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Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea and Danube, with the Carpathian mountains in its center. Controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova and Ukraine. With an area of 238,400 square kilometers, Romania is the twelfth largest country in Europe. Situated in the northeastern portion of the Balkan Peninsula, the country is halfway between the equator and the North Pole and equidistant from the westernmost part of Europe—the Atlantic Coast—and the most easterly—the Ural Mountains. Romania has 3,195 kilometers of border. Republic of Moldova lies to the east, Bulgaria lies to the south, andSerbia and Hungary to the west. In the southeast, 245 kilometers of Black Sea coastline provide an important outlet to the Mediterranean Sea and theAtlantic Ocean. Traditionally Romania is divided into several historic regions that no longer perform any administrative function: • Dobrogea is the easternmost region, extending from the northward course of the Danube to the shores of the Black Sea. • Moldavia stretches from the Eastern Carpathians to the Prut River on the Moldovan and Ukrainian border. • Wallachia reaches south from the Transylvanian Alps to the Bulgarian border and is divided by the Olt River into Oltenia on the west and Muntenia on the east. The Danube forms a natural border between Muntenia and Dobruja. • The west-central region, known as Transylvania, is delimited by the arc of the Carpathians, which separates it from the Maramureş region in the northwest; by the Crişana area, which borders Hungary in the west; and by the Banat region of the southwest, which adjoins both Hungary and Serbia. It is these areas west of the Carpathians that contain the highest concentrations of the nation’s largest ethnic minorities-Hungarians, Germans, and Serbs. Romania’s exterior boundaries are a result of relatively recent events. At the outbreak of World War I, the country’s territory included only the provinces of Walachia, Moldavia, and Dobruja. This area, known as the Regat or the Old Kingdom, came into being with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire in the mid-nineteenth century. At the end of World War I, Romania acquired Transylvania and the Banat. Some of this territory was lost during World War II, but negotiations returned it to Romania. Although this acquisition united some 85 percent of the Romanian-speaking population of Eastern Europe into one nation, it left a considerable number of ethnic Hungarians under Romanian rule. Disputes between Hungary and Romania regarding this territory would surface regularly, as both considered the region part of their national heritage. Questions were also periodically raised as to the historical validity of the


ROMANIA Soviet-Romanian border. Bukovina and Bessarabia, former Romanian provinces where significant percentages of the population are Romanian-speaking, were part of the Soviet Union from the end of World War II to its dissolution, and subsequently part of the (formerly Soviet) states of Ukraine and Moldova. Despite ongoing and potential disputes, however, it was unlikely in 1989 that Romania’s borders would be redrawn in the foreseeable future.

Topography Romania’s natural landscape is almost evenly divided among mountains (31 percent), hills (33 percent), and plains (36 percent). These varied relief forms spread rather symmetrically from the Carpathian Mountains, which reach elevations of more than 2,500 meters, to the Danube Delta, which is just a few meters above sea level. The arc of the Carpathians extends over 1,000 kilometers through the center of the country, covering an area of 71,000 square kilometers. These mountains are of low to medium altitude and are no wider than 100 kilometers. They are deeply fragmented by longitudinal and transverse valleys and crossed by several major rivers. These features and the fact that there are many summit passes—some at altitudes up to 2,256 meters—have made the Carpathians less of a barrier to movement than other European ranges. Another distinguishing feature is the many eroded platforms that provide tableland at relatively high altitudes. There are permanent settlements here at above 1,200 meters. Romania’s Carpathians are differentiated into three ranges: the Eastern Carpathians, the Southern Carpathians orTransylvanian Alps, and the Western Carpathians. Each of these ranges has important distinguishing features. The Eastern Carpathians are composed of three parallel ridges that run from northwest to southeast. The westernmost ridge is an extinct volcanic range with many preserved cones and craters. The range has many large depressions, in the largest of which the city of Braşov is situated. Important mining and industrial centers as well as agricultural areas are found within these depressions. The Eastern Carpathians are covered with forests—some 32 percent of the country’s woodlands are there. They also contain important ore deposits, including gold and silver, and their mineral water springs feed numerous health resorts. The Southern Carpathians offer the highest peaks at Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m) andNegoiu (2,535 m) and more than 150 glacial lakes. They have large grassland areas and some woodlands but few large depressions and subsoil resources. At higher elevations, the wind and rain have turned the rocks into spectacular figures such as the Sphinx and Babele.

The region was crisscrossed by an ancient network of trans-Carpathian roads, and vestiges of the old Roman Way are still visible. Numerous passes and the valleys of the Olt, Jiu, and Danube rivers provide routes for roads and railways through the mountains.


ROMANIA The Western Carpathians are the lowest of the three ranges and are fragmented by many deep structural depressions. They have historically functioned as “gates,” which allow easy passage but can be readily defended. The most famous of these is the Iron Gate on the Danube. The Western Carpathians are the most densely settled, and it is in the northernmost area of this range, the Apuseni Mountains, that permanent settlements can be found at the highest altitudes. Enclosed within the great arc of the Carpathians lie the undulating plains and low hills of the Transylvanian Plateau—the largest tableland in the country and the center of Romania. This important agricultural region also contains large deposits of methane gas and salt. To the south and east of the Carpathians, the Sub-Carpathians form a fringe of rolling terrain ranging from 396 to 1,006 meters in elevation. This terrain is matched in the west by the slightly lower Western Hills. The symmetry of Romania’s relief continues with the Getic Tableland to the south of the SubCarpathians, theMoldavian Tableland in the east between the SubCarpathians and the Prut River, and the Dobrujan Tableland in the southeast between the Danube and the Black Sea. The Sub-Carpathians and the tableland areas provide good conditions for human settlement and are important areas for fruit growing, Beyond the Carpathian foothills and tablelands, the plains spread south and west. In the southern parts of the country, the lower Danube Plain is divided by the Olt River; east of the river lies the Wallachian Plain, and to the west is the Oltenian or Western Plain. The land here is rich with chernozemic soils and forms Romania’s most important farming region. Irrigation is widely used, and marshlands in the Danube’s floodplain have been diked and drained to provide additional tillable land. Romania’s lowest land is found on the northern edge of the Dobruja region in the Danube Delta. The delta is a triangular swampy area of marshes, floating reed islands, and sandbanks, where the Danube ends its trek of almost 3,000 kilometers and divides into three frayed branches before emptying into the Black Sea. The Danube Delta provides a large part of the country’s fish production, and its reeds are used to manufacture cellulose. The region also serves as a nature preserve for rare species of plant and animal life including migratory birds.

Hydrography Rivers After entering the country in the southwest at Bazias, the Danube travels some 1,075 kilometers (almost 40% of its entire length) through or along Romanian territory, forming the southern frontier with Serbia and Bulgaria. Virtually all of the country’s rivers are tributaries of the Danube, either directly or indirectly, and by the time the Danube’s course ends in the Black Sea, they account for nearly 40 percent of the total discharge. The most important of these rivers are the Mureş River, the Olt River, the Prut, the Siret River, the Ialomiţa River, theSomeş River, and the Argeş River. Romania’s rivers primarily flow east, west, and south


ROMANIA from the central crown of the Carpathians. They are fed by rainfall and melting snow, which causes considerable fluctuation in discharge and occasionally catastrophic flooding. In the east, river waters are collected by the Siret and the Prut. In the south, the rivers flow directly into the Danube, and in the west, waters are collected by the Tisza on Hungarian territory. The Danube is by far Romania’s most important river, not only for transportation, but also for the production of hydroelectric power. One of Europe’s largest hydroelectric stations is located at the Iron Gates, where the Danube surges through the Carpathian gorges. The Danube is an important water route for domestic shipping, as well as international trade. It is navigable for river vessels along its entire Romanian course and for seagoing ships as far as the port of Brăila. An obvious problem with the use of the Danube for inland transportation is its remoteness from most of the major industrial centers. Moreover, marshy banks and perennial flooding impede navigation in some areas. The Romanian Black Sea Coast stretches a little over 150 miles. The Black Sea is a continental sea, with a low tide and salinity and water temperatures of 77 - 79˚F in the summertime. Its wide, sandy beaches facing east and south-east become a major tourist attraction from May until September.

Lakes There are around 3,500 lakes in Romania, most of them small or medium. The largest are the lagoons and coastal lakes on the Black Sea shore, such as Razim (164 sq. miles) and Sinoe (66 sq. miles), or lakes along the Danube bank - Oltina (8.5 sq. miles); Brates (8.1 sq. miles). Formed at the end of the last Ice Age, the glacial lakes in the Carpathian Mountainsare small, but spectacular. Worth mentioning are the glacial lakes in the Retezat Mountains: Zanoaga,


ROMANIA the deepest lake in the country (95 feet) and Bucura, the largest (24.7 acres) as well as the lakes located in the Transylvanian Alps (Balea, Capra, Caltun, Podragu). Lake St. Ana, located in Ciomatu Mare Massif, near Tusnad is the only volcanic lakein Romania, sheltered in a perfectly preserved crater and surrounded by vast fir-tree forests. The lake is solely fed by rain. Therefore, its waters are nearly as pure as distilled water. The Red Lake (elevation 3,215 feet), located in the Hasmas Massif, near Bicaz Gorges, is unique in shape and landscape. It is a natural dam lake created in 1837 after a major landslide. The name “Lacul Rosu” (Red Lake) comes from the reddish alluvia deposited by its main tributary.

Climate Because of its position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is transitional between temperate and continental. Climatic conditions are somewhat modified by the country’s varied relief. The Carpathians serve as a barrier to Atlantic air masses, restricting their oceanic influences to the west and center of the country, where they make for milder winters and heavier rainfall. The mountains also block the continental influences of the vast plain to the north in Ukraine, which bring frosty winters and less rain to the south and southeast. In the extreme southeast, Mediterranean influences offer a milder, maritime climate. The average annual temperature is 11 °C(51.8 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46.4 °F) in the north. In Bucharest, the temperature ranges from −29 °C (−20.2 °F) in January to 29 °C (84.2 °F) in July, with average temperatures of−3 °C (26.6 °F) in January and 23 °C (73.4 °F) in July. Rainfall, although adequate throughout the country, decreases from west to east and from mountains to plains. Some mountainous areas receive more than 1,010 mm (39.8 in) of precipitation each year. Annual precipitation averages about 635 mm


ROMANIA (25 in) in central Transylvania, 521 mm (20.5 in) at Iași in Moldavia, and only 381 mm (15 in) at Constanța on the Black Sea. Temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Winters generally are from November to March. The springs are short, occasionally turning right into summer. Summer lasts from May to August. They have a prolonged Autumn, from September to November. The average January temperature is 34 °F (1.1 °C) and the average July temperature is 69 °F (20.6 °C). Facts: Record High Temperature: 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) - August 10, 1951 South-Eastern Romania; Record Low Temperature: −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F) - January 24, 1942 (Central Romania).

Flora and fauna Due to its varied terrain and climate Romania has a diverse flora and fauna. Over 3,700 species of plants and 33,792 species of animals can be found in Romania. Oak, beech, elm, ash, maple and linden made up 71 percent of Romania’s forests while conifers (fir, spruce, pine and larch) account for the remaining 29 percent.

Soil and mineral resources More than 58.000 square miles - almost two-thirds of the country’s territory - are suitable for agriculture. Arable land accounts for about 40 percent, pastures for 19 percent, and vineyards and orchards represent some 5 percent of the total land area. Significant oil reserves are concentrated at the foothills of southern and eastern Carpathians. Oil reserves have also been discovered a few miles away from the Black Sea coast. Large deposits of natural gas are located in the Transylvanian Plateau. There are important iron ore deposits in Poiana Rusca Mountains, Banat and Dobrogea regions, as well as in Harghita Mountains (Eastern Carpathians). Most of the nonferrous metal reserves are concentrated in the northwest, particularly in Maramures and Apuseni Mountains. Some of the largest gold deposits in Europe are also located in Apuseni. Large amounts of pure salt are located at: Slanic, Tîrgu Ocna, Ocna Mures, Praid and Cacica.




Romania’s population is over 22,000,000, with a density of 91.7 inhabitants per square km. From these, 89% are Romanians, 6,6% Hungarians, 2% Gypsies, with small minorities of Germans, Ukrainians, Serbs, Slovaks, Turks, Czechs, Greeks, Jews, Armenians, Poles, Albanians. Romania is the 43rd country in the world and 9th in Europe by population. Male population is 48.7% and the females are 51.3% of population. 55% of the population lives in cities and towns, and 45% in rural areas. There are 263 cities and towns, of which 80 municipalities, and 2685 communes with over 13 285 villages. Besides Bucharest, which has a population of nearly 2.1 million, there are 17 cities with over 100 000 inhabitants, 7 of which exceed 300 000 (Brasov, Cluj Napoca, Constanta, Craiova, Galati, Iasi, Timisoara).

Environment Romania passed environment protection lows in 1967, 1973 and 1976, and a National Council for the Protection of the Environment was created in 1975. Water quality has been monitored since 1960, and air quality since 1973. After the revolution, a new Ministry of Waters, Woods and Environment Protection was created, with the aim of reducing polluation by 20% by 1995, and bringing it down to European levels by 2000. An ordonance on atmospheric polluation was passed in 1993 and a new environment low in 1995 created Environment Protection Agency in each of the Romania’s counties, responsible for polluation monitoring and permits. Uncontrolled and/or non-existent waste storage is one of Romania’s greatest environmental problems. Air pollution exceeds maximum allowable levels more than 50% of the time in 11 of Romania’s 41 counties, and nitrate levels exceed safety levels in 14 counties’ water supply. Ecological disaster struck Romania in January 2000 when a tailing dam burst at a RomanianAustralian owened gold mine in Baia Mare, prompting 100,000 cubic metres of cyanide-contaminated water to spill into Tisa and Danube rivers and subsequently kill thousands of fish and birds in Romania. In March 2000 another dam burst at a zinc plant in Baia Borsa and an estimated 20,000 tons of pollutive waste gushed into Tisa. Experts say it will take 10 years for the affected habitat to fully recover, although 95% of river life should return by 2004. The ecological ills of the Black Sea and Danube Delta have long been a thorn in Romania’s side. Since 1991 the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve has ecologically reconstructed large areas of land in the Delta, removing dikes and reflooding what was originally natural marshland. Romania continues to be involved in various joint projects with the World Bank to protect Black Sea ecosystems. The electrical power industry has relied on thermal and hydro-power stations. The only nuclear power station is at Cernavoda (built jointly with Canada), saving over $ 100 millions per year in fuel imports. However radioactive waste continues to be a problem until Romania discovers a safe means of disposal. Nature reserves have existed in Romania since 1930’s, and some 6.6% of the country is now protected. The first National Park was created in 1935 in the Retezat Mountains. Romania has 13 national parks and 586 protected areas, most of which are in the Carpathians. The reserves range from vast uninhabited areas (such as Rodna, Caliman and Piatra Craiului mountains) to relatively modest sites, including caves, rocks and individual trees.The Danube Delta has been protected as a biosphere reserve on Unesco’s World Heritage list since 1991, and some 50,000 hectares of the Delta are strictly off-limits to tourists and locals alike. Administrative Division Romania has 9 regions (see map): Banat, Bucovina, Crisana, Dobrogea, Maramures, Muntenia, Moldavia, Oltenia, Transylvania. These are divided into 41 counties plus the capital of Bucharest, with similar county status. Towns (262), Communes (2,686), Villages (13,149). Eight cities exceed 300,000 inhabitants: Bucharest 2,060,551, Constanta 348,575, Iasi 339,728, Timisoara 327,830, Galati 326,728, Cluj-Napoca 326,017, Brasov 324,210,



Craiova 306,825. Twenty-five cities have a population of over 100,000. Ports: On the Black Sea: Constanta (can take ships of over 150,000dwt), Mangalia, Sulina (free port). On the Danube river : Turnu Severin, Turnu Magurele, Giurgiu, Oltenita, Cernavoda, Braila, Galati, Tulcea




The Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska) is located in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Baltic Sea to the north-west along a 524-km coastline, by Germany to the west; the Czech and Slovak republics to the south; and Russia, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine to the east and north-east.

Poland’s national emblem is a white eagle with a golden crown on a red background. The national flag is white and read. The people of Poland use the Polish language. The population, over 38.5 million, occupies an area of 312,700 square kilometers.


POLAND Its capital and the largest city is Warsaw, which has a population of over 1,700,000. The capital cities of the sixteen voivodships are: Bialystok, Gdansk, Katowice, Kielce, Krakow, Lublin, Lodz, Olsztyn, Opole, Poznan, Rzeszów, Szczecin, Torun, Warsaw, Wroclaw and Zielona Góra. The country lies almost entirely on the North European Plain and is a land of gentle relief, rarely rising above 350 feet except along the southern border with the Sudety and Carpathian mountain ranges. Rysy is the highest mountain peak, 8200 feet above sea level. Approximately one-fifth of the land is maintained as pasture and meadows. About 27% of the total area is covered by forests. The longest rivers which cross the country northward are the Vistula (667 miles in length) in the center, and the Odra (530 miles) which flows along Poland`s western border.

Natural Environment Poland is mostly lowland. The average height equals 173 m. Low-laying parts of the country (lower than 300 m) constitute about 91,3 % of Poland’s territory, uplands (300-500 m) – 5,6 %, and mountains (over 500 m) only 3,1 %. Despite the majority of lowland Polish landscape is very varied. Poland is famous for its lakes (there are over 9300 of them) and rivers (main rivers of Poland are Vistula (Wisla) and Odra).

There are several mountain ranges in Poland, located mainly in the Southern part of the country. They are, from West to East, the Sudeten (Sudety), Beskidy, Tatras (Tatry), Gorce, Pienins (Pieniny), and the Bieszczady Mountains. North of Beskidy Mountains is the Gory Swietokrzyskie range. All of these mountain ranges, except for the Sudeten and Gory Swietokrzyskie, belong to the Carpathia Mountains (Karpaty), which extend from West to East and form a natural southern border of Poland.


Masurian Lake District (Mazury) is located in northeastern Poland close to the border with Lithuania. The sparsely inhabited region has a great number of lakes, including the biggest ones in Poland. The area is the most famous lake district in Central Europe. Mazury (Lake district):




Baltic coastline in Poland is 788 kilometers long. Apart from the golden beaches, studded with pieces of amber, the windy call of the sea and photogenic cliffs, the coastline is dotted with historical towns and cute fishing hamlets.

Climate The climate in Poland is determined mainly by the country’s geographical location and geography. Poland is in the temperate latitudes, where maritime air from the North Atlantic and continental air from the east converge, causing frequent day-to-day and year-to-year variability in the weather patterns. The average annual temperature in Poland is about 8’C and varies for the regions of Poland depending on height above sea level and distance from the Baltic Sea. In the summer, for instance, temperatures are lower in northern Poland because of the Baltic Sea. The lowest temperatures are in the mountains and the highest are in western and central Poland. Spring arrives slowly in April, bringing mainly sunny days after a period of alternating winter and spring -like conditions. In the summer months of June, July and August, showers alternate with dry, sunny weather and the temperature averages about 18’C; the maximum summer temperature is 40’C. Early autumn is generally sunny and warm before a period of rainy, colder weather in November begins the transition into winter. Winter, which may last one to three months, is cold and cloudy and brings frequent snowstorms but relatively low total precipitation. The average temperature in January is about -4’C but it can fall as low as -35’C.



ANIMAL AND PLANTS The biggest animals in Poland are bisons and brown bears. Bisons live in the Puszcza Białowieska and Forest Pszczyna. However, bears can be found in the Tatra Mountains. Another animals which live in the Polish woods are: wild boars, deer, hares and jackrabbits.


POLAND PLANTS OF POLAND Poland is home to some 2,300 species of vascular plants, plus about 2,450 species of mosses, liverworts and lichens. SOW THISTLE ANEMONE Apart from what we have presented here there is a lot more to see in our beautiful country. Thank youď Š





PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TURKEY Turkey is a high country with 1.131 metres average height. Its centre regions are hollow shape. As going towards sides, the average height increases. Plateaues are generally in the middle regions. Northern Anatolia Mountains (lie in parallel with Black Sea Coast) and Taurus Mountains (lie in parallel with Mediterranean Coast) consist of spring-shape high mountain chains. The height of these mountain chains increases as going towards East. The highest areas of the country are in Eastern Anatolia Region. The Southeastern Anatolia Region consists of plateaus and plains. On the other hand, mountains lie upright in the west of country. They resemble

fingers of a hand and diverge one another by depression areas. In these areas, plains are the most abundant cultivated areas. Lands of Turkey in Thrace are not too high. With Ergene Basin in the middle, Thrace resembles to a bowl in terms of surface features. Rize Ağrı Mountaine . The highest mountain in Turkey. Lands of country was supposed to be determined by curves in the first geological period. Ağrı, Süphan, Nemrut, Erciyes and Hasan Mountains are among passive volcanos. There are lots of large and small islands near shores. Apart from some rocky places, Black Sea is lack of island. We also don’t encounter any important and big island on Mediterranean coast. Turkey’s biggest islands are in Agean and Marmara Seas. Some of them are Imbros, Marmara Island, Tenedos, Uzunada (long island) and Alibey Island(Cunda). Maritime boundaries of Turkey, surrounded on three sides by sea, make the country neighbour not only to near lands, but also to the whole world. With these long coasts and its quality of being a bridge between continents, Turkey has become centre of trade and migration routes. Turkey has Black Sea in the north, Mediterranean in the South, Agean Sea in the west, Bosphorus, Marmara Sea and Dardanelles between Anatolia and Thrace lands. Mediterranean is linked to the Atlantic Ocean by Gibraltar Strait; to the Red Sea, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean by Suez Canal. 12 percent of Turkey’s acreage is covered with water holes, that is to say, with lakes. Large and small lakes in Turkey take space of 9243 km2. Furthermore, formation of our lakes with different depths is based on a wide range of events. In this connection, we can classify our lakes as tectonic, volcanic (chimney), icecap and karst lakes. İznik, Ulubat, Manyas, Simav, Acıgöl, Eğridir, Ilgın, Beyşehir, Hazar, Tuzla, Yay, Seyfe, Eber, Tuz Gölü, Akşehir and Burdur Lakes are among tectonic lakes while Nemrut, Acıgöl and Gölcük (Isparta) Lakes are among volcanic chimney lakes. On the other hand, glacial lakes took shape in the first period of Geologic Time IV on high mountains. This kind of lakes is seen on Cilo Mountains, Eastern Blacksea Mountains, Kackar Mountain, Munzur Mountains, Central Taurus Mountains, Anti-Taurus Mountains and Bolkar Mountains. Karst lakes are in the Region of Lakes in West Taurus, Mentese Region and around Sivas. The most important ones are Kestel, Elmalı, Avlan,



Söğüt, Kovada and Suğla Lakes. In addition, there are lots of set lakes in Turkey. Some of them are Lake Sera, Lake Tortum, Seven Lakes (Yedigöller), Lake Eğmir, Lake Mogan, Marmara, Lake Amik, Lake Köyceğiz, Lake Balık, Lake Çıldır, Lake Van, Lake Terkos, Lake Büyükçekmece and Lake Küçükçekmece. Most of rivers in Turkey rise in the borders of the country and come to end. Kızılırmak (“Red River’’, longest river of the country), Yeşilırmak (Green River), Sakarya River, Gediz River, Büyük Menderes River, Küçük Menderes River, Seyhan River and Ceyhan River rise in Turkey and flow into the sea. On the other hand, Fırat and Dicle Rivers (where the biggest dams of Turkey are on), Çoruh River, Aras River and Kura River rise in Turkey and flow into the sea in neighbour countries. Turkey’s coastal plains are Bafra, Çarşamba, Sakarya, Meriç, Gediz, Küçük Menderes, Büyük Menderes and Çukurova. Internal plains of Turkey are Muş, Bingöl, Elazığ, Uluova, Antakya-Kahramanmaraş, Amik, Göle, Ardahan, Erzurum, Pasinler-Horasan, Iğdır, Kon-

ya, Akşehir-Eber, Çubuk, Altınbaşak (Ceylanpınar), Bornova, Simav, Sandıklı, Afyon, Bursa, İnegöl, Karacabey and Balıkesir.






Two of three of the terrain in Karaman provincial borders is mountanious. The highest mountain of province is Yunt Mountains on Taurus Mountains (in Sarıveliler). Its height is 3227 metres. In addition, height of Karadağ (Black Mountain) is 2271 metres. It is a dormant volcanic mountain. Centre of the city is formed on plain. On its south, there are extensions of Taurus Mountains. Sertavul Pass is one of the most important passes that link Central Anatolia Region to Mediterranean Region. As going more towards south, on Central Taurus Mountains, Ermenek, Başyayla and Sarıveliler Districts are seen. Two tributaries of River Göksü conjoin with Centre Taurus Mountains and form Taşeli (Cilicia) Plateau. On the coastal parts of mountains around Karaman and inland sea around Karadağ, sea cliffs are seen. Escarpment of these sea cliffs ranges from 1 metre to 10 metres. They rank among altitudes of 900 – 995 – 1010 m. These sea cliffs formed in Geological Times depending on inland sea’s level changes on Karaman – Konya – Ereğli basin. Karaman has got two important plains. “Karaman Plain’’ is on 1000-1050 metres heigh


TURKEY above sea level from city center towards Konya and Ereğli. The other is “Ayrancı Plain’’; its width is 375 km and its altitude above sea level is 1010 – 1026 m. Among the rivers in Karaman Province, the most important and biggest one is River Göksu. It rises from Yerköprü Power Station and flows into Mediterranean on Yünalanı. With 296 km length, it has length of 47 km within provincial borders. Another river that rises within provincial borders is Gödetçayı (Gödet Small Stream). With 81 km length, it rises from Mount Yüzlük and ends in Gödet Dam. The length of Ermenek Çayı (Ermenek Small Stream) is 122 km. It is one of the tributaries of River Göksu. 56 km of the river is within Karaman borders. The other rivers are Deliçay, Eskiçay and Kocadere.























Geographic of Spain Spain is located in South Europe. Spain is in the Iberian peninsula, which is formed by Spain and Portugal .The total area of Spain is about 40.645 square Kilometres. It is separated in autonomous communities; these are : Galicia , Asturias , Cantabria , País Vasco , la Rioja , Navarra , Aragón , Cataluña , Valencia, Andalucía, Extremadura, Castilla-la Mancha , Castilla y León and Madrid. And Spain has got two autonomous cities: Ceuta y Melilla. Also Spain has got two sets of islands: Canary Islands and Baleares Islands. The major mountain ranges of Spain are: in the North, Cantábrica mountains and Pyrenees; in the center, Central System and Toledo's mountains; in the South, Betic System and Sierra Morena; in the Northwest, Costero-catalana range , in the Northeast Macizo Galaico and in the Southeast, Sierra Nevada. The highest mountain is Mulhacén . In Spain there is also a volcano that is in Tenerife, one of the islands which is in the Canary Islands. This is the highest peak of Spain. In Spain there are many important rivers, for their flow and extent. In the Northeast is


Miño river; in the Northwest, Ebro river; in the center, Duero and Tajo rivers, in the South, Guadiana and Guadalquivir rivers. The longest and mightiest river is Ebro. In Spain there are more than 2000 little lakes; there are various types of lakes: Tectonic and volcanic lakes: caused by a phenomenon inside the earth. Eg: Janda lagoon and Bañolas’s lakes. Exogenous lakes , caused by outward might : Glacial lakes: Black lake. Karst lakes : Ruidera’s lakes Arreicos lakes: these are very numerous and shallow. Eolian lakes : Ampurdán’s closes Coastal lakes : separated by the sea The climate in the South and in the center is extreme, the summer is very hot and it rains very little. Winter is cold and it rains moderately. The climate in the North is soft; in summer the temperatures are soft with a little bit of rain and winter is very cold and it rains much.

SPAIN Spain has got 3.168km of coast. In the North the Gallega coast is to trim as a consequence of the flood. The Mediterranean coast is formed by capes and gulfs. The most important gulfs are in the North Vizcaya, León and Roses, in the East toward the center there is the Valencia gulf and in the South there is the Almeria gulf and the Cádiz gulf. The most important capes are in the north, Peñas’s cape, Punta de Estaca de Bares and Finisterre cape; in the South there is Gata’s cape and Palos’s cape. Spain’s population is 47.190.493.The population divided in communities. Andalucía: 8.424.102, Cataluña: 7.539.618, Madrid: 6.489.680, Valencia: 5.117.190, Galicia: 2.795.422, Castilla y León: 2.558.463, País vasco: 2.184.606, Islas Canarias: 2.126.769, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia: 1.470.069, Aragón: 1.346.293, Islas Baleares: 1.113.114, Extremadura: 1.109.367, Asturias: 1.081.487, Navarra: 642.051, Cantabria: 593.121, La Rioja: 322.955, Ceuta: 82.376, Melilla: 78.476.

got 105 airports distributed everywhere in Spain. The AVE (a high speed train) is built around the country. In the most important cities, such as Madrid or Barcelona, we have got underground. Spain has got over 53 international ports. The most important is Algeciras’s port. The major motorways are A-1 and A-2.

Ana Gil

The capital of Spain is Madrid, which is in Madrid community. Other important cities are Barcelona, which is in Cataluña community, Valencia is in Valencia community, Sevilla is in Andalucía community, Zaragoza is in Aragón community, Málaga is in Andalucía community and Murcia is in Murcia community. Spain has got good networks. It has


Geography of Spain Location of Spain

Spain is located in the southwest of Europe. The total area of Spain is about 505,000 square kilometers. Spain has 17 autonomous communities.

Mountain and Feats

The tallest mountain in Spain is called the Teide, and is located in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, an island which is in the southwest of Spain. It measures 3,718 meters high. The two highest mountains of Spain are in the south, the second highest is the Mulhacén, it measures 3,478 meters, and is located in Granada. The lowest area of Spain is called Monte Toro, which is in an island, in the east of Spain.

Rivers and Lakes

In Spain there aren’t many lakes, but there are many rivers. The Ebro is the largest river of Spain, and is the second longest. The Ebro has a length of 930 kms. It passes through 6 autonomous communities: Cantabria, Castilla y León, La Rioja, Navarra, Aragón and Cataluña. The Tajo is the longest river of Spain, it measures 1,008 kms. The Tajo passes through Spain and Portugal.

Climate and Weather

The climate of Spain is very diverse throughout all its territory. The south of the country is very warm; the temperatures are mild although during autumn there are precipitations. The north is colder than the south. In the north, the precipitations are common during all year. The countryside of Spain is very mountainous.




Spain is surrounded by coasts. There are many bays, and deltas. The Ebro’s Delta is very famous in Spain. There are two archipelagos too, Balearic Islands, composed of 5 islands, in the east of Spain; and the Canary Islands, that there are 7 islands, located in the southwest of Spain.

Population Spain has a population of about 47.2 million people, divided into 17 regions. Each region has one or more provinces. Asturias has 1 province, whereas Andalucía has 8. Some of the most important regions are Madrid, Cataluña, Comunidad Valenciana and Andalucía.

Important Cities The capital city of Spain is Madrid; other important cities are Barcelona, Sevilla and Valencia. Barcelona is the capital of Cataluña, Sevilla is the capital of Andalucía and Valencia is the capital of Comunidad Valenciana. Cataluña is in the northeast of Spain, Andalucía in the south, and Comunidad Valenciana in the east.

Transport Network Spain has a good transport network, the main motorways are the A2 and A4. The Mediterranean motorway is very important, because it crosses Spain from the north to the south.

My Town

My town is called Arroyo de San Serván, it is in Badajoz. Badajoz is a province of Extremadura, the other province is Cáceres. Extremadura is in the southwest of Spain and is next to Portugal. My town has 5,000 people, it isn’t famous although it is 12 kilometers from Mérida, that is the capital city of Extremadura. In my town there is a mountain. Arroyo de San Serván is in the center of Extremadura, between Badajoz and Mérida.

Ana Macías


Geography of Spain Spain is located in the Southwest of the European continent. The total area of Spain is about 504.645 square kilometers. Spain has seventeen autonomous communities and two autonom ous cities that are in the north of Morocco.

Pyrenees are in the Northeast of Spain . They are the highest mountain peaks in the country. One of its mountains is Aneto with 3.404 meters high .The other highest peak is Teide with 3.718 meters high and it is located in the Canary Islands . In Spain there are many swamps .The largest marshes are in “La Serena “ in the river Zújar and in Alcántara , in “Tajo.”


There are many rivers in Spain but the longest is “Tajo” which has a length of 1.000 kilometers . The river which carries more water is “Ebro”. Tajo river passes through Spain and Portugal .The largest lake is “Janda” in Cádiz.

Spain’s climate is temperate although the north is colder than the south. In summer it is very hot and in winter it rains moderately. In the South and West of Spain it rarely snows but in the North it snows much, especially in the mountains Spain has a lot of coast, approximately 3.100 kilometers of coast. Its beaches are very famous for their good weather. Spain has two archipelagos: in the East of Spain, Balearic Islands and in the west of Morocco, Canary Islands .

SPAIN Spain has 47. 190. 494 people approximately. Our main official language is Spanish although some northern regions speak another language like Galicia, País Vasco and Cataluña, but they also speak Spanish. The main autonomous communities are Madrid, Cataluña and Andalucía. The capital of Spain is Madrid. Other important cities are Barcelona, Valencia and Sevilla . Barcelona is the capital of Cataluña . Valencia is the capital of the Valencian Community. Sevilla is the capital of Andalucía. Barcelona is in the Northeast of Spain , this city gives its name to Barcelona football team.

Spain also has got good network of motorways. The carriageway A-2 is the most important; it goes from Madrid to Guadalajara, Zaragoza, Lérida, Barcelona and Gerona. In the network of Europe, it is the E-90 .The M-1 and the M-5 lay the traffic most important traffic of the capital .

Francisco Moreno.



GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. Spain is located in Western Europe, above the African continent. The total area of Spain is 504.645 square kilometres, it is the fourth largest country in the continent. It consists of the Iberian peninsula, the Balearic islands (in the Western Mediterranean Sea), the Canary islands (in the North East Atlantic Ocean) and Ceuta and Melilla (African cities).

it empties into the Atlantic Ocean, in Lisbon. It goes through Aragón, Castilla-La Mancha, Madrid and Extremadura. The dam which has more capacity is the dam of La Serena. It’s located in Badajoz, on the river Zújar. Its storage capacity is 3219 square hectometres. The main use is to store water to irrigate crops and to produce hydraulic energy. The climate of Spain is diverse. In the southern and Mediterranean coasts, the climate is Mediterranean: mild temperatures and abundant rainfall during the year, except in summer. In the interior, the climate is continental: low temperatures in winter,

The Spain’s relief is quite high and mountainous, with an average altitude of 600 meters. The highest point is the Teide, on the island of Tenerife. A great Central Plateau takes up most of the centre of the Iberian peninsula and it measures 600 meters high. The main mountains ranges are: Pyrenees, the Iberian system, Cantábrica range, Central system and Béticas ranges.

In Spain, there are many rivers and dams. The longest river is the river Tajo. It is born in Teruel and after touring 1008 kilometres,


high temperatures in summer and irregular rainfall. In the mountains, there is a mountain climate: lower temperatures and abundant rainfall. In the east of the peninsula, the climate is arid: low rainfall. In the Canary islands and in the south of the peninsula, the climate is subtropical: warm and mild temperatures during the year and little rainfall.

SPAIN In Spain we can find capes and gulfs. Some of the most important capes are the cape Gata in Almería, the cape Palos in Murcia, the cape Finisterre in La Coruña and the cape Peñas in Asturias. The gulfs that stand out are the gulf of Vizcaya in the Cantabrian Sea, the gulf of Cádiz in the Atlantic Ocean and the gulf of Valencia and the gulf of León in the Mediterranean sea. Spain has more of 7,500 kilometres of coastline. Some of the coast have names as the coast Verde (northern Spain), the coast of La Luz and the coast of Sol (southern Spain), the coast Blanca and the coast of Azahar (eastern Spain), and the coast Dorada and the coast Brava (north-eastern Spain). Spain has a population of about 47.190.493 million people. Over the years this number has been increasing and it’s divided into 17 regions, each divided into provinces (there are 50 provinces), and 2 autonomous cities. The region with more persons is Andalucía with 8.424.102, and where we find fewer people is in Melilla, 78.476 persons. The capital city of Spain is Madrid. This is the most important city. The second important city is Barcelona, where we can find La Sagrada Familia (a modern cathedral) and the Picasso Museum. The third important city is Valencia; it’s famous for its production of oranges and rice. And the fourth is Sevilla, the most beautiful city of Spain, where the Muslim tower called Giralda, the Alcázar palace and the Torre del Oro stand out. Spain has a good transport network. The most used highways are the A-1 (northern highway), the A-2 (north-eastern highway), the A-3 (eastern highway), the A-4 (southern highway) and the A-5 (southeastern highway). All of them connect Madrid to other cities.

Laura López.










Geography of Extremadura

Extremadura is located off the south west of Spain. The total area of Extremadura is about 41,633 square kilometres, with two provin-

In Extremadura there are a lot of rivers, but Tajo and Guadiana rivers are the most important. Tajo river is located in Cáceres; it is 1,008 kilometres long. Guadiana river is located in Badajoz; it is 742 kilometres long. The climate of Extremadura is Mediterranean, except to the north, where it is continental. Temperatures are warm in summer and cold in winter.

ces, the province of Badajoz and the province of Cáceres. We are located in Badajoz. Extremadura has got three mountain ranges; they are located in the North, Sierra de Béjar, in the centre, Montes de Toledo, and in the south, Sierra Morena. The tallest mountain in Extremadura is called Sierra de Béjar and is located in the North of Extremadura. It is 2,405 metres high. The lowest areas of Extremadura are the basins of the Tajo (Cáceres) and Guadiana (Badajoz) rivers.


Extremadura has a population of about 1,109,367 million people, divided into the two provinces of Extremadura, Cáceres and Badajoz. The province of Badajoz has a population of about 688,777 thousand people and Cáceres has a population of about 413,633 thousand people. The capital of Extremadura is Mérida. Other important cities are Badajoz, Cáceres, Plasencia, Don Benito and Almendralejo. Badajoz is the capital city of the province of Badajoz, and Cáceres is the capital city of the province of Cáceres. Extremadura has a normal transport network; its main motorways are A-66 that traverse Extremadura from north to south and A-5, connecting Portugal with Badajoz.

In Extremadura people travel by car or by bus, sometimes by taxi or train. In Extremadura there aren’t a lot of accidents; people drive carefully. My village is called Arroyo de San Serván and it is situated in the centre of Extremadura, more or less, near Mérida. Arroyo has a population of about 4,500 people. Near my village there is a stream which is called Tripero, and there is a little sierra with pre-historic paintings, from where the symbol of my high school, Tamujal, was taken. The symbol is called Tamujito.

Alberto Solano



Geography of Extremadura

Extremadura is a Spanish Autonomous Community of the South west of the Iberian Peninsula. The total area of Extremadura is 41,633 square kilometres. Extremadura is composed of the two largest provinces in Spain: Badajoz and Cáceres. Badajoz is more populated than Cáceres.

In Extremadura, there are many rivers. The longest river is called Tajo. It is 1,007 kilometres long. Its channel is narrow and deep. It has got many tributaries and it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. The climate of Extremadura is mediterranean with some ocean influence. In Extremadura, summers are dry and hot, springs and autumns are very variable and winters are rainy and generally a little cold. In the north, summers are cool and winters are cold. In the south, summers are torrid and winters are very mild. It has a population of 1.109.367 people, divided into the two provinces of Badajoz and Cáceres. Each individual province is split into areas. Badajoz has eleven and Cáceres has fifteen. Some of the main areas in Badajoz are Tierra de Barros, Vegas Bajas and Sierra Suroeste and some of the main areas in Cáceres are las Hurdes,Valle de Jerte and Jara.

The tallest peak in Extremadura is called Calvitero and it is located in a mountain range. The mountain range is called Central System. It is 2,404 metres high. It is located in Cáceres. There are many dams in Extremadura, for example: Gabriel and Galán dam in Cáceres, Cornalvo dam and Proserpina dam in Badajoz.

The capital city of Extremadura is Mérida. Other important cities are Plasencia, Don Benito and Almendralejo. The capital city of the province of Cáceres is the city of Cáceres. The capital city of the province of Badajoz is the city of Badajoz.

In the public transport in Extremadura the


most important are buses and trains. The only lines of train are the lines that connect the autonomous community with other places of Spain and Portugal. We use cars, buses and sometimes taxis to travel. The cities of Extremadura haven’t got networks of subway or tram. My town is called Arroyo de San Serván and it is located in the south west of Mérida. My town is in the region of Badajoz. The total area of Arroyo de San Serván is 50.1 square kilometres and it has a population of 4.253 peoples. In Arroyo de San Serván there is a town hall, a school and a high school, a swimming pool and a football field. There are many parks and some churches too.




Geography of Extremadura

Extremadura is located off western Spain. The total area of Extremadura is about 41,634 square kilometers, with it has got two provinces their name are Badajoz and Cáceres but the most important city is Mérida. Mérida has got many monuments of the Romans. The tallest mountain in Extremadura is called Calvitero, and is located in Cáceres. It measures 2.425 metres high. The lowest area of Extremadura is situated on Badajoz and it has got many rivers around his. In Extremadura, there are two rivers more important. The Guadiana goes Badajoz, Don Benito and Mérida. It is 818 km long and ends Huelva (other autonomous community). Other river is Tajo and it goes Cáceres. It has got some tributaries for example Tiétar or Alagón. Tajo is 1.120 km longer. Tajo is longest of Extremadura. There aren’t lakes in Extremadura but there are many reservoirs as Proserpina that it located in


Mérida and there are many swamps. The climate of Extremadura is hot on summer and on winter isn’t very cold. In the province of Cáceres normally is colder than Badajoz and sometime snow there. On summer Badajoz is very cold and the people go to beach the south and on winter don’t use to snow but sometime it rains. In Cáceres the weathers is mild. Generally, the climate that predominates in Extremadura is the mediterranean climate. In Extremadura there aren’t coastlines because it is next to Portugal. It has population of about 1.104.499 people, divided into two provinces (Cáceres y Badajoz). Extremadura is divided in localities as Olivenza, Trujillo… The most important cities are Badajoz and Cáceres. The Caceres’s area is more beautiful than Badajoz. Although there are more cities important for example Mérida, it is the capital of Extremadura. The president of all Extremadura is Antonio Monago. One the principal cities are Mérida. It situated on the Badajoz’s area and it has got many important monuments. Some tourists that visit Spain go to Mérida for see monuments. Many monuments were from the time of the Romans. Mérida has got the Roman theater, amphitheater and a lot of things. In my opinion Mérida is interesting city. Extremadura hasn’t got many transports. Here we use the bus and taxis. The president wants to put the ave. Some roads connect one city others. Extremadura has got some bridge that situated below of mountains. It has got many semaphores for control the traffic. There are more semapho-

res in the cities because in the town there isn’t usually. My town is called Arroyo de San Serván and it is situated next of Mérida. Arroyo is not known, but sometime we have been on the TV but always for the bad things. Arroyo has

got a spa, a sport center, town hall, house of the culture, a church, many parks and countryside the football. It has a population of about 4000 people. At the end of town has got a roman bridge. We have got a mountain range and there are the cave paitings.







FACTS &FIGURES Estonian population: Estonia`s population ranks amongst the smallest in the world : as 1st of January 2013, just 1 286540 people live in Estonia - a density of only 29.6 people per sq km. Many of the world’s largest cities have more citizens than all the towns in Estonia put together. About 70% of Estonians live in urban areas.

Estonian capital: Tallinn. 32,63% of Estonian population live in the capital city.

Estonian area: The size of Estonia is 45 227 km2, of which 5% are lakes and 10% are islands. Forests and woodlands cover almost half of the Estonian territory. Total area of Estonian fens and bogs is about 140 000ha. Estonian Nature conservation began in 1910 with the measures taken to protect wild birds on Vaikla island. An admirable 18% of the country is afforded protection within nature reserves that vary in size from the large national parks to the smaller, locally protected reserves. There are five national parks in Estonia: Vilsandi, Matsalu, Soomaa, Lahemaa and Karula.



Estonia is a small country on the eastern bank of the Baltic Sea. Our neighbours are Russia and Latvia, over the Finnish Bay live our Finnish friends. Estonia stretches 350 km from east to west and 240 km from north to south and is larger than Slovenia, Holland, Denmark or Switzerland.


ESTONIAN CLIMATE We have four seasons. In winter the average temperature is -5 ยบC and in summer +17 ยบC. We are happy to enjoy lot of snow in winter when we can ski, skate and make snowmen.

In spring and autumn it rains a lot and in summer we swim and enjoy the hot sun.



In northern Estonia there is also a narrow coastal line which is lowland. You can see a small mountain-like area in the northeast. It’s called Pandivere highland and the highest point is 166 metres above sea level.

In the western part of Estonia we have mostly lowlands and fens. There are lot of protected areas and Matsalu National Park.

Southern-Estonia is an exotic area for Estonians, because there are our higher mountains. The tallest of them being 318 metres, it’s called Suur Munamägi (The Great Egg Mountain ). The area itself is called Haanja highland.


ESTONIAN ISLANDS We have 1521 islands in Estonia. The largest of them being Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Muhu and Vormsi.

The islands’ lifestyle plays a very important role in our history and islands are usually the first choice for Estonians’ summer vacations.



Over 22 % of our country is filled with wetlands. We are proud to have 9836 fens. That is more than twice the number of villages in Estonia.


PEATLANDS Peatlands are typical habitats in Estonia and occupy approximately one quarter of the territory. All today`s Estonian peatlands were formed after the last iceage. For humans, bog trails provide a thrilling nature experience with their quietness and solitude. Many birds such as Golden Plover, Whimbrel, Great Grey Shrike and Parrot Crossbill nest in Estonian bogs. Bogs also provide habitat for large carnivores and a selection of dragonflies and butterflies that are extremely rare in Europe.


ESTONIAN LAKES There are nearly 1,200 lakes in Estonia, 1000 of them are natural lakes and 200 are artifical lakes. Estonia has 2 big lakes: Peipsi-Pihkva (3555 km2 , average of depth 7,1m) and Võrtsjärv (270,7 km², average of depth 2,8m.). Estonia has only 46 lakes that are deeper than 15m, and as a matter of fact, they all are in South-Estonia. The majority of Estonian lakes are small and shallow. Half of them are smaller than 3 hectares. Estonian lakes are mixing water two times a year, in spring - usually in April-May and in October-November in the autumn, when the whole water column is at 4 ° C. In some lakes (eg Verevi) spring water does not mix, but only mixes in the autumn, but this is not the case every year. In summer, the temperature of the water layers can be quite different. Large and shallow lakes are open to the winds (eg Lake, Võrtsjärv Vagula, Ermistu) and the water temperature is relatively uniform. Small lakes have a layered surface and the bottom temperature difference is often 15-20 degrees. Particularly noticable, the temperature in dark-watered lakes where the surface temperature during the summer months is 20-25 º C, but at a depth of 3-4 meters can drop by 10 degrees per meter.

Lakes in Estonia


ESTONIAN FLORA Our national flower is the cornflower.

Surprisingly, You can find a lot of wild orchids here.


FORESTS Over half of Estonia`s territory is covered with natural forests and for that we are ranked 4th in Europe. The most common tree in Estonian woods is the Scots Pine followed by birches, Norway Spruce, alders and Aspen. In addition to the above mentioned we also see English Oak,European Ash, Mountain Elm and Norway Maple with undergrowth formed by Hazel, Fly Honeysuckle and Mountain Currant . One of the most important and endangered type of forests in Estonia is Western Taiga. Besides Estonia, Western taiga forests in Europe can only found in Sweden, Finland, Russia and to a small extent in Lithuania.


WOODED MEADOWS Estonian wooded meadows are among the richest plant communities in the world. For example, in the Western wooded meadow at Laelatu we have counted 76 different plants in one square metre.


ALVARS In Europe alvars can only be found in Estonia and southern Sweden. An alvar is a biological environment based on a limestone plain with thin or no soil.


COASTAL MEADOWS Western Estonian coastal meadows are flat and low and directly influenced by salty sea water. Our coastal meadows are valuable resting sites for for numerous species of migratory birds.


FLOODED MEADOWS Estonia also has great flood communities resulting from a combination of river floods and human activity. In western Estonia you will find the Kasari river which has the biggest floodpain in the country, it is in Matsalu National Park, covering around 4000 ha. The flood is often called the fifth season there. Flooded meadows are important feeding and nesting habitats for such interesting birds as Ruff, Great Snipe, Lesser Spotted eagles and Black Stork.


ESTONIAN FAUNA Estonian forests are renowned in Europe for their healthy populations of mammals with around 700-800 Lynx, over 150 Wolves, 500-600 Brown Bears and almost 20 000 Beavers – a tremendous number for such a small country. In Estonia several European rarities have been recorded – the most endangered examples being the European Mink, several species of dormouse and the Flying Squirrel. In addition to the native residents three species have been ontroduced outside the country : The Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), the American Mink and the Muskrat. The Population of Elk is estimated at 12 000 and Wild Boars at about 20 000 individuals. Siberian Flying Squirrel (Pteromys volans)– is a pride of Estonian forests – in Europe they can be found only in Estonia and Finland. SEMI-AQUATIC ANIMALS Estonian forests and woodlands are well-known for their high number of semiaquatic mammals. Almost 20 000 European Beavers and 2000 Otters. An exceptional number for such a small territory. American Indians called the beaver the „Sacred Centre“ of the land. The European Mink is our rarest mammal. Since 1999 a long-term general project has been in progress to protect the European Mink.


Most animals in our forests are wolf, bear, moose, fox, rabbit and lot of species of rodents. When lucky one might even meet a wild cat in our woods – a lynx.

Wolf Bear Moose Fox Rodent (beaver) Rabbit


DID YOU KNOW? . Estonian flora is comprised of about 1440 species of mosses, 800 species of lichens and 3000 species of algae. . 36 species of Orchids have been found in Estonia. . Hawk Owls are uncommon but regular winter visitors in Estonia. . Estonia is one of the few countries in Europe where 8 different species of Woodpeckers live. . In one national park in Estonia more White - backed Woodpeckers nest than in the whole of Sweden. . Compared with Poland, four times as many Ural Owls and six times as many White-backed Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos leucotos) breed in Estonia. . The most common grouse of Estonian Forest is the Hazel Grouse (Bonasa bonasia) with up to 40 000 pairs nesting here. . In May 1997, in a single day, one million passing arctic waterfowl were counted at Cape Põõsaspea. . Great Snipe (Gallinago media) is listed on the first category of protected bird species in Estonia. Therefore there is only one site for public birdwatching tourists near Tartu. From May to late June, after sunset, the meadows resound with the bubbling call of Great Snipes – a breeding species for which Estonia is internationally important. . On the 27th May in 2007 during a 24 hour birdwatching race in Estonia, 194 bird species were recorded – it is the best result in Europe after Spain. . At Kabli Bird Station leg ringing activity was started in 1969.The same kind of Helgoland trap is still used nowadays to catch the birds. . Around 10% of the European population of Common Cranes make a stopover every autumn in West Estonia. . The breeding population of Common Cranes in Estonia has increased from 300 breeding pairs to 7000 pairs during the last 40 years.


DID YOU KNOW? . All three large carnivore species in Estonia – Brown Bear, Wolf and Lynx – are still managed as game animals. . The Flying Squirrel is the logo of Estonian Fund for Nature. . The Polish are hoping to relocate Lynxes from Estonia to the Polish Mazuri region in an effort to restore their presence. The Polish World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is hoping that Lynx from Estonia will save the Polish local lynx population. . European Mink is the most endangered mammal in Europe. The main reason why they are disappearing is because of the more aggressive American Mink. Estonia has the major role worldwide in protecting European Mink.





Italian maps A Brief History of Italian cartography Since prehistoric times, man has tried to represent their world in two dimensions. The graffiti Mezin (Ukraine), dated 15,000 years ago are still a kind of camp located on the banks of a river next to a forest. Babylonians and Egyptians have left many relics including numerous maps of the areas in which they lived and majestic pyramids they built. In Italy we have the most important archaeological finds European representatives ancient maps and the most interesting date back to 1500-2000 BC such as a map of the village Bedolina, carved rock probably for administrative purposes.

The greek mathematician Eratosthenes of Cyrene around 200 BC calculates the exact size Earth with a difference of a few thousand meters and the greek geographer Marinus of Tyre in 120 A.D. uses the first degrees in longitude and expressing the measures latitude and building the first, rudimentary map modern history.

In the Middle Ages, Europe miss many of the great discoveries of the past but from the XV century sailors, scientists and geographers back to explore and draw the world and thanks to the invention of printing the maps become more detailed and widespread.Aroun d 1700 Newton calls into question the sphericity of the Earth and, in 1873, J. B. Listing name of the new geoid surface (an ellipsoid of revolution with mountains and waters ocean). Modern history is increasingly difficult to tell but thanks to the satellites we can always when you know the size and shape of our planet.




In the system U.T.M. Earth has been divided into 60 zones of 6 degrees longitude. Then each zone is divided into squares of 100 km on each side, a further division into smaller mesh netting from a kilometer. Since the extreme western point of the territory of the Italian state is 6 째 37 'and 32 "east longitude and the most easterly at 18 째, 31', 13" east longitude from the meridian of Greenwich in the UTM system Italy belongs to the cast 32.33

Maps: Is not possible reproduce the surface of the earth in size, but must be reduced according to a certain scale report. It defines scale of a map the relationship between the length measured on the paper and the corresponding length on the Earth's surface. The maps can be classified either according to the scale of reduction in according to their content and by the method of construction. Compared with the scale stand four groups of cards: Plants and maps, topographic maps, maps corografiche, Maps. Plants and maps: have a scale of 1:10,000 and are very detailed.The plants represent the urban centers, maps represent the rural properties. Topographic scale is 1:10000 to 1:150000. Take rather detailed, are small sections and highlight both the natural features and human works.Cards co-

rografiche scale of 1:150000 to 1:1000000 have many details, represent regionsMaps is less than 1:1000000 a depict globes and world maps. Depending on the content, are usually distinct cards general, specialty papers and thematic maps.General maps represent natural elements rivers, lakes and coastlines etc.. or the human aspects, or both ele-

ments.Special cards are built for a specific purpose, including those in Italy are widely used cards: geomorphological, climatic, vegetation cover maps, anthropological and ethnological, economic.



The I. G. M. The Italian Military Geographic Institute provides detection and printing of the map of Italy. It is made from 285 cards at a 1:100,000 scale, such sheets, each covering an area of 30 'longitude and 20' latitude. Each sheet is divided into four equal parts, said quadrants, so as to assume the scale 1:25000, which are denominated in tablets, enlarged even them in the same way.

CLASSE I A Sometimes the boards are divided into four equal parts called sections, with a scale of 1:10000. The sheets are indicated by Arabic numerals from 1 to 277; quadrants of each sheet are marked with Roman numerals I, II, III, IV, starting with the one in the upper right corner and proceeding clockwise. The tablets are indicated according to the position they occupy with respect to the point of union of all four. The numbering of the sheets is done by moving north to south and

from west to east along the same alignment of sheets.Since 1965 the Military Geographic Institute began to set up and publish the new topographic map of Italy at scale 1:50000. Although the scale is the same as that of the old dials, the two cards are very different, in fact, the modern one, derived from the International Bill of the World to the millionth. The construction work of this paper was very long and detailed, and even today the new card has not completely replaced the old

Rivers, lakes and waterfall Po It’s a river in the north of Italy. It’ s the longest river of Italy. It rises in Piemonte, in “pian del re”. It flows through different towns: Torino, Piacenza, Cremona and Ferrara

Strona Strona is a river in vco province, tributary of Toce river. Strona river flows through Gravellona Toce. It is the river in our town it flows near our school. wooden handcraft is a traditional activity in Strona. Valley wood croftsmen are recently dedicated to the production of puppets of

The most important italian rivers Brenta Brenta is famous river near Trento , Caldonazzo ,Bassano del Grappa in Veneto ,a big arew in the northeast of Italy. At Bassano del grappa flows under famous bridge “ponte degli Alpini”,designed by Palladio, the most important italin architect in 1700. On brenta riveryou can see the beautiful villas of Palladio.

Pinocchio so that the valley is sometimes called the valley of Pinocchio.

Adige “Adige” is a river in the North-East of Italy. starts from Passo Resia in Alto Adige ano flas into Adriatico see near

s.Anna di Chioggia.there were floodings in the c i t i e s o f Trento,Verona, Legnano, Cavarzese; Chioggia and Laps Merano, Bolz a n o a n d Rovereto.

Tevere Tevere is the most important river of central Italy. Tevere is 405 km long, it’s the third longest river in Italy. The source is on Fumaiolo mountain in Emilia Romagna region. Tevere flows into Tirreno sea , at Ostia , near Rome. In ancient times , goods were carried by boats.

Tevere is the soul of rome, it is described in the legend of Romolo and Remo.

Rivers, lakes and waterfall Lake Garda

The most important italian lakes

The lake of Garda, or Benaco is a very big lake. In the lake there are five Islands. The liggest Island is Garda.

Francesco D’Assisi here founded a one monaster.

Lake Orta

Lake Maggiore Lake Maggiore or “Verbano” is a alpine big lake. It’s in Italy and in Switzerland. The Ticino river is it ‘s tributary. There are some islands: Madre, Bella and Pescatori islands. Island Madre shows a beautiful botanical garden with marvelous flowers is on “Madre”

San Biagio Island is called rabbits. Island because there were a lot of rabbits.

Lake Bracciano Bracciano lake is a valcanic lake near Rome.It’s one popular turist resort.Inthe lake there are a lot of fish. Lakes Bolsena and Vico Bolsena and Vico lakes is volcanic lakes near Viterbo,in the central part of Italy.In these lakes too there are a lot of fish.

The Orta lake is a lake near the Alps, located between the town of Novara and Verbano Cusio Ossola. It is the most west ern prealpin lake. In the center, there is the little island of St. Giulio. This lake was polluted by copper from texile industry wich produced rayon. The lake had serious problems and life was not possible in the water. The Italian Istitute of Idrobiology (C.N.R) in 1926, made a project to clean the water of the lake. Gianni Rodari , a famous writer, was born on 23rd October in Omegna. The lake is visited by a lot of artists and writers.

Lake d’ Iseo The lake Iseo is in lombardia between the towns of Bergamo and Brescia. On the shores of the lake people produce olive oil. In the middie of the lake there is a mountain island . It is a big island with mediterraneanvegetation.

Rivers, lakes and waterfall Toce waterfall The Toce waterfall is the second in Europe in height: it is located in the municipality of Formazza. And 'one of the most spectacular in the Alps. At the top of the waterfall there is a historic hotel.

Waterfalls Marmore waterfall The waterfall Marmore is in Umbria near Terni. It’s the highest waterfall in Europe. Its water is used for electric energy. The river “Velino” forms this wonderful waterfall. There is a legend about this waterfall a nymph called “lake” felt in love with a shepherd called “Velino” the goddess turned the nymph into a river (Velino jumped into the river and formed the waterfall ).

Tivoli waterfall The artificial waterfall of Aniene in Tivoli,was ordered by pope Gregorio xv1 in 1826 after a big flood.It’s one of the highest waterfalls in Italy and it’s inside “Gregorio Villa” that is protected by UNESCO.The waterfall is 100 m high.


April 2013

Galileo Galilei, 1B


Italy is a peninsula in Mediterranean Sea. It has a coastline of about 7000 km.

Tirrehenyan Sea Adriatic Sea Ionian Sea


The Ligurian Sea is not very wide, but deep. Ligurian coasts are high and rocky, but in some places there are small beaches. In ancient times, it was called “Ligusticum” by Latin people. Cinque Terre, an important tourist destination, overlooks Ligurian Sea. TYRREHENIAN SEA



The Adriatic Sea is the shallowest among the Italian seas, it is not very salty.Adriatic coasts are mostly low and sandy.

The Tyrrehenian Sea is along the Italian western coast. Toscana and Lazio’s coasts are low and sandy. Towards the South the coasts are high; there are caves and promontories.

The Ionian Sea is the deepest of the Italian seas. Some of its coasts are rocky and some of them are sandy.




There are a lot of islands in the Italian seas, the biggest ones are Sicily and Sardinia. There are also many archipelagos: Toscano (with Elba Island), Campano (with Capri, Ischia and Procida islands), Eolie (Lipari) and Egadi near Sicily and Trèmiti, in the Adriatic Sea.

MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE Climate along the coasts is mild, because the water of the sea is like a heating source: it absorbs the heat of the sun and lets it go more slowly than it does the mainland. Along the coasts, also, it doesn't rain much and usually only in the autumn. The Mediterranean climate also depends on the winds, which cause temperature differences in different places. The cold winds that come from Central and Eastern Europe blow on the Adriatic coasts , they do not reach to the coasts of the Tyrrehenian Sea, because they are protected by the Apennines. The hot winds from Africa blow on the southern coasts

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FLORA AND FAUNA Along the coasts the ground is often dry and rocky; in those zones it's often very wind and sunny. This is the reason why only few plants grow near the sea. The characteristic flora of the coastal zone is the Mediterranean Scrub. It is composed of shrubs like rosemary, oleanders, lavenders and myrtles. The typical Mediterranean trees are seaside pine trees and oaks.

In the Mediterranean scrub wild boars, deers, foxes, hedgehogs and other small animals (weasels, martens, weasels) live; on the coasts many birds, such as herons, gulls, cormorants and wild ducks live. The Mediterranean landscape is also inhabited by marine animals: among the seabed algae you can find fish (anchovies, sardines,mackerel and tuna), shellfish (mussels and clams) and crustaceans (crabs, shrimps ...).

PORTS The sea has always been a very important way of communication. In the past, bays and gulfs were the most suitable places to build ports, where ships could load and unload goods. Today there are large cities with their ports along the coasts. In the ports you can see:

large ships that are used for the transport of goods

FISHING Fishing has been the most important activity in coastal areas for a long time. In recent years, however, the number of fish has reduced in several stretches of water, because the fishermen use trawl -nets. These nets, in fact, catch all kinds of fish, even those that you do not eat but are important because they are the food for other fish. Furthermore trawlnets damage algae growing on the seabed. Also sea pollution caused the death of many fish. Only the Adriatic Sea is still quite fishy.

ferries for the transport of people and for the connection to the islands fishing boats used by fishermen to fish off the coast

TOURISM Tourism is one of the most important activities along Italian coasts: many people visit the coasts or spend their holidays there because the beaches are really beautiful and there are hotels, campsites, restaurants, beaches and amusement parks.

April 2013 Galileo Galilei, 1C

Karst caves in Italy Italy is full of beautiful caves of great speleological and tourist interest. Most of them are karstic. The most important caves in Italy are: Pertosa caves Castellana caves Zinzulusa caves Frasassi caves The Giant cave Toirano caves Stiffe caves The wind cave Witches caves

KARST The term "karst" shows the processes of dissolution and corrosion of the rock, by an aggressive chemical agent, such as rainwater. It, acidified by carbon dioxide, enters the ground melting the rocks and forming underground cavities. The dissolution phase alternates a constructive phase, in which the water droplets evaporate, releasing inside the caves deposits of insoluble calcium carbonate that form concretions called stalactites and stalagmites, depending on the water to evaporate before or after drip onto the ground.



Pertosa caves

The Pertosa Caves (Italian:Grotte di Pertosa) are a karst show cave system located in the municipality of Pertosa, in the province of Salerno, Campania. The caves, also named Grotte dell'Angelo as many Italian voids in honour of St. Michael, are extended also in the territories of Auletta and Polla. They are situated by the eastern side of Alburni mountains, 263 m above sea level, along the left bank of the river Tanagro. Due to the presence of the river, the caves are rich of water and, after the main entrance, there is an underground lake.

Castellana caves The Castellana Caves (Italian. Grotte di Castellana) are a remarkable karst cave system located in the municipality of Castellana Grotte, in the province of Bari, Apulia. They are one of the most famous show caves of Italy.

The entrance is represented by an enormous vertical tunnel 60 meters (200 ft) long. The main cave is named "La Grave" (as abyss),[and others are named Black Cavern (Caverna Nera), White Cave (Grotta Bianca) and Precipice Cavern (Caverna del Precipizio

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Zinzulusa caves The Zinzulusa is a natural cave which is located along the Salento coast between Castro and Santa Cesarea Terme, Apulia. Surrounding waters are equipped for bathing, and much appreciated for their cleanliness and clarity. The name of the cave

comes from the dialect word "Zinzuli", rags, and is caused by karst formations, especially stalactites hanging from the ceiling, as if they were rags hanging. The formation of the cave, which took place for sea erosion, is led back to the Pliocene period. In the past it was inhabited by a large number of bats, which had covered the cave with their guano for more than five meters.

Toirano Caves Toirano caves are located in Liguria, near Savona. They are known for the various forms of stalactites and stalagmites and for the discovery of Homo sapiens traces. The caves were opened to the public in 1953. In some rooms and passages were finded cave bears (Ursus spelaeus) cemeteries and, on the walls, marks caused by torches used by primitive men hunters. Into the caves you can see handprints and kneeprints imprinted in the clay. The most interesting room is The Mistery Room in which there are seven footprints. There is also a little lake in which survived a prehistoric crustacean (Niphargus).

Frasassi Caves Frasassi caves were discovered on 25th September 1971.; they are one of the most beautiful attractions in Italy. Into the caves you can see natural sculptures formed by calcareous stratifications in 190 million years thanks to the work of water and rock. The most famous stalactites

Stiffe Caves

and stalagmites are: “the Giants”, “the Camel”, “the bear”, “the Niagara’s Falls”, “the Organ Pipes”. Into the caves there are also some

little lakes. As the natural light does not penetrate into the caves, the lightning is completely artificial.

The cave is located on the Karst plateau, in Sgonico, near Trieste. It originated about 10 million years ago. The cave is made of calcareous and dolomite rocks. It presents three natural entries characterized by steep galleries. The most imposing part of the cave is represented by the Wide Cave, an underground chamber height of about 98.5 meters. For its exceptionally wideness

it was included in the Guinness Book of Records in 1995 such as the widest touristic cave in the world.

The Giant Cave The caves are one of the most famous karstic phenomenon in Italy. They are made of calcareous rocks ; into them there are millenary stalactites and stalagmites and an underground river. There are also little lakes and high water falls, wide rooms and syphons. The caves are located in San Demetrio, L’Aquila, Abruzzo .

Galileo Galilei, 1C

The Wind Cave The cave is located in the Apuan Alps park, in Toscana. It is a karstic cave and owes its name to the strong air currents caused by the temperature difference between the external and internal. Into the cave you can see the wonders of the underworld: stalactites and stalagmites, drapery of alabaster, little lakes encrusted with crystals, and underground rivers.

There are also most interesting calcareous concretions such as The Monuments Room and The Branch of Wonders.


Sambughetto Caves, also called“Witches cave�

The Witches Cave is located in the heart of Valle Strona, in the small town of Sambughetto, in the province of Omegna. This cave, valuable destination for cavers and source of inspiration for many popular legends, is carved out of white marble and is divided into wells and corridors characterized by sand stalagmites, stalactites and streams. Inside the cave were found many fossils of animals: wolves, deer, lions, leopards, jackals and, above all, the infamous cave bear.

IC.Galileo Galilei

THE CITY Title : THE PRE-ROMAN SETTLEMENTS Rome Medieval Cities in Italy Polycentrism Renaissance Palmanova BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS

The Pre-Roman settlements In Italy, population was spread in villages which were along the rivers, in plains, on coasts or on hills.

Rome Roma is the biggest city in Italy . It connects smaller towns by consular roads. The Romans were exiled to urban centers. In the first century A.D., in Italy, there were more than 400 cities. Colosseum



Medieval Cities The Italian countryside was with fields and woods in which there were the peasants’ villages, feudal lords’ castles and the Benedictine monasteries. All these settlements were isolated and sur-

vived thanks to its agricultural resources. The city of Palermo was made a real capital by the Arabs.

Polycentrism Renaissance In Italy and in Europe there was a plague in 1348. In the 15th century during Renaissance, the plague spread again .


Palmanova Palmanova is unique of its kind, because it is shaped like a nine-pointed star. It is surrounded by walls and moats that form this frame. It was decided to entrust the project to Leonardo Da Vinci, but he refused the assignment. One of its main purposes was to defend the area from the Turkish invasion. Piazza d’ Army is very interesting

because of its perfect hexagonal shape. Also along the entire perimeter passes a channel filled with water. Its birthday is on 7th October 1593. In 1960, the entire city was proclaimed "National Monument". It was celebrated as the most unconquerable city of the whole Europe. Palmanova was designed to contain 20,000 in-

habitants, but it was not successful because no one went to live there. It is unique

BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS In 1920s and 1930s, many lands were reclaimed for new agricultural areas . Various medieval buildings in the city were

demolished to be replaced by modern buildings.

Classe II A




Italy is a country with high seismic risk. The earthquakes in our country are a real threat that can strike when we least expect it. Technically, the earthquake is a series of vibrations in the earth's crust due to the rapid release of energy stored in rocks. Are currently recognized three general classes of earthquakes: volcanic - artificial - tectonic. The most recent earthquakes occurred in Abruzzo (L'Aquila) and Emilia


(Modena, Ferrara).

EARTQUAKE An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. There are three main types of fault, all of which may cause an earthquake: normal, reverse (thrust) and strike-slip. Normal and reverse faulting are examples of dip-slip, where the displacement along the fault is in the direction of dip and movement on them involves a vertical component. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary. Reverse faults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened such as at a convergent boundary. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other; transform boundaries are a particular type of strikeslip fault. Many earth-

quakes are caused by movement on faults that have components of both dip-slip and strike-slip; this is known as oblique slip. Sometimes a series of earthquakes occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where the earthquakes strike a fault in clusters, each triggered by the shaking or stress redistribution of the previous earthquakes. Similar to aftershocks but on adjacent segments of fault, these storms occur over the course of years, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones. Such a pattern was observed in the sequence of about a dozen earthquakes that struck the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey in the 20th century and has been in-




.Stromboli is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy. It is one of the eight Aeolian Islands, a volcanic arc north of Sicily. This name is derived from the Ancient Greek name Strongulē which was given to it because of its round swelling form. The island's population is between 400 and 850. The volcano has erupted many times, and is constantly active with minor eruptions, often visible from many points on the island and from the surrounding sea, giving rise to the island's nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean". The last major eruption was on April 13, 2009. Stromboli stands 926 m (3,034 ft) above sea level,[1] but actually rises over 2,000 m (6,500 ft) above the sea floor. There are three active craters at the peak. A significant geological feature of the volcano is the Sciara del Fuoco ("Stream of fire"), a big horseshoe-shaped depression generated in the last 13,000 years by several collapses on the northwestern side of the cone.Mt. Stromboli has been in one almost continuous eruption for the past 2000 years. This pattern of eruption has been maintained, in which explosions occur at the summit craters with mild to moderate eruptions of incandescent volcanic bombs at intervals ranging from minutes to hours.




A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from the magma chamber below the surface. Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit. This describes just one of many types of volcano, and the features of volcanoes are much more complicated. CAMPI FLEGREI Campi Flegrei is a vast site of volcanic nature situated in the north-west of Naples , in the southern. The area there are 24 craters and volcanos. In the whole area you can see the important remains on volcanic origin like the Tufo Grigio Campano or the Tufo Giallo. GEOLOGICAL PHASE The first phase dates black at 42.000 - 35.000 a go. It cansist pipermo ant Tufo Grigio Pipernoide.

1. Large magma chamber 2. Bedrock 3. Conduit (pipe) 4. Base 5. Sill 6. Dike 7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. Flank

9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Throat 11. Parasitic cone 12. Lava flow 13. Vent 14. Crater 15. Ash cloud

In this period there is also Archiflegreo volcano. The second phase dates black at 35.000-10.500 years a go. 35.000 years there was the biggest eruption, charactterized the extensive remains of Tufo. The thirol phase at 8000-500 years a go. It's characterized Pozzolana Bianca. The Pozzolama Bianca forms all of the volcan in thisnarea of Campi Fregrei.

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