EFLA EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THE EUROPEAN REGION OF IFLA FONDATION EUROPEENNE POUR L’ARCHITECTURE DU PAYSAGE LA REGION EUROPEENNE DE L’IFLA EFLA 20TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION SEMINAR ‘THE FUTURE OF EUROPE IN THE HANDS OF PROFESSIONAL LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS’ BRUSSELS, BELGIUM, NOVEMBER 21ST 2009 CENTRE INTERNATIONAL POUR LA VILLE, L’ARCHITECTURE ET LE PAYSAGE (CIVA)
The Council of Europe and the Importance of Spatial Planning and Landscape Policies Maguelonne DEJEANT-PONS Secretary of the European Landscape Convention Head of the Cultural Heritage, Landscape and Spatial Planning Division of the Council of Europe P. MDP Brussels 2009
The Council of Europe
Intergovernmental organisation founded in 1949 47 Member States Headquarters in the Palais de lâ€™Europe, Strasbourg Promotes 1) democracy, 2) human rights, 3) the rule of law, 4) seek common solutions to the main problems facing European society today Why spatial planning and landscape policies?
Public participation and involvement are the very keystones of spatial development. The support, involvement and will of the public are vital to conserving, managing or developing regions on a sustainable basis. As early as 1983, the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter drew attention to the need for active public participation in the spatial planning process. Recommendation Rec (2002) 1 of the Committee of Ministers to the Member States of the Council of Europe on the â€œGuiding Principles for Sustainable Spatial Development of the European Continentâ€? reiterated the importance of the effective participation of society in the spatial development process. Societal consensus is very important for the success of local and regional initiatives and also creates a dynamic environment for outside investors and economic players. The involvement of the younger generation in the planning process increase also the chances of interesting the public in the long-term planning of their home region and in efficient and innovative participation. The European Landscape Convention (2000) mentions that each Party undertakes to establish procedures for the participation of the general public, local and regional authorities, and other parties with an interest in the definition and implementation of the landscape policies.
How should the concept of human rights be interpreted? At the start of the 21st century, we must recognise that human rights as defined in the 1950s in the aftermath of the Second World War and as enshrined and set out in the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter must gradually open up to new concerns and take account of what may be called the “spatial and heritage dimension of human rights”. While this concept clearly still needs to be explored and expanded, how could we fail to take account of the future of land and territory, an asset which we must pass on to future generations? How could we ignore the future of our natural and cultural heritage, which is absolutely invaluable but all too often is irreversibly threatened? We have a duty to consider these new rights, as well as new obligations and the responsibility we bear. The European Landscape Convention refers to “rights and responsibilities for everyone”. It is a matter of jointly looking after the future of our landscapes for coming generations and considering how to protect, manage, develop and shape them, so to speak, in the best way possible.
THE RULE OF LAW
Recommendations by the Committee of Ministers to Council of Europe member states now set out the joint position of the organisation’s member states regarding spatial development: . Recommendation Rec (84) 2 on the European Regional / Spatial Planning Charter (Torremolinos Charter), . Recommendation Rec (2002) 1 on the Guiding Principles for Sustainable Spatial Development of the European Continent, and, more recently, . Recommendation CM/Rec(2008)3 on the guidelines for the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. Moreover, the European Landscape Convention, an international treaty involving commitments for the states which have signed and ratified it, may be described as a “new-generation” treaty. It sets out areas of activity and the main thrusts of a programme of action providing the very basis for good governance and wise management of landscape.
At their Third Summit, its Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe expressed their commitment to “improving the quality of life for citizens”. In the section of the Action Plan on “Promoting sustainable development”, they agreed that, on the basis of the existing instruments, the Council of Europe would further develop and support integrated policies in the fields of environment, landscape and spatial planning, in a sustainable development perspective. In 1984, the Torremolinos Charter indicated that regional/spatial development “encourages improvement in the quality of everyday life, in respect of housing, work, culture, leisure or relationships within human communities, and the enhancement of the well-being of each individual through the creation of jobs and the provision of economic, social and cultural amenities which meet the aspirations of different sections of the population and which are sited in places where they will be used to the optimum.” The European Landscape Convention also deals with people’s quality of life. Its preamble provides that “the landscape is an important part of the quality of life for people everywhere: in urban areas and in the countryside, in degraded areas as well as in areas of high quality, in areas recognised as being of outstanding beauty as well as everyday areas”.
1. SPATIAL PLANNING POLICIES Council of Europe Conferences of Ministers responsible for Spatial / Regional Planning (CEMAT)
List of European Conferences of Ministers responsible for regional/spatial planning (CEMAT) - 1970-2010 - 1st CEMAT – Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, September 1970: “Foundations of a European regional planning policy” - 2nd CEMAT – La Grande Motte, France, September 1973: “Objectives of a European regional planning policy” - 3rd CEMAT– Bari, Italy, October 1976: “Urbanisation and regional planning” - 4th CEMAT – Vienna, Austria, October 1978: “Planning of rural areas in Europe” - 5th CEMAT – London, United Kingdom, October 1980: “Achievements and prospects for regional planning in Europe” - 6th CEMAT – Torremolinos, Spain, May 1983: “Prospects of development and of spatial planning in maritime regions” -7th CEMAT – The Hague, The Netherlands, October 1985: “The evolution of the decision-making process in regional/spatial planning” - 8th CEMAT – Lausanne, Switzerland, October 1988: “Rational use of land: basis and factors limiting our development”
- 9th CEMAT – Ankara, Turkey, November 1991: “Instruments for achieving rational use of land” - 10th CEMAT – Oslo, Norway, September 1994: “Strategies for sustainable regional and spatial development in Europe beyond the year 2000” - 11th CEMAT – Limassol, Cyprus, October 1997: “Sustainable regional and spatial planning in Europe and the protection of water resources” - 12th CEMAT – Hanover, Germany, September 2000: “Joint spatial planning and sustainable development strategy for Europe” - 13th CEMAT – Ljubljana, Slovenia, September 2003: “Implementation of strategies and visions for sustainable spatial development of the European continent” - 14th CEMAT – Lisbon, Portugal, 2006: “Networks for Sustainable Spatial Development of the European Continent – Building bridges across Europe” - 15th CEMAT – Moscow, Russian Federation, 2010: “Future challenges: sustainable spatial development of the European Continent in a changing world” - 16th CEMAT – France, 2013
Fundamental documents, which have guided spatial planning policies, have been adopted : -Recommendation (84) 2 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter (based on the Charter adopted at the 6th CEMAT, Torremolinos, 2003) -Recommendation (2002) 1 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the “Guiding Principles for Sustainable Spatial Development of the European Continent” (based on the “Guiding Principles” adopted at the 12th CEMAT, Hanover, 2000)
1) Recommendation (84)2 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to Member States on the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter The concept of Regional/Spatial planning Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy. Characteristics of spatial planning Man and his wellâ€‘ being as well as his interaction with the environment are the central concern of regional/spatial planning, its aims being to provide each individual with an environment and quality of life conducive to the development of his personality in surroundings planned on a human scale.
Regional/spatial planning should be democratic, comprehensive, functional and long-term orientated : – democratic: it should be conducted in such a way as to ensure the participation of the people concerned and their political representatives; – comprehensive: it should ensure the co‑ ordination of various sectoral policies and integrate them in an overall approach; – functional: it needs to take into account the existence of a regional consciousness based on common values, culture and interests, sometimes crossing administrative and territorial boundaries, while overlooking the institutional arrangements of different countries; – long‑ term: the trends and long-term development of economic, ecological, social, cultural and environmental phenomena should be analysed and taken into account.
2) Recommendation Rec (2002) 1 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to Member States on the Guiding Principles for Sustainable Spatial Development of the European Continent The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe , considering the Guiding Principles to be: – a major contribution towards the implementation of the strategy of social cohesion; – a policy framework document ; – a coherent strategy for an integrated and regionally balanced development of our continent, Recommends that the Member States of the Council of Europe: – use the Guiding Principles as a basis for planning and spatial development measures; – implement the Guiding Principles in spatial development projects as appropriate; – continue establishing regional governmental and administrative bodies in order to facilitate better spatial integration.
How the Guiding Principles contribute to the implementation of the Council of Europeâ€™s social cohesion policy Spatial development policies in Europe : new continent-wide challenges and prospects
1. 2. 3. 4.
Intercontinental relationships as strategic elements for European spatial development policy The multiplicity of cultures Large European regions as a basis for mutual support and co-operation Integration of the old and new Member States
Specific role of the private sector in spatial development
IV. Principles of a planning policy for sustainable development in Europe
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Promoting territorial cohesion through a more balanced social and economic development of regions and improved competitiveness Encouraging urban development generated by functions and improving the relationship between the town and the countryside Promoting more balanced accessibility Developing access to information and knowledge Reducing environmental damage Enhancing and protecting natural resources and the natural heritage Enhancing the cultural heritage as a factor for development Developing energy resources while maintaining safety Encouraging high quality, sustainable tourism
10. Limiting the impact caused by natural disasters
Spatial development measures for different types of European regions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Landscapes Urban areas Rural areas Mountains Coastal and island regions Eurocorridors Flood plains and alluvial valleys Redundant industrial and military sites Border regions
Strengthening of co-operation between the Member States of the Council of Europe and participation of regions, municipalities and citizens
1. 2. 3. 4.
Possibilities of conceiving development-oriented spatial planning Developing Europe-wide co-operation activities on the basis of the Guiding Principles Horizontal co-operation Vertical co-operation
Active participation of society in spatial planning process
The Council of Europe presented the Guiding Principles to the United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg in 2002. The Guiding Principles are a contribution to the implementation of the United Nations Programme â€œAgenda 21â€? adopted in Rio de Janeiro and are also a means of initiating intercontinental dialogue.
Council of Europe Conferences of Ministers responsible for spatial/regional planning (CEMAT) 2000- 2003: 13th CEMAT “Implementation of Strategies and visions for sustainable spatial development of the European Continent” – Ljubljana Declaration on the territorial dimension of sustainable development – European Rural Heritage Observation Guide – CEMAT – Initiative on the Sustainable Spatial Development of the Tisza/Tisa River Basin
2003- 2006: 14th CEMAT “Networks for Sustainable Spatial Development of the European Continent – Bridges over Europe” – The Lisbon Declaration on Lisbon Declaration on “Networks for sustainable spatial development of the European continent: Bridges over Europe” – Resolution No. 1 on “Polycentric development: promoting competitiveness, enhancing cohesion” – Resolution No. 2 on “Territorial governance: empowerment through enhanced co-ordination” – CEMAT Glossary of key expressions used in spatial development policies in Europe
2006-2010: 15th CEMAT â€œFuture Challenges: Sustainable spatial development of the European continent in a changing worldâ€? Work Programme 2007-2010 of the Committee of Senior Officials under the Russian Presidency: 1. Demography, migrations and their territorial impact 2. Territorial impacts in Europe of the new energy paradigm (energy supply, conservation and security, new geography of energy systems) 3. Territorial impact of the accelerating globalisation process 4. Creation of new transport and trading corridors (including maritime transport) and Europe-wide sustainable integration. Access to essential services 5. Territorial impact of climate change; adaptation, management and prevention measures, especially in relation to natural hazards 6. The role of spatial development policies for environmental sustainability, human surroundings and terrestrial and maritime landscape protection and enhancement 7. Transfrontier interactions and territorial integration of the European Continent
International CEMAT Symposium, Seminars are periodically organised in order to exchange national experiences, to favour access to knowledge and to draw up proposals for joint actions: International CEMAT Symposium 2007-2010 – International CEMAT Symposium on “The accessibility and attractiveness of rural and landlocked areas: sustainable transport and services of general interest”, organised by the Council of Europe in co-operation with the Ministry of Urban and Spatial Planning of the Principality of Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Andorra, 2007); – International CEMAT Symposium on “Challenges and strategies for metropolises and metropolitan regions in a context of growing globalisation with regard to economic, social, environmental and cultural development”, organised by the Council of Europe in co-operation with the Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation (St. Petersburg, Russia, 2008); – International CEMAT Symposium on “The Spatial dimension of human rights: for a new culture of the territory”, organised by the Council of Europe in co-operation with the Ministry of Urban Development of Armenia (Yerevan, Armenia, 2008); – International CEMAT Symposium on “A comprehensive approach to balanced sustainable spatial development of the European Continent”, organised by the Council of Europe in co-operation with the Ministry of Regional Development and Construction of Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine, 2009).
2. Council of Europe Landscape and Heritage Conventions - Convention on the conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern, 1979) - Convention for the protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe (Granada, 1985) - European Convention on the protection of Archaeological Heritage (revised) (La Valetta, 1992) - European Landscape Convention (Florence, 2000) - Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society (Faro, 2005)
The European Landscape Convention Aims 1. To promote protection, management and planning of landscapes; 2. To organise European co-operation on landscape issues.
National measures The Contracting Parties undertake to implement four general measures on a national level: 1. Legal recognition of landscape as constituting an essential component of peopleâ€™s surroundings, an expression of the diversity of their shared cultural and natural heritage, and a foundation of their identity; 2. Establishment and implementation of landscape policies aimed at landscape protection, management and planning; 3. Establishment of procedures for the participation of the general public, local and regional authorities and other parties with an interest in the definition and implementation of the landscape policies; 4. Integration of landscape into regional and town planning policies and in cultural, environmental, agricultural, social and economic policies, as well as in any other policies, with possible direct or indirect impact on landscape.
The Contracting Parties undertake to implement also five specific measures on a national level: 1. Awareness-raising: increasing awareness among the civil society, private organisations and public authorities of the value of landscapes, their role and changes to them; 2. Promotion in training and education: - training for specialists in landscape appraisal and landscape operations; - multidisciplinary training programmes in landscape policy, protection, management and planning, for professionals in the private and public sector and for associations concerned; - school and university courses which, in the relevant subject areas, address the values that the landscape has and the issues raised by its protection, management and planning; 3. Identification and evaluation: mobilising those concerned in order to reach a better knowledge of landscape, guiding the work of landscape identification and evaluation through exchanges of experience and methodology between the Parties at a European level; 4. Setting landscape quality objectives: defining landscape quality objectives for the landscapes identified and assessed, after public consultation; 5. Implementation of landscape policies: introducing policy instruments aimed at protecting, managing and/or planning the landscape.
International measures 1. International policies and programmes The Parties undertake to co-operate in the consideration of the landscape dimension in international policies and programmes, and to recommend, where relevant, the inclusion of landscape considerations in them. The Parties undertake to co-operate in order to enhance the effectiveness of measures taken under other articles of the Convention, and in particular : - to render each other technical and scientific assistance in landscape matters through the pooling and exchange of experience, and the results of research projects; - to promote the exchange of landscape specialists for training and information purposes; - to exchange information on all matters covered by the provisions of the Convention.
2. Transfrontier landscapes Transfrontier landscapes are covered by a specific provision : the Parties shall encourage transfrontier co-operation on local and regional level and, wherever necessary, prepare and implement joint landscape programmes. 3. Council of Europe Landscape Award
Press Release Council of Europe 2009 Landscape Award goes to Lille
Strasbourg 09.10.2009 – The “Parc de la Deûle”, Lille Métropole (France) has received the Council of Europe 2009 Landscape Award. In the framework of the Landscape Convention, a special mention goes to the “Parque de Christina Enea”, San Sebastián (Spain).
The Award and the special mention were officially presented by the representative of the Council of Europe Secretary General on the occasion of the 8th Meeting of the Council of Europe on the implementation o (Malmö, Sweden, 8-9 October 2009). Additional information: The European Landscape Convention is the first international treaty dealing exclusively with all aspects of European landscape. The granting of the Landscape Award of the Council of Europe is to encourage those receiving the prize to ensure sustainable protection, management and
Summary descriptive notes on the landscape policies pursued in Council of Europe’member States / … A CoE – ELC Information System and Data base on landscape policies (2009) A document containing key facts concerning the landscape policies of the various CouncilInsert of Europe member states. Itcover facilitates the examination of graphic of front the policies currently being pursued in the Parties to the Convention. The notes are designed to be updated on a regular basis, and cover: signature/ratification/approval of the Convention; - name and contact details of the correspondent; - definition of the term “landscape” in each national language; - legal organisation (legal definition of the term “landscape”; constitutional or legislative status, regional laws), -administrative organisation (ministry responsible for landscape, responsibilities, documents, representation at the level of regional and local authorities, specific programmes, education syllabi, communication, awareness-raising or information programmes aimed at the public); -national policies.
Publications, reports of the Council of Europe - Landscape and sustainable development: challenges of the European Landscape Convention (Council of Europe Publishing, 2006) - Landscape and spatial planning - Landscape and urban areas - Landscape and roads - Landscape and tree avenues - Landscape and education - Landscape and ethics - European Local Landscape Circle Studies - Selected EU funding opportunities to support the implementation of the European Landscape Convention - ...
Workshops 2005 16-17 June, Cork, Ireland â€œLandscape for urban, suburban and peri-urban areasâ€? To underline the importance of landscape policy in towns focusing on suburban and peri-urban areas.
Workshops 2006 11-12 May, Ljubljana, Slovenia, on “Landscape and society”
28-29 September, Girona, Spain, on “Landscape quality objectives: from theory to practice”
Workshops 2007 20-21 September, Sibiu, Romania, on “Landscape and rural heritage”
Workshops 2008 25-26 April, Piestany, Slovak Republic, on “Landscape in planning policies and governance: towards integrated spatial management”
Workshops 2009 8-9 October, Malmo, Sweden, on “Landscape and driving forces” Swedish National Heritage Board
Workshops 2010 Cordova, Spain, 15 – 16 April 2010, on Landscape, infrastructure and society
“Futuropa for a new vision of landscape and territory” Magazine: – “Landscapes: the setting for our future lives”, Naturopa, n° 6, 1998; – “The European Landscape Convention”, Naturopa, n° 98, 2002; – “Landscape through literature” Naturopa, n° 103, 2005; – “Vernacular habitat, an heritage in the landscape”, Futuropa, n° 1, 2008; – “Tansfrontier cooperation and landscape”, Futuropa, n° 2, in preparation. http://www.coe.int/naturopa
Conclusions A thoroughly modern concept, landscape combines all four elements of sustainable development: natural, cultural, social and economic. It is also a constantly evolving story. A unique setting and meeting place for populations, landscape is a key factor in the physical, mental and spiritual well-being of individuals and societies. A source of inspiration, it takes us on a journey, both individual and collective, through time, space and imagination. Any government wishing to implement the principles of good governance needs to give due emphasis to landscape in its national and international policies.
CEMAT and European Landscape Convention websites: http://www.coe.int/EuropeanLandscapeConvention http://www.coe.int/Conventioneuropeennedupaysage http://www.coe.int/CEMAT http://www.coe.int/CEMAT/fr
Published on May 10, 2013
Paper presented at EFLA 20th Anniversary Seminar; Brussels 21st November 2009.