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CHAPTER

Isabella Flomerfelt Feb. 28

13

Preventing Infectious Diseases

Section 1

What Are Infectious Diseases?

An infectious disease is any disease that is cause by and agent that has invaded the body. There are

INSIDE THIS ISSUE What are infectious diseases? Protecting yourself from infectious diseases.

five different agents that can cause an infectious disease. One of the five is bacteria. Bacteria are

Common infectious diseases

tiny, single-celled organisms. They live almost everywhere in the world. Another agent is a virus.

Health terms

Viruses are tiny, just like bacteria, which are made up of genetic material and a protein coat. The

doctor and get an antibiotic. An antibiotic is a

genetic material gives instructions to make more

bacteria killing compound. Another easy way to

viruses. The third agent is fungi. Which are

treat these diseases is from over the counter

organisms that absorb and use the nutrients of

medicines. Although antibiotics work very well

living or dead things. Also, protists can cause

some people have what is called antibiotic

infectious diseases. They are much larger and

resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a condition in

more complex than bacteria. Finally, parasites can

which bacteria can no longer be killed by a

cause diseases. There are many ways for these

particular antibiotic. Two ways to prevent antibiotic

diseases to spread. The most common are person

resistance is to not consult with your doctor about

to person, through food and water, the

getting antibiotics if you have a viral disease. Also,

environment and by animals. While the disease

if your doctor gives you a prescription to treat a

can be spread quickly, there are multiple

bacterial infection, be sure to follow the

treatments for them. One way is to go to your

prescription and finish the medicine.

Section 2

your diet, it can harm your immune system by

Protecting yourself from Infectious Diseases

making it weak. To keep your immune system

There are a few ways that your body fights these

working properly you should drink plenty of water

diseases. They use physical barriers, an

to maintain it. By reducing your stress levels you

inflammatory response and your immune system.

can make your immune system less vulnerable.

Some of your physical barriers include your skin,

Exercise to keep everything up and running. If you

mucous membrane and the different chemicals in

want to become immune to a disease you first have

your body. Also, along with your body’s physical

to make yourself available to it. You strain the

barriers, you can do something sot help prevent

virus to make it appear so your body can learn to

infectious diseases. To stay well you need to

fight it. When you are sick you should stay home,

protect yourself, eat a healthy diet, drink plenty of

drink fluid and be sure to follow any directions that

water, reduce your stress levels and exercise

your doctor gives you. To prevent the spread you

regularly. When you protect your body and keep it

need to get vaccinated, keep clean and don’t share

healthy, that helps your immune system fight off

personal items. Keeping yourself safe can keep

diseases. If you have a lack of a certain nutrient in

others safe.


Page 2

Section 3 Common Infectious Diseases Everybody eventually gets sick. No matter how careful you are, there are so many pathogens on the planet that it is very hard to avoid. Some common bacterial diseases are meningitis and salmonellosis. Meningitis is and inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that is spread through saliva. Some symptoms are a fever, stiff neck and nausea. Salmonellosis is a bacterial infection of the digestive system that is spread by eating contaminated foods. Some symptoms include headaches, cramps and vomiting. Along with bacterial diseases, there are viral diseases. Two of those are the flu and

TERMS Infectious Diseases- any disease that is caused by and agent that has invaded the body. Pathogen- and agent that causes disease. Bacteria- tiny, single-celled organisms,

some of which can cause disease. Viruses- tiny disease-causing particles made up of genetic material and a protein coat. Fungi- organisms that absorb and use the nutrients of living or dead things. Antibiotic resistance- a condition in which bacteria can no longer be killed by a particular antibiotic. Inflammation- a reaction to injury or infection that is characterized by pain, redness and swelling.

Chapter 13

hepatitis. The Flu is spread by contact with saliva or mucus of any infected person. The symptoms are sore muscles, fever, and fatigue. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that is spread by contact with body fluids of any infected person or contaminated food. The

symptoms are fever and darkening of urine. Some kinds of fungal, protozoan and parasitic infections are athlete’s foot, ringworm, malaria and tapeworms. Their symptoms include itchy skin, fever, diarrhea, and over the counter medication. There are some places in which you can go to get help. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Lymphatic system- a network of vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph throughout the body. White blood cells- cells in the blood whose primary job is to defend the body against disease. Vaccines- substances usually prepared from killed or weakened pathogens that are put into the body to produce immunity. Symptoms- changes that you notice in your body or mind that are caused by a disease or disorder. Meningitis- an inflammation of the

membranes covering the brain or spinal cord. Hepatitis- inflammation of the liver. Amebic dysentery- an inflammation of the intestine cause by an amoeba.



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