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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA

MÓDULO DE AUTOAPRENDIZAJE CURSO: INGLÉS III

Profesora: ERIKA DEYDAMIA GARCÍA ANDIA

Tacna- 2013


“Tacna is more beautiful than other cities”

Competencias de la Unidad

1. Construye oraciones y diálogos usando las reglas gramaticales con un vocabulario pertinente con la finalidad que le permita expresarse con temas cotidianos. 2. Identifica y diferencia las preposiciones en oraciones. 3. Organiza información de los temas para comparar personas, ciudades, etc.


INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

LECCIÓN N° 01 PREPOSITIONS OF LOCATION NEXT TO

Significado: cerca de, al lado de, junto a Uso: se coloca tras el verbo principal que es siempre el verbo ―to be‖ en cualquiera de los tiempos pasados, presentes o futuros y en sus formas tanto simples como compuestas. Tanto ―next to‖ como ―beside‖ se pueden utilizar indistintamente. Utilizar una forma u otra dependerá del hablante y del contexto.

Ejemplo: 

It's next to the chemist's. (Está junto a la farmacia.)

Why don’t you seat next to me? (¿Porqué no te sientas a mi lado?)

BETWEEN

Significado: entre Uso: se coloca tras el verbo principal que es siempre el verbo ―to be‖ en cualquiera de los tiempos DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

pasados, presentes o futuros y en sus formas tanto simples como compuestas.

Ejemplos: 

The shop is between the baker's and the station. (La tienda está entre la panaderia y la estación.)

She was standing between Peter and John. (Permanecía de pie entre Pedro y Juan)

BEHIND

Significado: detrás de Uso: se coloca coloca tras el verbo principal que es siempre el verbo ―to be‖ en cualquiera de los tiempos pasados, presentes o futuros y en sus formas tanto simples como compuestas.

Ejemplos: 

The church is behind the school. (La iglesia está detrás de la escuela.)

Mary was laughing at me behind my back. (Maria se estaba riendo de mi a mis espaldas)

IN FRONT OF VS. OPPOSITE

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

Significado: contrario, en frente de, opuesto, delante de Usos: se colocan tras el verbo principal que es siempre el verbo ―to be‖ en cualquiera de los tiempos pasados, presentes o futuros y en sus formas tanto simples como compuestas La diferencia entre ellos es que ―in front of‖ no implica estar delante y cara a cara, en cambio ―opposite ― significa delante y cara a cara. Por este motivo ―in front of‖ se utiliza más para cosas (aunque no siempre como vemos en el ejemplo) y ―opposite‖ se utiliza para personas. Ejemplos: 

The hotel is opposite the station. (El hotel está en frente de la estación.)

The dog is laying down in front of your mother’s feet.

UNDER

Significado: bajo, debajo de Uso: se coloca tras el verbo principal que es siempre el verbo ―to be‖ en cualquiera de los tiempos pasados, presentes o futuros y en sus formas tanto simples como compuestas.

Ejemplos: 

The ball is under the chair. (La pelota está debajo la silla)

The dog is under the apple tree. (El perro está debajo del manzano)

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

ABOVE

Significado: por encima sin tocar Usos: Se coloca tras el verbo principal que es siempre el verbo ―to be‖ en cualquiera de los tiempos pasados, presentes o futuros y en sus formas tanto simples como compuestas. Ejemplos: 

The school is above the bank. (La escuela está sobre el banco.)

The clock is above the dinner table. (El reloj está por encima de la mesa de comer*) La traducción literal puede llevar a confusión cuando la traducimos al castellano, ya que en castellano diríamos: el reloj está colgado en la pared y si quisiéramos especificar diríamos: y por debajo en la misma pared está apoyada la mesa.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA” PRACTICE

LOOK THE PICTURE AND WRITE SENTENCES WITH THE PREPOSITIONS

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

WRITE SENTENCES ABOUT THE PICTURE

DRESCRIBE THE PLACES AND HOW YOU GO TO OTHER PLACES

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

LECCIÓN N° 2 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES ONE-SYLLABLE ADJECTIVES. Form the comparative and superlative of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er for the comparative form and –est for the superlative.

ADJECTIVE Tall Old Long

COMPARATIVE Taller Older longer

SUPERLATIVE tallest oldest longest

Example: 

Mary is taller than Max.

Mary is the tallest of all the students.

Max is older than John.

Of the three students, Max is the oldest.

My hair is longer than your hair.

Max's story is the longest story I've ever heard. If the one-syllable adjective ends with an e, just add –r for the comparative form and –st for the superlative form.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

ADJECTIVE WITH FINAL E

Large Wise

COMPARATIVE

Larger Wiser

SUPERLATIVE

Largest Wisest

Example: 

Mary's car is larger than Max's car.

Mary's house is the tallest of all the houses on the block.

Max is wiser than his brother.

Max is the wisest person I know. If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant and add –er for the comparative form; and double the consonant and add –est for the superlative form.

ADJECTIVE ENDING IN CVC

Big Thin Fat

COMPARATIVE

Bigger Thinner Fatter

SUPERLATIVE

Biggest Thinnest Fattest

Example: 

My dog is bigger than your dog.

My dog is the biggest of all the dogs in the neighborhood.

Max is thinner than John.

Of all the students in the class, Max is the thinnest.

My mother is fatter than your mother.

Mary is the fattest person I've ever seen. DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

TWO-SYLLABLE ADJECTIVES. With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.

TWO SYLLABLE ADJECTIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

Peaceful Pleasant Careful Thoughtful

More peaceful More pleasant More careful More thoughtful

Most peaceful Most pleasant Most careful Most thoughtful

Example: 

This morning is more peaceful than yesterday morning.

Max's house in the mountains is the most peaceful in the world.

Max is more careful than Mike.

Of all the taxi drivers, Jack is the most careful.

Jill is more thoughtful than your sister.

Mary is the most thoughtful person I've ever met. If the two-syllable adjectives ends with –y, change the y to i and add –er for the comparative form. For the superlative form change the y to i and add –est. ADJECTIVE ENDING WITH Y Happy Angry Busy

COMPARATIVE Happier Angrier Busier

SUPERLATIVE Happiest Angriest Busiest

Example: 

John is happier today than he was yesterday.

John is the happiest boy in the world.

Max is angrier than Mary.

Of all of John's victims, Max is the angriest.

Mary is busier than Max.

Mary is the busiest person I've ever met.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

Two-syllable adjectives ending in –er, -le, or –ow take –er and –est to form the comparative and superlative forms. ADJECTIVES WITH THREE OR MORE SYLLABLES. For adjectives with three syllables or more, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.

THREE OR MORE SYLLABLES Generous Important Intelligent

COMPARATIVE More generous More important More intelligent

SUPERLATIVE Most generous Most important Most intelligent

Example: 

John is more generous than Jack.

John is the most generous of all the people I know.

Health is more important than money.

Of all the people I know, Max is the most important.

Women are more intelligent than men.

Mary is the most intelligent person I've ever met. EXCEPTIONS. IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES Good Bad Far Little Many

COMPARATIVE Better Worse Farther Less More

SUPERLATIVE Best Worst Farthest Least Most

Example: 

Italian food is better than American food.

My dog is the best dog in the world.

My mother's cooking is worse than your mother's cooking.

Of all the students in the class, Max is the worst. DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

PRACTICE COMPLETE THE SENTENCES. USE THE COMPARATIVE My brother’s ……..taller…. than me. (tall)

1.

Sara is ……………….. than you. (young)

2.

Pink’s a ………………… colour for a bedroom then orange. (pretty)

3.

My sister’s got ………………… hair than me. (dark)

4.

Language’s are …………………. than Science. (easy)

5.

Their house is ………………….. than our house. (big)

6.

Don’t worry about flying. Planes are ……………… than cars. (safe)

7.

Simon’s story’s …………………… than yours. (funny)

8.

Your idea’s ………………… than mine. (good)

9.

Mountain climbing’s ……………………… than skiing. (exciting)

10. My trainers are ………………… than these shoes. (comfortable) 11. The red dress is …………………… than the black one. (expensive) 12. This story’s …………………….. than that one. (interesting) 13. The second exercise is ………………… than the first one. (difficult) 14. Sharks are …………………… than dolphins. (dangerous) 15. Volleyball’s ………………….. than basketball at my school. (popular)

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

LECCIÓN N°03 SIMPLE PAST OF BE 

We use the past simple of BE to talk about the past.

We often use these time expressions with the past simple: yesterday, last night, last week, last month, last year, two hours ago, two days ago, two weeks ago, two years ago.

AFFIRMATIVE FORM I

WAS

He – She – It

WAS

We – You – Are

WERE

in the school yesterday.

NEGATIVE FORM I

WAS NOT

He – She – It

WAS NOT

We – You – Are

WERE NOT

in the school yesterday.

INTERROGATIVE FORM

WAS

I

WAS

He – She – It

WERE

in the school yesterday.

We – You – Are

EXAMPLE:  Last year she was 22, now she is 23. DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

El año pasado ella tenia 22, ahora tiene 23.  When I was a child, I was afraid of dogs. Cuando era niño, tenia miedo a los perros.  We were tired after the trip. Nosotros estabamos cansados después del viaje.  The hotel was very comfortable. El hotel estaba muy comodo.  The weather was very nice. El clima estaba muy bonito.  He was not in his work. El no estaba en su trabajo.  My mother was in the store. Mi mamá estaba en la tienda.  I was not in the library. Yo no estaba en la biblioteca.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

EXERCISES LOOK AT THE PICTURES. WHERE WERE THESE PEOPLE AT 3 O’CLOCK YESTERDAY AFTERNOON.

………………………………….. ………………………………….. ………………………………….. …………………………………..

………………………………….. ………………………………….. ………………………………….. …………………………………..

………………………………..….. ………………………………..….. ………………………………..….. ………………………………..…..

………………………………….. ………………………………….. ………………………………….. …………………………………..

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

CIRCLE THE CORRECT ANSWER. HELEN

WAS SAS

/ WERE IN HOSPITAL YESTERDAY.

1. These shoes was /were very expensive. 2. That shop was /were shut last week. 3. Joe was / were here last night. 4. I was / were ill yesterday. 5. We was / were very busy two weeks ago. 6. Our hotel was / were very clean. 7. You was /were brilliant! 8. I was / were very happy last year. 9. My parents was /were in Italy in March. 10. Kate was / were at home yesterday.

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES. USE WAS, WASN’T, WERE, WEREN’T 1. Last year I was at drama school. I ……………….. at university. 2. Joe was at drama, too, but she ………………….. at my school in Cardiff. 3. Tim ………………. in Cardiff from January to April. He …………. There in May. 4. Justin and I ………….. at the same school, but we ………… in the same class. 5. Mark and Amanda were in Cardiff last year, too, but they ……………… at drama school. They …………….. at university. 6. The course ……………. easy. Last term ……………… very difficult. 7. I……………. happy! I ………………. Worried a lot of the time.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

WRITE QUESTIONS. USE WAS OR WERE 1. You / at home yesterday?

Were you at home yesterday?

2. Where / you? ……………………………………… 3. The museum / open? ……………………………………… 4. Sally / with you? ……………………………………… 5. Why / he / late? ……………………………………… 6. You / annoyed? ……………………………………… 7. Why / the tickets / expensive? ……………………………………… COMPLETE THE SHORT ANSWER 1. A: Was Alice at college yesterday?

B: No, she wasn’t

2. A: Was her driving test yesterday?

B: Yes, .……………………………

3. A: Was she worried about it?

B: No, ……………………………

4. A: Were you and Dany at college?

B: Yes, ……………………………..

5. A: Were Jack and Luis there?

B: No, ……………………………

6. A: Was Jack ill?

B:Yes, ……………………………

7. A: Was Luis ill too?

B: No, ……………………………

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

USE THE PROMPTS TO MAKE QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES 1. Jim / at home / last night

Was Jim at home last night?

2. You / at school / on Monday

……………………………………..

3. The cinema / open / on Sunday

……………………………………..

4. All your friends / at your party

……………………………………..

5. Kevin and Melisa / at my party

……………………………………..

6. Nick / in class / yesterday

……………………………………..

7. It / warm yesterday

……………………………………..

8. We / at the match yesterday

……………………………………..

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

LECCIÓN N° 04 SIMPLE PAST TENSE El pasado simple es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para describir acciones que han sucedido en un tiempo anterior y que han finalizado. Example:  SHE CLEANED HER HOUSE. Ella limpió su casa.  I BROKE THE WINDOW. Yo rompí la ventana. Al expresar una oración en Pasado Simple Tense se entiende que la acción no guarda relación con el presente, como en el siguiente caso:

x Past

Present

Future

Podemos observar la conjugación que equivale al pretérito indefinido. Observa la estructura de la oración.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

QUESTIONS

I played

I did not play

Did I play?

You played

You did not play

Did you play?

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

He played

He did not play

Did he play?

She played

She did not play

Did she play?

It played

It did not play

Did it play?

We played

We did not play

Did we play?

You played

You did not play

Did you play?

They played

They did not play

Did they play?

Tanto en la forma negativa como interrogativa se utiliza el auxiliar DID que acompaña al verbo principal. En la forma negativa se puede utilizar la forma contraída del DID NOT o sea DIDN’T. Example:  I saw a movie yesterday.  I didn’t see a play yesterday.  Last year, I traveled to Cusco.  Did you have dinner last night?  She washed her car.  He didn’t do the homework.  Last year, I didn’t study here.  We wrote a letter for our mother.  They read a novel the last week.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

COMPLETE WITH VERBS IN PAST INFINITIVE

PAST SIMPLE

Bring

Brought

INFINITIVE

PAST SIMPLE Lost

Buy

Make

Come

Meet Put

Do Drank Drove

Read Run Saw

Find Flew

Shut

Forget

Swim

Get (up)

Take Taught

Give Went

Tell Thought

Have Understand

Know Left

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

Write

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

WRITE POSITIVE SENTENCES IN PAST SIMPLE 1. Lisa / her grandma/ visit ……………………………………………………….. 2. Betty / her best / do ……………………………………………………….. 3. She / on a chair / sit ……………………………………………………….. 4. The teacher / our homework / check ………………………………………………………… 5. Paul and Liz / home / cycle ………………………………………………………… 6. You / early / wake up ………………………………………………………… 7. Your father / a lorry / drive ………………………………………………………… 8. They / good / feel ………………………………………………………… 9. She / in London / teach ………………………………………………………… 10. They / in the lake / swim …………………………………………………………

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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“I have travelled around the world” Competencias de la Unidad

1. Identifica y diferencia acciones en pasado continuo de acuerdo a una comunicación comunicativa. 2. Ordena y completa oraciones con conectores siguiendo estructuras gramaticales de forma correcta.

3.

Crea oraciones y diálogos utilizando el presente perfecto con coherencia y cohesión.


INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

LECCIÓN N° 05 PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

We use the past continuous to talk about an action that was in progress at a certain time in the past, an action at some point in the past between its beginning and end. STRUCTURE AFFIRMATIVE FORM Subject + was/were + (-ing) + Complement Examples:  Michael was watching the World Cup match.  They were working all night long.  Josh and Silvia were talking about getting married.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

NEGATIVE FORM Subject + wasn’t/weren’t + (-ing) + Complement

Examples:  John wasn’t eating because he was feeling sick.  Jeff wasn’t watching TV.  My parents weren’t having a good time because it was very cold in Canada QUESTION FORM (Question Word) + was/were + Subject + (-ing) + Complement  What were you doing last night at around 8:00pm?  Was Jim doing his homework?  Were they sleeping all morning?

THE STRUCTURE FORM AFFIRMATIVE I HE SHE

WAS

IT

WORKING

WE YOU

WERE

THEY

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

NEGATIVE I HE

WAS NOT

SHE

(WASN’T)

IT

WORKING

WE YOU

WERE NOT

THEY

(WEREN’T)

QUESTIONS I HE WAS

SHE IT

WERE

WORKING …..?

WE YOU THEY

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

EXERCISE: LOOK AT THESE EXAMPLES ABOUT PAST CONTINUOUS.

AT 10:00 A.M. SHE WAS CLEANING HER KITCHEN.

AT 4:00 P.M. SHE WAS DOING EXERCISES IN THE GYM.

AT 9:00 P.M. SHE WAS SLEEPING AT HOME.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

EXERCISE WRITE QUESTIONS USE THE PAST CONTINUOUS 1. What / the two men / wear? 2. Why / you / laugh? 3. It / snow? 4. Sara / show / you her photos? 5. Where / they / go? 6. Tomy / have lunch? 7. Ana / wear 7 her new shoes? COMPLETE THE SHORT ANSWERS 1. A: Were you watching TV at seven?

B: No,

……………………….. 2. A: Were you making dinner?

B: Yes,

……………………… 3. A: Was Ana cleaning her room?

B: No,

……………………….. 4. A: Was she doing her homework?

B: Yes,

………………………. 5. A: Were Edy and Alan doing theirs?

B: No,

………………………. 6. A: Was Mark working?

B: Yes,

……………………… DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES USE WHILE AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS OF THE VERBS IN THE BOX Clean

climb

do

drive

lie

not watch

play

read

shine

talk

1. Keny ……………………… on the beach …………… Katy …………………… to the airport. 2. ………………. you ……………….. football, I …………………… a book. 3. The sun ………………………..………… we ………….…………... the mountain. 4. I …………………….. television ………………….. I …………………. to you. 5. ……………………… Jaime ………………………… the shopping, Laura and Betty ………………………….. the kitchen. COMPLETE THE SENTENCES 1. I ……………………………… at homa yesterday. 2. She ………………………………………. In the university two years ago. 3. You …………………………….. in the bank when your mother arrives. 4. He …………………………. In the theater the last week. 5. My mother …………………….. delicious spaguetty. 6. My grand father ……………………… in the park yesterday. 7. He …………………….. in the stadium playing soccer. 8. They ………………………. In the concert last night.

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

CARLOS DID A LOT OF THINGS YESTERDAY. LOOK AT THE PICTURE AND WRITE SENTENCES.

1. ……………………………………………………………………………………. 2. ……………………………………………………………………………………. 3. ……………………………………………………………………………………. 4. ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5. ……………………………………………………………………………………. .

DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

LECCIÓN N°06 LINKERS CONJUNCTIONS A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence. Here are some example conjunctions: Coordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions

and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so

although, because, since, unless

We can consider conjunctions from three aspects. FORM Conjunctions have three basic forms: 

Single Word for example: and, but, because, although

Compound (often ending with as or that) for example: provided that, as long as, in order that

Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective) for example: so...that

FUNCTION Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs": DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR PEDAGÓGICO PÚBLICO

“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example: - Jack and Jill went up the hill. - The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.

Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example: - I went swimming although it was cold.

AND

a. To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: "Tashonda sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response." b. To suggest that one idea is the result of another: "Willie heard the weather report and promptly boarded up his house." c. To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced by but in this usage): "Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant personality. DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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“JOSÉ JIMÉNEZ BORJA”

d. To suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by yet in this usage): "Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban blight." e. To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally (usually the first clause is an imperative): "Use your credit cards frequently and you'll soon find yourself deep in debt." f. To suggest a kind of "comment" on the first clause: "Charlie became addicted to gambling — and that surprised no one who knew him

BUT

a. To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause: "Joey lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably." b. To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way (sometimes replaced by on the contrary): "The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage investment counselor." c. To connect two ideas with the meaning of "with the exception of" (and then the second word takes over as subject): "Everybody but Goldenbreath is trying out for the team."

OR a. To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other: "You can study hard for this exam or you can fail."

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b. To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives: "We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers. c. To suggest a refinement of the first clause: "Smith College is the premier all-women's college in the country, or so it seems to most Smith College alumnae." d. To suggest a restatement or "correction" of the first part of the sentence: "There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us." e. To suggest a negative condition: "The New Hampshire state motto is the rather grim "Live free or die." f. To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative (see use of and above): "They must approve his political style or they wouldn't keep electing him mayor."

SO es una conjunción resultativa que une oraciones (en español, por tanto, por eso....): a.

It was raining, so we didn´t go out.

b. I don´t have money, so I can´t go shopping. c. Mary insulted him, so he was very angry. d. We use lots of paper every day. So, we must recycle. e. So that tiene un uso diferente (para que…): f. I´m buying a present for him so that he´s happy. g. She tells jokes so that we laugh.

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BECAUSE Es una conjunción causal, porque en español: a. He´s cleaning the house because it´s very dirty. b. I´m taking my umbrella because it´s raining. c.They´re tired because they work many hours. 

EXAMPLES:

SUMMER DAYS ARE HOT AND SUNNY.

IN

SUMMER, I LIKE TO SAIL BECAUSE THE WEATHER IS NICE.

SAILING IN SUMMER IS GREAT, BUT I DON'T HAVE A SAILING BOAT.

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PRACTICE CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER

1. I like coffee ___ I don't like tea. and but so because 2. I cannot swim ___ I can ski. and but so because 3. I want a new TV ___ the one I have now is broken. and but so because 4. I had to work on Saturday ___ I couldn't go to John's party. and but so because 5. My name is Jim ___ I'm your new teacher. and but so because

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6. I was cold ___ I turned on the heater. and but so because 7. We'll have to go shopping ___ we have nothing for dinner. and but so because 8. The history test was difficult ___ the English one was easy. and but so because 9. We didn't go to the beach yesterday ___ it was raining. and but so because 10. We have a test on Monday ___ I'll have to study this weekend. and but so because

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LECCIÓN N° 07 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

EXAMPLE

El Presente Perfecto en el idioma inglés es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para referirnos a acciones que suceden en un pasado reciente y que guardan alguna relación con el presente. Su equivalente en el idioma español es el Pretérito Perfecto:

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I have sent the letter. Yo he enviado la carta. (Indica que la acción acaba de suceder) Para poder construir la forma afirmativa del Presente Perfecto debemos utilizar como auxiliar el verbo TO HAVE en Presente Simple y acompañado por el verbo principal en su Pasado Participio (ya sean verbos regulares o verbos irregulares):

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

Have

Past Participle

I

have

studied

for the exam.

You

have

bought

a new computer.

He

has

eaten

my chocolate.

She

has

written

an e-mail.

It

has

been

cold this month.

We

have

won

the championship.

You

have

tried

to learn a lot.

They

have

forgotten

my birthday.

Subject

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Rest of the Sentence

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CONTRACTIONS

The contracted form of the perfect tense is quite common:

Have

Contraction

Examples

I have

I've

I've spent all my money.

You have

You've

You've worn that dress before.

He has

He's

He's slept all morning.

She has

She's

She's lost her purse.

It has

It's

It's fallen off the wall.

We have

We've

We've chosen you for the job.

You have

You've

You've begun to annoy me.

They have

They've

They've drunk too much.

We use contractions a lot when we are speaking.

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NEGATIVE SENTENCES

The contraction of the perfect tense in negative form is: Have not = Haven't Has not = Hasn't

Past Subject

Have

Rest of the Sentence Participle

I

haven't

studied

for the exam.

You

haven't

bought

a new computer.

He

hasn't

eaten

my chocolate.

She

hasn't

written

an e-mail.

It

hasn't

been

cold this month.

We

haven't

won

the championship.

You

haven't

tried

to learn a lot.

They

haven't

forgotten

my birthday.

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QUESTIONS

Past Have

Subject

Rest of the Sentence Participle

Have

I

been

chosen for the team?

Have

you

bought

a new car?

Has

he

eaten

my sandwich?

Has

she

written

the letter?

Has

it

started

on time?

Have

we

won

a trophy?

Have

you

kept

my secret?

Have

they

driven

there?

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LECCIÓN N° 08 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

Examples:  They have been talking for the last hour.  She has been working at that company for three years.  What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?  James has been teaching at the university since June.  We have been waiting here for over two hours!  Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

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EXAMPLE:

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I have been living

I haven't been living

Have I been living?

You have been living

You haven't been living

Have you been living?

He, she, it has been living

He hasn't been living

Has she been living?

We have been living

We haven't been living

Have we been living?

You have been living

You haven't been living

Have you been living?

They have been living

They haven't been living

Have they been living?

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EXERCISE

WRITE POSITIVE SENTENCES IN PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. Albert / squash / play ……………………………………………………………. 2. Hannah / the match / watch ……………………………………………………………. 3. we / in the park / wait ……………………………………………………………. 4. you / a song / sing ……………………………………………………………. 5. I / a magazine / read …………………………………………………………….. 6. it / rain / all day …………………………………………………………….. 7. Phil and Greg / a race / run …………………………………………………………….. 8. she / her teeth / brush …………………………………………………………….. 9. the Millers / in London / live / for three years …………………………………………………………….. 10. we / on the lake / sail ……………………………………………………………..

COMPLETE THE SENTENCE WITH PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. She (buy) …………..………..…… an umbrella by the time it begins raining. 2. By the time you arrive, I (spend) ………………………..……… all the money. 3. The students (understand) …………………..……… the exercises, before the weekend. DOC. ERIKA GARCÍA ANDIA

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4. Alice (buy) ……………….……… a new car by the end of October. 5. By the time she moves to Europe, my sister (have) ………………………… a baby. 6. They (repair) ………………….…… the car by the time you come back. 7. She (do) …………………………….…… her homework by the end of the day. 8. Before her birthday, we (buy) ……………………….…… the gifts. 9. By the end of December I (finish) …………………………… the school. 10. Before 8 o’clock, I (drink) ……………………..…… two coffees. 11. By the end of Spring she (get thin) ……………………….……. 2 pounds. 12. She (approve) ………………………… the test before the holidays. 13. Before the weekend, we (travel) ………………………..… to Chicago. 14. They (not/study) …………………………… the lesson by this afternoon. 15. They (undestand) …………………………… the translation before tomorrow.

GOOD LUCK!!!!!!!!

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BIBLIOGRAFIA 1. BRIGIT VINEY (2007) Grammar Practice 2. RAYMUND MURPHY (2002) Basic Grammar in Use 3. CLIVE OXENDEN (1996) American English File 4. SOARS JOHN AND LIZ (2001) American Headway 5. http:// www.english.com/grammar/verbs-tenses-p 6. http://www. Grammar bank.com/printable-worksheets

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INDICE LECCIONES 1. Preposition of location ………………………………………… 4 2. Comparative and superlative adjective ……………………….. 10 3. Simple past of Be ……………………………………………… 15 4. Past simple tense ……………………………………………… 21 5. Past continuous tense …………………………………………. 25 6. Linkers ………………………………………………………… 32 7. Present perfect tense …………………………………………… 39 8. Present perfect continuous …………………………………….. 44 9. Bibliografía ……………………………………………………. 48

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Modulo ingles iii