d English? B: Yes, he ' 4 The Ancient B r i t o n s I 5 Beowulf

pens and pencils.

sorry t o t h e King. • •••••••

a sayed

a feled

b fell

b t h e Saxons came a did a hadn't b said

c felt

c d i d t h e Saxons came

b spoke

b d i d n ' t have

c does c d i d n ' t had

c saw

t••••#•1

qg

q-t?

EZ

:5J3MSUE u s a i

Xw

Past s i m p l e 3 2 7


Past continuous

11

Everyone was talking about the alligators. Urban legends are stories about strange things that happen in everyday life. But they are probably not true. Or are they?

Years ago in Florida and Georgia, you could buy baby alligators. But they are difficult pets, so people set them tree. Where did these alligators go? While we were studying English, my wife and I were living in New York. â&#x201E;˘th^eeverylne was talking about the alligators m the sewers. A friend told me that one day a man was working in the sewers. It was five o c o C k a n d h e was just finishing for the day. Has fnends were w a t U n g L h i m i n t h e s t r e e t . T h e y h e a r d a scream.When they pulled , the man out of the sewer, he was scared and he was shakmg. There was an alligator in the sewer! W h a t d o y o u think? Is this story true?

Past continuous 1

U s e t h e past c o n t i n u o u s t o t a l k a b o u t e v e n t s w h i c h

W h e n when

w e r e i n p r o g r e s s a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e i n t h e past. At that time everyone in the 2

was talking

about

the

While I was falling,

sewers.

Use t h e past c o n t i n u o u s t o s e t t h e b a c k g r o u n d t o a

5

heard a 3

were

waiting

for him in the street.

/ forgot

They

c o n t i n u o u s . W e can use when

about

She shouted 6

t o link past simple and past before t h e past simple o r

the bath because at me because

You / W e / T h e y

1/ He /She / I t

I

While Use while

present

his friends were waiting for him, they heard a

W e can also use while

/

were working

scream.

question ? Were

scream.

w i t h t h e past continuous in b o t h parts o f a

28

in New York.

w e r e n o t (weren't)

English, my wife and I were

w a s n o t (wasn't)

you / we / they

short answer / X working?

Yes, (you) w e r e . No, (you) w e r e n ' t .

Was

1 / he / she / i t

working?

Yes, (1) w a s . N o , (1) w a s n ' t .

same t i m e . Wh/'/e we were studying

negative X

working

before t h e past continuous.

his friends were waiting for him, they heard a

was w o r k i n g

future

sentence t o t a l k about t w o situations going on at t h e

living

fast.

working

heard a scream.

When

I was driving

they

1

on the

form. statement

His friends were waiting for him

past

I was talking

M a k e t h e p a s t c o n t i n u o u s u s i n g t h e v e r b was / were + v e r b + -ing

t h e past c o n t i n u o u s .

when

my eyes.

telephone.

scream.

Use when o r while

I closed

Use t h e past c o n t i n u o u s t o give t h e reason f o r a past event.

h a p p e n e d . T h e m a i n e v e n t s are usually i n t h e past s i m p l e . His friends

come at t h e beginning o f a

sentence, p u t a c o m m a in t h e m i d d l e o f t h e sentence.

alligators

s t o r y - t o t a l k a b o u t w h a t w a s g o i n g o n w h e n an e v e n t

a n d while

â&#x20AC;˘

See page 182 f o r spelling rules.


C o m p l e t e t h i s u r b a n l e g e n d . U s e past c o n t i n u o u s o r

Practice

past s i m p l e f o r m s o f t h e v e r b s i n b r a c k e t s .

A W h a t was Grace d o i n g t h i s t i m e last w e e k ? L o o k a t t h e

A T V t e a m in Alaska

picture and c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e c o r r e c t

feel

read

shine

5+t

mkty

a b o u t t h e life o f salmon. They

past continuous f o r m s o f t h e v e r b s i n t h e b o x . drink

was

1

(make) a f i l m

2

(catch) a salmon in t h e sea and very c a r e f u l l y

wear

(put) a radio t r a n s m i t t e r o n it. The

3

radio t r a n s m i t t e r

'Can you believe it? This t i m e last w e e k I was o n h o l i d a y . . .

(send) messages

4

to the TV team. T h e y

(follow) the

5

salmon's j o u r n e y f o r t w o m o n t h s . O n e day t h e cameramen

(camp) at

6

the side o f t h e river and t h e y

7

( f o l l o w ) t h e s a l m o n as usual. Suddenly t h e fish (leave) t h e river and

9

(go) t h r o u g h a f o r e s t . The t e a m

10

1 I

was s i t t i t u j i n a cafe. 2

3 I

m y sunglasses.

5 I

(take) t h e i r cameras and

f o l l o w e d . In t h e f o r e s t a g r o u p o f b o y s

The sun

4

I

m y book.

lemonade. 6

I

relaxed.'

(find) t h e boys, t h e y

1 2

(sit) a r o u n d a fire. They

1 3

(cook) t h e salmon o n t h e fire.

1 4

MV TURN!

IB W r i t e f u l l sentences u s i n g t h e w o r d s in t h e s a m e o r d e r . Change t h e verbs t o t h e p a s t c o n t i n u o u s o r p a s t s i m p l e . One or b o t h verbs s h o u l d b e i n t h e p a s t c o n t i n u o u s . 1 He / sit / in the kitchen / w h e n / t h e f i r e / s t a r t

In y o u r n o t e b o o k , c o p y a n d c o m p l e t e t h e r e p l i e s

He was sittituj in the kitchen when the {ire started.

2

1 1

(camp). W h e n t h e T V t e a m

w i t h y o u r o w n ideas u s i n g t h e p a s t c o n t i n u o u s .

It / get late / and / t h e m a n / w o r k / quickly.

1

3 The pencil / break / w h i l e / I / w r i t i n g d o w n / her p h o n e

2

number.

A: D i d y o u hear t h e phone?

B: K)o, I was listening to music. A: S o m e o n e j u s t k n o c k e d at t h e door. B: W h o was it? A: I d o n ' t k n o w

4 It / snow / but w e / n o t w e a r / w a r m clothes.

3

A: W h a t was t h e w e a t h e r like w h e n y o u l e f t home?

4

A: D i d y o u catch a c o l d yesterday?

B: T e r r i b l e !

5 A cat / run / in f r o n t o f t h e car / w h e n / I / d r i v e / h o m e .

B: Yes, I did

6 The lights / change / w h i l e / she / s t i l l cross / t h e r o a d .

5

A: W e r e y o u at school o n M o n d a y ? B: N o , I w a s n ' t

7 Y o u / s t i l l s l e e p / w h e n / I / get up.

6

• • •»i

A: D i d y o u hear me? B: N o , sorry,

8 They / not build / t h e stadium / w h e n /1 / live / in t h e city.

«*»*,

• « • • i

• •_• a a a

•••••••

| Circle the correct o p t i o n . I

1 He was w o r k i n g in t h e sewer I 2 They

he saw t h e alligator.

a then

television w h e n t h e y saw a c o w in t h e i r garden.

[3

I was wearing sunglasses because t h e sun

?4

A:

raining w h e n y o u arrived?

very b r i g h t l y .

B: N o . It was very sunny.

1 5 A: Were you wearing a helmet w h e n y o u f e l l o f f y o u r bike? ••••••••••••••III••••••*•*•<

B:

b when

aarewatching awasshining a Was it

c while b watching

c were watching

b is shining b It was

a No, I w e r e n ' t

c shone

c I t is b No, I wasn't q S *P

c No, I'm n o t I

?Z q i : s j 9 M s u E i ; s a i A w

Past continuous 2 9


Review: past simple and past continuous A

C o m p l e t e t h e s t o r y by m a t c h i n g t h e phrases in t h e box to t h e correct places.

b and s h o w i n g me his p h o t o s w h i l e w e w e r e e a t i n g

I was having/had

2

W h i l e Sally was walking/

3

d because w e w e r e h u n g r y

a shower w h e n m y f r i e n d called. walked t o t h e s t a t i o n ,

T o m w e n t t o bed and was

saying/said,

'Goodnight'

e i t ran away

4

when it happened

D i d y o u g e t angry w h e n she f i n a l l y was

telling/

told you?

I was v i s i t i n g m y f r i e n d J o h n in A u s t r a l i a

t

1

2

He was t e l l i n g me a b o u t his f a m i l y

3

Suddenly, a k a n g a r o o j u m p e d t h r o u g h t h e w i n d o w W h i l e we were thinking what t o do n e x t , He t o o k a p h o t o o f t h e k a n g a r o o B

1

she m e t Harry.

c w h e n John was speaking

W e w e r e having d i n n e r early

U n d e r l i n e t h e correct option. S o m e t i m e s more t h a n one option is possible.

a w h i l e i t was r u n n i n g

f

C

5

W e danced w h i l e t h e music was

6

I was meeting/met

7

Were the Romans

playing/played.

D a v i d many years ago. using /Did

the Romans

use

paper?

4

8

5

W h e n she wasn't watching/didn't

watch,

I t o o k a n o t h e r biscuit.

6

M a t c h each picture to t h e correct sentence. 1

She was r u n n i n g

3

w h e n she saw h i m . 2

We went home

She ran w h e n

4

she saw h i m .

W h e n it s t a r t e d raining, w e went home.

We talked about it when we got home. We talked about it while we were going home.

30

.—.

w h i l e i t was raining. I

I

W h e n he f i n i s h e d his lunch, Dad read

.—.

t h e paper.

I

I

D a d read t h e paper w h i l e he was

.—.

f i n i s h i n g his lunch.

I

I


D Complete t h e s e s t o r i e s u s i n g t h e c o r r e c t p a s t s i m p l e o r p a s t c o n t i n u o u s f o r m s o f t h e v e r b s i n b r a c k e t s .

The c l o c k

(break) w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n

bnh

1

The c l o c k

(hit) it. The a c c i d e n t

(happen) while t h e i r p a r e n t s

Driver:

1

Police officer: Driver:

(hear) her p h o n e . It was her m o t h e r . W h i l e

they

G

T h e excuses can be f u n n y !

quickly?

3

No, I

1

f a s t because t h e r e w e r e a l o t o f

4

animals. M y w i f e

5

t o take

6

some p h o t o s o f t h e m b u t w h i l e she at t h e car! Driver:

away w h i l e the e l e p h a n t

The e l e p h a n t was very fast. I o n l y

9

1 0

? the

elephant w h e n i t h i t o u r car. 1

a do you do

2

a was driving

b was y o u d o i n g

3

a Did you go

4

a wasn't driving

5

a was looking

b drove

(c)were you doing

c were driving

b Were you going

6 a were w a n t i n g 7

a got

8

a didn't you drive

c Was y o u g o i n g

b weren't driving b were looking b was w a n t i n g

b was g e t t i n g

c d i d n ' t drive

c looked c wanted

9 a ran

b was r u n n i n g

10 a were seeing

F

W h y are y o u r shoes d i r t y ?

3

W h y d i d y o u eat all t h e chocolates?

4

W h y didn't you do your homework?

5

W h y are y o u sleeping in class?

6

W h y d i d n ' t y o u answer t h e t e l e p h o n e ?

H

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n . 1

a watching 2

c saw

3

I / s h o p / when / m e e t / her

I was shopping wnen I met ker. I

14 5

Sarah / n o t go / because / she / n o t f e e l / very w e l l As /1 / fall / my parachute / suddenly / o p e n you / have / a shower / w h e n /1 / phone?

6 Gavin / break / his arm / w h i l e / he / d o / j u d o

b am e x p l a i n i n g

T h e m a n t o o k her bag and a run

4

the c explained

away w i t h it. We

b ran

c was r u n n i n g

She h u r t her head w h e n she f e l l o f f her bike. She a helmet. a not wearing

5

A: W h a t

b didn't wear

c wasn't wearing

w h e n y o u heard t h e noise?

B: I ran o u t s i d e t o help.

2 While / we / eat / breakfast / t h e l e t t e r / arrive 3

c were watching

never saw h i m again.

in the past c o n t i n u o u s . 1

(b) w a t c h e d

She d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d t h e game. W h i l e I a was e x p l a i n i n g

Make sentences f r o m t h e w o r d s a n d w r i t e t h e m i n y o u r notebook. Put one v e r b in t h e p a s t s i m p l e a n d o n e v e r b

a film.

i n s t r u c t i o n s , she was w r i t i n g a t e x t .

c were running

b was seeing

W e w e n t t o t h e cinema last n i g h t and It was excellent.

c were getting

b wasn't y o u d r i v i n g

c weren't you d r i v i n g I

2

7

the camera o u t o f her bag, an e l e p h a n t ran 8

W h y are y o u late f o r school? (was taking mij pet kangaroo for a watt and it ran. awaij.

out o f the window

and w a t c h i n g some lions. S h e

Police officer: W h y

M a k e excuses f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s u s i n g t h e p a s t c o n t i n u o u s (and p a s t s i m p l e , i f y o u w a n t ) .

w h e n y o u saw t h e elephant?

1

(run)

1 0

(give) Ji 11 some f l o w e r s .

1 1

(come) h o m e .

6

t h r o u g h t h e park.

2

(speak), a m a n

9

t o t h e t a b l e and

5

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n . Police officer: W h a t

(drink) her coffee w h e n she

7

8

(fall) w h e n t h e ball

3

4

E

Jill

(play) f o o t b a l l in t h e house.

2

a did you do 6

b were you doing

c you were doing

W e r e y o u p l a y i n g hockey w h e n y o u b r o k e y o u r nose? B: Yes, I a did

b were

c was

Review 2 3 1


12

Present perfect 1 They've already invented it! Sorry I'm late. I haven't left yet!

T h e y ' v e a l r e a d y i n v e n t e d it, Dad! The taxi's j u s t a r r i v e d !

Find six w o r d s rCC

O

from

the cartoons

in t h i s w o r d snake: 'jsnf'ya] 'Apeaj|e 'paAUje 'pajuaAU! :SJ9MSUV

Present perfect 1 1

Use t h e present p e r f e c t f o r a past e v e n t

statement

w h i c h t h e s p e a k e r f e e l s is c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e present. The taxi's arrived. (The taxi is here now.) 2

just

The taxi's just

have n o t (haven't) v i s i t e d

He/She/It

has fs) v i s i t e d

has n o t (hasn't) v i s i t e d

c o m e s a f t e r has

comes at t h e end o f t h e sentence o r question. They've already left

invented

Has

Yes, (1) have.

visited...?

Yes, (he) i t has. N o , (he) hasn't.

A d d -ed t o f o r m t h e p a s t p a r t i c i p l e o f r e g u l a r v e r b s , e.g. visited, arrived,

's = is a n d has

tried. (These a r e t h e s a m e

he's visited = he has visited

as t h e p a s t s i m p l e v e r b f o r m s . )

he's cold = he is cold

However, t h e r e are many irregular f o r m s .

yet?

be

St/7/ w i t h t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t n e g a t i v e stresses t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n is c o n t i n u i n g

been

go +

gone

see •# seen

break -> broken

give -> given

speak •*

come -* come

steal -> stolen

wake up •* woken up

spoken

do -> done

now. left home.

S o m e i r r e g u l a r past p a r t i c i p l e s a r e t h e s a m e as t h e past

M a k e t h e present perfect using t h e verb

simple f o r m .

have + past p a r t i c i p l e . I've just seen her. I haven't

he / she / i t

See page 182 f o r spelling rules.

it.

yet.

Have the boys arrived

/ st/7/ haven't

visited...?

a n d yet m e a n

a n d b e f o r e t h e m a i n v e r b . Yet

I haven't

1 / you / we / they

No,(l) haven't.

a n d yet. Already

a n d n e g a t i v e s . Already /have

short a n s w e r / /

arrived.

' b e f o r e n o w ' . W e use yet i n q u e s t i o n s

32

have f v e ) v i s i t e d

Have

W e can use t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t w i t h already

5

1/You/We/They

question ?

t o e m p h a s i s e t h a t t h e e v e n t is

recent.

4

negative X

W e o f t e n use t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t t o t a l k about a recent event. Use t h e adverb

3

/

visited

the museum

yet.

find •* found -* found

read •* read -> read

have •* had -> had

say •* said -> said

leave -* left -* left

spend -> spent-*

lose -* lost -* lost

tell -* told -> told

make -> made -> made

win -> won -* won

See page 1 8 1 f o r a list o f irregular verbs.

spent


Practice A Match the pairs o f s e n t e n c e s . 1 She can't d o s p o r t s . ^

~x

2 He's still n o t f e e l i n g w e l l . 1 3 She's crying.

D

t h e w o r d s in brackets and the correct form o f

a

She's lost her bag.

b

He's j u s t had f l u .

t h e verb.

She's b r o k e n her a r m .

1

I d o n ' t have m y glasses.

2

He's s t i l l asleep.

3

The b o o k looks very new.

4

She isn't here any m o r e .

5

I d o n ' t have m y o l d phone any m o r e .

t h e m , (lose)

6

She d o e s n ' t know.

it. (finish / already)

7

I s t i l l haven't received t h e letter.

V-c

4 I'm very happy.

d

I haven't had a s h o w e r yet.

5 The car w o n ' t start.

e

I've spent i t o n CDs.

6 I have no money.

f

I haven't l e f t y e t .

7 You're l o o k i n g w o r r i e d .

g The t a x i has j u s t a r r i v e d .

I stilt haven't (ound them.

h

M y f o o t b a l l t e a m has j u s t w o n .

9 I'm not ready t o go.

i

W h a t has happened?

(I / read / still) (go/just)

B Complete the sentences using t h e w o r d s in brackets in t h e correct form and position.

I I

(find / still) (wake up / y e t )

8 We can go now.

I

W r i t e reasons for each o f t h e s e situations. U s e

(give it t o m y dad)

He can't f i n d his keys. I t h i n k

MSWKt

[ 2 Haven't you d o n e y o u r h o m e w o r k yet? I 3 It's midnight and she

h o m e y e t . ( n o t / come)

4

lunch yet? (you / have?)

5 This is terrible. S o m e o n e

(they / t e l l her / s t i l l ) ( p o s t m a n / c o m e / yet) 8

There's no m o r e m i l k . (I / f i n i s h / j u s t )

m y bike, (steal)

6 We

a really cheap car! (just / buy)

MV TURN!

7 Take your b o o t s o f f b e f o r e y o u c o m e i n . I the carpets, (just / clean) 8

t h e d o c t o r yet? (you / phone?)

9 They

t h e f i l m , (see /already)

Imagine it's S u n d a y evening. In your notebook, w r i t e t h r e e things you have done and t h r e e things you haven't done.

C It's Sunday night and D a d is asking Joe w h e t h e r he is ready f o r

E x a m p l e : I've cleaned RUj bike,

f school in the morning. W r i t e Dad's questions and Joe's replies in your notebook 1 pack school bag [ / ] j3

2

do your science h o m e w o r k [ / ]

5 wash the dinosaur [X]

t i d y y o u r cave [X]

4

have a b a t h [X]

6

make y o u r sandwiches [ / ]

7 buy the dinosaur f o o d [X]

1

0: ffavejou packed jour school bay jet f

J: /es, I have

What four things hasn't Joe done y e t ? W r i t e s e n t e n c e s .

Example:

He hasn't tidied his cave jet.

• • *

• i

Circle the correct option. 1 The taxi hasn't arrived 2 He's

his n e w w a t c h .

a already a breaked

3 He left home f o u r hours ago and he

b just b broke

c yet c broken

t o say he's arrived,

a still hasn't phoned

b haven't p h o n e d yet

c hasn't j u s t p h o n e d 4

yet?

a Have y o u eaten y o u r vegetables

5 A: Is Alex there?

B: O h sorry. He's

.

b You have eaten y o u r vegetables

a gone already h o m e

c Have y o u y o u r vegetables eaten

b j u s t gone h o m e

c gone h o m e y e t QS

v\

oz

31 :SJ3MSUE

' I

NSAJ_

Present p e r f e c t 1 3 3


13

Present perfect 2 Have you ever tried mustard ice cream?

Ingredients food

n^aga-zii^t

fm H a v e i c e

4-

y o u

e v e r

t r i e d

m u s t a r d

c r e a m ?

Or chocolate on your vegetables? These are just some of the things you can eat at The Fat Duck restaurant near London. Some people have called The Fat Duck the best restaurant in the world. The chef, Heston Blumenthal, has become famous and has been on many TV shows. John Willoughby of the New York magazine Gourmet says that The Fat Duck is possibly 'the most fun restaurant I've ever eaten in' But what do you think?

'I've never had mustard ice cream and I don't want to Just give me strawberry!' - John, a shop assistant

U n d e r l i n e t h e a n s w e r w h i c h is n o t t r u e : T h e Fat D u c k r e s t a u r a n t is

famous/cheap/fun

Present perfect 2 1

Use t h e present p e r f e c t w h e n y o u do n o t k n o w exactly w h e n t h e p a s t e v e n t t o o k p l a c e , o r i t is n o t i m p o r t a n t . He has been on many TV shows. He has become

2

W e o f t e n use t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t w i t h ever, never before.

and

Never a n d ever c o m e a f t e r has / have a n d b e f o r e

t h e m a i n v e r b . Before

comes at t h e end o f t h e sentence.

Have you ever tried mustard

ice

It was the most fun restaurant I've never had chocolate I haven't 34

â&#x20AC;˘

famous.

on my

been to the restaurant

cream?

I've ever eaten vegetables. before.

in.

See Unit 12 f o r the forms o f t h e present perfect.

gone o r been? My brother

has gone to

Croatia.

(= M y b r o t h e r is t r a v e l l i n g t o C r o a t i a o r is t h e r e now.) My brother

has been to

Croatia.

(= M y b r o t h e r w e n t t o C r o a t i a b u t he is back h o m e now.)


ractice C

Answer the questions w i t h present perfect short answers.

C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s using t h e p r e s e n t perfect o f t h e v e r b s in t h e box.

1 Have vou ever t r i e d r a w fish? frig, I tUMKt.

break

2 Have you ever used c h o p s t i c k s ?

5 Have you ever made ice cream? 6 Have you ever eaten chips w i t h sugar?

ever have

3

They

4

We

m y nose before. C h r i s t m a s away f r o m home. o u r n e w neighbours.

M y f r i e n d s aren't here n o w , t h e y

6

M y sister

7

I

home.

an article f o r t h e local newspaper. t o m y parents a b o u t m y exam results. your teacher t o give y o u h o m e w o r k ?

D

C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h gone o r been. M y g r a n d p a r e n t s have

yone

t o Australia.

T h e y ' l l arrive t o m o r r o w - t h e j o u r n e y takes 2 2 hours.

the verbs in brackets.

2

c o m p e t i t i o n , (win)

2

t o Cuba, (be)

3

a b o o k in one day. (read)

]4

rugby, (play)

5

an e l e p h a n t , (see)

6

a f a m o u s person, (meet)

7

t h e n e w James Bond f i l m .

She's t h e best f r i e n d I

1

Complete the s e n t e n c e s using t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t o f

a

We

10

Which of these things have you done or not d o n e ?

They've v i s i t e d t h e UK, b u t t h e y haven't t o Scotland.

3

M y f a m i l y loves t r a v e l l i n g . W e ' v e t o 10 different countries together.

4

They've

5

o u t and l e f t t h e lights o n .

A: W h e r e have y o u

?

B: To post a letter.

a leg. (break)

MY TURN!

in a restaurant, ( w o r k ) t e n k i l o m e t r e s , (run)

^m^ouMio^

Do you know people w h o have done t h e s e t h i n g s ?

things you

have d o n e in t h e past.

Write true s e n t e n c e s about people you know. Example: Mij brother has

write

in a band before.

5

9

8 Have you ever c o o k e d a m e a l f o r y o u r f a m i l y ?

9

not meet

never spend

He plays t h e guitar b u t he

8

7 Have you ever d r u n k c o c o n u t m i l k ?

haven't won

go

n o t speak

I've broken

2

4 Have you ever p u t sugar in a sandwich?

1

see

1

3 Have you ever seen a banana t r e e ?

1

ever f o r g e t

n o t play

Example: I've been to Australia,

met a famous person,

N o w w r i t e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s t o ask a f r i e n d using Have you

(ever)...?

Example:

ffave jou ever been to Australia?

W r i t e about your f r i e n d . Example:

,

Setty has never been to Australia,

.

Circle the correct option. 1 My sister

sushi t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s , b u t she d o e s n ' t like i t .

2 I've tried m o s t things, b u t 3 A:

on TV?

B:Yes, he has.

an insect.

a I've ever eaten

a Has H e s t o n ever been

4 It's our f a v o u r i t e restaurant.

there many times.

5 A: Have y o u ever been t o The Fat Duck?

B:

a tries

b has t r i e d

b I haven't never e a t e n

b Has H e s t o n been ever

a We's been a Yes, we've

c I've never eaten

c H e s t o n ever has been

b We've g o n e b Yes, w e been

c is t r i e d

c We've been c N o , w e haven't

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

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3f

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Present perfect 2 3 5


14

Present perfect 3 They have lived there for centuries.

THE RICH AND FAMOUS IN LONDON r p h e rich a n d f a m o u s h a v e l i v e d i n M a r y l e b o n e f o r T c e n t u n e s . Past residents i n c l u d e C h a r l e s

* * ™ n L

the B e a t l e s . R i n g o Starr r e n t e d an Sauare i n M a r y l e b o n e . J i m i H e n d n x also l i v e d there. T h e r e h a s n ' t b e e n a f a m o u s resident at 3 4 M o n t a g u Square s m c e the 1960s, b u t t o u r i s t s s t i l l g o t o see the b u i l d i n g . Marylebone has been Madonna's favourite place in London for a few years now. The star owns four houses in the same street!

C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e : M a r y l e b o n e is a p l a c e in uopuo"| :J3MSUV

Present perfect 3 Use t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t f o r a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h s t a r t e d in t h e past a n d c o n t i n u e s n o w . Marylebone

has been Madonna's

:

2

days, for a week, for six months,

favourite

place in London for a few years

P

now.

present

They have lived there for future

W e can use for a n d since w i t h t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t . The rich and famous

have lived in Marylebone

for

centuries.

3

been a famous

Use How long ...?to

resident

since the

1960s.

How long has she lived in

London?

She has lived in London for a few W e can use always

36

years.

w i t h the present perfect.

I've always wanted can r e m e m b e r )

• •

centuries.

U s e t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t + since t o e m p h a s i s e w h e n a s i t u a t i o n b e g a n , e.g. since 12 o'clock, since since January, got

Monday,

since last year, since the 1960s, since she

married. The couple have been married There hasn't been a famous

since last year.

resident

since the

1960s.

ask f o r h o w m u c h t i m e a s i t u a t i o n

has c o n t i n u e d .

4

for ages (= for a long

time).

I

a s t

There hasn't

U s e t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t + for t o e m p h a s i s e h o w l o n g a s i t u a t i o n has b e e n g o i n g o n , e.g. for an hour, for a few

to live in the city. (= f o r all t h e t i m e

See Units 12 and 13 f o r other uses o f the present perfect. See U n i t 12 f o r the forms o f t h e present perfect.

U s e t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t , n o t t h e p r e s e n t , w i t h since a n d for. She has lived here for a few years. N O T She lives here for a few years.


A Complete each t i m e e x p r e s s i o n w i t h for o r since. Ml

for

C

t w o weeks.

13

2003.

I

last year.

4

15

t h r e e years.

16

o n l y a day!

â&#x20AC;˘ 7

1

Christmas.

8

long...?

and t h e present perfect.

a long time.

12

A s k q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c e l e b r i t i e s u s i n g How

I was 1 2 .

|

Now answer t h e q u e s t i o n .

I

How long have y o u lived in y o u r house?

I

I've lived in my house

M i c h a e l Douglas and C a t h e r i n e Zeta-Jones are married.

.... (few (G nj have thej been married?

2

M a d o n n a drives a M i n i C o o p e r car.

3

Sienna M i l l e r lives in M a r y l e b o n e .

4

Paul M c C a r t n e y plays t h e piano.

5

Ringo Starr is a v e g e t a r i a n .

6

Jennifer C o n n e l l y speaks Italian.

B Complete t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t o f t h e verbs in brackets. Use s h o r t f o r m s w h e r e p o s s i b l e . 1 They

W

want)

always wanted

2 We

m y cousins since t h e b e g i n n i n g

of last year. They are always very busy, ( n o t see) 3 It

MY TURN!

t o v i s i t N e w York, (always

a really g o o d summer. I d o n ' t

want it t o end. (be) 4 They

in t h e same house all

their lives, (live) 5 My sister and I share a b e d r o o m . W e o u r o w n r o o m s , (never have) 6 How long

you

your m o u n t a i n bike? (have) 7 He

f^akeser^

a n d a t i m e phrase

w h i c h is t r u e f o r y o u . W r i t e t h e m in y o u r n o t e b o o k . 1

I / be / h u n g r y

I've been hungry since 16 clock this morniny. 2

I / n o t see / m y cousin

3

I / be / a t t h i s school

4

I / k n o w / m y / best f r i e n d

5

I / n o t d o / t h e washing-up

6

M y family / live/here

his h o m e

town, (always love) 8 How long

she

ill? (be)

9 He

in t h e

same bank f o r years, (work) 10 I

he was t h e

best, (always t h i n k )

Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1

t o meet Madonna. a I always have w a n t e d

b I've always w a n t e d

c I've w a n t e d always

2 We've lived in M a r y l e b o n e a forages

b ages ago

c since ages

3 They've had t h e i r f l a t in M a r y l e b o n e since t h e y a get

b got

4 A: How long

?

a are they f a m o u s 5 She a isn't visit

married.

c have g o t B: For a b o u t six years.

b have t h e y been f a m o u s

c they've been f a m o u s

L o n d o n since she was a child. b d i d n ' t visit

c hasn't v i s i t e d 3

S

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Present perfect 3

37


15

Present perfect or past simple? The company has invented the Mac and the iPod.

S t e v e J o b s w a s b o r n in 1 9 5 5 a n d w a s a m u l t i m i l l i o n a i r e b e f o r e t h e a g e o f 3 0 . H e is d y s l e x i c a n d o n e of his t e a c h e r s a t school r e m e m b e r s his 'different w a y of looking at things'.

In t h e 1970s, c o m p u t e r s w e r e large machines and only large companies used t h e m . In 1976, Steve l o b s a n d S t e v e W o z n i a k c h a n g e d all t h a t . T h e y started the company Apple Inc and produced the world's first personal computer, Apple I. Since t h e n , A p p l e I n c has also p r o d u c e d Macintosh c o m p u t e r s a n d t h e iPod.

S t e v e Jobs also helped t o s t a r t Pixar A n i m a t i o n

1

Studios. S o m e of the best-loved animated films h a v e c o m e f r o m P i x a r , i n c l u d i n g Toy Story, Nemo

a n d Ratatouille.

Finding

Pixar has w o n m a n y

O s c a r s â&#x201E;˘ o v e r t h e last 25 years.

V

C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e w i t h t h r e e p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s : S t e v e J o b s is f a m o u s f o r sojpnjs uojiewmv Jexy 'pcy; am'sjsjndwoD Ljscnupeyv '| 9]ddv'3U| 9|ddy :s.iaMSiie aiqjsscy

Present perfect or past simple? 1

Use t h e present perfect t o t a l k a b o u t recent events o r

3

U s e t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t t o t a l k a b o u t an e v e n t o r s i t u a t i o n w h i c h began in t h e past and continues now.

a p a s t e v e n t w h i c h t h e s p e a k e r f e e l s is c o n n e c t e d w i t h the present.

W e o f t e n use t i m e e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h since a n d for w i t h t h i s use o f t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t , e.g. for a week, since

C e r t a i n t i m e e x p r e s s i o n s a r e c o m m o n w i t h t h i s use

yesterday,

for a long time, since 2004, a n d ask q u e s t i o n s

o f t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t . T h e s e i n c l u d e already,

w i t h How

long?

just, ever, never, I haven't

yet,

How long have you worked at Pixar?

before.

I've worked here for ten

eaten yet. (= I'm h u n g r y now.)

Has he left? (= He isn't here now.)

4

Use t h e past s i m p l e t o t a l k a b o u t a f i n i s h e d a c t i o n . Certain t i m e expressions m a y be used w i t h t h e past s i m p l e . T h e s e i n c l u d e yesterday,

last week, ago,

when, in + year. In the 1970s, computers When did Apple invent

38

were large the iPod?

machines.

then,

years.

T h e c h o i c e o f t h e p a s t s i m p l e o r p r e s e n t p e r f e c t can s o m e t i m e s d e p e n d o n t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e speaker, or on the context. / didn't

see George this morning.

(The speaker is t a l k i n g

at t h e end o f t h e day and this morning / haven't

seen George this morning.

t a l k i n g in t h e m o r n i n g - this morning

is finished.)

(The speaker is is still g o i n g on.)


Practice A Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n t o c o m p l e t e t h e

C

sentences a b o u t T o m C r u i s e .

1

11 When he was a boy, T o m Cruise went /has

been

to fourteen d i f f e r e n t schools.

2

2 While he was at high school, he acted/has

acted

in school plays. 3 Since his first f i l m in 1 9 8 1 , t h e a c t o r

3

starred/has

starred in some very p o p u l a r f i l m s , e.g. Top Gun, Mission: Impossible 4 He worked/has

and Jerry

worked

4

Maguire.

w i t h some very f a m o u s

5

been m a r r i e d t o actress N i c o l e

6

Kidman u n t i l 2 0 0 1 . 6 He became/has

afternoon.)

I sent all t h e l e t t e r s t h i s

(It's eleven o'clock in the

morning.

morning.)

She l e a r n t t o speak seven

a

(She is n o t still alive.)

languages.

b

(She is still alive.)

He w o r k e d f o r t h e c o m p a n y f o r

a

(He still w o r k s there.)

t h r e e years.

b

She has l e a r n t t o speak seven

(He doesn't w o r k there

He has w o r k e d f o r t h e c o m p a n y

now.)

f o r t h r e e years.

become

a father in 2 0 0 6 , w h e n his daughter Suri was/has

(It's f o u r o'clock in the

I've sent all t h e letters this morning.

languages.

film makers, i n c l u d i n g Kubrick and Scorsese. [5 He was/has

M a t c h the pairs.

been

born.

7

He has sold a l o t o f cars t o d a y .

8

He sold a l o t o f cars t o d a y .

a

(It's 10 p m and he is n o t w o r k i n g now.)

b

(It's 4 p m and he is still working.)

Tom says: 7 'I had /'ve had a very interesting life.'

i:niu,ni

IB Complete these sentences u s i n g t h e p a s t s i m p l e o r present p e r f e c t o f t h e v e r b s in b r a c k e t s . 1 My grandfather

didnt have

much money when

/

he was a y o u n g man. (not have) 2 It 3

you

t h i s song b e f o r e ? (hear) you

a b o u t last

night? (dream) 5 My uncle collects o l d m o t o r b i k e s . He t h r e e , (buy) 6 When the teacher

in t h e r o o m , w e

stood up. (come) 7 There

m o r e accidents o n t h e road

last m o n t h t h a n in t h e w h o l e o f last year, (be) 8 You

and w r i t e t h e m in your notebook. S o m e t i m e s both tenses are possible.

d i f f i c u l t t o get a g o o d j o b t h e n , (be)

4 What

M a k e past simple or present perfect questions from the words

1

y o u / ever / see a d o l p h i n ?

2

w h e n / y o u / last / g o s w i m m i n g ?

3

h o w m a n y d i f f e r e n t schools / y o u / s t u d y at / b e f o r e n o w ?

4

w h a t / y o u / yesterday / do?

5

h o w m a n y exams / y o u / t h i s year / t a k e ?

6

W h e n y o u r m o t h e r was y o u n g , w h e r e / she / live?

7

y o u / ever / live / a n o t h e r c o u n t r y ?

8

w h a t / y o u r f a m i l y / last w e e k e n d / do?

1

t h a t coat f o r a

Have JGU. ever seen a dotpjunf

In y o u r n o t e b o o k , a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t y o u r s e l f a n d y o u r

long t i m e ! (not wear)

f a m i l y . Use t h e past s i m p l e o r p r e s e n t p e r f e c t in y o u r answers.

Circle the c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1 A: How long I

2

L

B:Yes,

her Apple I c o m p u t e r since 1 9 7 7 .

>: I 5

a m u l t i - m i l l i o n a i r e ? B: Since I was 3 0 .

A: Have you ever seen Finding Nemo? We've seen some Pixar films, b u t I

a She has Ratatouilteyet.

together f o r 2 0 years, f r o m 1 9 7 6 t o 1 9 9 6 .

a have y o u been

i t o n D V D last week, b She's had

c y o u have been b I've w a t c h i n g

c I watched

c She have

a d o n ' t see

a They w o r k

b are y o u

a I've w a t c h e d b haven't seen

b They've w o r k e d

c haven't see

c They w o r k e d

3

S

QT?

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Present p e r f e c t o r past simple?

39


16

Used to Sick people often used to sleep in temples.

The Ancient

The Greeks didn't use to take medicine and they didn't use to go to the doctor. The first 'doctors' used to be witches or people with magic powers.

Greeks

u s e d t o think

that ,r

t h e y w e r e ill b e c a u s e of b a d m a g i c

or

because the gods unhappy with

were

them.

Some people used to eat flowers and herbs when ey were ill but this d.dnt use to help everyone.

So, sick people often used to sleep in temples.

th

Hippocrates, born about 460 BC on the island of Kos, made medicine into a serious science. He is often called the father of medicine. Underline the correct option: The first doctors Drs I were Greek / believed

in magic

/ were

women.

3I8ELU UJ paA3||aq MSMSUV

Used 1

to

Used to is f o r h a b i t s a n d s t a t e s w h i c h f i n i s h e d i n t h e

4

past. Used to o f t e n c o n t r a s t s t h e past a n d t h e p r e s e n t .

Used to + i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t t o . Used to has n o p r e s e n t o r continuous forms.

Jack used to live in Brighton, but now he lives in Liverpool.

Sick people often used to sleep in

temples.

Most people used to believe in magic. 5 2

T h e past s i m p l e can u s u a l l y r e p l a c e used The Greeks used to sleep / slept

to.

in temples

M a k e q u e s t i o n s w i t h Did + n o u n / p r o n o u n + use to...? Did doctors

when

they

use to study

science?

Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were young?

were ill. They didn't

use to go / didn't

go to

doctors.

6

M a k e t h e n e g a t i v e w i t h did not (didn't) used

3

use to or never

to.

U s e t h e p a s t s i m p l e , n o t used to, w h e n t a l k i n g a b o u t

They didn't

use to take

single activities, h o w l o n g t h e y t o o k o r h o w m a n y

Operations

never used to be easy.

medicine.

times they happened. / went to the doctor yesterday. We didn't

N O T / used to go...

eat for two days.

N O T We didn't used to eat... Jane visited

me in hospital

N O T Jane used to visit... 40

twice.

In s p o k e n English p e o p l e o f t e n use did + used ( i n s t e a d o f use) i n q u e s t i o n s a n d n e g a t i v e s . Did you used to play with dolls ? I didn't

used to like him.


[Practice A Charlie is n o w a m i l l i o n a i r e b u t he u s e d t o be p o o r . In y o u r

6

M o s t p e o p l e lived in t o w n s .

7

T r a v e l l i n g by sea was dangerous.

8

C h i l d r e n learned English.

notebook, w r i t e s e n t e n c e s a b o u t C h a r l i e ' s l i f e w i t h used to and didn't use to. 1

Now

1 0 years ago

1 He gets up at 11.00.

7£0

2 He doesn't w o r k .

supermarket

3 He has a very b i g house.

X b i g house

4 He plays golf.

Xgolf

5 He wears expensive clothes.

cheap c l o t h e s

n o t answer

be

6 He is unhappy.

happy

get

n o t isten

1

D

C o m p l e t e t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h used to o r t h e p a s t s i m p l e o f t h e v e r b s in t h e b o x .

lose

chan; ;e

Mjoujet

not worry

out of bed this morning ond feel terrible? much filter ond beolfhier once?

possible. 1 I had/used

jr answer is 'yes', you need

to have a s h o w e r last night.

12 Kurt was I used to be a very g o o d f r i e n d . 3 It snowed/used 4 I met/used

Eva Clark (England):'!

to snow a l o t in w i n t e r .

I never

to meet Janice yesterday.

5 Children d i d n ' t watch/use

powetf

l a k e s ! about my health but

3

exercise and my health got

4

worse and worse. Then I tried Powerflakes! Now I feel like a new woman.'

to watch so m u c h TV.

:

6 It wasn't/never

i

7 My sister went/used

to go t o M e x i c o in 2 0 0 7 .

8 My sister went/used

to go t o M e x i c o every s u m m e r .

used to be very expensive.

Andrei Wojdylo (Poland): 'My friends

5

me all the time because I was so lazy and unfit but 1 to them. I

6

7

in front of theTV all night and eat chocolates. If the phone rang,

C Read these sentences a b o u t l i f e 2 , 0 0 0 y e a r s ago. (Four are

I

it! Last

8

I

true, four are false.) I f t h e s e n t e n c e is t r u e , r e w r i t e i t w i t h

year everything

I

used to. I f t h e s e n t e n c e is f a l s e , r e w r i t e i t w i t h didn't

1 0

I I

sit

do

tie used to j e t up at 7.00

B Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . S o m e t i m e s b o t h o p t i o n s a r e

I

criticise

use to.

because I

9

my job and I needed to change

my life. Now, I have Powerflakes and life is perfect!'

Latin was an i n t e r n a t i o n a l language.

Uttn used to be an international lanjuaje. 2 People used t o t h i n k t h a t t h e w o r l d was r o u n d .

People iiih't

use to think, that the world was round,

3 There were bears in England. In y o u r n o t e b o o k , w r i t e sentences a b o u t changes in

4 People ate a l o t o f meat.

y o u r l i f e w i t h used to, didn't use to o r never used to. Example:

5 Builders made houses o u t o f w o o d .

I used to dojudo but now I do karate,

...... —

Hi

] Circle the c o r r e c t o p t i o n . | 1 She wants t o be a v e t now, b u t she 1 2 He I 3

eat h e a l t h y f o o d , b u t n o w he o n l y eats vegetables. go t o t h e d o c t o r very o f t e n w h e n y o u w e r e y o u n g ?

I 4 My dad used t o smoke, b u t he I 5 My parents L

w a n t t o be a d o c t o r

w h e n I was b o r n

give us medicine w h e n w e w e r e sick.

a use t o

b used

a d i d n ' t used

b d i d n ' t use t o

a D i d y o u use t o a used t o s t o p

never d i d n ' t use t o

c used t o c doesn't used t o

b Y o u used t o

b stopped

c D i d y o u used

c used t o s t o p p e d

b d i d n ' t never use t o

c never used t o

-

°S qV £ m E

]

T :sJ9Msue i;s9i /(YV

Used

to

41


R e v i e w :

A

p r e s e n t

Complete t h e table w i t h t h e missing forms. infinitive

past simple

p e r f e c t

C

y o u r sister / live in Australia / h o w long?

ffow tcnj has jour sister lived in Australia

w i t h o u t to

ate

eat

used to

M a k e present perfect questions f r o m the words. 1

past p a r t i c i p l e

a n d

done fell

7

2

ever / y o u / make a pizza?

3

s t a r t / y e t / t h e film?

4

y o u / h o w m a n y t i m e s / ride a horse?

5

all seven H a r r y P o t t e r books / y o u / read?

6

be m a r r i e d / h o w l o n g / H e n r y and Gloria?

7

ever / y o u / have a p a r t y in y o u r house?

8

Tony / y e t / say t h a n k - y o u f o r t h e present?

9

s t u d y English / y o u / before?

felt got had look lived made play

10

walk wrote B

R e w r i t e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s w i t h used to, b u t o n l y i f it's possible. 1

I had a red bike w h e n I was l i t t l e .

2

D i d y o u play c o m p u t e r games w h e n y o u w e r e a child?

I used to have a red biU when I was tittle.

D

W r i t e present p e r f e c t or past simple answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s i n Exercise C, u s i n g t h e w o r d s g i v e n . 1

six m o n t h s

She's lived in Australia [gr stjc months. 2

never

3

just

3

I played t e n n i s t h r e e t i m e s o n holiday.

4

three times

4

The Romans ate a l o t o f f i s h .

5

f o u r o f t h e m already / t h e o t h e r t h r e e n o t yet

5

She played t h e v i o l i n at university.

6

t w o years

6

He d i d n ' t go t o t h e d o c t o r yesterday.

7

last year

7

D i d n ' t t h e y w o r k hard at t h e i r o l d school?

8

a l r e a d y / f o u r times

8

This m o r n i n g w e made a cake f o r Grandma's visit.

9

never

10

42

clean her shoes / M a r i a / yet?

yesterday


I

Complete these dialogues using t h e p r e s e n t perfect, past s i m p l e

or used to. Ml

come

A:

the taxi

B: Yes, i t • 2 see

came

A:

yet?

y o u ever

B: Yes, I 3 have

CCme

five m i n u t e s ago. a UFO?

one last year.

A: H o w l o n g

you

y o u r cat?

B: A b o u t a year. W e 14

play

A:

her since Christmas.

you

t e n n i s every w e e k ?

B: Yes, I I

5 write

, b u t I h u r t m y leg.

A:

you

B: Yes, I 6 meet

A: Lisa,

you

B: Yes, w e • 7 decide

a thank-you e m a i l t o y o u r aunt y e t ? t o her t h i s m o r n i n g . m y cousin A l a n b e f o r e ?

at y o u r b i r t h d a y p a r t y last year.

A:

you

about your holiday yet?

B: W e l l , w e 18

want

t o go skiing, b u t w e

A: W h e n y o u w e r e y o u n g ,

w h e r e yet.

you

t o be a

train driver? B: Yes, w h e n I was 1 2 . B e f o r e t h a t , I ;

9 watch

A:

you

B: No, I f

t o be a circus c l o w n .

Titanic o n T V last n i g h t ? already

it f o u r times.

Underline the correct option.

Lee Gould is in the middle of a tour of Europe ... on a bike. We spoke to him in Portugal. Interviewer: Hi Lee. Tell us about your tour of Europe.

Lee: Well, I've 1alwavs / ever wanted to visit different countries, and 21 was always / I've always been good at cycling. So about two years ago I 3

decided / have decided to

cycle around Europe. My plan is to visit every country in the European Union.

did / haveyou

Interviewer: And how many countries 4 so far?

visited

Lee: Only 1 1 . I've t e e n /gone to all the countries in the south of Europe. I 6started/have started in Cyprus last year, and then I 7took/have taken a boat to Greece. Since then 8/ cycled / I've cycled about 5,000 k m . 5

still /yef?

Interviewer: Have you been to Ireland 9

didn't/haven't. I haven't been to any countries in the north of Europe yet/'already, but I'm going to take a Lee: No, I 10

11

boat from Spain to Ireland next week.

Lee: Yes, I a m . I

1 2

used /ha veto

Interviewer: 14Did

get really tired at the

since / from

beginning but it has got easier 13

I left Spain.

/ Have you had any problems so far? Lee: Well, / fell /I've fallen off m y bike m a n y times, but I 'don't/haven't really hurt myself. I've also lost my bike three times, but I've 17always /already f o u n d it again. It's a very special bike for me - / have/I've had it for six years, 1 5

16

18

and it has been like a good friend for me. Interviewer: Have you 1 9 'met/ 20

didn't / haven't

meet

any interesting people?

Lee: had t i m e to talk to people, but in every country the people have been very good to me. They have helped me a lot. Interviewer: One last question. Why are you doing this? Lee: I'm trying to collect money for a children's hospital. So

far211

collected / I've collected

almost £5,000.

Interviewer: Are you tired after cycling so far? r Review 3

43


17

Will, shall, won't I hope you'll enjoy yoga. W e l c o m e E a s y

t o

Y o g a

c o u r s e !

U n d e r l i n e t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n : T h i s is a business

/ fitness

/ music

CD.

Will, shall, won't Will is t h e m o s t u s u a l w a y t o t a l k a b o u t t h e f u t u r e i n

4

speaking.

English. 1

/7/go.

Use will f o r g e n e r a l p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d o n w h a t y o u t h i n k .

You'll be happy and your whole body will feel good.

W o r d s l i k e think, hope a n d sure, w h i c h s h o w y o u r o p i n i o n

T h e n e g a t i v e s h o r t f o r m won't

a n d a t t i t u d e , a r e c o m m o n w i t h will. It won't

be easy but it will be healthy

I think the CD will be very I hope you'll 2

enjoy

and

fun.

yoga.

You won't 5

continue.

is c o m m o n in s p e a k i n g

and w r i t i n g w i t h nouns and pronouns.

popular.

Use w/7/ f o r i n s t a n t decisions m a d e a t t h e t i m e o f s p e a k i n g . Right, I'll

T h e s h o r t f o r m 7/ is u s e d m a i n l y w i t h p r o n o u n s a n d in

want to turn this CD off.

U s e Shall I / we . . . ? ( N O T will) f o r o f f e r s a n d suggestions. Shall I open the Shall we

bottle?

start?

I don't know, I'll check. Shall is o c c a s i o n a l l y used w i t h / a n d we in v e r y D o n ' t use will for p l a n s o r a r r a n g e m e n t s . I'm going to have a yoga lesson N O T /'// have a yoga lesson Are we meeting 3

tomorrow.

at 6? N O T Will we meet at 6?

Use will w i t h t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t t o . I hope the lessons will start

44

We shall be very happy to see you.

tomorrow.

That will be nice.

â&#x20AC;˘

f o r m a l British English.

1 / You / H e / S h e /

statement S

negative X

w i l l ('11)

w i l l n o t (won't)

It/We/They

soon.

See Units 18 and 19 f o r more f u t u r e forms.

question ?

s h o r t answer / X

Willi/you/he/she/

Yes, (1) w i l l .

it / w e / t h e y go?

N o , (1) w i l l n o t ( w o n ' t ) .


Practice |A Write the s h o r t f o r m o f each f u l l f o r m . I f n o s h o r t f o r m

Underline the correct o p t i o n .

is possible, p u t X.

Paul:

1 I will try yoga.

(It

2 Shall we sit d o w n ?

%

W h a t d o y o u t h i n k , shall/will

Sunday be all r i g h t

l

f o r t h e picnic? Sunday will/won't

Sue:

be f i n e f o r me. But, w a i t . . .

z

Sunday is m y dad's b i r t h d a y .

3 We w i l l feel better.

Shall/Will\Ne

4 Will she like it?

Paul:

3

5 That w i l l n o t be easy.

Sue:

4

Paul:

| 6 Shall I play it again? 7 I will not listen again.

Shall/

have t h e picnic t o m o r r o w t h e n ?

Will w e have e n o u g h t i m e t o buy t h e f o o d ?

W e will

/won't

s

need much, j u s t some snacks. M y

m u m shall/will

p r o b a b l y make s o m e t h i n g nice.

6

Shalt/

Sue:

1 8 Will the course be expensive?

7

Paul:

9 I will stop t h e CD.

Sue:

10 The instructor w i l l n o t repeat i t .

8

y o u do it?

I 7 / / w o n ' t d o i t , it's no p r o b l e m . 9

Great. It shall/will

be a lovely picnic.

l0

Paul:

11 I hope it w i l l be f u n

Wilt I call everyone o r shall/will

I just hope i t

1 1

7 / / won't rain.

B Read the t e x t and m a k e p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t V i c t o r i a ' s new life. C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h will, '11 o r won't. ! Victoria is f r o m R u s s i a . S h e m o v e d t o V a n c o u v e r Mast w e e k w i t h h e r p a r e n t s . V i c t o r i a i s 13 a n d she is a g o o d s t u d e n t , b u t s h e d o e s n ' t s p e a k much E n g l i s h . W h a t d o y o u t h i n k V i c t o r i a ' s

new

Life i n C a n a d a w i l l b e l i k e ?

1 She

It

learn English very quickly.

2 Victoria

like Canadian f o o d .

3 Her friends in Russia 4 She

w r i t e t o her.

f o r g e t Russian.

5 The climate

be a p r o b l e m .

6 Her parents

w o r r y a b o u t her.

7 She

f e e l homesick.

1 8 Victoria

get lost in Vancouver.

9 Her grandmother

visit her.

llO Her life

be very d i f f e r e n t .

C Use the phrases in t h e b o x a n d will/'ll buy some t o m o r r o w give her some m i l k il

have a s w i m

I'm cold. l i t j e t ituj coat.

2 The baby is hungry.

In y o u r n o t e b o o k , w r i t e p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e w i t h iv/7/ a n d won't. B e g i n each s e n t e n c e w i t h / [don't] think, I hope o r I'm (not)

sure.

1

e v e r y o n e / speak Chinese

2

w e / live / o n M a r s

3

I'm not sure everjone witt speak Chinese. I hope we won't tive on Mars.

r o b o t s / d o / all t h e h o u s e w o r k

4

c h i l d r e n / drive / t o school

5

e v e r y o n e / have / a c o m p u t e r

6

p e o p l e / live / u n t i l t h e y are 1 2 0

7

I / rich

8

t h e w o r l d / be / very d i f f e r e n t

omul •

t o m a k e decisions.

do it t o m o r r o w

I

g o t m y coat

talk t o him

*

• ••••• • • • • • • • • * * •

•»s

I

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

I

1

I i i I

I hope my sister a w i l l likes

this yoga CD.

b w i l l liking

I'm sure

c w i l l like

t i m e t o d o yoga,

a she w o n ' t has

b she w o n ' t have

c she w o n ' t be have 3 A:

t o our new CD now?

a W e shall listen

B: Yes!

b Shall w e listened

c Shall w e listen

3 I don't have any eggs.

A: W i l l I be g o o d at yoga? 4 I'm tired.

B: Yes, a you w i l l

5 The sea is lovely.

I

b you won't

5 I think

c you do

t h i s yoga CD. It's t o o d i f f i c u l t ,

a I'll s t o p p e d

b I'll stop

c I stop

6 There's Tom. i• •

•••••<

• • • • •

I

qs

*<v 3 £

Will, shall,

m

3i:iJS3iAw

won't

45


Present continuous with future meaning She's flying to Glasgow tomorrow.

Lucy Green is only sixteen but she is already a famous actress. Today is Monday and there is a busy week ahead. Look at her diary.

1 W e d n e s d a y

On Tuesday morning she's flying to Glasgow. She isn't having lunch because she's making a video. At 9:00 on Wednesday she's meeting her manager and they're talking about a new film. Lucy is seeing a friend at 11:00 and she's opening a new theatre i n the afternoon. The next morning she's going back to Southampton. She isn't working on Thursday, she's spending time with her family.

' T h u r s d a y

T r u e o r False? T h u r s d a y is a f r e e d a y f o r Lucy. 3MI :J9MSUV

Present continuous with future meaning 1

U s e t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s (be + v e r b + -ing) f o r p l a n s i n t h e f u t u r e w h e n w e a l r e a d y k n o w t h e t i m e a n d place. On Tuesday morning We're meeting

2

tonight.

on Thursday,

to i n s t e a d o f t h e

present continuous w i t h f u t u r e meaning.

at two o'clock.

at home

She isn't working

W e can o f t e n use going

to Glasgow,

W e o f t e n use t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s t o t a l k a b o u t a d e f i n i t e t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e , e.g. tomorrow, six o'clock, on Friday. I'm staying

46

she's flying

She's spending = She's going â&#x20AC;˘

time with her family. to spend time with her family.

See U n i t 5 f o r t h e present continuous and Units 17 and 19 f o r more f u t u r e forms.


Practice A Look at Lucy's diary for Friday, t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e

C

summary using present continuous s t a t e m e n t s .

C o m p l e t e t h i s t e l e p h o n e dialogue w i t h present continuous f o r m s o f t h e verbs in t h e box. come

do

n o t spend Angela:

not do

give

n o t stay

Hi, S t a c y .

go

meet

play

play

take Ore

1

you

^Oin^

t o t h e school disco t o n i g h t ?

p:00 mtet wMager + yign umjrait iyWdh^i^^f^dkr iKihaM + read wr'upt MOO -17:30 W Kate- _ U:00 - interview wvtk jcurndi^h _ IVOOtikijrS^M. hwi (Mm wtMivia

Stacy:

N o way! I school. 1

Angela:

m y Friday n i g h t at

2

m y b r o t h e r at 8.

3

he

4

you w i t h

him t o t h e hockey game? Stacy:

Yes, I'm so e x c i t e d . H e

against

5

a very g o o d t e a m t o n i g h t . Steven Stamkos . t h a t guy f r o m t h e N H L

6

Angela: Key Bie

1

S jettiiuj

up earty

0

n

home. Her manager

Stacy:

N o , he

her at 1 1 : 0 0 and t h e y

t h e c o n t r a c t . Lucy

1 0

lunch w i t h everyone in t h e

theatre and t h e y afternoon s h e

t h e script. In t h e

6

you

after the

disco? Angela:

1

a n y t h i n g special.

1 1

her f r i e n d Kate.

7

I At 18:00 some j o u r n a l i s t s • 21:00 she

the prizes. He

8

long. Anyway, w h a t

I

9

he

too?

Friday m o r n i n g . A t 9:00

2

Steven S t a m k o s ! '

MV TURN!

her. A t

8

t h e t r a i n h o m e . Her

9

mum •

her at t h e s t a t i o n . ^^ma$n^

Here is part of Lucy's interview. M a t c h t h e q u e s t i o n s

W h a t are you doing

next w e e k ? First, w r i t e notes in y o u r notebook, t h e n w r i t e at least six p r e s e n t continuous sentences. S o m e

I to the correct answers, t h e n w r i t e both in full using t h e present continuous.

can be negatives.

1 Lucy /you / go / t o t h e Cannes f i l m festival?

Examples:

2 you/have/a

I'm watcnin^ mtjself on TV. I'm not jetting up before 12 tomorrow,

holiday/there?

3 y o u / f l y / t o Zurich? 14 where / you / stay?

15 your sister / t r a v e l / w i t h you? •

N o / 1 / d o / a drama course

b No/we/not go/together

C i r c l e t h e c o r r e c t option.

|c No /1 / spend / t h e spring / in S w i t z e r l a n d

1

Id I/rent/ a f l a t / in Geneva

a I'm m e e t i n g

e Yes / but / I / n o t stay / in Z u r i c h

I I Question: Ucij, are^jcujeind to tne Cannes film festival Lucy: lOo, Im spending tne spring in Switzerland. 2 Question: I

Lucy:

m y manager t o m o r r o w evening.

2

a He'll b r i n g i n g

7

3 a You're 4

B: N o , a I don't

I

Lucy:

5

b He's b r i n g i n g

c He's bring

b W i l l you

c Are you

A: A r e y o u m a k i n g a v i d e o n e x t w e e k ?

3 Question: Lucy:

c I meet

coming t o the theatre?

I

4 Question:

b I meeting

the new contract.

We a aren't

I made it last week. b I won't

c I'm n o t

s t a y i n g in a h o t e l . b won't

c don't

5 Question: I

Lucy:

E

S

3^

3

£

QZ

B

T

:SJSMSUB IISAI

Present continuous w i t h f u t u r e meaning

47


Be going to I'm going to use magic.

The dragon is very angry (and hungry!) now - it's going to eat you! You don't have a sword

—ipo

so you aren't

going to fight an angry dragon! Are you going to run away? I'm not going to fight. I'm going to run away. ^

9* Turn to page 2 1 2 . I'm going to use magic. »» Turn to page 4 5 . I'm going to speak nicely to the dragon. We're going to be friends! »» Turn to page 1 7 0 . W h i c h answer •

w o u l d y o u give?

Be going to 1

Use be going

to + i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t to (e.g. do, say, have) f o r

statement

p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e b a s e d o n w h a t w e see o r k n o w now.

1

The dragon is very angry - it's going The water is cold. I'm not going

to

to eat

/

negative X

a m ('m) g o i n g t o see

you!

see

swim. He/

2

O f t e n be going

to + i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t to s h o w s t h a t

She/

s o m e t h i n g is g o i n g t o h a p p e n i m m e d i a t e l y o r v e r y s o o n . Be careful, it's going Julie is working

to get

You/

ill.

We/ 3

Use be going to + i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t to for plans a n d decisions. I'm going

are ('re) g o i n g t o see

They

is n o t (isn't / ' s not) g o i n g t o see

a r e n o t ( a r e n ' t / 're n o t ) g o i n g t o see

to use magic.

Are you going 4

is ('s) g o i n g t o see

It

to fall!

too hard. She's going

am fm) not going to

to clean your shoes ?

W e can also use t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s (be + v e r b + -ing) t o t a l k a b o u t plans a n d d e c i s i o n s . I'm meeting

Fiona tonight. = I'm going to meet Fiona

question ?

short a n s w e r / X

A m 1 g o i n g t o see...?

Yes, 1 a m . No, 1 a m f m ) not.

tonight. Is he / she / it g o i n g

Yes, (he) is.

t o see...?

N o , (he) is n o t (isn't / ' s n o t ) .

f o r plans w h i c h have n o t b e e n s c h e d u l e d .

A r e you / w e / they

Yes, (you) are.

I'm going

g o i n g t o see...?

N o , (you) are n o t ( a r e n ' t / 're not).

Be going

laptop

to ( N O T t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s ) can be u s e d to buy a laptop

tomorrow.

One day, I'm going marrying

tomorrow.

= I'm buying a

(A plan, I k n o w when.) to marry

a prince. N O T One day, I'm

V

See Units 17 and 18 f o r more f u t u r e forms.

a prince. (A plan b u t I d o n ' t k n o w when.)

• 48


Practice A What is (or is n o t ) g o i n g t o h a p p e n n e x t ? L o o k a t t h e pictures and c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h be going

B

negatives or questions.

and a verb f r o m t h e b o x . break

buy

cry

finish

have

C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h be going to. S o m e are

to

snow

1

I love science.

2

She feels hungry, so she

I rn^Otncj to

3

The p a r t y is t o m o r r o w .

4

He's b r o k e n his leg, so he

study Physics at university. have dinner. you

come? play t o n i g h t .

5

T h e y like fast cars. T h e y

6

A:

buy a Ferrari.

7

W e d o n ' t have t i c k e t s f o r t h e concert. W e

he

win?

B: I hope so.

see it. C

Underline the correct o p t i o n . Sometimes both options are possible. W e ' r e going to do/doing John is going to do/doing

i t soon. it t o m o r r o w .

M y son is going to win/winning

an O l y m p i c m e d a l in

2020. A r e y o u going to study/studying

hard at college next

year? M y sister is going to have/having

a baby in December.

We're n o t going to finish/finishing

it soon, unfortunately.

G l e n d a is going to write/writing Is Dad going to take/taking

a b o o k one day.

y o u t o t h e a i r p o r t on

Saturday?

J

Read going

E

The ball

T h e d o g is hungry. It sees some m e a t o n t h e t a b l e .

2

M i k e sees a nice j a c k e t in t h e shop w i n d o w .

window.

ft The baby w o r k early.

[6 She

I d o n ' t speak French w e l l b u t I k n o w t h e phone

4

You like B i o l o g y and y o u are a g o o d s t u d e n t .

5

Sally w a n t s a car b u t her salary is very small.

6

T h e y live in a t o w n b u t t h e y d o n ' t like t h e noise and pollution.

a baby.

• • • • • i

Tke ao^'s jouuj tojump on the table and eat tne meat,

n u m b e r o f a p r i v a t e French teacher.

13 It 5 The manager

to a n d w r i t e t h e m in y o u r n o t e b o o k .

1

3

1 She sjeuuj to bcuj a new dress.

t h e s e n t e n c e s , m a k e y o u r o w n p r e d i c t i o n s w i t h be

7

You f i n d 1 0 0 euros in t h e street. You see a police officer.

• •••••••

Circle the c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1 Be careful! The d r a g o n •

up.

[3 A: Are they g o i n g t o be friends? m A:

b is g o i n g t o w a k e

B:Yes,

a I don't going

atheyare

b they going

magic? B: No, she isn't. She's g o i n g t o run away, a She is g o i n g t o use

15 Relax! The dragon

L

a be g o i n g t o w a k e

t o read t h i s adventure b o o k again. D o y o u w a n t it?

y o u . It's a very f r i e n d l y dragon,

— — — — — — —— • ••••••••••

a aren't g o i n g t o eat

c is g o i n g t o w a k i n g b I'm n o t g o i n g

c I won't going

|

c they do b Is she g o i n g use

c Is she g o i n g t o use '

b isn't g o i n g t o eat qS

c n o t g o i n g t o eat E

£

°Z

qi

'

: S J 3 M S U G J;S8XA'VV

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Be going

to

49


R 4 A

B

Review: the future

M a t c h t h e questions t o t h e answers. 1

Shall w e g o dancing t o n i g h t ? -

Yes, t h e y ' r e never late.

2

W i l l i t be c o l d in G e r m a n y ?

N o , I'm n o t . She's o n holiday, so I'm g o i n g t o stay at h o m e .

3

A r e y o u m e e t i n g Rachel t o n i g h t ?

Yes, she w i l l . Is t h a t O K ?

4

Is t h e t r a i n g o i n g t o be late?

Yes, w e are. I t h i n k i t ' l l be really g o o d .

5

W i l l t h e y arrive o n t i m e ?

O K . That's a g o o d idea.

6

Are you both going t o watch t h e tennis match?

Yes, i t is. Sue called t o say she's s t i l l w a i t i n g at t h e s t a t i o n .

7

W i l l y o u r sister w a n t t o c o m e w i t h us?

Yes, he is. He's b o u g h t some pizzas.

8

Is D a n c o o k i n g d i n n e r t o n i g h t ?

N o , it w o n ' t . A t t h i s t i m e o f year it's usually w a r m .

Read t h e reasons f o r u s i n g d i f f e r e n t f u t u r e f o r m s b e l o w . Find a n e x a m p l e i n Exercise A t o m a t c h each r e a s o n . 1

Will f o r p r e d i c t i o n s based o n w h a t y o u t h i n k :

(Oitt i t be cotd in Qermawj?

2

Shall f o r offers and suggestions:

3

Present c o n t i n u o u s f o r plans w h e n w e already k n o w t h e t i m e and place:

4

Be going to f o r p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e based o n w h a t w e see o r know now:

C

C h a n g e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s i n t o q u e s t i o n s (?) o r n e g a t i v e s (x).

1

She's arriving at 1 0 p m t o n i g h t . (?)

2

This f i l m w i l l be v e r y e x c i t i n g . (X)

3

W e ' r e g o i n g t o be late. (?)

4

I'll need m y passport at t h e h o t e l . (?)

5

Susan's g o i n g t o t h e party, so I'll go. (X)

6

You'll e n j o y t h i s b o o k . (X)

7

It's g o i n g t o s n o w t o n i g h t . (?)

8

You're g o i n g t o be sick. (?)

9 10

50

Your parents w i l l be angry. (?) W e ' r e g o i n g t o w i n t h e m a t c h . (X)

Is s(ve arriving at 10 pm tonyfitf

This film won't bi

very

exscititu).


undejrUne the correct option. • Jill: Willyou

go / Are you going t o Joe's H a l l o w e e n p a r t y n e x t w e e k ?

l

Belly: O f course. I'm really e x c i t e d a b o u t i t . W h a t a b o u t y o u ? I Jill: Yes, I'll I I'm going to go. But I d o n ' t k n o w w h a t t o wear. M a y b e I'll / I'm 2

3

going to be a w i t c h . Kelly: Oh no, please d o n ' t . / 7 / / I ' m going to be a w i t c h . I've b o u g h t a black hat and 4

l'll/l'm

going to have a green face.

5

•Jill: Oh, right. OK, so I won't/I'm

not going to go as a w i t c h . I k n o w . I ' l l / I ' m

6

7

going

to put a w h i t e sheet o n m y head and be a ghost. Kelly: Hmmm ... Sue and Chris and Sharon will

all/are

8

all going to be ghosts.

Sue t o l d me yesterday. Jill: OK, O K . I ' l l / I ' m 9

going to b u y some Dracula t e e t h . Is t h a t O K ?

Kelly: Yes, that's a great idea. Rob: Hi Jill. Hi Kelly. Willyou l0

Jill: Oh yes. Yes, and ... l'll/l'm 11

go/Are

you going t o Joe's p a r t y ?

going to be Dracula.

Rob: Dracula? O h n o . . . please d o n ' t . l'll/I'm

going to be Dracula t o o .

12

Match the pairs. 1 We're going t o Korea n e x t m o n t h .

-^ ^—a N

2 It's a beautiful m o r n i n g , w i t h no c l o u d s . ^ — b 3 She's always late.

I t ' l l p r o b a b l y be h o t . a

'4 She phoned t o say her bus d i d n ' t c o m e .

I t h i n k it's g o i n g t o be h o t . She probably w o n ' t be here on t i m e today.

b She isn't g o i n g t o be here o n t i m e .

5 O u r f o o t b a l l t e a m is really g o o d .

a

6 It's 6-1, w i t h o n l y 1 0 m i n u t e s t o play.

b We're going t o w i n the match.

7 I've seen this f i l m b e f o r e . I k n o w t h e e n d i n g .

a

8 It's a great f i l m . H o w w i l l i t end?

b She's g o i n g t o m a r r y t h e d o c t o r .

9 How many children are y o u g o i n g t o have? 10 How many children w i l l y o u have? Make predictions (using will and be going

a

I'm sure w e ' l l w i n today's m a t c h .

M a y b e she'll m a r r y t h e d o c t o r . I d o n ' t know. Ask m e again in 10 years'time.

b Two. Next m o n t h . to) and plans (using be going

to and

[present continuous) w i t h t h e w o r d s given. S o m e are negatives. pi It / be very cold / t o n i g h t . (It's 8 o'clock in t h e e v e n i n g , and already b e l o w zero!)

[

It'sjouuj to be very coui tonight.

;-2 It / be very cold / next w e e k . (You t h i n k ; y o u haven't seen t h e w e a t h e r forecast.) 3 I/go t o the c i n e m a / t o n i g h t . (You're g o i n g w i t h y o u r sister; i t starts at 8 o'clock.) 4 I / go t o the cinema / next w e e k . (You d o n ' t k n o w w h e n , w h o w i t h o r w h a t film.) 5 My favourite f o o t b a l l t e a m / play a m a t c h / t h i s w e e k e n d . (You have a t i c k e t , the game starts at 3 o'clock.) 6 My favourite f o o t b a l l t e a m / w i n t h e cup / t h i s year. (You t h i n k , b u t y o u don't know.) 7 We / go t o a h o t c o u n t r y o n h o l i d a y / n e x t w e e k . (You have t h e plane tickets.) 8 We / go t o a h o t c o u n t r y on h o l i d a y / t h i s s u m m e r . (You d o n ' t k n o w w h i c h country or t h e date.)


20 r ^ H o w

Modal verbs: can, could, be able to How can dogs help us?

c a n d o g s

help

u s ? j

In World War I I , dogs w e r e a b l e

Dogs c a n h e a r a n d see m u c h b e t t e r

to smell or hear

t h a n h u m a n s . T h e y c a n also s m e l l

survivors that

m a n y things that humans can't.

people c o u l d not find.

D u r i n g W o r l d W a r I, m a n y soldiers w e n t b l i n d . Dogs w e r e a b l e t o l o o k after t h e b l i n d soldiers. Sony's A i b o . W i l l a robot ever b e a b l e t o r e p l a c e a dog?

W h y are dogs very g o o d at

finding

people?

suewnq UEL|; jauaq ipnw ]|aws pue sas 'jeaq UBD Aaqx :J3MSU\/

Modal verbs: can, could, be able to 1

Use can t o t a l k a b o u t a b i l i t y .

5

Dogs can hear and see much better

than

M a k e q u e s t i o n s a n d s h o r t a n s w e r s as f o l l o w s :

humans. question ?

2

Can d o e s n o t c h a n g e . I t is t h e s a m e w i t h a l l s u b j e c t s . / can swim. He can swim. They can swim.

3

s h o r t answer / X 1 / y o u / he /

Can

she/it/

Dogs can hear much better

than

humans.

N o , (he) can't.

we/they

Can is f o l l o w e d b y a s e c o n d v e r b . T h e s e c o n d v e r b is t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t to.

Yes, (he) can. swim?

H o w can do; *s h e l p us?

N O T They can to hear... U s e could (not) or was / were (not) able to for t h e past. 4

T h e n e g a t i v e o f can is cannot.

T h e s h o r t f o r m is

can't. T h e s h o r t f o r m is m o r e c o m m o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n conversation. Emily can't swim very well. statement 1/You/He/She/ It/We/They

52

Warn, dogs were able to smell or hear

survivors

that people could

not find.

U s e will be able to for t h e f u t u r e . T h e n e g a t i v e f o r m o f /

negative X c a n n o t (can't)

can s w i m .

In World

swim.

t h e f u t u r e is will not be able to o r won't A robot

will / won't

Will a robot

be able

be able to replace a dog.

ever be able to replace a dog?

See U n i t 2 1 f o r can (request). See U n i t 22 f o r can't (forbid).

to.


actice Underline the correct option.

D

couldn't,

1 Dogs can/ could t r a v e l a l o n g w a y t o find f o o d . 2 Most dogs can't/couldn't

C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s u s i n g can, can't,

see t h e difference b e t w e e n

come

3 Often during W o r l d W a r s I and II, p e o p l e were not able 1 t o / c a n ' t f i n d survivors. 5 They can/could

will be able to o r won't be able to a n d a v e r b

f r o m t h e box.

red and green.

4 However, dogs were able to/will

have

be able to find t h e m .

also carry messages. make b e t t e r

hear

see

I tJUU

6 In the future, scientists will be able to/can

could,

imagine

speak

understand

1

It's t o o dark in here. I

2

I w a n t t o learn Spanish.

can't read

m y book.

3

W h e n w e m o v e t o t h e c o u n t r y n e x t year, w e

4

W e d o n ' t really k n o w w h a t life was like in t h e past. W e

you

a n o t h e r language?

robot dogs.

a dog.

Make sentences by putting t h e w o r d s in t h e correct order.

only 5

si b o t t l e / 1 / o p e n / c a n ' t / t h i s

Bats very w e l l b u t t h e y have e x c e l l e n t hearing.

I cant open th.Cs bottle. 2 couldn't / name / her / r e m e m b e r / I

6

T h a t f i l m was really b o r i n g .

3 stand/child/able/The/wasn't/to

7

I c o u l d n ' t sleep last night. I

8

I f I g o t o A u s t r a l i a t o study, I

you

w h a t it was a b o u t ? a strange noise. h o m e very o f t e n .

4 a t / m e e t / w e / C a n / 7? 5 question / He / t h e / answer / c o u l d n ' t 6 play/can't / I / t e n n i s

I

M a k e s e n t e n c e s a b o u t w h a t y o u can / can't d o n o w ,

\7 truck / drive / Can / a / she?

could I couldn't

8 able / come / f r i e n d s / M y / w e r e n ' t / t o

n o t e b o o k . Use expressions f r o m t h e box o r your o w n

won't ideas.

drive

Circle the c o r r e c t o p t i o n . c couldn't

run 1 0 kilometres

stand o n m y head

1 I... use my m o b i l e here - i t doesn't w o r k . a can (Tj) can't

d o w h e n y o u w e r e y o u n g e r o r will /

be able to d o in t h e f u t u r e a n d w r i t e t h e m in y o u r

d wasn't able t o

Example:

speak English

t o u c h m y t o e s w i t h m y nose

(dhen I was (our, (couldn't speak â&#x201A;Źnjttsn.

2 In 1 9 9 8 , 2 0 % o f t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n ... n o t w r i t e , a can

b can't

c could

d w a s able t o

3 The box was very heavy - I... carry i t . a will be able t o c can't

b w o n ' t be able t o

d couldn't

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

4 When I was younger, I... read a b o o k in o n e day. a could

b can

c w i l l be able t o

1

d can't

5 I... take this t o t h e post office. I haven't g o t enough t i m e , a can

b can't

c could

2

d couldn't

6 I'm not busy. I... go t o t h e post office f o r you. a can't

b w o n ' t be able t o

c can

3

d couldn't

b can

c be able t o

c won't be able t o

b w e r e n ' t able t o d was able t o

b can

c is able

B u t he

u n d e r s t a n d one w o r d o f English,

a doesn't can

b can't

c can n o t

W h e n t h e people a couldn't

d can't

4

8 The w i n d o w was very small b u t m y d a u g h t e r . . . c l i m b in. a wasn't able t o

u n d e r s t a n d a b o u t 2 0 w o r d s in a canto

t h e survivor, t h e i r dogs

helped t h e m .

7 Don't stay o u t late o r y o u w o n ' t . . . get up early, a could

M y dog Spanish.

1

M y dog

find

b can't f o u n d very fast.

a doesn't can run 5

c couldn't found

b can't r u n

c c a n n o t runs

A: W i l l t h e r o b o t d o g be able t o swim? B: N o , i t

a can't 3

5

IT

b isn't 7

E

ÂŁ

V

c won't

3 1 :SJ3MSUE

jlSBX^W

M o d a l v e r b s : can, could, be able to

53


21

Modals for requests: can, could, may Could we go on a safari?

ep]

Write to^l\OTand tell him your dreams. For one lucky winner, your dream will come true! Dear Jim, Could we go on a safari in South Africa? We'd really like to see some real lions. Can our friends come too? Best wishes, Claudia and Elena (13 years old)

Dear Jim, May I have a baby sister, please? I have two brothers but I really want a sister to play with. Best wishes, Rita (10 years old) P.S. Please could she have brown hair and brown eyes like me?

Dear Jim, Can you send me a model Ferrari? I emailed you last month but you didn't send it. Could you answer 'yes or 'no'? (I hope 'yes'.) Best wishes, Charles (11 years old)

Dear Jim, Could I work in the circus? I'm still at school but all my teachers say I am a clown. May I send you a video clip of myself? Best wishes, John (12 's years old) 3

1 Claudia

a a sister

M a t c h each person

2 Charles

t o t h e i r request:

b a holiday

3 John

c a car

4

d ajob

Rita E

17 PÂŁ 2 I T :J3AASUV D

Modals for requests: can, could, may 1

Use can, could a n d may t o ask f o r s o m e t h i n g p o l i t e l y ; can a n d

W e can use can, could a n d may w i t h t h e f i r s t

could are more c o m m o n t h a n

p e r s o n t o ask f o r p e r m i s s i o n . Could is m o r e

Can you send me a model Could

may.

Ferrari?

I have a cake?

May I have a baby

sister?

p o l i t e t h a n can. May is f o r m a l . W e usually give p e r m i s s i o n w i t h can, o r w e can j u s t say Of course o r Sure. A: Can I leave the room?

2

Use can a n d could, b u t n o t may, t o ask p e o p l e t o d o t h i n g s . Could she phone me when she's free? Can you come

here?

A: Could

B: Yes, you can.

we have some more?

A: May I start?

B: No, you can't!

B: Of course.

Please + i m p e r a t i v e is n o t v e r y p o l i t e . Please + can / could / may + t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t to is p o l i t e . D o n ' t say Please do it!, say Please can you do it? 54


actice Match each request t o t h e correct reply.

D

T h e s e e m a i l s t o J i m are not polite. In your notebook, w r i t e polite versions o f

F1 May I come in?

a

2 Could you ring back later?

b N o , t h e shop is closed,

t h e m using can, could, may and 1

I'm n o t sure. I'll ask her.

3 Can we meet on Saturday?

c

4 May I take your n u m b e r ?

d Sure, I'll phone again in an hour,

5 Can your sister come?

e Yes, t a k e some. It's very g o o d .

Sorry, I d o n ' t k n o w I t a l i a n ,

the way home?

f

Give me a Sony PlayStation

Could JJOU please jive me a Soixej PlayStation? / Can jou jive me a Sonj PlayStation, pleasef

6 Could they buy some bread o n 7 Can I see your h o m e w o r k ?

N o , I'm busy at t h e w e e k e n d ,

g I haven't d o n e i t yet.

8 Could we t r y t h e cake?

Buy me a new bike

-h O n e m o m e n t , I'll o p e n t h e door,

9 Can you translate it?

i

Sure. 7 3 7 - 5 2 - 2 5 . I want to visit London.

Write sentences asking f o r permission. 2

Translate this email from my friend in Mongolia. Do my Geography homework.

I w a n t t o speak t o Sarah.

Can Us oat, please?

Send my sister a birthday present. I want to ride your bike.

7

TO

want to go into space.

We want to come home late tonight. V

I want to be in the next Spider-Man film.

your notebook, write a request for each situation using can, could, may

MY TURN!

and the words in brackets. U s e may w h e n you need t o be very polite. 1 rou You are are in in aa very very exf expensive cafe. Y o u want a coffee. (I / have)

In your notebook, w r i t e emails t o J i m .

Mow I nave a. coffeef

M a k e t h e m polite w i t h can, could, may

'2 You are lost. You see an o l d m a n w i t h a m o b i l e p h o n e . (I / use)

and

3 Your computer w o n ' t w o r k . Your f r i e n d is g o o d w i t h c o m p u t e r s . I

please.

please.

Examples:

(you / help)

Could (meet ftyer federerf

4 You are late f o r class. You w a n t t o g o i n t o t h e r o o m . (I / c o m e in) 5 You want t o see y o u r f r i e n d a f t e r school, (we / meet) 6 You have invited y o u r f r i e n d t o a party. Y o u like his CD. (you / bring) 7 It is cold. Your f r i e n d is in f r o n t o f an o p e n w i n d o w , (you / close) 8 You are going t o play t e n n i s w i t h a f r i e n d . You have t h e ball, (we / start)

••••••••

• ••

• i

| Circle the correct option. I I

Dear Jim. Can y o u

I 2 A:Excuseme •

my friend?

f o r m y sixteenth birthday? 4 Dear Jim. Please

a be

y o u r t o i l e t , please?

c t o be

a M a y y o u give m e a car

a new m o b i l e phone?

5 A: Mum? Can w e have a dog?

b being

B: Yes, o f course.

B:No,we

a M a y I use

b C o u l d give y o u me a car

a could have m y sister a don't

b M a y I using

b haven't

c Mayltouse c C o u l d y o u give me a car

b could m y sister has

c could m y sister have

c can't

8 * 35

>T? 3 £

E X : S J 3 M S U E JJSAX AYV

M o d a l s f o r r e q u e s t s : can, could, may

55


Must, have to and can't

22

I have to stay here. People t e l l y o u all t h e t i m e ,

settles down on my knee,

Poems d o n o t have t o r h y m e .

and he carries a letter

It's o f t e n b e t t e r i f t h e y d o n ' t

H o v e t h e first b i t o f t h e m o r n i n g

A n d I'm d e t e r m i n e d t h i s one w o n ' t .

s

,

w

i

p

e

y

o

u

r

f

e

e

t

b

Coral Rumble

e

f

o

r

e

y

o

u

w

a

i

Wendy Cope

k

mother to me g

O h dear. V o o â&#x201E;˘

tommy

Littlebird,takethe reeting take a kiss and a tear fori cannot go with you as 1 have to stay here.

I have a fairy by my side Which says I must not sleep, When once in pain I loudly cried It said 'You must not weep'. Lewis Carroll W h i c h p o e m is a b o u t being far away f r o m someone you love? \r uiaoj :J9MSUV

Must, have to a n d can't 1

Use must

6

- t o t a l k a b o u t rules and laws All passengers

must

wear a seat belt. (This is t h e rule.)

T h e p a s t of don't I didn't

You must phone me. (The speaker feels t h a t this is important.) T h e n e g a t i v e f o r m is must Use must

not or mustn't

not. T h e s h o r t f o r m is

mustn't.

7

3

smoke in the

W e can use can't

i n s t e a d o f mustn't

t o talk about things

/ can't I cannot I couldn't 4

Use have

go with

8

9

at the

airport.

Must

d o e s n o t c h a n g e . I t is t h e s a m e w i t h a l l subjects.

Must

go. They must

go.

is a m o d a l v e r b , a n d is f o l l o w e d by a second verb

i n t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t to.

to

You must not

have to wear a seat belt. (This is t h e rule.)

M a k e q u e s t i o n s a n d s h o r t a n s w e r s as f o l l o w s :

/ have to stay here. (The speaker can't change t h e situation.) have to o r doesn't

weep.

1 0 Q u e s t i o n s a r e m o r e c o m m o n w i t h have to t h a n must.

o t h e r s o r circumstance.

Use don't

to.

T h e r e a r e n o p a s t o r f u t u r e f o r m s o f must. Use f o r m s

/ must go. He must

- t o t a l k a b o u t o b l i g a t i o n i m p o s e d o n t h e speaker by

5

have

yesterday.

I will have to leave early.

- t o t a l k a b o u t rules and laws (a similar use t o must) All passengers

have to is didn't

have to get up early

/ had to show my passport

you.

have sweets when I was a girl.

airport.

future.

restaurant.

w e are n o t a l l o w e d t o do.

/ doesn't

at the

of have to t o t a l k a b o u t o b l i g a t i o n in t h e past o r

t o t a l k a b o u t things w e are n o t

allowed t o do. You mustn't

to.

I had to show my passport

- t o t a l k a b o u t s o m e t h i n g t h e speaker feels is necessary.

2

T h e p a s t o f have to is had

have to t o t a l k a b o u t

question ?

short a n s w e r / /

D o 1 / y o u / w e / t h e y have t o stay?

Yes, w e d o . No, we don't.

s o m e t h i n g w h i c h is n o t necessary. Poems do not have to rhyme. (The speaker d o e s n ' t t h i n k

D o e s he / she / it h a v e t o stay?

this is necessary.)

Yes, he does. N o , he d o e s n ' t .

Don't

have to is n o t t h e s a m e as

You mustn't

mustn't.

walk on the grass.

N O T You don't have to walk on the grass. 56

â&#x20AC;˘

See Units 2 0 , 2 1 , 2 3 and 24 f o r more modal verbs.


actice Complete the sentences w i t h have to or don't

have

Follow the instructions t o complete the poem.

to. Make them true for you.

T h i n k o f s o m e t h i n g y o u need t o buy. ( W r i t e t h e verb in 1 and t h e o b j e c t in 2.) T h i n k o f s o m e o n e y o u need t o t a l k t o . ( W r i t e

If you want t o be my f r i e n d , . . . 1 you

be rich.

2 you

be g o o d l o o k i n g .

3 you

be k i n d .

4 you

like t h e same t h i n g s as me.

5 you

t a l k a b o u t y o u r feelings.

6 you

r e m e m b e r my b i r t h d a y .

t h e verb in 3 and t h e person in 4.) T h i n k o f s o m e t h i n g y o u w a n t t o e a t . ( W r i t e t h e verb in 5 and t h e f o o d in 6.) N o w read y o u r p o e m .

1

2

buy

I must

4

3

Example:

and

1 j6k aWt have ts be rich..

6

Complete the sentences using must, mustn't

and

or

can't and a verb from t h e box. be drink

drive

ride y o u r bike

step

talk

4

buy

I must not

6 or

2

or

J^ouar^g^

in t h e s u m m e r . I n

y o u r n o t e b o o k , w r i t e t w o t h i n g s y o u have to d o a t t h e c a m p s i t e , t w o t h i n g s y o u mustn't

do and t w o things you

don't have to d o . C h o o s e f r o m t h e v e r b s i n t h e b o x . 1 Drivers

arrive early

must Stop

2 You

o n y o u r m o b i l e phone.

3 You

here.

â&#x20AC;˘

Cars

under 6 0 km per hour.

: 5 You

the water.

6 You

q u i e t here.

bring a tent

keep t h e campsite clean pay in advance

get up early

have parties

make a l o t o f noise

wear a uniform

E x a m p l e : (don't have to j e t up early,

Circle the c o r r e c t o p t i o n . II I

I

remember it's my mum's birthday next week. w r i t e poems at school?

a Have y o u

a must t o

b has

b D o y o u have t o

c D o you must

3 Please don't t e l l my parents I had a hamburger. They

know.

4 I

b m u s t read

my poem t o t h e class yesterday.

6 t r a v e l

a had t o read

a lot w h e n y o u were a pop singer?

a Had y o u t o

c must

aa m u s t n ' t

b have n o t tt o

c doesn't must

c m u s t t o read

b Must you

c D i d y o u have t o 35

ET? E ÂŁ

1

qz

31 :SJ9MSUE

JISSX


Should, ought to

23

You should take off your shoes.

Here are some things you should remember if you go to different countries.

You should not touch somebody on the head in Thailand. The head is a special part of the body in Thai culture.

In Russia, you shouldn't whistle inside a house. (No one knows why!)

If you go to a restaurant in South Korea, you should take off your shoes. This is polite.

You ought to knock loudly on doors in Nicaragua knocking softly is not polite

Guests in Mexico should always leave a little bit of food on their plate. This shows they are not hungry.

VP-

J

In Taiwan, you shouldn't give somebody an umbrella as a present. An umbrella will bring people bad luck.

. 9

True or False? It is a bad idea t o w e a r shoes in a restaurant in South Korea. ami uaMsuy

Should, ought to 1

Should

4

has a s i m i l a r m e a n i n g t o must, b u t is n o t so

W e m a k e q u e s t i o n s by p u t t i n g should

before the

subject.

strong. You should

eat healthy

In Taiwan, you shouldn't

Should

food. give somebody

an umbrella

we buy a guidebook

What should

as

?

I do?

a present. 5 2

U s e should

What should

B: You should

Should

on the head in

shouldn't

play here.

is a m o d a l v e r b so i t has n o -s i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n

s i n g u l a r . I t is f o l l o w e d by t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o u t to. Simon should

come with us.

N O T Simon should to come with us. 58

not touch somebody

Thailand.

go home.

Children 3

should

shouldn't.

You should

I do now?

A: I don't feel well.

W e m a k e n e g a t i v e s w i t h not. T h e s h o r t f o r m o f not is

t o ask f o r a n d g i v e a d v i c e .

6

Ought

to = should

b u t i t is m u c h less c o m m o n . Ought

is v e r y r a r e i n q u e s t i o n s a n d n e g a t i v e s . You ought

to be polite.

to


actice Match the correct advice to each sentence. a

It's r a i n i n g . —

D

It's my birthday.

-c

I'm worried about t h i s test. My t o o t h hurts.

Y o u s h o u l d t a k e an u m b r e l l a ,

e

You s h o u l d answer i t .

f

You s h o u l d n ' t eat i t .

7 It's important i n f o r m a t i o n .

g You s h o u l d n o t w o r k so hard,

8 It smells strange.

h You s h o u l d buy a nice cake.

Complete the sentences using should eat

1 Guests

give

kiss

meet

should come

2 You

say

f l o w e r s f o r w o m e n o n 8 M a r c h in Romania. guests w i t h bread and salt.

4 If you get a present in T h a i l a n d , y o u

i t at h o m e .

5 When you answer t h e phone in Germany, y o u

y o u r name.

6 In Belgium, friends 7 Guests

You are always t i r e d in t h e m o r n i n g s .

2

Y o u r n e i g h b o u r plays l o u d music at night.

3

You have n o t h i n g nice t o w e a r t o a party.

4

You d o n ' t k n o w w h a t t o buy y o u r f a t h e r f o r his b i r t h d a y .

late t o parties in S w i t z e r l a n d .

3 In Ukraine, you

to.

1

and t h e v e r b s in t h e box. open

or ought

you should j o to bed early.

d Y o u o u g h t t o see a d e n t i s t ,

6 My phone is ringing.

eeme

should

You s h o u l d n ' t t h i n k a b o u t i t .

b You should remember it.

I'm tired.

buy

G i v e advice in t h e f o l l o w i n g situations using

5

You are w a i t i n g f o r a f r i e n d b u t he is very late.

6

There are mice in y o u r house.

7

You w a n t t o be a p o p star.

8

Y o u r m u m says y o u can't go t o t h e party.

three times when they meet. e v e r y t h i n g o n t h e i r p l a t e in Bolivia.

MY TURN!

8 If you have a house p a r t y in N e w Zealand, y o u a key to guests. Tick / the correct option.

W h a t advice w o u l d you give to tourists coming to your country? In your notebook, write six sentences using should, shouldn't

" t neather

Example:

a It is necessary t o w e a r t h e [ hat i f it's raining.

grammar.

b You can wear t h e hat i f it's raining.

M i k e should do more grammar.

c It isn't a good idea t o w e a r the hat i f it's raining. /

M i k e has no t i m e f o r grammar.

3

:>3

l-«

b This t o o t h p a s t e is t h e best for cleaning y o u r t e e t h .

Liz doesn't k n o w i f she needs t o buy f l o w e r s . Liz w a n t s G e o f f t o buy flowers.

c It is a good idea t o use t h e toothpaste t w o t i m e s a day.

Liz t h i n k s it is necessary t o buy some f l o w e r s .

5

I i s I SHU

f* You should not open the ^ back of the computer.

b It is impossible t o o p e n t h e back o f t h e c o m p u t e r . c It is a bad idea t o o p e n t h e back o f t h e c o m p u t e r .

2

b

Read t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f i r s t .

c

This is n o t a t e s t f o r beginner s t u d e n t s .

in t h e bus, so

a stand up

b standing up

You

w e a r a hat in somebody's house,

3 4

c t o stand up

b shouldn't

c n o t should

t a k e o f f m y shoes in t h e house? a Should I

b Do I should

c I should

W h e n a man meets a n o t h e r m a n , he his hand.

v3

a s h o u l d shakes

b s h o u l d shake

c s h o u l d t o shake

I PAGE I

You o u g h t t o begin r e a d i n g the test.

Children should

a d o n ' t should

5

You should not begin before vou read the instructions.

la It is necessary t o o p e n t h e back o f t h e c o m p u t e r .

Vou ooddt to come in summer,

t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e can sit d o w n .

[Should I buy flowers? [a It is a good idea t o clean your teeth.

to.

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n . 1

(Geoff,

or ought

1

You

a thank-you e m a i l f o r t h e

present. a should t o w r i t e •'••3 a njnnln

b ought to wrote

c ought to write qt- E£ qz

EX

:SJ9MSU

e

i

Should, ought to

59


-O A U

Modals of possibility: may might

Jk

We may never know ...

I

n 1925 a Greek photographer saw a strange thing in the Himalayas. It was like a man but much bigger. Since then many more people say tbey have seen it; they call it the Yeti. Is the Yeti real? It's possible, but we don't know for sure. You might see a Yeti if you go to the Himalayas. There may be many Yetis or there might not be any. The Yeti may live very high in the mountains. It may be very shy. It might not want to meet people. It mightn't be very glad to see you (and you mightn't be very glad to see it!). 9

W h a t is t h e Y e t i ?

a A man

b An animal

c W e d o n ' t know.

Modals of possibility: may, might 1

Use may o r might

t o t a l k a b o u t t h e chance o f

4

something being true. The Yeti may live in the It might 2

Use might

people.

i n s t e a d o f may i f y o u t h i n k t h e chance is less

certain. It may snow in the Himalayas

next week. (It's cold in t h e

a n d could are f o l l o w e d by t h e i n f i n i t i v e

We may / might

mountains.

not want to meet

May, might w i t h o u t to.

5

/ could go by

T h e n e g a t i v e o f might mightn't.

is might

helicopter. not, or ( s o m e t i m e s )

T h e n e g a t i v e of may is may

It might

not / mightn't

not.

be very glad to see you.

Many people may not return

alive.

mountains.) You might 3

see a Yeti there, ( i f t h e y exist...)

W e can also use could t o t a l k a b o u t p o s s i b i l i t y (see U n i t 2 0 ) . We could go in summer. Where could

the Yeti be?

Maybe

is n o t t h e same as may

Maybe

(one w o r d ) m e a n s ' p o s s i b l y ' a n d u s u a l l y

be.

begins a sentence. Maybe

the Yeti is friendly. Maybe

it lives in the

mountains. may be is t w o w o r d s : a m o d a l ( l i k e can a n d must) + verb. The Yeti may be friendly. It may be in the

60

mountains.


actice

MY TURN!

Match facts 1-8 t o t h e p o s s i b l e reasons / c o n s e q u e n c e s a - h . 1 The sky is dark.

—^

a

She m i g h t be a m o d e l .

b

It m a y rain.

3 The tourists are lost.

c

He m i g h t be hungry.

4 You don't want t o go t o t h a t h o t e l ,

d

You may be i l l .

2 She speaks English.

T h i n k o f a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r each f a c t o r s i t u a t i o n u s i n g may o r might. W r i t e t h e m in your notebook.

5 She is beautiful.

e

She m i g h t be A m e r i c a n .

6 You aren't at school.

f

They m a y be in t h e car.

7 I can't find my keys.

g

It m i g h t be expensive.

8 The baby is crying.

h

They m a y n o t have a g o o d map.

1

/cu. mjht be ill. / /cu may have a coU. 2

You are going on an e x p e d i t i o n t o f i n d t h e Y e t i . U s e may (not) o r might

A d o g f o l l o w s you home.

4

Y o u hear s o m e b o d y k n o c k i n g l o u d l y at

5

2

not work

3 get lost

4

run a w a y

ft not find the Yeti

answer. 6 7

8

9 write a book

8

n o t attack

mjnt snow

2 The camera

Y o u r f a t h e r has a f r e e t i c k e t t o t h e A g o o d f r i e n d hasn't spoken t o y o u f o r t w o weeks.

10 n o t survive

[ l It

Y o u see a strange l i g h t in t h e sky. opera b u t he doesn't w a n t t o go.

6 n o t have e n o u g h f o o d

7 follow

Y o u r p h o n e rings. You answer in English. T h e o t h e r person doesn't

X JI IUVV

Y o u r steak tastes t e r r i b l e .

3

y o u r d o o r early in t h e m o r n i n g .

(not) and the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e b o x t o c o m p l e t e t h e sentences.

1

Y o u f e e l bad.

very hard

may / mjnt not work.

in t h e cold

3 We

in t h e m o u n t a i n s

______

saSsssSssssm

4 The Yeti 5 We

I

[6 We ft

Animals

The p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s s t o r y

us.

8 The Yeti B

true.

us.

I

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

a m a y d o n ' t be

a f t e r the e x p e d i t i o n b u t

10 We

c may n o t be

Captain Oakes is o n a n e x p e d i t i o n t o f i n d t h e s o u r c e o f t h e r i v e r

next year. He

Ganges. Read his e m a i l a n d c o m p l e t e i t w i t h may (not) o r might

M y uncle's g o i n g t o t h e Himalayas a m a y see

(not)

and the words f r o m t h e b o x . be

be find

got lost

I

have

like

need

see

work

I

write

I I

... I'm taking a good m a p because w e IWe

t h e source o f t h e river b u t n o t g e t any

5

pictures. This

people who live t h e r e Well, w e

a g o o d t h i n g because t h e

6

8

9

10

a m i g h t t o be

t h e source o f t h e river, b u t i f w e d o

b m i g h t be

c are m i g h t Are y o u sure y o u saw a Yeti? was j u s t a big man. a Maybe it

b M i g h t be i t this, b u t I saw a Yeti

a m i g h t n o t t o believe

•::S

b m i g h t n o t believed c m i g h t n ' t believe

i t i f w e t a k e pictures.

7

c mays see

able t o speak,

yesterday in your garden,

in t h e c o l d . So, w e

4

b m a y sees

Yetis

You

e n o u g h f o o d b u t w e can't carry m o r e . I

have my camera b u t i t

a yeti.

c M a y be i t

a compass t o o . I'm w o r r i e d t h a t w e

2

3

[1

I

mjht j e t lost

1

b n o t m a y be

3

S fr IE Z T E

E

3

:SJ3MSUE

jisax ^v\l

a book about our e x p e d i t i o n . W e f a m o u s o n e day!

Captain Oakes

M o d a l s o f p o s s i b i l i t y : may, might

61


R5 A

Review: modals

C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s u s i n g t h e w o r d s in t h e b o x . S o m e t i m e s t w o or t h r e e answers are possible. can

could

ought

have

may

might

must

1 2

W h e n I was a y o u n g m a n , I

mast

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences using t h e m o d a l verbs f r o m the boxes.

mustn't

should

W h e n y o u t r a v e l by bus, y o u

C

have a t i c k e t .

could 1

Last year I C5U.W

2

Now I

3

run 1 0

M y m u m says I

t o come home before 10

4 5

You

6

I'm g o i n g t o t a k e an u m b r e l l a because i t

I g o h o m e early t o d a y , please? t o read t h i s b o o k - it's very i n t e r e s t i n g .

rain later.

W h a t do you think?

must/have to

I d o t h e exam t h i s year

w a t c h t e l e v i s i o n , b u t please keep i t

11

Yesterday y o u Today y o u

6

Tomorrow you

Don't worry. You don't

t o b u y m e a present.

A t the zoo, you

a

t a l k i n g a b o u t present a b i l i t y ( U n i t 20)

b

t a l k i n g a b o u t past a b i l i t y ( U n i t 20)

c

asking p e o p l e t o d o t h i n g s ( U n i t 21)

d

asking f o r p e r m i s s i o n ( U n i t 21)

e

g i v i n g permission ( U n i t 21)

f

t a l k i n g a b o u t rules and laws ( U n i t 22)

g

t a l k i n g a b o u t t h i n g s w e are n o t a l l o w e d t o d o ( U n i t 22) t a l k i n g a b o u t an o b l i g a t i o n i m p o s e d by o t h e r s ( U n i t 22)

i

t a l k i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g w h i c h is

j

asking f o r advice ( U n i t 23)

k

giving advice ( U n i t 23)

n o t necessary ( U n i t 22)

talking about the possibility o f s o m e t h i n g being t r u e ( U n i t 24)

62

wash your

could, couldn't

can, can't 7 8

W h e n I was 5 I

c l i m b trees b u t I

N o w I'm 1 4 I 5 0 years f r o m n o w I

drive a

car b u t I d i d n ' t have t o , had t o

7

ride a bike b u t I

drive a car. 9

using modal verbs.

I

wash m y car.

w i l l be able t o , w o n ' t be able t o

give f o o d t o t h e animals. It's

M a t c h t h e s e n t e n c e s i n Exercise A t o t h e s e reasons f o r

h

wash t h e w i n d o w s .

clothes - t h e y ' r e very d i r t y .

y o u give m e s o m e money, please? I've l e f t

very bad f o r t h e m . B

had t o

ride a bike.

m y bag at h o m e . 12

w i l l have t o

5

quiet. 10

run 1 5 0 0 metres

4

o r next year? You

l

N e x t year I

speak French and Spanish, b u t her

English is t e r r i b l e . 8

run 1 5 0 0 metres in 5 A minutes. run 1 5 0 0 metres in 5 minutes.

2

o'clock.

She

can

in 4y m i n u t e s .

k i l o m e t r e s , b u t n o w I'm t o o o l d . 3

w i l l be able t o

c l i m b trees. have t o , d o n ' t have t o

w o n ' t have t o , w i l l have t o 10

W h e n I was small I but I

11

Now I

d o homework, go t o bed early. do homework, but I go t o b e d early.

12

In 1 0 years I and I

do homework go t o b e d early, b u t I get a j o b .

W r i t e t h r e e m o r e similar sentences about yourself.


Complete each sentence b so t h a t it m e a n s t h e s a m e as

a

sentence a. Use two to f o u r w o r d s including t h e correct

b I wasn't able t o u n d e r s t a n d her. c

form of the word in brackets 6

1 a It's a good idea t o eat f r u i t and vegetables every day. OUjkt t(5 eat

2 a Maybe Sharon w i l l k n o w t h e answer. Y o u s h o u l d ask her. (might) i

b You should ask Sharon. She

C o m p l e t e t h e dialogue w i t h t h e modals f r o m t h e box. S o m e t i m e s t h e r e is m o r e t h a n one correct answer.

must

3 a She'll be very g o o d at p l a y i n g t h e p i a n o n e x t year. (able) b Next year she w i l l the piano very w e l l . 4 a I want t o open t h e w i n d o w . Is t h a t O K ? b

F

(may)

the swimming p o o l . 6 a Bob w i l l be ready in five m i n u t e s . Please w a i t in t h e

W h e r e are y o u g o i n g o n holiday? To S w i t z e r l a n d . W e ' r e g o i n g skiing.

Alice

Really?

Brad

Well, 1

garden, please? He'll be ready in five m i n u t e s .

Alice:

8 a Don't worry. It's n o t necessary t o w e a r a t i e at t h e opera, (have) I

b Don't worry. You a tie at the opera.

Can

1

y o u ski? ski q u i t e w e l l w h e n I was a

2

have some p r o b l e m s .

N o , y o u ' l l be f i n e . Y o u ' l l you'll

be careful

4

ski q u i t e fast.

5

Brad:

Lessons?

Alice:

1 have an i n s t r u c t o r ?

H m m ... yes, I t h i n k y o u

6

t o have

7

some lessons. Y o u d o n ' t

, b u t it's a

8

g o o d idea. Brad:

I don't know. I t

Alice:

It

be expensive.

9

be. Just a second, m y f r i e n d is a

1 0

ski i n s t r u c t o r . He

k n o w a cheap

1 1

i n s t r u c t o r in S w i t z e r l a n d . You

(may) asleep.

might

o n t h e f i r s t day, b u t a f t e r a day o r t w o o f lessons

7 a It's possible t h a t Anna isn't asleep. I'll p h o n e her. b I'll phone Anna. She

may

c h i l d , b u t t h a t was 1 0 years ago. I t h i n k I

garden, (could) f o r Bob in t h e

have t o

should

3

clean b e f o r e y o u g o in

b

ought

could

Brad

swimming pool, (have) b Your hair

can/can't

Alice

t h e w i n d o w , please?

5 a You must have clean hair b e f o r e y o u go in t h e I

S h o u l d y o u be q u i e t ?

be able t o

the answer.

,

a C o u l d y o u be q u i e t ? c

f r u i t and vegetables

every day.

I c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d her.

b Can y o u be q u i e t ?

(ought) b You

I can't u n d e r s t a n d her.

1 2

call

him. Brad:

Great.

Alice:

Er... 1

1 3

1 4

1 have his number, please? r e m e m b e r i t . But m y m u m know it.

1 5

Brad:

Great.

Alice:

O f course.

1 6

y o u ask her?

Tick / the odd one out. 1 a You mustn't speak in t h e exam. b You don't have t o speak in t h e exam. / c You can't speak in t h e exam. 2 a We may go h o m e now. b We should go h o m e now. c We ought t o go h o m e now. 3 a It might be sunny t o m o r r o w , b It may be sunny t o m o r r o w . c It has t o be sunny t o m o r r o w . 4 a May I sit here? b Must I sit here? c Can I sit here?

Review 5

63


25

Yes / no questions and short answers Are beetles important? Yes, they are!

c e m a g a z i n e s c i e n c e m a g a z i n e T h i s week Dr S t e p h e n E l l i o t answers your q u e s t i o n s about b e e t l e s â&#x20AC;˘

Q

A

Are beetles important? People often ask me this, this and the answer is, yes, they are! Beetles are important because they feed on dead plants and animals.

Q

Do beetles lay eggs?

A

Yes, they do. Then the eggs change into larva, pupa and adult beetle. This is called metamorphosis.

Q

There are 350,000 species of beetle. Is this true?

A

No, i t i s n ' t - there are probably more! We just haven't found and named them all yet!

Q

Do beetles live everywhere?

^

No, they d o n ' t . Beetles don't live i n the sea. But beetles were living on Earth before dinosaurs were here - and they have adapted to almost every habitat.

Q

A

Have beetles adapted to the Arctic? You may not believe this - but yes, they have! The Arctic beetle can live i n temperatures of - 4 0 ° C !

9

T r u e o r False? B e e t l e s o n l y l i v e in w a r m c o u n t r i e s . as|E-| uaMsuy

Yes / no questions and short answers 1

To m a k e a yes / n o q u e s t i o n , p u t t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b (e.g. Is this true? Have beetles adapted

to the

Arctic?

auxiliary verb

subject

...?

Is

he / she / it

OK?

Am

1

happy?

Are

you/we/they

living here?

Has

he / she / it

arrived?

Have

1 / you / we / they

2

I f t h e r e is n o a u x i l i a r y v e r b , use do or does. Does it have wings ? Do beetles lay eggs ?

am, is, are, has, have) b e f o r e t h e s u b j e c t .

f o u n d it?

auxiliary verb

subject

...?

Does

he / she / it

look good?

Do

1 / you / w e / they

have a question?

M a k e a yes / n o a n s w e r w i t h j u s t t h e s u b j e c t p r o n o u n and t h e auxiliary verb. A: Is it true?

B: Yes, it is. / No, it isn't.

A: Are you cold ?

B: Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.

A: Has she arrived?

B: Yes, she has. / No, she hasn't.

A: Have beetles adapted Yes / n o q u e s t i o n s in E n g l i s h a l w a y s have an auxiliary verb. Do you come from here? N O T You come from here ?

64

to the Arctic?

B: Yes, they have. / No, they A: Does it look good? A: Do beetles lay eggs ?

haven't.

B: Yes, it does. / No, it doesn't. B: Yes, they do. / No, they don't. I


practice

/

h Match these q u e s t i o n s a b o u t l a d y b i r d s t o t h e c o r r e c t I answers. The v e r b s w i l l h e l p y o u .

Y o u are c o m i n g t o v i s i t y o u r g r a n d m o t h e r in t h e USA. A t t h e airport, t h e i m m i g r a t i o n offio

wings

asks y o u s o m e q u e s t i o n s . M a k e t h e q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e w o r d s i n b r a c k e t s a n d w r i t e t h e m in your notebook.

In 1999, four ladybirds went into space in a NASA space shuttle. They came back alive.

1 Are ladybirds beetles? 3 Do ladybirds lay eggs?

>^

b N o , t h e y aren't. \

c N o , it isn't.

4 Have ladybirds a d a p t e d t o all h a b i t a t s ? \ 5 Is the ladybird larva red?

(your name / M a r c o de Silva)

2

(over 18)

Is^our name Marco De Sitvaf

3

(more t h a n one bag)

4

( l i v e / i n t h e USA)

5

( g r a n d m o t h e r / living / in t h e USA)

6

(been / t o t h e USA / b e f o r e )

7

( s t a y i n g / f o r more than a month)

N o w answer t h e questions in y o u r n o t e b o o k

a Yes, t h e y d o .

2 Are all ladybirds red and black?

1

d N o , t h e y haven't. V e Yes, t h e y are.

6 Does the ladybird larva have black spots?

f Yes, it has!

7 Has a ladybird been in space?

g N o , it doesn't.

using t h e i n f o r m a t i o n below. NAME: Marco De Silva AGE: 16 LIVES: Capri REASON FOR VISIT: Visiting grandmother. First visit. LENGTH OF STAY: 2 weeks

B Your aunt and uncle have a h o l i d a y h o u s e . Y o u are g o i n g t o s t a y there this summer, b u t y o u have s o m e q u e s t i o n s . C o m p l e t e f their answers. 1 Is it close t o t h e beach? 2 Is it big? 3 Does it have a s w i m m i n g p o o l ?

0 E

4 Is my cousin Silvia c o m i n g t o o ?

e E

5 Has Silvia been t h e r e recently?

E

6 Are the neighbours f r i e n d l y ? 7 Do the neighbours k n o w we're c o m i n g ? 8 Have you left t h e keys w i t h t h e neighbours?

NUMBER OF BAGS: 2

/es, it is.

%, it is. tOc, it isn't. : : : : : :

0 0 0

Circle t h e correct option. 1 2

Sorry

late?

a Do I

b Are I

A:

?

a D o beetles eat fish

C Use the w o r d s in t h e t a b l e t o m a k e e i g h t o r m o r e d i f f e r e n t

b A r e beetles eat fish

questions and w r i t e t h e m in y o u r n o t e b o o k .

c Eat beetles fish 3

A: A r e beetles very i n t e l l i g e n t ?

Have

beetles

have

eggs?

Do

a bee

ever seen

wings?

B: N o ,

Does

mosquitoes

ever picked up

spots?

a it isn't

lay

a l a d y b i r d larva?

you

4

important?

Are

black and y e l l o w ?

Examples:

Do mosquitoes tau e^sf f)re mosquitoes important?

. They have very small brains, b they don't

c t h e y aren't

A: Have y o u ever eaten a beetle? B: N o , I

a worm? Is

c Am I

B: Yes, some beetles eat dead fish,

a don't 5

b didn't

c haven't

A: Does y o u r pet b e e t l e have a name? B: Yes, he

His name's Ringo.

a has

c have

b does

qS yty 0ÂŁ

DX : S J 9 M S U E

\isa\_ <w

Yes / n o q u e s t i o n s a n d s h o r t a n s w e r s

65


26

Question words: Where? When? Why? How?

A

Whose?

How did he die?

I n 1984 a f a r m e r f o u n d a

Whose body was it?

b o d y i n a field i n L i n d o w

It was a man's body. He was about

M o s s near Manchester.

3 0 years old.

The farmer called

When did the man die?

the police. Scientists found that the person

He died in about 5 5 BC ( 5 5 years

d i e d 2,000 years ago. It

Before Jesus Christ was born).

was a very important

How did he die?

archaeological discovery.

— .

«•', jJtt

V

The Celts - the people of Britain at

T h e y called it "The

that t i m e - killed him with an a x e .

Lindow M a n ! There were many interesting

Why did they kill him?

questions for scientists

We d o n ' t know!

a n d a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t o ask

Where is the body now?

a n d answer.

It is in the British M u s e u m .

O

U n d e r l i n e t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n : A f a r m e r found/killed

t h e L i n d o w Man. puno_) J3Msuy

Question words: Where? When? Why? How? Whose? Where, When, Why, How a n d Whose 1

2

Use Where

...?to

A: Where

is Lindow Moss ?

A: Where

are my shoes ?

Manchester.

B: Next to the door.

6

B: 7July. B: Ten o'clock.

B: It's

raining.

A: Why did you become a teacher?

B: I tike

children.

7

66

B: By taxi.

B: I'm fine, thank

T h e w o r d o r d e r is: q u e s t i o n w o r d + a u x i l i a r y (e.g. is, did,

you.

question word

auxiliary

subject

When

will

they

m a i n verb understand?

Where

are

you

going?

Why

did

Jane

cry?

Whose can c o m e b e f o r e a s i n g u l a r o r p l u r a l n o u n . Whose A: Whose bag is it? B: It's Barry's. Whose streets are cleaner - London's or

people feel. A: How are you ?

B: Napoleon's ami)

can r e f e r t o p e o p l e , a n i m a l s o r t h i n g s .

U s e How . . . ? t o ask a b o u t t h e w a y t h i n g s are o r t h e w a y A: How did you get home ?

B: It's hers.

will, etc.) + s u b j e c t + m a i n v e r b .

ask a b o u t r e a s o n .

A: Why are you wet ?

ask a b o u t w h o has s o m e t h i n g .

A: Whose army invaded Russia in 1812?

U s e When . . . ? t o ask a b o u t t i m e .

Use Why ...?to

U s e Whose ...?to

A: Whose is this?

B: It's near

A: When did you get home ?

4

5

ask a b o u t p l a c e .

A: When is your birthday?

3

are q u e s t i o n w o r d s .

• •

Manchester's?

See U n i t 50 for more i n f o r m a t i o n on whose. See Units 27 and 28 f o r Who...? and What...?questions U n i t 30 f o r more How...?questions.

and


Practice A Make questions by p u t t i n g t h e w o r d s in t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r . 1 did / he/ live / w h e r e

D

W r i t e q u e s t i o n s w i t h Where,

1

(dkere did kt tivef

I

2 is / why / he / f a m o u s

I

3 farmer / t h e / d i d / b o d y / w h e r e / t h e / f i n d

?

(Ohose (nrtUaij cake is it? It's m y b i r t h d a y cake.

2 ... (Often isjjour birtfiiatj? ?

4 I

When, Why, How, and Whose.

It's t o m o r r o w .

it/whose/farm/was ?

I 5 when / did / invade / t h e / B r i t a i n / Romans I _

I usually celebrate it at h o m e . 4

?

6 did/the/Celts/why/him/kill I __

Because m y f a m i l y is t h e r e 5

?

Last year? O h , I c e l e b r a t e d it w i t h a b i g party!

7 do / about / k n o w / p e o p l e / h o w / t h i s

6 ?

8

T h a t was m y idea.

him/see/we/can/where

7 It s t a r t e d early, a b o u t 4 o'clock. 8

B Write Where, When, Why, How or • 1

I

flow

Whose.

It s t a r t e d t h e n because m y gran goes t o bed at 9. 9

was y o u r t r i p ?

I i n v i t e d her because she's a great cook!

2

is t h e British M u s e u m ?

3

d o t h e y k n o w he died 2,000 years ago?

4

w i l l t h e m u s e u m be o p e n ?

5

axe was it?

1 6

is t h e L i n d o w M a n so f a m o u s ?

7

/

did the farmer feel?

8

can you come w i t h m e t o see t h e L i n d o w M a n ?

jC Complete t h e q u e s t i o n s w i t h Where,

When,

Why,

How

or Whose and a f o r m of be or do. T h e n c h o o s e t h e correct answers f r o m t h e b o x . An apple

Brazil

Egypt

George W a s h i n g t o n

eleventh

Greece

1 Question:

horse

Microsoft

(dkere are

Answer: They are in

t h e Pyramids?

€^ijpt

2 Question:

t h e N o r m a n s invade England?

Answer: They invaded in t h e

century.

3 Question:

picture

on an American $ 1 n o t e ?

questions about it using all t h e question w o r d s Where,

When,

Why, How a n d

Whose

at least once. Examples:

(Ofiere is he?

J

OOnx) is he atone?

QBS&.

N e w t o n discover g r a v i t y ?

2

Answer:

f e l l o n his head. Bill Gates leave university?

Answer: Because he w a n t e d t o create t h e company. n a t i o n a l dance

the samba? Answer: It's t h e n a t i o n a l dance o f Question:

your notebook, write

1

Answer: They w e r e in

7 Question:

The man is alone. It is cold and wet but he isn't wearing a coat. He has been here a long time. He wants to leave but he can't. The police are not here yet. The man is afraid, very afraid. Suddenly, he hears a voice. He doesn't recognise the voice but he understands everything. The man runs back to his car. The car won't start. He sees a face in the mirror. He screams.

d e t e c t i v e s t o r y . In

the 1896 Olympics?

4 Question:

6 Question:

Chapter 1

paragraph o f a

»• • • • • • • • •

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

Answer: It's a picture o f

5 Question:

Read t h e first

the Greeks e n t e r Troy?

b o d y d i d t h e f a r m e r find? a Why

b Whose

How

more about L indow Man?,

a I learn 3

c Where

b I can learn

Why

a did t h e body have 4

b had t h e body

c t h e body had

we going t o the museum? a W h e n do

5

c can I learn

broken bones?

b W h e r e do

A: I can't find m y book.

c W h e n are

B: I'll help you. W h e r e

looked? a did y o u

b y o u have

Answer: They hid in a w o o d e n

3S Of E£ iz

• •••••••

Q u e s t i o n w o r d s : Where?

c have y o u

When?

Why?How?

q-r:sJ3MSUEj;sai/fw

Whose?

67


27

Object and subject questions Who studied at Hogwarts?

O

D o y o u k n o w t h e answers t o any o f t h e s e questions?

iiui;(M^i^MiV0ir^^ii:(Mii(iiiyii(^

[

What happened on

r

Wh did Sir Alexander What

24 August, 79 AD?

i

Fleming Flemi discover in 1928?

Who lives at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington D.C.?

Who did Romeo love?

I!

Who studied

What happens in the ninth month

at Hogwarts?

of the Muslim calendar?

u e p e w e y u; Xep au,i Suunp jes

swusnyv l u e p e w e y 9 asno|-| ajjUAA 3 4 1 J o j ssajppe l e p i y o 9i|) sim s a j E i s pajjun amJO a u a p j s a j j au,x 5 ujupiusd pa-iaAODsip an \

)ou op SJ

J a i i c y X J J E H ÂŁ J 3 ! | n f 7 n a d w o d p a X c o s a p smAnsa/\:iunoyv I :SJ3MSUV

Object and subject questions 1

O b j e c t q u e s t i o n s . In q u e s t i o n s b e g i n n i n g w i t h who o r what

a n d u s i n g t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b do, does o r did, t h e

q u e s t i o n w o r d is t h e o b j e c t . A" WhjDiMJohn B: He married (WhoI A: What

lemon Yoko

marry in

Ono.

Yoko Ono = object) does she

B: She wants a new

want? car.

2

S u b j e c t q u e s t i o n s . I f t h e q u e s t i o n w o r d is t h e subject, w e d o n ' t use t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b do, does o r did. A: Whotdiscovered

1969?

B: Alexander

Fleming

(Who I Alexander A^yVhat

penicillin ? penicillin.

Fleming = subject)

happens in November

\ \ What I Thanksgiving B:

discovered

in the USA?

= subject)

Thanksgiving.

(What I a new car = object) In a s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n , t h e v e r b a f t e r t h e q u e s t i o n w o r d is in t h e t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r , even w h e n t h e a n s w e r is p l u r a l , e.g. A: Who lives at number

42?

B: Elena and

Chris.

i

;

i

\

i

f


practice |A Make questions by p u t t i n g t h e w o r d s in t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r .

C

1 Who / l o v e / d i d / Scarlett O ' H a r a ?

There was an accident in our road yesterday. A driver was going

(Oko did ScarUtt 0 ffara Love?

• • • • • •

2 What / o n 4 A p r i l 1 9 6 8 / h a p p e n e d ? 3 Who / Around the World in 80 Days / w r o t e ? !

4 landed on M a r s / W h a t / i n 1 9 7 6 ? 5 Who / W i l l S m i t h / m a r r y / in 1 9 9 7 / d i d ? 16 i n v e n t / d i d / W h a t / F r a n k W h i t t l e ? 7 in 1969 / W h a t / N e i l A r m s t r o n g / d o / did?

Now match answers a - g t o q u e s t i o n s 1 - 7 . a Jules Verne

e

Rhett Butler

lb

He walked on t h e m o o n .

f

The j e t e n g i n e

|c

Viking 1

g

The assassination o f

d JadaPinkett

M a r t i n Luther K i n g j r .

Write complete q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e o r

invent

live

love

paint

d o w n the road too fast. A b i r d hit the car roof and surprised the driver. The driver came off the road and hit a tree.

tOhat did tke car kit (Okat kit tke car

1 2

? A tree. ? A bird.

M a t t l i k e s cats b u t K e l l y l i k e s b i r d s . 3

? Birds.

4

? Matt.

My m u m t o l d my n e i g h b o u r t h a t I d i d n ' t like s c h o o l . A n d my neighbour told my teacher!

5 6

? M y mum. ? M y teacher.

The w o r l d m a k e s m o n e y a n d m o n e y m a k e s t h e w o r l d go r o u n d . 7

the past simple o f t h e v e r b s in t h e b o x . destroy

Read t h e t e x t s a n d w r i t e a q u e s t i o n f o r each answer.

? Money.

num.

8

sing a b o u t

1 What / M i g u e l de Cervantes?

(Okat did Mu^et di Cervantes write?

Don

? Money.

write

Quixote

2 W h o / a t 10 D o w n i n g Street? ? The British Prime M i n i s t e r 3 What / most o f San Francisco in 1 9 0 6 ? ? An earthquake 4 Who / M a r y Jane W a t s o n ? ? Spider M a n 5 Who / Sunflowers? ? V i n c e n t Van G o g h 6 What / Tim Berners-Lee?

/

Y o u h a v e t h e chance t o g o o n a s p oirts r t s a c t i v i t y (c o u r s e ,

\

b u t y o u a r e n o t s u r e i f y o u w a n t t o g o . In y o u r n o t e b o o k , w r i t e q u e s t i o n s t o ask t h e o r g a n i s e r s , u s i n g who o r what teach Example:

and t h e w o r d s in t h e box.

happen

can c o m e

wear

bring

contact

(dkat oc^ou. teack on tke course?

? The W o r l d W i d e W e b 7 Who / Elton John in his song Candle in the Wind? ? Marilyn Monroe

Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1 A: W h o

?

B: Tolstoy.

a d i d w r i t e War and Peace

2 A: W h a t

?

3 A: W h a t

on 3 1 August 1997?

B: The Harry Potter books.

b d i d War and Peace w r i t e

a write J K Rowling

b w r o t e J K Rowling

B: Princess Diana died in a car crash.

4 A: W h o

o n t h e l e f t side o f t h e road?

5 A: What

every February or March?

B: British and Japanese people.

B: The Carnival,

a happen in Rio

a happened a drive

i

c w r o t e War and Peace c did J K Rowling write b d i d happen b drives

c does drive

b does happen in Rio 3

S

c happens

c happens in Rio E

£ 2 Di D

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O b j e c t and subject questions

69


WHO are the X-Men? The X-Men first appeared in comic books published by Marvel Comics in the 1960s.

X-Men like?

wWATQte

X-Men are people who are born with superhuman powers.

X-Men look like?

wtyATdo

X-Men are very similar to humans but they are a little different. They may have strange-coloured skin, for example.

Wolverine look like?

wftATdoes

Wolverine is one of the most popular X-Men.

He has dark hair, blue eyes and claws.

he like?

WHAT'S

Wolverine is good-looking. He is more than 100 years old, but he is still very strong. He can see and hear very well

^

W h a t s u p e r h u m a n p o w e r s d o e s W o l v e r i n e have? A.I3A JE3L) pUE 33S UE3 3L| pUE SuOJJS Xj3A S| 3|-| :j3MSliy

Be like and look like 1

U s e t h e q u e s t i o n s What

is... like? a n d What

4

does ...

A: What

does Wolverine

look like ?

B: He has dark

hair

and blue eyes. A: What 2

is Wolverine

like ?

B: He is

W e can also use t h e q u e s t i o n What

good-looking.

is... like?to

find

out

a b o u t a person's c h a r a c t e r . A: What's

he like ?

T h e p l u r a l f o r m s o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e What a n d What

look like? to f i n d o u t a b o u t a person's l o o k s .

B: He is still very strong. He can see

do... look

are...

like?

like?

What

is

he / s h e / i t

like?

What

are

you / w e / they

like?

What

does

he / s h e / i t

l o o k like?

What

do

you / we / they

look like?

and hear very well. 3

Use t h e q u e s t i o n What

is / was it like? to ask f o r a

d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w e a t h e r , a place o r a n e v e n t . A: What

was the weather

like

yesterday?

B: It was really hot. A: What's A: What

What...

Mexico

City like ?

was the football

match

like?

like? is n o t t h e s a m e as

A: What's jo like? B: He's really A: How's Jo? B: He's fine.

70

B: It's very big and busy. B: It was great!

How's...?

nice.

O t h e r v e r b s s i m i l a r t o look like i n c l u d e feel like, smell like, sound

like a n d taste

like.

What

does the coat feel

What

do olives taste

What

does the flute sound

What

does the sea smell

like?

like? like ? like?

G e n e r a l l y , w e d o n ' t i n c l u d e t h e w o r d like i n t h e answers t o these questions. A: What does he look

like?

B: He is tall and he has a beard.


Practice A Match t h e q u e s t i o n s t o t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r s . 1 What does Batman look like? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; - x

a

It's one o f t h e largest cities in Italy and it's very fashionable.

2 What is Superman like?

J b They're always s t r o n g and t h e y usually have a g o o d heart.

3 What is M i l a n like?

/

4 What's the b o o k like?

^-d

c

They're usually ugly. He wears a black suit and a mask.

5 What do witches l o o k like?

e

It's f u n n y , b u t also a l i t t l e sad.

6 What are superheroes like?

f

He has short, dark hair a n d he wears a red and blue suit.

B Complete t h e q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e v e r b s i n t h e b o x . feel like

look like

1 A: What

smell like

^

sound like

butterflies

toot

l i b ?

W r i t e a p p r o p r i a t e questions f o r these dialogues,

B: Beautiful. 2 A: W h a t

u s i n g What...

sulphur

?

honey

?

feathers

?

2 A:

?

3

1

drums

4

? ?

A:

?

A:

?

B: It's an Italian island in t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n .

C In your n o t e b o o k , w r i t e e i g h t o r m o r e q u e s t i o n s u s i n g

What

(Ohat are^jow neighbours l i b

B: She's f e e l i n g b e t t e r now, t h a n k s .

B: Very loud.

What... like?, What...

A:

B: She's t a l l and dark.

B: Very soft. 5 A: What

look like? a n d

B: They're k i n d and f r i e n d l y .

B: Very sweet. 4 A: W h a t

like?, What...

How...?

B: Very bad. 3 A: What

MY TURN!

/

t a s t e like

It's very b e a u t i f u l .

look like? a n d t h e w o r d s i n t h e t a b l e .

5

A:

?

B: It w a s by t h e sea and very m o d e r n . I had a

do

your grandparents

like?

does

the party

l o o k like?

did

Harry Potter

going t o

is/'s

Charlie C h a p l i n

be like?

are

the weather

was

Superman and Lois

were

the first computers

lovely r o o m .

6 A:

?

B: I'm f i n e , thanks. 7

A:

?

B: It was great. Everyone w a s t h e r e !

8 A:

?

B: They're q u i t e o l d n o w b u t t h e y are s t i l l g o o d looking!

Example: fOkat was Charlie Ckapttn l i t e f

9

A:

?

B: He's t a l l a n d he wears glasses.

[QUEL

| Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n .

| 1 A: W h a t I

[ 3 A: I

like?

B: He is very friendly, b u t he w o r r i e s a lot.

2 A: W h a t does Iceman's skin like?

like?

B: It's cold and hard.

B: It was really g o o d . I loved it.

4 A: H o w is y o u r sister?

B: She's

5 A: W h a t does y o u r b r o t h e r l o o k like? B:

a does Iceman l o o k a feel

a H o w was t h e f i l m

a very p r e t t y

b friendly

a H e likes f o o t b a l l

b smell

b is Iceman l o o k

c is Iceman

c sound

b W h a t did the film

c W h a t was t h e f i l m

c fine, thanks b He's t a l l and t h i n

c He's very nice q5

3^7 D ÂŁ B 7

3X

:SJSMSUE

iisax Ayv

Be like a n d look like

71


29

What? and

Which?

Which of them is the queen bee?

W h a t kinds of bees do you know? There are many different kinds of bees, but which bees make honey? Honey bees, of course! Every family of honey bees has one - and only one - queen bee. Look at the three pictures of bees. Which of them is the queen? Look carefully. Which one has the longest body? "Yes, the bee in picture 2. This is the queen bee. Picture 1 is a drone and picture 3 is a worker.

^

/ S

W h a t work does the queen do? She doesn't make honey - the workers do that. The queen bee is the mother of all the drones and workers. The workers give special food to the queen. W h a t food is this? It is called 'royal jelly'and only queen bees eat it.

q

C o m p l e t e the sentence

makes honey.

H |

a The w o r k e r bee

c T h e q u e e n bee

b The drone

E M3MSliy

What? and Which? 1

Use b o t h What

o r Which

+ singular and plural nouns t o

3

colour is a honey bee?

What

kinds of bees do you

Which

bees are dangerous ?

What

size are these jeans ?

food does a queen bee eat?

Use What

4

+ noun f o r general questions w h e n t h e r e are

m a n y p o s s i b i l i t i e s , a n d Which

+ n o u n w h e n t h e r e is a

small or l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f possibilities. What

language

do they speak in

Timbuktu?(many

5

possibilities) Which

language

possibilities)

72

time... ?, What

shall we use -Japanese

or

English?(two â&#x20AC;˘

kind(s) of... ? a n d What size...?

time is it?

What What 2

W e say What What

ask q u e s t i o n s .

know?

U s e Which

of... + p r o n o u n o r

Which

of them

is the

Which

of the answers do you

W e say Which

the.

queen? know?

one(s)...?

Which

one would you

Which

ones are worker bees ?

like?

See Unit 27 for how t o make

What...?questions.


practice A Complete t h e q u e s t i o n s u s i n g Which

1

Which team.

and a noun f r o m t h e box.

is w i n n i n g ?

am I on? r a r t h ? B Complete t h e q u e s t i o n s w i t h What .IN) hat

c o l o u r is it?

bed

3

shall I go?

5

is ringing?

6

do you want?

/

season d o y o u prefer: s u m m e r or w i n t e r ?

MY TURN!

W r i t e What

Winter. B: I like jazz.

Beekeeper:

B: W e ' r e playing chess.

H e l l o , nice t o m e e t y o u . lOhat^oestionsaojca have abcat bees ? ;

She's reading Charlie and the Chocolate

You:

Factory.

Beekeeper:

B: I w e n t t o Sheffield H i g h School.

You:

|C Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n .

You:

What/ Which size are y o u ? o f t h e f i l m s have y o u seen? kind o f music d o y o u like?

This one w i t h t h e y e l l o w spot.

H o n e y bees live in m a n y countries. Y o u can find t h e m o n f o u r c o n t i n e n t s .

What/ Which one d o y o u w a n t ?

What/Which

Beekeeper:

4

A n t a r c t i c a . It's t o o c o l d ! T h e r e are seven m a i n t y p e s o f h o n e y bee b u t

What/ Which o f her books is t h e best? I don't k n o w what/which

none o f t h e m live t h e r e .

t i m e i t is.

You:

A: Here's y o u r pizza, Sir. B: What/ Which pizza? I d i d n ' t o r d e r any!

Beekeeper:

A: What/ Which university is older, Cambridge or O x f o r d ?

5

I have European honey bees. They make great honey.

B: O x f o r d .

You:

10 A: Good m o r n i n g j a n e S m i t h calling. B: I'm sorry, I can't hear y o u . What/

2

3

Beekeeper:

What I Which t i m e d o y o u go t o bed?

What/Which

I can see a l o t o f b e e s !

?

school d i d y o u go t o - Sheffield H i g h o r

Sheffield G r a m m a r ?

o r Which q u e s t i o n s a b o u t bees i n

t h e c o r r e c t places in t h e d i a l o g u e .

b o o k is Janet reading? 6 A:

telephone w a y

is mine?

o r Which.

game are y o u playing?

team

2

B: It's blue.

music d o y o u like?

car p l a n e t

Beekeeper:

Which name was t h a t ?

M y honey, o f course!

___________

••••••••

Circle the c o r r e c t o p t i o n . I 1 I don't know the difference b e t w e e n bees and wasps. W h i c h I

2 A:

f o o d do wasps eat?

the f l o w e r s in y o u r garden d o t h e bees like?

3 [4 A: What

?

isdangerous?

B: M o s t l y t h e y eat o t h e r insects, a Which

B: O r a n g e and black o r b r o w n and black,

a Which b What

a fromthem

b Which o f

b ofthem

c ofthey

c What

c Which o f

a are h o n e y bees c o l o u r

b c o l o u r are honey bees

I

c colour honey bees are 5 A: I -

homes d o wasps live in?

B: Paper nests,

a W h a t kind o f

b H o w kind

i

c W h a t kind e

S

3

£

What?and

P I : S J 9 M S U E i+sai Ky\j

Which?

73


ENGLAND

Swimming the Channel: frequently Asked Questio' H o w m a n y people have s w u m the C h a n n e l ? Around a thousand people have swum the Channel, the sea between England and France. The 'Queen of the Channel .

FRANCE H o w c o l d is the water? The water temperature is from 13-17° in summer. The cold is probably the biggest problem in swimming the Channel. H o w m u c h s h o u l d I practise?

Alison Streeter, has swum it 38 times.

A lot! You w i l l need to s w i m for one or two hours a day.

H o w far is it? The direct route is 32 kilometres from Shakespeare Beach. Dover to Cap Gris Nez, France.

Some of this training must be in open water. H o w often s h o u l d I eat d u r i n g the s w i m ? Eat every half-hour. Eating in the water is not easy, so

H o w l o n g d o e s it take? It takes 10-20 hours, depending on how good you

practise.

are at swimming and the weather.

The Channel goes b e t w e e n E

I

and F

9DUBJ-) :puE|Sug :J3MSU\

How...? questions 1

Use How + an a d j e c t i v e o r an a d v e r b in q u e s t i o n s . How cold is the How hungry

water?

2

Use How far...?

home?

A: How often

do you go

swimming?

is Steven

here?

B: He only comes on Tuesdays / Not very

t o ask a b o u t d i s t a n c e .

U s e How many...?

B: One hour by plane. kilometres.

ask a b o u t t i m e o r l e n g t h .

How many

Channel?

eggs do we need?

Use H o w / m u d ? . . . ? w i t h singular u n c o u n t a b l e nouns.

A: How long is the film ? B: It's two hours

long.

How much food shall we take?

A: How long is the canal?

kilometres.

How much time do you

B: About 200

often.

w i t h plural countable nouns.

How many people have swum the

A: How far did you drive ? B: 600 Use How long ...?to

ask a b o u t f r e q u e n c y .

B: Every day. / Twice a week.

A: How far is it from London to Paris ?

3

...?to

A: How often

are you ?

How late did you get

U s e How often

need?

See Unit 40 for more i n f o r m a t i o n on countable and uncountable nouns. Use How long does it take? to ask a b o u t h o w m u c h t i m e y o u n e e d t o go s o m e w h e r e o r d o s o m e t h i n g . A: There's a plane to Paris. B: How long does it A: One hour.

74

take?

U s e How much...

? w i t h o u t a n o u n t o ask a b o u t t h e price

or quantity o f something. A: How much does it cost?

B: Eleven euros.

A: How much did she eat?

B:A lot!

See Unit 26 for more information on How in questions.


Practice A Match t h e q u e s t i o n s t o t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r s . 1

How wide is the Channel?

-

a

Very. 4 0 0 ships cross t h e Channel every day.

2 How important is it?

b

A b o u t 2 0 0 euros.

3 How deep is it?

c

Between 32 and 2 4 0 kilometres

4 How many types o f f i s h live there?

d

Rarely, t h e w a t e r is usually c a l m .

5 How often are there big storms in t h e Channel?

e

3 0 0 , 0 0 0 people visit it every year.

6 How long does it take t o get t h r o u g h t h e

f

It's a b o u t 1 2 0 metres in t h e middle.

Channel t u n n e l ? 7 How much does a t i c k e t t h r o u g h t h e t u n n e l cost?

g

2 0 m i n u t e s on m o s t trains.

h

There are a b o u t 1,000 different kinds.

8 How popular is Dover Castle?

B Complete t h e q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e w o r d s i n the box. far

fast

good

1 A: How

long o(4

much

often

eW

js y o u r g r a n d m o t h e r ?

B: She's 85 t o m o r r o w . 2 A: How

is y o u r house f r o m school?

mum / z z z : _ y o u ' d l i k e t o ask an O l y m p i c a t h l e t e . E x a m p l e : ffo"w often do^oa t r a i n /

B: It's about a t e n - m i n u t e w a l k . 3 A: How

is her English?

B: She speaks it a l m o s t p e r f e c t l y . 4 A: How

are y o u staying in M a d r i d ?

B: We're only here f o r t h e w e e k e n d . 5 A: How

does it cost?

B: Seven euros. 6 A: How

does it go?

B: About 6 0 k i l o m e t r e s an hour. 7 A: How

d o y o u go t o t h e cinema?

B: Once a m o n t h . C Complete each q u e s t i o n b so t h a t i t m e a n s t h e s a m e as question a. Use o n e t o t h r e e w o r d s .

I

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

I

1 A: H o w

I

a old 2

1 a Does Alison S t r e e t e r t r a i n hard? b How

mti

does A l i s o n S t r e e t e r t r a i n ?

b How

â&#x20AC;˘

swim?

I

'

t h e w a t e r in t h e

4 a W h a t is t h e distance f r o m England t o France?

c long

w a t e r should I drink?

f r o m England t o France?

4

b many

A: H o w

c often

d o t h e y go s w i m m i n g ?

I

B: Five t i m e s a w e e k .

I

a long

I

5

b often

A: H o w

c many

t o go s w i m m i n g in y o u r city?

B: Five euros.

5 a Did you s w i m t h e C h a n n e l quickly? take

you t o s w i m t h e Channel? 6 a Did you eat a l o t d u r i n g t h e s w i m ? b How

b many t i m e

B: A b o u t 5 litres.

Channel?

b How

c age d i d it take y o u t o s w i m t h e Channel?

A: H o w a much

Channel?

b How

b many

A: H o w a longtime

3

3 a W h a t is t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e w a t e r in t h e b How

B: I was 15 years o l d .

B: A b o u t 1 8 hours.

I

2 a Do you s w i m every day o r every w e e k ?

w e r e y o u w h e n y o u first swam

t h e Channel?

eat

*

a m a n y it costs

b much it costs

I

c m u c h does it cost 1$ It E Z E"[ :SJ9MSUEjlS9XA\A/ 7

E

3

during t h e s w i m ?

How...?questions

75


31

So and

neither

Neither do I .

chat

T H E

1 2 3

\M.t&£.aO)t boards.

contact

us

litotes

C H A T R O O M f o r t e e ^ s o ^ L y

S E N D US Y O U R C O M M E N T S .

Tell us t h i n g s y o u d o n ' t n e e d i n y o u r l i f e . [emma]

Easy. M y b r o t h e r . M a t h s . W i n t e r . M i l k c h o c o l a t e

[nicko]

N e i t h e r d o I. D a r k c h o c o l a t e is t h e b e s t .

[suzi and a b i ]

H e l l o , E m m a ! Y o u ' r e r i g h t . W i n t e r is so b o r i n g .

[todd]

H i , e v e r y o n e . I t h i n k w i n t e r is O K .

[nicko]

Me t o o . I love snow. And t h e r e ' s f o o t b a l l

[todd]

S o a m I. ©

I'm a Manchester U n i t e d [emma]

I hate football.

[suzi and a b i ]

So d o w e . A n d

I d o n ' t like it

fan.

© cabbage.

Does a n y o n e l i k e c a b b a g e ? [emma]

No.

[todd]

Yuk!

So and neither 1

Use so + a u x i l i a r y v e r b + s u b j e c t t o m e a n ' t o o ' o r 'also'. A: I'm a Manchester

United

4

I f t h e r e is n o a u x i l i a r y v e r b i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t , use a f o r m o f do.

fan.

B: So am /.'(= I'm a M a n c h e s t e r U n i t e d f a n , too.)

A: Nicko likes white

A: I think winter

B: So does Todd.

is OK.

B: So do I. (= I t h i n k w i n t e r is O K , too.)

A: I hate

A: I hate

B: So do we.

football.

chocolate.

football.

B: So do we. (= W e hate f o o t b a l l , too.) 5 2

3

T h e n e g a t i v e is neither

A f t e r so a n d neither

t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b c o m e s b e f o r e the |

subject.

+ auxiliary verb + subject.

A: I don't like it.

So am I. N O T So I am.

B: Neither

Neither

do I. (= I d o n ' t like it either.)

Use t h e s a m e a u x i l i a r y v e r b a f t e r so o r neither

as t h e

a u x i l i a r y v e r b in t h e o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t . A: I am a football

6

does she. N O T Neither

I n s t e a d o f So am I o r So do I w e can say Me too. Instead o f Neither

am I o r Neither

do I w e can say Me

neither.

fan.

B: So am I. I've never been to Spain. Neither

has my

brother.

Y o u can p r o n o u n c e neitherwlth

an / a i / o r an / i : /

s o u n d . T h e f i r s t is m o r e c o m m o n in B r i t a i n , t h e s e c o n d in t h e U S A .

76

she docs.


Practice A Match each s e n t e n c e t o an a p p r o p r i a t e r e p l y .

7

B: (we)

1 I'm tired today. —

a

So can I.

2 I'm not w o r k i n g this w e e k e n d X

b

So was I.

3 I don't come here o f t e n .

c

N e i t h e r d o I.

4 Frank plays tennis really w e l l .

d

So has her sister.

5 I haven't heard t h e n e w C D y e t .

e

N e i t h e r am I.

6 Isabel has been t o t h e USA

f

So does

lots o f times.

\

\

7 She can count t o 2 0 in G e r m a n .

8

8 My friends were on h o l i d a y

h

A: I can't see t h e b o a r d . B:(l)

9

A: M r s Jacobs isn't very p o l i t e . B: (her husband)

10

A: They live in t h e city centre.

11

A: I'm really c o l d .

12

B:(l) You weren't listening!

B: (my cousins)

his b r o t h e r . Vg

A: I t h o u g h t t h e f i l m was great.

So am I. N e i t h e r have I.

last week.

B: (you)

B Suzi and Abi a l w a y s a g r e e . W r i t e A b i ' s r e p l i e s t o w h a t Suzi says ( t w o r e p l i e s each t i m e ) . <suzi>

j

1 lam 16.

I

2 I chat on the w e b s i t e

<abi>

So ami

Me too

^^WTipUjte^

a b o u t yourself.

W h i c h p e o p l e have t h e same o p i n i o n s ? W r i t e sentences in y o u r n o t e b o o k .

every evening. • 3 I don't eat chocolate.

Me

Emma

Todd

Nicko

likes cabbage

no

no

no

likes M a t h s

no

yes

no

is a M a n c h e s t e r

no

yes

yes

yes

no

no

4 I am good at English. j 5 I don't watch h o r r o r movies. 6 I hate f o o t b a l l . 7 I'm not going o u t t h i s w e e k e n d . 8 I think w i n t e r is b o r i n g . C Write sentences a b o u t Suzi a n d A b i u s i n g t h e

United fan

|

t h i n k s w i n t e r is

information in Exercise B.

I I

Sixziib 16 and so is ftbi,

boring

• 2

E x a m p l e : Toio' tides Matds a n i so etc 1!

I 3 I 4 I 5

j

6

I 7 8 Circle t h e correct o p t i o n . D Write replies t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s u s i n g so o r

1

M y cat is b e a u t i f u l and so

neither and t h e s u b j e c t in b r a c k e t s .

a do 2

1 A: We are ready!

3

2 A: Are your parents c o m i n g t o t h e s h o w ?

b N e i t h e r have I

B: c N e i t h e r I have

A: Y o u s h o u l d n ' t say bad t h i n g s a b o u t y o u r brother. B:

B: No, they're n o t and (my friends)

a So s h o u l d n ' t y o u

3 A: Maria's s t u d y i n g m e d i c i n e .

b Neither shouldn't you

c Neither should you

B:(her sister)

4

m

A: R o b e r t isn't c o m i n g t o t h e party. B: N e i t h e r

B:(l)

a are

5 A: M y dad hasn't been here b e f o r e .

5

B:(my m u m ) 6 A: I was up late last night.

my dog.

c is

A: I've never used a c h a t r o o m . a So have I

B: (we) So are we!

4 A: I didn't u n d e r s t a n d w h a t he said!

b does

b is

c do

Emma c h a t t e d last n i g h t f o r f o u r hours. So a Todd did

u

Paul and Jack,

b d i d Todd

c does Todd

_

>••••••••

qs *\

°Z n :sj9Msue jisaj. Xw So a n d neither

77


32

Question tags Chocolate is bad for you, isn't it?

_

What

do you

know

Chocolate is bad for you, isn't i t ? Not really. Chocolate has a lot of calories but this is only a problem if you eat too much of i t . Coffee stops you sleeping, doesn't i t ? Yes, i t does. The caffeine in coffee is a stimulant, so it isn't a good idea to drink coffee before you go to bed. Vitamin tablets aren't necessary, are they? No, they aren't. Taking vitamins every day is definitely not idea.

O

U n d e r l i n e t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n : I t is b e t t e r t o d r i n k c o f f e e i n t h e

morning/evening. SUJLUOW M3MSUV

Question tags 1

Use q u e s t i o n t a g s i n c o n v e r s a t i o n t o c h e c k i n f o r m a t i o n

3

is n e g a t i v e .

o r t o check t h a t t h e l i s t e n e r agrees w i t h y o u . Chocolate

is bad for you, isn't

You phoned

the doctor, didn't

It's a lovely day, isn't 2

it?

She's a doctor, isn't

you?

It could help, couldn't

it?

she? it?

I f t h e m a i n clause is n e g a t i v e , t h e q u e s t i o n t a g is affirmativj You don't feel well, do

A s e n t e n c e w i t h a q u e s t i o n t a g has a m a i n clause (You know Simon...)

U s u a l l y , i f t h e m a i n clause is a f f i r m a t i v e , t h e q u e s t i o n ta;|

a n d t h e q u e s t i o n t a g (... don't

you?

Mike won't be in hospital

you?).

long, will

he?

T h e q u e s t i o n t a g has an a u x i l i a r y (e.g. is, do, have) o r a m o d a l (e.g. iv/7/, can) + a s u b j e c t p r o n o u n . m a i n clause

question tag

He's coming,

isn't he ?

They won't

go,

will

T h e i n t o n a t i o n o n t h e t a g rises i f i t is a real question (i.e. i f t h e speaker is n o t sure o f t h e a n s w e r ) . Canberra

isn't the capital

is it?

I f t h e r e is no a u x i l i a r y o r m o d a l , use t h e c o r r e c t f o r m

T h e i n t o n a t i o n o n t h e t a g f a l l s i f t h e s p e a k e r is

o f do.

sure o f t h e answer.

You know DrJones, don't The doctor

didn't

I'm right, aren't

you?

phone, did

I'm in t h e m a i n clause

You're American,

she?

aren't

aren't you ? You have an

American

accent.

I in t h e question t a g .

4

M a k e a s h o r t a n s w e r w i t h a s u b j e c t p r o n o u n a n d an auxiliary verb.

I?

A: You're OK, aren't you? A: Did you see the doctor?

78

of Australia,

Sydney is bigger.

they?

â&#x20AC;˘

B: Yes, I am. B: No, I

didn't.

See Units 25 and 3 1 for more information on short answers.


Practice jA Match t h e sentence b e g i n n i n g s t o t h e c o r r e c t t a g s . [ 1 You don't like p i z z a , â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

a

2 It's a fact

\,

3 The children know,

\

4 I'm not going,

\

5 His mum hasn't p h o n e d ,

|

\

Sarah: N o , t h e pain is t e r r i b l e . You d o n ' t have any aspirin,'

isn't it?

?

D o c t o r : A s p i r i n w o n ' t help. You've s t o p p e d t r a i n i n g ,

b

aren't I?

c

won't they?

d

d i d it?

5

?

Sarah: A l m o s t . J o g g i n g is all r i g h t ,

?

6

H a l f an h o u r a day w o n ' t d o any h a r m ,

^e

d o you?

6 They'll remember,

f

can't he?

7 It didn't rain,

g

has she?

8 Simon can come,

h

am I?

9 I'm the winner,

i

don't they?

7

Doctor: E

?

I suppose n o t .

Change these statements into affirmative or negative questions w i t h question tags.

IB Complete t h e q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e c o r r e c t t a g s . 1 You're M r S m i t h ,

aren'tMoa

?

2 We aren't late,

?

3 I'm next,

?

4 He's having a m e e t i n g ,

?

5 The dog w o n ' t b i t e ,

?

6 You had f u n at t h e party,

?

7 Your w i f e knows,

?

8 The workers made a m i s t a k e ,

?

9 It hasn't s n o w e d ,

?

10 You don't have a b r o t h e r ,

?

mm

C Write a f f i r m a t i v e ( / ) o r n e g a t i v e (X) s h o r t a n s w e r s . 1 Is it 6 o'clock? ( / )

m

Vis, i t is.

2 Do you k n o w Glenda? (X)

K)<5,1 a V t .

1

3 Are you ready, Simon? ( / )

Its a icy, isn't i t f

2

4 Is this my pen? (X)

3

5 Did Dave t e l l you? ( / )

4

6 Have you t w o had dinner? (X)

MYTURN!

7 Can your cat s w i m ? ( / ) 8 Are the children c o m i n g ? (X) D Sarah is a r u n n e r . She is t a l k i n g t o h e r d o c t o r . C o m p l e t e

t a g s t o ask a f r i e n d a b o u t a p a r t y he / she has b e e n t o .

the dialogue w i t h t h e c o r r e c t q u e s t i o n t a g s . Doctor: Hello, you're S a r a h ,

Ask a b o u t t h e guests, t h e music, t h e f o o d , t h e t i m e

aren't^OU,

1

he / she l e f t , e t c .

?

Sarah: Yes, I am. I'm n o t l a t e , '

?

-

Example:

Doctor: No, d o n ' t w o r r y . N o w , y o u r back isn't f e e l i n g I

good,

3

Tke food, washed, wasn't i t f

?

e the correct o p t i o n . 1 She eats a l o t o f chocolate,

?

a isn't she

J 2 The doctor w i l l t e l l me t o d o m o r e exercise, I 3 I'm getting very s u n t a n n e d , 4 You haven't been ill f o r a l o n g t i m e ,

b d o n ' t she ?

c d o e s n ' t she

awon'tshe

b she w o n ' t

? M a y b e I'm s u n b a t h i n g t o o m u c h . you?

5 A:They shouldn't take v i t a m i n s every day, should they?

a do

b were

B: N o ,

a am n o t I

cdoesn'tshe b aren't I

c amn't I

c have a t h e y should

b shouldn't they

c they shouldn't 35 3fr qÂŁ ez

Dx

: S J S M S U B

il

S 3

Q u e s t i o n tags

l^W

79


A

M a t c h t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t Rosa t o t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r s .

v i s i t e d / H o w / have / many / y o u / countries?

7

eyes / a r e / W h a t / y o u r / c o l o u r ?

1

Is Rosa b e a u t i f u l ?

H

2

W h e n is her b i r t h d a y ?

3

Has she been t o India?

8

games / y o u / H o w / d o / o f t e n / c o m p u t e r / play?

4

W h a t does she like?

LJ

9

school / H o w / it / t o / t a k e / does / get / l o n g / to?

5

W h a t ' s she like?

6

W h y does she speak English w e l l ?

7

W h o likes her?

8

W h o does she like?

a n s w e r s a n d so o r

9

W h e r e does she live?

1

H o w is she?

10

B

6

a

She's very nice,

b

In February.

c

W e all like her. She's very popular,

d

Yes, she has.

N o w answer t h e questions f o r yourself. C

C o m p l e t e t h e dialogues, using question tags, short

A You're 1 5 , B No,

2

B Yes,

g

She likes horses and dancing,

A Didn't you?

h

Yes, she is.

3

4

2

o f / W h a t / like / d o I k i n d / music / y o u ? What (ana cfmusic a6.JJ.tt tike,

5

5

6

i But I can't speak Korean. !]

A You've lived here f o r e i g h t years,

fl

I've lived here f o r 1 1 years.

7

1

A You d o n ' t like m u s h r o o m s ,

I . B u t I d o n ' t like fish.

A Don't you?

1

A Y o u r sister is g o i n g o n h o l i d a y t o Peru,

?j

B No,

She's g o i n g t o Chile.

A Is she? 8

my sister!

A Y o u r b r o t h e r has b r o k e n his a r m , B No, A Has he?

80

!

A You can't speak Chinese,

B Yes,

y o u r / are / H o w / parents / old?

a r e / f r i e n d s / y o u r / W h a t / like?

i

But I d i d n ' t go t o Helen's party.

A Have y o u ?

?

book / W h o / favourite / w r o t e / your?

y o u / d o / c o m p u t e r / W h o s e / use?

A Y o u d i d n ' t go t o Phil's party,

B No,

?

4

J

A Can't you?

?

3

3 I w r i t e songs.

B Yes,

M a k e q u e s t i o n s by p u t t i n g t h e w o r d s in t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r . 1

!

A D o you?

Because her dad is f r o m Scotland,

In t h e c i t y centre.

? I'm 14.

5oami

B No,

She likes Brad Pitt. She t h i n k s he's cool,

j

I'lHWt

A You w r i t e poems,

f

N o t very w e l l . She feels sick t o d a y ,

aren't ^<5U.

A Really?

e

i

neither.

?

He's broken his leg. my brother!


D Put the dialogue in t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r . W r i t e n u m b e r s 2 - 1 3 n e x t t o t h e l i n e s . 1

14

a

A: Are y o u g o i n g t o t h e c o n c e r t t o n i g h t ?

b

B: Er... no, 1 d o n ' t . Hey, t h e t i c k e t has a p h o t o o f t h e band. W h i c h one is y o u r b r o t h e r ?

c

A: No, he doesn't. He's a d r u m m e r . Have y o u heard h i m play?

d

A: Because 1 p r e f e r small concerts. 1 d o n ' t like it w h e n hundreds o f p e o p l e are s h o u t i n g .

e

A: He's t h e one w i t h l o n g black hair and a b i g black hat. D o y o u t h i n k he looks cool?

f

A: So d o 1. It's g o i n g t o be really g o o d . D i d y o u k n o w m y b r o t h e r is playing?

g

A: O h yes. He's fantastic. H o w m a n y p e o p l e w i l l be t h e r e t o n i g h t ?

h

A: Heavy m e t a l and hard rock. D o y o u like rock music?

i

B: N o , 1 haven't. Is he g o o d ?

j

B: N o , 1 d i d n ' t . O h , 1 r e m e m b e r . He plays guitar, d o e s n ' t he?

k

B: N e i t h e r d o 1. W h a t k i n d o f music does y o u r b r o t h e r play?

I

B: Yes, 1 a m . 1 love concerts.

m

B: 1 d o n ' t know. M a y b e 5 0 0 . W h y ?

n

B: Er... m a y b e .

E Complete each q u e s t i o n w i t h o n e w o r d f r o m Box A a n d

F

R e a d t h e t e x t , t h e n w r i t e a q u e s t i o n f o r each a n s w e r .

one word f r o m Box B.

Hew What

How

How

Which

How

How

What

What

Whose B

coffee one 1 A:

far

kind

like

long

many

much

often

time tffiw

far

is it f r o m t h e Earth t o t h e M o o n ?

B: 384,403 k m . 2 A:

does r a b b i t m e a t t a s t e

1

?

d o y o u v i s i t y o u r grandparents?

B: About six t i m e s a year. 4 A:

o f c o m p u t e r games d o y o u like?

B: I love fantasy games. 5 A:

hats d o y o u have?

B: Three. T w o w i n t e r hats and a sun hat. 6 A:

is t h i s ?

B: It's John's, he drinks a b o u t five cups a day. 7 A:

w e r e y o u r shoes?

B: I paid 5 0 euros f o r t h e m . 8 A: We have f o u r d i f f e r e n t pizzas.

do you

want? B: Can I have t h a t one, please? 9 A:

is t h e j o u r n e y f r o m L o n d o n t o N e w

York? B: A b o u t 7V hours. 2

10 A:

ffow M

is Tom

? He's 13 years o l d .

2

B: It's a bit like chicken. 3 A:

Hi. My name's Tom and I'm 13 years old. I love computers. When I was 6 years old, I opened my mum's computer to see how it worked. She was very angry, because I couldn't put it back together. But I kept all the pieces and learnt about them, and when I was 8,1 made a new computer for my mum. It was better than the old one, so she was very happy. Now I write computer games. I put my first game on my website when I was 10, and my friends all loved it. They said it was fantastic. I've written about eight games now, and they're all really good. Last week a man from a big software company wrote to me. He says he likes my new game, "Ice Jungle', and he wants me to write games for them. So next week I'm going to London for a meeting. I'm very excited.

? Computers.

3

? His mum's.

4

? Yes, she was. She was very angry.

5

Because he c o u l d n ' t p u t it back t o g e t h e r .

6

O n his w e b s i t e .

7

A b o u t eight.

8

A m a n f r o m a b i g s o f t w a r e company.

9

His n e w one,'Ice Jungle'.

10

?

To L o n d o n .

d o y o u usually go t o bed?

B: Between 1 0 p m and 1 1 p m .

Review 6

81


33

Have and have got Have you got a favourite crocodile?

The Samutprakan Crocodile F a r m (Thailand) h a s g o t over 60,000 crocodiles. T h e f a r m h a s a zoo, i t ' s g o t a r e s e a r c h c e n t r e a n d t h e s h o p s , of c o u r s e , h a v e l o t s of c r o c o d i l e s o u v e n i r s . M r U t a i h a d t h e i d e a of o p e n i n g t h e m u s e u m i n 1950. H e h a d s o m e f r e e t i m e y e s t e r d a y t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s Question: D o e s t h e f a r m h a v e any u n u s u a l crocodiles? M r Utai: W e ' v e g o t the biggest crocodile i n t h e w o r l d . C o m e a n d see i t h a v e b r e a k f a s t t o m o r r o w m o r n i n g ! Q u e s t i o n : H a v e y o u g o t a n y p l a n s for t h e f u t u r e ? M r Utai: I'm g o i n g to h a v e a crocodile T V show. Crocodiles h a v e n ' t g o t a good image. H o l l y w o o d films only s h o w crocodiles t r y i n g t o eat people! We n e e d t o h a v e more information about crocodiles.

Underline the correct O

option: M r Utai likes/sells

sa>)i] :J9MSUV

Have and have got 1

W e can say have o r have got. Have is m o r e c o m m o n .

statement

W e can use have got in c o n v e r s a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n British English.

1 / You / W e /

The farm has a zoo. It has got over 60,000

crocodiles. crocodiles ?

In t h e past a n d f u t u r e , w e can o n l y use have. I'm going to have a crocodile In 1950 the zoo didn't

TV show.

have many

Did the shop have any crocodile 3

/

crocodiles. T-shirts

yesterday?

W e can use have + n o u n f o r m a n y e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s .

have

d o n o t (don't) have

He/She/It

has

d o e s n o t (doesn't) have

question ?

short a n s w e r / X

D o 1 / y o u / w e / t h e y have...? D o e s he / she / it have...?

have much free time

The crocodile

is having

N o , (he) d o e s n ' t .

M a k e n e g a t i v e f o r m s of have got w i t h not. M a k e

|

q u e s t i o n s w i t h Have / Has + s u b j e c t + got...?

j

/ a break / a rest / a sleep / a cold

tea I coffee; breakfast a chat I a discussion

/ lunch / dinner; a

statement

sandwich

/ a talk

fun I a good time / a nice day / a

holiday

a shower / a bath / a swim / a run / a walk

1 / You / W e /

/ had a dog but it died. N O T / had got a dog... M a k e q u e s t i o n s a n d n e g a t i v e s w i t h have u s i n g t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b do. Do you have a pen?

82

h a v e (Ve) g o t

negative X have n o t (haven't) got

has fs) g o t

has n o t (hasn't) g o t

W e d o n o t use have got i n t h e f u t u r e o r past. W e use have i n s t e a d .

5

/

They He / She / It

4

N o , (1) d o n ' t .

yesterday.

breakfast.

Y o u can have: an accident

Yes, (1) d o .

Yes, (he) does.

Have w i t h a c t i v i t i e s can be i n t h e c o n t i n u o u s f o r m . He didn't

negative X

They

Does the farm have any unusual 2

eats/

crocodiles.

She doesn't

have

it.

question ? H a v e 1 / y o u / w e / t h e y got...? Has he / s h e / it g o t . . . ?

s h o r t answer / X Yes, (1) have.

j

No, (1) haven't.

I

Yes, (he) has.

?

N o , (he) hasn't.

j


Practice A What do these p e o p l e have? U s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o m a k e a t l e a s t e i g h t

D

W r i t e s e n t e n c e s w i t h have (got) i n

sentences w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e p r o n o u n a n d have, a n d w r i t e t h e m i n

t h e p r e s e n t , p a s t o r f u t u r e . S o m e are

your notebook. S o m e s e n t e n c e s a r e n e g a t i v e .

negatives or questions.

Me

4

/

Me and my b r o t h e r

4

I

2

We

3 4

X

a d o g ; it's very nice.

(vaven't^Ct

Oii (jfiu. Uve

green hair. It looks

A l l m y friends

X

X

6

James c o u l d n ' t run because he

7

France

8 9

have got breakfast at 6 o'clock and some ^have/have visitors ask m e , ' D o crocodiles 5

b

7

11

Are you going t o

12

We

have/hadn't

a swim? time to

w e r e late.

got a great t i m e in

/hadgot a holiday in England and I w e n t t o L o n d o n Z o o . T h e z o o crocodile research centre. Doyou

a chat a b o u t it last

coffee because w e 13

8

w

We

got f u n in t h e

got lots o f nice v i s i t o r s . Last year I had

/hadgot a lot o f crocodiles b u t t h e y didn't

Sharon

night.

have/

got special diets.

crocodiles

farm?' I always a n s w e r , ' O f course!' T h e y have/have the shows and w e h a v e / h a v e

2

got a w a l k a r o u n d t h e f a r m . M a n y have/Have

a h o l i d a y in

your new phone number? 10

got a great j o b b u t it's very h a r d ! The c r o c o d i l e s

After breakfast, w e have/have

I want to Thailand.

option. S o m e t i m e s b o t h o p t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e .

4

a King o r Q u e e n

now.

A crocodile k e e p e r is t a l k i n g a b o u t his w o r k . U n d e r l i n e t h e c o r r e c t

l

mobile

a b r o k e n leg.

I futve a aq<j. (Oe aWt have a sister.

I have/have

c o l d last w e e k ?

She

X

Examples:

a

phones b u t I d o n ' t .

X

/

Tom and Lucy

an uncle b u t we've

strange! 5

Sarah

(vave

g o t an a u n t i e .

X

Brian

1

A:

y o u r n e w house a garden?

had

9

B: Yes, it

got a special

have/ Have you got any questions?'

lx

C Complete t h e s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e p r e s e n t o r p a s t of have or

have

got to make t h e m t r u e . S o m e s e n t e n c e s a r e n e g a t i v e . 1 Bill Gates

tent

Uve / rvasft't^Ct

a u n i v e r s i t y degree.

2 The Fnglish a l p h a b e t

In y o u r n o t e b o o k , w r i t e a t l e a s t six

26 letters.

3 Princess Diana

q u e s t i o n s , u s i n g have a n d have got, t h a t

a daughter.

4 Penguins

y o u w o u l d l i k e t o ask a f a m o u s p e r s o n .

wings.

5 Water

Example:

vitamins.

6 The Romans

ffave j 5 u ^ 6 t a by dcusef

a big e m p i r e .

7 Cats

nine lives.

8 A beach v o l l e y b a l l t e a m

t w o players.

___________________ Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1 How many t e e t h

?

a has a crocodile

2 When he was a child, he

3 A: Have crocodiles g o t cold b l o o d ? 4 They 5

fish f o r breakfast. a nice t i m e at t h e f a r m ?

b has a crocodile g o t

a baby crocodile as a pet. B: Yes, t h e y a usually have a Have y o u g o t

a had a do

c a crocodile has got

b has g o t

c had g o t

b have g o t

b usually have g o t

c have

c have usually g o t

b A r e y o u having g o t

c A r e y o u having DS Bf 0ÂŁ ?Z m

:SJ9MSUB

jisai XyV

Have a n d have got

83


Make, do and get Do you get angry? Read our questionnaire and answer the questions.

e Your friend uses your phone and makes

a lot of calls. Do you get angry?

a You get a text message from a friend.

(K_3_> (EBB^

iBEsb

Do you reply immediately? ^TTIj

iB3_j

f Do you always get your friends a

ii^fl'^j

present on their birthdays?

IE©*

Your friend has made a cake, but it tastes horrible. Do you tell him or her? (E!3^

^BMt>

d^fl^j ( s p u e u j ou OADU,

c Your best friend has done something

MSBj

\QH3\m ON 3J.noA= 2L-rj

noA JOUM spueuj JnoA | | 9 | o) oepi pooB D s,(i

you tell your other friends? ft-§j

uoos PUD)

(•oo) 'peau

really stupid, and tells you about it. Do ,

M.noA

ing) (SJi) SJBL|)O JO ^ u i m SADMID noA PUD 'pueu|

GEEBj

pooB D 3J,noA'aN3ldd IfldHilVd = E Z - £ l

A>pri| BJD QZ-VZ-kM £ ou '£ eqADLU

•noA «ou>| oj

spirauj jnoA iaN3ldJ 1V3U9

d You helped your friend do her home-

work, and she gets a good mark. Do

D aj,noA=

'g seA j :g ou '£ sqAoui '£ ssA 9 :g ou 'rj aqAouj o

you tell the teacher?

saA p :g ou 'o eqADiii 'o seA o :g ou '£ eqADW 'o q :Q OU '£ sqADLu 'g saA D JSJOOS jnoA (no p u y

I23_v

seA

W h a t d o y o u think? A r e y o u a g o o d friend?

Make, do and get 1

Get can have d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s . U s e get + o b j e c t t o

U s e make t o t a l k a b o u t p r o d u c i n g s o m e t h i n g .

m e a n ' r e c e i v e ' o r ' o b t a i n ' . Y o u can get:

make a cup of coffee, make a cake, make a meat W h e n w e say w h o w e a r e m a k i n g i t f o r , w e can say: / made my dad a cake. O R / made a cake for my dad. She makes them lunch. O R She makes lunch for • 2

them.

See U n i t 37 f o r more verbs w i t h t w o objects. U s e do t o t a l k a b o u t w o r k a n d a c t i v i t i e s ( w h i c h o f t e n

3

the

shopping

exercise

the

washing

(your) homework

the

washing-up

Make

Y o u can make: a

mistake

a decision

money

friends

a noise

a plan

sure

a phone call

a promise

Y o u can do: your

84

best

nothing

well j

mark

letter

some milk from

the shops (= buy)

a present message

Use get + a d j e c t i v e t o m e a n ' b e c o m e ' . angry

cold

late

better

dark

older

bigger

a n d do are u s e d i n a n u m b e r o f e x p r e s s i o n s .

the bed

a

a text

e n d i n -ing). Y o u can do: an exam

a bad / good

badly

W e can use get i n o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n s . Y o u can get: on I off [a bus)

A A dressed

up

to(=

back(=

rarra

return)

a bus I train (= t r a v e l on)

W e say get to school

arrive)

lost married

b u t get home ( w i t h o u t to).


Practice

/

A Write each w o r d / p h r a s e f r o m t h e b o x u n d e r t h e c o r r e c t v e r b . breakfast a job

a dress

a paper plane

an exam

exercise

a salad

homework

t h e shopping

t h e washing

do

M a k e up t h e questions f o r a questionnaire a n d w r i t e t h e m in y o u r n o t e b o o k . Use t h e o p t i o n s i n b r a c k e t s a n d do, make a n d get. 1

make

Your m u m is f e e l i n g very t i r e d , (a cup o f coffee o r a sandwich?)

breakfast

OflJBfc mlu ker a cap of coffee or mate der a saniwickr 2

You're h u n g r y b u t t h e f r i d g e is e m p t y , (a pizza o r t h e shopping?)

3

It's a sunny Sunday in t h e summer, (up early o r up late?)

4 B Match t h e s e n t e n c e b e g i n n i n g s t o t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e e n d i n g s . I

(a snack o r some lunch?)

How to be a g o o d f r i e n d ...

5

1 Text messages are f u n b u t it's b e t t e r t o make

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

[ 2 Don't be j e a l o u s i f a f r i e n d makes n e w

a friends, c

mistake,

d y o u r best,

5 Talk t o y o u r f r i e n d s b e f o r e y o u make an i m p o r t a n t

e well, f money,

7 Nobody is p e r f e c t - j u s t d o 8 It's more i m p o r t a n t t o make f r i e n d s t h a n make

6

It's t h e s u m m e r holidays soon but y o u d o n ' t have any money.

4 And listen t o her w h e n she has d o n e 6 Say sorry i f y o u make a

You are late f o r school, (the bus or t o school late?)

^ - b a p h o n e cal

[ 3 Be happy w h e n a f r i e n d does

Your y o u n g e r b r o t h e r is really hungry but y o u r m u m and dad are n o t at h o m e .

(a j o b o r nothing?) N o w answer the questions.

g badly, h decision.

IC Complete t h e s e n t e n c e s u s i n g a f o r m o f get a n d w o r d s I

from t h e box. angry late

a really bad mark lost

married

any text messages

better

some m i l k

dressed older

up

I

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

I

1 It's m y best friend's birthday, so I'm going t o a make a card her b make a card t o her c make her a card

1 I'm going t o stay h o m e and s t u d y t o n i g h t . I j e t a realty bad m a r t j y M a t h s exam.

W h e n y o u m e e t new people, is it easy t o friends w i t h t h e m ?

n m

2 My friend has been in h o s p i t a l b u t she is

a make

slowly 3 It's O K t o

always

it later. W e should go h o m e .

5 My mobile phone isn't w o r k i n g . I d o n ' t like i t when I d o n ' t 6 My brother is

a does I I

in f-ebruary.

1

me

c gets

4 I'm sorry I'm late. I

lost, and I couldn't f i n d the

cafe. a made

b did

c got at m i d n i g h t . It was

terrible.

7 You w i l l p r o b a b l y need t o w e a r glasses w h e n y o u

f r o m t h e shop, please?

his best, b makes

O u r plane was late, and w e

Lots o f people are c o m i n g t o t h e w e d d i n g .

8 Could you

c get

M y f r i e n d doesn't always get g o o d grades, but he

if you talk about

4 It's

b do

a got t o home

b made h o m e

c g o t home

DS D-f ÂŁ Z DT E

e

:SJ9MSUE

jiss^Xw

9 I didn't take a m a p and I soon 10 I

late this m o r n i n g . I and had breakfast in t e n

minutes!

Make,

do a n d get

85


Prepositional verbs Think about it!

L o o k a t a m e n u in a restaurant in t h e United States a n d y o u ' l l find French fries. But d o n ' t a s k f o r French fries w h e n you g o t o France. The French call t h e m pommes

frites w h i c h means

'fried potatoes'.

Do y o u w o r r y a b o u t t o o

T h i n k a b o u t it! S a l m o n b e l o n g s t o a

m u c h salt in y o u r d i e t ?

g r o u p o f f i s h w h i c h have O m e g a - 3 .

Then listen t o t h i s - y o u

O m e g a - 3 helps you t h i n k !

need a l i t t l e salt. Your body d e p e n d s o n salt f o r healthy blood pressure. W h y is s a l t g o o d f o r y o u ? ajnssajd poo]q Aqi|e3L| Jty ij spaau Apoq mo\ :j3Msuy

Prepositional verbs 1

Prepositional verbs have t w o w o r d s . The t w o w o r d s are:

S o m e t i m e s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n is

verb + preposition.

v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e v e r b o n its own.

Think about

it!

Don't ask for French fries. I'm listening

to some

depend on

learn about

suffer

believe in

get off

look

talk

about

belong

get on

look at

wait

for

go

look for

worry

consist

across of

stop.

S o m e v e r b s can be f o l l o w e d by a d i f f e r e n t p r e p o s i t i o n

(dis)agree with

come

presents.

Get off the bus at the next

music.

O t h e r verbs include:

to

/ didn't get many birthday

with

laugh at

after

pay for

from

about

t o give a different meaning. Look at the menu. I'm looking

for my glasses - have you seen them?

We looked

after

my neighbour's

dog last

weekend.

Q u e s t i o n s w h i c h b e g i n w i t h a Wh- w o r d a n d use prepositional verbs o f t e n finish w i t h t h e preposition. What are you looking

86

at?

See Units 26 and 27 for more information on forming questions.


Practice [A Complete t h e s e f o o d f a c t s w i t h t h e c o r r e c t

C

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t verbs f r o m t h e box.

form o f t h e verbs in t h e b o x . come across go with

consist o f

look after

believe

depend on

suffer f r o m

1 Rosemary is t h e p e r f e c t herb t o wltd

come

1

W e don't

2

Do you

3

Nurses have t o

depend

get

jet

go

look

look

o f f here. It's t h e next s t a t i o n . in ghosts? a f t e r s o m e d i f f i c u l t people.

4

all kinds o f m e a t .

get

o n the t r a i n ! It's leaving!

Pineapples came t o Europe in

5

1493 when C h r i s t o p h e r C o l u m b u s

6

That shirt doesn't

t h e m in t h e

7

I've j u s t

3 An apple f l o a t s in w a t e r because it

8

Julia visits m y g r a n d p a r e n t s every day. They really

2

at t h i s p h o t o in t h e paper. w i t h y o u r trousers. across some o l d photos at t h e back o f

t h e cupboard.

Caribbean.

o n her.

2 5 % air.

I 4

y o u r b o d y - eat at least five p o r t i o n s o f f r u i t o r vegetables every day.

5 A l o t o f people in m y f a m i l y high b l o o d pressure.

W r i t e a p p r o p r i a t e questions f o r t h e s e replies. Use t h e verbs

6 Half o f the w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n

f r o m t h e box in t h e correct t e n s e .

rice in t h e i r diets.

agree w i t h

| B Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n .

talk about

1 The politician agreed with/on

listen t o

l o o k at

pay f o r

1 A lOkat are j c a tdmkuuj about? B: N o t h i n g m u c h . I'm j u s t really t i r e d .

I 2 I want t o go skiing t h i s w e e k e n d , b u t it 3 I'll ask for/to

laugh at

everything

the journalist said. depends on/of

belong t o think about

the weather.

A

3

A

4

A

5

A

m y keys w h e n he

6

A

Flavia. She's always

7

A

8

A

some help.

4 My parents are always w o r r y i n g

in/about

lOkfi agrees w t t U o e f

B: M e . W e always like t h e same films. B: M y new CD.

B: C o l i n j u s t t o l d m e a really f u n n y j o k e .

something. 5 I was looking for/after

2

came in.

B: T h a t j a c k e t in t h e w i n d o w .

B: O h , e v e r y t h i n g - t h e i r f r i e n d s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , t h e i r j o b s .

6 I'm not w a i t i n g to/for late.

B: M e . I f o r g o t t o take it h o m e last night.

7 I was just t h i n k i n g about/on 8 He suffers from/of

you.

a l o t o f headaches.

9 That dog belongs to/in

Now

the waiter.

least

10 In this morning's H i s t o r y class w e learnt about/of

B: M y b r o t h e r . He's g o t lots o f money!

The C o l d W a r .

•Si.:-

Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1 I'm looking

t h e salt, b u t I can't find it. Have y o u seen it?

2 A: W h a t

?

b y o u are w a i t i n g f o r

3 A: W h o does t h i s ' F o o d Facts'book

_

B: It's Alan's.

»••••* • i

a depend on

in diets. I t h i n k t h e y ' r e a w a s t e o f t i m e and m o n e y . _

_

_

_

c for

c f o r are y o u w a i t i n g ?

5 S o r r y - I ' v e f o r g o t t e n m y money. C o u l d y o u L _

batter

B: You. W e d i d n ' t w a n t t o s t a r t e a t i n g w i t h o u t y o u .

a are you w a i t i n g f o r 4 I don't

a at

_

_

_

_

_

_

? _

_

_

_

a f o r m e pay _

_ >••••<

b consist o f

a believe

b agree

b m e pay f o r _

_

_

_

_

c belong t o c worry

c pay f o r m e —

— OS

— 3£

— <ez

J

OT:SJ3MSUEJIS91/<W

Prepositional verbs

87

I


Phrasal verbs A friend to tidy up your room eed a friend to welcome you home wash ..n

a n

never tell you off or need to lie down?

^ «,* ^

"

P

y

°

U

r

r

o

o

m

?

A

n

c

Sadly for y o u , that's still j u s t a d r e a m But things could g e t better with H o n d a ' s A s i m o is t h e m o s t a d v a n c r o b o t i n t h e w o r l d . One d a y Asimo p e o p l e o r w o r k i n places w h i c h a r e d a n g e r o for humans.

But it's n o t all g o o d . . . You need t o c h a r g e u p A s i m o after only one hour! Each A s i m o r o b o t costs nearly $ 1 m i l l i o n t o make.[

I f t h e phrasal v e r b t a k e s an o b j e c t , i t can u s u a l l y go b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e a d v e r b particle. Asimo can turn

lights

Asimo can turn on

But t h e object always comes before t h e

S o m e p h r a s a l v e r b s w h i c h w e o f t e n use w i t h o u t an o b j e c t a r e : break down

get up

run away

wake up

find out

hurry up

sit down

wash up

get back

lie down

stand

a d v e r b p a r t i c l e i f i t is a p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n . Asimo can turn them on. N O T Asimo can turn on them.

up

S o m e p h r a s a l v e r b s w h i c h w e c o m m o n l y use w i t h an o b j e c t a r e : charge up

put on

throw

away

look up

take back

tidy up

pick up

tell off

turn

W e o f t e n use p r e p o s i t i o n a l a n d phrasal

turn off I on

v e r b s in i n f o r m a l speech a n d w r i t i n g a n d o n e - w o r d v e r b s in m o r e f o r m a l

down

c o n t e x t s . For e x a m p l e , We

T h e r e are s o m e v e r b s w e can use in b o t h w a y s , e.g. give up, off, turn

in the evening

take

got back in the

up.

He's given up

on.

lights.

returned

is m o r e f o r m a l t h a n We evening.

smoking.

Never give up! S o m e v e r b s m e a n t h e same i f t h e y are

S o m e t i m e s t h e v e r b has a d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g i n each case. The plane has just

taken off. (no o b j e c t = leave the

u s e d as o n e - w o r d v e r b s , b u t t h e n t h e y

airport)

s o u n d m o r e f o r m a l , e.g wake = wake

Take off your shoes, please, ( w i t h o b j e c t = remove) They turned

up, tidy = tidy up, lie = lie

up late, (no o b j e c t = arrive)

Can you turn the music u p ? ( w i t h object = make

sit = sit

louder) •

88

down,

down.

See U n i t 35 for more information on prepositional verbs.


Practice A Complete t h e t e x t u s i n g t h e p h r a s a l v e r b s f r o m t h e b o x in the correct t e n s e . breakdown hurry up

C

C o m p l e t e t h e d i a l o g u e s u s i n g t h e v e r b s in t h e b o x a n d a p p r o p r i a t e a d v e r b p a r t i c l e s . Use t h e s t r u c t u r e : v e r b +

find out

run away

get back take o f f

pronoun + adverb particle.

lie d o w n

w a k e up

I hadn't seen Jason f o r six weeks. He

give ran awaij

1

B

New York and t h a t was all I knew. W h e r e was he? W a s he 2

November 1

3

2

late. I o n t h e sofa and f e l l asleep r i g h t

there. W h e n I f i n a l l y

5

, it was 1 0

what day it was. A n d t h e n I r e m e m b e r e d - it was Sunday '

J a c k , ' I said t o myself. T h e plane 7

throw

turn

turn

5 6

The music is t o o l o u d . W h y don't you The l i t t l e g i r l was really rude t o m e ! W h y didn't you

A W e ' v e had these biscuits f o r weeks.

7 A The T V is b o r i n g . B W h y don't you

started the engine. The car j u m p e d f o r w a r d and s t o p p e d . I couldn't believe it. This was n o t a g o o d t i m e f o r t h e car t o

A D D A B B

w i t h o u t you.'

It was icy cold o u t s i d e . I t h r e w m y bags in t h e car and

Tab tnem back!

A W h a t d o y o u t h i n k o f t h i s hat?

B

4

and today I was g o i n g t o f i n d Jason. mustn't

tell

3 A I d o n ' t k n o w w h a t t h i s w o r d means.

o'clock the next m o r n i n g . For a m o m e n t I c o u l d n ' t t h i n k

6

ta+se

B It's great! W h y d o n ' t y o u

O n t h e last n i g h t in

4

put

1 A I b o u g h t these shoes b u t t h e y ' r e t o o smal

after the f i g h t w i t h his b r o t h e r . I g o t a postcard f r o m OK? I had t o

look

8

A I d o n ' t e n j o y learning t o play t h e piano. B W h y don't you

B Rewrite each p h r a s a l v e r b s e n t e n c e u s i n g a n

MV TURN!

appropriate n o u n o b j e c t i n s t e a d o f t h e p r o n o u n . Rewrite each s e n t e n c e in t w o d i f f e r e n t w a y s .

out u n t i l I have tidied it up. Mij mum sous I can't do out until I nave tiiiti nttj room, up/ until! nave tidied up nw room..

1 My mum says I can't go

2 Take t h e m off! The sun isn't shining in t h e house. 3 The beach is really d i r t y . People s h o u l d pick it up w h e n they go h o m e .

W h a t activities w o u l d you like a r o b o t t o do f o r you? W r i t e a t l e a s t five s e n t e n c e s in y o u r n o t e b o o k u s i n g v e r b s f r o m page 88. Example:

la' l i b it to tidxj up nuj bedroom.

QD3H

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

4 It's t o o dark in here. Turn t h e m o n !

1

and washes t h e m .

5 I can't ring Louie. I need t o charge it up first.

a picks t h e m up 2

a turn 3

c picks up t h e m

b take

c tell

This r o b o t is b r o k e n , so I'm g o i n g t o t a k e

to

t h e shop.

them off.

a it back 4

b back it

Asimo

c back

m y T-shirt. He t h o u g h t it was

rubbish!

8 When you sit in a car, y o u need t o p u t it o n .

a ran away 5

9 You can't leave. I've locked t h e d o o r and t h r o w n it away.

b t h e m picks up

A s i m o can clean y o u r shoes, b u t y o u have t o t h e m o f f first.

6 Let's have a party! Turn it u p ! 7 They were w r i t i n g on t h e w a l l . The p o l i c e m a n t o l d

I always leave m y d i r t y c l o t h e s on t h e f l o o r . A s i m o

b broke d o w n

A s i m o always a looks up

c t h r e w away

after a meal.

b picks up

c washes up 35

of

eÂŁ

qz

E

T :SJ9MSUB j ; s 9 i A w

Phrasal verbs

89


37

Verbs with two objects Tell your friends the truth.

AK£ A n s w e r

YOU

A$$£KT(Ve?

t h e questionnaire

t o find

A classmate sells your young

Y o u lend your f r i e n d € 8 0 ,

sister

h i s b i k e . I t d o e s n ' t w o r k . D o y o u ...

but she doesn't give it back.

a ask f o r your money back?

D o y o u ...

b ask f o r a little money back?

a ask f o r t h e money back? b n e v e r lend money t o

out.

c buy your sister a new bike?

her

again?

4

forget about it?

A f r i e n d s e n d s an e m a i l

M o s t l y a answers: you're very a s s e r t i v e . No one w o r r i e s you.

to

some classmates. You see it. T h e r e is s o m e

Y o u r uncle g i v e s you a book

information

Mostly b answers: you're a diplomat, b u t is t h a t always t h e best thing?

a b o u t y o u w h i c h is n o t t r u e .

f o r your birthday. You

D o y o u ...

a l r e a d y h a v e i t . 6 0 y o u ...

a

a tell him t h e t r u t h ?

make sure your friend tells your classmates t h e

b t a k e it and give it away?

b s e n d an e m a i l t o

say t h a n k you and

truth?

Mostly c answers: l i f e is not easy f o r you. How can you change this?

your

classmates?

keep it?

c

n o t go t o school f o r a w e e k ?

W h a t d o y o u t h i n k ? A r e y o u assertive?

Verbs with two objects 1

S o m e v e r b s have t w o o b j e c t s . E x a m p l e s i n c l u d e bring, buy, get, give, lend, make, offer, read, sell, send, tell,

2

throw.

/ told him the truth. N O T / told the truth

subject

verb

direct object

to

indirect object

You

lend

€80

to

your friend.

She

sends

an e m a i l

some classmates.

verb

indirect object

+ d i r e c t object.

lend

your friend

€80.

N O T You lend to your friend

90

to

W e can also p u t t h e i n d i r e c t o b j e c t first a n d t a k e o u t to.

You

W i t h t h e v e r b tell, w e p r e f e r t o say:

show,

€80.

3

to him.

U s e for n o t to w i t h buy, get a n d make. She bought

lunch for me.

She got some milk for him. We made a cake for our

parents.

A g a i n , w e can p u t t h e i n d i r e c t o b j e c t She bought

me lunch. N O T She bought

She got him some milk. We made our parents

a cake.

first. for me lunch.


A Rewrite t h e q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t to o r for. |

In y o u r n o t e b o o k , w r i t e a t l e a s t six d i f f e r e n t sentences using these w o r d s .

1 Your friend has a n e w haircut. It d o e s n ' t l o o k g o o d . D o y o u tell the t r u t h t o y o u r f r i e n d ? DejCiitettjCW friend tke t r a d

i

C

?

2 You were playing w i t h y o u r sister's p h o n e and n o w it's n o t working. D o y o u get a n e w p h o n e f o r y o u r sister? ?

3 Your cousin w a n t s t o go o u t o n Saturday n i g h t . You d o n ' t want t o go. D o y o u phone o r send a t e x t message t o h i m ? ?

E x a m p l e : Tke woman j a v e me a cap of tea.

4 An old w o m a n gets o n t h e bus. There are n o seats. D o y o u

OUJI2Q-.

offer your seat t o t h e o l d w o m a n ? ?

5 Your mum is n o t f e e l i n g w e l l and d o e s n ' t w a n t t o make lunch. Do y o u make lunch f o r y o u r f a m i l y ? ?

;

6 Your M a t h s teacher talks very f a s t and y o u d o n ' t understand t h e lessons. Do you t e l l t h e p r o b l e m t o her?

W h a t can y o u d o f o r t h e s e p e o p l e ? In y o u r n o t e b o o k , w r i t e s u g g e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e v e r b s in brackets. 1

It's y o u r mum's b i r t h d a y , (buy)

Saij ker a present, / Sat) a present for ner.

I 7 You want t o learn t o drive, b u t y o u have no m o n e y . Does 2

Y o u r l i t t l e cousins are b o r e d , (read)

3

A p o o r m a n needs help, (give)

4

Y o u r l i t t l e b r o t h e r is hungry, (make)

What are t h e p e o p l e d o i n g ? U s e t h e w o r d s in b r a c k e t s a n d

5

I'm t h i r s t y , (bring)

make sentences s i m i l a r t o t h e e x a m p l e .

6

A f r i e n d d o e s n ' t k n o w t h e answer t o 12 x 12. (tel

7

A f r i e n d needs t o make a phone call, (lend)

your dad give d r i v i n g lessons t o you?

1

tie is sk&otM t k e

Circle t h e correct o p t i o n .

teenager / her tke CDs. (show the CDs)

(lend h i s j a c k e t )

1

D o you remember? I lent a €80 you

2

last w e e k .

b t o you €80

W h y did you tell a her m y secret

c you €80

? b t o her m y secret

c m y secret her 3

I t h i n k you've g o t m y phone in y o u r bag. Can y o u show

4 (make a cake)

(give some f l o w e r s )

.please?

a m e t o it

b it f o r me

I've

these earrings f o r y o u . D o y o u like

c it t o me

them? a made 5

b given

c lent

W h e n y o u go t o t h e shop, y o u can b u y a t o me a present

b f o r me a present

c me a present

(throw t h e frisbee)

(buy some balloons) Verbs w i t h t w o objects

91


-38

Verb + -ing or verb + to-infinitive; like and would

like

Learn to speak any language in two weeks!

Do you like travelling? Do you enjoy meeting people? Do you want to communicate with people easily? W o u l d you like to speak other languages? I f your answer is 'yes' to any of these questions then we have the product for you - SUP6I* Lifl£0! Learn to speak any language in two weeks with our new Super Lingo! system. Yes, two weeks! And thanks to your big vocabulary, you won't need to carry a dictionary around with you.

W e hope to hear from you O

If you decide to try Super Lingo! then telephone 095 973 2593 or send an email to i.smith@superlingo.net. We promise to give your money back if you're not happy.

soon!

U n d e r l i n e t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n : S u p e r L i n g o ! is a dictionary

rb + -ing or verb + e and would like I finished 2

/ like playing

talking.

to learn

3

tennis.

See Unit 56 for more information on the word order o f adverbs.

course.

W h e n y o u l e a r n a n e w v e r b , l e a r n w h a t comes a f t e r it.

people.

O R / like to help

people.

O n l y -ing

Only to-infinitive

-ing or t o - i n f i n i t i v e

avoid

decide

plan

begin

enjoy

hope

promise

continue

d e c i d e /di'said/ • verb 1 © [I OR T] to choose something, especially after thinking carefully about several possibilities: They have to decide by next Friday. O / don't mind which one we have-you decide. O [+ to INFINITIVE] In the end, we decided to go to the theatre.

finish

intend

refuse

hate

mind

learn

wait

like

Would

love

o r might

prefer

wouldn't).

need offer

want

start

like (short f o r m : 'd like) is o n e w a y o f saying want want. T h e n e g a t i v e is would not (short f o r m : Use Would you like + t o - i n f i n i t i v e f o r a polite

invitation. / would

like to learn

You wouldn't Would

92

much.

English.

S o m e can t a k e e i t h e r -ing or t o - i n f i n i t i v e .

suggest

tennis very

N O T / like very much playing

to try the

/ like helping

school.

t h e verb and the object.

English.

S o m e v e r b s , e.g. want, t a k e a n o t h e r v e r b w i t h t o -

I decided

/ a language

Very much is an a d v e r b , so i t c a n n o t go b e t w e e n

infinitive. / want

programme

to-infinitive;

Some v e r b s , e.g. enjoy, t a k e a n o t h e r v e r b w i t h -ing. I enjoy learning

/ a study

Greek one day.

like to be in a strange town without

you like to come to the cinema with me?

any mo/|


ractice Complete t h e s e n t e n c e s u s i n g t h e v e r b s i n b r a c k e t s in

watching.'

the -ing o r t o - i n f i n i t i v e f o r m .

channel f o r teenagers. T e e n a g e r s w a n t t o

1

Do you p r o m i s e

to" t i d y

be/being

d i f f e r e n t , so a d i f f e r e n t channel is a g o o d idea. T V is a

your r o o m this weekend

I've always w a n t e d

g r e a t w a y o f learning. Teenagers can learn to /understanding

e n o u g h channels already. I w o u l d n ' t like to

see/seeing

one more.' Erica s a i d , ' W e are p l a n n i n g to

show/showing

9

please (open)? It's t o o h o t here.

w

at h o m e all day (be).

5 Philip refused

t h e f i r s t p r o g r a m m e o n t h i s n e w channel next spring.'

t o m y advice (listen).

6 Did the h o t e l offer

y o u r r o o m (change)?

7 Children love

t o t h e circus (go).

8 We don't need

the w o r l d through television.' W h a t do

t e e n a g e r s t h i n k ? Emily, 1 3 , said,'It's a bad idea. W e have

the window,

4 Dogs d o n ' t e n j o y

D

C o m p l e t e t h e e m a i l w i t h t h e verbs f r o m t h e box. The v e r b s s h o u l d be -ing or t o - i n f i n i t i v e f o r m s .

an u m b r e l l a w i t h us (take). t o o many sweet things (eat).

10 The workers f i n i s h e d

understand

8

a d o g (have).

3 Would you m i n d

9 You should avoid

a special

6

7

(tidy)? 2

Erica suggests to create/creating

buy

t h e house (paint).

complain

study

teach

get

hear

learn

listen

spend

write

Rewrite t h e s e s e n t e n c e s u s i n g t h e c o r r e c t f o r m s o f like and would like.

To: i.smith@superlingo.net

1 Do you w a n t a banana? fcfotfUjMt. tike a

I want

ba.tuw.aj

decided

2 I enjoy playing t e n n i s .

^0 COmpUtn

1

Arabic very quickly for a business trip. You

3

promised 3 My dream is t o be a chef.

about Super Lingo. My wife and I Super Lingo because we needed

2

us Arabic in two weeks. We started

4

a month ago and finished

5

to all the CDs last week. And now? We know nothing! Super Lingo is useless! The course was very difficult and boring. We certainly didn't enjoy hours translating poems from Arabic into English. 6

4 Do you w a n t t o see m y paintings?

7

5 Going t o t h e t h e a t r e is i n t e r e s t i n g f o r us.

I was very angry, so my wife suggested 6 Can I get y o u a drink?

this

email to you. Please give us back our money immediately; we'd like it this week. We hope from you soon.

1 0

C Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n .

Jane & Peter Stevens

[

Most teenagers like spend/spending

I

of the TV, b u t is t h i s a g o o d t h i n g ? Is T V j u s t a w a y o f

I

avoiding to do/doing

1

t i m e in f r o n t

s o m e t h i n g m o r e useful? S o m e

2

people think t h a t m o s t T V p r o g r a m m e s are n o t r i g h t for teenagers. Teenagers need t o have/having

better

3

^hi^ouMiot^^

programmes,' agrees T V p r o d u c e r Erica J o h n s o n . ' O u r TV company promises r o make/making

programmes w h i c h teenagers w i l l e n j o y to 5

t r u e sentences

a b o u t y o u r s e l f u s i n g t h e v e r b s o n page 9 2 .

educational

4

watch/

Examples:

(want to be a doctor, My ancle tides skiing very mack. •••••••••••••• •• I t t M M K I I M I I H I I I I

J^^M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^afi^^^^^^^^^^^^^^m^m^^^^^

Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1 If you w a n t t o learn a language, y o u need 2 I've 3 I

t o learn Russian. s t u d y i n g every day.

f o r years and years.

a finished

b decided

a don't mind

b don't want

4 The Super Lingo! system d i d n ' t w o r k , b u t t h e y refused 5

like t o buy m y Super Lingo! system?

a study

b studying

c d o n ' t need

m e m y m o n e y back.

a Do you would

b You w o u l d

a t o give

b t o gave

c giving

c W o u l d you 3

• •••• i

c t o study

c enjoyed

S 1? £ B

e

°il

3

T : S J 3 M S U E ilS9j_A\A/

• ••••»

V e r b + -ing o r v e r b + t o - i n f i n i t i v e ; like a n d would

like

93


39

State verbs Imagine a story.

D o y o u k n o w t h a t y o u r b r a i n is a c t u a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o t w o halves ? Scientists t o d a y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t w o halves o f y o u r b r a i n have different f u n c t i o n s . W h e n y o u r e m e m b e r t h i n g s l i k e w o r d s , n u m b e r s o r lists, y o u

» LEFT

are exercising t h e left side o f y o u r b r a i n . W h e n y o u

:

see c o l o u r s , h e a r t h e r h y t h m i n y o u r f a v o u r i t e

w

\

s o n g o r i m a g i n e a story, y o u are u s i n g t h e r i g h t

o

r

d

RIGHT colours

s

numbers

rhythm

lists

imagination!

side o f y o u r b r a i n . W h e n y o u are u s i n g o n l y o n e side o f y o u r b r a i n , i t is s i m i l a r t o w a l k i n g o n o n l y o n e leg. I t seems l e a r n i n g is easier w h e n y o u use b o t h sides o f y o u r b r a i n .

T r u e o r False? T h e l e f t a n d r i g h t s i d e s o f t h e b r a i n a r e t h e same. as)E-j :JSMSUV

State verbs 1

S t a t e v e r b s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e a s t a t e a n d n o t an a c t i o n . W e u s u a l l y

S o m e c o m m o n s t a t e v e r b s can have a

use t h e m in t h e s i m p l e f o r m , n o t t h e c o n t i n u o u s . When you see colours...

N O T When you are

continuous f o r m w i t h a different meaning.

seeing...

He has two brothers,

O t h e r state verbs include: verbs o f t h i n k i n g and k n o w i n g forget

He is having

verbs o f t h e senses

verbs o f feeling

verbs o f

feel

believe

belong own

a good holiday, (activity)

That cake looks nice, (state verb = seem)

possession

I'm looking

at these photos,

(activity)

imagine

hear

doubt

know

see

feel

/ think it's a great idea, (state verb = have the | opinion)

mean

smell

hate

I'm thinking

realise

sound

like

recognise

taste

love

remember

prefer

understand

want

appear

smell, hear, taste) I can smell

be seem

He can't agree promise

contain

depend

fit

need

include

about

tomorrow,

(activity)

W e o f t e n use t h e v e r b s o f sense (see,

other

94

(state verb = own /

possess)

• •

w i t h can.

coffee.

hear

you.

See Unit 20 f o r more information on can. See Unit 28 f o r more information on verbs of t h e senses.


Practice A Match t h e b e g i n n i n g s t o t h e c o r r e c t e n d i n g s [ 1 Humans h a v e — —

t h e brain has t w o halves,

I 2 The brain is

colours.

!

3 The left and r i g h t sides o f t h e brain have

oxygen t o survive.

4 Scientists t h i n k

7 5 % water,

I

5 The brain needs

w o r d s and numbers,

|

6 With the right side o f t h e brain, y o u see

d i f f e r e n t ways o f w o r k i n g , a very c o m p l e x b r a i n .

I 7 With the left side o f t h e brain, y o u recognise B Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1 I promise/am

promising

it

meaning?

3 I saw your d a u g h t e r yesterday. She's growing/grows 4 I disagree/am

/

I w o n ' t t e l l anyone.

2 I don't k n o w this w o r d . W h a t does it mean/is disagreeing

u p fast.

c o m p l e t e l y w i t h w h a t y o u are saying.

I 5 Don't talk t o D a d . He watches/is

watching

6 My parents don't understand/are

Use your imagination t o answer t h e questions w i t h f u l l s e n t e n c e s in y o u r n o t e b o o k . U s e y o u r o w n ideas o r w o r d s f r o m t h e box.

TV!

not understanding

why I

alone

want t o stop piano lessons. I 7 Doyou remember/Areyou 8 Do computers

remembering

become/Are

t h a t day w e spent in Capri?

computers

becoming

more difficult

birds

flowers

frightened

insects

nothing

sweet

to use?

bitter

d r y sand hard

excited

the horizon

smooth

soft

the wind

9 It seems /It's seeming a shame n o t t o go. 110 I don't doubt/am II

not doubting

t h a t y o u are r i g h t .

Are you O K ? Y o u don't listen/are

112 He believes/is

believing

not listening

You are in the PffffH.

t o me.

J-_-H-__N

e v e r y t h i n g she says.

1

Do these sentences d e s c r i b e s t a t e s o r a c t i v i t i e s ? C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m s o f t h e v e r b s in b r a c k e t s . 1 We

ttont

dave

2

W h a t can y o u smell?

3

W h a t can y o u hear?

very m u c h m o n e y , (have)

You pick an exotic

2 A: Hi, Stan. Y o u l o o k w o r r i e d ! B: I

a b o u t t o m o r r o w ' s m e e t i n g - t h a t ' s all. (think)

3 Where is Carlo? He

a shower, (have)

4 That f o o d

4

W h a t does i t f e e l like?

5

H o w does i t taste?

great, (look)

5 They

t h e p a r t y is a g o o d idea, ( n o t t h i n k )

7 What

you

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

at? (look)

_

_

_

_

_

_

—.

_

fruit.

You are in the

a baby. He is six m o n t h s o l d . (have)

6 My dad

[ (eel ejcctted.

H o w do you feel?

_

_

W h a t can y o u smell?

7

W h a t can y o u hear?

8

W h a t can y o u see?

9

H o w do y o u feel?

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . 1 This song

really b e a u t i f u l . W h o is t h e singer?

2 A: You're using t h e w r o n g side o f y o u r brain. a I don't understand

b I'm n o t u n d e r s t a n d

3 A: You're very q u i e t , T o m .

B:Yes,sorry.

4 It's very noisy here, and

you.

b T h a t means

b sounding

c sounds

c I'm n o t u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t m y holiday.

a I'm n o t h e a r i n g

5 You're very g o o d w i t h colours and stories. a That's mean

a is s o u n d i n g

B: Sorry. a I think

b I d o n ' t hear

b I'mthinking

c I'mthink

c I can't hear

you're p r o b a b l y using t h e r i g h t side o f y o u r b r a i n ,

c That's m e a n i n g IS V K Z T J

• •••

e

J

:SJ3MSUE

iisax Ayv

S t a t e verbs 95


A

M a t c h t h e sentence beginnings t o t h e correct endings.

1 2

He used t o play t h e v i