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Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world. www.pearsonlongman.com Š Pearson Education Limited 2010 The rights of Virginia Evans and Jenny Dooley to be identified as authors of this Work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers. First published 2010 Fourth impression 2011 Printed in Slovakia by Neografia SWTC/03 ISBN 978-1-4058-8893-6 (book) ISBN 978-1-4082-3497-6 (pack)


...........~

....,'A.:...~~'" ,., . h Grammar Practice

'-"-

Eng IS

Contents Present Simple - Present Continuous ..... 3

Progress Check 6 ........................ .......... 121

2 Past Simple - Present Perfect ............... 14

13 Conditionals ........................................... 124

Progress Check 1 .................................... 24

14 Wishes .................................................... 133

3 Adjectives - Adverbs Comparisons ............................................ 27 4 'Will' - 'Be going to' Future Continuous ................................... 40 Progress Check 2 .................................... 51 5 Present Perfect Continuous ..................... 54 6 Past Continuous - Was going to -

Progress Check 7 .................................. 139 15 Relatives............. ............................... ..... 142 16 Reported Speech ................................... 149 Progress Check 8 .................................. 159 17 Prepositions - Linking Words ............... 162 18 Articles .................................................... 170 Progress Check 9 .................................. 176

Used to - Be/Get used to ...................... 59 Progress Check 3 .................................... 66 7 Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both - Neither / Possessives ................. 69 8 Past Perfect .............................................. 77 Progress Check 4 ..................................... 83 9 Functions of Modal Verbs ........................ 86 10 Questions - Question Words -

Revision Revision 1 (Units Revision 2 (Units Revision 3 (Units . Revision 4 (Units

1-2) ............................ 179 1-4) ............................ 182 1-6) ............................ 185 1-8) ............................ 188

Revision 5 (Units 1-10) .......................... 191 Revision 6 (Units 1-12) .......................... 194 Revision 7 (Units 1-14) .......................... 197

Question Tags .......................................... 97

Revision 8 (Units 1-16) .......................... 200

Progress Check 5 ................................... 103

Revision 9 (Units 1-18) .......................... 203

+ verb) Gerund (verb + -ing) ............................. 106

Word List ................................................ 206

11 Infinitive (to

12 The Passive ............................................ 113

Irregular Verbs


Introduction New Round-Up 4 English Grammar Practice combines games and fun with serious, systematic grammar practice. It is ideal for young learners in the preliminary stages of English language learning. Students see grammar points clearly presented in colourful boxes and tables. They practise grammar through lively, highly illustrated games and oral and writing activities. New Round-Up is especially designed for different students studying English in different ways. It can be used: • in class with a coursebook. Students do both oral work - in pairs and in groups - and written work in New Round-Up. • after class. The 'write-in ' activities are ideal for homework. Students can practise what they have learned in the classroom. • on holidays for revision. New Round-Up has clear instructions and simple grammar boxes, so students can study at home without a teacher. The New Round-Up Teacher's Guide includes a full answer key, quizzes, tests plus answer keys, and audio scripts of progress check listening tasks.


Present Simple - Present Continuous

Q

o

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

I know that Mum but Dad eaye it'e raining cate ~~~~~~~~~~~~"' and doge today and I want to catch a little Present Simple is used:

Present Continuous is used: . l

for permanent situations. She works in an office.

for temporary situations. He's looking for a new job these days.

for repeated or habitual actions in the present, especially with adverbs of frequency. He often buys her flowers.

for actions happening at or around I the time of speaking. Chris is painting the garage at the moment.

for general truths and laws of nature. The Sun sets in the west.

with a/ways to express annoyance or criticism. He's always telling lies!

for fixed arrangements in the near future. I'm flying to London tomorrow. (It's all arranged. I've already bought the tickets. The time of the action is always stated or understood.)

for timetables or programmes. The lesson starts at 10 o'clock.

Time Expressions with the present simple

I

Time Expressions with the present continuous

II

usually, always, never, often, sometimes, every day / now, at the moment, at present, this week / week / month / year, on Mondays / Tuesdays, in the month, these days, today, tonight, morning / afternoon / evening, at night / the weekend , tomorrow, next week, etc. etc.

Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of frequency (often, always, usually, sometimes, rarely / seldom, never, etc.) are placed before main verbs but after auxiliary / modal verbs (be, have, can, will, must, shall, etc.) . He often goes to the theatre. He is never late. Tonia doesn't usually go to bed late.


o

Present Simple - Present Continuous

Write the verbs in the third person singular.

I miss - he mi;5~t;~.................. .

6 I call- he ..•..••••.••.•..............

2 I buy - she .••...................•.••

7 I go - he ..........•.....•.•......••. 8 I dry - she •••..•..........•......•... 9 I play - he .........••.••........•..•• 10 I see - he •.•....••••.•.•........•....

3 I carry - he ......•••..•.•••...••..... 4 I fix - he ..•..•.•............•.•.....•

5 I watch - she ...•.....••.....•........

Put the verbs in the correct colurim in the third person singular, then say.

matGA ~

baM

ring keep hit

/s/ after / f/, / k /, / p /, / t /

bakes,

teach rise care

eat arrive begin

/z/

/IZ/ after / s /,

If /, / U/, / d.3 /, / z I

matches,

take like sleep

cry lose choose

after other sounds

tries,

Look at the table, then ask and answer questions as in the example:

. .DQ~.S. .

Sally listen to music? . Y.e.q ;3.h~. d(J.e.~\

.............................. .

2

Sally read magazines? .................................•....•......•.

3 4 ........... .

Sally watch TV? . . . . . .. . ..............•............•..............•.

5

Henry & Ann read magazines? ...••.•................•.....•...•......

6

Henry & Ann watch TV? ..•.....•..............•...............•......

7 ........... .

you listen to music? ...............................................•.

8

. ? you rea d magazines . . ...........................•...................

9 ........... .

you watch TV? .....................................•..•..•...••••...

Henry & Ann listen to music? .........................•................

4


Present Simple - Present Continuous

o

Match the verb forms in the sentences (1-6) to the correct use (a-f).

1 She works in a bank. 2 They usually eat out on Saturdays. 3 Wool comes from sheep. 4 The Sun rises in the east. 5 The bus arrives at 5 o'clock. 6 The film starts in ten minutes.

a a general truth b a timetable c a permanent situation d a programme e a repeated or habitual action f a law of nature

a) Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple.

Jason is 12 years old and he 1) .... Ji.ve.s .... (live) in York. He 2) ................... (go) to school every day by bus. Jason's mother 3) ...••.••••••••••••• (teach) German at university and his father 4) ... .- ............... (work) in a bank. In his free time, Jason 5) ••.••••••••.•••...• (play) football with his friends. He 6) ••.••.•••••..•••••• (want) to be a football player when he grows up. At weekends, Jason 7) ••......•...••.......... (not/wake up) early. After lunch, he and his dad often 8) •..••••.•••••.••••• (play) board games or 9) .•..•.............• (ride) their bicycles. Later in the day, his mum usually 10) •.••.••••......•.•• (take) him to visit his best friend , Henry, and they 11) ••••••.•••..••.•••. (spend) the evening watching films. b) In pairs, ask and answer as in the example:

A: B:

• How. aId j~. Ja~oJ1? ............................ . . He'a .12 ~~ars. ald.. .Wh(;re. doe~. he. lLve.? . ...... .

A: . He . ljve~. itJ .York, . e.tc~ ......................... . Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple.

1 A: What •.• •doe.s .P.eter. do . ... (Peter/

do)? B: He ..................... (work) as a computer technician for LT &Company. 2 A: .•.••.••.•...•.•.•••• (your brother/ exercise)? B: Yes. He ..................... (go) jogging three times a week.

3 A: What time ••.••.••.•. (the play/start)? B: At 6 o'clock. We need to hurry! 4 A: How long .•••••.•••••• (koalas/live)? B: They •••.•.••. (live) for about 15 years. 5 A: My dad ................... (not/like) working out in the gym. B: Really? Mine ................. (love) weightlifting and using the pool.


o

Present Simple - Present Continuous

Complete the sentences in order to make the statements true. Use don't / doesn't where necessary. Compare with your partner. Rain •... f~Jls. .... (fall) from clouds. 2 Kangaroos ...••.••... (live) in Germany. 3 yoghurt .••..••.•.•• (come) from plants. c

4 Water •..••••.•.... (boil) at 100 C.

5 Sheep ••.........•• (eat) grass. 6 Tomatoes ••••••.••...• (grow) on trees. 7 Cows ............. (lay) eggs. 8 Plants ••..••....•• (need) water to grow.

Put the adverbs of frequency in the correct place in the sentences. Mark goes fishing with his grandfather. (rarely) • Mar.k rar.el;y. goef3. fi£i/:lir.Jg..

5 Does Layla read books in her free time? (usually) •..••.....•....••....•.•••.•

wLth .hLfi .qrandfather.: ............ . 2 I don't play basketball at weekends. (always) .....•.....•............... .

6 I meet my friends at the shopping centre. (sometimes) .•.•...•......••..•.••...

3 Does Fred help his mother with the housework? (often) .................. .

7 Sophie is at home on Sunday mornings. (always) ....•....•.........•........

4 Ivan is at work on time. (never) . . ....... .

8 They go to the theatre. (seldom) ..••••..

Fill in A (always), U (usually), 0 (often), 5 (sometimes), R (rarely) or N (never) to say how often you do these things at weekends. Then interview your partner and fill in his/her information. Ask and answer as in the example: Your partner get up early

N

clean your room surf the Net go to the cinema meet your friends A: Ho.w.often do.you get.up. ear.l;y. at .weeker.J~? .. . .. B: J.r.Jeye.r. get.up. ear.l¥, at .weeker.J~.. How. about ;jQI)f.


Present Simple - Present Continuous

o

QI Add -ing to the following verbs and put them into the correct column. Listen and check. Listen and repeat.

drive run

play swim

lie put

+ ing

read travel -ie --+ y

cycle die

+ ing

ride drink

write fly

take cut

sleep tie

double consonant + ing

-e --+ ing

playing,

Choose a verb from the list and complete the text.

read

lie

Laura 1)

eat

sing

run

play

fish

is s.itting under a sunshade. Two boys 2)

while their father 3) cream while their mother 5) 6) .................. . 8)

cry

.................. .

around a sand castle ice a newspaper. Two girls 4) . along with the radio. Some boys

football near a man who 7)

. . . . . . .. . .. .. .. .... . Jim

on a beach towel. On his right, a baby 9) .•.••.••...•••.••.••.. .

In pairs, ask and answer questions about the text above.

A: ls. Laura runnin0? ............. . B: No. s/:7e. isn.'t Shds sjttjng under a ~LJt1s.had~" ~tc.. 7

..


o

Present Simple - Present Continuous

Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. doing / homework / Betty and Ann / are /

I

5 next week / house / are / they / moving

their

Betty and Ann are doing their homework.

6 is / at / week / aunt's / staying / this / Beth /

her / house

2 children / TV / are / watching / the? 7 Lucy / tidying / not / room / now / her / is

.............

3 not / going / I / am / tonight / out 8 they / what / are / doing? 4 biting / you / always / nails / are / your!

I

••

••

:11

•••••••••••

. . . .. .. Look at the visual prompts. Complete the sentences using the verbs: go, have, visit, play.

SUNDAY 1:00 pm

~u~re InvlIfeJ!

MVM, I'M at l--avya'~ hov~e- with Ke-II~.

jane-

Event: Deborah's Sweet 16 Date: Saturday July 19th Time: 6:00 pm

~

Place: Applebee's

~

John. lY\eei: lY\e ctt the pctrk ctt 4-:00 plY\ this ctfternoon. ~o6

is pl.flying He on Sunday.

rugby at 1:00 pm

3 Deborah

a birthday

party on Saturday.

2 Jane and Kelly

4 Bob

Laura now.

to the

park this afternoon.

Answer the questions in the negative as in the example. Use your own ideas. Are you doing your homework?

I

4 Is your dad working on his laptop now?

NQ, i'm nat.. I'm wrjtitJ0 LtJ my djary.

5 Are your parents going to the cinema

2 Is your mother at the supermarket right now?

tonight? 6 Is your sister talking on her mobile right now?

3 Are you having a party on Saturday?

8


Present Simple - Present Continuous

o

Cathy wants to get fit, so she has decided to make some changes. Look at the pictures and tell your partner.

at lunchtime / eat burgers / have a salad C{3.thy ~.SU0J!y eats pLJrqe;rs ?It

2 after lunch / read comics / ride her bike

1L.1.t1t;;h.t.i(n:; PJJt today ~h.{( i;? h0 V in8 tJ saJ43Id. . ............... .

,

3 in the afternoon / eat chocolate / eat yoghurt

17

4 in the evening / watch TV / exercise at home

Work in pairs. Ask each other about your holiday arrangements. Talk about:

• where / go

• where / stay

• how / go • what time / (plane) leave

• why / want to go • take / camera-

• when / arrive

Where are; you ,going on hQliday? ....... . B: J'm going to RQme~ etc ........ .

A:

Choose a time expression from the list to complete each sentence. More than one answer is possible.

never every day

always now

tonight on Fridays

at the moment

eats meat. She's a She vegetarian. 2 Mother is reading the paper

4 She goes out on Saturdays. 5 He drives to work . ..... . 6 She is watching TV right . . .......•.• .

3 They are going to a party

7 Tim goes to the gym ........•.... . 9


o

Present Simple - Present Continuous

Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the present continuous.

A:

DQ you

w~nt (you/want) to come

4 A: Bob and Sophie

over tonight to play computer games? B: Sorry, I can't. I (go) to

(study) hard these days. ......... B: Yes, I know. They (want) to pass their exams. 5 A: I'm so happy Jim! My parents and I (go) on holiday next week.

the cinema with some friends from school. ........ (Ann/talk) 2 A: on the phone? B: No, she (do)

B: That's great! Where

her homework right now. 3 A: How often

...........

.......

(you/go)? 6 A: How long

(you/go)

swimming? B: Three times a week.

(it/take) to travel to London by plane? B: About three hours.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the present continuous or the present simple.

Hi Marvin, I 1) 'm writing

(write) this letter from Portugal. I (be) on holiday here with ••••. ••• (have) a

2) my family and we 3) great time. Right now, I 4) • • • . • • . . . • (lie) on the beach. My little brother 5) . • •• . •• •. . . (play) on the sand with his toys and my mother 6) (watch) him. My dad 7) (swim) in the sea. I just love it here. We 8) (get up) late every day and 9) (spend) most of our time sunbathing. This afternoon we 10) (go) into town to do a little sightseeing . Then my parents 11) (take) us to a nice restaurant. They 12) (want) us to try the local cuisine. I hope it tastes good! Well , that's all for now. See you when I get back! Take care, Wendy Complete the sentences so that they are true about you. hav~

breakfaet

2 My dad 3 My brother always

in the morning.

4 My parents . ....................

now.

the moment. 5 My friend 10

at

every day.


Present Simple - Present Continuous

0

Stative Verbs Some verbs rarely appear in the continuous tenses. These verbs express a permanent state and they are: appear (= seem), be, believe, belong, cost, feel , forget, hate, have (= possess), know, like, love, mean, need, prefer, realise, remember, see, seem, smell, sound, suppose, taste, think, understand, want, etc.

I understand it now. NOT I am l:IRderstaRdiRg it now. Some of these verbs can be used in continuous tenses but with a difference in meaning.

22

Present Simple

Present Continuous

I think he's Italian. (= believe) Katie looks happy. (= appears to be) You can see the sea from my room. (= it is visible) Derek has a new car. (= possesses) This pie tastes really good. (= it has a really good flavour) This new dress fits her perfectly. (= it is her size) He is so polite. (= that's his character) She appears to be tired. (= seems)

Tom is thinking of moving house. (= is considering) They are looking at the paintings. (= are taking a look at) Sam is seeing his friends tonight. (= is meeting) We are having dinner at 8 o'clock. (= are eating) Paul is tasting the soup to see if it needs salt. (= is trying) He is fitting a new lock on the door. (= is attaching) He is being so rude today! (= he is behaving like that only today) She is appearing in a new TV show. (= is taking part)

Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the present continuous.

13t<t; . . (see) you still have a 4 A: I ,, toothache. , B: Yes, I do. Actually, I . . . . . . . . . • •. . (see) my dentist later. 2 A: I . .. 5 (think) of visiting Jim this afternoon. B: Don't bother. I .. .. ....• I I

A: Why

(you/taste)

the sauce? Does it need more pepper? B: No. It . .. . . . . . . . .. ... . ..

I

...... (taste) great the way it is.

I

II

••••••••

I

••••••

• .••.••.•..• (you/smell) the milk? B: Because it ..•..•••.••...••••...•..

(smell) off. We should throw it away. 6 A: I see you ••.. ....• . .........••.. . •.... (have) a new mobile phone. B: Yes, but I ................... (have)

. • ••.. (think) he's on a business trip. 3 A: Why .....

A: Why

. ............ .

(Greg/be) so rude today? B: I have no idea. He . . •••• • •.••••••

trouble understanding how it works.

. • . • . . . • . . •• (be) usually very polite. 11

,


o

Present Simple - Present Continuous Use the verbs to complete the sentences. Use the present simple or the

present continuous.

fit appear

look

have

smell

think

pme.:

not/know

not/like

not/belong

prefers ... Aya to jazz and pop.

classical music

6 This isn't Ahmed 's coat. It

2 He

to him. nice.

7 The food

new cabinets in the kitchen.

8 The funfair rides are exciting. We a great time!

3 She

so relieved now that the test is over. 4 Tom

9

where Jane is at the moment. 10 The Browns

Indian food. It's too hot and spicy for him. 5 The new rock band on stage tonight.

•. •. •. ••

of going to the theatre tonight.

Underline the correct item.

The children are having / have so much fun at the circus! 2 Fiona is looking / looks at some photos. 3 This jacket is fitting / fits you perfectly. You should buy it.

4 Ron is wanting / wants to become a pilot. 5 I am not understanding / don't understand the meaning of that word. 6 He is loving / loves playing football. 7 I am thinking / think of buying a new CD.

Imagine you are at home. In teams, students ask you questions to find out where you are and what you are doing.

• kitchen. bathroom. bedroom. living room Team A S1: Are you in the living room? Leader: Yes, I am. Team A S2: Are you watching TV? Leader: No, I'm not, etc.

12


Present Simple - Present Continuous

0

(Talking about actions happening now) Look at the picture. Ask and answer questions as in the examples:

• look / map • feed / birds

• take / pictures • eat / sandwich

• look at / postcards • read / book

• drink / coffee

A: What's Mr Jones doing? B: He's looking at a map.

A: Is Andy reading a book? B: No, he isn't. He's taking pictures, etc.

Imagine you are on holiday. Complete the email below telling your English pen friend about your holiday.

Greetings from .••••••.....•••.. ! We're staying at The weather is ............................ . There isn't a cloud in the sky. Right now, I ..... .. .. .. .. .. .... . My parents ............ . and my late every day and .•..•..•..••....••..•... We In the evening, we or Tonight we We love it here. There is so much to see and do. See you in Yours,

13


Past Simple - Present Perfect I

QI Listen and repeat. Then act out.

I Present Perfect: have + past participle Past Simple is used: •

for actions which happened at a stated time in the past. He sold his car two weeks ago. (When? Two weeks ago.)

• to express a past state or habit. When he was young , he lived in a small flat.

for past actions which happened one after the other. She put on her coat, took her bag and left the house. for an action which happened in the past and cannot be repeated. I once spoke to Princess Diana. (I won't see her again; she's dead.)

Time adverbs and expressions used with the past simple yesterday, last week / month / year / Monday, etc., ago, how long ago, just now, then, when, in 2000, etc.

Present Perfect is used: • for actions which happened at an unstated time in the past. He has sold his car. (When? We don't know.) • to express actions which have finished so recently that there's evidence in the present. He has just painted the room. (The paint is wet.) • to talk about experiences . He has tried skydiving. •

for actions which started in the past and continue up to the present. She has lived in this house for two years. (She still lives in this house.) BUT He lived in Australia for one year. (He doesn't live in Australia now.)

for an action which happened in the past and may be repeated. I've met Leona Lewis. (I may meet her again; she's still alive.)

Time adverbs and expressions used with the present perfect just, ever, never, always, already, yet, for, since, so far, how long, lately, recently, today, this week / month / year, once, several times, etc.


Past Simple - Present Perfect Note: Since is used to express a starting point. I've known Ann since October.

Already is used in statements and questions. I've already posted the letters.

For is used to express a period of time. I've known Mary for two months.

Just + present perfect I've just called the doctor.

Yet is used in questions and negations. Have you met him yet? I haven't met him yet.

Just now + past simple He left just now.

Add -(e)d to the verbs and put them in the correct column.

GPJ

I:late

fry

type

destroy

beg

play

enjoy

stay

taste

dance

plan

pray

try

study

empty

stop

prefer

like

annoy

phone

tip

travel

tidy

-e

--t

+ -d

double consonant

hated,

+ -ed

+ y --t -ied

cried,

stopped,

Q

consonant

+ -y --t -ed stayed, vowel

Add -(e)d to the verbs and put them in the correct column. Listen and

check. Listen and repeat.

aQQ

wash

help

plan

love

laugh

open work

rain

want

marry

end

hope

need

count

close

invite

kiss

l Id I after It I,

added,

IdI

ItI after I k I, I s I, I ij I, I f I, I p I, II I worked,

I dl after other sounds

opened,

.

,


Past Simple - Present Perfect Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the past simple. Then choose the right answer.

~ It .•..•• W~p' •••••• •• (be) a dinosaur.

[II] [TI] [I[J

He ................. (paint) the Mona Usa. He .................. (write) Hamlet. They .................. (be) from Scandinavia.

I 5 I I He .................. (invent) the telephone. []I] They .................. (make) their first flight

c Pierre and Marie Curie d William Shakespeare e Tyrannosaurus Rex

at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

I7 I

He .................. (become) the first astronaut to travel to outer space.

18 I I It .................. (begin) in 1939. [I[J They .•••.••••••••.••.• (discover) polonium and radium.

a Alexander Graham Bell b The Wright brothers

f Yuri Gagarin g The Vikings h Leonardo da Vinci World War"

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the past simple as in the example:

1 A: What 1) .. .. did.yOU dQ .... (you/do) last night? B: I 2) .............................. . (go) to the cinema. A: What film 3) ..•.•....•.•.....•••.•• (you/see)? B: The Pink Panther II.

3 A: I 1) ....•.......•••.•.....•........

2 A: Why 1) .•••.•••••••••...•••••••.••

(you/spend) your summer holidays? B: We 2) ................••.••••....•

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (not/Emily/come) to Terry's party yesterday? B: She 2) ....•.•.............•......•

(have) to study for an exam.

(read) the book you 2) ••••••••••.••• (give) me about dinosaurs. B: 3) .................... (you/like) it? A: Yes. It 4) .•••.••.•.••.••••••.•••••. (be) very interesting. 4 A: Where 1) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••

(go) to Jamaica. A: Really? What 3) (it/be) like? B: Great!


0

Past Simple - Present Perfect

Use the past simple form of the verbs in the list to fill in the gaps in the following sentences. Which sentences refer to: • actions which happened at a specific time in the past • past habits • people who are no longer alive • actions which happened one after the other in the past play

be

spend

walk

buy

Shelly .•• ~fil.J~ht. ... the bus to school yesterday. . fic<tia 0. ~h ic.h .htii p.r;~f:1.e.cj . .Qt. ~. p.(J.~~jfic. tj m~. in .t.0~. Pfif7t. ...

4 Mark and his band ............... at the

2 Heath Ledger ................ a talented actor . ............................... .

5 My father .............. every summer in

3 They left the cinema and ............... . to the train station . •.•••.....••.•.......

6 Larry ................. computer games yesterday afternoon. . ........••..•....•

concert hall last Saturday ....•••••.•.••..

the countryside when he was a boy . •.....

James is in Monaco with his family. Write what he has or hasn't done. • visit the OceaRographic Museum ~ • take lots of photos I • see the Opera de Monte-Carlo X. buy souvenirs for his friends X • visit the Prince's Palace X • walk along the harbour ~

. J,qm~;;. M~. vlf7it.~d. the: .oce,q(1{J.gr.tiiphic. M.f..if7~J).m........................... . 2 ............ 3 ...... It

II

••

It

It

It

It

It

•••••••••

It

It

•••••••••••••

It

••••••••••••••••••••••

It

It

It

It

••••••••••••

It

••••••••••••••••••••••••

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

4 •••••.•.......••••••...•••.......•..•...

It

It

••••••••••••••••

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

5 6

'ti

In pairs, ask and answer about Anna and yourself as in the example: meet a famous erson never

once

several times

A: . )jti~. I.VJ(1f3.

recently

.e.V.e:r. .me:t .Q.fQmo.f..if7 .p~r;5.Qt1? ............... . B: . .t:-J,P". ~he: .htii;5. ne:\!~r . 1J1~t. tii. ftiiJt1{J.LJ~. p.e.r.~Qn ............. .

~

17

~

many times

,


e r.:'

Past Simple - Present Perfect

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

have gone to / have been to / have been in He's gone to London. (He hasn't come back yet. He is still in London.) He's been to Paris once. (He's visited Paris. He's back now.) (Present Perfect of the verb 'to go') I've been in Athens for a month. (I am in Athens.) (Present Perfect of the verb 'to be')

Fill in the gaps with: has / have gone to, has / have been to or has / have been in.

You can't see Tom before Wednesday. He •••• h~if3. 6.Qt:JC. tOo .... Denmark for a few days on business. 2 My sister •.••••.••••••••.••....•..•.......••. Bristol for two months now. 3 Wendy isn't here at the moment. She ...••••••••.•..••.••..........•.• the supermarket to buy some milk and eggs. 4 The Miltons •.••.•..•.•.•.•••.•..•.............. Sweden twice. 5 Greg and Terry .................................... the park to play football. They'll be back by 6 o'clock. 6 Jenny's brother .••.•.••.•••.•••••••.•....•...•..... hospital since Monday. 7 ..•.....•..•.....•.•.•.•.••. you ever • . . . . . • • • • • • • • • • • . • . • • • • . • .. the opera? 8 Jim .................................... the cinema. He left an hour ago. Fill in: since, for, already, just or yet.

John has •• JWf3.t .• finished his homework.

4 We've lived here •..••.••••••• ten years. 5 He's ••••••••.•• come back from jogging

His books are still on the table. 2 I haven't seen Sarah ............. 2007. 3 They haven't bought the tickets for the concert . • • • •• •• .• •• •. .

~

and he's a bit tired. 6 We've •......••••• seen that film. Can we watch something else? 18

~


Past Simple - Present Perfect

0

Write sentences about yourself. Use the present perfect.

not play tennis since ... . J . b0.v~tJ:t~ p.1t\Yt;d. tt;,.nt;1i~ . ~itJ(;~.... .

4 know my best friend since .. .

. J~P.t .vy~t;,.k~t;1d...................... .

5 not go to the cinema for ...

2 live here for ... 6 not invite friends over since ...

3 have my pet dog for .. .

Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the past simple.

1 Victoria Falls .•. .h?p. p'~f(r. ... (be) a popular ~=-i1iiiiji)'1 . tourist attraction for many years. 2 In 1855, David Livingstone, a Scottish explorer, ....................... (name) the falls after Queen Victoria. 3 The African government ........................ (open) two national parks near the falls to protect wild animals. 4 The Victoria Falls Bridge is one of the most famous bridges in the world. It ................. (take) just 14 months to build and ................... (be) ready in April, 1905. 5 Over 50,000 people .•.••••.••••..• •• (try) bungee jumping off the Victoria Falls Bridge so far. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the past simple.

A: .. J:fa'.(t; .yOU ~.v~r. .b.~t;t:1• •••••••••.

4 A: I ....................... (go) to the

(you/ever/go) to India? B: Yes, I .••••.....•.................

new cinema yesterday. B: It's nice, isn't it? I ................. .. . ............. (go) there a few times. 5 A: I . ............................... .

(go) there last summer. 2 A: ................................ . . (you/speak) to Chloe? B: No, she .......................... . (go) to the post office. She .•..•..•.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (not/come) back yet. 3 A: ................................. . (you/ever/eat) Mexican food? 8: Ye~ , I .........................

(try) it for the first time last week.

II.

. ....... (not/see) Sam for a long time. B: Really? He ....................... . (be) at the swimming pool this morning . 6 A: ................................. . (you/do) your project, Chris? B: Yes, Mum. I ...................... . .. .. .. .. . .. ... (finish) it an hour ago.

,


o

Past Simple - Present Perfect

Fill in the gaps with time adverbs or expressions from the list below:

ago

how long

for

so far

just

since (x2)

how long ago yet

They got married a month .... jJ{J9• •••• . 2 He hasn't called us ........•...•...•. . 3 I've had this car ...............• a year. 4 Tim isn't here. He's ..•...•....•.••. : ..

ever

already

just now

8 I've studied Maths ...•....••.••. 2006. 9 I've ................. been to that new restaurant. It's really nice. 10 ............... did he move house? 11 The boss came ..•..•...•........•.• .

gone out. 5 She's typed three letters ...........•.. . 6 Has Camila .....•......... lied to you? 7 .............•. have you been in Rome?

12 Peter has been here 5 o'clock.

Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the past simple.

Hi, Sarah. 11) •.. rfi.'{t(rJ. f?~kl'] ••. (not/see) you for a long time. Where 2) .................. (you/be)? B: I 3) .................... (go) to China to teach English. A: Wow! How 4) .................... (be) it? B: Very nice! I 5) ................... (stay) in Beijing and 6) ..••••.•••••.•••••.••.••••••. (teach) eight-year-old children. A: How 7) •• • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • .• (you/find) teaching them? B: Great! The children 8) ...•...•.••••••••••• (be) clever and 9) •••••••••.•..••••• (learn) very quickly. What 10) .•••••••••••••••......•••••.. (you/be) up to? A: Nothing as interesting as that! I 11) . . . . . . . • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • •. Oust/finish) my exams. B: That's good. Do you have any plans for the summer? A: Yes, 112) ............................. (buy) a ticket to Italy. I'm planning to stay with my cousin, Sabrina, for a month. B: That's great! Sabrina is a lot of fun. I'm sure you'll have a great time. Don't forget to send me a postcard. A: Okay! Take care. Speak to you when I get back.

~

20

~


Past Simple - Present Perfect In pairs, act out dialogues as in the example'

meet a politician (who)

go to the USA (where)

travel by plane (when)

5~

be In

hosp~al

(why)

A:

. Hql(~.y(JJ-l ~v;~r. .b.~~n t,q .t.b~. (J.~A?

A:

. Wb~r:e. did .)CQ~. 0P.? . ............. .

B:

. Y~P.. .I. b~v.~ . ...................... .

B:

. , .w~nt. .t.Q .t;Jt,V'I. Y9rl<~ ............. .

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the present perfect.

A:

Last night I •••• .~~W . .... (see) the latest James Bond film.

B: Oh, I ...........•••.•.....••••...•.••. (already/see) it twice.

2

A:

Do you know that Mrs Jones •............................... (work) here for sixteen years?

B: I thought she ......•.......................... (start) working here ten years ago.

3 A: ................................................. (you/ever/meet) anyone famous? B: Yes, last summer I .................................... (sit) next to Brad Pitt on a plane to LA. 4 A: How long ago .•.................................. (you/start) painting? B: Ten years ago. I .••••.•...•.••.•.......•.........••• (recently/complete) a painting that the National Gallery .....•.......... : .................. (ask) me to do a year ago.

Write sentences about yourself. Use: last weekend, since, for, yesterday, never, on Thursday. 1 • J.went .camp.ing .Ia.~t . we~k~t:1d. ............................................... .

2 .......................... 3 ................................................................................ . I

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

4 ..•••........••.•.•••••.••.••.••.......••..........•....••..•.••.•.••..•.•••.••.•

5 ..... ........................................................................... . 6 ............. " .................................................................. . '


Past Simple - Present Perfect Circle the mistake (A or B), then correct it.

... did ...

Frank has done his homework and then listened to music.

®

B

2 The children have put away their toys but they didn't make their beds yet.

A

B

3 Jim learned a lot since he started the language course.

A

B

4 Fatima has finished her lunch and then she went out to play.

A

B

5 They haven't seen each other since September when they have met

A

B

at Mary's party. 6 Ryan has bought a new MP3 player yesterday but I haven't seen it yet.

A

B

7 The hockey player hit his head on Friday and he was in hospital since then.

A

B

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the present perfect.

Dear Tina, Hi! How are you? I'm having such a great time here in Singapore. The city is so clean and the people are very kind and helpful! We 1) ••• •Q~.v.t{, P-t}yt1. ... (be) here for three days now and we 2) •......•.•..•..•......... (do) something different each day. On Monday, we 3) ........•....•••.•.•••.•.• (go) to the shops in Singapore's Chinatown. I 4) ..•••••..•.•••••.••...••. (buy) souvenirs for my friends and some CDs for me. On Tuesday, we

5) .............................. (go) on a riverboat tour on the Singapore River. It 6) .............................. (be) fantastic! Yesterday, we 7) .•••••.. . . • • • . •• •• . . . • . .. . . .• . .. (visit) Singapore Botanic Gardens. We 8) ................................ (see) many beautiful, exotic flowers and plants. There are still a couple of things we 9) ....•.••..••...•...........•.••• (not/do) yet. We 10) ........ .. .. .. .. • .. . .. .. . .. .. ... (not/visit) the Jurong Bird Park yet and we 11) ..... ...... .. .... ............... (not/go) to the Singapore Zoo. We're going there tomorrow. I can 't wait to see the white Bengal tigers! Singapore is a beautiful city! I 12) ................................ (already/take) so many lovely photographs and I can 't wait for you to see them when I get back. See you next week. Lots of love, May _ _

----~_:;:-i~~-----~~~~ ~

22

~


Past Simple - Present Perfect

0

Speaking Activity (Asking about experiences)

In pairs, ask and answer questions using the ideas below as in the example: • • • • •

ride a camel fly in a helicopter sleep in a tent go scuba diving win a competition

A: Have you ever ridden a camel? B: No, I haven't. Have you?

• see a famous person • be on TV • try sushi • cook pasta

A: Yes, I have. B: Really? When was that? A: Last summer, etc.

0

Imagine you are in Disneyland. Complete the postcard below telling your English pen friend about your experiences. Use the phrases in the list. • ride on roller coaster

• visit haunted house • meet Mickey Mouse / shake his hand

• go on big wheel • buy souvenirs Dear ........................................ ,

I'm great! I'm having lots of fun with my family here in Disneyland. We've been here since Monday and so far we've done a lot of things. We ............................................................................................................... . Yesterday, I ........•....••..••••..•••••.•....•.....•..... . It was very exciting! There are still a couple of things we haven't done yet. We •..•..••. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... and ............................................ . But it's only Thursday and there is still plenty of time. Well, that's all for now . .. .. , ..................... .

.

~

23

~

D

,


Progress Check 1 (Units 1-2J Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the present continuous.

Hi Isabel, I'm in the beautiful city of Oxford. 11) . ;J/J1 .f7tudyln@ .. (study) German and Russian at the university here. 12) .......••...•.•••. (find) both languages interesting but German 3) •............•. (be) more difficult. All the other students on the course 4) •.•.....•....... (feel) the same way, too. We 5) ...•..... : ...•... (meet) once a week to discuss the lectures. This week, we 6) .•.••.••.•.•••.... (go) to the theatre in London to see a play. I 7) ....•••.•••.••••.••••• (stay) on the campus for the moment but a few of us 8) .....••..........••..•............ (look) for a house to share. The food in the halls 9) ........•••.....•.•.•. (not/be) very good, so we usually 10) .................... .. (have) lunch at a restaurant nearby. I' hope to hear from you soon. Take care, Bill Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the present perfect.

A: When •.....• cUd.yau .mQV~ . ...... (you/move) house, David? B: Three days ago but I ............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (not/unpack) yet.

4 A: How long

........................

(you/live) in America?

B: I . ............................... (come) here in 2004. 5 A: ................................. (you/type) the letters yet? B: Yes, I ............................ (finish) them half an hour ago and ....

2 A: Do you like Chinese food? B: Actually, I •.•.........•........•... (never/try) it.

3 A: I ................................ (just/finish) my essay. B: Really? I ......................•... (write) mine yesterday evening.

................................. (give) them to Mr Harris.

Fill in: has / have been in / to, has / have gone to.

A: . H~.v;e. Y.Qt.JJ~V~r. P~e.IJ . t9. France?

3 A: How long Mexico? B: For nearly three years. 4 A: Do you know where Mum is? B: I think she ........................ . the post office to get some stamps.

B: No, I haven't but I'd like to go one day. 2 A: I'm afraid Sue and Pam can 't come with us. They want to visit their grandmother. B: She ...•.....•............•.....•. hospital for a long time, hasn't she? 24


Progress Check 1 Fill in: yet, already, just, ago, yesterday, since , for, always, ever, how long or so far. 6 Jane has worked at this company •••..•••••••••......• six years. 7 • • . . . • • • • • • • • • . . . . • •• have you known

Is it really a year •••. .~iflC;~• •••• we last went on holiday? 2 I have ..................... finished my

Petra and Charlie? 8 Olga woke up at 10 o'clock ............. . 9 He hasn't telephoned me .............. . 10 I have . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wanted to

homework. I finished it two minutes ago. 3 Paul and Layla have visited three art galleries ........... 4 Shakespeare was born over four hundred I

••

travel abroad.

years ..................... . 5 We have ...................... been to Canada so we are going to the USA this summer.

11 Have you ...•..•••..•••••..••• been to Disneyland?

"

Choose the correct item. 1 What are you cooking? It .....• very nice! A is smelling @ smells 2 The stars •.••.. at night. A are shining B shines

C smelt

: 10 The Sun ...•.. in the east. A is rising B rise Crises 11 Tina is happy because she ...... her I

I

I I

I

C shine

exams. A passes

3 A: Do you play basketball at weekends? B: Yes, I ~ ..... do. A never B often C seldom 4 . . . . .• you go to the party yesterday? B Do A Did C Does

B has passed C have passed 12 This apple pie •..•.. delicious! A taste B tastes C is tasting 13 A: Do you listen to the radio? B: Yes, I ...... do. A never B seldom C sometimes 14 Tommy usually •...•. his homework after lunch.

5 The next show •..••• at 8:30 pm. A starting B starts C start 6 We left the concert hall three hours •..... . A before Blast C ago A do B does C doing 7 Have you ever •...•. to Egypt? : 15 How long ...... you lived here? A be B been C gone A are B were C have 8 George .....• a bath at the moment. 16 Did you ..•..• Madame Tussauds while in A is having B has C have London? 9 I ..• '... of buying a new car. A visiting B visits C visit A think B am thinking C thinks I

25


Progress Check 1 Put the words in the correct order to make sentences.

4 rarely / he / at night / goes out

never / he / his wife's birthday / forgets · He.r,J~.vt{r. fo.r.gc:tfJ. hjfJ. w.ife:~ ..... .

· bjrth.d~y. ........................ . 5 can't / always / you / want / get / what / you

2 usually / she / wake up / early / doesn't

. . ·.................................. 6 beat / James / never / at tennis / can / I

3 always / he / has / to travel abroad / wanted

Q

Listen and tick (v') the correct box.

o What is Tony doing now?

3 What did Adam buy?

1 What time does the bus arrive?

4 What was the weather like?

2 What has the boy ordered?

5 What pets has Daniel got?

26


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons

Q,

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

, Adjectives describe nouns. Adjectives have the same form in both singular and plural number. They normally come before nouns and after the verb 'to be'. She's got three lovely children. That car is fast. (What kind of car is it? A fast one.) Adverbs describe verbs. They can describe how (adverbs of manner), where (adverbs of place), when (adverbs of time) or how often (adverbs of frequency) something happens. He drives carefully. (How does he drive? Carefully.) We usually form an adverb by adding -Iy to an adjective. slow-slowly Some adverbs are the same as their adjectives: hard, fast, early, daily, late, monthly. He runs fast. He is a fast runner. Some adverbs are irregular. good - well He's a good singer. He sings w~lI .

Write the correct adverb.

-+-Iy

consonant

-Ie -+ -Iy

+ y -+ -ily

wide ...... . wide./y....... possible . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .. .. busy ............................................ calm " ...................................... simple .............................................. heavy .......•........•.... sad . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. terrible ............................................ happy ....•................

~

27

~


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons

Put the words from the list below into the correct column.

early easily noisy

bad fasI aAg~ily

quick quietly daily

Adjectives

hard late large

tidy carelessly slowly

Adverbs

monthly careful happily

Adjectives &Adverbs

_ _---'L_ __

PAt;:!" ..••••••.••••••••••••. .t3i t:J ~r.i {)(,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .t~~t., ........... ......... .

Q,

Put the adverbs from the list below into the correct column. Listen and check.

here last year now usually

ea&Uy always

yesterday on Sunday How (adverbs of manner)

.t:tt;J:::;.i /y,........•...

often there away everywhere

Where (adverbs of place)

happily carefully seldom badly

When (adverbs of time)

How often (adverbs of frequency)

I

Order of Adjectives 1 Opinion adjectives (bad, good, etc.) go before fact adjectives (old, red, etc.). She bought a beautiful red dress. 2 When there are two or more fact adjectives, they go in the following order:

This is a

size

age

shape

colour

origin material

noun

large

old

rectangular

brown

French

bed.

~

~

28

wooden


0

Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct order.

Hi Susan! How was your birthday? Mine was great! We had a fancy dress party this year and I invited all my close friends. I wore a

a

1) ••• .f.LJt:my. .o.r.qtJ8~ . .. (funny/orange) clown suit

2) ••••...••.•••••.••..•.•.. (green/curly) hair. Everyone laughed as I walked

and

3) ..••.....•••••.•..••••••• (red/plastic/huge) shoes.

around the room with my

All my friends looked great too! My best friend Diane amazed us all with her fairy costume.

, She wore

~

4) •...•....••....•••••.•••••••••• (silver/shiny) wings and carried a 5) ............................... (long/plastic) wand.

The party was a lot of fun. We listened to

4

6) •••••••••••••••••••••••••...

(new/cool) CDs and ate lovely desserts. Mum made (tasty/crunchy) toffee apples and

7) ••••.•••••••••.•••• 8) ••••.•••••••.••.•••

0

•••••••

0

0

0

0

••

0

••••

0

(traditional/delicious) fairy cakes. We ended the night with a best costume contest and, to my surprise, I won! I will send you some photos very soon. Take care, Megan

Put the adjectives in the right order.

1 2 3 4

a new / woollen / red / smart / hat .t?o~.Jt1P:.r:~,. nc:~~ r.e.cJ" .'I'(Q9J{e.tJ .0?t: .................. . a(n) modern / luxurious / Italian / car ........•....•.••...•••••••.... two / long / blue / beautiful/dresses ..............................•..••••.••.•.• a gold / tiny / round / Russian / coin .........................•.•...•..•.••..•.....••• 0

••••••••••••••••••

0

5 a plastic / blue / little / spoon •••..•••••••.•......•.....•.••

~

29

~

0

••••••••••

0

••••••••


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons Order of Adverbs • Adverbs of frequency (often, usually, etc.) go after auxiliary verbs but before main verbs. She is never late. He never comes late. • When there are more than two adverbs they go in the following order: manner

place

I

She sat lazily

j

time all day.

by the pool

• When there is a verb of movement, then the order is: place

He went to Moscow

manner

time

by plane

this morning.

Underline the correct word, adjective or adverb. The children played quiet / quietly. 2 It was raining heavy / heavily yesterday. 3 She gave it a careful/carefully look. 4 She speaks perfect / perfectly German.

5 Have you seen Rebecca recent / recently? 6 He's a slow / slowly runner. 7 She sings good / well. 8 She bought a nice / nicely dress.

Use the correct adjectives and adverbs to complete the exchanges. delicious

fancy

iAterestiAg

A: What did you do last night, Ben? B: Nothing special. I just watched an 1) .•• Url({7r~.s.tjn@ ... documentary on TV. What about you? A: I met a friend from school and we went to a 2) ••••••••••••••••••• restaurant. The food was really 3) ••••••.•••••••••••• . hard

last

well

A: How did you do in the race yesterday? B: Not very 4) •••••.••••••.• . Although I tried 5) •.••..••...•. " I came in 6) .•••••....•... . A: Cheer up. What matters is that you did your best. confusing

really

hard

A: Did you finish your Maths homework, Camila? B: Yes, Dad but it was 7) .............. difficult. I had a 8) .............. time understanding all the formulas. A: I know. Some of them can be 9) •............. . Anyway, next time you have problems, just ask.

~

30

~


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons

0

Rewrite the sentences in the correct order. he / went / in the morning / to school/by bicycle }j~.

w.e.rrt.tQ.fl~hQQl.b.Y .l{i~y'({It:. 1(1.t/:1~.

. Jt7o.rnirvg .. ... . 2 at breakfast / I / drink milk / always •••.............•••.•.••...••....•••••..•••••.••.• 3 4 5 6

goes to work / by bus / never / Diego •......••••••.•••••.••.••••..•••••••.•••••••••.• at school/yesterday / hard / I worked ......•••••••.•••••.•..••••..•.••.•.•••••..•••.• his books / often / forgets / Tom ......•.•••••.•..........•.••••..••.•............•.•• home / last night / they went / on foot •••••••.....•...•••.•••••.....•.••••..••.......•

7 for an hour / in the queue / patiently / he waited ......••.•.•••••..•......•••.•••••••••.. 8 he goes / often / abroad / on business •••.•••••.••.•.........••..••••••••.••••••.••.•

QI Listen and repeat. Then act out.

,

Comparisons Adjectives of:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

tall

taller (than)

the tallest (of/in)

two syllables ending in -er, -Iy, -y, -w

happy friendly

happier (than) friendlier (than)

the happiest (of/in) the friendliest (of/in)

two or more syllables

modern beautiful

more modern (than) more beautiful (than)

the most modern (of/in) the most beautiful (of/in)

""'---

--

one syllable

--

Spelling Adjectives ending in: -e -;. -r / -st

I large - larger - largest

_y -;. -ier / -iest

_

~

l one stressed vowel between two consonants - double the consonant

heavy - heavier - heaviest L big - bigger - biggest


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons Complete the table. Adjectives

Comparative

Superlative

. ......tb~. ~tr.1~JI(;,fit . .... .

small ••.•.•.•• f3.mj3jl/t'{r. ••....••• . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . better loud higher intelligent

..................... ......

big more helpful the fastest Now complete the sentences with adjectives from the table.

I can 't reach the vase. Why did Dad put it on •.•..••••.•. tM hi0Mf7t ............ shelf? 2 This is ••.•.••..•••••••....•.......••••.••.•..•....•......... essay I've ever written. 3 Steve's voice is ..•.•.•......•••••.•••••••.••••..•....•.•..•....•••.•.••• than Tim's. 4 Judy is .•.....•..•..•...•..•.•••..••..•... than Ben. After all she's a straight-A student. 5 Asia is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. than Africa. 6 The cheetah is ...•...••......••••.•••••••..••.••.•......•.•..... animal in the world. Comparisons of Adverbs Positive Comparative

l

Superlative

adverbs with the same form as adjectives fast

faster

the fastest

two syllable adverbs ending in -y

early

earlier

the earliest

two-syllable or compound adverbs

often clearly

more often more clearly

the most often the most clearly

Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives Positive

Comparative Superlative

good / well bad / badly much many / a lot of little far

better worse more more less further / farther

best worst most most least furthest / farthest

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32

a) further / farther (adv) = longer (in distance) His house is further / farther away from the bus stop than mine. further (adj) = more For further information, see the secretary. b) very + positive degree much + comparative degree It's very cold today. It's much colder today than yesterday.

~


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons

o

Use the adverbs in the list in the correct form to complete the sentences. Add any necessary words.

fast

formally

early

well

wORderfully

carefully

This is .............. the. mQ;5.t. WQl;7dt{r.fu llY ........... ... written book I've ever read . 2 David cooks .......................................................... . . his wife. 3 Sam drives .................................... all my friends. He always pays attention to the road signs. 4 Susan is ........................................... dressed .............. Joanna. 5 Chloe arrived ................................................... the other students. 6 Klaus ran .................•...................................•. and won the race. Write comparatives or superlatives and then answer the questions. Check your answers.

6 Which

1 Which is •.•t.~~. bp.t.t~~.t. .. (hot) planet

b) Jupiter

(tall)

7 Does the blue whale make a ........••..• (loud) sound than the dolp h'In.?

2 Is the Sahara Desert ................ .. (small) than the Kalahari Desert?

a) yes

................ ..

building in the world? a) Taipei 101 Tower b) Surj Dubai Tower

in the solar system? a Venus

is

a) yes

b) no

b) no 8 Which animal runs ................ ..

3 Can an eagle see ................ ..

(fast) than

(good) than a human?

the leopard? a) the cheetah

b) no

a) yes . 4 Which IS

.... • ............ .

(long) wall in

b) the lion I

the world? a) the Wall of Dubrovnik b) the Great Wall of China

I I I I

I I I

5 Is Mount Everest ................. . (high) than Mount Kilimanjaro?

a) yes

b) no

Bg BL q9 B9 qv B£ ql

33

,


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form.

Dear Robert, I'm writing to tell you about our new house. It's lovely! It's 1) .... th~ .f'](q~~t. .... (nice) house I have ever seen. It's much 2) •••..••••••••••.•...•...•••.••.• (big) than our last one but also 3) . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .... . . . . .. • . . ... .. (expensive). The house looks very modern. There are many rooms with large windows and wooden floors. I finally have a room that I don't have to share with my 4) •..•.•••••.•..••.••..•...•••

(young) brother. My bedroom is on the second floor and I have a great view. 5) ... . . . . . . .. • . . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. ... (good) thing about this house is that it has a lovely garden. There are lots of flowers and trees around which make the place much 6) •••.•..••••••.••••.••.•••••.•••••••• (colourful).

The new house is in a peaceful area. It's actually 7) ............................. .

(quiet) area I've ever lived in. The neighbours are also very kind. Can you believe they organised a party for us? They are definitely 8) ......... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. • ... (friendly) people I have ever met. Well, that's all my news. I hope you'll visit me soon. I can 't wait to show you the new place. Yours, Chris

Use What's or Who's and the adjectives in brackets in the superlative to complete the questions. Then ask and answer in pairs. 1 . Wbat:s. t.h~ . 01Q;;.t. ex4 itir.I@...... (exciting) sport to play?

.i .t.hinK .it:f7 .tQotp.QlI •.......................................................... 2 .......••...•........•.•..••.................. (funny) comedian in the world? 3 ....•...........................•......•...•...... (good) programme on TV? 4

....••..••......•.......••..•............... (popular) singer in your country?

5 ....••..••.......•..•....••.......•.......... (difficult) language in the world?


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons

0

Types of Comparisons

The armchair is as comfortable as the sofa but it isn't as expensive as the sofa.

The ring is less expensive than the necklace. The earrings are the least expensive of all.

The more he studies, the better student he becomes.

-

1 as ... (positive) ... as not so / as ... (positive) ... as

Paul is as heavy as Tom. Jane is not so / as tall as Mary.

2 less ... (positive) ... than the least ... (positive) ... of / in

Betty is less hard-working than Kate but Jean is the least hard-working of all.

3 the

-

+ comparative ... , the + comparative

-

The harder you work, the more money you earn.

Use the adjectives to write comparisons as in the example: heavy

dangerous

fierce

fast

An elephant •• if7 .Q¢:i3.v.it.r. thq t1. ~ .t:i0t:.r; .......... . An elephant .. if7.1t.q~. di3.r,J0t:.r.qlJ;5. thqt1. ~ t.i0t.r; .. A tiger is . .fj~rt;;t.r. thqt1. ~r] .dt:.p.b~r]t •............ An elephant isn't .. i3.f7 ,tQ;5.t. i3.f7 .q. tiq~r.. .......... . cheap

slow

comfortable

2 A car is ...........................•.....•..•. A bicycle is ..............•...•................ A car isn't ................................... . A bicycle is .........••.•.....................• friendly

~--------~--------------

quiet

intelligent

playful

3 A dog is A cat is ..••••.......•............•.•...•.•...

A dog is .•......••........•.•••..•.••.••..•.. A cat isn't •.............•••..•.•••••..........•

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~

,


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons Put the adjectives / adverbs in brackets into the comparative or superlative form, adding any necessary words. 1 A: I like Geometry more than Algebra. What about you? B: Actually, I find Algebra much •.. mar.e. j(1t.e.r.e.fjtj(1g.... (interesting). 2 A: What did you think of the Chemistry exam, Peter? B: Well, it was .•..•.••..•.••••••••••••••.•••••.•.•••• (difficult) exam we've had so far. 3 A: Were the tickets for the concert expensive? B: No, I got seats in the back row. They were .••....•••••......••.••• (cheap) I could find. 4 A: Your work isn't very good, Elisha. I'm sure you can do .•.••.•..••.....•.•••••••• (well). B: I promise I'll try ..........................•.......•..•.............••.•••• (hard) . 5 A: Thank you for your help. B: My pleasure. For •••..•.••..•••..••...•.•.•••••.• (far) information, contact the school. 6 A: Do you prefer the brown jacket? B: Yes, but it is much ....................................... (expensive) the grey one. 7 A: We can 't hear you. Could you speak ................................ (loudly) , please? B: Yes, of course.

Complete the sentences using the words in brackets in the correct form. Which of the sentences 1-6 don't you agree with? Correct them. Comics are •.. roOrt:. jr,Jt~r~f7tiW3.. ... . .t.~<?J1 ....••.. (interesting) fairy tales. 2 Burgers are as •..•..•••.•..•.........

4 Rock climbing is as ....•.....•..•..•.• .. ............... (dangerous) surfing. 5 Football is .................. (popular)

........................ (tasty) tacos. 3 Skating is .......•...•.•..••••.•..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (difficult) cycling.

. . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • • . • •• basketball. 6 Sailing is •.•.•....................... . ...................... (relaxing) golf.

Complete the sentences using the + comparative as in the example: 1 The wind blew hard. The kite flew high in the sky . ...... .rh~ . Q~.rd~r. ..... the wind blew, ....•. •t.~~. bi@hfi.r. ...... the kite flew. 2 It got dark. I became frightened. · .....•..•.•..•.......•• it got, .•..•.••.••••...•.••.... I became. 3 We worked hard. We became very successful. · .••..•...••.•.•••.••.•• we worked, ......•••.•••.•••••••.•• we became. 4 The boys got noisy. Their father became angry. • .•...•..........•...... the boys got, ........•.•.•.••.•..•• . . their father became.


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons

o

Too - Enough Too comes before adjectives. It has a negative meaning and shows that something is more than enough, more than necessary or more than wanted. • too + adjective + to-infinitive The tea is too hot to drink. (It's so hot that we can't drink it.) Enough comes before nouns but after adjectives. It has a positive meaning and shows that there is as much of something as wanted or needed.

The baby is too young to walk. (He can't walk.)

• adjective + enOUgh } + tO-In ' f'Ini't'Ive enoug h + noun Her house is big enough to have a party. (She can have a party at her house.) They have enough money to go on holiday this summer. (They can go on holiday.) • not ... enough + to-infinitive (negative meaning) She is not strong enough to carry her bike. (She can't carry her bike.)

.. Mandy is old enough to drive a car. (She can drive a car.)

• too ... (for somebody/something) + to-infinitive (negative meaning) This ring is too expensive for me to buy. (The ring is very expensive, I can't buy it.)

Too much - Too many - Not enough There's too much traffic today. (Uncountable) There are too many cars in the streets. (Countable)

There isn't enough butter left. (Uncountable) There aren't enough chairs. (Countable)

Complete the sentences with too or enough. You can't borrow my car. You aren't old ... cnQw6h . .. to drive. 2 I'm sorry Tim but I can 't meet you this week. I'm •..•...•••• busy.

5 I'm .............. tired to go to the gym this evening. 6 Let me help you. You aren't tall •..••••.. . . . • . . • . . . • •• to reach the top shelf. 7 This video game is .................... expensive for me to buy. 8 There aren't ••••...•••.... parks in the city for children to play.

3 Can you help me with these boxes? I'm not strong .............. to lift them. 4 I haven't got .............. money. Can you lend me some?

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37

~


Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons Complete the responses using too or enough. A: Can you walk to the restaurant? (close) B: .Y.~~~ jt.i.s. .~/P'£2~. ~t1P'lJ0h .... .....

4 A: Can baby Annie walk yet? (young) B: No, ..............................

Can Wendy do these exercises? (difficult) No•.t.6~¥.'r.~ . tQ(J. diffi.~lJlt.. ........

5 A: Can she carry this suitcase? (light) B: Yes, ............................. 6 A: Can Mario come out to play? (busy) B: No, ..............................

2 A: B: 3 A: B:

Can we buy this sofa? (cheap) Yes, .............................

Circle the correct word.

1 Don't spend too ~/ many time watching TV. You haven't finished your essay yet. 2 I haven't got enough / much eggs to make a cake. 3 You've spent too many / much money on these clothes.

4 There are too many / much flowers in the vase. 5 Jenny doesn't have many / enough money to buy a computer. 6 There isn't much / many jam left in the jar.

Complete the exchanges with too much or too many. A: Can you see Sarah? B: No, there are ... t(J.Q .mz}t1¥. .. people

3 A: Did you pass your Science quiz? B: I don't think so. I made ............ ..

in front of me. 2 A: Please don't make ................ .

silly mistakes. 4 A: Are you coming out later? B: No, sorry. I have .....•..•.•..•.....

noise. I'm trying to study. B: Okay, we promise to keep it down.

homework to do.

Play in teams. Use the adjectives and nouns to make sentences using the comparative form. cars / bicycles, football / tennis, burgers / vegetables, cats / dogs fast, friendly, entertaining, healthy, loyal, noisy, boring, tasty, dangerous, expensive, comfortable, popular Team A S1: Cars are faster than bicycles. Team B S1: Cats are less friendly than dogs, etc.


0

Adjectives - Adverbs - Comparisons

-Speaking Activity (Making comparisons)

Use the adjectives in the list to compare the means of transport in the pictures . • comfortable • fast • cheap • dangerous • expensive • slow • safe • relaxing

~ ..........··0 . ........

,

(1 ..... :.........

, A: Which is more comfortable, a plane or a bus? ........ .~,

B: A plane is more comfortable than a bus. A: And which is the most comfortable? B: A train is the most comfortable of all, etc.

How do you like to travel: by train or by bus? Write a short paragraph. Use the adjectives from the Speaking Activity. I like travelling by .... , .......... •••••••••••••••••••••

1(

••••••••

IF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

II II. II II ••••••••••••••• I

•••••••••••••• II •••••••••• II ••• II

is much .... ,-..................................................... "............. , I . ' •••• I

•••••••••••••• I

•••• I

••••••••••••• I

•••••••••

because

•••••••••••••••••• ,

I

and it

••••••••••

••••••••••••••••

isn't as

........................................................................................... as .

,

•••

,

••••••

,

••

I.

1

•••

"

••

1

•••

'

••••

1

••••••••••••••••••

~

39

~

I"

I

•••••••••••••

t

••••••••••

is too


o Q

'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

There's going to be a terrible snowstorm. You'll have to stay the night.

Good idea. They will probably be worried if you don't phone them.

Oh no! It's not that! I'm going to ask them to bring me my nightclothes. We use will and be going to to talk about the future. Will is used:

Be going to is used:

• to talk about things we are not sure about or we haven't decided yet. I'll probably buy a new bike. (I'm not sure yet.) • to express hopes, fears, threats, on-thespot decisions, offers, promises, warnings, predictions, comments, etc. especially with: expect, hope, believe, I'm afraid, I'm sure, I know, I think, probably, etc. I'm hungry. I'll make a sandwich. (on-the-spot decision) • to make a prediction based on what we think or imagine. I think you will pass the test. She will probably phone later. •

-

to talk about actions which will definitely happen in the future and which we cannot control. He will be twelve next year.

to talk about things we are sure about or we have already decided to do in the near future. I'm going to buy a new bike. (I've decided it.)

to express intentions and plans. Now that I've got the money, I'm going to buy a new dress. (intention) I'm going to get some more training so I can get a better job. (plan)

when we can see (evidence) that something is going to happen. Watch out! We're going to have an accident. (We can see a car coming.) It's going to rain. (We can see dark clouds in the sky.)

Time expressions used with will - be going to tomorrow, tonight, next week / month / year, in two days, the day after tomorrow, soon, in a week / month, etc.

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40


'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous Read the sentences below and mark them as

0

a, b, c, d or e according to

what they express.

I'm hungry. I'll make myself a sandwich . .. IY... 2 Don't worry. I won't tell anybody. ...... 3 Stop talking or I'll send you out. ...... 4 Annie will be three years old next month . ••••.•• 5 I think it will rain today. · 6 This dress is beautiful. I'll buy it. ·...... 7 We'll probably be home before dinner. ...... 8 I promise I'll be on time. ......

· ·

a prediction based on what we think or imagine b promise

......

c on-the-spot decision d threat

· ·

e action which will happen in the future and we cannot control

, Complete the sentences.

won 't let

'II take

'II closs

'II be

won't pass

'II catch

It's cold. I :1[ ~ /CJ.Eie . the window. 2 3 4 5

His teacher thinks he ....................... a great pianist one day. Do your homework or I ....................... you go out. I'm afraid she •••....•.••••••.•.••••• her exams. Put on your coat or you ....................... a cold.

6 This shirt is nice. I .•••••.••.••••..•.•••.. it.

Answer the questions about yourself using I hope, I think, I believe, I expect, perhaps or probably as in the example:

Where will you go at the weekend? ..OI .p.r.ofli3lb('j .gO.~kjinq.in .t.he.r.rIo(Jnt~j (I;;, ................................... . 2 What will you buy your best friend for his/her birthday? 3 Where will you be at 3 o'clock tomorrow afternoon? 4 Who will you ask if you need help studying for exams? 5 Where will. you spend your holidays?

................................................................................


o

'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

Will

Shall

Will is used to express predictions, warnings, offers, promises, threats, requests, suggestions, on-the-spot decisions, opinions, hopes and fears (especially with words such as: think, expect, suppose, hope, believe, know and probably).

Shall is used with I or We in questions, suggestions and offers.

Shall we go by train? (suggestion) Shall I help you with your bags? (offer)

I expect she will come early. (prediction)

Fill in: will, won't or shall. Larry: Sue: Larry: Sue: Larry:

1) ..• . e.h~/I.. .. we go for a picnic tomorrow? Yes. That's a good idea. 12) .••••••••.••• make some sandwiches. OK. And I 3) .•...•....... bring some lemonade. 4) . .. .. .. .. .... I buy some cheese? I don't really like cheese.

Sue: 15) ............. buy any then. 16) ............. bring some fruit instead. Larry: I think it 7) ..••••••••••• be sunny tomorrow so I 8) .••••.•••••.. probably wear my shorts. I 9) .••.••••••••. take a pullover. Sue: Well, I think I 10) •••••..••••.• take mine. It is still cold in the mornings.

What is going to happen? Use the phrases to complete the sentences.

• play tennis • watch a film

• make a cake • wash the dishes

1 They . ar.e .qoit:1g. ta ..

. wat~h .a.fiJm ........

4 Bob .....•....•.......

• win the race • take the bus

2 She ................. .

3 They ....•.•..••.•.....

5 They ................. .

6 Emma ...........•....

I

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'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

0

Mrs Potter is the new music teacher at Braxton Academy. Look at the ideas and say what she is going to do as in the example: • offer new courses like Electronic Music and Song writing

· Sbe:e.@oJt1g .t.O .offc:r. .n~w. ~our8.ee . /jk~. E./~~tr.Qt1jc . Mu8JC. ~J1d. s.Or.Ig.writinq ~ . • invite musicians to play for her students • take the students to see the London Symphony Orchestra • organise a concert at the end of the school year

Use the words to make questions and then answer them. are / going / to / what / you / next / do / Sunday?

· . w.1J~.t. ar.c: ,yOU. g.ainq .to.do. nc:~t . s.I.Jr.Id,qy? .................................. .

· .1:01 .qoir.Ig. to' .vj~jt . tr1Y .qrf;indpar.C:r.It~................... ...................... . 2 going / buy / you / to / for / what / your / birthday / best friend's / are?

3 learn / are / a / going / language / new / you / to / year / next?

4 are / abroad / you / this / travel/summer / to / going?

Note: •

We use the Present Continuous rather than 'be going to' for things which are definitely arranged to happen in the fut~re. They're having a party next week. (It's all arranged. The invitations have already been sent.) They're going to have a party in two weeks. (They've decided but it hasn't been arranged yet.)

We use the Present Simple for timetables, programmes, etc. Our plane leaves at 10:30 am.

We do not use the Future tense after the words while, before, until, as soon as, if (conditional) and when (time conjunction). However, we can use when + will, if when is a question word. Call me when you arrive. BUT When will you be ready?

With the verbs go and come we often use the Present Continuous rather than RATHER THAN I'm going to go out tonight. 'be ~oing to'. I'm going out tonight.


o

'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

Fill in the present continuous or be going to, then identify the speech situations.

fixed arrangement - something already decided

.fixed .arraJ1qelt1~J1t .

2 ......................

3 ..................... .

She b?~~tJ.jnq . fl1CJrrl~d.

They .....................

He ....•...•••••.••.•••.

(get/married) this afternoon.

• ••.•• (get/married) in June.

(fly) to New York in an hour.

4 ......................

5 ......................

6 ..................... .

He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (travel) to New York.

She . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (phone) the dentist.

She ..................... . (see) the dentist tomorrow.

Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the future simple.

We .•• wilL [c;aye, ... (leave) as soon as the taxi ••• a.r.r.ive~ ... (arrive). 2 3 4 5

He .....••••.•••..••.•.. (phone) us before he •..••••••....•......• (leave) home. She ..................... (stay) at home until she ••.•••..••.•••..••... (feel) better. "When ••••••.••••••••..•..• (you/visit) them?" "Probably next week. " When Corey .•...••.••......•.•.••• (finish) school, he •...•••••••.••.••.•.•.•• (go) to university.

6 I ..•.••..•.••.•••••••••.• (send) you a postcard as soon as I •••..•..••••.••.••.•..••. (get) to Brazil. 7 When ......................... (she/be) back? 8 If you ......................... (see) Betty, tell her about the party.

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44

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'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

o

Fill in: shall, will or be going to.

4 A: .•••••••..•. we meet on Sunday? B: Sorry, but I ............. visit my aunt. She is expecting me.

A: What do you want for lunch? B: I think I •••• wUl .... have chicken and some salad.

5 A: Is Dave coming to the party? B: Yes, but he ............. probably be

2 A: Josh has come back from England. B: I know. I ............ see him later

late.

today. 3 A: Costas and I ............... get

6 A: Have you decided where to go on holiday? B: Yes, I .......... travel around Europe.

married in April. B: Really? Congratulations!

Look at the pictures and fill in the gaps with the verbs from the list in the present continuous, the future simple (will), the present simple or be going to.

• eat

• buy

• have

• start

"I hope I .. :U. b~... on time for the meeting."

• see

·be

2 The film ............................ .. .................... in twenty minutes.

3 "It's lovely. I ....•..••.•.•........•...• . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. it."

4 Annie .....•.••..•....•••............ .......................... some cake.

5 They .................... a party for their 50th anniversary next Sunday.

6 "OK, Mum. I ........................ . . •..••••.•.••..••.• you at home, then."

I

••••••••••

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45

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o

'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, the present continuous, be going to or will.

Gary:

What 1) . ~r:;. YP'LJ .f7W(1t1. it16 . (plan) to do after the

exams? 2) .................... (you/stay) in London? Angela: No, I 3) .......................... (leave) this weekend. 14) .......................... (visit) my Gary:

brother in Wales. What about yOll? I 5) •••..•••.••...••••.•••....• (think) of getting a

part-time job. I 6) ••••..••..••••..••••.... (want) to buy a new electric guitar. Angela: Oh, so 7) .......•......•.•••••.•..• (you/be) still with your band? Gary: Yes. In fact, we 8) •••.•.••....••...•....•••. (play) at Sam's Place this Friday. Can you come? Angela: Of course. My plane 9) .••••.•••.....•.........•• (not/leave) until 8 pm on Saturday so 110) .......................... (have) plenty of time to pack. Gary: Great! Angela: Is it OK if 111) .......................... (bring) a friend? Gary: Of course. Invite as many people as you like. Angela: Thanks. I 12) .......................... (see) you there. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, the present continuous, be going to or will.

5 A: Have you decided what to get Jim for his

1 A: I .Qro . ~(';t:.it16 . (see) Jim at 8 o'clock tonight.

birthday? B: Yes. I ............ (buy) him a watch.

B: Really? I thought he was away on a business trip.

6 A: I .......... (go) to the cinema. There's a new film on. Would you like to come? B: What time ...•........••••....•....

2 A: Would you like something to drink? B: I ........................... (have)

(the film/start)?

a glass of orange juice, please.

7 A: Look at that car! B: Oh no! It ......................... . (hit) the lamppost!

3 A: What time ••...•.••.•••.••...•..... (the bus/leave)? B: In half an hour.

8 A: The Ting Tings ................... .. (play) a concert at Wembley Stadium. B: I know. I have already bought a ticket.

4 A: I don't understand this exercise, Dad. S: OK, Peter I ....................... . (help) you.

~

46


'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

0

Future Continuous Affirmative I will be working You will be working He will be working She will be working It will be working We will be working You will be working They will be working

Negative

Interrogative

I will not (won't) be working Will I be working? You will not (won't) be working Will you be working? He will not (won't) be working I Will he be working? She will not (won't) be working Will she be working? It will not (won't) be working Will it be working? We will not (won 't) be working Will we be working? You will not (won 't) be working Will you be working? They will not (won't) be working Will they be working?

I

The Future Continuous is used: • for an action which will be in progress at a stated future time.

,

At 12 o'clock next Saturday, 1'1/ be fishing with my grandson. •

for an action which will definitely happen in the future as the result of a routine or arrangement.

I can give your message to Sue. 1'1/ be seeing her later on today. • when we ask pOlitely about someone's plans for the near future. (What we want to know is if our wishes fit in with their plans.)

~

47

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o

'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

Look at the pictures and use the ideas to make sentences as in the example:

1 1/ play / hockey / 11 o'clock / next Tuesday

2 Next Monday, / we / fly / Disney World

.. 1.wUl.b.c; .playin@. tlackey. ~t. ...... . . . 11 .a'c.Io~k ne>.<t. riJ~£;day.. ........ .

3 This time next Sunday, / I / ski / with my friends

4 In a few weeks, / we / sail/in the Mediterranean

Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple or the future continuous.

Matt: How about going camping this weekend? Jeff: Sounds great! I 1) :U.«~Jl (call) you this evening and we can talk more about it. Matt: OK. Do you mind if I invite Henry? Jeff: Of course not. Actually, I have a class with him later on so I 2) ••••••••. . . . . . • • •. (ask) him. Matt: Great! I 3) .••.•...•••••..•...•• (be) home after 7:00 pm so I 4) ••..•...........•.•.. (talk) to you then. Jeff: Perfect! Just think, in two days' time, we 5) ••.•.••••••••..•.••.. (sit) by a campfire roasting marshmallows.

Matt: And we 6) .••••...••..••••••••• (tell) scary stories, too! I can hardly wait!

~

48

~


'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

0

Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple, be going to or the future continuous.

A: I'm too tired to do the washing-up. B: Don't worry! I dQ . (do) it for you.

:/l

7 A: How old is your son? B: He ............. (be) six next month.

2 A: Will you come to the party on Saturday? B: No, I can't. I •••............•. (visit) my grandparents.

8 A: ..•.......•............. (you/use)

3 A: Is Jason home?

9 A: Watch out! You ..........••... (fall)!

the car tomorrow? I want to go shopping. B: I don't know yet.

B: No. I think he ................. (be) back late tonight. 4 A: Are you excited about your trip?

B: Absolutely! This time tomorrow, I . . . . . . . . . . .. (fly) to Jamaica. 5 A: Why is Mark dressed in a suit?

B: Don't worry. The ladder is safe.

10 A: What can I get you, madam? B: I ...............•..... (have) half a kilo of meat, please. 11 A: What are your plans for the summer?

B: We ................... (go sailing)

B: Because he ••..••••••.••.••. (meet)

in the Mediterranean.

Mr Rogers. 6 A: Did you tell Sophia about the party? B: Not yet. I ......................•.. (see) her at the meeting later on, so I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (tell) her then.

12 A: .•....••.•••...•.•.•..• (you/go) to the library later, Nadia? B: Yes. Do you want me to return your books?

Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple, be going to or the future continuous.

Dear Kimberly, I have great news! My family and 11) . . ~r~ g.Qin@ .to ..

. . .f7p~nd...

(spend) our summer holidays in Greece! We

2) .................... (travel) there by boat. We 3) ........••.......... (stay) at my aunt's house. It's near the beach. This time next month, I 4) ...••..........•.... (drink) a glass of cold lemonade under the hot sun. Doesn't that sound great?

I think my friend Sarah 5) ...........•.......• (come) too but she isn't sure yet. Anyway, I have lots of cousins there, so I'm sure I 6) .......•.........• (have) a great time. I promise I 7) ......•.....••...... (send) you a lovely postcard when I get there. Love, Elena

---------~ ~ 49 ~ ~~~~~~


o

'Will' - 'Be going to' - Future Continuous

In teams, try to guess what the leader is going to do. Each team can ask two questions.

Leader: I'm going to the kitchen. Team A S1: Are you going to make a sandwich? etc.

Speaking Activity (Talking about future plans) In pairs, discuss your plans for your summer holiday. Talk about:

• where / go • who / go with

• how long / stay • what / do

• where / stay • how / get there

A: Are you doing anything on your summer holiday? B: Yes, I'm going to a summer camp. A: Great. Is anyone going with you? B: I think my sister will come but she isn't sure yet, etc.

Write a letter to your English pen friend about a trip you are planning to take.

Dear ................... " How are you? I'm so excited! I'm writing to tell you about my summer holiday plans. I .......................... by ....................... ! I ................ . I

••

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for .......................... . This time next month, I ........................ .. and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Doesn't that sound wonderful? I think .......................... with me but .................. yet.

Anyway, I ............

I

••••••••

I

•••••••••••

I

I •••••.•.•• . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • to tell you all about it. Your friend ,

~

50

~

II

•••••••

••


Progress Check 2 (Units 3-4) Put the adjectives in the right order. a red / tasty / apple .~ . t~.~ty. ('((d. ~R'(( .

3 a young / French / beautiful/woman

..................... ·.................... a brown / wooden / traditional/rocking chair

4 a(n) expensive / new /

red / shirt

· .................... •

a vase / blue / glass / modern

•••••••••••••••••

I

••

5 a (n) elegant / coat / long / brown

..................... ·.................... Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form adding any necessary words.

110 mph size: medium petrol consumption: average made in 2001

90 mph size: small petrol consumption: low made in 1987

size:

130 mph large

petrol consumption: high made in 2006

Tom's car is 1) .• rr.Q~t( .t(~p.~nf?l\(t( :~b~t1 .. John's car (expensive) but Carol's car is 2) .••••....••.•.••... all (expensive). Tom's car isn't as 3) .....•.•..•••...... Carol's car (big). Carol's car is 4) ................... all (big). Carol's car is 5) ................... all (modern). John's car is 6) ................... all (old). Tom's car is 7) ................. .. Carol's car (economical) but John's car is 8) ................... all (economical). John's car isn't as 9) ................... Tom 's car (fast) . It is 10) .....•.•••••.•••••. Tom 's car (slow) . Carol's car is 11) .................. all (fast) but it is 12) .................. all (economical). 51

,


Progress Check 2 Rewrite the sentences using too and enough. 1 Bill plays the violin very well. He can win the competition .

5 Stella is short. She can't be a model.

.Bj/j .plaYB. the .v.ialirJ .'.Yell enough . . . .to.wjtJ. tM oGompe.titjon ......... . .

6 Pierre is tall. He can reach the top shelf.

2 Rania is tired. She can 't continue working. 7 We aren't going to the party yet. It's early. 3 They have money. They can buy the house.

I

8 I have five eggs. I can make a cake. 4 It's very late. We can't play outside.

Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, the present continuous or will. John: Hello, Gary. Where 1) . ~r.~ .)tQ~. 0p.ing .. (you/go)? Gary: To the sports centre. I've got football practice. Our team 2) ........................ (go) to France next week. John: Oh, that 3) ... .. .. • .. . .. .. .. .. .... (be) great! How 4) ...........••.•.••. . . .• (you/get) there? Gary: We 5) ....................... (travel) by ferry. It 6) ....................... (leave) at 5 o'clock on Wednesday morning. John: How long 7) ....................... (you/stay) in France? Gary: For about a week. We 8) . .. . . . . . •••• • •• • .. •• • •. (have) four games to play. The first one 9) •.....................• (start) at 3 o'clock on Wednesday afternoon and the last one 10) ...•••.... .• . • . . . . . . . •• (finish) at 5 o'clock the following Tuesday. John: Do you think you 11) ....................... (win)? Gary: Of course. Well, I have to go now. The coach 12) • •• •. • . • . • .• . . . . . . . . . .. (get) angry if I'm late for training. 113) ....................... (tell) you all about it when I 14) ....................... (get) back. 52


Progress Check 2 Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, the present continuous, will, be going to or the future continuous. 5 A: Are you nervous about the interview, Larry? B: Yes. This time tomorrow, I ........... . . ....•.• (talk) to the company director.

A: I'm going to the gym this afternoon. B: Well, while you .. f1.r:~ . (be) there, I . . .•. • . . • . . .•. . . . . . . •• .. (go) shopping. 2 A: .....••.•.•..•...•.•...... (you/do) anything special tonight? B: I ............•••.. I

••••••••

6 A: Where are you going? B: I ............ I

••

•••••••••••••••••••••

. . • . . .. (get) some vegetables from the

(see)

Roger. Would you like to come?

supermarket.

3 A: Look at the sky! It ............. (rain) . B: I •••••..••. (take) an umbrella with me.

7 A: As soon as Mark ••••.••••••••••.•••• • . . . • •• (come) back, tell him to call me. B: OK, John.

4 A: Lisa, I'm so happy! I got the job! B: Wonderful! I ........................ (tell) Mum and Dad the good news.

8 A: Are you looking forward to your holiday? B: Oh, yes. This time next week, I ..•..... . • . . . • . • . . . . . . . . . .. (swim) in the sea.

Q, Listen to Wendy telling Eric why he won't be able to have a party next Saturday. What are their friends planning to do? For questions 1-5, write a letter (A-H) next to each person. You will hear the conversation twice.

Plans

People

[QR]

Tom

A watch hockey game

ITO

Jody

B go to.London

[ill

Nick

[ill

Greg

E get married

[IT]

Sam

F visit grandparents

[IT]

C go camping D play in a band

G play in a football match Alan

H see a concert

53

"


Present Perfect Continuous QI Listen and repeat. Then act out.

Have you been fighting again? You've lost your front teeth.

No, I haven't lost them, Mum. They're in ~--­ my pocket!

Form: has / has been + verb -ing Affirmative I have been working You have been working He has been working She has been working It has been working We have been working You have been working They have been working

Interrogative Have I been working? Have you been working? Has he been working? Has she been working? Has it been working? Have we been working? Have you been working? Have they been working?

Negative I have not been working You have not been working He has not been working She has not been working It has not be.en working We have not been working You have not been working They have not been working

Short form

Negative-Interrogative

Short form

I've been working ...

Haven't you been working? ...

I haven't been working ...

----------------==-=--~--~----------------------------.~

Fill in the present perfect continuous of the verbs in brackets.

He . htif?I(~{3.tl .!<f.qYlt']{J. (play) football

5 The children ....•••••.•.•••.••....... (study) since breakfast. 6 We ........................... (think)

with his friends all afternoon. 2 They "........... ".. "............... . (watch) a comedy for over an hour.

of buying a house since last year.

3 Annie ....................... (do) her homework since 10 o'clock this morning. 4 How long ........................ ".. . (he/work) as a doctor?

7 .• " ••• " .•..•.••••••. " .•. " .••.•.• " •••.

(you/feel) ill for a long time? 8 Chris ............................. ". (try) to fix the motorbike since Tuesday. 54

~


Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous is used: •

for actions which started in the past and continue up to the present.

Present Perfect is used: •

They have made a lot of biscuits. (The biscuits are on the plate, so the action has finished.)

They have been making biscuits since 11 o'clock. (They're still making biscuits.) •

for past actions of certain duration which have visible results or effects, in the present.

Bob is very tired. He has been working all day long. •

to express irritation, anger, annoyance, explanation or criticism.

to put emphasis on duration, usually with for, since or how long. I've been typing letters since 9 o'clock.

for actions which happened at an unstated time.

James has bought a new car.

Who has been reading my business papers? (showing anger) •

for actions recently completed.

to express personal experiences or changes which have happened. I've lost a lot of weight.

to put emphasis on number. I've only typed three letters since 9 o'clock.

Note With the verbs live, feel and work we can use . Non-continuous verbs are not used in either Present Perfect or Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous (know, believe, see, like, love, taste, understand, want, etc.) Continuous with no difference in meaning. I've known her since 2002. I've been living in London for a year. (NOT: I''/e beeR kR9wiRg her since 2002.) or I've lived in London for a year. Time adverbs used with Present Perfect Continuous: for, since, how long

Time adverbs and expressions used with Present Perfect: just, ever, never, always, already, yet, for, since, so far, how long, recently, today, this week / month / year, once, etc.

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o

Present Perfect Continuous

Identify the speech situations, then complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present present continuous. recently completed action

anger or annoyance

unstated time

emphasis on duration

1 ...• vif7lb.lti. re~1) it-f;? ••.

personal experience visible resylts

3 ...................... .

2 ...................... .

I

He .. .~~p' b.e.e:r.J .p~jtJtitJ~ ... : She ............................ . I

(paint) his room.

I

.. ............ (you/read) my

: .......... (just/win) the race. I I I

4 .......................... .

emails again? 6 ........................ .

5 ........................ .

I

I

They •........••••......... : He ...................

. . • . . . . . • . . .. (plant) trees since morning.

............................ .

I

I

II

•••••••

: ............. (try) skiing.

: They . .

11

•••••••••••

1

•••••••

: ............ (buy) a pet dog.

Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present perfect continuous. • A: My back hurts. B: That's because you 1) ..... Mv~. be;ti.f'] .worJ<jt16, ..... (work) all day. A: I know. But at least I 2) .............................. (finish) with the gardening. • A: You look tired. What 3) .............................. (you/do)? B: I 4) ....................•......... (play) tennis with Evita. A: Oh yes. 15) .............................. (see) her play before. She's good, isn't she?

B: Yes, she is. She 6) ....................... (beat) me five times since the start of summer. 56


Present Perfect Continuous

Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present perfect continuous. Pam: What are you doing, Ben? Ben: 11) :\(e. b~e.n jQQklnq .t.hr.Qlj~h.. (look through) my old toy box all morning. It brings back lots of memories. Look, I 2) ...•..••••.•••••••..•.•...... (find) my old train set! Pam: You 3) ................... (play) with those trains for over an hour. 14) ................. (watch) you. Ben: They're great! I 5) ............................. .. (not/have) so much fun for years. Look at this one! Pam: Yes, Ben - it's a very nice train. But 6) ••.•••..••• •..••.•••...•• (you/see) the time? Ben: No ... Why? Pam: It's 10:30 am. Your boss 7) ••.•.••••.••••••...•........ Oust/phone) from the office. Ben: What for? Pam: He 8) ••.•••••••.••••••...•••. (wait) for you all morning. You have an important meeting. Ben: Oh no! I lost track of time!

Write one word for each space.

Dear Jessica, E! How 1) ••••• qr~ .... things? I'm sorry that I haven't sent you an email but I've been really busy lately. For the last two days, I have 2) •..•.•......•....... organising a surprise party for my best friend, Sally. I have 3) ••........••....... decorated the house with balloons and coloured lights. I still have so many things to do but luckily, Sophie and Pat have been helping with the preparations. So far, Sophie 4) ..•.•..•••........... invited all our friends 5) ........•.....•••.... Pat has bought Sally's present but we haven't ordered a cake or bought any snacks and soft drinks 6) •••••••.••.....•.•••. . Anyway, we've got plenty of time till Saturday. I'm sure everything 7) ......••.•••••...••.. be fine. 8) .....•.•••..•.•.•• have you been doing lately? Have you decided 9) ••••••..•......••.• you'll visit us? I hope you can come during the summer holidays. I do miss you. Write soon. I can 't wait 10) ..................... hear all your news. Love, Pamela 57

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o

Present Perfect Continuous

Write sentences about yourself. Use the present perfect or the present perfect continuous.

1 not play basketball for ... • J.haye.n't. p./~ed. basket.b.all. for ...

3 know my best friend for... .. ........... .

. a wt;:(;k. ........................... .

4 live here for... • •.•..••••.........•.••.

2 listen to music since... .................

I

5 not see my friends since... . ........... .

Speaking Activity (Talking about things you have already done or haven't done yet) Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions as in the example: tired - clean / house

excited - plan / party

• make / beds (/') • clean / windows (/')

• send / invitations (/') • put up / decorations(/')

• mop / floors (X) • hoover / carpets (X)

• order / cake (X) • sort out / music to play (X)

A: You look tired. What have you been doing? B: I've been cleaning the house. A: What have you done so far?

dirty - work / garden

• plant / tomatoes (/') • cut / grass(/') • water / plants (X) • pick / flowers (X)

B: Well, I've made the beds and cleaned the windows but I haven't mopped the floors or hoovered the carpets yet, etc.

Write a letter to your pen friend telling him/her about the party you are planning.

Dear .....................•.. , How are you? I am so excited. For the last week, I ......................... a ......•........... party for •............•..... . It's going to be a big surprise! Since yesterday, I ......................... and .•...••................. . It is a lot of work but my ...................................... me. So far, we . . . . • • • . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . .. but we . . . . . . • • . . • • . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . . yet. Well, that's all for now. Write back soon. Love,


o

Past Continuous - Was going to Used to - Be/Get used to

~

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

How did the thief get away? Weren't you -ol/owing him while he wat; trying to get away? - -

/

., •

Past Continuous: was/were + verb -ing Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative Long form

I was helping You were helping He was helping She was helping It was helping We were helping You were helping They were helping

Was I helping? Were you helping? Was he helping? Was she helping? Was it helping? Were we helping? Were you helping? Were they helping?

Short form

I wasn 't helping I was not helping You were not helping You weren't helping He wasn't helping etc. He was not helping She was not helping It was not helping Negative - Interrogative We were not helping You were not helping Wasn't I helping? They were not helping Weren't you helping? etc.

Time words used with the Past Continuous: while, when , as

The fire alarm went off at the Crown Hotel last night. Put the verbs in the past continuous to describe what each person was doing.

When the fire alarm went off, Mr Cook ........ .wa.t2 .talkinq . ....... (talk) on the phone. 2 A porter .••.•.•.••.....•.....•••...............•............. (carry) some luggage. 3 Miss Jones ..................................................... (read) a magazine. 4 Two men ................................................. (sit) in the reception area.

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59 -..


Past Continuous - Was going to - Used to Be/Get used to Past Continuous versus Past Simple Past Simple is used:

Past Continuous is used:

• for an action that was in the middle of happening at a stated time in the past.

for an action completed at a stated time in the past.

He finished his homework at 7 o'clock.

At 8 o'clock last night she was watching TV. • for two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultaneous actions).

for actions which happened one after another (sequence of actions).

He slipped, fell over and hurt his ankle.

'.

At 5 o'clock yesterday afternoon Ben was doing his homework while his dad was cooking dinner. • for a past action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use Past Continuous for the interrupted action and Past Simple for the action which interrupts it.

Linda was watching TV when the phone rang.

with non-continuous verbs: appear (=seem), believe, belong, cost, feel , forget, hate, have (=possess), know, like, love, mean, need, prefer, realise, remember, see, seem, smell, sound, suppose, taste, think, understand, want, etc.

Sylvia saw Alex at the party yesterday.

• to describe the background to the events in a story.

for people who are no longer alive.

Shakespeare wrote a lot of plays. (Shakespeare is dead. He won't write any more.)

We were walking in the woods. It was raining hard ...

60


Past Continuous - Was going to - Used to Be/Get used to

0

Use the past continuous or the past simple and the phrases to label the pictures. Then identify the speech situations. • actioA iA the middle of happeAiAg • sequence of actions • interrupted action • simultaneous actions • completed action • people who are no longer alive

.0t;.t;i0J1 jt] .tb~. r.rJidcJltL

2 .......................

3 ...................... .

. of. b0P.P~t;1itJ@ ........ .

4

(they sleep/at 11 o'clock/ yesterday evening)

(wash up/feed the dog/an hour ago)

(last night/Mrs Smith knit/Mr Smith watch TV)

.Tbei/. were.sleepit:1g. .. .at.11. o.'clock. ......... ,)iest~rdai/. e.v~l1in@ •..

...................... . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . ......................

·......................

.......................

(they sunbathe/start to rain)

," 5

. .......................

(Gustave Eiffel/build/the Eiffel Tower)

6

·...................... ·...................... ·......................

(Claire/have first birthday / 2 days ago)

Was / Were going to Was going to is used to express fixed arrangements in the past, unfulfilled plans or an action which someone intended to do in the past but didn't do.

He got up early. He was going to catch the 6 o'clock train. (fixed arrangement in the past) She was going to travel around Europe but she didn't because she fell ill. (unfulfilled plan) She was going to buy a new car but in the end she repaired her old one. (She intended to buy a car but she didn't)

,


Past Continuous - Was going to - Used to Be/Get used to Write what was going to happen but didn't.

catch / bus

have / picnic

buy / dress

1 . s.fJ~. v.vti~ . @Ojr,10. tP. ... 2 ....•.......•.•.•.••.•• . bJJ;j. ti dr.~;5£3. .... but a :

3 ••.......••.••.•.......

I

thief stole her bag.

:

but he was too late.

but it started to rain.

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous. Then say which uses of these tenses are shown in each extract.

[!]

Heath Ledger 1) ... waB. .. (be) a very talented Australian actor who 2) •..••...•••.....

(try) different kinds of roles. One of the last films he 3) •.•.. : ••...•.•.••..• (take) part in was The Dark Knight, where he 4) . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . .. (play) the evil Joker. Sadly, he 5) ••...••••.•.....•.•. (die) on January 22nd, 2008 at the age of 28.

[ID

It 1) ........................ (happen) at 8 o'clock last night. John and his wife, Jane,

2) •••••••••.•••.••••••• (sit) in their living room. They 3) .•••.•••.•.••••.•••••. (watch) TV while their daughter 4) •••••.••••. . • • • . • • • • • • •• (play) with her toys. Suddenly, the room 5) .••••••••••••••••••.•.•. (start) to shake and two vases 6) •••.•••••.•.•••••.•••••• (fall) to the ground.

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous. A: I . )r~q y'/~/kir,10.. (walk) home yesterday when I ... .r.~t1. llJto.. .. (run into) Jennifer. B: Is she OK? I haven't seen her for such a long time. 2 A: What ........................... (happen) to your leg? B: I ........................... (break) it while I ........................... (ski). 3 A: I ......•.....•....•.... (call) you yesterday morning but you ....................•..

(not/be) at home. B: Yes. I ... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... (walk) my dog.

~

62


0

Past Continuous - Was going to - Used to Be/Get used to Used to - Be/Get Used to + noun / pronoun / -ing Used to is used to talk about past habits. It has the same form in all persons, singular and plural. It forms its negative and interrogative form with did.

Be/Get used to is used to talk about habitual actions and means 'be/get accustomed to', 'be in the habit of'.

I'm not used to getting up early. They are used to cold weather. You'll get used to her when you get to know her better.

I used to cry when I was a baby. I didn't use to sleep late. Did you use to sleep late?

Rewrite Victoria's comments using used to or didn't use to as in the example:

,

. Y.ic.t.ar.itl .LJ~e;d .to .'&'ar.k Jonq .rJOur.f? .......................................... . 2 .......... 3 4

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5

6

Complete the sentences with the correct form of used to, be/get used to and the verbs in brackets. 1 Lisa is very tired this morning. She .... j~n't. 1)p,4d. to. f3.t~yit;l0. t-I.p. •••• (not/stay up) late. 2 3 4 5 6

Don't worry. you ..................... soon .................... (wear) contact lenses. He .........•.......••••................. (eat) a lot of chocolate when he was a child. They didn't like living near the airport but they ......................•••..•....•..... it. I •••••.......••.........•...••....•..•... (get up) at 6:30 am, so it doesn't bother me. Sheila lives in the city but she still ...•••••.......••....•..••.•.•••.• (not) all the noise.

~ 63 ~


Past Continuous - Was going to - Used to Be/Get used to Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous or the past simple.

Last night 11) •• • ba.d ... (have) a wonderful dream. This is what I 2) •.••.••••••••.••.••• (dream). We 3) •••••••••••••••......•. (take) a trip to Hawaii. 14) •••••••.•.•...•••• (be) with my family and two of my friends. We 5) ...••.••••••••. (be) on a ship and we 6) • .. .. • .. .. .. .. ... (travel) to Honolulu. On the ship there 7) •.•.••.••••.••••• (be) a party. We 8) •••••.•...•.•••.•• (sit) on nice comfortable seats and we 9) •••••.•.•••••.••••• (drink) exotic juices. Lots of people 10) ••••••••••••••••••••••• (dance) and the music 11) •••••••••••••••••.•••• (play) loudly. We 12) .............................. (have) a lot of fun! When the ship 13) ....................... (arrive) in Honolulu, a man 14) ........................ (wait) to take us to our hotel. The hotel where we 15) ••••••••••••••••••••••••• (stay) was by a beach lined with palm trees. Drums 16) •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• (beat) and people on the beach 17) ............................ (sing) and 18) .......................... (dance) to the

music. The music 19) ................................. (get) louder and louder until I 20) ••••••••••••.•••••••••••• (hear) a ringing sound. It 21) ••••••••••••••••••••••••• (be) my alarm clock! It 22) ...................................... (be) 7 o'clock and time to get up for school.

Circle the mistake (A or B), then correct it.

1 While we were having a picnic, it was starting to rain.

®

A

2 Alicia was painting a picture when her mum was cooking.

A

B

3 Laura was taking off her coat and sat down.

A

B

4 While we were on holiday, we were spending most of our time sightseeing.

A

B

5 Costas listened to his iPod, so he didn't hear the doorbell ring.

A

B

... f?1;~rtt1.d . ..


Past Continuous - Was going to - Used to Be/Get used to

G

Speaking Activity (Talking about a bad experience)

Chain story: Look at the pictures. Use the phrases to say what happened to John and his friends . • John and friends / decide to take walk in the forest

• they / try not to panic • they / quickly / fall to ground / not move

• sun / shine, birds / sing • they / enjoy walk / when / hear roar • as they / look around / see big bear / come towards them

at all • bear / smell / them • luckily / after few minutes / bear / leave • they / feel/relieved / be / safe

,.

S1: Last weekend John and his friends decided to take a walk in the forest, etc.

Now imagine you are John. Write in your diary about the terrifying experience you had. Dear Diary, While on holiday, I had the worst experience of my life! Last Saturday, my friends and I •.•...•..•.........................••.•..•..•..

~ 65 ~


Progress Check 3 (Units 5-6) Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or present perfect continuous.

1 They

.. halte ...

............ ...............

2 He

3 The play •....•..

4 Mr Phillips ...••.

............... (teach) English for twenty years.

(buy) a new

(examine) patients

.............. . ...............

house.

all day.

(just/finish).

.bouqbt..... ..

5 The baby .......

............... (cry) for two hours.

6 Mrs Robins

.... .

............ ....... . .... ...

7 He

........ (clean) the house all morning.

(do) the shopping.

........... ...............

8 She

(just/break) the vase.

There was a power cut at the library yesterday evening. Look at the picture and put the verbs in the list into the past continuous to describe what each person was dOing. look

study

read

make

1 Mandy .. w.q~. ~ur.tjt1g ........ the Net.

3 Jill ........................ for a book.

2 Mr Taylor .••......................•••

4 Sam •...................• a magazine.

photocopies.

5 Tony and Wendy . . . . . . . . . • • . • . . . . . . .. . 66


Progress Check 3 Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or past continuous. Then say which uses of these tenses are shown in each extract.

® Lady Diana Frances Spencer 1) •• roi3l.r.r.j~d .. (marry) Prince Charles in July, 1981. She 2) •...•••..•..•.•••••• mother of their two sons, William and Harry.

(be) the

The British people 3) . • • • • . • • • • . • • •• (love) her for her kindness and beauty. Princess Diana 4) ••••.••.•.•.•••• (care) a lot about the sick and the poor all over the world. Unfortunately, she 5) .. .. • • .. • .. .. .. • .. • .. .. •• (die) in a car accident on August 31st, 1997.

® One cool and windy afternoon James 1) ............................ (decide) to go to the park. When he 2) .•. . • .. . • • • .. . .. • • . . . . • . • . • . • . . • • .... (get) there, a girl 3) ••••••••••••••.•........• (fly) her kite while several boys 4) •••.•...•••••••.••••.•••. (play) football. The boys 5) ............................ (ask) James to play with them. Everyone 6) •••••• . • • • • • . • • • • • • • • . • • • . .• (enjoy) themselves when suddenly dark clouds 7) ............................ (cover) the sky. Fill in: used to or didn't use to.

1 I ..• djdn't. LJ£lt; .to ... eat vegetables but I do now. 2 3 4 5

He •.....••.•.•••.•••••.••.•••.•.•.. ride a motorbike but he doesn't any more. I .......•.•.•.••••.••••••••.••.•.. eat a lot of sweets but I don't any more. She .........•••••.••••••••.••••.•... like dogs but she has got two now. He •••....•...•••.•••••••...••...•.. exercise. He goes jogging every morning now. Complete the sentences with a verb from the list in the correct form.

watch

go

ride

wash

live

1 Klaus had to get used to .... drjlli.n@ . ...

4 Little children are used to .•..•........•.

on the left. 2 We used to ..................... in a small town but now we live in London. 3 Lucas used to ..................... a lot of TV. Now he prefers to listen to music.

to bed early in the evening. 5 Linda used to .•.....•..•.....•.... a motorbike but I think she has a car now. 6 We haven't got a dishwasher, so we're used to .......•.••.•.••. the dishes by hand. 67

,


Progress Check 3 Choose the correct answer. We used ....•. in a flat but now we live in a big house.

® to live

A live

5 When Helen was little, her father used • . . . •. her stories before going to bed. A tell B to tell C telling

C living

2 I'm used .••••. up very early in the morning, so it doesn't bother me. A to get

B getting

6 I never got used •.•••• German when I lived in Germany. It was difficult for me to learn. A to speaking B speaking

C Jo getting

C speak

3 It was difficult at first but Max is getting used •.•... on the left. A drive B to driving C driving

7 Neil isn't used •.••.. Chinese food. A to eat B to eating C eating

4 Dad didn't use ..•.•. on Saturdays but he does now. A work

B working

8 Tom used .••••. in Rome but now he's moved back to London. A live B to living

C to work

C to live

QI You will hear information about a history museum. Listen and complete questions 1-5. You will hear the information twice.

jefferson History Museum You can see:

Main Floor: old

photos of the town

Upstairs: Left:

"'-11-1"-.-.-..-.-.-..-.-.-..-.-.-..-.-.-.._._.._._._..-.-.--'.1people used to use

Right:

121 .............................. 1clothing on display

Price of guidebook:

Closing time:

131 € .......................... ..

141 ·· .... · .. ·· ....... · .. ·· ... ·· .. I

There are staff members present to answer:

68

151 your •.......•........•...•..•. 1


Progress Check 3 Choose the correct answer. 1 We used ...... in a flat but now we live in

5 When Helen was little, her father used ...... her stories before going to bed. A tell B to tell C telling

a big house.

® to live

A live

C living

2 I'm used ••.•.. up very early in the morning, so it doesn't bother me. A to get

B getting

6 I never got used •..••. German when I lived in Germany. It was difficult for me to learn.

C to getting

A to speaking C speak

3 It was difficult at first but Max is getting used •...•• on the left. A drive B to driving C driving 4 Dad didn't use •...•. on Saturdays but he does now. A work B working

Q

B speaking

7 Neil isn't used •..•.. Chinese food. A to eat B to eating C eating . 8 Tom used •••••• in Rome but now he's

C to work

moved back to London. A live B to living

C to live

You will hear information about a history museum. Listen and complete questions 1-5. You will hear the information twice.

,

Jefferson History Museum You can see:

Main Floor: old

photos of the town

Upstairs: Left: 1'-1-'1.--. ..-.-..-.-. -..-.-..-.-. -..-.-..-.-. -..-.-..-.--'.1people used to use

Right:

121 .............................. 1clothing on display

.

~

Price of guidebook:

Closing time:

131 € .......................... ..

141 .............................. 1

There are staff members present to answer:

151 your ...•.•...•................ 1


o

Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both - Neither / Possessives QI Listen and repeat. Then act out.

,

Reflexive-Emphatic pronouns

myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

Personal pronouns

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns

before verbs after verbs as subjects as objects

followed by nouns

not followed by nouns

you he she it we -you they

-

...

me you him her it us you them

my your his her its our your their

-

mine yours his hers

I

ours yours theirs

Reflexive Pronouns are used:

Emphatic Pronouns are used:

after certain verbs (cut, behave, burn, enjoy, hurt, look at, teach , etc.) when the subject and the object of the verb are the same person. I've cut myself.

at the end of the sentence or after the noun phrase they refer to to emphasise the noun or the fact that one person and not another performs an action. He can fix the car (by) himself.

Note these expressions: Enjoy yourself! = Have a good time! Behave yourself! = Be good! I like being by myself. = I like being alone. She lives by herself. = She lives alone. Help yourself to tea. = Don't wait to be offered tea.


o

Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both Neither / Possessives Note the difference: -selves / each other

They are looking at themselves in the mirror.

They are looking at each other.

Write sentences as in the example:

A: What is he doing? B: He .... j~. teacrUtJg. .... (teach)

2 A: What did she do? B: She •.............••.•.••••• (hurl) . •.....••••.••.... while she was

.. bjr.nfleJf .. how to play the piano.

playing in the garden .

3 A: What are they doing? B: They .....••.•................•••. (enjoy) .................. at a party.

4 A: What has he done? B: He ..........................•....

5 A: What do they often do? B: They .............................

6 A: What are you doing? B: I ................................ .

(make) pies ..•••.•..••••....••..• .

(paint) this picture ....•..••.••.•.• .

(bake) some bread ................ .

.'

~

70

~


Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both Neither / Possessives

0

Fill in: myself, yourself, himself, ourselves or yourselves. Jim: Bye Mum. We're going to Simon's birthday party. Mum: OK. Enjoy 1) •• .your.~~lv'~fj... boys. And Jim, don't eat too much cake or you 'll make 2) ••..••...•..•••••..•.•..... sick. Did you get him a card? Jim: Yes, we did. Actually, Mark and I made it 3) ••••..•..••••.•••...•••••. . What are you and Dad going to do this afternoon, Mum? Mum: I'm going to buy 4) •...•••••.••..... some new clothes and Dad's going to study. He's trying to teach 5) ....••.•...•........ Italian. Have a good time at the party but behave 6) ••.•••••••••••••••••. .

Fill in the appropriate reflexive pronoun or each other.

, A: Did you help Jimmy finish his homework? B: No, he finished it •..•• bi r.n fj(:Jf . . . .. .

...................... .. ... .

2 A: What's wrong with Tom and Henry? B: They don't get along with ••••••••••.•

............ . 3 A: Are you going to the park with your friends? B: No, they are going by •••••..•......•• .

Possessive case with 's / s' 1 singular nouns + 's (person or animal) the boy's bag, the cat's head 2 regular plural nouns + ' the boys' bags irregular plural nouns not ending in s/-es + 's the children's toys

4 A: How is Dan?

B: I don't know. We haven't seen .•••••••••••.•..•• for a long time. 5 A: I'm hungry. Have you got anything to eat? B: There is some food in the fridge. Help • • • . . . . . . . . . . • . • • • . . . . • • • •. ! 6 A: Do you need to turn off the heater? B: No, it will actually turn •.••........•...••• off.

Possessive case with of 1 of + name of a thing the banks of the river 2 of + possessive case/possessive pronoun That's a friend of Mary's (= one of Mary's friends ). I've got a book of yours (= one of your books).

phrase of place + 's: at the chemist's = at the chemist's shop phrase of time + 's / ': today's paper = the paper that has come out today two weeks' holiday = a holiday that lasts for two weeks


o

Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both Neither / Possessives

Connect the nouns using ·'s, .' or ... of .... bike / Mary 2 news / today 3 top / stairs

· ... M,q r.y:s. .17.il<.e. .•••

4 CDs / girls

·....................

5 hat / Juan 6 books / students

·....................

·.................... •

••••••

I

•••••••••••••

·....................

Rewrite the sentences using the correct possessive form. Julie is - at chemist - shop 2 Avril looks after - her neighbour - children 3 Helen always listens to - her friends - the advice 4 Are you going to - Lucy - the party? 5 That girl over there is - a friend - my

Fill in the correct subject / object / possessive pronouns or adjectives. Last year Francis and 1) ..• /:lif;? •• sister Caroline went on holiday to New York. Unfortunately, 2) .........•••.•••••• was a disaster. First of all, 3) .................... nearly missed 4) ................... flight because 5) ................... car broke down. Then Francis couldn't find 6) .••..••••........ ticket, until Caroline realised that she had both 7) •••••••....•..••. ticket and 8) ................ in 9) ................. handbag. When I

10) ....................... got to New York, 11) ....................... couldn't find 12) ................... hotel. Caroline fell over and twisted 13) .. .. .. . .. • .. .. .... ankle when 14) .................... got out of the taxi. Francis tried to help 15) .................. . but strained 16) .....•..•.....••.• back, so 17) .•.•••.••.•..••.•. both had to spend the rest of the week in bed. This year 18) •.•....••..•.....•.•. are hoping to see some of the sights of New York on 19) ..................... holiday.

Some / Any / No Positive

Interrogative

Negative

things

some someone somebody something

any anyone anybody anything

no/not any no one (not anyone) nobody (not anybody) nothing (not anything)

place

somewhere

anywhere

nowhere (not anywhere)

people

~

72

~


Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both Neither / Possessives

0

Fill in: some, any, no or their derivatives.

J-..

~-::.

~

When the three bears came home, Mother Bear said, "1) .... S.o.trltt .... of the soup has gone! " The

;

.

~ .

little bear looked in his bowl and said, "There is 2) .•.••........•. soup in my bowl! There isn't 3) .•..•........•• left at all! 4) ......•...•.... has eaten it! " Then the bears heard 5) ••..••......... in the bedroom. Father Bear called out, "Is there 6) .........•.••.• there? " but 7) ............... answered . The little girl in the bedroom woke up and looked for 8) •• . . . . . . . . . . . .. to hide but she couldn 't find 9) ••••••.•••.•••• . Father Bear called out again, "Is there 10) .•.•.•••.••.••. there?" and the frightened girl said, "No, 11) •.......•..... is here!"

Fill in the gaps with the words given.

anything something

someone nobody

some Rowh81!8

A: Do you like living in Switzerland? B: It's OK. But .••• .tJQwb~r~..... is

anywhere any

5 A: I'd like to see you now. I have •.........••..•..• to say to you. B: Of course. Come to my office.

better than lA

2 A: I went to Angela's house but there was ... •...•......... . there. B: They have gone away for the weekend.

. 6 A: Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wrong with

3 A: Tina, I need ...••....••...•..• help with this project. B: Sure, what can I do for you?

7 A: There aren't ....••......•.•...

4 A: Have you seen Frank ...•..•....... ?

8 A: Mum, there's .•................

Jimmy? He looks upset. B: He had an argument with his parents.

oranges left. Would you like an apple? B: No, thanks. I don't like apples.

B: He was in Mr Smith's office two minutes ago.

~

waiting for you at the door. B: Who is it? 73

~

,


o

Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both Neither / Possessives

Both - Neither - None - All Both refers to two people or things. It has a positive meaning and takes a verb in the plural. Tom is rich. Laura is rich, too. Both of them are rich. or They are both rich. All refers to more than two people or things. It has a positive meaning and takes a verb in the plural. John, Mary and Kevin are students. All of them are students. or They are all students.

Neither refers to two people or things. It has a negative meaning and takes a verb either in the singular or the plural. Tom isn't poor. Laura isn't poor either. Neither of them is / are poor. None refers to more than two people or things. It has a negative meaning and takes a verb either in the singular or the plural. John, Mary and Kevin haven't got a car. None of them has / have a car.

Use both, neither, none or all and write sentences as in the example: 2 Matias doesn't like fish. Greg doesn't like

1 Katy can ride a bicycle. Sue can ride a bicycle, too . . B.Qth. CJ.f. ......

fish either.

· thtW1.4Qt1. rid~. ~..

. bjyyCk. ....... or

· Th~ .c;~n .b.Qth. ... · ri.d~. ~. bjYYCk•.... 3 Mr Tibbs doesn't drive

Laura, Sally and Moira

carefully. Mr Smith doesn't drive carefully either.

are running.

5 Ted has won a medal. Tony has won a medal, too.

~

Bob, Nick and Carlos don't speak French.

74

~


0

Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both Neither / Possessives Circle the correct item.

6 A: Both of these dresses look lovely. B: Yes, but I think •...... of them fits me well. A all B none C neither

A: How did your class do in the exam? B: Luckily, we ....... passed. A neither

B both

© all

2 A: Did you find someone to watch the boys?

7 A: Who do you like better, Christina

B: No. I saw two babysitters yesterday but ....... of them had much experience. A both B all C neither

Aguilera or Britney Spears? B: I don't have a favourite. I think they are ...•... great singers. A neither B both

3 A: Are the girls going shopping with you? B: No, ....... of them are coming.

8 A: There are some very nice clothes in that

They've made other plans. A none B all C both

shop. B: Yes, I know but ....... of them are very expensive. C none A both B all

4 A: How many sisters do you have? B: Two and •....•• of them are younger than me. A none

B both

9 A: Are you going to town today? B: Yes, I want to return the two vases I bought yesterday because they are .. ..... damaged.

C all

5 A: How will you get to the party? B: I'll probably ask my dad to give me a lift. . • . . . .. of my friends have a car. A None

B All

C all

A neither

C Both

B both

C all

Another, Other, The other, The second

o o

We use another in front of singular countable nouns to mean 'one more' or 'a different one'. I don't like this shirt. I'm going to buy another one.

We use other in front of plural nouns when we refer to 'different ones'. Jim likes travelling and learning about other cultures.

We use the other in front of singular and plural countable nouns. It means 'not this one' or 'the remaining one(s)'. The police arrested one man but the other one got away. Where are the other books?

We use the other when there are two and the second when we list things in order and there are more than two. The first test was easy, the second was OK but the third was very difficult.

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75

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Reflexive - Emphatic Pronouns / Both Neither / Possessives

Fill in the gaps with another, (the) other, or (the) second.

1 He asked the coach to give him .. .~nQth.e.r. ... chance. 2 This ring is gold but ....•...•....•. one is silver. 3 Amy has got three boys. The first one is sixteen, .•.......•.•... one is nine and the third is four.

4 There are ...•..•.•..•.•. ways to get to

the town centre but this is the quickest. 5 Helen is much cleverer than all ........•.....• students in her class. 6 Her first novel wasn 't good, her •.•.....•..•... one was OK but her third was excellent.

Speaking Activity (Finding similarities and differences) Imagine your parents are leaving you alone for the weekend. In pairs, say what you can/can't do by yourself. Use the phrases in the list.

• make breakfast • cook dinner • do homework

• tidy room • iron clothes • do washing-up

• wash clothes • cut grass • clean house

A: I can make breakfast by myself. B: I can't cook dinner by myself, etc.

Write a short paragraph about what you and your sister / brother can / can't do by yourselves when your parents aren't home. Stick pictures.

I can make breakfast and wash the dishes by myself. My sister / brother ...•....••.•..•..............•..•

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Past Perfect

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Listen and repeat. Then act out.

Past Perfect: had + past participle Affirmative Long form I had waited You had waited He had waited She had waited It had waited We had waited You had waited They had waited

Short form I'd waited You'd waited He'd waited She'd waited It'd waited We'd waited You'd waited They'd waited

Long form

Short form

I had not waited You had not waited He had not waited She had not waited It had not waited We had not waited You had not waited They had not waited

I hadn't waited You hadn't waited He hadn't waited She hadn't waited It hadn't waited We hadn't waited You hadn't waited They hadn't waited

Short answers

Interrogative Had I waited? Had you waited? Had he waited? Had she waited? etc

,

Negative

Had I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they eaten lunch? Yes, I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they had. No, I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they hadn't.

Past Perfect is used: •

for a past action which happened before another past action or before a stated past time. She had already left when I got home. She had arrived by 8 o'clock.

for an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past. He was happy. He had won the race.

as the past equivalent of Present Perfect. She isn't in her office. She has already left. (before a present time) She wasn't in her office. She had already left. (before a past time)

Time expressions used with Past Perfect before, after, just, yet, already, for, since, ever, never, till / until, when, by, by the time, etc.

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Past Perfect

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the past perfect as in the example: 1 The students left the classroom because the bell .... hCild. nJ/J(J • •.•• (ring).

I

2 Rick .••....•..•••..•••. (not/finish) the report by the time his boss returned. 3 After they ......••....••..•.• (put up) their tents, they made a fire.

4 The fans were excited because their team • ...••...........•. (win). 5 .........••• the burglars •••...•.••••.• (get away) by the time the police arrived? 6 After Jane .•..........•••.••... (finish) studying, she went out with some friends.

Look at the picture and ask and answer questions as in the example:

Last night the Dicksons had a birthday party for their daughter, Sally. What had they done and what hadn't they done before they went to bed? 1 (Sally / open / all her presents) .Hp'q . f?j3jIjY. QPt:.t1~d. i3i.ll h~t; .p.t;~f?t:ntf?? 'ifJ.s',. f?h~ hCild.. 2 (they / drink / all the lemonade) •.....•.•............•.••.•.•••..................... 3 (they / eat / all the cake) .......••••..•.•••••••.......••.....••••.•..••••••.••••.•.• 4 (Mum / let / cat in) ............................................................... . 5 (they / eat / all the sandwiches) .....•..•••••.......•.•••.•...•••..•.......•.....••. 6 (they / tidy / the room) ............••••...•..•.••..•.•.............••..........••.•

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o Fill in the present perfect or the past perfect.

I

I

They .... bficJ .c;/P.t1t(. • •• : 2 They are out of the 3 He can't pay the bill. (do) their homework before : supermarket. They He ................... . they went to the park. ..... (do) their shopping. : . ....... (lose) his wallet. I

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I I

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4 He bought a car after he (save) enough money.

5 She signed the letter after 6 Her hair is wet. She ...... she .................. . .............. (write) it. : (wash) it.

Note the difference: Past Perfect

Past Simple

When his sister phoned, Tim had left. (Tim had left before his sister phoned.)

When his sister phoned, Tim left. (His sister phoned and then Tim left.)


o

Past Perfect

Fill in the past simple or the past perfect, then state which action happened first.

1 When I .•• . Qrr.iv~d . ... (arrive) at the station , the train ••• rt3..ci .I~ft . .. (leave). first action: .. .b?d J~ft... 2 We .................. (light) the candles

4 The patient ................ (die) before the ambulance .••.••••.••.•.••. (reach) the hospital. first action: ......................... . 5 Billy .............. (eat) all the cakes by the time the other children ..........•.•••

because the lights ........ ...... (go off). first action: ......................... . 3 When I got home I .••....•.••.....•• (discover) that somebody .•.•.••.••.•.• (break into) my flat.

first action: ......

I

•••••••••

I

(arrive) at the party. first action: ......................... .

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•••••••••

Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or the past simple.

Rafael •.•. Ut. . .. (light) the candles when she arrived.

2 Rafael .................. (light) the candles when she arrived .

3 When she arrived at the theatre, he •••.•.••....•• . ........ (buy) the tickets.

I I I

4 When she arrived at the 5 When he came home, they : 6 When he came home, she theatre, he .............. : ................. (have) ........................ . I

. . . . . . . .. (buy) the tickets. :

dinner together.

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(already/have) dinner.

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Past Perfect

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Use the ideas to make sentences as in the example:

• • • • •

Nancy / make a wish - blowout the candles He / put on his winter coat - go outside Artemis / watch her favourite programme - turn off the TV The boys / play rugby - ride their bikes home Mr Newton / pack his bags - take taxi to the airport

• They / save enough money - buy a house

. After. Nancy.had made. a. wi~/;J, ~/;Je. blt;w. aut.tl1~ c.aJ;Jdle~..... . . Befor~ Nancy.blew. o.ut .tbe. car.1dJes.. .ehe. had ma.ck.a. w.ish.... . Complete the sentences using the past perfect. Use the verbs in the list.

pass

tidy

leave

lose

start

1 I watched TV after I . Q{3I,q.ti(lJi?ht(0. IJJY. Qp.mtt~p.r:k; ......•......................... . 2 It began to rain after I ................................••.•.....•................... . 3 My best friend was excited because he .............................................. . 4 By the time my mum got home, I ........•....•••••.•.•.•.•..•.•...........•......•• . 5 When I walked into the classroom, ...........................••...••..•............. . 6 I was sad because I .....................•....•..................•...............• . Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or the past simple.

Jessica 1) .•••.••• . 1{J.Q~~d. ........ (look) at her watch. It 2) .......................... (be) already 10:30 at night. She 3) •..•...••....•••••....•... (spend) all day writing her article, so it was nG surprise she 4) ....................... . (feel) so exhausted. Jessica 5) ......................... . (stand up) and 6) •.•..•••.....••••••• (look) out the window. The street lights 7) ...................... (be) on and the rain 8) ••••••••.•..•......... (stop). She 9) .••.•••••••••••..•••••

(not/be) out all day, so she 10) ••••.••.•.•..•...•••••.•• (decide) to take a drive . Jessica 11) .••.•....•.•••••••.••...• (feel) happy and relaxed. She 12) •..•••.••...••.•••••.•...•..•. (finally/finish) her article for the magazine. It ~)

............................... (take) her all weekend.

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Past Perfect

Speaking Activity (Talking about actions that happened before another action in the past)

Look at the pictures. Prepare a short story. Use the ideas to help you.

• Lucy and Jane / want / go to concert / last Saturday • they / buy tickets / a month before • Lucy's brother / promise / drive there

• they / get stuck / traffic / because / accident happen • they / take train • when / they arrive / concert finish • Lucy / be very sad

S1: Lucy and Jane wanted to go to Beyonce's concert last Saturday. S2: They had bought their tickets a month before, etc.

Imagine you are Lucy. Use the information from the Speaking Activity to write a story adding any necessary linkers. Last Saturday was the worst night of my life! My friend Jane and I •••••••••••...

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

••

I

I

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

I

•••••••

·...................................................................... .

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Progress Check 4 (Units 7-BJ Fill in the correct reflexive pronouns. When Jane woke up on Monday, she saw the note she had written to 1) ... . b~rf5.~/f. ... so she would remember to visit her boss in the hospital. He'd fallen off a ladder and hurt 2) •.•.•...•..•... quite badly. She knew her children could dress and feed 3) ............. " , so she got dressed and left immediately. She drove to the hospital, got out of the car and shut the door. Then she saw the keys inside. "Oh no, I've locked 4) ............... out! " she said to 5) ........•.... . She knew it was the start of a terrible day. Underline the correct item. 1 The chair's leg / leg of the chair is broken.

I I I I

5 Mum isn't at home. She's gone to the butcher's / butcher. 2 These are the childrens' books / children's : books. 6 Layla is a friend of my sister / sister's. 7 Where is the newspaper of today / today's 3 They went for a two weeks' holiday / a holiday of two weeks in France. newspaper? I I

4 I've got a CD of your / yours.

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Choose the correct item.

6 Is Mrs Williams here? I want to ask her

There is •••••. in the box. It's empty. 8 something C anything nothing

...... .

®

A anything

2 I don't want to go ...••. tonight. Let's stay at home. A somewhere 8 anywhere C nowhere

8 nothing

C something

7 Cathy has a lot of friends . ...•.. them live

in London. A Both of

3 Ken and Robert are my older brothers. .•..•. them can drive a car. A Neither 8 All of C Both of

8 All of

C None

8 Bob, Nick and Michael are doctors . .••••. them is a teacher. A None of 8 Neither of C All of

4 Is there .••.•• milk in the fridge? C no A some 8 any

9 There isn't •..••• in the shop. It's closed.

A anybody 5 I rang the bell but there was ...... answer. A no 8 any C some 83

8 nobody

C somebody


Progress Check 4 Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or the past simple.

II

James 1) •••. w~n.t.~d.... (want) to go on a business trip to Italy last week. When he 2) • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • . • • • • . • • . •• (get) to the airport, he 3) .

.......................... .

(realise) he 4) ................................ (forget) his passport at home. So, he 5) ................................... (go) back home to get it but when he 6) •••.•••••••••.•••.••.. (arrive) at the airport, his plane 7) ••••.••..•••.•..••••••••• (already/leave).

o

Billy 1) •••..•.•••.•.•••.••.••.•. (not/relax) all week. It 2) ••••••.••..•.••..••.• (be) almost 9 o'clock on Friday morning and his Maths exam 3) ••.•••••.••.•••••..••.. (be) about to begin. He 4) .. . .. .. .. • . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . • ... (study) hard but he 5) . . • . • • • . • . • • . . • . • • . • • . • . • • . . • • •. (feel) really nervous.

Look at the table and answer the questions.

London

Tokyo

Sheffield

Maths

Art

cricket

football

chess, walking

going to cinema

Science tennis playing guitar, walking

1 sister

2 brothers, 1 sister

1 sister

become a teacher

become a pilot

become a doctor

1 Who lives in Newcastle? 2 Who likes History? 3 Who enjoys walking, Tom or Harry? 4 Who wants to be an artist? 5 Who is over twenty? 6 Who plays a sport? 7 Who has a sister? 8 Who wears glasses, Tom or Akira? 9 Who has a brother, Tom or Harry? 10 Who has got brown hair, Akira or Harry? 84


Progress Check 4 Fill in the gaps with some, any, no or one of their compounds. A: I'm hungry, Mum. I want to eat B: 2 A:

B: 3 A: B:

4 A: Are you going ..•.•.•.••..••.•••....

•• ~CJ.tT1.e.thO •• UJ~.• . Well, there's some fruit on the table. Hurry up, Sarah. There's ••••.���•.......•••••.•. time to waste. Your aunt Becky will be here any minute. Don't worry, Dad. I'm almost ready. What's the matter, Larry? There's ••.•.•••.•.•••••.•••••. in my eye, Mum. It hurts.

this weekend? B: Yes, I'm going camping with my friends. 5 A: Who gave you this gift? B: .•......•...••..•••••• at work. 6 A: Is there ...................... good on TV tonight? B: Yes, the American Music Awards are on Channel 8 at 9:00 pm.

, QI Listen and tick (.I) the correct box.

o What subject did Karl fail?

3 Which animal did Annie like most? y=2y-7

x/2

+7 =8

Where was Tom's magazine?

4 Where will Sam leave Ann's MP3 player?

5 Which is Betty's friend?

2 What time did Jane leave home?

7:30 7:Lf5 8:00 85


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Functions of Modal Verbs I know but if I've got it, he won't be able to play it either.

QI Listen and repeat. Then act out.

Perhape I could borrow the neighbour'e trumpet.

But you can't play the trumpet, Bob.

The modal verbs are: can, could, must, will, would, shall, should, may, might, ought (to), etc. They have the same form in all persons. They come before the subject in questions and take not after them in negations. They take an infinitive without to after them except for ought which is followed by a to infinitive. Can she play tennis? No, she can't play tennis but she can play golf. He ought to listen to you.

We express ability with: can (ability in the present or future) Can you swim? No, I can't. I can run fast though. could / was able to (ability in the past for repeated actions) She could / was able to dance for hours when she was young. (repeated action) was able to (= managed to) (ability in the past for repeated actions or a single action) He was able to win the race. (single action) (NOT He SQl:Ild WiR the Fase.) BUT: I couldn't / wasn't able to find my keys. (single action) He couldn't / wasn't able to ski when he was young. (repeated action) Can is the Present Simple form and could is the Past Simple. Can borrows the rest of its tenses from the verb phrase be able to. She hasn't been able to finish it yet.

Fill in: can, could or be able to in the correct tense. John: 1) ••• C~It1... you ski? Dave: Yes, 12) ............. . I went skiing last year and I 3) •..•••••••.•• go down the learner's slope easily. John: 14) ............. ski when I was younger but since I hurt my leg 15) ............. (not) . Dave: Actually, I think ice-skating is much easier. I 6) ••.••.•..•••• ice-skate when I was five years old. John: Really? I tried ice-skating once but I 7) .•.•••.••••.• (not) stand up at all!

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Functions of Modal Verbs Fill in: can / can't, could / couldn't, was / wasn't able to or have been able to. A: I'd like to speak to Mr Turner, please. B: I'm sorry but Mr Turner .... C.at1:t .... come to the phone right now. He's busy. 2 A: I .................. ride a bicycle until I was ten. B: Well, I didn't learn until I was twelve. 3 A: How was the test, Lily? B: It was difficult but I ....••.••••.....•.

4 A: Is Kim good at languages? B: Yes, she .................... already speak French, German and Spanish.

5 A: Maksim was a very talented child. B: I know. He .................. play the violin when he was seven.

6 A: ..•..••••....••... you swim, Sophie? B: Of course. I .................. . swim since I was five.

answer all the questions.

Q

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

,

That's what I call a mirror. We express possibility / probability with: • may / might

+ present infinitive He may be back before noon.

• could + present infinitive • must + present infinitive

(It's possible.)

l

There might be some cheese in the fridge. (It's possible.) He coulCi still be at home. (It's possible.) They look alike. They must be twins. (I think they are twins.)

• can't

+ present infinitive

You have been sleeping all day. You can't be tired. (I don't think it's possible that you are tired .)

• Can ... ? + present infinitive Can he still be at work? (Is it possible?) • could / might + perfect infinitive We could have had an accident. (It was possible but it didn't happen.)

Might is the past form of may. Might can also be used for present Situations, too. There's a lot of traffic. I might be a little late for the meeting.

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Functions of Modal Verbs

You are Auntie Claire. This is part of a letter that a 13-year-old student has sent you. Read it, then write him/her a letter giving your advice. Use may / might, could, must or can't. t

r

.. Dear Auntie Claire, I lied to my parents about my exams. When they found out that I had failed, they became very angry. They shouted at me and made me go to my room. They don 't let me go out with my friends noW. I can't even watch Tv. I feel \ terrible. Unhappy

,

...........~ .. .i~ .~ . Dear Unhappy, Ybu 1) .. tr1tiiY.1. Jrliqbt. .. have some problems with your family right now but it 2) .•..•..•.•••••.. be that serious. You 3) ....•.•••••..... try talking to a friend or a relative. You 4) ................ have an aunt or a cousin who can help you. You 5) ................ find that discussing the problem with them is better. Your parents 6) .•.......••..... really be as angry as you think; they 7) .............. be upset but they 8) .............. . realise why you're so unhappy. I suggest you try talking to them again - you 9) ..•..••••••••.•• be surprised. Good luck, Auntie Claire

..

WI

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

We express permission with: (asking for permission) can (informal) Can I borrow your pen? could (more polite) Could I borrow your car? may (formal) May I use your phone? might (more formal) Might I see your driving licence, please? (giving / refusing permission) can (informal, giving permission) may (formal, giving permission) mustn't (refusing permission) can 't (refusing permission)

You You You You

can have one more if you want. may stay a little longer. mustn't park here. can't enter this room.

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Functions of Modal Verbs

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Fill in: can, may, could, mustn't or can't.

Ramon: Mother: Ramon: Mother:

Mum, 1) .. . 9~U1 .I.lt1i31.Y • .. I go to the library? Of course you 2) ....•.•......•. " Ramon but you 3) ................ stay very long. 4) .................. I stay until 8 o'clock? No, you 5) .................. because we're leaving for the cinema at 8:30.

(At the library) Ramon: 6) .................. I look at the latest issue of Musician magazine, please? Librarian: Yes, you 7) .................. but remember that you 8) .........•........ take it out of the library.

Q

if it'6like the one I had la6t week, can you bring me a hammer a6 well?

Listen and repeat. Then act _o_u_t.___

Shall I 6erve it on it6 own or would you like 60mething with it? Waiter! Could you bring me a 6teak, plea We make requests, offers or suggestions with: can (request) could / would (polite request) could (suggestion) would you like (polite offer) Shall I / we (suggestion/offer) will (offer/request) * for the other uses of 'will' (promises, threats, etc.) see p. 42

Can you help me tidy my room? Could / Would you help me with my homework? Could we go shopping today? Would you like some more lemonade? Shall I post this letter for you? (offer) Shall we buy him a present? (suggestion) I'll make you some coffee if you want. (friendly offer) Will you do me a favour? (friendly request)

Fill in: can, could, would, shall or will.

John: Jane: John:

1) ... .W-QUld ... you like some more juice, Jane? No, thank you. 2) ........................ we get the bill? OK. Waiter - excuse me, 3) .................•.... . . you bring us the bill, please?

Waiter: Here you are sir. 4) ........................ I take these plates away? John: Yes, please. 5) •.............•..•...... I have a pen to sign this cheque, please? Jane, 6) ........................ you give me my glasses? Waiter: 7) ........................ you like me to get a taxi for you, sir? John: Yes. Thank you. Waiter: And I 8) ........................ bring your coats for you in just a minute.

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Functions of Modal Verbs

Fill in: will, shall or won't.

Mum: 1) ... Will ... you be late home tonight, Berta? Berta: Yes, 12) ............. . I'm going to a party. But I 3) ............. be too late. I have school tomorrow. 4) ....•.••..... I keep some dinner for you? No thanks, Mum. There 5) •............ be lots to eat at the party. 6) ............. I pick you up after the party? No, there's no need. I 7) ............. come home with Niki and her parents.

Mum: Berta: Mum: Berta: Mum: Well, I 8) ............. wait up for you. Berta: No, Mum. Please don't. Oh no! Look at the time! What 9) ............. I wear?

WI

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

Oh yes, you can! The baby has swallowed the front door key!

Doctor! You have to help me. I can't get into my house. #-- -...

,

We express advice with: should / ought to You should walk more. (general advice; I advise you.) had better You'd better see your dentist. (advice for a specific situation ; it is a good idea.) We express criticism with: should / ought to + perfect infinitive

= It would have been better if you had ... You ought to have been more polite to him. (It was the right thing to do but you didn't do it.)

Fill in: should / ought to or had better.

You 1) • ~b(JJ.-lld I.OJJ.@bt. t.a. . ask someone to paint your house this year. Laura: Yes. It's beginning to look a bit dirty. I can 't really afford it, though. Do you think I

Jill:

2) .................... try to get a loan?

Laura: That's a good idea. Jill: I 3) .•••...••.•.•••..... do something about the roof as well. It leaks when it rains. Laura: Really? You 4) •.••..•..•...•••.•.. take care of it now or the ceiling will fall in! Jill: Yes, you're right. 15) •••.•••••••••••••••• ring someone today and ask them to look at it.

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Functions of Modal Verbs

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Read the situations and write what you would say using should / ought to and the correct tense of the infinitive. Use the verbs in the list:

be

call

lie

study

eat

Frank is the shy, new student at school. You're his only friend and he tells you that an older boy has been bullying him. He is afraid. What do you tell him? You .• .f7hQ~Jd. .t.(}[/. th(}. tt./Jc.h~r. ........................................... . 2 Brenda borrowed her sister's iPod. She wasn't really that careful with it. She put it in her pocket while jogging but it fell out and broke. What do you say to her? you .......................................................................... . 3 Your friend loves to eat chips and junk food. Lately, she has put on some weight and doesn't seem to have any energy. What do you tell her? you .......................................................................... . 4 You arranged to meet your friend at the shopping centre at 5 o'clock. He shows up at 6 o'clock but he didn't call you to tell you he'd be late. What do you say to him? you .................................................................. ........ . 5 Alma lied to her mother and when her mother found out, she was very upset. What do you say to her? You ......................•..............•................••........•......... . 6 Your best friend didn't pass his final exams because he hadn't studied. What do you tell him? you .............................................................................. .

We express obligation or necessity with: must (strong obligation, duty or personal feelings of necessity)

You must stop when the traffic light is red. I must see a doctor soon. (I decide it's necessary.)

have to (obligation or external necessity)

I have to do my homework every day. (the teachers decide it is necessary - not me)

I've got to (informal; it's necessary)

I've got to leave early today.

Must is the Present Simple form. It borrows the rest of its tenses from the verb have to. To form questions and negations of have to we use do/does (Present Simple) and did (Past Simple). He didn't have to do the shopping yesterday. You don't have to go to school today. Does he-have to be at work on time?

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Functions of Modal Verbs

Choose the correct item. 5 How long will you have to / must stay in the hospital? 6 You have to / must always obey the school rules. 7 I'm so tired . I must / have to take a break. 8 My mum says I must / have to clean my

1 Do you have to / must wear a uniform at school? 2 I must / have to work Monday to Friday. 3 Sam usually has to / must take the rubbish out in the morning. 4 It's cold out. I must / have to wear my warm coat.

room today.

We express absence of necessity or prohibition with: mustn't (prohibition) can't (prohibition) needn't (it is not necessary) don't need to / don't have to (it is not necessary in the present / future) didn't need to / didn't have to (it was not necessary in the past)

You mustn't feed the animals in the zoo. (It's forbidden.) You can't enter the country club without a card. (You are not allowed.) You needn't take an umbrella. It isn't raining. You don't need to / don't have to do it now. You can do it later. (It isn't necessary.) He didn't need to / didn't have to go to work yesterday because it was Sunday. (It was not necessary.)

Look at the museum rules and complete the sentences below using must, mustn't or needn't.

• No cameras allowed. • No food or drinks allowed in the museum. • Do not leave children alone. • Not necessary to join a tour group.

• Do not touch works of art. • No running in the museum. • Not necessary to see all the displays. • Do not throw anything on the floor.

5 You art. 6 You 7 you 8 You

1 You •.. fJJWf3.tr,J :t ••. use your cameras. 2 you ............... bring any food or drinks. 3 You ...•.••..•..•.. stay close to your parents / teachers. 4 You ............... join a tour group.

~

............... touch the works of ...••••••.•.•.• run in the museum. ............... see all the displays. ............... throw your rubbish

in the bin. 92

~


Functions of Modal Verbs

0

Fill in: mustn't, needn't or can't.

...--------r

~---

John, I want you to look after your brother this evening. He 1) .. c~t:1:1; .. go out and he 2) ....•.•.•.•. forget to do all his homework. You 3) ........•.• let him watch TV until he's finished it. He 4) ........... . watch the film either - it starts very late. He 5) ...•....... have a bath; he had one in the morning. There's a cake on the table but you 6) ........•. eat it all - leave some for your sister. You 7) • . . . . . . . . • . do the washingup. I'm going to do it tomorrow. You 8) .•......... make too much noise. And you 9) ........... go to bed without brushing your teeth. But you 10) ..•........ wait up for us. We might be home quite late because we 11) ......••..• leave the party until most of the guests have left.

,

Make sentences as in the example:

buy take

the washing-up. I did it myself. the cat's tail. those wires.

pull do be

your medicine or you won't get better. quiet in the library. any apples. I bought some yesterday .

tGYGR

You

must mustn't needn't

. YCJ.Ll .mu~tn't. tCJ.uc;r. thQ~(;' wir~~.............................................. . 2 ..•.•.......•..............•.....• 3

I

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

4 ••.•..•..••.•.•••••.••••••••.••••••••••••••.••.••.••••••••••••••.•.•••.•.••••••••

5

6 Fill in the gaps with mustn't, needn't, ~on't need to / don't have to or didn't need to / didn't have to.

A: You .mlJ~tJ1't. be late for the meeting. B: Yes, I know. I have to leave early to get

4 A: Did Robert get a taxi to the airport? B: No, he ........... . Dad gave him a lift. 5 A: you ............. buy that book. I can

there on time. 2 A: Shall I do the ironing for you? B: No, you ............... . I'll do it later. 3 A: You . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. forget to post the

lend you mine. B: Thanks a lot, Ann. 6 A: You ............. tell anyone what happened!

invitations. B: OK. I'll post them on my way to work.

~

B: Don't worry. I won 't say a word. 93


o

Functions of Modal Verbs

Fill in the correct modal verb and the speech situations as in the example:

(I • , •••••••••• )

the painting? (•....•.... )

• • . • . • • . . • . . you please sit down? (.......... )

Match the signs to the sentences.

[J]£]

ru

® ROAD UNDER CONSftUC....ON \ ® PLEASE STAY ON PATH I © NO CHEQUES OR CREDIT CARDS

You mustn't talk here. You can eat and sleep here.

I 3 I I You can 't drive here.

ru You must pay in cash. ITIJ

You shouldn't drop litter.

[I[J

You should walk here.

@

®

PLEASE PUT LinER IN THE BIN

-® ~

94

SILENCE

BED AND BREAKFAST

\

J


Functions of Modal Verbs

0

Complete the text with suitable modal verbs. There may be more than one answer.

Exam Rules (a) You 1) .••.• JYU. lflt• •••.• bring your student ID card with you to the examination. You 2) .......•••••••••• put it on your desk so that your teacher can see it. (b) You 3) ••...• , . , ... , • , .• talk during the exam. When you finish your exam, you 4) •••• , •••• , ••• , ••• quietly leave the exam room. (c) You 5) ".,.,"',." ...• use a calculator for the Mathematics section. (d) You 6) , , •. , , ••. , •.. , ••• be in the exam room at least 10 minutes before the exam starts. (e) You 7) " , .. , , , •••• , •. , • turn off your mobile phone during the exam. (ij You 8) ",., ,'. , •.• , , •.•• take your books with you into the exam room.

In teams, use modal verbs to make up sentences for the following situations. Each correct sentence gets 1 point. The team with the most points wins.

• your friend has got a bad cold • your friend has put on weight • your brother has got a test tomorrow • your friend has failed his/her exams • your sister doesn't feel well today • your friend's teacher is in hospital Team A S1: You should see a doctor, etc.

~

95

~

,


o

Functions of Modal Verbs Speaking Activity (Talking about obligation / prohibition / giving permission)

Look at the signs / drawings. In pairs, make sentences about summer camp rules using can, must or mustn't and the list of verbs / phrases below . • smoke • visit • keep camp / clean • eat • listen / MP3 players • bring / pets • be quiet

A: You mustn't eat in the tents.

..

Visiting Hours

B: You must be quiet between 10:30 pm and 7:00 am, etc .

10:00 am • 14:00 pm

Look at the summer camp rules in the Speaking Activity. Write the instructions the camp manager gives to the children who are going camping. Well children, there are a few things I have to tell you. First of all, you mustn't •.•••••.•••.•••

~

96

~


Questions - Question Words Question Tags

Q

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

Hello. Is this the school secretary?

,

We use do/does to form questions in Present Does he play the violin? Simple and did to form questions in Past Simple. Did he go to work yesterday?

To form questions with auxiliary verbs (can , be, Is he rich? Has he got a car? will , shall, must, etc.) we put the auxiliary verb Will he marry her? before the subject. Can you fly a helicopter?

Wh-questions begin with a question word and follow the above rules (question words: who, where, when, what, why, how, which , etc.)

Who is she? What did she do last night? Why did you come late?

• •

Whose is used to ask about possession. Which is used when there is a limited choice.

"Whose shoes are these?" "They're Tom's." "Which car is yours? " "The red one."

With verbs which take a preposition, the preposition goes at the end of the question.

Who does it belong to? Who did you go out with?

Write questions about the statements using the words in brackets . I like playing tennis. (you) 2 She goes to parties. (How often)

. . •. . . •••D.Q .you. /ike. p./q'jin@ .t~t1nis.? . ...... .

3 They went to London. (When) 4 She is crying. (Why) 5 Oliver can swim. (dive) 6 Ali hasn't arrived yet. (Who) 7 He'll do the cleaning. (washing-up)

~

97

~


CD

Questions - Question Words - Question Tags

We normally use the following question words when asking about: •

I peop e

jobs / things animals / actions

Who What Whose Which (one oD Which (one oD

n quan I y manner

I pace

time

Where

When How long What time How often

How much How many

reason Why

How

!

Fill in: who, whose, which, where, how often, what time, why, how much or

how many.

".. Wh.o.t7~....

is this coat?" "Mine."

6 "............

2 " ......••..••...••••• is Irina's house?"

I

•••••••••

was he late?"

"Because he overslept."

"Next to the bank."

7 " •........•.•.••.•..• does he visit his

3 " .................. does the party start?"

grandparents?" "Every Monday."

"At 8:30."

8 " •••••••.... is Robert?" "Julie's brother." . 9 " • • • • • • . . . . . . . • • • •. eggs d0 you nee d?"

4 " ................ does this cost?" "£25. " 5 "..................... is your book?"

"Ten."

"The red one. " Subject / Object Questions • If who, which or what are the subject of the question, we put the verb in the affirmative. subject Chris

helped

object Mary.

If who, which or what are the object of the question, we put the verb in the interrogative form. subject Mary

t

Who helped Mary? (not: Who did help Mary?)

helped

t

object George.

Who did Mary help?

Write questions to which the words in bold are the answers .

. ... .. ...... .WhQ . rnt;t .JLJJi~? ....... .... .

Sam met Julie.

2 Roger spoke to Jean. 3 Ella phoned Stuart. 4 Jenny will see Rosie. 5 Steve has left a message for Jim. 6 Ted doesn't like Sue. 7 Pam will visit Tom. 8 Jim is playing with Richard.

~

98


Questions - Question Words - Question Tags

~

Fill in: what, how long, when, how, how much, howald, why or where. Police officer: Mrs Lee: Police officer: Mrs Lee: Police officer: Mrs Lee: Police officer: Mrs Lee: Police officer:

Good morning, madam. 1) .... Wb~t .... can I do for you? Oh, officer, it's my Ned. He's run away from home. 2) •.•.....•..••. do you live? At 14 Church Road. 3) ...........•.. is your full name? Jennifer Rose Lee. 4) ••.........•.. did you last see Ned? At 6 o'clock yesterday evening.

5) •........••••. did he seem? Was he acting strangely? Mrs Lee: No, not at all. He seemed all right. Police officer: 6) .............. is Ned?

Mrs Lee: Police officer: Mrs Lee: Police officer: Mrs Lee: Police officer:

,

He's twelve. 7) ..•........•.• money did he have? None. 8) .•.•.••......• do you ask? Well, I'm sure he won't be very far away without any money. 9) .............. will it take you to find him?

I can't say exactly Mrs Lee but I hope we'll find him very soon. Now, can you tell me 10) .............. Ned looks like? Certainly. He's got long floppy ears, a short tail and ... Mrs Lee: Police officer: What? You mean Ned is your dog!

Write questions to which the words in bold are the answers.

Giant Pandas live in China. They are black and white animals that

have round heads, small black ears and short tails. They sleep during the night. They sleep for about 8 hours. They always eat bamboo. Giant Pandas are about 150 cm tall and often weigh about 90 kilos. They can climb trees. They live for about 15 years .

. . JYh~re . do. gia.rrt; .p~.nda.f; .Iiv.~? ..

6

........................ .

2 ................................................................... .

7

...................................................................... .

3

8

4

.................................................................... .

9

5

~

99

................................... .


~

Questions - Question Words - Question Tags

Question Tags •

Question tags are short questions put at the end of a statement. We use them, not to ask for information but for confirmation of or agreement to our statement. He can drive, can't he? We form question tags with an auxiliary verb and a personal pronoun (I, you, he, it, etc.). A question tag has the same auxiliary verb as in the statement. If there is no auxiliary verb in the statement, we use do, does or did accordingly. She is sleeping, isn't she? He came too late, didn't he?

• A positive statement is followed by a negative question tag and a negative statement by a positive question tag. He likes apples, doesn't he? She doesn't like apples, does she? He never complains, does he? • If we are sure of what we are asking and we don't expect an answer, the voice goes down (falling intonation). If we are not sure and we expect an answer, the voice goes up (rising intonation). She is pretty, isn't she? (sure)

\ She is a journalist, isn't shey (not sure)

Study the following question tags.

1 "I am"

"aren't I?"

I am tall, aren't I?

2 "I used to"

"didn't I?"

He used to drive to work, didn't he?

3 Imperative 4 "Let's"

"will/won't you?"

Please help me, will/won't you?

"shall we?"

Let's make a snowman , shall we?

"will/won't you?"

Let him come with us, will you/won't you?

"haven't I?"

He has got a pen, hasn't he?

5 "Let me/him", etc. 6 "I have (got)" (=possess) 7 "I have" (used idiomatically) 8 "There is/are"

"don't/doesn't/ He had an accident last week, didn't he? didn't I?" He has lunch at 12:00 pm, doesn't he? "isn't/aren't there?" There's no one here, is there? There are a few pears left, aren't there?

Add question tags to the following statements. 1 Let me help you, •.• .wUV.wQl1:t.YQ~.... ?

9 He never speaks rudely, .............. ?

2 Ann called Sam, ....•.•..•......••••• ?

10 Let's clean the room, ................. ?

3 She won't tell us the truth, ............ ?

11 Mary didn't use to work so late, ..•••.•. ?

4 Get out, .••...•••...••••...•..•••... ?

12 She has breakfast at 7:30 am, .•••••... ?

5 Rosa has got a pet cat, •....••.•.....• ?

13 Let her do it, ........•.•.•.........•. ?

6 They aren't going to Paris, ............ ?

14 John spoke to Nick, •••..••.......•.•. ?

7 She can sing well, ..•.•.....•....••.• ?

15 Rania wears glasses, ................. ?

8 Paul will do the shopping, .•.••....••.. ?

16 I am early for the meeting, ............. ?

~

100

~


Questions - Question Words - Question Tags

~

Add question tags and short answers as in the example:

Ben sits at the back of the class, ... dp'e{f?t1.'t .f]~ . .. ? 2 He's got dark brown hair, .••.•.•••••...•••.•... ?

Yes, •. he{ .ciQ~p' •..•..•.••••••• . No, .•.....•..•....... . That's Bill.

3 He wears glasses, ............................ ? 4 They talk a lot in class, ••••••.•.•••••..•••.....• ? 5 Christiana's in the same class, •.••••............ ?

Yes, .......................... . Yes, •.••.••.•..•••••••••••••.• . Yes, that's right, •••••••••••••••. .

6 Her parents are British, ...........•••••.•••••.• ?

No, .•.••••••••.•.. . They're Irish.

Tick (.f) sure / not sure according to your teacher's intonation.

1 You can take the train, can't youV 2 He'll bring his sister, won 't he?

3 You don't understand the exercise, do you? 4 Your friends won't come tomorrow, will they?

5 They were on the same plane as us, weren 't they?

6 We're late, aren't we? 7 They live next door, don't they?

8 She's got beautiful blue eyes, hasn't she?

SURE

NOT SURE

D D D D D D D D

[2]

D D D D D D D

So - Neither / Nor

We use so + auxilary verb + noun/personal pronoun to agree with positive statements. "They're decorating their house this week." "So are we." (We are decorating our

house, too.) • We use neither / nor + auxilary verb + noun / personal pronoun to agree with negative statements. "Kate doesn't eat meat. " "Neither / Nor do I." (I don't eat meat either.)

Fill in the gaps with So, Neither / Nor, the auxiliary verb and the personal pronoun.

A: I've just bought a new car.

4 A: I was sick last week.

B: ... .5.Q .h,flY~. l ..... . Mine's a Honda.

B: ............... . I had a terrible cold.

2 A: I didn't enjoy that film. B: ................ . It was very boring.

5 A: I don't like broccoli. B: •.••........•. . I think it tastes awful.

3 A: I am going to the funfair on Saturday. B: ........... . Maybe I'll see you there .

6 A: I'm looking forward to this trip. B: .......••••....•.••.•• . I can 't wait.

.4I11III 101

,


~

Questions - Question Words - Question Tags

In pairs try to guess who your partner's favourite celebrity is by asking him/her questions.

A: What does he/she do? B: He's an actor? A: Where is he from?

B: England? A: How old is he? etc.

Speaking Activity (Interview) Read the information about this famous young actress. Then in pairs, ask and answer questions. Fact File

• • • • • • •

Name: Dakota Fanning Job: actress Born: February 23rd, 1994 Started acting: age 5 Popular films: I am Sam, Charlotte's Web , War of the Worlds Lives in: Los Angeles Hobbies: reading, swimming, playing the violin, collecting dolls

A: Who's Dakota Fanning? B: She's an American actress. When was she born? etc.

Imagine you are a reporter interviewing the famous actress from the Speaking Activity. Write the interview.

A: When did you start acting? B: I started acting when I was five years old. A: When were you born?

............................................................................... •

••••••••••••••••••••••

I

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

·.............................................................................. . ~

102

~


Progress Check 5 (Units 9-10J Choose the correct item.

1 ...... you play the guitar?

® Can

B May

6 you ...... be rude to your parents.

C Must

A mustn't B must

C couldn 't

2 They live in a huge house and own three cars. They ...... be rich. A can't Bean C must

7 you ...... to eat more fruit and vegetables

3 ...... I help you carry these bags? A Will B Shall C Would you like

8 Sam •.•••. be at work today. It's Sunday. A can 't B mustn't C must

if you want to stay healthy. A should

9 I ...... read or write when I was four years

4 you ...... water the plants. I've already

old.

watered them. A can 't

A can't B don't need

C needn't

5 He had studied hard, so he ••.••. answer all the questions in the test. A is able to B was able to C can

B had better C ought

B couldn't

C wasn 't able

10 We ...... to be at the office at 9 o'clock every morning. A should B must C have 11 Dad , ..••.. I go to Kelly's party tomorrow? A can B might C will

Fill in the correct modal verb as in the example:

What ........ you

•C.P.LJ f.d . you type this letter, please?

You .•...... always wear your seatbelt when you drive ur car.

like to drink, Natsumi?

You ........ sit with

• .. .. ... I play on the

us if you like.

computer, Tony?

103


Progress Check 5 Complete the questions to which the words in bold are the answers as in the example:

This is Ricky Blair. He is from London, England. He is 17 years old and his birthday is on

February 27th. He's a drummer in a band. His band's name is New Groove. There are three members in the band, Ricky, Tommy and Russell. Ricky's favourite kind of music is rock and his favourite drummer is Dominic Howard of the British band Muse .

1

. . . .W.ho ....

is this?

2 ...••.•..... is he from? 3 ............ old is he? 4 . . . • • . . . . . .. is his birthday?

5 •..•..••.•.. does he do?

6 • •.•.•••••.• is his band's name? 7 • • . . . • • . . • .• members are there in the band?

8 • •.•.••••••. is his favourite kind of music? 9 • •.•.••••... is his favourite drummer? 10 · . • • . . . . • • •. band does he play in?

Add question tags to the following statements.

You like pizza, ..... .don't.yaw ...... ? '

5 Let's go to the park, .................. ?

2 Please come with me, ....•........... ?

6 You had fun last night, ......•........ ?

3 He didn't call , ....................... ?

7 They've already sent the invitations, .... .

4 Elisha lives near you, ................. ? ,

.......................•....•.... .. ?

Add questions and short answers as in the example:

A: Mr and Mrs Clark live in London, ....• don't.tb~y. ..... ? B: Yes, ..t.b~~ dQ .. ........... . 2 A: You visited them last summer, ........................ ? B: Yes, ...............•..•.•... . 3 A: You didn't meet their son Tony, ....................... ? B: No, ........................ . He was in the Netherlands. 4 A: He'll be back in July, ...........•........•..•........ ?

B: No, ......•.........•....•.. . He'll still be the Netherlands. 5 A: He has been there a long time, •.•...........••....••. ?

B: Yes, ........................ . 6 A: He isn't thinking of staying there, .••.............•••... ? B: Yes, ........................ . He likes the Netherlands a lot.

7 A: Mrs Clark will never agree to that, ..................... ? B: No, ................•...•... . 104


Progress Check 5 Ask questions to which the words in bold are the answers. Keith is a happy 11-year-old boy who lives in Canada. He likes going outside and climbing trees. Most of all, Keith likes playing in his tree house. When he was 9 years old his father helped him build it. He just loves it! At weekends all of his friends come over to play in it. They have lots of fun pretending to be great explorers. When Keith grows up, he wants to be a park ranger. He wants to protect the forests and the people who visit them.

.. .J-:faw.Qld. ~ .K..e;ithl. ............. .

5

................................... .

2 3

................................... .

6

................................... .

7

................................... .

4

.•..••.•

Q

I

8

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Listen to a telephone conversation. A boy wants to speak to William but he's not at home. For questions 1-5, complete the message to William. You will hear the conversation twice.

To: William From: Toby Davis Tennis match: at Jefferson ••....•...•.••........

OJ

Date:

m @] ..................... . m..................... . m..................... . June ., .••.••..•.....••....

Meet at: Ryerson

Time: Bring: extra tennis

105


-----~-

~e (to + verb)

- Gerund (verb

+ .ing)

~.~.~,~~~~ -.---.--- -"'"""""~--~-~--.~---- ~ -~ ...~-~--~......... ....

Have you thought of putting an advertisement in the newspaper? It's worth trying.

QI Listen and repeat. Then act out.

You seem to be upset. What's the matter? Will you please stop crying?

I don't know what to do. I've lost my dog. Do you mind helping me to look for him? The full infinitive is used: • • •

• I

to express purpose. He went to buy some bread. after would love / like / prefer. I'd love to see you tonight. after adjectives (angry, glad, happy, sorry, pleased, annoyed, etc.). I'm glad to see you here. with too or enough. He's too old to drive. She's clever enough to understand it. after certain verbs (advise, agree, appear, decide, expect, forget, hope, manage, offer, promise, refuse, seem, want, etc.). I hope to meet him again. after question words (where, how, what, who, which). Why is not used with to infinitive. I don't know what to do. but Nobody knew why he was angry.

The -ing form is used: • • • • •

• •

The bare infinitive is used: • •

after modal verbs (can, must, etc.). We must leave soon . after let / make / hear / see + object. My dad lets me use his computer.

106

as a noun. Smoking is dangerous. after love, like, dislike, hate, enjoy, prefer. I love going to the theatre. after start, begin, stop, finish . He started doing his homework at 5:00 pm. after go for physical activities. She went skiing last Sunday. after certain verbs (avoid, admit, confess to, deny, look forward to, mind, object to, prefer, regret, risk, spend, suggest, etc.). I don't mind helping you with the dishes. after the expressions: I'm busy, it's no use, it's (no) good, it's worth , what's the use of, be used to, there's no pOint (in). It's worth seeing that film. after prepositions. He left without taking his coat. after hear, see to describe an incomplete action, that is to say that someone heard, saw only a part of the action. I saw her crossing the street. (I saw her while she was crOSSing the street. I saw part of the action in progress.) But: hear, see + bare infinitive to describe a complete action that someone heard, saw from beginning to end. I saw her cross the street. (I saw the whole action from beginning to end.)


Infinitive (to + verb) - Gerund (verb + .ing)

CD

Note: • Help is followed by either the to infinitive or the bare infinitive. She helped me (to) fix the bicycle. • Some verbs can take a full infinitive or the -ing form with no difference in meaning. These verbs are: begin, hate, like, love, prefer, start, etc. He likes to watch / watching the birds. • If the subject of the verb is the same as the subject of the infinitive, then the subject of the infinitive is omitted. If, however, the subject of the verb is different from the subject of the infinitive, then an object pronoun (me, you, him, etc.), a name (Helen) or a noun (the man) is placed before the infinitive. Compare: I want to be back by 10 o'clock. I want him to be back by 10 o'clock. L-.::=.------;=-__

Write what each word is followed by: F.I. (full infinitive), 8.1. (bare infinitive) or -ing. 1 want 2 dislike 3 would love 4 it's worth 5 finish 6 will 7 make

+ + + + + + +

.. If.) ...

......... ......... ......... .........

......... .........

I I I

8 avoid

I

9 see

+ + + + + + +

: 10 promise 11 expect I I I I

: 12 it's no use : 13 hope I

I

14 let

·........ ·........

......... ·........ ......... ......... .........

15 shall 16 can 17 start 18 deny 19 hate : 20 must I I

I I

+ + + + + +

......... . ......... ......... ......... ......... . ........

Underline the correct item. Penny loves visiting / visit museums.

7 His teacher made him apologise / to

2 Jane isn't used to get up / getting up early

apologise for his bad behaviour. 8 The boys went hiking / to hike in the

in the morning. 3 Nikos agreed buy / to buy myoid laptop.

woods yesterday.

4 Swimming / To swim keeps you fit.

9 His parents let him to go / go to the party.

5 They decided selling / to sell their old car.

I

6 I'm busy to do / doing my homework at

10 Joan spent all day to shop / shopping. 11 I'd love to visit / visiting India one day.

the moment.

Fill in the gaps with a verb from the list below. Put it in the correct form. post

~

need

lend

1 They managed ...... to.firlif3.tJ .. ....

take

borrow

4 Dad promised ..................... us to the circus on Sunday.

the project on time.

5 Bruno won't let me ................... .

2 Linda may ..................... some

his car.

help with the ironing.

6 She refused ...••................ him

3 Could you ..................... this parcel for me, please?

some money. 107

,


CD

Infinitive (to + verb) - Gerund (verb + -ing)

Rephrase the following sentences as in the example:

3 I don't think the children should watch the

He mustn't be late for school. I don't want •..h'J01 ••t Q••b~. lCJ ry~. .pj Qr .....

late night film . I don't want ......................... .

. f;5khQ(J.I .. ........................... . 2 Jim's secretary is going to attend the meeting. Jim asked her to do it. Jim wants ........................ I

4 Why don't you come to the concert with me? I want .............................. .

••

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

Dear Julie, I am writing 1) ... to. tMr.IK... (thank) you for the lovely birthday present. I was so happy 2) •...•..••.... (receive) it. It was really nice of you to send something. On my birthday, I went with some friends to the Mexican restaurant in Poplar Street. If you haven't been, you really should 3) ............. (try) it. After that, we went 4) ............. (dance). It was lots of fun. My parents have agreed 5) •••.•.•••..••••...•.. (pay) for tennis lessons. They're glad 6) ..........•.. (see) that I'm so interested in a sport. I'm looking forward to 7) ....••..•...• (have) to my first lesson this Saturday. I can't wait 8) ............. (tell) you all about it. Well, I must 9) ............. (go) now. I hope 10) ....••..••.•• (hear) from you soon. Take care, Madeleine

Match column A with column B to make correct sentences as in the example: .

d

I can't stand

a is my favourite sport.

2

She likes

b to going on holiday.

3

Thank you for

c arguing with Steve. He won't change his mind.

4

Do you go

d hearing her cry.

5

She's looking forward

e painting in her free time.

6

Windsurfing

7

Yes, I admit

8

It's no use

f helping me with my Science project. g cycling often? h breaking the window.

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Infinitive (to + verb) - Gerund (verb + .ing)

7

Write sentences about yourself using the infinitive or the -ing form.

I forgot ... .t.Q .p0f5.1( .1(b~. l~ttcr. ..... . 2 I enjoy ...............•..•.......... . 3 I know how ..........•...•.......... .

6 I'm too young .......•............... . 7 I look forward to ....•................ . 8 I want .............................. .

4 I'm busy ....•..•................... . 5 I can ............................... .

9 I'm happy ••....•..................• . 10 I've decided ....................•... .

8

In pairs, ask and answer as in the example:

What / you like / do / in your free time?

3 What kind of music /

A: What do you like doing in your free time? B: I like surfing the Net. 2 What games / you enjoy / play?

you like / listen to? 4 What films / you prefer / watch? 5 How often / you go / shop?

Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or the -ing form.

6 A: Where's Daniela? B: She went ...•....••.•••.. (visit) her friend Lucy. 7 A: It's getting late. I really must ...•...•....•..• (go). B: All right. See you tomorrow. 8 A: I don't know how ........•••...•• (send) a text message.

B: I can ................ (show) you. 9 A: Is Miss Jones in the class? B: Yes, I just heard her ............... . (talk) to someone. 10 A: Do you have any plans for the weekend? B: Alex suggested ................ (go) camping.

,


CD

Infinitive (to + verb) - Gerund (verb + .ing)

Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space. Yesterday, I went shopping with my sister. I wanted to 1) •. her something for her birthday. She didn't

c. .

really know 2) ..•.. to get but she seemed to like the idea of a pet, 3) . . . •. we went to the pet shop. She started 4) ..... at all the animals 5) ....• when she saw the puppies playing in a box, she said that she w'Ould 6) ..•.. to have one of them. I hoped my parents wouldn't object 7) .•... having a dog in the house.

A buys 2 A why 3 A so

My sister promised to look after 8) •...• properly, so we bought a little brown puppy. Tomorrow, we're

4 A looking

going to take Splash to the beach.

5 6 7 8

A even A liked A of A them

B buying B what B since B looked B still B like B to B they

C buy C where C because C look C but C liking C from C it

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive or -ing form.

I

A: You must ..• b.e ... (be) worried about the race. B: Not really. I've been training hard so I expect ••. t.a .win ... (win).

5 A: How about .••...............•. (go)

2 A: Kate is good at ........•...•.......

6 A: Where's Velma? I need ........••.••.

(play) the guitar, isn't she? B: Yes. I heard her ..........•......... (play) in a concert last week. She was

(ask) her something. B: She isn't here. She always goes .........•.........•.. (swim) at this

to the park? B: I'd prefer ........•.•••....... (stay) in and ............•• (watch) a DVD.

great!

time of the day.

3 A: Mike! Could you .•........•........

7 A: What would you like me ....••••..•..

(let) the dog out? B: No. Sorry, Mum! I'm busy ••...•.....

(make) for dinner? B: Please, don't trouble yourself. Let's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (have) a takeaway

(help) Dad at the moment.

tonight - my treat!

4 A: There's no point in •...•..........•. (try) to do these exercises. They're too

8 A: Did Sue manage ..............•.•..

difficult. B: You shouldn't .•.....•........•••...

(get) here early today? B: Yes, I saw her ..•....•.............

(give up) so easily. Here, let me help you.

(work) on her computer as I came in. 110


Infinitive (to + verb) - Gerund (verb + .ing) Fill in the gaps. Then answer the questions about yourself as in the example:

What sports do you enjoy .... .playiJ1@ •... (play)? J.t;t:1j QY. pJ~yjt:16. .t.e:r.mir? .?nd .@CJJt ....•..•.••....•.....•..•........•.............. 2 Which countries would you like •..........•........• (visit)? 3 Name one thing that you have decided ......•......•.•..... (do) next year. 4 What are you looking forward ................•.... (do) next weekend? 5 How often do you go ••....•••.....••..•.. (swim) in the summer?

13

,

Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or the -ing form.

Tania has always loved 1) • •dtlfJ(;jt;1g. I . t(J. ~;;WC;.e. . (dance) . She started 2) .••.••.....•••••••••• (take) ballet lessons when she was six years old. She wants 3) •........•....••••... (become) a professional ballet dancer. She hopes 4) ..................... (be) famous one day. In the meantime, she's looking forward to 5) ••••.••..•.•••••.••.• (take part) in the International Ballet Competition.

Write sentences about you and people you know. Use the verbs in the box.

stay

work

watch

finish

travel

get up

One day I'd like ...............•.............................................•..... 2 My brother is looking forward to .............•......................................• 3 My parents don't let .•......•.•...•.....•••.•......•...........•.........•......... 4 I enjoy .........•.•.............................................................. 5 My best friend can 't stand ....................•...........•.....•................... 6 My teacher doesn't mind ...•...............•.........•....................•...•....

............ .... . ............ ............................. ......... ...... ........ 111


Infinitive (to + verb) - Gerund (verb + .ing)

Think Quick! In teams, use the words in the list to make up sentences.

prefer can't stand would like

expect agree look forward to

can I'm busy deny

refuse want enjoy

forget suggest let

it's worth hope it's no use

Team A S1: I prefer travelling by plane. Team B S1: I can't stand ... , etc.

Speaking Activity (Likes / Dislikes)

Use the phrases below to find out what your partner likes/doesn't like doing in his/her free time. Use the verbs in the list.

,enjoy .......-

Iplay games

I

prefer

don't like

o to the cinema ilisten to music read books_~et friends Iwatch 1Y Isurf the Net f

A: Do you like playing games in your free time? B: Yes, I do. I enjoy playing chess and Monopoly, etc.

Write a short paragraph about what your partner likes/doesn't like doing in his/her free time. Use the answers from the Speaking Activity.

My friend , ..••.•.•.........•.•.•.. likes playing games in his/her free time. He/She enjoys playing chess and Monopoly. He/She .•.•........••••..•...•.••...••.....•.•• I

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The Passive

W

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

~~

Look at all the dust in herel It looks as if this room hasn't been cleaned for a monthl

The Passive is formed with the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle.

Present Simple Past Simple Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Continuous Past Continuous Future Simple Infinitive Modal + be + past part.

Active Voice

Passive Voice

He delivers letters. He delivered the letters. He has delivered the letters. He had delivered the letters. He is delivering the letters. He was delivering the letters. He will deliver the letters. He has to deliver the letters. He must deliver the letters.

Letters are delivered. The letters were delivered. The letters have been delivered. The letters had been delivered. The letters are being delivered. The letters were being delivered. The letters will be delivered. The letters have to be delivered. The letters must be delivered.

The Passive is used: 1 when the agent (= the person who does the action) is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context. My car was stolen. fYVe don't know who stole it.) This church was built in 1815. (unimportant agent) He has been arrested. (obviously by the police) 2 to make more pOlite or formal statements. The car hasn't been cleaned. (more polite) (You haven't cleaned the car. - less polite)

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3 when the action is more important than the agent, as in processes, instructions, events, reports, headlines, news items, and advertisements. 30 people were killed in the earthquake. 4 to put emphasis on the agent. The new library will be opened by the Queen.


The Passive

Changing from Active into Passive •

The object of the Object (agent) Subject Verb active verb that picture. painted Active Picasso becomes the subject in the new Passive That picture was painted by Picasso. sentence. The active verb changes into a passive form and the subject of the active verb becomes the agent. The agent is introduced with by or it is omitted. After modal verbs (will , can, must, have to, should, may, ought to) we use be + past participle. You can use the machine for cutting bread. ~ The machine can be used for cutting bread. We use by + agent to say who or what carries out the action. We use with + instrument / material/ingredient to say what the agent used. A cake was made by Tina. It was made with eggs, flour and sugar. We put the agent (= the person who does the action) into the passive sentence only if it adds information. When the agent is unknown, unimportant or obvious it is omitted. Agents such as people (in general), they, somebody, etc. are omitted. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. (The agent is not omitted because it adds information.) Somebody pushed him. He was pushed (by sORlebody). (Unknown agent is omitted.) The police arrested him. He was arrested (by the poliGe). (Obvious agent is omitted.)

Fill in: is, are, was or were .

• A short story competition •••. .1;5• ••••

9 Penicillin

organised by our school every year. 2 The electric light bulb ••......... invented by Thomas Edison in 1879.

discovered by

Alexander Fleming. 10 The Harry Potter books ...•..•.... written by J. K. Rowling. 11 The music for the Phantom of the Opera . • . . . . . . . •. composed by Andrew Lloyd

3 Many films ....•.. produced in Hollywood. 4 The Lost City of the Incas ......... .. located in Peru.

Webber. 12 The Parthenon .•..•....•• visited by thousands of tourists each year.

5 The film Titanic ........... directed by James Cameron. 6 The Special Olympics World Games . . . . . . . . . .. held every four years. 7 Guernica ........... painted by Pablo

13 Breakfast ... •....... served from 7:00 am to 11 :00 am daily. 14 The Coliseum ...••••.... completed by the Romans in 80 AD. 15 Coffee ........... grown in Brazil.

Picasso. 8 Toyota cars ..•...•.•.. made in Japan.

~

...........

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The Passive How are music videos made? Turn the following sentences into the present simple passive. The music producer chooses the song for the music video .

.T.h~ . ~()nq .f.Qctbc. tr.IU~ic. yjdc.Q .i~. C;hQ~~t'} .b.y.trc. ..... . mUfli,t;. p.r.Qduc;~r. ...................................... . 2 A director directs the music video. 3 A cameraman shoots the video. 4 A singer or band sings the song. 5 The music company produces the music video.

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple passive. Two men 1) ••... .w~rc.

~~t7r,1 ..

. . .. (see) breaking into a house last night. The police

2) .................. (call) and one man 3) .................. (catch) immediately. The other escaped but he 4) .................. (find) soon after. Both men 5) .................. (take) to the police station where they 6) ...•••.•.•.••.••.• (question) separately by a police officer. The two men 7) .................. (charge) with burglary.

Amy and many other volunteers are helping their town get ready for the Carnival. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous passive and the past continuous passive. A It's 10 o'clock on Friday morning and the volunteers are busy. At this time, coloured lights •...• •~rc. b.e.ing .pl"lt. Up. ...... (put up). 2 3 4 5

Colourful ribbons ....•.••.................. ~ ... (tie) around trees. The music .............................. (choose). The costumes .............................. (check). A stage .....•...•...........•........ (build) in the square.

B Later that day, Amy arrived to help with the preparations. 1 When she got there, the streets •• w~r.~ .b.t7i.n@ . dc~Qr~t.e.d .. (decorate). 2 Food and drinks .............................. (deliver). 3 Tables and chairs .•.•••.......•...............• (place) in the square. 4 Popcorn •.•......•.••.••.•.••....•..•• (make).

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The Passive Fill in the correct passive form.

Mr Pryce was having some home improvements done. Write what he saw when he went to inspect the work. The windows •• .h~d b.e:~t1. yJ~~.rwd... . (clean) 2 New curtains ............................... . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . (put up) 3 The walls ..........•••...••.•....•.....••...

.

· .............................. . (paint)

4 Light fittings ................................ . (install) 5 Some furniture .......••••...•.•...•..•..•.••. · .............................. . (deliver) 6 New carpets ..•••....•.•....•......•......•.. •

••

••••••••

I

•••••••••••••••

•••••••••••••••••••••••••

I

•••••

~~. .~:X --r--r--+--L~

(buy)

Turn from active into passive. Omit the agent where it can be omitted.

4 A famous designer will redecorate the hotel.

Someone has broken the crystal vase. The. 1{r:Jtf7ttll. v~.s.~ .Q0.P. .b.~~n. b.r.Q~~n

'Qtt1lt.t~d).. ........................ . 2 His parents have brought him up to be polite.

5 They will advertise the product on TV.

3 Alexander Bain invented the fax machine.

6 The gardener has planted some trees.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive tense.

4 A: Who ............................ .

A: Those shoes look so comfortable. B: They •• w.e:r.tI .tn~d.e. .. (make) in Italy.

(the first computer game/invent/by)? B: Steve Russell.

2 A: Why didn't you fly to Moscow? B: Because all the flights .......••...•••

5 A: Can I bring my dog? B: I'm afraid pets .........••..•..••...

. . . . . . .. (cancel) due to a snowstorm.

(not/allow) in the camp.

3 A: When ..•......••.....•...........

6 A: Why didn't you come to Helen's party? B: I ...................... (not/invite).

(lunch/serve)? B: From 11 :30 am to 2:30 pm .

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The Passive When we want to find out who or what did something the passive question form is as follows: Who / What ... by? Who was the TV invented by? What was the fire caused by?

Using the passive, ask questions to which the bold type words are the

.'

answers.

Wha .w~.s. AlJ.fif<r~Jij3J .di~c;(J.vt;,r.e.cj. by....... .. ?

Captain Cook discovered Australia.

2 We keep money in a safe. 3 A bee stung him.

. ............•.....•.....•..................• ?

4 5 6 7

. .•..........................••.............. ? .•..........................••............... ? . ••................•.......•.......•......... ? . ............................................ ?

. ............................................ ?

They speak English in New Zealand. They have taken his aunt to hospital. The boys damaged the TV. Oa Vinci painted the Mona Lisa.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .? . ............................... ............. ? .............................................. ?

8 He invited 30 people to his party. 9 They grow bananas in Africa. 10 Versace designed these glasses. Fill in by or with.

The photos were taken ... with

. ..

a

4 The room was decorated .............. . flowers. 5 Amelia was directed ............... Mira Nair. 6 The treasure chest was opened ......... .

digital camera. 2 The Green Mile was written ..••••...•.•.. Stephen King. 3 The sauce was made onions and peppers.

a special key.

Turn from active into passive.

1 You must leave the bathroom tidy . ........ ThC( .b.~thr.Q(Jro. mLJ.s.t .b.~. It;,f.t. .t.id.y........ . 2 You should water this plant daily . ......................................•........•.•.. 3 Our neighbour ought to paint the garage. • ................•..•.••••..•..•..••......•.. 4 I have to return these books to the library . ........................................... .. 5 They must pay their phone bill. ....................•.•.....•.....•................... 6 You should lock the front door. •.........................••••............•...•...•... 7 You must sign these papers . ..•••..•••.••••.....•........................•.......•.. 8 He has to deliver the parcel. ...•....•.•..••...••.•......................•.....•••.. 9 You ought to put your toys away . ......•.....•.•..•...............................•.. 10 We must protect the environment.

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..


The Passive With verbs taking two objects it is more usual to begin the passive sentence with the person. I sent her some roses. She was sent some roses. (more usual) or Some roses were sent to her. (less usual)

Turn from active into passive as in the example: He gave me a present. .I. w,q~. @jI(t;t;1.0. pr.e.f7~nt.. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

5 Jill sent Juan a letter.

: J.\ pr~qt;t;1t. W~;5. eJv(:n .t.o .mc:·....... ' : I

2 The waiter will bring us the bill.

6 Her mother bought Olga some sweets.

3 The Queen presented him with a medal.

7 Bob has sold Ted a second-hand car.

4 Amy showed me some photos.

8 Larry is going to send a letter to Tom.

Rewrite the newspaper headlines as complete sentences. FOOTBALLER OFFERED MILLION POUNDS FOR TRANSFER

@ PLANETBEING DESTROYED BY POLLUTION

(j) AHDWS BIING DSID TO TIST BEAUTY PlODDerS

®

®

3-YEAR-OLD TAKEN TO HOSPITAL AFTER SERIOUS FALL YESTERDAY 5 TREASURE DISCOVERED IN OLD LADY'S GARDEN

® RARE PICASSO PAINTING TO BE EXHIBITED AT NATIONAL GALLERY NEXT MONDAY

MONEY BEING RAISED FOR BABY'S OPERATION IN USA

®

NO CAMERAS

IUJ,OWED IN MUSEUM

®

TOM CRUISE ASKED 10 SPONSOR CHARI1't' EVEN1 YES1ERDAY ,

..... Th.e. fo.otbf3.llt;r. h0~ .b.t;~n o.ffere.d .Q.r.niJUon p.Ql)nd;;. for.tltt< .t.rJ}fJ;5.f.e.r; .. ... 2 ................................•....................................•....••.....

3 4 .••••••....••••.••.•...•.••••..•••••.•.••••••••....••.•••••....•.....•..•..•••••.

5 6 ................................................................................ . 7 ................................................................................ .

8 9 ................................................................................ .

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The Passive Rewrite the following passage in the passive. 111M Our school is organising a Science Fair. The headmaster will choose the best project. The teachers have asked students to do something about the environment. Students should include interesting experiments in their projects. The school will give the winners a set of Science books .

. . . . . . . A .Skkm4~ . f0J r.iP. p,t<inq . Qr~i3tf1 i.s.~d. by. .t.h~ . t~i3t4b~rp. .af. .P.LJ r .f?c;;hQQ[ .•••••.•

, A reporter is talking to Lucy Fame. Complete the interview. Rep:

It's wonderful to interview such a famous person as you.

Lucy: Yes, you are very lucky! Rep: I know that you 1) .... MI(~. b~t;.f1.intt<rl(i~'vY(:d .... (interview) many times before. Lucy: Yes, I have. Rep: Also, I know that three books 2) ....•..•.••••••..••••••.. (already/write) about you. Lucy: Yes, they have - and another one 3) ........................... (write) at the moment. Rep: A film 4) ..••••••.•..•......•.•....••.. (make) about your life two years ago, wasn't it? Lucy: Yes, it was a brilliant film! The leading role 5) ........................•...•..••. (play) Rep:

by a beautiful young actress. 6) .•••.••.......•••.•.• any more films . : •••••••.••••..•...• (make) in the future?

Lucy: Oh yes, of course! Rep: Where do you buy your clothes from, Lucy? Lucy: I don't buy them! They 7) ................................. (design) especially for me. Rep: And what about your fabulous house? Lucy: It 8) •.••.•..•.•••.•..••••.••••••••....•• (build) five years ago by an Italian architect. Rep: You must make a lot of money. Lucy: I make lots of money and everybody loves me. Flowers 9) ...••..•.•..•••...•••••..... Rep:

(send).to my house every day. Not by me, that's for certain!

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The Passive Speaking Activity (Talking about monuments) In pairs use the information and the notes below to ask and answer questions as in the example:

• • • •

where / located what / made of when / completed who / designed by

• why / built Name: Located:

the Taj Mahal in Agra, in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, in India

Made of: Designed by: Completed: Reason built:

white marble Ustad Ahmad Lahani in 1653 in memory of Emperor Shah Jahan's favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal

A: Where is the Taj Mahallocated? B: It is located in Agra, in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, in India, etc. I

Use the information about the Taj Mahal from the Speaking Activity and write a short paragraph about it.

The Taj Mahal is located in Agra, in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, in India. It ••••

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Progress Check 6 (Units 11-12J Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive form.

I expect ..................... (be) back

5 We'll be glad ......•.............. (send) you all the information. 6 The teacher made me .................. (stay) after school. 7 Don't they want .................. Ooin)

by dinnertime. 2 Will you help me ..................... (carry) these bags? 3 Please, let me ...•............•.... (borrow) your textbook. 4 The committee agreed ..•.......•......

us for tea? 8 You must ..................... (wait) your turn.

(hear) us out.

Fill in the gaps using the infinitive or -ing form.

A: Do you fancy ....................... .................... (go) out tonight? B: Not really. I'm tired of ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (eat) out.

: 4 A: Did you remember ................ .. : .................... (walk) the dog? : B: Yes, but I forgot .................. .. : ..................... (lock) the gate. I

I

I I

2 A: Did you go to the dentist's today? 5 A: Should I apply for the cashier's post? B: Yes. She advised me ................ : B: It's definitely worth .••.............•. ........... (brush) my teeth regularly. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (try) for it. •

I

I

I I

3 A: Why are you so angry? 6 A: You told Sarah, didn't you? B: I can't stand •.•.....•••...•••...••.. : B: Of course not! I promised not •••....•. . . . . . . .. (wait) in the queue any longer. : .. . .................. (say) anything. I

I

I

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

Last Sunday, I decided 1) .•. .t.Q.f:>.<piQrt.•.. (explore) the old house near our village. My little brother refused 2) ••.•..••...••..•.. (come) because he was frightened but my friend Jeff said he didn't mind 3) ..••• • • • • • . . . • • . .. (go) with me. We arrived at the house late one evening and began 4) •.....•••••.•.•••• (climb) the old wooden stairs. When we reached the top it was so dark that I couldn't see anything. To my horror, Jeff seemed to have disappeared. Suddenly, I heard something 5) ............................ (make) a strange noise which made my hair 6) . • • . • . • • • • • . . • . • .• (stand) on end. At first, I thought it was Jeff who was pretending 7) . . . . • • • . . . . . . . • • •. (be) a ghost. Then Jeff appeared behind me. We were scared. We didn't know what 8) ••...••.•••...•••• (do). We thought we'd better 9) •.••••...•••.•••.• (leave) the house quickly. When I told my parents what had happened they made me 10) •..•••.•.....••••. (promise) not 11) .................. (go) there again. 121

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Progress Check 6 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive tense.

4 A: Do you know when the Grammy Awards

A: Are you coming to Tom 's party? B: Unfortunately, 1h<?v~n:t . b.~~n. il1l(i.t.t{d

are? B: Yes, they ...•.....................

(not/invite).

(hold) every year in February.

2 A: Where can I find interesting facts for my project on dinosaurs? B: All the information you need ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (can/find) at the library.

5 A: A new library ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (build) in our town at the moment. B: Yes, I know. It ................... ..

3 A: Who ....................... (Mona

................ (open) by the mayor when it's finished.

Lisa/paint)? B: Leonardo da Vinci, of course!

Turn from active into passive. Omit the agent where it can be omitted.

1 Someone has stolen my wallet. . .My . ... .

6 People make jam from fruit. .......•••...

. W<?f1~.t. h<?;3. b.e.~t;I . ~t.Qlt;"n .. ......... . 2 Jon Favreau directed Iron Man . ...••.•••.•

7 Jason broke the window . .............. .

3 The doctor has examined him ...•.......•

8 A burglar broke into our house last night. ••

4 They will make the announcement tomorrow.

9 Marie Curie discovered radium . ••.••.....

5 Emma designed this dress. . ........... .

10 They serve breakfast every morning at 7:00 . ..........•.•..............•....

Turn from active into passive.

. ...... 'sh.e. j~. b~jf:1g p.r.QIJ1Qt.e.d ...... .

They are promoting her. 2 A famous architect designed these buildings. 3 Van Gogh painted that picture. 4 You must complete this work today. 5 The Queen will open the exhibition. 6 Lightning has struck the tree. 122


Progress Check 6 Turn the following passage into the passive.

Someone found a skeleton in a cave in the mountains yesterday. They have sent it to a laboratory. Scientists were examining it all through the night. They have discovered that it is the skeleton of a dinosaur from thousands of years ago. They are still doing tests. They are going to send it to a museum when they have completed the tests.

A skeleton was found in a cave in the mountains yesterday. ..................... .

·............................................................................... . ·................................................................................ . ·............................................................................... . ·............................................................................... . ................................................................................ .

QI

You will hear some information about an art gallery. Listen and complete questions 1-5. You will hear the information twice.

Number of paintings: A few paintings are by: She painted pictures of: Sculptures:

" of clay, rock and ....................

Closing'time:

ij·································· 123

1


Conditionals Listen and repeat. Then act out. If he hadn't been so naughty, Dad wouldn't have shouted at him.

If I were older, I would take m~~!i~S~~~hi'f!1m to the zoo myself.

if-clause (hypothesis) Main clause (result) general truth

if / when Simple

+ Present

Use something which is always true, laws of nature

Present Simple

If you heat ice, it melts.

Type 1 if-clause (hypothesis) Main clause (result) real present

if + Present Simple unless (= if not)

real or very probable situation in the present or future

Future, Imperative can / must / may + bare infinitive

II

Use

If he comes late, we'll miss the bus. If you can't afford it, don't buy it.

= Unless you can afford it, don't buy it.

If you see her, can you give her a message?

Type 2 if-clause (hypothesis) Main clause (result) unreal present

if

+ Past Simple

would / could / might bare infinitive

+

Use improbable situation in the present or future; also used to give advice

If I were you , I would see a doctor. (advice) If I had money, I could buy a new car. (But I don 't have enough money to buy one.) (improbable situation)

Type 3 if-clause (hypothesis) Main clause (result) unreal past

,if

+ Past Perfect

Use

would / could / might + unreal or improbable have + past participle situation in the past; also used to express regret and criticism

If you hadn't been rude, he wouldn't have punished you. (But you were rude and he punished you.) (criticis

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Conditionals Study the following notes: •

• We do not usually use will , would We put a comma after the if-clause when or should in an if-clause. it comes first. If we take a taxi, we won't be late. If we go by plane, it will be more expensive. NOT If we will take a taxi, we won't be late. It will be more expensive if we go by plane. However, we use should after if Unless means if not. when we are not sure about a We'll go for a picnic unless it rains. possibility. We'll go for a picnic if it doesn't rain. If I see him, I'll give it to him. (Perhaps I will see him.) After if, we can use were instead of was in all persons. If I should see him, I'll give it to him. If I were you, I wouldn't spend so much money. (Perhaps I'll see him but I'm not sure.)

Match the following parts of the sentences.

. .. D....

A we'll make a snowman.

If it's sunny tomorrow, 2 If John doesn't hurry, 3 If it snows, 4 If there are no buses,

B she'll have to take a taxi. C he'll be late. D we'll go on a picnic.

2 3 4

........ ....... ........

Write type 1 conditionals.

1 (eat/put on weight)

2 (not work hard/lose job)

3 (rain/stay at home)

.If. be. eatf;5. f;5o. ...... . .mLJ(;h.. .be. WoW.put .. . •Qt;!. w~ig.ht ......... . Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Add a comma where necessary.

If the dog ....... ~(:~.p.f7 ........ (keep)

4 If the weather is bad on Saturday we ....•

barking, the neighbours will complain. 2 The teacher ..................... (be) angry if you come late for school again. 3 If I ........................ (finish) my homework early I'll go out with my friends.

. ...................... (stay) at home.

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5 You should see a doctor if you ......... . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • • . . . .. (not/feel) well. 6 If you study hard you ..............•... . ..•.•...•...••••... (pass) your exam. 125

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Conditionals Fill in: unless or if.

. . . . . . . . If ........ you make so much

5 We'll miss the bus .....••••..••••••• we

noise, I won 't be able to sleep. 2 You won 't understand ••••..........•... you listen carefully. 3 I won't be able to finish the work .••••.••..•...... you help me.

hurry. 6 They won't be able to buy a house • . • • • • • • • • • • . . . .• they save money. 7 I'll tell you •••.•....•••.•....• you get any messages. 8 I'll come with you to the dentist's ................. you want to go alone.

4 ................ you're hungry, I'll makeyou a sandwich.

Match the items in column A with those in column B in order to make correct type 0 conditional sentences as in the example:

..1.-e. .... if. I .w.fJ~n. ¥/J.lJ .drop. a .£7 ton t; .in w~te.r; . t:b~. ;3.t.Qt:Je. f3.ink£7 .............. .

/I

1 Drop a stone in water. 2 Pour oil on water. 3 Heat water to 100°C. 4 Mix blue and yellow. 5 Throw a ball into the air. 6 Heat chocolate. 7 Freeze water.

a The water boils. b The ball falls to the ground. c The chocolate melts. d The food stays fresh longer. e The stone sinks. f The water becomes ice. g You get green. h It floats.

8 Put food in the fridge.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1 A: I must be at the airport by 9:00 am.

3 A: I need some help with the housework. B: Well, if you ...................... .. (hoover) the carpets, I ............ .. ................... (make) the beds.

B: Well, if you .d.Qr,J :t. k~v.tt . (not/leave) right away, you ..•• YljI} .m,i;;.fi . .... .

(miss) your flight. 2 A: How long will you stay in Europe? B: I ................... (not/stay) long unless I ..................... (find) a summer job.

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4 A: How can I print this information? B: I .•........................ (show) you if you ................... (wait) a few minutes.

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Conditionals Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

Pat is feeling unhappy. If she 1) • •j Qin(:d. .... (join) an after school club, she 2) . • . • • • . • • • • • • • • . •• (make) more friends. Pat 3) .. .. .. • • • . . .. . . ... (enjoy) herself if she 4) ..•..•.••..•..... (go) out more. Her school marks are suffering, too. If she 5) .................. (study) more, she 6) ................... .

(have) better marks and she 7) ..••.•••••.•.••..••••••• (get) into university. Also, she doesn't exercise much. She 8) ......................... (feel) healthier if she 9) •• .. .. • • .. • .. .. • • . .. .. . ... (walk) to school and she 10) ............................... (have) more energy if she 11) ........•••.••..•..•. (add) vegetables to her diet.

What would you do in each situation? Write type 2 conditionals.

call an ambulance GomplaiR to the maRager You find a fly in your soup .

run away ring the police

try to catch it walk to the nearest garage

2 You see a burglar breaking into your house.

3 You see a mouse in your

5 You see an accident.

6 You see a ghost in your

kitchen.

.If.l.talJfJdJJ fJ:j jfJ .my..... .

.~Q/)p.l.wQU ld coroplqin. .. . .tQ .t.h~ ro~na.g.~r; ........ . 4 Your car runs out of

room.

petrol.

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Conditionals Advise Mei what to do in each situation.

• get / haircut • clean I gla&&e&

M: I can't see a thing. Y: .If.l.IY(3r(3.Y9VJ.I(;i .••.

• go / dentist • buy / burger

• take / break • put on / jumper

2 M: I'm tired. Y: .•..•••.•.••.•..•..•

3 M: I'm hungry.

5 M: My hair's a mess. Y: •.•.•••..•.•••••.•••

6 M: I've got a toothache. Y: .•••...••••••..••••.

Y: ....••.••.•..•••••••

•C(I(3~t1 .f11Y. •••..•.••. I ' .gI~s.;?(3P'.••••.•.••••

4 M: I'm really cold . Y: •••••.•.••••.•.•.•••

Match the parts of the sentences.

1 If I hadn't missed the bus, 2 If she hadn't felt ill this morning, 3 If the food hadn't been awful, 4 If he had passed his exams, 5 If the salary had been good, 6 If it hadn't been my birthday, 7 If Ben had saved some money, a If Katia had closed the gate,

A he would have gone to university. B the dog wouldn 't have got out. C Chris wouldn't have given me flowers. D she would have gone to school.

1 2 3

•.. .C? ..

........

E I would have accepted the job. F he would have been able to buy a car. G I wouldn't have been late for work.

5

........ ........ ........

6

........

H we would have eaten it.

a ........

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4

7

I

•••••••


Conditionals Write type 3 conditionals as in the example:

(ladder/break/not hurt his leg) . I.~ the; J?cJ0vr....... . .Q?cJr(t{ .I?rQ~vn,. r.~

2 (drive carefully/not have accident)

3 (John run faster/win race)

..

.IY.QlJ!cJ tit{ .~?.v.e. hlJ rt . .f:Ji~ . /pa,............. . Read the story and write type 3 conditional sentences as in the example:

Last night there was a terrible storm and there was a power cut. In the morning Greg's alarm clock didn't ring, so he woke up late. Sadly, he missed the bus and wasn 't on time for an important meeting with a new client. His boss was upset with him .

.If. tbt;.r.e. hqd.n't. b.e.tifJ. ~. t~rrjbk.f7tp.r.m . th.e.r.e. would.n't. MI(~. b~.e.n .q . p(Jw~r... .C;Vt"I ..... ...................................................................... .

2 .ff. tbt;.r.e. hqd.n't. b.e.~fJ. ~. piJ.w~r. cut,. .... , ...................................... .

· ............................................................................... . 3 ................................................................................ .

·............................................................................... . 4 •.••••....••.•.•...•....•••••.•....••....••••••.•••••

1

••

1

••••••••••••••••••••••••

· ............................................................................... . 5 ................................................................................ .

· ............................................................................... . 6 ................................................................................ .

·............................................................................... . ~

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Conditionals Write type 0, 1, 2 or 3 conditionals. Then write the types of conditionals.

(you not study/not pass exams) ~\I ... if• y'Q/j. dP.t1 't.. p. t. /jV1,):J YP.lJ . ~p.t1't. p.q~p' .t.h~ ..

2 (he have money/he buy a burger)

3 (you not put on coat/you catch a cold)

5 (he not play with matches/ he burn his finger)

6 (you drop ice in water/it float)

I

~x.qIJ1~

.(.1;s.t .t,ypc:;. ... . rC:;i3l I. pr~/:?~t1.t.)........ .

4 (she not fall over/not break the plates) /I

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1 A: Do you know where the nearest bank is? S: Yes, if you ... •1(ljrn. . .. (turn) left at the traffic lights, you ... .'11. f5,t;,t{ •••••• (see) one on your right.

4 A: If you ................... (go) to the

2 A: I don't know what to do about my problem.

S: If I ...................... (be) you, I

5 A: Dad, I failed the Maths test. S: If you ...................... (study)

. . . • . . . . • • . . . . .. (talk) to my parents.

harder, you •............. (not/fail) it.

supermarket, ............. (you/buy) some lemons and carrots for me? S: Of course.

3 A: Where ............... (you/go) if you .......•..•....... (have) a week off? S: Well , probably to New York.

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6 A: Can I go to the park, Mum?

S: No, not unless you .......... (finish) your homework. 130

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Conditionals Use Thomas' thoughts to write conditionals as in the example. Then write the types of conditionals.

I'll find 60me coconut6. Then I will be able to drink

I don't have a bottle. I can't 6end a me66age. I didn't 6ave the radio tran6mitter. I can't call for help.

,

it I J11ak~ .CJ .~lJt, J.won 't. bav~ .t.a £z/~~p .wr.Id~r. th~ .t.m~f7.. (1f7t.tyPtt . r.~~{ p.r~£7~t1t.). 2 ................................................................................ . 3 ................................................................................ . 4 ••••••••••..••••••...•••.•.•..••....•••••.•.•••••••.•••••••••.•••••.•..••...•

II

•••

5 6 7 ......•......•...•........................••.•.•........•........••....•.........

8

................................................................................... Complete the sentences about yourself with the correct conditional.

If I had a garden, .................•••.. 2 If it's rainy tomorrow, ................... 3 If I had tried harder, .................... 4 I might have gone out with my friends .... 5

6 I would ask for my friends' help ..•.....•.

.................................... 7 I may go to the cinema •................

8 I could be fitter .•...•.....•............ 9 If I had been more careful, •.•........... 10 If I saw someone in danger, .............

.................................... Unless I have time, .................... ~

131

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Conditionals

Chain Story Tony has gone to a restaurant with some friends. In teams, make type 1 conditionals about Tony using the phrases in the list.

• get home late • go bed late • not wake up early • miss bus • his boss get angry • not give holiday • not be able visit family Teacher: If he gets home late, he'll go to bed late. Team A 81: If he goes to bed late, he ..., etc.

Speaking Activity (Giving advice)

Work in pairs. What advice can you give your friend who wants to lose weight?

stop eating sweets

eat fruit vegetables

go to gym

start swimming \ walk to school

A: If I were you, I would stop eating sweets. B: If I were you, I would eat more fruit and vegetables, etc .

Use your answers from the Speaking Activity to write a short email to your English pen friend about what to do to lose weight.

Dear Frank, There are a lot of things you can do to lose weight. If I were you, I would stop eating sweets. Also, ••••.•••••.•.••••••...•..•...••••..••

Take care, Nick

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Wishes

Q Listen and repeat. Then act out. I wish I had lived

Why? Do you wish you had been a famous explorer like "'''''1~''1''I'''''''' Columbus?

No, I just wish I didn't have so much history to learn. • I wish (if only) + Past Simple (wish about the present) We express a wish about a present situation which we want to be different. I wish he were/was with us now.

• I wish (if only) + subject + could + bare infinitive (wish about the present) We use this pattern for a wish or regret in the present concerning lack of ability. I wish he could learn faster.

• I wish (if only) + subject + would + bare infinitive (wish about the future) (we never say: I wish I wOl:Jld) We express a wish for a change in the future. I wish they would build a new library.

• I wish (if only) + Past Perfect (regret about the past) We express a regret or a wish that something happened or didn't happen in the past. I wish he hadn't failed his test.

• If only means the same as 'I wish' but it is more emphatic. I wish he could help me. If only he could help me. (stronger, more emphatic)

• After 'I wish' we may use 'were' instead of 'was' in all persons. I wish I was/were rich.

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e

Wishes

Ann doesn't like her new house. Write what she wishes.

The house is so old and dirty. She has to paint it. The house doesn't have central heating. The kitchen is small. 1 l wi~b . the. hQt.Je.~ .wa£ir.I:tl.weren't. f5i2 .Qld .cwd dirt.>e.... ....................... . 2

................................................................•...............

3 4

•••••••....••.••.•.....•..•••••••••••...••...••...••....•.•••••••.•••••....••..•

Pedro wants things to be different in the future. Write what he wishes.

I want my father to give me more pocket money. I want my sister to stop using my computer. I don't want my mother to make me eat vegetables. I don't want my brother to take my skateboard.

J.wif7b.tny.futhe.r. WQt.Jld. ~iv.~ Int:. more. p.Qc;ket. wont/y... ....................... .

1 2 3

............................................................................... . ............................................................................... .

4

..............................................•.....•..............•...•........

Ted regrets what he did or didn't do. Write what he wishes.

- - -----.

Ted was naughty in class. He didn't hear the teacher's question. She got angry with him. The teacher wrote a note to his parents .

.1. Wif3.fJ.I. h?ldn:t. bee.I1 .I1~JJ.gbty, jt;1. ~IQf5~.•••••••••••••.•••••••..•.•••...•••••••• 2 3

...........•....................................................................

4

•.••.••..•.•.•••..•••••••••.••.•••••.••..•••••••.••••••••.••.••.•.••.••..•.•.••.

a) Read the wishes. Which refers to the: present? future? past? If only I was famous. . ... . /?rvf~C:Qt.... . 2 I wish I hadn't lost the game . ........... .

3 I wish I could come with you . ...•.......• 4 I wish it would stop raining . ........... ..

b) Write similar sentences about yourself.

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CI

Wishes

Write what each person wishes. Then fill in: wish about the present, regret about the past, wish about the future.

He broke his leg.

2 Laura plays her music very loud.

3 It's raining.

l wi.fib .l. Mdn't.......

'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"

'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"

brp.kt( r.u:ny.l.e.g . .. , , ..

'" '" '" '" "'. '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"

'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"

(rt;@r~t, ~b.Qljt. tbe;, . , .

'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"

'" '" '" '" '"

pj3!~t) ... , .. , , , ..... ,.

'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" "'. '" '" '"

4 He didn't go to football

practice yesterday.

7 He talks too much and she doesn't like it.

5 He crashed his dad's car

last night.

'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"

'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"

,

.. , .. . , ,

6 She can't type fast. She

won 't get the job.

8 His car is very old but he can 't buy a new one.

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.

'" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '"

135

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9 He stayed out late last night.

â&#x20AC;˘


e

Wishes

Tanya is a famous young singer. These are some of the things she doesn't like about being famous. Read what she says and write sentences as in the example:

• I don't have much time to see my friends.

• People always ask me to sing at parties. • I have to look my best all the time. • Sometimes magazines write false things about me.

• I can't go out by myself. • Photographers follow me everywhere.

2 ...................•....•..................................... 3 4 ................................•..........................•..

5 6

Write what these people wish they had/hadn't done as in the example:

4 Mitsuko was in a hurry and she forgot her

1 John drove his car so fast that he had an

purse at home.

accident.

.. John:

I wish I hadn't driven my car so fast. I wouldn't have had an accident.

Mitsuko:

2 Nastasia was late and she missed the

5 Susan didn't take off her ring before she went swimming and she lost it in the sea.

beginning of the film .

Susan:

Nastasia: 3 Jack ate too much and he got sick.

6 Hans and Jane didn't save any money so they didn't go on holiday last summer.

Hans & Jane:

Jack:

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Wishes

CI

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1 A: We're so late! I wish we . hCfld. ttl~t;t1. . (take) the metro. B: Next time, we'll know better. 2 A: If only I ....••.........•. (not/be) so rude to Bill. B: Why don't you apologise? I'm sure he'll forgive you. 3 A: Are you going to Kim's party on Saturday? B: No. I wish I .................... (go). I'm sure it'll be fun. 4 A: I wish Helen • . . . . • • • . . . • . . . . • .. (tell) us what's bothering her. B: Yes. She seems really upset, doesn't she?

5 A: If only Jack •.•....•......•••....... (call) me. I'm so worried. B: I'm sure he will as soon as he arrives in Los Angeles. 6 A: I wish I •...•......•.•...•..•...••.• (know) how to use this camera. B: Don't worry. I'll show you. 7 A: I wish I .......•.........•.......... (not/forget) to pay the bills. B: Never mind. You can do it tomorrow. 8 A: I wish Akim .•......•..•.•.•..•.•.•. (come) to the concert with us. B: So do I. He would have really enjoyed it.

Write wishes using the words in bold in the sentences as in the example: You left the radio on and now the batteries don't work. You say, " .• f Wis.b.l. btldt1.'t.l~f.t. th~ ..

6 You stayed up late last night and today you 're very tired. Yau say, "••••••••..•...••..••.•...•.•

.r.Qd.iO.c>n·......................... "

"

2 It's very dark outside and you can't find your torch. Yau say, "•..•.•..••.••.•.....••

I

7 You are having a party but nobody has come yet. You say, "•••••..••••.•.........•.•...

•••••

"

3 You didn't do your homework and your teacher is angry. Yau say, ".••••••.•

I

••••••

I

8 You have short, straight hair. You would like long, curly hair. Yau say, "...••••.....••

•••••••••••

I

4 You live in the city. You prefer the

5 It's raining outside and you want it to stop. Yau say, "•.....••••......••...•

10 It is winter and it doesn't look like it is going to snow. Yau say, " •••••.•.•....•

•••••

I

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I

••••

9 You have just left your house and left your keys at home. Yau say, " •.•....•••..•••..•.••.••..•.

countryside. Yau say, ".••••••...•......•....••.•.•

I

••••••••

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•••••••••••••

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CD

Wishes

Complete the wishes and then make conditional sentences as in the example:

2

I got wet. I should have taken my raincoat with me.

I can't buy a sports car. I don't have enough money.

I wish ...•...•...................•....... . Q1t:: . ..•.

I

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

If . [ h?d .t?kt;o.roy. r0Jr.G.Q0.t .witr. ITI~... { .

. wQ(JMn.'t )l?Y~. 0P.t: Wc<t 3

If ..........•.....................•.....

.............. . 4

I failed my exams. I should have studied harder.

I have too much homework to do. I can't go out with my friends.

I wish .........•...........•.............

I wish .......•..............•.•..........

If ..................................... .

If ..................................... .

Speaking Activity (Expressing wishes / regrets)

In pairs, take turns to tell each other your wishes or regrets.

A: I wish I had a bike. If I had a bike, I could ride it to school. B: If only / I wish I hadn't failed any exams. If I had passed my exams, I would have been able to go to university, etc.

Use your partner's answers from the Speaking Activity to write a paragraph about his/her wishes / regrets.

Tony wishes he had a bike. • ••...••..•..•••••.•..•.....••.•.•••.••...•••

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Progress Check 7 (Units 13-14) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. If I were you, I ..... WQuld. ca.ll. ....

7 Unless you apologise, Margaret ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. (not/forgive) you. 8 If they .............................. .

(call) the police. 2 If he ..................... (drive) more

carefully, he wouldn 't have crashed the car. 3 I won't go to the party unless you ....... .

(not/rob) the bank, the police wouldn 't have sent them to prison . 9 If it •.................................

• . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (come) with me. 4 If she hadn't left the door open, the cat •.• . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . • . .. (not/run away).

(rain), we won't go to the park. 10 If I had known about their business plans, I

5 If you .......................... (see)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (tell) you.

Bill, can you ask him to call me? 6 If I ...............•............ (have)

11 If you go to Cairo, you ... .. .......... . ................... (see) the Pyramids.

enough money, I'd buy a computer.

Use the man's thoughts to write conditionals. I haven't got much money. I won't be able to pay for repairs.

1 I didn't pay much attention. I crashed the car.

5 I wore my seatbealt. I didn't hurt myself.

2 I was on the phone. I didn't see the tree.

3 I didn't see the tree. I crashed into it.

1

I'll drive more carefully in the future. I won 't have another accident.

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2 ....... 3 ............................................................................... . It

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Progress Check 7 Finish the following sentences. If I had enough money, .,'14,.l ••b 1.1y. ~

. ne.~ p~/r.

c? f• ~hQf;p, ............................. .

2 3 4 5

I wouldn 't say that to her ...............................•........................... If you don't wake up on time, ••.•.•••.•.•.•.•.•• We'll stay at home .......................................•........................ If you didn't go to the gym so often, ............................................... ..

6 7 8 9

Unless you invite her to the party, ..•.•. , .....••......•.•.........••••..•.........•.• She wouldn 't have forgotten the appointment ....•.................•••.•.••.•.....•.••• We would have reached the airport on time ....••..•..••..•.•••••••.•......••.••....•. If you drive so carelessly, •.•••..•••....

I

I

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

10 If I had got to the station earlier, ..••••...•••....•.••••....••••••••.•.•......••••••...

Fill in the correct form of the verbs in brackets. I wish I ........•........ Q~.c:ir(t; JQCqQt:t:e.t:1 ................. (not/forget) her birthday. 2 If only I ........................................... (have) the money to buy a new car.

3 4 5 6 7 8

Steve wishes he ...•.....•.......•••.. (speak) so rudely to his boss because he fired him. If only she .......................... (tell) him the truth . He wouldn't be so angry with her. Tom wishes he .................................. (not/have) so much homework to do. I wish I ...•................•....•• (not/break) my sister's doll. She wouldn 't be sad now. I wish she .......................................... (stop) interrupting me all the time. Mrs Jones wishes she ...•......•....••.................... (speak) a foreign language .

9 If only I ....•.•.•....••.••.................. (be) taller. I would join the basketball team. 10 He wishes he ........................ (not/crash) his father's car. Now his father is upset. 11 I wish Mum ........................................ (let) me go to the party next week.

Read the people's comments and write what they wish. Bill: I have to tidy my room. J . wj~h J .dld(1:t . fJ~.v~ .t.a .t idy.tn;j .r.aQW ....................................... . 2 Melek: I missed the plane to Rome. 3 Manos: I want my dad to buy me a computer. 4 Laura: I can 't drive a car. 5 Mike: My room is so small.

140


Progress Check 7 Read what Matt is saying and write what he wishes.

I've always wanted to travel to Bali. I don't have any money. I've lost my job. I can't find another job. I don't have any

4

......•.•••••••••...••.

6

...................... .

friends. I feel lonely.

Q

Listen to Samantha talking to Julie on the phone about joining a gym. For questions 1-5, tick (.I) A, B, or C. You will hear the conversation twice. Look at questions 1-5 now. You have 20 seconds.

o Julie joined the gym A one week ago. B two weeks ago. C last month.

3 The cost of the gym per month is

0 0 0

1 Samantha wants to join a gym because A she wants to lose weight. B it is cheap for students. C Joan is at the gym.

0 0 0

2 To join the gym, Samantha will need A her passport and her student card.O B her student card and a doctor's note.

0 C a doctor's note and her passport. 0

A € 120. B € 10. C € 20.

0 0 0

4 Members need to sign up earlier to use

the A swimming pool. B aerobics classes. C tennis courts.

0 0 0

5 A personal trainer costs an extra A €5. B € 25. C € 50.

0 0 0


Relatives

Q

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

Well, you are sitting on my ice creaml

Relative Pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) introduce relative clauses. subject of the verb of the object of the verb of the relative clause (can't be relative clause (can be omitted) omitted) used for

people

who / that

who / whom / that

possession (can't be omitted)

whose

She's the teacher who / that I saw a friend (who / whom / That's the boy whose came to our school last week. that) I hadn't seen for years. brother won th.e prize.

whose / of which which / that used for which / that things / This is the house which / that Here's the bag (which / that) That's the bag whose animals belongs to my friend . you left on my desk. handle is broken.

• •

That replaces who or which but is never used after commas or prepositions. That usually follows superlatives and words like something, nothing, anything, all, none, many, few. Ann, who is very clever, did the puzzle in five minutes. (,That' can't be used here.) She's the tallest girl that I've ever seen. . There's something that you don't know. Prepositions in Relative Clauses. We avoid using prepositions before relative pronouns. That's the girl with whom I went to the party. (very formal) That's the girl (who/that) I went to the party with. (less formal , more usual) Who, whom, which , that can be omitted when there is a noun or a pronoun (/, you, etc.) between the relative pronoun and the verb, that is, when they are the objects of the relative clause. Where is the ring (which/that) George gave you? (Which/that can be omitted.) The clock (which/that) I bought yesterday does not work. (Which/that can be omitted.) A person who repairs cars is a mechanic. (Who can't be omitted.) Note: Who's Who is or Who has "Who's Charles?" "He's my brother" Whose possessive I know a boy whose mother is singer.

= =

~

142

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Relatives Relative Adverbs (when , where, why)

1

Time

when (= in/on which)

2003 was the year (when) Peter was born.

Place

where (= inion/at/to which)

That's the hotel where we stayed.

Reason why (= for which)

Can you tell me the reason (why) he lied to me?

Fill in: who, whose, which or where. My school, 1) .... wbic;b. .... is called King Edward's, has about 2,000 students. My favourite teacher, 2) ...•.....•..... is called Mr Brown, teaches sport. The sports centre, 3) . • . . . . . . . . . . . .. I play basketball and tennis, is the largest in the area. I walk to school every day with my friend Mike, 4~ .••...........• father teaches History.

• Make sentences as in the example. Use relative pronouns or relative adverbs.

• builder / someone / build houses

• tiger / animal/live in jungle

• paiRter I S9me9Re I paiRt pichues

• supermarket / place / do shopping

• circus / place / can see acrobats

• elephant / animal/ears are big

A . p~jt1.t.e.( j;5. ....... .

2 ..................... .

3 ..................... .

5 ..................... .

6 ..................... .

p.QtJ1~9nt( .l-YhQ • ••••••

p.CJ(rrt;5. pk;t.LJ(t($ ....

4 ..•..•••••••••.••..•••

~

143

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Relatives Fill in: who's or whose. My mother, .••• w.ho;;.~ .... name is

5 Ann's the one ......•...••..• a History

Elizabeth, is a piano teacher. 2 She's the woman .....•.........

teacher. 6 Lucas is the man •••.•.•••..••.. helping

married to an actor. 3 Celine is the girl •...••..••..... brother

us move house. 7 That's the woman •....•.••.••... son

won the prize. 4 Helen is the person •..•.......••.. car

just graduated from university. 8 ..•..........•. concert did you go to?

is outside our house.

Fill in the correct relative pronoun. What part of sentence is each, subject or object? Write S for subject and 0 for object, then state if the relatives can be omitted or not in the box provided. Did you see the man . wbo.l .tbtrf; . stole her bag? 2 The dress ........... Mary bought yesterday is too big. 3 Please give me the keys ........... are on the table.

S not omitted

4 Is that the man ......•.... we saw in the park yesterday? 5 What's the name of the lady ........•.. babysits your little sister? 6 Klaus is playing with the dog ..........• lives next door. 7 Have you eaten all the cakes . . • . • . . • . •. I made yesterday? 8 How old is the man •......•••• owns that shop? 9 Have you met the man ........... Jackie is going to marry? 10 Let's all look at the picture ........... is on page 7. 11 Has Peter returned the money . . . . . . . . . .. he borrowed from you? 12 What colour is the dress ........... you 're going to wear tonight? 13 The police arrested the man ........•.. was driving dangerously. 14 15 16 17

The parcel .....••.... is on the table is your birthday present. We will ask the man ......•.... delivers our milk to leave an extra bottle. Is she the person ............... gave you this CD? We spent our holiday in a small town ••..•....•• is near the sea.

18 The man .......•..• married Kate is an actor. 19 Where are the shoes ••.•....... I bought this morning? 20 I still write to the old lady . . . . . . . . • •• I met five years ago.

~

144

~

I--I----------i


Relatives Write one word for each space. .. ..

I

--

~.

--

--

Hi Janet, How are you? I'm doing all right. I just wanted to tell you 1) ... . ab.Qut.... something exciting 2) .............. happened to me last Saturday. Do you remember Beth, 3) .............. party we went to last winter? Well, I went 4) .............. her and her cousin to a concert at Croke Park 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. my favourite band, Nickelback, were playing . Anyway, her cousin Rick knew someone 6) .............. was working ba'ckstage and he let us meet the band . He even invited us to a party 7) .............. the band was going to after the concert. It was amazing! Now about the weekend hiking trip - the reason 8) .............. I can't come is because my sister has asked me to take care of her children as she's 9) .............. on a business trip. I'm so sorry. I was really 10) .............. forward to it. Write and tell me your news, Shelly

,

Complete the conversation using who, which, whose or where. Simon: Hi Nigel! Where did you go on holiday? Nigel: I went to Greece. I had a great time there! Simon: What did you do? Nigel: I went to the Acropolis, 1) ..• .wbj<;h, ... is amazing. I also went to the place 2) .......••..•. the first Olympic Games were held.

Simon: Did you meet anyone interesting there? Nigel: Yes, I met a girl from England, 3) ••.......•••• grandfather was Greek. I also met her cousins 4) ••••.•...•... were staying in Athens. They made me feel very welcome. Simon: It sounds like you enjoyed yourself! Nigel: Yes, and I'm hoping to go back next summer:

Defining / Non-defining relative clauses •

A defining relative clause gives necessary information and is essential to the meaning of the main sentence. The clause is not put in commas. Who, which and that can be omitted when they are the object of the relative clause. People who smoke damage their health. The book (which) my friend wrote is very interesting.

A non-defining relative clause gives extra information and it is not essential to the meaning of the main sentence. In non-defining relative clauses the relative pronouns cannot be omitted. That cannot replace who or which. The clause is put in commas. Mr Brown, who lives next door, went to Australia last week. 145

~


Relatives Fill in the appropriate relative, say whether the relative clauses are essential or not to the meaning of the main sentence, then add commas where necessary.

1 2 3 4

Paul Stevens, ... .wba ... starred in Days, went to school with my brother. The pen ........... I left on that table has disappeared. The woman ••.....•... repairs our car is very friendly. David ••..•....•• grew up in Canada speaks French fluently.

5 6 7 8

The man •...•••••.• car was stolen has gone to the police station. Rye •.•••••.••. my grandmother lives is near the sea. Oleg ••.•••.••.• car has broken down is late for work. The Coliseum •••••.••.•• attracts many tourists is in Rome.

r.Qt .~f?~/~tJti!il l • ............ ..

Fill in the relative pronoun or adverb. Put commas where necessary. Write D for defining, ND for non-defining and if the relative can be omitted or

not in the box provided.

1 Mr Brown '.•.. WahQ . •••••• teaches us French, comes from London. 2 The girl ...•.....•..... I met on the bus looks just like my sister.

,

3 4 5 6 7

ND not omitted

Peter Smith ....•.•.....••• had an accident is in hospital. The apples ..•••.•..•••••• grow on these trees are delicious. This lemon pie • • • • • • • • • • • • • •. I made yesterday tastes great. The film .••.•••••.••••• I saw on TV last night was very exciting. My friend Akim . • . • . . . . . . . . . .. is a doctor works very long hours.

8 John .••.••.•••••.•. father is a lawyer has moved to Paris. 9 The sports centre .•••••.••.•.••• we play tennis is expensive. 10 The vase •••.••.•.•••... Susan gave me got broken. 11 The summer ............... I went to Spain was really hot. 12 The car ............... tyres are flat is mine. 13 The cafe ...........•... I first met my husband has closed down now. 14 Simon ••....•.••...•. mother is a vegetarian doesn't eat meat. 15 The bakery ..•.••.....•••• is by my house sells wonderful pies.

~

146

~

I----+-------i


Relatives Match the phrases as in the example:

1 a blender 2 3 4 5

~

a path at the side of the road

you relax in it

~ something

a party Ii . an armchair a pavement a fork

you mix things with it a machine - - - - - - - - people walk along it a piece of furniture people enjoy going to an event you eat with it

f.. . l{ltW0.~r: .if? 0. ft/0.C(QitJv. (lYhik hl Y.QI,1. rotX .t:h in@i5. ~ith .............. .......... . 2 ....................................................•............................ 3 4 ••.•.••..•..••••••.....•........•...........•.......•....••••...••..•.•.••...••..

5 Correct the mistakes.

~e town 1) whi4 I was born has changed greatly over the last twenty years. Now, there is a modern shopping centre in the place 2) that my school used to be and all the children 3) whose went there have grown up and moved away. The local cinema, 4) that was built several years ago, used to be a dance hall 5) which big bands played. The park, 6) where was my favourite place as a child, is now a car park. Some things are sti ll the same though. Mrs Jones, 7) whom is now sixty years old, sti ll works in the Post Office and Mr Jones still owns the baker's shop, 8) that his two sons now work. The hospital 9) where I was born in is still standing, although it is now much bigger than it was at the time 10) which I was born. The day 11) which my family and I left our home town was one of the saddest days of my life.

2 3

·.. .wher.e . ·.· · ......· · · . ..... ·.·

4

5 6

·.·· . ··. · · .. · · · . . · ·. · · . · . · · . · ·. · · . .

7

8 9

. ..···... · · ·. ·

. ···. ···.· . . · · · . .. · · · . ·

10 11

. . . ..... . ..... . . .....

Complete the sentences so that they are true about you. Use relative

pronouns or adverbs. The teacher

w'Q(J.! .tQ0.t.l. U~~. ro(J.~t )f3. Mj~p' J.t(t:1~jt:1PJ • •....•.•.•.•.•....•......•.

2 The singer ...................................................................... . 3 My favourite CD .................................................................. . 4 The flat ......................................................................... . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. was the year ....................................................... . 6 The football team 147

~


Relatives

In teams, make sentences using relative pronouns / adverbs. • • • •

watch / shows the time • calendar / shows the date teacher / teaches students • painter / paints pictures park / go for walks • bus stop / wait for the bus CD player / plays music • cinema / watch films

Team A S1: A watch is something which shows the time etc.

.

Speaking Activity (Identifying things)

In pairs, take turns to say the name of a place, a thing or a person. Your partner has to explain what this place / thing is or who the person is. A: theatre B: A theatre is a place where we can watch a play, etc .

• Make sentences about yourself using relative pronouns / adverbs. • • • •

(place) / meet my friends (place) / spend most of time (sport) / enjoy a lot (band) / like best

• (teacher / name) ... / kind • (house / best friend) / live / near ... • (sister / brother) / like ... / become ... • (person) / love most

My school is the place where I meet my friends. . .................................. .

148


Reported Speech

Well, if he £5aid £50, he'£5 £5een you play, ha£5n't he?

o • o

Direct speech is the exact words someone said. We use quotation marks in Direct speech. He said, "I'll wait for you ."

Reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in Reported speech. He said that he would wait for me.

Say - Tell •

We use say in Direct speech. We also use say in Reported speech when say is not followed by the person the words were spoken to. We use tell in Reported speech when tell is followed by the person the words were spoken to. Direct speech: Reported speech: Reported speech:

She said to me, "I am very tired. " She told me that she was very tired. She said that she was very tired.

Expressions with say

say good morning, etc., say something, say one's prayers, say so

Expressions with tell

tell the truth, tell a lie, tell a secret, tell a story, tell the time, tell the difference, tell sb one's name, tell sb the way, tell one from another

J

Fill in: say or tell in the correct form. The police officer .•... .t;3gid, ..... that

4 Jim ... .. .......... me about the party last night. 5 Our teacher ................ he was pleased with our work.

the man was lying. 2 Philip ................ it would probably rain tomorrow. 3 Susan ................ , "Let's go out for

6 Jane and Kate are twins. I really can't ........... . .... one from the other.

dinner tonight. " 149

~


Reported Speech QI Listen and repeat. Then act out.

What are you doing?

I'm looking for

But 'Trouble' is the name of my dogJ We can report: A. statements

B. questions

C. commands, requests, suggestions

Reported Statements •

"

To report statements we use a reporting verb (say, tell, advise, explain, promise, etc.) followed by a that-clause. In spoken English that may be omitted. • Pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning. He said , "I can't fix it myself. " Direct speech: Reported speech: He said he couldn't fix it himself. Note that: • Certain words change as follows: can changes to could Direct speech this / these here come will changes to would may changes to might Reported speech that / those there go must changes to had to "This is my book," he said. He said that was his book. •

~.

When the reporting verb is in the past, the verb tenses change as follows:

Direct speech

Reported speech Past Simple She said she wanted to go to bed early.

Present Continuous "She's speaking to Joe," he said.

Past Continuous He said she was speaking to Joe.

Present Perfect "I've bought you some flowers," she said.

Past Perfect She said she had bought me some flowers.

Past Simple "He lost all the money," she said.

Past Perfect She said he had lost all the money.

Future "I'll see you later," he said.

Conditional He said he would see me later.

150

II

-II

Present Simple "I want to go to bed early," she said.

~

I!

--


Reported Speech •

Time expressions change as follows:

Direct speech

Reported speech

tonight, today, this week / month / year that night, that day, that week / month / year now

then, at that time, at once, immediately

now that

since

yesterday, last night / week / month / year

the day before, the previous night / week / month / year

tomorrow, next week / month / year

the day after, the next / following day, the next / following week / month / year

two days / months / years, etc., ago

two days / months / years, etc., before

"He arrived last week," she said.

She said (that) he had arrived the previous week.

There are no changes in verb tenses when the reporting verb is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect tense or when the sentence expresses something which is always true.

Direct speech

She'll say, "I can do it. "

"The Earth is round ," said the teacher.

Reported speech She'll say (that) she can do it. The teacher said (that) the Earth is round.

The Past Continuous does not usually change.

Direct speech

"I was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA," he said.

Reported speech He said he was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA.

Certain modal verbs do not change in Reported speech. These are: would , could , might, should , ought to.

Direct speech

"He might visit us," Mum said.

Reported speech

Mum said (that) he might visit us.

~

151

~


Reported Speech Report what the guests said at a wedding last Saturd .--=:--- - - - - -

Miss Moore p,Ci(q .c~f)0.tJ. .t.h~Y. ~qLJlcj . tJ1~k:;. Po jQYC:;./Y. vPJ-lp.[e; .•..•••..•••••••••.•.••• 2 Mr Smith ......................................................................... . 3 Mrs Jones .................................................................... , .. . 4 Mr Roberts ........... """"""".".""""""."""""""""""""" ....... "" ...... , ............................ , . , 5 Mr Clarke .................... "............. "... " I

.........

"

"

....

"

.....

"

...

"

........

"

......

"

"

"

...

"

........

"

"

.......

"

...

6 Miss Mayall .............................. "....... "....... "... "...... "..................... "........... "............................ ".

Rewrite the following sentences in reported speech.

"New Year's Eve is always on December 31st," she said. S.b~. ~tl id .(.t.h~t.). N~w. X'e,qr:s. £'(~. is. .q!W0Y.5. .Qt:1. D.C(r;~frlb.eK .31~t.. ....... ....... . 2 "The children are riding their bikes, " Jennifer said to me. 3 "The Earth revolves around the Sun ," the teacher said to the students. 4 "Jack and Karen have bought a house in the countryside," Nick said to us. 5 "Burglars broke into the museum last night," the news reporter said. 6 "Dad was mowing the lawn while I was cleaning the car," Ryan said. 7 "We will have a housewarming party next week," said Mike and Helen. 8 "Julia and Jose might move to Australia next year," Rory said to us.

~

152

~


Reported Speech Reported Questions In Reported questions we use affirmative word order and the question mark is omitted. To report a wh-question, we use ask followed by the question word (who, what, etc.). When there is no question word in direct questions, if or whether is used in Reported questions. Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions, etc. change as in statements.

Direct speech

He asked, "What time is it?"

He asked me, "Do you know her?"

Reported speech

He asked what time it was.

He asked me if / whether I knew her.

Turn the following into reported questions as in the example:

"What are you doing?" she asked her son. .She. ~~ke.d . b~r. ~P.tJ . wMt. b(:..... . .w~s. .dQjOf3 ....................... .

5 "Where were you? " Barbara asked him .

2 "Do you like my new clothes?" she asked her friend.

6 "Can you pick me up after school?" she

3 "Where are my keys? " he asked his wife.

7 "Have you seen Kim?" David asked Sarah.

4 "Who is your favourite singer?" Mike asked

8 "When will you return?" Tom asked her.

asked her mother.

me.

Report the police officer's questions to the shop owner.

How do you think they got in?

1 What's your name?

2

5 What did they take? Has this ever happened before? ~-

1

.T.ht:.pCJ}t({tJ.Qffic.e.r. tlf?l<t:.d hiro.v.vhEJt. bjf? t;1i3.rne. .W~s.·

2 .....•...

I

••••••••••••••••

3 ..................

I

•••••••

~

153

~

4

• •-•••••

5

......................... .

6

..................

II

•••••••••

II

••••••

11.1,

•••


~

Reported Speech

Reported Commands / Requests / Suggestions To report commands, requests, suggestions, etc. we use a reporting verb (order, ask, tell, beg, suggest,* etc.) followed by to infinitive or not to infinitive. (*suggest is followed by the -ing form. e.g. He said, "Shall we go by bus?" He suggested going by bus.)

Direct He said to me, "Get out of the house! " speech ~e said to me, "Do me a favour, please." Reported He ordered me to get out of the house. speech She asked me to do her a favour.

He said to me, "Don't touch it! " She said to him, "Please, please don't hurt me. He told me not to touch it.

IShe begged him not to hurt her.

Use the verbs in the list in the past simple to complete the sentences. tell

suggest

order

beg

1 "Close the door, please," Ann said to Jack.

4 "Get out of the car! " he said to them.

Ann ..• .ae.ked.... Jack to close the door.

He ................... them to get out

2 "Let's go shopping," she said to me.

of the car.

She ................•• going shopping.

5 "Don't touch anything, " she said to him. She . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ... him not to touch

3 "Please, please don't go," he said to Mary. He .................. Mary not to go.

anything.

Report what Mrs Lane told her daughter, Sue, to do.

5 Give the twins a bath before they go to bed! 6 Don't allow the dog into the twins' bedroom! 7 Close all the windows! 8 Put the toys away in the

I

UUVVUCA

1 2 3 4 5 6

Mrp.1.~t1.e. :t.Qld .eJJ.~ .f1Qt. tp. p.p~t1.

the( .do.p.r. :t.Q .cWy'QtJ~, . ...........•..•........

................................................................................ I. ................................................................................. . ................................................................................ . ................................................................................ .

7 ................................................................................ .

8

~

154

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Reported Speech

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Turn the following sentences into direct speech.

He said that he had ordered a pizza for dinner. ."j :v.~ .Qr.ckr~d J3J .pih4~. fQr.dir.It1.e.r..': hti,f1~jd~ ... ................................. . 2 She said that they had to call their lawyer.

3 The plumber told them that he would go the following day to fix the tap. 4 She told her friend that was the best holiday she had ever had.

5 She asked him why he had said that to her. 6 She told them not to speak to their father like that. 7 He asked the secretary to show him where the manager's office was.

8 She told her son to take his books with him.

Reporting Verbs Reporting verb

-

Direct speech

"I

Reported speech

to infinitive offer promise refuse

"Shall I carry the bags? " He offered to carry the bags. "I promise I'll be back early. " He promised to be back early. "No, I won't buy you a computer. " She refused to buy me a computer.

+sb+to infinitive advise ask beg order

warn

"You should see a doctor." "Could you feed the dog?" "Please, please help me! " "Go to your room ." "Don't play with matches. "

He advised me to see a doctor. She asked me to feed the dog. She begged me to help her. She ordered me to go to my room . She warned me not to play with matches.

+-ing form suggest

"Let's visit Sally. "

"She suggested visiting Sally. "

+that explain

"I'm going to stay with my sister. " She explained that she was going to stay with her sister.

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CD

Reported Speech

Choose a reporting verb and turn the following into reported speech.

asked

sch.tiS8d

suggested

ordered

explained promised

refused

offered

1 "I think you should exercise more," the doctor said to me. Th~ .cj9c;.~Qr .q~v:if3.~cj . OW.t-9. ~{<¥r.~ if3.~ .rt1.Q(~ .• .•.......••......•..•••••......•.... 2 "I will not answer your questions," the actor said to him. 3 "I really will phone this evening," he said. 4 "Let's go to the cinema," he said to her. 5 "Could you do something for me?" he said to her. 6 "Go to your room immediately and do your homework," she said to her son. 7 "You will be paid twice a month," her boss said. 8 "Would you like me to drive you into town? " she said to me.

Match the sentences in column A to the correct reporting verb in column B.

..

Then rewrite the sentences in reported speech as in the example:

~ "No, I won 't do it," she said .

[ill "Let's go for a walk," he said. [ill "Please, please don't hurt me!" she said to the robber. [ill "Don't go near the campfire because it's dangerous," she said to Ben.

ITI] "I'll buy you a bicycle for your birthday," his father said.

a warn b beg c refuse d promise e suggest

f3.b~. r~f~.fi{(d. tP. dQ .i.t........................................................... .

2 ................................................................................ . 3 4

.......

I

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

11

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

5

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1

••••••••••••


CD

Reported Speech

First state if the following statements are true (T) or false (F) then turn them into reported speech.

1 "Penguins can swim ," he said. H~. ~j3I.id. .(.t.h$t.). p.~t')tJJJ.it7.s. .c'.?t7. p.wlm ................................ . 2 "The Earth is flat," the old man said.

T

3 "The cheetah is the fastest animal in the world," she said . 4 "A train goes faster than a plane," he said. 5 "Dolphins are less intelligent than sharks," he said. 6 "Man does not live forever," she said.

Write what the family said at the dinner table.

The chicken

anyone want

10 I don't want

What are we having 8 I'm very hungry because I only for dessert, Bob? had a sandwich for lunch today.

Is there any more salad, Mum?

Mother ;;wk~d .if..? (1y.QfJ~. w..? f:1.t.C}CiI. ~p.me. .mq('C} .f7Qt;:rt;Q.~q.. ...................... . 2 3 4 5

Father ................................... Beth ................................................................ Grandfather ................................................. Grandmother ........................... ., ......................................... .

6 7 8 9

Tim ............................................................................. . Jean ............................................................................ . Mark ........................................................................... . Helen ........................................................................... .

I

I

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

I

I

•••••••

I

••••

•••••••••••••••••••••

10 Bob ............................................................................ .

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CD

Reported Speech

Students, in turn, whisper an untrue statement to the person sitting next to them. When a student can't report a statement or think of a new one he/she loses his/her turn.

81: (whispers) I'm going on holiday next week. 82: He said he was going on hoJiday the following week. (whispers) I have never eaten cheese, etc.

"

Speaking Activity (Reporting people's words)

Work in groups. Imagine you are watching TV. Your partners are a reporter and a famous singer. Listen to their interview, then report it to the class. Use reported speech. Talk about:

• how old / start singing • when / make first album • who / favourite singer

• how many songs / new album has • which / favourite city

• how often / go there • what / like doing in free time

A: How old were you when you started singing? B: I started singing at the age of twelve, etc. The reporter asked the famous singer how old she had been when she had started singing. 8he said she had started singing at the age of twelve, etc.

Imagine you are the reporter in the Speaking Activity. Write a short article for the magazine you work for using the information from the Speaking Activity.

This week's interview is with Mirella Rossi, the famous singer. I first asked her how old she

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Progress Check B (Units 15-16) Underline the correct item. 1 That's the house where / which I grew up. 2 That's the woman who's / whose son won

8 The house which / where was broken into is my uncle's. 9 The hotel where / that we stayed was near the beach. 10 I'll never forget the day whom / when I got married. 11 A butcher is someone whose / who sells meat. 12 The earrings which / who she gave me were very expensive. 13 That's the reason why / which she left early. 14 Jenny is the girl who / which won the competition.

the Gold Medal. 3 This is the car which / who belongs to my father. 4 He is the actor who / whom won the Academy Award. 5 The girl which / whom you met at the party is my sister. 6 The reason which / why I didn't call you was because I came home late. 7 Tina will always remember the day when / where she graduated.

Fill in the appropriate relative, say whether the relative clauses are defining (D) or non-defining (ND), then add commas where necessary. Sally, .... whQ~e. ... mother works at a bank, is my best friend. 2 The book ••.••••••••.•. you lent me last week has disappeared. 3 Brian •.•••......... lives next door to me is going to Japan next week. 4 The shop ...••.••••••.•. I bought this dress is in King Street. 5 The woman ....••••••.... house caught fire is in hospital. 6 The waiter ...••••••••••• took our order was very polite. 7 The Louvre .............. is a famous museum is in Paris. 8 Carlo's Restaurant .............. we have dinner.on Sundays serves excellent food. 9 Mr Spencer ......•..••.•. you met last night owns an antique shop. 10 The day •.....•..•.••• my son was born was the happiest day of my life. 11 The bank ...•.......... is near my house was robbed yesterday. 12 Jeremy •.•••.•••••... lives next door comes from Scotland.

159

.. .. NQ....


Progress Check B Fill in say or tell in the correct form.

The teacher .•••.•••••.. t.o.ld. ............ us that we all passed the test. 2 3 4 5 6

John ...........•....••.....•••••. goodnight and left the room. Grandma ............................. us a story every night. Greg ............................. , "The match starts at 7:00 pm. " You should always ............................. your parents the truth. Can you ••••...•...•..••..•..••...... me how to get to the post office, please?

Write what the people said.

.Could you pass me the ketchup Sally, please?

This chicken

Shall we go to the cinema afterwards?

I don't want

been to this restaurant. Joe • p.fl~~d. .e~j0i jf.flb~ c.o.vld .pgs.~. bjtll .t.fJ~. ~~t.c.fJvp.......................... .

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

James ......................................................................... . Chen .......................................................................... . Peter .......................................................................... .

Ted .I ................ Sally ........................................................................... . Ricardo ........................................................................ . Paul ........................................................................... . II

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••

160

II

••

1

••

1

••••••••••••••••••••••


Progress Check B Complete the sentences using the words given in bold.

Don't touch that wire, " he said to me. WARNED He • .14Ii3i.t:t1f;d. rot;, nat.to.tP.l.Kr. th~t. ~jrf;, •. .••••..••........•••• 2 "Where is my book?" she said to him. ASKED She ............•.........•............•...••.................... . 3 "You should stop eating junk food ," my friend said to me. ADVISED My friend •.......•...........••••.......•........•........•...... . 4 "Put your hands up," the police officer said to them. ORDERED The police officer ..•........•.......•...••......•.................. . 5 "Shall I help you with your homework?" my brother said to me. OFFERED

Q

My brother ...•.•....•....•......•...•........•.•................. .

Listen and tick (-') the correct box.

o Who is Kim 's cousin?

3 What will they get Sam for his birthday?

What is Dan doing this afternoon?

4 Where's Jill's watch?

2 How is Tim going to the train station?

5 What time will the friends meet?

161


Prepositions - Linking words

QI

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

in / inside

between

opposite

on

near

below

among

behind

off

out of

over

along

round / around

in front of

Prepositions of Movement

above

under

next to / by / beside

against

tf

onto

into

across

through

from ... to

up

past

down

towards

in + cities / towns / streets / the suburbs / an armchair / danger / the middle of / the queue at + house number (at 23 Oxford Street) / home / school/university / work / the bus stop on + the left / right / the floor / the outskirts / a chair / foot / holiday by + bus / taxi / car / helicopter / plane / train / coach / ship / boat / air / sea BUT on a / the bus / plane / train / coach / ship / boat - in a taxi / car / helicopter

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Prepositions - Linking words Look at the picture and fill in the gaps with a suitable preposition from the list.

• behind

• next to (x2)

• under

• on (x4) 1~'41I ,-

\ ~. 1

#"

1'(' "

I \'~ •

,.

'

-

. ..

... / ~-

--

This is Judy's bedroom. She spends most of her time here. Her room is nice and large. There is a green carpet 1) •••••• PlJ . . . . .. the floor. Her bed is very comfortable with a soft pillow 2) •..•••.....•••• it. There is a window 3) ••.....•.....•. the bed. 4) ...•..••....... the bed there is a lamp. Judy's desk is very modern. There is a chair 5) ••.•••••..•.••. it and some books 6) ............... it. 7) ............... the walls there are some pictures and a painting. There is also a small table 8) •..••.•.....••. the painting. Underline the correct item.

Tommy is the tallest between / among the 2 3 4 5

8 Please leave your exam papers on / in the table.

students in his class. We got down / off the train at Banbury Station. Please walk at / down the stairs carefully. Look, Aya is hiding behind / under the tree. Jim is leaning on / against the wall.

9 Jennifer slipped as she walked over / onto the platform. 10 Is this the bus that goes from London to / at Oxford?

6 The train is going through / round the tunnel. 7 When the bell rang, the children came off / out of their classroom.

11 As I was walking over / past the bank, I ·sawJili.

Find the mistake and correct it.

1 I live iA 15 High Street. ... t'l.t ... 2 I go to school by foot every day . ......... 3 Yesterday, Paul went to work on car. 4 Kim 's office is at the fifth floor.

I

5 Kate is going to be late tonight. She's still in work. 6 They live at the outskirts of Madrid.

••••••••

......... ~

7 I met Alicia on university. 163

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Prepositions - Linking words Fill in: in front of (x2), between, behind, past, towards, in (x2) or against.

There are lots of people 1) .... .in. ... the bank today. 2) .........• the cashier's desk there's a long queue. Two cashiers are sitting 3) ............ the desk. The manager is standing 4) •...•.•..... the cashiers holding some papers. A guard is leaning 5) ..••..•.•. the cashier's desk. An old woman is walking 6) ......•.•.••• the guard 7) .•.•••••• the cashier. A man wearing a hat is standing 8) ...••..•.... the queue 9) ............ a couple.

Fill in: round, out of (x2), on, above, into .

Lisa and her friend , Dan, are having a great time at the Jelly Bee Circus. There is a lot to see. Beautiful horses are running 1) • •.. rp.lJIJd. .... the circus ring. An acrobat is carefully balancing 2) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... a rope 3) ••. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... a juggler. He is throwing balls 4) •.•.•..••..••.•..•••. the air. Dan is laughing at the funny clown who's chasing a monkey 5) ••.•..•.•••••••..•••. the ring and Lisa is pointing at the circus magician who is pulling a long line of handkerchiefs 6) ..•. . . . ....•....•.• his pocket. The circus is lots of fun!

164

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Prepositions - Linking words Prepositions of Time IN

AT at 8:15 am at night / midnight / noon at the weekend at the moment

ON

in the morning / afternoon / night in July (months) in summer (seasons) in 1991 (years) in the twentieth century in a week

on on on on

Sunday Monday evening March 28th a winter's day

at 8:30 am = exactly at that time by 8:30 am = not later than that time, before

Note: on time = at the right time in time = early enough, not late

Fill in: at, in or on . 1 . . . il1 ... 2 ........ 3 ........ 4 ........ 5 ........

the evening Monday midnight April 13th 5:30 pm

6 •.... Tuesday morning 7 ..... night 8 •.... 6:30 pm 9 ..... November 10 ..•.. the summer

11 12 13 14

........ 1999 ........ noon ..•.•... the twenty-first century

•••••... Sunday morning 15 ........ a spring day

Fill in: at, on or in. 1 A: What time is the seminar? B: It's .. At ... 11 :00 am ... il1 .. . the

4 A: What days do you work? B: I work Monday to Friday from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm but I don't work ........ weekends.

morning. 2 A: When do you finish your exams? B: •.•..... two weeks.

5 A: Is your birthday ...•.... March? B: Yes, it's •••••..• March 15th.

3 A: When is your doctor's appointment? B: It's ...•••.. Tuesday morning ........ 10 o'clock.

6 A: When did you last see Amanda? B: I saw her ........ Friday.

Fill in the gaps with: at, on or in, then answer the questions. What time do you get up .. Jr... the

5 What do you do ....... a cold winter's

morning? l g~t . l)p. a.t .7..Q'c.lo.c.k.............. .

day? 6 Where were you ....... 6 o'clock yesterday? 7 How old were you ....... 2003?

2 What time do you go to bed ....•.. night? 3 What do you do . . • • • . . . weekends? 4 What sports do you play ....... summer?

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8 What are you doing ....... the moment? 165


Prepositions - Linking words Write one word for each space.

Have Fun all Year Round 1) •. •qt. .. Graham Zoo!

Animals: The zoo 2) .....• over 5,000 animals, most are 3) .••.•• . cages but some, visitors are able 4) •••••••• touch. Must see: Visit 5) ••..•••• Monkey playground. See the monkeys climbing, swinging and feeding high above the ground.

Zoo Opens: 6) ••.••••• 9:00 am daily. Prices: Adults £9, children and students £6 How to find us: We are located 7) • • • • • • • • Grecian Park, near Riverdale Train Station. To get here 8) •••.•••• car take the M3 Motorway.

For more information: call us on (020)- 774-6478.

Choose the correct answer. Andy lives ........ 75 Rose Street.

A in

B on

6 Jose hung the painting ........ the

© at

fireplace. A up

2 Joan works in the building ........ the bank.

B under

Cover

C under

7 He promised to be back ........ 4 o'clock. A in B by C on

3 Eric is travelling from London .....•..

8 They're building a new bridge ..•..... the

A below

B opposite

Cambridge tomorrow. A to

B into

river. C through

A along

4 Don't worry, she'll be ........ time.

A at

B in

C onto

9 I arrived just ........ time for my flight to

C on

Paris. A at

5 Nathan had to go to the library ....... .

foot. A by

B across

B in

C on

10 Ben is having a party .......• Saturday B on

C at

evening. A on

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166

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B at

C in


Prepositions - Linking words

A leader chooses an object in the classroom. In teams, students ask questions to find out where the object is.

Leader: (picture on the wall) Team A S1: Is it on the teacher's desk? Leader: No, it isn't, etc.

Speaking Activity (Talking about location) Look at the picture for three minutes. Then close your books and in pairs try to remember what there is and where it is in the room.

A: There is a table in the living room in front of the sofa.

S: The sofa is between two armchairs, etc.

You've moved with your parents to a new house. Write a letter to your English pen friend describing your house both inside and outside.

Dear ........................................ ". , I've just moved with my parents to our new house. It's very nice and I love it here. My house is ....................................................................................................... . Inside ..................................................................................................................................... . My favourite room is ....••.••..•..••.•.•..••••..••••••...•.•••...••..••.•... : .. I expect you to come and visit me. Love, ................................................

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Prepositions - Linking words Linking words show the logical relationship between sentences or parts of a sentence. Positive Addition and, both ... and, also She's both clever and beautiful. Contrast but Mary is talented but not very creative. Cause / Reason because, so She took an umbrella because it was raining outside. Condition if, unless, or He won't go to bed unless you tell him a story.

Purpose to, so that Sandra wrote down Helen's home address so that she could visit her the following week.

Relatives who, whom, whose, which, what, that That's the ring which once belonged to my great grandmother.

Time when, as soon as, while, before, until, since, etc. Diana called the police as soon as she realised that someone had broken into her flat.

Listing Points / Events to begin: first, first of all First, I put on my pyjamas.

Place where She couldn't remember where she had put her keys.

• •

to continue: secondly, then, next Then, I brushed my teeth.

to conclude: finally Finally, I went to bed.

Join the two sentences using the word(s) in brackets. I'd like to go to the party. I'm too busy. (but)

6 Rick closed his eyes. He fell asleep. (as

1'd like: .t;Q .@O. tJJ. .t.h~ . p0.r.t;y . b.t.Jt.. . . 1'm. tJJ.Q .b.t.JP')(.. .................... .

soon as)

2 She jumped on a chair. She saw the mouse. (when)

7 Dan went to the hospital. He hurt his arm. (because)

3 She is studying hard. She will pass her exams. (so that)

8 I can't help her. I know someone who can. (but)

4 It was cold. Tom put on a jumper. (so) 9 First, Jim washed his hands. Then he had lunch. (before) 5 He's handsome. He's famous. (both)

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Prepositions - Linking words Read the sentences and underline the correct linking word / phrase as in the example:

1 Maria put on the kettle because / which she wanted a cup of tea. 2 She won't speak to Bill as soon as / unless he apologises. 3 First, I prepared the meal. Then / Finally, I laid the table.

4 I haven't played handball since / when I

left school. 5 Which / Who is the tallest person in your family? 6 Bob brushes his teeth so / before he goes

to bed.

Underline the correct linking word / phrase. Kelly is 9 years old. She has brown hair 1) and / but blue eyes. She is a very happy child 2) who / which likes to make new friends. All her teachers like her 3) because / so that she is very intelligent. Kelly isn't only a great student. She's 4) also / and an amazing dancer. She can dance 5) both / also modern and jazz 6) but / so she especially likes hip hop.

Choose the correct answer. Exercise is Great! There are many good reasons 1) .. B. .. we should exercise. 2) .••••• , it is great for our health. Playing sports, running, swimming and dancing help us build strong bones 3) •••••. muscles. Exercise 4) •••••• helps our heart get stronger. 5) .•.•.• , exercise makes us feel good about ourselves. We feel happier 6) ••.•.. we have more energy. We are able to run faster 7) ...... become better at playing sports with our friends. 8) ..•..• , exercise makes us look great, too. It helps us stay fit and keeps our body at a healthy weight, 9) •••••. is important for a long and healthy life.

"'1 A what

~

2 A Then 3 A both 4 A also 5 A When 6 A while 7 Aor 8 A Finally 9 A which

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169

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B B B B B B B B B

why First of all and then Since as soon as and First what

C which C Finally C or C and C Next C when C both C Then C . that

,.,

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Articles

Q

Listen and repeat. Then act out.

do you know where the Pyramids are?

miss, they must be lost. There was a teacher here yesterday asking me the same question. a + consonant sound (/b/, Idl, Ig/, If/, 11/, Ip/, etc.) an + vowel sound (/re/, lei, III, 10/, /al, etc.)

a pen an apple

• A I An is used with singular countable nouns when we talk about things in general. An aeroplane is faster than a train. A greengrocer sells vegetables. (Which aeroplane? Aeroplanes in general.)

(Which greengrocer? Greengrocers in general.)

We often use a I an after the verbs 'to be' and 'have I have got'. He is a photographer. He has got a camera.

We do not use a I an with uncountable or plural nouns. We can use some instead. Would you like some tea? Yes, please! And I'd like some biscuits. (NOT Would you like a-tea?)

A I An is not used before an adjective if it is not followed by a noun. However, if the

adjective is followed by a noun, we use a if the adjective begins with a consonant noun and an if the adjective begins with a vowel sound. It's a ring. It's expensive. It's an expensive ring. •

The is used before singular and plural nouns, both countable and uncountable, when we talk about something specific or when the noun is mentioned for a second time. The boy who has just left is my cousin. (Which boy? Not any boy. A specific boy, the boy who has just left.) There is a cat on the sofa. The cat is sleeping. ('The cat' is mentioned for a second time.)

We use the with the words cinema, theatre, radio, country(side) , seaside, beach, world, weekend, etc. We go to the beach every Sunday.

We use either a I an or the before a Singular countable noun to represent a class of people, animals or things. A I The dolphin is more intelligent than a I the shark. (We mean dolphins and sharks in general.) ALSO: Dolphins are more intelligent than sharks.

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170

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Articles Fill in with a, an or some.

1 .••• M .... apple

2 ......•.... bananas

3 ....••..... bird

4 ...•....... cheese

5 ........... diary

6 ........•.• owl

7 ........... egg

8 ..••••••.•. lemons

9 ...•..•••.• camel

Fill in: a, an, the or some.

5 A: What do you want to be when you grow up? B: ........ astronaut!

A: Can I help you? B: Yes. I'm looking for ... ti ... book about whales. 2 A: When do you usually go to ....•...

6 A: Where are ........ boys, Bob? B: They are playing in .....••• garden. 7 A: Did you buy anything at ......•. shops,

cinema? B: At ......•. weekend. 3 A: Do you have any plans for tonight, Mandy? B: Yes, I'm going out with ........ friends. 4 A: Did you have fun at ........ zoo? B: Yes! We saw ........ penguins and

Betty? B: Yes, Mum. I bought ........ silk scarf. 8 A: What's this? B: It's ........ old radio .

........ elephant.

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CD

Articles The is also used before:

• •

The is omitted before:

nouns which are unique. Haven't you been to the Acropolis yet? names of cinemas (the Odeon), hotels (the Hilton), theatres (the Rex), museums (the Prado), newspapers (the Times), ships (the Queen Mary). names of rivers (the Thames), seas (the Black Sea), groups of islands / stat~s (the Bahamas, the USA), mountain ranges (the Alps), deserts (the Gobi Desert), oceans (the Pacific) and names with .. , of (The Tower of London).

proper nouns. Paula comes from Canada.

names of sports, activities, colours, substances and meals. He plays tennis well. She likes blue. Soda isn't expensive. Lunch is ready.

names of countries (Italy), cities (London), streets (Bond Street), parks (Hyde Park), mountains (Everest), islands (Cyprus), lakes (Lake Michigan), continents (Europe).

the possessive case or possessive adjectives. This isn't your coat, it's Kate's.

the words 'home' and 'Father / Mother' when we talk about our own home / parents. Father isn't at home.

musical instruments. Can you play the guitar?

names of people / families / nationality words. the Smiths, the English, the Italians, etc.

titles without proper names. the Queen, the President

titles with proper names. Queen Elizabeth, President Kennedy

the superlative degree of adjectives / adverbs (the best). He's the most intelligent student of all.

bed, school, church, hospital, prison, when they are used for the reason they exist. John was taken to hospital. BUT: His mother went to the hospital to see him.

Fill in the where necessary. Then circle the correct answer.

1 Is .. 'f. .. Lisbon . th.e. . capital of •. 'f...

portugal? @ Yes

6 What is ...... capital of ...... Italy?

A Rome

7 Is ...... Arctic Ocean bigger than •..•..

B No

Indian Ocean?

2 Is ...... Malta in ...•.. Caspian Sea?

A Yes

A Yes

B No

3 Is ...... Lake Baikal in ...... Russian Federation ...... world's deepest lake? A Yes

B No

4 Where is . . . . .. Sahara Desert? A In Asia B In Africa Greece? Corfu

B No

8 Is ...... Everest .•.... highest mountain in ...... world?

B No A Yes 9 Where are . . . . . . Sardinia and . . . . . Corsica? A In the Black Sea B In the Mediterranean Sea

5 What is ...... biggest island in ......

A

B Milan

B Crete

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10 Where is ..•... Mississippi River? A In the USA B In the UK 172

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Articles Fill in the where necessary.

Did you know? 1 Rafflesia arnoldii is .. the. .. largest flower in ........... world . It weighs 7kg and grows only in ••.•..•..•. Sumatra, Indonesia. 2 •.•••..•••• Johann Vaaler invented ...••••••.. paperclip in 1899. 3 ......•..•. Badminton became an Olympic sport in 1992. 4 It took ••••....... Egyptians 20 years to build ........... Great Pyramids. 5 .......... most important river entering ........... Black Sea is ........... Danube. 6 ........... bass is ........... largest of ........... string instruments.

Fill in a or the where necessary.

John: Do you want to come to 1) .• the( .. theatre with me tonight? Ann : Sorry, I can't. I'm going to 2) ......•. restaurant with my cousin from 3) ........ America. John: What part of 4) .•••.... USA does he come from? Ann :

He lives in 5) .....••. Colorado, near 6) .......• Rocky Mountains. He's quite 7) ......•. famous musician. He plays 8) .•...•.. guitar in 9) ....•... rock band. In fact he's giving a concert at 10) ........ Odeon in 11) •.••..•. Regent Street tomorrow evening. Fill in a, an or the where necessary.

A: Can you tell me the way to •. th~ ..

5 A: What shall we do tonight? B: Let's go to ...... Odeon. There's a comedy on with Jim Carrey.

nearest bank, please? B: Sure. Turn left here and you 'll find it in ...... Green Street.

6 A: I'm going to make .....••• pie for tonight.

2 A: Is this ...... Ahmed 's motorbike? B: No, ...... blue motorbike over there is his.

B: Great! I

7 A: I saw ...... amazing film last night.

B: Really? What was it about?

3 A: Where are .•••.. Wilsons going on holiday? B: They're going to ...... Bahamas.

8 A: Brad is going to . . . . •. London on ...... business trip. B: Is he going to stay at • . • . .. Mandeville Hotel again?

4 A: What do you know about ......

Bermuda Islands? B: They're in ....•. North Atlantic Ocean.

~

9 A: Would you like some ice cream?

B: No, thanks. I'd prefer .•..•. sandwich. 173

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Articles

Lisa recently went on holiday to Spain. While she was there, she visited three different places, tried the local food and bought some souvenirs. Look at the pictures and the words given and say what Lisa did using a, an, some or the, where necessary. go / Barcelona ..... ~ lf?~. Wot<lJt. tp. ~~r~.~(p.f'J~ ..... eat / paella

buy / Spanish fan for herself

visit / Prado Museum

take photos of / Lake Sanabria

buy / flamenco dolls for her friends

Complete the questions with a, an or the, where necessary, using the words in the list. Ask your partner to answer the questions. • Mont Blanc • viGIiA

• breakfast

• UK

• African safari

• restaurant

• aeroplane

• basketball

1 A: Can you play •. th.~ .vJ9jin .. ? B: .N.a,.l c,q(1:t ./{I)t.i .4Ci1n p.(~ .t.r;~. piCiln.a..................................... . 2 What do you usually have for ••••.•.•......•............•••••••••...•.•.•..•....•... ? 3 Have you ever been to •••••••.•.•••...................•••••••...•..•...•.••.••••.. ? 4 Would you like to climb •.................•..•........•.•••••••.•...............•.. ? 5 Do you like .......................... ? I

••••••••

I

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

6 Would you ever go on .............•.........••.•••....•..•.•••....•............•. ? 7 Are you going to eat at •.........•.••.•.•.•....•••••.•..•.•••••••..••..•.•.. tonight? 8 Have you ever flown in ......... ? I

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

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174

I

••

I

••••••••••••••


Articles

Speaking Activity Talking about a place

In pairs, ask and answer questions about where you and your family went on holiday last summer, which places you visited, what local dishes you tried and what souvenirs you bought for your friends.

A: Where did you go on holiday last summer? B: We went to Venice in Italy, etc.

You are writing a letter to your English pen friend. You are telling him what you and your family did on your summer holiday. Write about: what places / visit, what / eat and what / buy.

Dear ....................... " I've just come back from .•.••.••.••.••.••••••• . We had a fabulous time there. My family and I went to ••••.••.••...•....... " which was fantastic. We .••.•..••••••

I

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

• •- • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

What about you? What did you do on your summer holiday? Write back,

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175

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Progress Check 9 (Units 17-1BJ Fill in: next to, beside, between, behind, against, across, in, over (x2), along, on or under.

Tai and his father are fishing 1) ... •b~p.idt{ .... the river. Tai 's dog is lying 2) ..•..•...••••.• him. His sister Lin is leaning 3) •..••••..••••.• a tree. There is a boat 4) ...•••..•.•••.• the bridge and a man 5) .••.•...•..••.. the boat. He is fishing, too. There is a man riding his motorbike 6) ............... the road. A man is driving

1 ~=!!M~~f:i~=~!.;~J~ ~ , ~

his car 7) ............... the bridge. There is a man 8) ............... the motorbike. He is walking 9) •..••.......••. the road. There are some birds flying 10) ..•.....•..•••• the river and there is a girl lying 11) ............... the grass 12) ............... two trees.

Fill in: at, on, under (x2), in, behind, out of, opposite, in front of.

1 The cat is .. ..uJJd~r. ... the table.

2 They are sitting . •••.••.•••.• each other.

4 Rosa is .. .. .. .. • .. .. .... home. She is

3 Pedro is walking . ...•.•••.•.• Juan.

5 The woman is sitting . . . • . . . . . . . . . .. the

watching TV. She is sitting ............. . the armchair. The TV is .............•... her.

sunshade. The man is sitting ......•..... the deckchair. The boys are coming . ................ the sea.

176


Progress Check 9 Fill in at, in or on .

. . . in ... the afternoon

4 ..•...•• noon

7 .......• the weekend

2 ......•• August

5 ........ 2005

8 ........ spring

3 ....••.• Wednesday

6 ........ September 12th

Fill in the where necessary. ~~iiir.=ii~!!!~===~==:::;;" 1) ... -;-.•..• Cyprus is 2) ......... third largest island in

3) . . . . . . . .• Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of 4) ......... Lebanon , south of 5) ........ Turkey and north of 6) .....•... Egypt. 7) .... . . . .. people who live there speak both 8) .......•. Greek and 9) ........ .

-~....- II!!!)

Turkish. Cyprus is one of 10) ...•..... most popular tourist destinations. Millions of tourists visit Cyprus every year.

Fill in a, an or the where necessary.

A: Do you know where ... tb~...

5 A: Which is faster, ......... tiger or . ff? ......... glra e.

Mississipi River is?

B: I think ....•.... tigers are faster than

B: Yes, It is in .•..•••.. North America.

. .....•.. giraffes but cheetahs are

2 A: Have you ever been to . . . . . . . •• New

......... fastest of all.

York?

6 A: Did you know my cousin is ........ .

B: No, but I've been to ..•...... Washington, D.C. and I met ...•...

actor? B: Really? I had no idea.

President when I was there.

7 A: Is ......... Mum busy at the moment?

3 A: Would you like to go to .........

B: Yes, she is. She's making ........ .

cinema tonight? B: I'd love to. There's ......... great film

dinner.

on at . . . . . . . .. Plaza. I

8 A: Who is going to open the new hospital?

4 A: We're planning to go to Spain this

B: I think ......... Queen is going to do it.

summer. B: I'm sure you 'll enjoy yourselves . . . . . • .. Spanish are wonderful people. 177


Progress Check 9 Underline the correct form. Browns / The Browns live in a beautiful

7 We have dinner / the dinner at 7 o'clock. 8 Coliseum / The Coliseum is in Rome / the

house. 2 China is in Asia / the Asia. 3 Jimmy usually watches TV in evenings / the evenings. 4 Do you know how to play guitar / th'e guitar?

Rome. 9 Let's play volleyball / the volleyball. 10 The Earth / Earth goes around Sun / the Sun. 11 We 're going to Canary Islands / the Canary Islands for our summer holidays. 12 Austria is in Europe / the Europe.

5 This is my best friend , Pamela / the Pamela. 6 Sahara / The Sahara Desert is in Africa /

the Africa.

QI

You will hear a man asking for information about buying a bus ticket. Listen and complete questions 1-5. You will hear the conversation twice.

notes

0

~.---

S

".'11 '1·] ;,

Amsterdam

To:

-,----

... ....... ...... . ~- .

c

BUS LINES

Date of journey:

11 1................................ 1

Bus leaves at:

121 ··· ............................. 1

Return ticket costs:

131€ .. · .... ······ .... · .. ······ .. ·· 1

Bus Ticket Office opening hours:

141 .................... to 11:00 pm

Address:

15

178

1108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Road

1


Revision 1 (Units 1-2J

Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the present continuous.

Dear Akim, I 1) •••••••••••••••• (write) to tell you aboutthe greattime I 2) •••••••••••••••• (have) with my grandpa in the countryside. Every day, we 3) ••••••••••••••••• (wake up) early and we 4) •••••••••••••••••• (start) our day with a big healthy breakfast. Then we 5) ••••••••••••••••••• (go) for a long walk by the lake. I really 6) •••••••••••••••••• (enjoy) it because there 7) •••••••••••••••••• (be) so many birds and animals here that you 8) ••••••••••••••••••• (not/see) in the city. Tomorrow, my grandpa and I 9) ••••••••••••.• (go) fishing. He 10) •••••••••••••• (have) a small boat. I hope it doesn't rain. See you when I get back, Tom Points : ) ( 10x2 20

Use the verbs to complete the sentences. Use the present simple or the present continuous. belong cost

see not believe

taste appear

have think

1 This jacket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. a lot.

5 I .................... George after

It's very expensive. 2 She ••• lunch now. 3 The food . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... delicious. 4 I .................... of going to the

work today. 6 This isn't Nick's laptop. It ............... . to John. 7 I .................... what he's saying. 8 The band ...... .. .. .. .. .. .... at the

I

•••••••••••

I

••••

cinema tonight.

youth centre tonight. ) Points : ( 8x2 16

Underline the correct item. Beth goes / is going shopping every Saturday morning. 2 Mr Taylor teaches / is teaching Maths at Blair High School. 3 4 5 6

What do you do / are you doing tonight? Do Bob and Ann play / Are Bob and Ann playing in the garden right now? Does water freeze / Is water freezing at DOC? We look / are looking for some new furniture for our living room.

7 The Parkers live / are living in Manchester. 8 They fly / are flying to Rome tomorrow evening.

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179

Points : ( 8x1 8

~

)


Revision 1

Put the adverbs of frequency in brackets in the correct position in the sentences.

I see my aunt and uncle because they live far away. (rarely) .................... ..

4 Sue spends her Saturdays with her friends. (usually) ........................... .

2 Oliver is at school on time. (never) ....... .

5 Do you travel abroad? (often) .......... .

3 Fiona watches TV in the evening. (always)

6 Jane plays in the park. (sometimes) .....

Fill in: has - have been in / to, has - have gone to.

Points: ) ( 6x 1 6

4 The Browns ....••....•..............•

Belinda isn't here at the moment. She ....

Vienna on holiday. I'm sure they're having a the bank to take out some money. 2 Nigel and Layla .. .. .. ... .. ......... . . . .. Mexico. They came back last week. 3 He ................................. .

good time. 5 Mrs Bowes .•...•••••......... Munich on business. She's coming back tomorrow . 6 Aya's sister .........••••••••...•.••..

the garage for hours! What is he doing?

...•...•••••• hospital since Wednesday. Points: ) ( 6x1 6

Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the past simple.

Ann:

I don't know where to go on holiday this year. Have you got any ideas?

Betty:

1) .......... ...... .. ...... . (you/ever/go) to Spain? I 2) .......... ........ ....... (go) to Barcelona last year and I really 3) ......................... (enjoy) myself. Well, I 4) ......................... (spend) two years in

Ann:

Spain while I 5) ......................... (be) at University. 16) .••.•...••.••.•••.••.••.• (never/visit) South America, though. Betty:

A friend of mine 7) ......................... (work) in Brazil before. I think you 8) . . . . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .• (already/meet) her. Do you remember Kate from my party?

Ann:

Oh, yes. 19) • • • • . • • . • • . . • . . • • • • • • • . •. (speak) to her. She's really nice. Maybe I can talk to her about it. Points: ) ( 9x 1 9

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180

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Revision 1

Use the present simple, the present continuous or the present perfect to

Hello, Annie! How are you? I'm so sorry I 1) ............................ (not/write) for so long but I 2) ..................... (have) a lot of exams lately. I 3) ..................... (sit) for three final exams so far this week and next week I 4) ..................... (take) a Maths and History test! Mr Jones, our Maths teacher 5) .........•............... (always/give) us lots of homework - it 6) ...................... (be) very annoying but I know he only 7) ...................... (want) to help us! Anyway, how about you? When 8) .•..•..................•. (you/sit) your final exams? 9) ......................... (you/study) hard these days, too? Well, I have to go now because Mum 10) ......................... Gust/call) me for dinner. Please keep in touch! Love, Laura Points : ) ( 10x2 20

Choose the correct item.

1 Helen ..... a fax at the moment. A is sending B sends C has sent 2 They haven't seen each other ..... they left

9 I haven't been to Portsmouth ..... three years. A since B for C just 10 They left the house an hour . . . .. . A last B before C ago 11 I've ..... tidied my bedroom.

camp. A before B for C since 3 My mother ..... in a hospital. She's a nurse. B is working A works

A already B lately C yet 12 He's ..... late for school. He can't wake

C has worked 4 Have you called a taxi ..... ?

up in the morning. A never B always C rarely 13 Yesterday, we ...•. dinner at an excellent

A rarely B yet C just 5 He ...•. in Italy before. A lives B is living C has lived 6 He .•... his leg, so he can't play football.

Chinese restaurant. A have had B are having Chad 14 Janet •.... very pretty today. A is looking B looks C look

A has broken B breaks C is breaking 7 Paul ..... Paris for two years now. A has been to

B has gone to

15 Carla ..... two brothers and a sister.

C has been in 8 Costas ..... a bath at the moment. A is having

B has

A has

B is having

C have Points: ) ( 15x1 15

C has had

~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---I ( Total: -10-0 )

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181

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Revision 2 (Units 1-4J

Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the past simple. • A: How long 1) ................................ (you/work) for this company? B: 12) ................................ (start) working here six years ago. • A: Is this a new bicycle? B: Yes, my parents 3) ................................ (give) it to me last week. • A: When 4) ........••••••...•...........•.. (you/meet) Alison? B: We 5) ................................ (know) each other since we 6) ...•.•.••.•••.•.....•...•.••.... (be) ten years old.

A: Can you help me with the washing-up, please? B: I'm sorry, I can't. 17) ................................ (not/finish) my homework yet. Points: ) ( 7x3 21

Fill in: have - has gone to, have - has been to / in. • A: Are Sue and Ann at home?

• A: Can I talk to Mr Harris, please? B: I'm sorry but Mr Harris 1) ............ .

B: No, they aren't. They 3) ............ ..

.•......•••..•.•...••.•...... Paris.

. . . . . . • • • • • • • . • • . •• the supermarket.

you ever ••••••.......•••......... New York?

• A: 4) •...••••

• A: Have you visited the National Museum? B: No, not yet. I 2) .................... . only ............ Athens for two days.

I

•••••••••••••••

B: Yes and I had a great time. Points: ) ( 4x1 4

Underline the correct item. 7 Don't go into the kitchen. I am cleaning /

Markus and Emma are listening to music

2 3 4

5 6

every day / at the moment. He bought / has bought a new computer last week. I've lived here since / for 1987. She usually is visiting / visits her grandparents on Sundays. This time tomorrow, I fly / will be flying to Moscow. Dad hasn't come home from work already / yet.

8 9 10

11 12

have just cleaned the floor. Look! The Sun is riSing / rises. Lan hasn't called / didn't call us yet. Will you be going / Do you go to the chemist's this afternoon? I need some vitamins. This jacket costs / is costing a lot of money. I can't afford it. Have you ever / never tried paella? ( pOints: -

12x1

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182

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)

12


Revision 2 Rewrite the sentences in the correct order.

plays / piano / she / the / beautifully •......•..•••••••..••.•.•...........••....••.••.• 2 small / she / a(n) / antique / wooden / table / has ..••...•••.•••••••.•.••.•••••.••••••.• 3 gave / me / he / beautiful/ring / a / gold •••••••.•••.•.•••.•.••.••.•.•••.•••••••••.••• 4 never / arrives / he / before / at work / 10 o'clock .......••....•••••.•..••.••.••••••••••

5 goes / she / every / morning / jogging ••...•..••.•....••.•..•••••.•••••.•....•....... 6 by bus / to school/comes / usually / he .•.•••••.•..•.....•••••••.••••..•....•.••••.• Points: ) ( 6x2 12

Fill in: than, of or in and the correct comparative or superlative form.

Martin Hamble is a member of one of the 1) .......................... (famous) basketball teams ••...•••••••• the USA. He is 2) ••••••••••••••••••• (tall) and 3) .......................... (young) player ....... . the team. Martin is a very good player but his friend, Jim, is 4) .......... "....... ". (good) . ".. "". """"""".. " he is. Matthew Bodine is 5) .............. (old) . .. .. .. ... Jim and Martin and he's also 6) ............ (fast) ........ .. both of them. He is 7) •••••••••••••••••••••• (exciting) player to watch and also 8) """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" (popular) member """...... "..... the team. Points: ) ( 8x2 16

Complete the exchanges with too or enough and the adjectives in brackets.

1 A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: No, I'm ..................... (tired). 2 A: Can he do the puzzle? B: Yes, he is ..•.....•••.••.....••.... (clever). 3 A: It's ................... (hot) in here. B: Why don't you open the window?

4 A: Does your daughter stay at home alone?

B: No, she's ................. (young). 5 A: Did they fly their kites on Saturday? B: Yes, it was ................. (windy) . 6 A: Did you have fun at the party? B: No, it was (boring). Points : - ) ( 6x2 12

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183

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Revision 2

Fill in: will/won't, shall or be going to .

• . . • . • • . • • . • . . • . • • .• we go to the theatre

6 I'm afraid I ..•.••..•.........••.•.•.•..

I

this evening? 2 She .................... probably pass

.......... be able to come to your party. 7 ....•••.•......•....•••••••........••

her exams. 3 Now that he has the money, he .......... " .................... buy a car. 4 Be careful! Otherwise you . . . . • .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. hurt yourself. 5 Look! Tim . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .... win!

we go to Spain for our holiday this year?

8 She ........................... travel around the world. She's leaving on Friday . 9 I've just enrolled for the language course. I

I

start it in September. Points : ) ( 9x1 9

He's much faster than the other runners. Choose the correct item.

He's ...... person I've ever met. A the friendlier B friendly C the friendliest 2 The Moon ••••.. around the Earth. A is moving B moves C has moved 3 They haven't seen each other ...••. they left school. B for A after C since

4 I think Holland •••... win the World Cup.

A is going to B will C shall 5 My brother ...... to the gym. He'll be back in two hours. A goes B is going C has gone 6 I haven't been to Portsmouth .....• three

8 Mike is ....•• funnier than I am. A very Bless C much 9 He ...•.. a new car last week. A bought B buys C is buying : 10 This is . . . . .. time I've spent away from home. A longer B long I

I

I

I I I I I

C the longest : 11 This time tomorrow, Kofi •. . . .. for the airport. I

I

I

years. A since B for C after 7 You put too ...... sugar in my tea. I can 't drink it now. A much B many C enough _

A leaves B has left C will be leaving 12 My bag is ...•.. than hers. A the heavier B heavier C heaviest 13 I'm tired. I •..•.. to bed early. A go B 'II go C went 14 She ...... goes to the opera. She doesn't like it.

I

A never

B always

C usually Points : ) ( 14x1 14

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-i ( Total: -10-0 )

184

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Revision 3 (Units 1-6) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

Dear Bobby, I 1) •••.•..•.•...... (have) great news! We 2) .....•.......... (plan) to visit your country! We 3) .•.•......... (not/buy) our plane tickets yet but we 4) ...•••.••.... (think) of coming at the end of the month. I'm so excited! We 5) ................ (want) to visit all those places we've talked about. Well, that's all for now. Talk to you soon! Best wishes, Points : ( 5x2 Mike 10 Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use be going to, was/were going to, the present simple or will.

Lea: What are your plans for the weekend? Robert: We've just changed them. We 1) .....••..........•...... (go) camping but the weather forecast warned that it 2) ..•.....•....•..•.•.. (rain) , so we 3) .••..........•.••.•••

(stay) indoors and watch some DVDs. Terry: Do you have a few minutes, sir? I need to talk to you. Mr Gear: I don't have time right now, Terry. I 4) ................... (be) late for a meeting. I 5) .................... (see) you when 16) .................... (come) back. Terry:

OK, sir. Thank you.

Paula: Wendy: Paula: Wendy: Paula:

Are you busy this evening? Yes, 17) •••••••••••••••••••• (watch) a film with my friend , Sarah. Why do you ask? I 8) .......•........•.•. (ask) you to have dinner. Oh. Well , I don't have anything planned for tomorrow. OK! I 9) ....•.••..•.•....... (see) you at 7 at Pierre's. Points: ( 9x2

)

18

Underline the correct item.

7 The older she gets, the more / most beautiful she becomes.

Mitsuko is the best student of / in our class. 2 Their house is bigger from / than ours. 3 It's much / more hotter today than yesterday. 4 Ann is the shortest in / of Mary's friends. 5 The diamond ring is the more / most expensive of all. 6 Ivan is as tall so / as James.

8 The armchair is much / more comfortable than the chair. ,, 9 This is a / the best film I've ever seen. : 10 The Russian Federation is the largest country of / in the world .

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185

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( points: ) 10x 1 10


Revision 3

Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present perfect

continuous.

2 3 4 5

Don't walk in there! I ....•....................................... Oust/clean) the floor. Jane's hungry. She .........•............................... (not/eat) since breakfast. He is tired. He ................................................ (study) for four hours. I don't want to see that film again. I ...................••....•..... (already/see) it twice. Sandy .•.•..•..........•......................•...•..... (teach) English for ten years.

6 Bruno •.•..............•................................ (not/do) the washing-up yet. 7 He ....................................•••••••......•.•...•..... (work) all morning. 8 They ........•..................•.•...••..•....•... (play) in the garden for two hours. Points : ) ( 8x2 16

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous. My friend , Jill and 11) •.••.•..•..••..•.••• (walk) home from school last week when we 2) .... • .... ... .... .... (see) a little boy who 3) ....... ... ...... . .. • (cry). He 4) . . . . • . . . . . • . . . . • • . .. (be) lost and he 5) ...•..... . . . . . . . . . .. (look) for someone to help him. Jill and I 6) .•... . • . • • . . . . . . . . .. (walk) him back to our school and the headmaster 7) ........•....... . . . . (call) his parents to pick him up. His mother and father 8) .. • . • . . . . . . . • • . . . . .• (be) very happy and 9) • • • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . .. (thank) us for our help. ) Points : ( 9x2 18

Fill in: used to or didn't use to.

When I was very little, 11) ............. spend a lot of time in my bedroom. 12) ............. play with my toys and watch cartoons. In the afternoons, I 3) .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. ... go to the park with my mum. In the evenings, I 4) .••••.•....•...... stay up late but now I do.

) Points : ( 4x2 8

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186

~


Revision 3 Underline the correct item.

His clothes are dirty. He has been painting / : 4 I was going to call / called you but I couldn't was painting the house. find your phone number. 2 The Millers watched / were watching lV when : 5 Hilda has been reading / has read four the lights went out. books this month. 3 This time next week, I tour / will be touring 6 Dad used to / didn't use to work on Saturdays Rome with my family.

but he doesn't any more. Paints: ) ( 6x1 6

Choose the correct item.

John ...... down the road when he fell. A walked B was walking C has walked 2 Jane is the ...... person I know. B cleverer A cleverest C more clever 3 She doesn't mind walking to work. She ....•. to it. A isn't used B is used C used 4 There are too .....• books in this bag. It's

8 Don't worry. You will soon ...... to wearing glasses. A are used B get used C used , 9 •.•••. breakfast every morning? A Do you have B Are you having C Did you have 10 John ...•.. rugby when he hurt his arm. A play B played C was playing 11 I'll tell Luigi about the meeting. I .....• him at work anyway. A have seen B will be seeing

very heavy. B many C enough A much 5 Janet ....•• the hairdresser's; she'll be back at 3 o'clock. B has been to A has gone to C has been in 6 It's the .•••.. coat she has ever seen. A most expensive B more expensive C expensive 7 The weather is • . . • . . today than it was yesterday. A good

B better

C see 12 Tom sings ...... . A beautiful B beautifully C good 13 Frank is tired because he •.•••. all day. A studied B has studied C has been studying 14 Cathy .••.•. move to LA but she decided to stay in Boston. A will B is going to C was going to

C best

Paints: ) ( 14x1 14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _----i ( Total: -10-0 )

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187

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Revision 4 (Units 1-BJ

Put the words in the correct order to make sentences.

She got up / suddenly / the room / and left 2 They've bought a / two-storey / lovely / in London / old-fashioned / house 3 He walked / in the rain / up the hill / slowly 4 Every Monday / to the gym / by car / they go 5 He's built a / wooden / beautiful/bookcase ( POints: 5x2

) 10

Choose the correct item. 7 Bruno and Carla are playing with two

1 "Have you ever .•.... Helsinki?" "Yes, once, in 1999." B been to A gone to

...... children. A another B the other C other 8 They .....• have a barbecue but it started to rain. B were going to A will

C been in 2 I . . . . .. to driving on the left now but it was hard at the beginning. A 'm used B 'm not used

C are going to 9 The black dress ...... Kim perfectly. B fitting C is fitting A fits 10 ...... you seen Nathan lately? C Do A Have B Did

C used 3 While she was chopping onions, she accidentally ...... her finger. A cut B has cut C was cutting 4 . .. .. your invitation to the wedding yet? A Don't you get B Haven't you got C Didn't you get 5 He ...... live in London but now he lives in a small town.

11 They . . . . .. house next week. B are moving C moved A move 12 Ralph is .•.... on time for work. He's never late. A often B sometimes C always 13 Maria is ...... than her sister. C shortest A short B shorter

A uses B used to C was used to 6 She . . . . .• in this house for 25 years. A has been living B lives C is living

14 The soup is ..•... hot to eat. A much B enough C too ( points: 14x1

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188

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) 14


Revision 4 Fill in the appropriate reflexive or emphatic pronouns.

1 Help ...•.........•.. to some more cake,

3 Nobody helped her with this exercise. She did it •.....•.....•... . 4 Jack burnt •........•...... while trying to make an omelette. Points: )

please. 2 The children enjoyed ...•.•......•.•. at the party.

( 4x2

8

Fill in the correct pronouns or possessive adjectives.

My aunt and uncle live in Paris. 1) ..............•• house is very big. They do most of the work 2) ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . My aunt enjoys gardening and 3) ............... friends say it is the prettiest garden in the world! At the moment, my uncle is painting the house 4) ..•.•.....•.... " and 5) ................ friend, Mr Brown, is helping 6) ....

....... .

( POints: 6x2

) 12

Fill in: any, anything, no, nothing, some, somebody, somewhere or anywhere.

Would you like ............... chocolate? : 5 Let's go! There's ...............•... time 2 I'm afraid there isn't .................... : to waste. 6 Are you going .•.....•................. juice left. Can you buy some? I

I I

3 Mei and I went shopping but we didn't buy :

nice for your holidays? 7 I'm thirsty; I've had ...•.•...•.•.•.••••..

4 There is ................... waiting for

.. .. ... to drink all day. 8 I left my glasses ................... .. in the house.

you outside.

Fill in the gaps with both, all, neither or none.

Points: ) ( 8x1 8

5 A: Why didn't you buy any of those trousers? B: Because ............... of them fit me.

A: Was the test difficult? B: Not really. I'm sure we ............. ..

6 A: What do your parents do? B: They are ............... teachers.

passed. 2 A: How are Lin and Kim doing at school? B: Great. ............... of them are very good students. 3 A: Are Tina and Kate at home?

7 A: Mum, where did you put my books? B: They're ............... on the table over there.

8 A: I'm looking for Camila and Sarah but B: Yes. They are ............... doing ........•....•. of them is here. their homework. B: Yes. They've gone shopping. 4 A: Why didn't you and Maggie come to the cinema last night? B: ............... of us felt like going out. : Points: ( 8x2

~

189

~

) 16


Revision 4

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple, the past continuous or the

past perfect. 1 What ................................ : 5 The children were doing their homework while their mother ..•••......•...•...... . . . . . . . . .. (you/do) at 8 o'clock last night? : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (prepare) dinner. 2 They .••............•.•.............. : I

I

: 6 He couldn't pay the bill because he 3 We ...............••••.............. : (leave) his wallet at home. (finish) tidying the flat by the time our guests : 7 When Dad ......•......•....•••..•..•. arrived. (move) into their new flat two weeks ago.

I

I

I

4 Tim .............. (turn) 14 last Sunday.

1

(come) home, we had dinner. ) Points: ( 7x2 14

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

After Mike ........... ..

2 Oh no! I ............. .. (lose)

(pack) his suitcase, he called for a taxi.

3 The children are exhausted. They ................. .

. . . . .. (play) all morning.

my wallet!

4 Helen ...••......••.••• 5 Mitsuko's eyes hurt. She (cook) dinner before Tony : ..........••......•.•. came back from work. . ....... (read) for hours. I

6 He was happy because he

I

. ......... (win) the race. ) Points: ( 6x3 18

....._____________1__-----------~ (Total: 190

~

-10-0 )


Revision 5 (Units 1-10) Rewrite the sentences in the correct order.

1 always / writes / neatly / she 2 owns / she / lovely / a / house / old 3 I / TV / every evening / watch 4 by bus / to school / goes / usually / she

(Points:- ) 4x2

8

Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form, adding any necessary words.

1 Are there any ...............•...•••.............................. (many) questions? 2 My brother is .........................................•............•. . .. (old) me. 3 4 5 6 7

Is this dress . ...........................•.................. (expensive) that one? Tina is ........•...............•........................... .. (tall) girl in her class. That rock concert was ................•...................... (good) I've ever been to. Trains are ...•.•...............................•......•................ (fast) cars. What is ..........................................•...... (high) mountain in Europe?

8 The Coliseum is one of ........................ (famous) monuments ........ the world.

( ~~~ts: -8 -) Answer the questions using too or enough.

"Can he have a shower?" "No, ..........•....... ............... ." (cold)

2 "Can he jump?" 3 "Can he go to school? "No, ....... "No, ................. . . .. . .. . .. ." (frightened) : ." (well) I

I

1

•••••

1

••••

:

I

4 "Can he make people 5 "Can he lift it?" 6 "Can Bob win? " "N laugh?" 0 , .....•.... "No, ................. . "Yes, ................. . ............. ." (strong) : .............. ." (slow) ............. ." (funny) : ( ~~i; tS: ~) I

I

•••••••

:

I

~

191

~


Revision 5

Put the verbs in brackets into the

cor~ re:c:t~t: e~ ns :e :.

__________d...

Dear Brenda, How are you? I 1) ......•..••...•....•••. (write) to tell you my exciting news! You 2) .....•..•.••••• (know) how much 13) •••••••.•.•••••.••.•• (always/want) to be an actor. Well, my dream 4) • . . . • . • • . . • . . . . . . . . . . .• (finally/come) true! Last week, I 5) ..•....•••.•..••••.•• .. (try out) for a small part in a film. And guess what! I 6) ..•......... . .. (get) the part. To tell you the truth, I 7) ••••.•.....••.. (be) a little nervous about the whole thing but I do have a great acting coach. Filming 8) .•••.•....•.... (start) in the next few weeks. Wish me luck, Ted

Points: ) ( 8x2 16

Fill in: both (of), neither (of), none (of) or all (of).

Deborah and Carla are friends. They 1) .......•..•......... like skiing and mountainclimbing but 2) .•...........•.•.•.. them likes water sports, so they often go on winter holidays together. Last winter, they went to Switzerland with 3) •.....••.•.•...•..•. their friends who like skiing and they 4) ..............••.. had a wonderful time. Unfortunately, 5) ..•.......•....... their friends could stay for more than a week but 6) • • • • • . . . . . . • . • . .. Deborah and Carla are planning to go again this year. 7) ........•..••.•. them would miss it for the world! Points: - ) ( 7x1

7

Circle the correct item.

You should / can put your litter in the bin.

4 Will / Shall I help you with your suitcase?

2 You can't / don't have to eat your lunch now. You can eat it later.

3 He must / can't be rich.

5 May / Must I use your phone, please?

6 You must / can obey the school rules. ) Points : ( 6x2 12

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192

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Revision 5 Complete the dialogue.

A: Hi, Sam. S: Hello, Ali. That's my new bike over there. A: 1) ................................. ?

S: Yes, it goes very fast. A: 4) .................................. ? S: It's a gift from my parents. A: 5) ................................. ?

S: My bike's the red one. A: 2) ................................. ? S: I got it last week. A: 3) ..............

I

•••••••••••••••••••

S: Yes, I ride it to school every day. A: 6) ...........................

?

I

•••••

?

S: Yes, of course you can ride it. Points : ) ( 6x2 12

Add question tags and short answers.

1 I've met you before, •...................................•. ? Yes, •.............•.• . 2 I'm in the same class as you, ....•....••................... ? Yes, ................. .

3 Her father's my Chemistry teacher, ......................... ? 4 He works hard, .......................................... ? 5 You know about the bank robbery, ......................... ? 6 You 've read the newspaper, ............................... ? 7 He lives next door, .•..••.••.•...............••.•......... ? 8 She didn't pass her grammar test last week, ......••.....•... ?

Yes, No, No, No, Yes, No,

................ ................. ................. ..... ................. 1

•••••••••••

. . . •

.

Points : - ) ( 8x2 16

Choose the correct item.

Can I use •..•• mobile phone, please? A you B your C yours 2 Penny use to live in Ireland? A Is B Does C Did

6 I'm hungry. I . . • . •. a sandwich. A 'm having B have C 'II have 7 Elena made the cake A herself B himself C myself

3 May I have ...•.. cup of tea, please? B another C the other A other 4 Pablo speaks English very . • • . •• . A well B better C best 5 Does .••••. know where Pierre is? A anyone B no one C someone

8 -We're going to the cinema. Do you want to . . JOin •••••• ?.

A we B us C our 9 "I'm going to the bus station. " " ••.•.• am I. I'll give you a lift." A Neither

B Nor

C So Points: ( 9x 1 9

-----------------------------1 ~

193

)

( Total : -10-0 )


Revision 6 (Units 1-12J

Answer the questions using too or enough.

1 "Can he eat his lunch?" "No, •..•.........•.... ........... ." (hungry)

2 "Can you buy this necklace?" "No, ................. . .) ........ ." (expensive

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

3 Can Tim win the race? Yes, ................. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ." (fast)

( ~~~ts: ---;- )

Last week, Pedro 1) ........•............ (start) a new job in a computer company. He 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . •. (work) there for five days now and he really enjoys the work. He 3) ...........•......... (find) the first day difficult as he 4) ..................... (not/do) this type of job before. At the moment, he 5) .....•.........•..... (look for) a house near his office. He 6) ..................... (hope) he 7) ..................... (find) one soon. Points: ) ( 7x2 14

Choose the correct item.

"

Have you seen •••••• glasses? I can't find them anywhere.

7 This cake ...... delicious! A taste B tastes C is tasting 8 Cathy .••.•• to school when it started to rain.

A your B my C mine 2 The .....• bicycles are in the garden. A girls B girl C girls' 3 Silvio is a very clever boy, ...... ?

A is walking B was walking C walked 9 That isn't ..•••• football. It's Tim 's.

A isn't he B doesn't he C didn't he 4 ...•.. , we heard a loud noise. A Sudden B Suddenly

A my B mine C me 10 Did you •..... to play in the park when you were little?

C More suddenly 5 This time next week, I ...••. on a sandy

A used B use C uses 11 When I got home, there wasn't •••••• there.

beach. A am sunbathing C will be sunbathing

B sunbathe

A someone B no one C anyone 12 Sue ...... with her aunt this week. A is staying B stays C stayed

6 Ian has lived in Rome .•..•. 2005. A when B for C since

~

) Points: ( 12x1 12

194

~


Revision 6

Circle the correct item.

You can / should buy a new car.

2 Shall / Will we go to the

3 You mustn't / don't have

to talk during an exam .

cinema?

4 You can't / needn't take

5 She can't / must be his

an umbrella with you. The

grandmother; she looks

weather's fine!

very young.

6 Shall / May I sit here, please? Points: ) ( 6x3 18

Complete the dialogue.

J: 4) ................................. ?

J: Hello Mike. 1) •..•..•........•••••••.. M: J: M: J: M:

M: Yes, I like pop music very much. .......................... ? J: 5) ................................ ? I'm going shopping. 2) ........ . ....................... ? , M: Yes, I do have Britney Spears' latest CD. J: 6) •.•• ••••••.•••••.•••• • . ? I'm going with my friend , Melek. M: I bought it two weeks ago, when it was 3) ................................. ? number 1 in the charts. We're going to buy some CDs. Points: ) ( 6x3 18

~

195

~


Revision 6

Fill in the question tags in the dialogue.

Eric:

Let's go for lunch, 1) •••••.•.•...... ?

Lucy: Sounds great. Where would you like to go? Eric: You like Mediterranean food, 2) •••••••••••••.• ? Lucy: Eric: Lucy: Eric: Lucy:

Yeah, I love it. Then why don't we go to the Italian restaurant nearby? Good idea. It's right around the corner, 3) ....•......... ? Yes. Hey, you've got Jane's number, 4) .•.•...•..•.••. ? Of course, why?

Eric:

Let's invite her. Points : ) ( 4x2 8

Lucy: OK. I'll call her right now. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive or -ing form.

Georgia wants 1) ••••••••.••.••.••.• (become) a teacher. She is a very good student who likes to spend time 2) ••.............•• (read) interesting books. During summer, she prefers 3) ...••••.•••••.•••• (work) at a camp. She enjoys 4) •.•.•.••.••.•..•.•. (plan) fun activities for the children. She is looking forward to 5) • • • • • • • • • • • • . . • .. (get) her diploma next year. She can't wait 6) •••••••••••...••• (start) teaching. Points : ) ( 6x2 12

Turn from active into passive.

1) A farmer dug up a very old statue last week. 2) Somebody had buried it hundreds of years ago. 3) The farmer took the statue to a museum. 4) Experts are repairing it. 5) The museum will put the statue on display. 6) The museum has given the farmer a reward.

Points: ) ( 6x2 12 _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~ ( Total: -10-0 )

~

196

~


Revision 7 (Units 1-14J Fill in the gaps using the appropriate tense.

Sally 1) •.••..••..•....•.•..... (live) in California. She 2) ........................ (live) there for five years. She 3) ........................ (move) there when she was seven years old. It was hard for her to leave her old school but since then she 4) ....•.•.•••.............. (make) plenty of new friends. One morning, while she 5) ............................ (wait) for the school bell to ring, she 6) .. . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . • . • . . . . . .. (see) a new student. The girl 7) ........................ (stand) in a corner and she 8) ........................ (listen) to some music on her MP3 player. Sally 9) .............••••••...... (walk over) to say hello and the two girls started talking. Since then they 10) .••...................... (become) great friends.

( ~g~~ts: ~)

Choose the correct item.

Your garden is larger than . " A us B our C ours 2 He's tired. He ..... since 9 o'clock. A studies B has been studying C has studied 3 I want to go ..... hot on holiday. I think I'll travel to Spain. A nowhere B anywhere C somewhere 4 She's at the bus station. She ..... travel by bus. A is going to B will C shall 5 I often drive my ..... car. A fathers B father's C fathers'

6 It's

cold to go out. A too B enough C more 7 When my older sister passed her driving test, she was pleased with ..... . A her B herself C hers 8 I wish the neighbour's dog would stop ..... ! A barking B to bark C bark 9 What ..... Pam doing yesterday at 3 o'clock? A was B were Care 10 May has four children but ..... of them are tall. A both B neither C none Points : ) ( 10x1 10

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive or the -ing form.

1 I don't like .•.....•.••.•.•.•.•••.•.......•.•.••.•.••.•.....•.....• by plane. (travel) 2 He left without .......•••••..••••••............•...............•..••• goodbye. (say) 3 She managed ................................................. a lot of weight. (lose) 4

..

. .•..•.•..••.•.•••••.........•...•.•....•.••..•.•.••. helps you keep fit. (swim)

5 They asked him .................................................... the truth . (tell) 6 Veena went to the library ...................................... some books. (borrow) Points: ) ( 6x2 12


Revision 7

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

4 If you washed the car, it ............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (look) much nicer. 5 They ........................... (ring)

If she ......................... (hurry), she'll be on time for the meeting. 2 If he ........................ (not/stay) up late, he wouldn't have felt so tired. 3 If you .......•..••..•..•.......•• (go)

us if they had been in town. 6 If we work hard, we .................. ..

to the market, will you get me some fruit?

(finish) the project on time. Points: ) ( 6x2 12

Use the boy's thoughts to write conditionals.

v 1 I don't have enough

4 I missed the bus. I left the party late.

~---2 The weather is bad. I feel cold and wet.

open. I'll ask to use their

~ --.--

(

y

3 I don't have a mobile. I can't

~ my parents.

6 It's so dark. I feel scared.

--./'

1 ...............................•..........•...........................••..•..••. 2 .............................................................. 3 .......................... I:

I

•••••••••••••••••

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

4 ••••••••.•••.•••••.••••....•••.••••••••••••.•••••••••.••.•.•••••••••••.•..••••••

5 6 Points: - ) ( 6x3 18

~

198

~


Revision 7 Complete the people's wishes,

2 I wish I

3 I wish I " " " " " " " "

.................... ..

I

I I

He didn't see the toy car.

She bought new shoes.

He tripped over it.

They hurt her feet.

t ~:~h. ~ I.

football.

• : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ) 5 1wish my boss

It is very hot outside. Ted forgot his sun hat at home.

: He wants to be good at

:

Silvia's boss always gives her : so much work.

~__I W_i~Sh_I. :,. :~=- =~-. :~. :

'~.

'_ ' _' '--.:. : ..::...: : :=--=: ...:.'

)

Charles doesn't want to see the dentist but he has to. Paints : ) ( 6x3 18

Rewrite the following passage in the passive,

1) Someone broke into the National Museum last night. 2) He broke the window. 3) He stole some valuable paintings and he destroyed a statue. 4) The police have found fingerprints on the walls. 5) They say they will catch the thief soon.

·.................................................................................. . ·.................................................................................. . · .................................................................................. .

·.................................................................................. . Paints: ) ( 5x2 10

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----l ( Total : -10-0 )

~

199

~


Revision B (Units 1-16)

Choose the correct item. 1 • . • • •• I borrow you book? C Should A Must B Can 2 Mother's day is celebrated •.•••• May. A in B on C at 3 Tom ...... be at work. He isn't at home. A mustn't B must C can 4 Turn on the lights, •••... ? B can you A will you C are you 5 I have two brothers. They are •...•• tall. A all B neither C both 6 Would you mind •••••• the dog out? C let A letting B to let 7 He comes from Russia, .••..• ? B isn't he C doesn't he A does he

8 The hotel .•••.• built in 1885. C will A is B was 9 This is my ...... new bicycle. A sisters B sister's C sisters' 10 They have been driving •••.•. four hours. B since C ago A for 11 Why are you always arguing with ••.... ? B each other C another A other 12 I'll make •...•• a sandwich. C myself B my A mine 13 Would you like ••.••• my holiday photos? A seeing B to see C see 14 I'll give it to her when she •••... back. A comes B will come C had come ( pOints: ) 14x 1 14

Underline the correct item.

"

Luisa has to / doesn't have to study hard if she wants to pass her final exams. 2 Jimmy can't / couldn't write when he was three years old . 3 Will / Shall I open the window? 4 She can't / didn't need to feed the dog as I had already done it.

5 Can / Must I borrow your pen, please? 6 You shall / should revise for your test. 7 Sean was able to / could climb to the top of the mountain. 8 You ought to / might have told him the truth. ( pOints : ) 8x 1 8

Turn from active into passive. 1) Somebody sent Jill flowers. 2) Someone left them outside her house. 3) One of her neighbours saw him. 4) He hadn't signed the card.

Points : - ) ( 4x2 8

~

200

~


Revision B Use the boy's thoughts to write conditionals. ~-

I didn't save my pocket money.

I don't have his number. I can 't call him.

1_COUldn 't~ ;j b a present. 2 I lost the invitation. I missed his party. "-

~~

2 ............................................................................... . 3 4 ............................................................................... . Points: ) ( 4x4 16

Complete the people's wishes.

(

~ I wish I .............. )

I wish I ...............)

................... ..

................... .

Bob can 't go out to play.

David missed the bus

He has a temperature.

and now he has to walk.

4 I wish I ..•••........•.

Mei's suitcase is very heavy. She can't lift it.

, Sandra can 't go to the party. , She has to work late.

I wish my son ••••••..•• ,

I wish I .•..•..•.•.....•

Nikos can't work because his , Liz lost her car keys and now son always plays his music too she can 't drive her car. loud. Points: ( 6x3

201

~

18

)


Revision B

Fill in: why, where, who, whose, Wh/~·c:h~o~r~w~h~e~n.:. . _ _- - - - - - - - -

We're having a wonderful time here in Florida. Although the day was very hot 1) ............ we arrived, now it's cooler. The hotel 2) ............ we are staying is lovely, and the staff 3) •••....••••. work here are very helpful. The beach, 4) •••••.•••••• is right in front of our hotel, is beautiful and the water is so warm! I think that's the reason 5) • • • • • • • • • • .• so many people choose to stay at this hotel. We've also met a nice boy 6) ••.••••••••• parents own a yacht and tomorrow they're taking us sailing! That's all our news. See you soon. Love, Alex and La la

Paints: ) ( 6x2 12

Write what the people said using Reported Speech.

'------1

I will a~ ~oon a~ I Will you be open help Mr~ Boyle ...a:=~ tomorrow? with her

~---;:i=:====~

I've fini~hed ~hopping, ~o we can leave. Mrs Grady asked the shopkeeper ...•.....•...............................•...••.... 2 The shopkeeper told his assistant .....•............................................. 3 The shop assistant said ..••....•••..................... "................••.•......• 4 5 6 7 8

Mrs Boyle asked the shop assistant .........•....•...•....•••...••••.....•..••..•.•. Mrs Kent told Tom ............................................................... . Tom asked his mother .•........•.•......•••.•...••..••........................... Mrs Smith said ....•.•..........•...•.••..........••...•.............••........... Mr Smith said .............................................•...................... Paints: ) ( 8x3 24

_

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--i ( Total: -10-0 )

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202

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Revision 9 (Units 1-1B) Choose the correct item.

1 I was hungry, ....•. I made a sandwich. A because

B so

7 Dad ...... dinner right now.

A makes B make C is making 8 I was hungry, so I made •.•... a sandwich. A myself B my C me

C so that

2 That ring is gold . ...... one is silver. A Another BOther C The other 3 This jacket is the ...... in the shop. A more expensive B most expensive

9 She can't read ...•.. write.

A and B o r e but 10 She works in a bank, ...... ? A does she B isn't she

C expensive 4 It rarely ...... in the desert.

A is raining

Brain

C doesn't she

C rains

5 It's ...... warmer today than yesterday. A much

B very

11 "I'm not going to work tomorrow. "

C more

am I. I've taken the day off. "

6 They have lived in Brussels ...... 2001 . A for

B since

A So

B Neither

C None

C ago

Points: ) ( 11x1 11

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. A: Mum, where's Ramon? B: He .................... (study) in his

3 A: Why have you bought eggs? B: I ..................... (make) a cake. 4 A: Are the Millers still at home?

room right now. 2 A: Do you have anything planned for the

B: Yes, they .................... (leave) for Milan in an hour.

weekend? B: Yes, this time tomorrow we ........... .

5 A: Have you seen Cecile? B: She ........................ (go) to

............ (sail) in Lake Tahoe.

the supermarket.

Points: ) ( 5x2 10

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive or -ing form. • A: Do you have any plans for the summer? B: Well, David suggested 5) ............. .

• A: I want 1) .................. (buy) Youssef a birthday present.

(go) to Greece for two weeks.

B: Well, I know Youssef likes 2) .......••..

• A: What did your dad say? B: He agreed 6) .................. (let)

(listen) to rock music. You could 3) .................. (buy) him a CD.

me go camping this weekend.

• A: Can you come out to play?

B: Sorry, I'm busy 4) ................... : • A: I can 't decide where 7) .•.............. (have) my birthday party this year. (clean) my room. I

B: Why not have it at Abigail 's restaurant?

( ~~~ts: - 7-

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203

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Revision 9

Turn from active into passive.

1) Someone started a fire in the National Park yesterday. 2) Luckily, someone called the fire brigade. 3) The police have arrested a man. 4) The police are still questioning him.

Points : ) ( 4x3 12

Underline the correct item. 4 If I want / wanted to get fit, I would join a

Unless she passes / doesn't pass her exams, she won't get into university.

gym. 5 If you heat butter, it melts / melted. 6 If she had told me the truth , I would have

2 If I were you, I would read / will read the instructions first. 3 If Markus had gone to bed early, he wouldn't have been / wouldn't be late for school.

forgiven / would forgive her. Points : ) ( 6x1 6

Write what Brad wishes.

4 I don't have enough

1 .................................... .

4 •••••.•••.•....••.•..•.••..••••.•••••

2 ..............•......................

5 .................................... .

3 .................................... .

6 .................................... .

Points : ) ( 6x2 12

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204

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Revision 9 Choose a reporting verb and turn the following into reported speech.

offered

promised

explained

warned

"I won't tell anyone your secret," Tony said to Mei. Tony .................•..............

3 "Shall I help you with your homework?" he said to her. He ................................ .

2 "I was late because I missed the bus," he said to his boss. Rico ..•...................•......•..

4 "Don't touch the cooker, " Dad said to me. Dad .......•.................... . ...•

Paints: ) ( 4x3 12

Fill in: a, an or the where necessary. Last summer we went to 1) . ... .. New York. We stayed at 2) Ritz-Carlton Hotel. From our hotel room window we could see 3) .......... Statue of ·berty. S e is ....... . amazing sight. While we were there, we visited 5) .. . . . . . . .. Empire State Buildi g and 6) ........ . Museum of Modern Art. We also took 7) ..••...... walk through 8) .......... Central Parle e Yo is one of 9) .......... most fascinating cities I've ever been to.

Fill in: through, next to (x2), in, on or under.

Paints: ) ( 9x1 9

This is Sam's kitchen. He is standing 1) ..•••••••• the cooker because he is cooking something. There are eggs 2) ....••••.. the frying pan. There is a clock 3) .......... the wall. 4) .......... the clock there is a shelf with some cookery books on it. Sam's cat is coming in 5) ...•••••.. the window. Max, Sam's dog, is sitting 6) ....•.•.•. the chair, waiting for his breakfast. Paints : ) ( 6x2 12

Fill in: at, in or on. ......... the weekend 2 ••.•.•.•• November 3 ......... Sunday

4 ......... night 5 ......... May 5th 6 ......... 2004

7 ...•.•... a week 8 ......... noon 9 ......... Friday evening Paints: ) ( 9x1 9

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---t ( Total: -10-0 )

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205

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â&#x20AC;˘

Word List A

ability above abroad absence Academy Award accidentally accordingly accustomed acrobat across act out Active Voice activity add addition address adjective admit adverb advertisement advice advise aerobics affirmative afford African against agent ago agree agreement alarm clock album Algebra alike alive allow along Alps already alright although always amaze amazing ambulance among angrily ankle anniversary announcement annoy annoyance annoyed answer the door antique

any more anyway apologise appear apply for appointment appropriate architect area argument arrange arrangement arrest Art article artist aspirin assistant astronaut at at once at present at the moment attach attend attention attract auxiliary verb available avoid awful axe

B background backstage badminton bake ballet bamboo band bank bark bass be located be used to beach beat beauty bee beg behave believe belong below beside between bike

bill blender blow blowout boil bone bored boring boss both bother bowl branch break down break into bride bridge brilliant broccoli broom brush bully bungee jumping burglar burglary bury bus stop business butcher by

C cabinet calculator calendar cameraman campfire campus cancel capital caramel carefully carelessly carpet cartoons cashier cashier's desk cause cave ceiling celebrate celebrity central heating charge with charity chase cheetah Chemistry

~

I

cheque chess chest choice chop circus ring city clause client clothing cloud clown coach coconut colourful column comedian comedy comfortable comics command committe company comparative competition complain complete completely compose concert conclude condition conditionals confess to confirmation confusing congratulations consonant construction contact lenses contest contrast control cool cost costume cotton countable countryside course court cousin cover crash into credit card cricket criticism cross

206

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cuisine curly cycle D daily damaged dangerous deckchair decorate decoration deep definitely delicious deliver dentist deny derivative desert design dessert destination diamond difference dig up digital camera dinosaur direct direct speech director disappear discover dishwasher dislike display do the shopping do up documentary down driving licence drop drummer dry duration during E

eagle earn earring easily east economical effect either electric elegant email

emergency emphasis emphatic empty energy enrol enter entertaining environment equivalent escape especially essay event ever everyone everywhere evidence evil examine exciting exercise exhausted exhibit exhibition expect experiment expert explain explanation explore explorer expression F fabulous fairy fall over falls famous fan fancy fancy dress fascinating favour fax feed feel ferry fierce fingerprints fire alarm fireworks fit fix fixed flamenco flat


Word List flat tyre flavour flight float floppy fly follow following for foreign forget formal formula freeze frequency frightened from ... to fry frying pan funfair furniture further further/farther

G gallery gardener gardening gate general gently Geometry gerund get away ghost giant panda give up go off government graduate grandson greengrocer greetings groom ground grow up guard guide book gym H habit habitual hairdresser hall hammer hamster handkerchief

: : : : : : :I I

handle hard-working hardly hate haunted headache headline headmaster healthy heart heat heater helmet hiking trip hip hop hire hockey hoover hope hospital housewarming how long how long ago how many how much how often however huge hurry hut hypothesis

ice-skating imagine immediately improvement in in front of in time include incomplete indoors infinitive information ingredient inside install instead instruction instrument intelligent intention international interrupt interview into intonation

I

invent invite iPod ironing irregular irritation issue it's no use it's worth

: : : : : : :I :

look forward to loud lovely loyal luckily luggage lunchtime luxurious

I

M machine magazine manage map marshmallow material Mathematics mayor mean medal

J jam jogging join juggler jumper junk food just just now K

koala

L laboratory ladder lamppost language laptop last lately law lawn lawyer lazily leader leading role leak lean leather leopard let lie lift light bulb light fittings lightning limited lined with list litter local lock long hours look for

~

no no e

0

0

once onto opera operation opinion opposite orchestra order organise out of outer space outskirts over oversleep owl own

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207

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pasta path patient pavement pen friend penicillin pepper perfectly perform permanent permission pet shop petrol consumption photocopy phrase

obey object object to : obligation I obliged obvious occasion ocean off offer often old-fashioned Olympic

-es message mind mobile phone monthly mop motorbike mountain range move mow muscle musician

name national naughty near nearby nearest neatly necessity negative neighbour neither never New Year next next to nightclothes noisy none nor normally

past

p

I

: :I : : :I : :

Pacific paella painting palace palm tree paper paperclip parcel park ranger part part-time partner â&#x20AC;˘ passive voice passport

I

I

place plan planet plant plastic platform playful playground pleasure plenty plumber pocket money pointy polite politician pollution polonium pool poor popular porter positive possession possessive possessive case possibility post pour prayers prediction prefer preposition


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Word List

present present sb with President pretend previous price prince princess principal print prize probability probably produce producer programme progress prohibition project promise promote pronoun proper noun properly pullover pumpkin punish puppy purpose purse put on put up puzzle

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Q

question queue quiz quotation marks R race rare radio transmitter radium rain cats and dogs raincoat raise rarely rather than reach realise reason receive recent recently reception

recommend rectangular reflexive refuse regret regularly relative relaxed relaxing relieved remember repair repeated report reported speech request respect result revolve reward ribbon ride rise risk riverboat roar roaring roast rob robber rock rocking chair roller coaster roof rooster round row rude rugby run away run out of

5 sadly safe sailing salary salt sand sauce save say so scared scarf scary Science Science Fair

scientist Scottish scuba diving sculpture seat second-hand section seem seldom sell separately sequence : several times :I shake : share : shark I sheep shine shiny shopping centre shout at shower shy sick sightseeing sign silk silver simultaneous since sink situation size skateboard skating skeleton I skydiving slightest slip slope smell snowstorm so so far solar sometimes songwriting soon sort out sound south souvenir space speed spicy sponge cake sponsor

~

sports centre square stadium statement stative verbs statue steal steam sting stone strangely struck subject substance suburb successful suffer suggest suggestion suit suitcase sunbathe sunny sunshade superlative suppose surf the Net surprise sushi swing system

T I

I

tacos tag take care of takeaway talented talk tap taste tasty team technician tell one from another temperature temporary tent terrifying text message then there's no pOint (in) think threat through

208

: tidy : timetable : toffee :I tomorrow : tonight : tool : top I : torch : tour : tourist :I towards : towel I tower traditional traffic light trainer transfer treasure treat tree house trip over trouble trumpet try try out tunnel turkey turn down turn off twice twins twist two-storey type

U I

uncountable under understand uniform United Kingdom unknown unless unpack until up upset usually V valuable vegetable vegetarian view voice volunteer vowel

W wake up wallet wand want war warn watch out water weather weatherman weighlifting weight welcome well west wet whale what what time wheel when where which whisper who whom whose why wide wife wild will win windsurfing windy wing wire wish wonder wooden woollen work out world Y yacht yesterday yet yoghurt


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exercises

activities sections

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ISBN 978- 1-4082-3497-6

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