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DIVERSITY MATTERS


Alicia DĂ­az


AGGREGATION STATE OF MATTER STATE

MASS

VOLUME

SHAPE

FLUENCY

SOLID

CONSTANT

CONSTANT

CONSTANT

NO

LIQUID

CONSTANT

CONSTANT

VARIABLE

YES

GAS

CONSTANT

VARIABLE

VARIABLE

YES

http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/character.html http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/index.html


CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER PURE SUBSTANCE

ELEMENTS

COMPOUNDS

MIXTURE

HOMOGENEOUS (SOLUTIONS)

HETEROGENEOUS (SUSPENSIONS, COLLOIDS, ETC.)


PURE SUBSTANCE

A material with a constant composition, its characteristic properties do not change, in the same conditions of temperature and pressure Element: Substance formed by only one type of atom. For example: gold, silver, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen Simple substances Equal molecules with only one type of atom

Compounds: A substance that contains two or more elements, the atoms of these elements always combining in the same whole-number ratio. For example: water, carbon dioxide, sodium bicarbonate, carbon monoxide


MIXTURE

A material with two or more substances Homogeneous: It has the same properties at all its points and have only one phase. We can call this type of mixture, dissolution or solutions. Heterogeneous: It has not the same properties at all their points and are made up of more than one phase http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/solutions/character.html


SOLUTIONS


SOLUTIONS 1. COMPONENTS OF A SOLUTIONS 2. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS 3. WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE CONCENTRATION OF A SOLUTION


1. COMPONENTS OF SOLUTIONS • SOLUTE: is the component of the mixture that has the minor proportion • SOLVENT: is the component of the mixture that has the major proportion


2. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS 2.1. ACCORDING TO THE STATE OF AGGREGATION 2.2. ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT OF SOLUTE

2.3. DEPENDING ON THE AMOUNT OF SOLUTE DISSOLVED IN THE SOLUTION


2.1. ACCORDING TO THE STATE OF AGGREGATION SOLUT

SOLVENT

SOLUTION

Gas Liquid

EXAMPLE Air

Gas

GAS

Moist air

Solid

airborne dust

Gas

Coca cola

Liquid

Liquid

LIQUID

Water and alcohol

Solid

Colacao milk

Gas

Hydrogen in palladium

Liquid Solid

Solid

SOLID

Amalgams Alloys


2.2. ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT OF SOLUTE • CONCENTRATED: Large amounts of solute • DILUTED: small amounts of solute


2.3. DEPENDING ON THE

AMOUNT OF SOLUTE DISSOLVED IN THE SOLUTION • SATURATED: It has the maximum amount of solute that the solvent can dissolve at a given temperature • UNSATURATED: It has the least amount of solute than the solvent can dissolve at a given temperature • SUPERSATURATED: It has more solute than the solvent is capable of dissolving at a given temperature


3. WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE CONCENTRATION OF A SOLUTION • Percent by mass

% mass solut

• Percent by volume

% Volume

• Grams per liter

g/L

m solut 100 m solution

solut

g solut L solution

V solut 100 V solution


SEPARATION OF MIXTURE


Of different sizes Separation of solids

SIEVE Of different magnetic properties

Of different solubility in different solvents

Soluble

SEPARATION OF MIXTURES

Separation of solids and liquids

solid

MAGNETIC SEPARATION EXTRACTION

EVAPORATION CRYSTALLIZATION FILTRATION

Insoluble solid

CENTRIFUGE DISTILLATION Miscible

CHROMATOGRAPHY

Separation of liquids Immiscibles

DECANTING


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qR8U1PwTFNk

Material System  

Document for UNIT 3

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