Page 1 MAY/JUNE 2016

International Coverage on p.22

Innovative Designs & Publishing • 3245 Freemansburg Avenue • Palmer, PA 18045-7118


OTC 2016

Schedule of Events


Lifting Fundamentals

Nonprofit Organization US Postage PAID Bolingbrook, IL Permit #323



In This Issue M AY / J U N E 2 0 1 6



10 HYDRAULIC SOLUTIONS for Blueberry Production

24 MANAGING SOFTWARE UPDATES: An interview of Yolanda Petre, Software Engineering Manager at Eaton

30 VACUUM LIFTING Fundamentals


• VO L U M E 2 3




2016 OTC (May 2–5, 2016, Houston, TX)











Mobile Equipment Reservoir Baffle Innovation




Hydraulic oil in mobile equipment reservoirs


has disturbances caused by the motion of the


equipment. In this article, sloshing is illustrated,


along with a solution.


The Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) is where energy professionals meet to exchange ideas and opinions to advance scientific and technical knowledge for offshore resources and environmental matters. View the training courses and technical program schedule of events.


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PUBLISHER’S NOTE: The information provided in this publication is for informational purposes only. While all efforts have been taken to ensure the technical accuracy of the material enclosed, Fluid Power Journal is not responsible for the availability, accuracy, currency, or reliability of any information, statement, opinion, or advice contained in a third party’s material. Fluid Power Journal will not be liable for any loss or damage caused by reliance on information obtained in this publication.

CMYK / .eps

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CMYK / .eps


Raise your expectations: demand more power with less fuel. Take advantage of DYNAVIS® technology from Evonik – concentrated hydraulics know-how for efficiency-boosting results up to 30% in heavy equipment. Feel the power — Let it flow.

CIRCLE 500 215

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PUBLISHER INNOVATIVE DESIGNS & PUBLISHING, INC. 3245 Freemansburg Avenue, Palmer, PA 18045-7118 Tel: 800-730-5904 or 610-923-0380 Fax: 610-923-0390 • Email:

Making a Difference BY RICHARD BULLERS, CFPPS, 2016 IFPS First Vice President

Ever know one of those kids who made a mistake he or she didn’t recover from? Someone you knew or loved who blindly got caught up in things by making bad choices? Ever wonder what might have been? Nobody wants to start the story of their own life with the words “I almost made a difference...” or “If only I had…”. You can fill in the blanks. Perhaps your story is already different. Perhaps it is not, or you know someone else who really needs some help. It’s not a question of getting a raise or switching jobs, because if you are already in the fluid power industry, chances are you’re doing all right. There’s a roof over your head, plenty to eat, a big-screen television in the living room, and a decent vehicle in the driveway. It’s a pretty good life, all things considered. You have options. But it is not that way for everyone, is it? You see, each day as a fluid power professional affords you the opportunity to take the next step upwards, the chance to tell the story without any regrets. There are kids in your community who would benefit from your knowledge, whose eyes will light up when you demonstrate robotics or tour them through a modern manufacturing facility. They may have no idea what they are capable of and have no career path in mind, but you can change that though involvement in an IFPS chapter. IFPS chapters have a valuable role in community service. They have helped kids with STEM and FIRST robotics efforts. Chapter members have made presentations in high schools, local colleges, vocational schools, churches, 4-H meetings, and Scouting events. They can and do positively influence kids in looking at careers they otherwise would have never known existed. There is a serious shortage of trained individuals for technical positions and an overabundance of kids in debt with college degrees that cannot land them a decent job. You can help change that by getting involved with helping others discover the same industry that put bread and butter on your table for so many years. What are you going to do? Go out and buy another flat screen TV so you can listen to the politicians? Do you really want to make a difference? Look at the chapter number on your IFPS membership card and become proactive. IFPS needs you. Your community needs you. Those kids I’ve been talking about need you, too. Make a decision to join, revive, or start a local IFPS chapter. Be determined. Find out more.

CALL, WRITE, OR E-MAIL THE IFPS AT P.O. Box 1420, Cherry Hill, NJ 08034-0054 856-489-8983, 800-308-6005,

IFPS will provide you with all the details and has the expertise, dedication, and resources to mentor you each step of the way. Thank you for making a difference.

4 • May/June 2016 •

Founders: Paul and Lisa Prass Associate Publisher: Marc Mitchell Editor: Kristine Coblitz Technical Editor: Dan Helgerson, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPSD, CFPMT, CFPCC - CFPSOS LLC Account Executive: Bob McKinney Art Director: Quynh Vo Director of Creative Services: Erica Montes Accounting: Donna Bachman, Debbie Clune Digital Strategy Manager: Jeff Maile Publishing Assistant: Sharron Sandmaier Circulation Manager: Andrea Karges

INTERNATIONAL FLUID POWER SOCIETY 1930 East Marlton Pike, Suite A-2, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003-2141 Tel: 856-489-8983 • Fax: 856-424-9248 Email: • Web: 2016 BOARD OF DIRECTORS President & Chairperson Rance Herren, CFPSD, CFPECS, CFPMT, CFPAI - National Oilwell Varco Immediate Past President Marti Wendel, CFPE, CFPS, CFPCC - Curtiss Wright Sprague Division First Vice President Richard Bullers, CFPPS - SMC Corporation of America Vice President Education Dean Houdeshell, PE, CFPAI, CFPE, CFPS, CFPIHT, CFPMHT, CFPMHM - Danfoss Treasurer Jose Garcia, CFPHS - Purdue University Vice President Membership & Chapter Support Bill Jordan, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPMHM, CFPMHT - Altec Industries, Inc. Vice President Certification Timothy White, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPMIH, CFPMMH, CFPMIP, CFPMT, CFPMM - The Boeing Company Vice President Marketing & Public Relations Scott Nagro, CFPS - HydraForce, Inc. Vice President Educational Foundation Randall Smith, CFPHS - Northrop Grumman Corp. DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE Randy Bobbitt, CFPS - Danfoss Power Solutions Kenneth Dulinski, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPECS, CFPHS, CFPMIH, CFMMH Macomb County College Jeff Hodges, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPMHM - Altec Industries, Inc. John Juhasz, CFPECS, CFPS - Kraft Fluid Systems, Inc. Sam Kaye, CFPS, CFPMT, CFPMM, CFPMMH, CFPMIP, CFPMIH Ensign Drilling Jeff Kenney, CFPIHM, CFPMHM, CFPMHT - Coastal Hydraulics, Inc. Rocky Phoenix, CFPMHM - Open Loop Energy Denis Poirier, Jr., CFPAI/AJPP, CFPCC, CFPIHM Eaton Corporation, Hydraulics Group Robert Post, CFPHS - Bailey Hydraulics Bishwajit Ranjan, PE, CFPE, CFPS - Wyman Gordon Houston Scott Sardina, PE, CFPHS - Controlled Fluids, Inc. HONORARY DIRECTORS John Groot Robert Sheaf, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPE, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPMT, CFPMIP, CFPMMH, CFPMIH, CFPMM IFPS STAFF Executive Director: Donna Pollander, ACA Communications Manager: Adele Kayser Business Development Manager: Jeffrey Morrow Assistant Director: Jeana Hoffman Membership Coordinator: Sue Dyson Certification Coordinator: Susan Apostle Bookkeeper: Diane McMahon Administrative Assistant: Beth Borodziuk Fluid Power Journal (ISSN# 1073-7898) is the official publication of the International Fluid Power Society published bi-monthly with four supplemental issues, including a Systems Integrator Directory, Off-Highway Suppliers Directory,Tech Directory, and Manufacturers Directory, by Innovative Designs & Publishing, Inc., 3245 Freemansburg Avenue, Palmer, PA 180457118. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part of any material in this publication is acceptable with credit. Publishers assume no liability for any information published. We reserve the right to accept or reject all advertising material and will not guarantee the return or safety of unsolicited art, photographs or manuscripts.


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Randy Bobbitt,


Randy Bobbitt, CFPS, has been involved in fluid power for 31 years and is currently employed by Danfoss Power Solutions as a sales development manager for the proportional valve business unit in Easley, S.C. His hydraulic experience includes design, integration, support, and sales development of mobile hydraulic electro-hydraulic valve systems. He holds an Electronic Technology degree from the University of Kentucky and serves on the 2016 IFPS Board of Directors.


Why did you decide to work in the fluid power industry?

The fluid power industry found me in 1985 when Hydro-Line Mfg., a well-known industrial tie-rod cylinder company at the time, was in need of an electrical engineer to help integrate and support position-feedback sensors into “smart cylinder” products. My prior experience included biomedical, geo-exploratory, and aerospace electronics applications service and support. I was very challenged with hydraulics in the beginning; however, I found that my electronic background gave me an advantage on the basic hydraulic fundamentals, which made it curiously interesting. It did take me a while to become fully engaged in understanding all aspects of hydraulics…since, after all, it was very messy for an electrical guy!


What have you gained, personally and professionally, from your involvement with IFPS?

I became a member of the local IFPS chapter in Rockford, Ill., by the advice of my Hydro-Line peers when I began forming a network of likeminded fluid power colleagues. That sharing of experiences began to build my deeper understanding of fluid power components and circuit design. In my early five-year military career, I discovered that I had a passion for teaching others and achieved a Master Instructor designation, teaching avionic electronics to new recruits. I began to carry this passion into training my hydraulic peers and sales network about electronics. Any trainer will tell you that it is always a good idea to know more than your students…thus, my motivated interest in better understanding the hydraulic side of the story through fluid power training classes, which my peers and I taught in-house at Hydro-Line on a monthly basis utilizing early IFPS and Womack publications.


Why did you pursue IFPS certification, and how has it helped your career?

My IFPS team of peers and I created an initiative to prepare for the CFPS by holding weekly test review classes after hours. The group accountability factor built my motivation to achieve IFPS certification. For me, the IFPS certification value is a personal goal to “earn the right” to be an electrical guy in the fluid power industry. I would also say that the IFPS certifications have come a long way in being recognized by fluid power industry employers.


What have you learned so far by working in the fluid power industry?


Where do you see the fluid power industry heading in the next 10 years?


What advice would you give someone just starting out in this industry?


What are some of your favorite hobbies or interests?


What is something people would be surprised to learn about you?

The fluid power industry offers many challenging and unique opportunities. I often get the impression that most outsiders believe that it is not a lucrative or mainstream field. I believe that there is no way that my successes would have looked the same if I stayed in any other electronic-related industry.

There will always be some form of fluid power industry; however, I believe that in the next 10 years, we may have to reform the meaning of “fluid” in “fluid power.” Electric solutions are on the rise, as we see the cost vs. performance vs. benefit becoming more affordable than ever. I realized this shift in the early 1990s, where I saw that the industrial side of the fluid power industry was migrating to pneumatic and electric solutions. At that time, I made my move out of industrial hydraulics into the mobile hydraulic side, knowing that it would take a while for horsepower-limited applications to be replaced by all-electric applications. The migration to electric is inevitable, and fluid power companies need to prepare for the migration.

I would advise anyone entering into the fluid power industry to focus on opportunities in mobile hydraulics. Mobile hydraulics will provide exciting opportunities in electro-hydraulic development.

I enjoy family, community service, pleasure boating, international travel, and hiking. My interests include the human mind and quantum physics.

I rode a motorcycle round trip between San Bernardino, Calif., and Jacksonville, Fla. Along the way, I ran out of money, and destroyed and repaired a stranger's motorcycle.

Randy Bobbitt can be reached at

6 • May/June 2016 •




Syn Lube Series 32-68



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ZF Series Hydraulic Oils


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Bio-Based Series Hydraulic Oils ECO FRIENDLY BIO-BASED • Vegetable-Based Oils for use in environmentally sensitive applications. • ECO-Friendly - Ultimately Biodegradable (Pw1) / Low Toxicity (LC-50). • Zinc-free additives provide exceptional anti-wear and anti-rust protection.

SFGO Ultra Series 32-68


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Here are some ideas to celebrate June 19th, but it’s your day to celebrate your way: ƒƒ Wear emblems/pins/badges/shirts noting your fluid power affiliation. ƒƒ Treat your staff/co-workers to a pizza π. ƒƒ Plan a picnic or company cookout – include practical hydraulics with a squirt gun battle! ƒƒ Take your employees to an amusement park or raffle off an admission ticket. ƒƒ Give back to the industry! Help the next generation of fluid power professionals by making a donation to the Fluid Power Educational Foundation ( to help support individual scholarships for students entering the fluid power industry and/or to the NFPA Foundation (www. to help build more fluid power educational resources at 2- and 4-year colleges and universities. If the fluid power industry has supported you in your career or business, please consider giving back and paying the generosity forward through a donation. Take pictures of your activities and e-mail to

Complete Solutions Increased Productivity Starts Here

PHD offers an extensive line of pneumatic actuators that are known for long life and high quality. Over our 59 years of innovation, we have extended our product offerings to include built-to-need components, drop-in components, electric actuators, specialty workholding clamps, and motion control robots. From single actuator solutions, to multi-unit systems, PHD and Yamaha Robotics can provide complete solutions for practically any application requirement.

For a free catalog, call or visit: 800-624-8511

Including 21 new products! The Optimax® line of global drop-in actuators The PHD Plus® line of electromechanical actuators Superior delivery Best online tools Local support


8 • May/June 2016 •

450 Hz Servo Valves 2 ms Response Time


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HYDRAULIC Solutions for Blueberry PRODUCTION The United States, along with the rest of the world, is trying to eat healthier. In our search for tasty food with lower calories, we have helped create a boom in the blueberry industry. Blueberries only have about 80 calories in a one-cup serving and no fat! According to Albert Wildes, past president of the Georgia Blueberry Growers Association, the current acreage of blueberries is approximately 29,000. That is a 200% increase over the past few years, and Georgia is not alone. Other states that grow blueberries include Michigan, New Jersey, Florida, North Carolina, Oregon, and Washington. There are small acres in Mississippi, Texas, and Alabama. Georgia, however, has the longest harvest, ranging from late April to July. With the increased acreage in blueberries, there is now a great need for equipment to maintain the blueberry fields and harvest the blueberries. Blueberries grow on bushes, and keeping the bushes healthy and picking the berries at the peak of freshness will give the grower the largest profit from his blueberry fields.

By Paul Badowski, CFPPS, CFPHS, CFPS, Cross Company Mobile Hydraulics & Control Systems Group

Getting in the way of a profitable harvest are spotted winged drosophilas (SWD) and other common pests. These insects do their best to eat the berries before they can make their way to our kitchens. There are pesticides that will protect the berries, but they must be sprayed

Fig. 1



frequently and are affected by rainfall, requiring another application if nature washes off the first one. For all blueberry lovers and growers, Bennett’s Tractor Service in Waycross, Ga., has designed a piece of equipment that does double duty. Not only is this sprayer designed specifically for blueberries, but it is also a hedger that allows the growers to groom their fields, making harvesting more productive. Other sprayers are available, but they are not specific to blueberry rows and they are designed for just a single purpose: spraying (Fig. 1). Cross Company has helped Bennett’s Tractor with a hydraulic transmission utilizing Poclain wheel drive motors and pump. The hedger/ sprayer has two drive modes: a travel mode that can attain over 17 mph and a work mode that gives us more torque while traveling at speeds of 5 mph and slower in the field. Cross Company has also supplied the filtration, oil cooler, electrically operated hydraulic valves, auxiliary pumps, and LSHT motors to operate the hedger blades (Fig. 2).

Gefran, a leading global designer and manufacturer of sensors for position, pressure, temperature, and force measurement, now offers a complete range of devices for earthmoving and lift equipment.

Gefran sensors use leading edge technology (Hall effect, MEMS, and magnetostrictive) to achieve the demanding requirements in operator and vehicle stabilization, rotation, reach, and inclination.


GEFRAN INC - 8 Lowell Avenue Winchester, MA 01890 Toll free 1-888-888-4474 - CIRCLE 220

MH_Sollev_MovTerra_193,7x63,5_USA_2016_ver1.indd 1

10 • May/June 2016 •

19/02/16 09:04

The Bennett’s Tractor hedger/sprayer can get to the fields quickly to apply pesticides or fertilizer. During the growing season, this might need to be applied weekly or whenever rainfall has washed away the last application. Once the growing season is over, the hedger will groom the plants and get them ready for the next growing season. The hedger is adjustable from 32" to 6'-wide hedgerows. The hydrostatic transmission was selected as the most efficient way to transmit power to propel the tractor. Poclain Hydraulics engineered custom two-speed motors, which maximize torque and speed. Poclain also provided solenoid valves for speed selection and brake control (Fig. 3). A simple bank of switches in the air-conditioned cab allows the operator to control the various functions of the hedger/sprayer. The sprayer wings fold up to allow the hedger sprayer to be hauled on a trailer or travel from field to field with a much smaller footprint. Eaton steering controls take care of turning and tracking. For the foreseeable future, we can expect blueberry production to trend upward. Hydraulics will be at the forefront of planting, growing, and harvesting the blueberries that we add to our breakfast cereal, yogurt, and tasty pie, helping to increase profits for growers and deliver a quality product for consumers.

I need a 5/8” plastic plug with a 1-14 thread for my flat-faced hydraulic fittings to protect them during shipping. And I need them to ship today.

Fig. 2

Caplugs protects your hydraulic components during shipment and storage. Choose from thousands of caps and plugs designed to fit the industry’s most common fittings, including SAE, JIC, O-ring, flared and flareless. With more than 12,000 standard products, Caplugs has the part you need. If you need a custom solution, our in-house team of engineers will work with you to design a unique part to meet your exacting specifications.

Fig. 3

About the Author Paul Badowski, CFPPS, CFPHS, CFPS, has been an account manager in the fluid power industry for over 25 years, calling Michigan, Florida, and now Georgia home. His background includes pneumatic, electrical automation, and hydraulic systems and components. Mr. Badowski has been working with Cross Company - Mobile Hydraulics & Control Systems Group for over 15 years. He can be reached at May/June 2016 •

11 | 1.888.CAPLUGS |


CAP55663 TwoThirdsPgHydraulicsAd_FPJ_a.indd 1

2/3/16 2:05 PM


FPEF FUNDRAISING INITIATIVE THAT GIVES MONEY FPEF raised over $2,500 (more than enough for a full scholarship) with its 2016 Calendar Lottery. One fluid power student will receive a scholarship in April. One weekly lottery winner won $50, and one monthly lottery winner won $100. It’s not too late to get in on the action! You can buy your calendar anytime this year; the sooner you do, the better chance you’ll have of winning. Visit

APRIL 2016 WINNERS Marisa White – Tacoma, WA – $100 Jean Lidinsky – Tampa, FL – $50 Chris Stonehouse – Clinton Twp, MI – $50 Olivia Pettigrew – Brownsburg, IN – $50 Bill Hall – Arnold, MD – $50 Fred Gonzales – St. Joseph, MO – $50 * Previous winners can be seen at

Check out our free valves offer online.

CERAM™ PNEUMATIC VALVES: RUGGED AND LONG-LASTING Engineered to operate in harsh, dirty environments where other valves fail, four-way Ceram™ ISO pneumatic directional control valves feature advanced sliding ceramic plates that form a near-perfect, indestructible seal. These ultra-hard plates wipe themselves clean, delivering an extended operational life of 150 million cycles. The result: No sticking, so the valves can tolerate dirty air supplies in demanding applications.

For complete technical details, go to

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avent4754-2-44P-D13.indd 1 • May/June 2016 •


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Great Things Come From Outstanding Support! What a few of our past scholarship winners are up to... Andrew Hansen, CFPHS, attends Iowa State University and is currently in his last semester of classes. He does not have a full-time job lined up yet, however he is interning at Danfoss Power Solutions in Ames, Iowa. He says, “The FPEF scholarship has been a huge help in paying for my final semester in school and has made me even more interested in pursuing a career in Fluid Power.”

Dr. Medhat Khalil, Ph.D., CFPHS, CFPAI, director of professional education and research development at the Applied Technology Center, Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE), has written Introduction to Hydraulics for Industry Professionals: 1st Edition, Hydraulic Systems Volume 1 in cooperation with CompuDraulic LLC. The book is distributed for free to MSOE seminar attendees. Visit for more information.


Caleb Blankemeyer attended Northwest State Community College and is employed as a CNC machinist at Drainage Products, Inc. in Havilland, Ohio. He is also involved in the hydraulics and pneumatics work when fabricating a machine for production. He says, “Applying for the scholarship can open doors for employment. It can also grow your own interest in hydraulics and pneumatics.” Nathan Brace attended Iowa State University and is employed with John Deere in Dubuque, Iowa. He says, “The Fluid Power Education Foundation Scholarship I received was a huge blessing that really helped with college expenses.  It helped me on my journey through college and increased my interest in the fluid power industry in which I work today.” Andrew Bachman attended Purdue University College of Technology and was recently hired as an Engineering Technician at Telamon Industrial Solutions, Carmel, Indiana. He says, “As an adult student starting my second career, this scholarship greatly blessed my family and me. It gave me the ability to spend more time with my family instead of working the many extra hours required to pay for school. I cannot thank the donors enough for this gift and hope that, in the future, I will be able to pay it forward to the next class of students. Thank you.”

We’ve Got You Covered with Reman & Aftermarket Options We stock an impressive inventory of remanufactured Vickers® and Denison® vane pumps, as well as, aftermarket interchange options. This includes V10, V20, V, VQ, VQH, VHO, & VMQ series in Vickers and T6, T7 & M4 series in Denison. Many units are in stock and ready for immediate delivery. Replacement parts for both Vickers and Denison units are also available. Whether it’s to get a machine back up and going or to stock your shelves–we’ve got you covered. To learn more, give us a call or visit us at Ahx1.COm


Visit for more information. CIRCLE 223 • May/June 2016 •





Anchor Fluid Power, an ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 14001:2004 registered company, offers a broad range of fluid power components including SAE J518 & ISO 6162 flanges and split flange adapters, weld couplings, high pressure hydraulic ball valves, flow control, needle and check valves. We carry extensive inventory at each of our three North American locations, allowing us to promptly fulfill global customer requirements. Anchor Fluid Power 1 866-FLANGES

Attica Hydraulic Exchange, part of the Hydraulex Global family, provides Hydraulic Pumps, Motors, Valves, Servo/Proportional Valves, and Parts for a variety of industries including: Plastic Injection Molding, Steel Mills, Paper Mills, Energy, Marine, Dump, Refuse, Construction, Agriculture, Logging, Crane & Recycling. We also offer Repair and Return Services for most all major manufacturers, as well as, Service Exchange Reman Units. Whatever your needs, Hydraulex Global is sure to be able to help. Visit our website for more information (, give us a call 1-800-422-4279, or email us at CLIPPARD INSTRUMENT LAB., INC. CIRCLE 251


Caplugs Hydraulic Component Protection Caplugs offers a full line of parts, including caps, plugs and guards, to protect hydraulic and pneumatic components and fittings during shipping, storage and finishing processes. Available with a variety of design features, Caplugs hydraulic parts fit the industry’s most common fittings, including SAE, NPT, JIC and UN/UNS. Custom-designed components are also available through our inhouse comprehensive molding capabilities. 1.888.CAPLUGS


Clippard Pneumatic Control Devices Clippard’s complete line of Minimatic® Control Devices includes over 5,000 standard products. Some of the many products offered include valves, cylinders, fittings, modular components, push buttons, stainless steel cylinders, electronic manifold cards, circuit analyzers and pre-piped manifold subplates. Visit to find complete product information and specifications, engineering drawings, ordering information, literature downloads, useful calculators, technical assistance, distributor information and more.

Cyber-Tech, Inc. designs and manufactures custom industrial grade control handles, control pendants, mechanical and proportional joysticks with a consistent reputation for being rugged and reliable, while delivering a level of customer service that is superior in the industry. Visit our website and give us a call so we can assist you in your control needs. 1.800.621.8754

Visit our web site for more information, or call 1-513-521-4261 • May/June 2016 •






FluiDyne’s wide line of remanufactured Vickers, Rexroth, Continental, Oilgear and Racine products allow our people to quote what you need at a price to save you money. Our aftermarket FluiDyne products include popular Vickers Vane, Veljan, Vickers Piston, Rexroth A10V, Pressure Controls Valves, Gear Pumps and Char-Lynn Motors. Call or email us and see what our people can do for you.

La-Man Corporation is a leading manufacturer of compressed air filtration products. With over 30 years of experience, we truly understand the importance of protecting valuable machinery, tools, and finished products from dirty, wet, contaminated air. La-Man’s line of products include the patented Extractor Dryer, .01 micron filter, as well as, LA-MAN-Air Breathing Systems™, SuperStar™ Membrane Dryers, and the Refrigerated Extractor/Dryer.

FluiDyne Fluid Power 31915 Groesbeck Hwy Fraser, MI 48026 Phone: 586.296.7200 or 800.842.5377

La-Man Corporation PO BOX 328 • Mazeppa, MN 55956 800-348-2463


Muncie Power Products is pleased to announce the release of its updated website, created for easier navigation and improved consumer experience. Muncie Power has been a proud supplier of the mobile equipment market since 1935.

Muncie Power Products 1-800-367-7867 YATES INDUSTRIES CIRCLE 258 PHD, INC.




Oil-Rite manufactures 303 stainless steel flow sights which permit visual observation of liquid flow, clarity, and condition in low-pressure oil lines. Stainless steel is becoming a preferred material in industrial settings because of its corrosive resistant properties. They are available with or without a nylon ball for gauging the direction of fluid movement. Consult Oil-Rite’s online product catalog. Oil-Rite Corporation P.O. Box 1207, Manitowoc WI 54221-1207 Phone: (920)-682-6173 • Email:


With more than 59 years of experience providing industrial automation solutions, PHD understands the unique demands of industry segments. PHD’s comprehensive line of pneumatic, electric, and hydraulic actuators offers specific linear, rotary, and workholding solutions to meet your individual industry and application needs. Browse our alwaysgrowing industry segments page on to discover your industrial automation solution. PHD, Inc. (800) 624-8511

Welded Cylinders • Hydraulic and Pneumatic • 1.5” up to 50” bore, with strokes exceeding 300” Heavy Duty Mill Cylinders • Hydraulic and Pneumatic • 1.5” up to 50” bore, with strokes exceeding 300” NFPA/JIC Tie Rod Cylinders • Hydraulic and Pneumatic • 1.5” up to 24” bore • Interchangeable with all brands Yates Cylinders, Inc. 586.778.7680 sales@

Yates Cylinders Alabama 256.351.8081 decatur@

Yates Cylinders Georgia 678.355.2240 salesga@ • May/June 2016 •



Global Manufacturing Update BY CHAD MOUTRAY, Ph.D., CBE, Chief Economist, National Association of Manufacturers

What percentage of your total sales come from exports?

March 2016 – The latest NAM quarterly survey ( found that 56.6% of respondents were positive about their own company’s outlook, falling for the fourth straight quarter and down sharply from 91.2% in December 2014. Export expectations help to explain much of the deceleration in the economic outlook for the sector. Of those companies that anticipated increased exports over the next 12 months, 75.9% were positive in their outlook in this survey. In contrast, the percentage of respondents who were positive fell to 64.9% for those expecting their exports to remain the same and to 31.4% for those predicting decreased exports over the next year. Overall, respondents expect exports to fall 0.6% over the next 12 months. Along those lines, 61.5% said that the recent slowdown in global growth had impacted their international sales negatively. Indeed, U.S.-manufactured goods exports fell 6.1% in 2015, with continued weaknesses with growing

 Our firm doesn't export products

3.2% 2.6%



 Up to 10 percent 20.2%

 10-25 percent  25-40 percent  40-50 percent  More than half of total sales


come from exports


 Unknown Source: NAM Manufacturers' Outlook Survey






Power Valve U.S.A. Corpus Christi, Texas 713-869-1064 Tai Huei Hydraulic Co., Ltd.

Visit us at Booth S-81942 March 7-11, 2017 Las Vegas, NV

Proudly Sold Through Local Distribution. CIRCLE 224

16 • May/June 2016 •


international demand so far in 2016. The U.S. trade deficit widened again in January, up to its highest level in five months, with goods exports and imports both lower. Moreover, the global economy appeared to stall in February, with the J.P. Morgan Global Manufacturing PMI declining from 50.9 in January to 50.0 in February. It was the lowest level for this measure since November 2012. It should be noted that one-quarter of the weighting of the global index comes from the United States (down from 52.8 to 51.2), where manufacturing activity eased once again after rebounding in January, returning to not far from December’s three-year low. Four of the top nine exports markets for U.S.-manufactured goods contracted in February: Canada (up from 49.3 to 49.4), China (down from 48.4 to 48.0), Hong Kong (up from 46.1 to 46.4), and South Korea (down from 49.5 to 48.7). The challenge is that each nation has contracted for much of the past year. Canadian struggles are closely tied to lower crude oil prices, although beyond Alberta and British Columbia, manufacturers are citing modest growth. At the same time, the Chinese economy remains a significant concern. We will get new data on industrial production, retail sales, and fixed-asset investment on March 12, which will provide an important gauge of how well the Chinese industrial sector is faring in the early months of 2016. For much of last year, activity continued to decelerate. Real GDP rose by 6.8% year-over-year in the fourth quarter, and the Bank of China continues to seek stimulative moves in an attempt to spur more growth. My outlook is for 6.4% year-over-year growth in China for 2016. Eurozone manufacturing activity continued to expand, even as it slows on global concerns. The Markit Eurozone Manufacturing PMI decreased from 52.3 to 51.2, its slowest rate of growth in 12 months. The decline in the headline number mirror the pullback in activity in Germany (down from 52.3 to 50.5), Europe’s largest economy, with the PMI falling to its lowest level since November 2014. Real GDP grew 0.3% in the Eurozone in the fourth quarter, or 1.6% year-over-year, which was positive but far from a spectacular pace. Industrial production fell 1.0% in December, with January data forthcoming on March 14, and the annual inflation rate declined 0.2% in February. On the positive side, retail sales were up 0.4% in January, rising 2.0% over the past 12 months, and the unemployment rate dropped to 10.3%, is lowest rate since August 2011. Nonetheless, amid persistent concerns about deflation and sluggish growth, the European Central Bank (ECB) will likely expand its quantitative easing program. Trade talks continued between the United States and Europe, and a new data privacy agreement was reached, while the United Kingdom set the date for its referendum on leaving the European Union. Discussions and activity

have continued on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and on negotiations to eliminate tariffs on environmental goods. The United States is undertaking new actions regarding export controls and the standards for the importation of products subject to energy conservation standards. Efforts to promote reform in India and China continue to show little movement on issues of importance to manufacturers. Excerpt reprinted with permission. For the full report, visit

The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) represents small and large manufacturers in every industrial sector in all 50 states. For more information, visit

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CIRCLE 226 • May/June 2016 •



AVAILABLE IFPS CERTIFICATIONS CFPAI Certified Fluid Power Accredited Instructor

Recertification Q&A I took my certification test, so why do I need to recertify? Because technology changes all the time and the IFPS wants to make sure you are up-to-date with industry information. You wouldn’t want doctors operating on you or a diagnosis if they didn’t continue to hone their skills and expertise, would you? Therefore, the Fluid Power Certification Board requires ongoing experience and education/training in the fluid power industry. The recertification process works on a point system called Professional Development Points (PDP). There are many ways to earn points: ƒƒ Work in the fluid power field [a minimum of three (3) years is required] ƒƒ IFPS membership ƒƒ Participation in a local IFPS chapter ƒƒ Participation in other fluid power organizations (FPEF, FPDA, NFPA, NAHAD, SAE, NAFA, etc.) ƒƒ Volunteer positions held in fluid power organizations ƒƒ Fluid power instruction (either by instructing or receiving instruction, including taking one of the IFPS free-to-members Web presentations) ƒƒ Fluid power student (full-time enrollment in an academic program) ƒƒ Technical presentations (either by presenting to employees/customers or by attending outside presentations) ƒƒ Fluid power training/seminar attendance ƒƒ Submit an article or technical paper to the Fluid Power Journal or the IFPS newsletter ƒƒ Submit a sample test question with required references and appropriate graphics/schematics

What do I need to do to recertify? Visit and click on the blue button at the right top of the page that says Certify/Recertify. We’ve streamlined the recertification process. The interactive application form will calculate your points for you.

What if I forget to recertify? Your IFPS certification is valid for five (5) years, at which time you need to renew your certification(s). IFPS sends recertification reminders in the forms of e-mails, letters, and postcards; however, it is your responsibility to submit the required paperwork by the expiration date. If you do not submit the paperwork by the expiration date, you may be required to retake the test and you may no longer use the certification designation after your name. If you are unsure when your certification expires, you can log into “My IFPS Profile” from, call IFPS at 800-308-6005, or e-mail


CFPAJPP Certified Fluid Power Authorized Job Performance Proctor CFPAJPPCC Certified Fluid Power Authorized Job Performance Proctor Connector & Conductor CFPE Certified Fluid Power Engineer CFPS Certified Fluid Power Specialist (Must Obtain CFPHS, CFPPS) CFPHS Certified Fluid Power Hydraulic Specialist CFPPS Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Specialist CFPECS Certified Fluid Power Electronic Controls Specialist CFPMT Certified Fluid Power Master Technician (Must Obtain CFPIHT, CFPMHT, & CFPPT) CFPIHT Certified Fluid Power Industrial HydraulicTechnician CFPMHT CertifiedFluidPower Mobile HydraulicTechnician CFPPT Certified Fluid Power PneumaticTechnician CFPMM Certified Fluid Power Master Mechanic (Must Obtain CFPIHM, CFPMHM, & CFPPM) CFPIHM CertifiedFluidPower Industrial HydraulicMechanic CFPMHM Certified Fluid Power Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic CFPPM Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Mechanic CFPMIH Certified Fluid Power Master of Industrial Hydraulics (Must Obtain CFPIHM, CFPIHT, & CFPCC) CFPMMH CertifiedFluidPower Master of Mobile Hydraulics (Must Obtain CFPMHM, CFPMHT, & CFPCC) CFPMIP Certified Fluid Power Master of Industrial Pneumatics (Must Obtain CFPPM, CFPPT, & CFPCC) CFPCC Certified Fluid Power Connector & Conductor CFPSD Fluid Power System Designer


CFPMEC (In Development) Mobile Electronic Controls

Chair: Timothy White, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPMIH, CFPMMH, CFPMIP, CFPMT, CFPMM - The Boeing Company Vice-Chair: John Juhasz, CFPECS, CFPS, Kraft Fluid Systems, Inc.

CFPIEC (In Development) Industrial ElectronicControls • May/June 2016 •

NEWLY CERTIFIED PROFESSIONALS Jason Allen, S, PS Controlled Fluids, Inc.

Miguel Cadenas, CC Gestamp Mason

Alex Haller, PS SunSource

Timothy Annuschat, CC Gestamp Mason

Don Carmelo, S, PS Prostar Manufacturing Inc.

Kirt Hammond, HS

Ed Aramayo, HS Oceaneering International SVS

Samuel Chamberlain, CC, Gestamp Mason

Zach Arens, PS Calbrandt Inc.

Joshua Cogan, CC Hyspeco, Inc.

Mitchel Armstrong, CC Gestamp North America Clarence Atha, Jr., MHM Gestamp North America

William Coomer, CC Gestamp Mason Santos Correa, MHT El Paso Electric Co. Matthew Davis, MHM Altec Industries, Inc. Matthew Dawiec, HS CEJN Industrial Corp. Edward Eilers, MHM El Paso Electric Co.

Casey Blythe, HS Oceaneering International SVS

Rodrigo Estrada, MHM El Paso Electric Co.

Joshua Boyd, CC Gestamp Mason

Douglas Fuller, CC Gestamp Mason

Brent Bridenbaugh, CC, IHM Gestamp Lapeer

Jeremy Gabor, S, PS JARP Industries, Inc.

Thomas Bumgardner, CC, Hyspeco, Inc. Brady Burby, PS Donaldson Company, Inc.

Brandon Hatley, MHM Altec Industries, Inc. Bryan Hodge, CC Hyspeco, Inc.

Ryan Robling, PS

Stephen Madgwick, HS Kanamk Hydraulics

Ariel Rosete, CC Gestamp Mason

Justin McCarson, MHM El Paso Electric Co.

Kyle Roth, HS MGS Machine

Ronald Miller, Jr, CC Gestamp Mason

Michelle Samson, HS

Paul Moretz, PS RG Group Jacob Norris, HS

Steven Hoium, PS

Daniel Bard, HS Jonathan Bauman, MHM Altec Industries, Inc.

Charles Harris, CC Gestamp North America

Jesse Lucking, PS

Jonathan Jallo, HS Force America, Inc. Brent Jarvi, HS Oceaneering International SVS

Alex Parga, MHM El Paso Electric Co. Luke Peacey, CC Gestamp North America

Jake Gentry, MHM Altec Industries, Inc. Michael Grave, HS Spencer Fluid Power Timothy Grimes, PS Donaldson Company, Inc.

Lucas Schoen, PS Calbrandt Inc.

Brandy Wallace, HS Controlled Fluids, Inc.

Michael Scholz, PS

Pete Wehler, PS RG Group

Gerardo Jimenez, CC, IHM, Gestamp Mason Anthony Kopera, HS Oceaneering International SVS Jacob Lane, MHM El Paso Electric Co. Eric Leckrone, S, PS RG Group David Lindquist, MHM Altec Industries, Inc.

Amelia Schultz, HS

Matthew Shotton, HS Force America, Inc.

Daniel Jensen, PS

Rob Wesley, MIH, MMH, MHT, CC Gestamp Mason Chad Wondra, CC Hyspeco, Inc.

Jonathan Smith, HS John Stager, PS

Elliott Price, S, PS RG Group

Michael Vande Voort, HS, OXBO International Corp. Daniel Walker, MHM El Paso Electric Co.

Brockton Shea, HS

Austin Petersen, MHM Altec Industries, Inc.

Tim Unger II, CC Gestamp North America

Karl Schamberger, MM, MHM, CC Gestamp Mason

Samwel Ogero, PS David Hoke, S, PS RG Group

Christopher Trevisan, IHT, Gestamp Mason

Timothy Xiong, HS Hennepin Technical College

Travis Starnes, PS Scott Yarkosky, CC Gestamp North America

Aaron Pyle, CC Hyspeco, Inc.

Mitchell Struck, HS

Zachary Ramirez, S, PS Gestamp Mason

Ethan Stuart, PS Wainbee Limited

Matthew Zalusky, PS

Kandeepan Rasaiya, PS

Juan Tantalean, HS

Todd Zuberbier, HS

Robert Reprogel, HS Oceaneering International SVS

Nathaniel Taylor, MHM Altec Industries, Inc.

David Richwine, HS Bailey International Corp.

Eric Theis, PS Henry Timmer, HS

CIRCLE 227 • May/June 2016 •




IFPS Certification Testing Locations ALABAMA Auburn, AL Birmingham, AL Decatur, AL Huntsville, AL Jacksonville, AL Mobile, AL Montgomery, AL Normal, AL Tuscaloosa, AL ALASKA Anchorage, AK Fairbanks, AK ARIZONA Flagstaff, AZ Glendale, AZ Mesa, AZ Phoenix, AZ Prescott, AZ Safford, AZ Scottsdale, AZ Sierra Vista, AZ Tempe, AZ Thatcher, AZ Tucson, AZ Yuma, AZ ARKANSAS Bentonville, AR Hot Springs, AR Little Rock, AR CALIFORNIA Aptos, CA Arcata, CA Bakersfield, CA Commerce, CA Encinitas, CA Fresno, CA Irvine, CA Marysville, CA Riverside, CA Sacramento, CA Salinas, CA San Diego, CA San Jose, CA San Luis Obispo, CA Santa Ana, CA Santa Maria, CA Santa Rosa, CA Yucaipa, CA COLORADO Aurora, CO Boulder, CO Centennial, CO Colorado Springs, CO Denver, CO Durango, CO Ft. Collins, CO Greeley, CO Lakewood, CO Littleton, CO Pueblo, CO DELAWARE Dover, DE Georgetown, DE Newark, DE


FLORIDA Avon Park, FL Boca Raton, FL Cocoa, FL Davie, FL Daytona Beach, FL Fort Pierce, FL Ft. Myers, FL Gainesville, FL Jacksonville, FL Miami Gardens, FL New Port Richey, FL Orlando, FL Panama City, FL Pembroke Pines, FL Pensacola, FL Plant City, FL Sanford, FL St. Petersburg, FL Tampa, FL Winter Haven, FL GEORGIA Albany, GA Athens, GA Atlanta, GA Carrollton, GA Columbus, GA Dahlonega, GA Dublin, GA Dunwoody, GA Lawrenceville, GA Morrow, GA Oakwood, GA Statesboro, GA Tifton, GA Valdosta, GA HAWAII Laie, HI IDAHO Coeur d ‘Alene, ID Idaho Falls, ID Lewiston, ID Moscow, ID Nampa, ID Rexburg, ID Twin Falls, ID ILLINOIS Carbondale, IL Carterville, IL Champaign, IL Decatur, IL DeKalb, IL Edwardsville, IL Glen Ellyn, IL Joliet, IL Malta, IL Normal, IL Peoria, IL Springfield, IL INDIANA Bloomington, IN Columbus, IN Evansville, IN Fort Wayne, IN Gary, IN Indianapolis, IN Kokomo, IN Lafayette, IN Lawrenceburg, IN

Madison, IN Muncie, IN New Albany, IN Richmond, IN Sellersburg, IN South Bend, IN Terre Haute, IN IOWA Ames, IA Cedar Rapids, IA Iowa City, IA Ottumwa, IA Sioux City, IA Waterloo, IA Boise, ID KANSAS Lawrence, KS Manhattan, KS Overland Park, KS Wichita, KS KENTUCKY Bowling Green, KY Covington, KY Highland Heights, KY Louisville, KY Morehead, KY LOUISIANA Bossier City, LA Lafayette, LA Monroe, LA Natchitoches, LA New Orleans, LA Thibodaux, LA MARYLAND Arnold, MD Baltimore, MD Bel Air, MD Columbia, MD Frederick, MD Hagerstown, MD La Plata, MD Westminster, MD Wye Mills, MD MASSACHUSETTS Boston, MA Bridgewater, MA Danvers, MA Haverhill, MA Holyoke, MA MICHIGAN Ann Arbor, MI Big Rapids, MI Dearborn, MI Dowagiac, MI East Lansing, MI Flint, MI Grand Rapids, MI Kalamazoo, MI Lansing, MI Livonia, MI Mason, MI Mount Pleasant, MI Sault Ste. Marie, MI Troy, MI University Center, MI Warren, MI • May/June 2016 •

MINNESOTA Brooklyn Park, MN Eden Prairie, MN Granite Falls, MN Mankato, MN Morris, MN MISSISSIPPI Goodman, MS Mississippi State, MS Raymond, MS University, MS MISSOURI Cape Girardeau, MO Columbia, MO Cottleville, MO Joplin, MO Kansas City, MO Kirksville, MO Park Hills, MO Poplar Bluff, MO Rolla, MO Sedalia, MO Springfield, MO St. Joseph, MO St. Louis, MO Warrensburg, MO MONTANA Bozeman, MT Missoula, MT NEBRASKA Bellevue, NE Lincoln, NE North Platte, NE Omaha, NE NEVADA Henderson, NV North Las Vegas, NV Winnemucca, NV NEW JERSEY Branchburg, NJ Lincroft, NJ Sewell, NJ Toms River, NJ West Windsor, NJ NEW MEXICO Albuquerque, NM Clovis, NM Farmington, NM Portales, NM Santa Fe, NM NEW YORK Brooklyn, NY Garden City, NY Middletown, NY New York, NY Syracuse, NY NORTH CAROLINA Apex, NC Asheville, NC Boone, NC Durham, NC Fayetteville, NC

Greensboro, NC Greenville, NC Jamestown, NC Misenheimer, NC Pembroke, NC Raleigh, NC Wilmington, NC NORTH DAKOTA Bismarck, ND Fargo, ND OHIO Akron, OH Cincinnati, OH Columbus, OH Fairfield, OH Findlay, OH Kirtland, OH Lima, OH Maumee, OH Newark, OH Orrville, OH Rio Grande, OH Toledo, OH Warren, OH Youngstown, OH OKLAHOMA Altus, OK Bethany, OK Edmond, OK Norman, OK Oklahoma City, OK Stillwater, OK Tonkawa, OK Tulsa, OK OREGON Bend, OR Coos Bay, OR Eugene, OR Gresham, OR Medford, OR Oregon City, OR Portland, OR White City, OR PENNSYLVANIA Bloomsburg, PA Blue Bell, PA Gettysburg, PA Harrisburg, PA Lancaster, PA Newtown, PA Philadelphia, PA Pittsburgh, PA York, PA SOUTH CAROLINA Beaufort, SC Charleston, SC Columbia, SC Conway, SC Greenville, SC Greenwood, SC Orangeburg, SC Rock Hill, SC Spartanburg, SC TENNESSE Blountville, TN Clarksville, TN Collegedale, TN

are able to select from convenient locations across the United States and Canada. The IFPS is able to offer these locations through its affiliation with The Consortium of College Testing Centers (CCTC) provided by National College Testing Association (NCTA).  

To register for a written certification test: 1. Fill out an IFPS certification test application including your desired location by visiting 2. Submit your application with payment to IFPS headquarters. 3. Upon receipt of your application, you will be e-mailed instructions.

Testing dates for all locations: MAY 2016 Tuesday, 5/3 • Thursday, 5/19 JUNE 2016 Tuesday, 6/7 • Thursday, 6/23 JULY 2016 Tuesday, 7/5 • Thursday, 7/21 AUGUST 2016 Tuesday, 8/2 • Thursday, 8/18 SEPTEMBER 2016 Tuesday, 9/6 • Thursday, 9/22

Gallatin, TN Johnson City, TN Memphis, TN Morristown, TN Murfreesboro, TN Nashville, TN

VIRGINIA Daleville, VA Lynchburg, VA Norfolk, VA Roanoke, VA Virginia Beach, VA

TEXAS Abilene, TX Arlington, TX Austin, TX Beaumont, TX Brownsville, TX Commerce, TX Dallas, TX Denison, TX El Paso, TX Houston, TX Huntsville, TX Laredo, TX Lubbock, TX Lufkin, TX Mesquite, TX Victoria, TX Weatherford, TX Wichita Falls, TX

WASHINGTON Bellingham, WA Bremerton, WA Ellensburg, WA Olympia, WA Rockingham, WA Seattle, WA Shoreline, WA Spokane, WA

UTAH Cedar City, UT Kaysville, UT Logan, UT Ogden, UT Orem, UT Salt Lake City, UT

AUSTRALIA Rockingham, Western Australia

WISCONSIN Fond du Lac, WI La Crosse, WI Milwaukee, WI WYOMING Casper, WY Laramie, WY Torrington, WY

CANADA Calgary, AB Olds, AB Edmonton, AB

Lethbridge, AB Lloydminster, AB Fort McMurray, AB Red Deer, AB Nanaimo, BC Burnaby, BC Castlegar, BC Vancouver, BC Kamloops, BC Delta, BC Richmond, BC Prince George, BC Victoria, BC Abbotsford, BC Brandon, MB Winnipeg, MB St. John’s, NL St. John’s, NL Halifax, NS London, ON Ottawa, ON North York, ON Toronto, ON Windsor, ON Mississauga, ON North Bay, ON Saskatoon, SK Moose Jaw, SK Prince Albert, SK Whitehorse, YT NEW ZEALAND Taradale, NZ

IFPS WELCOMES TWO NEW BOARD MEMBERS Denis Poirier, Jr., CFPAI/ AJPP, CFPCC, CFPIHM, Eaton Corporation - Hydraulics Group Bishwajit Ranjan, PE, CFPE, CFPS Wyman Gordon Houston

39th Annual Golf Outing OF THE IFPS DETROIT CHAPTER 1 June 9, 2016 • Northville Hills Golf Club • Northville, MI $88 per golfer - 4-person scramble - 18 holes with cart Steak dinner, trophies & awards, skins game Call 734-536-1009 or email Ralph Hatt ( to reserve tee time.

CALENDAR OF EVENTS Web Seminars Visit to register. June 16, 2016 Pressure Controls: Factors to Predict Setting in Applications 12:00 -1:00 (Eastern) Presenter: Ernie Parker, CFPAI, Hennepin Technical College August 18, 2016 Hydraulic Troubleshooting Presenter: Ken Dulinski, CFPAI, Macomb Community College October 20, 2016 Machine Safety Presenter: Jon Jensen, CFPAI, SMC Corporation of America IFPS Meeting Dates September 20-23, 2016 IFPS 2016 Annual Meeting Hotel Phillips, Kansas City, MO







October 24-27, 2016

October 27, 2016

CFC Industrial Training


June 13-15, 2016

June 16, 2016


Centennial, CO

June 28-30, 2016

July 1, 2016

NTT Training hydraulicstraining@

Maumee, OH

August 9-11, 2016

August 12, 2016

Eaton Hydraulics Training

Virginia Beach, VA

September 20-22, 2016

September 23, 2016

NTT Training

October 14, 2016

Eaton Hydraulics Training


October 19, 2016

CFC Industrial Training

Maumee, OH

October 11-13, 2016

Fairfield, OH

October 17-19, 2016


July 27-29, 2016

July 29, 2016

CFC Industrial Training


July 19-21, 2016

July 22, 2016

NTT Training

Virginia Beach, VA

October 4-6, 2016

October 7, 2016

NTT Training

Riverside, CA

October 11-13, 2016

October 14, 2016

NTT Training

Dallas, TX

November 15-17, 2016

November 18, 2016

NTT Training


June 21-24, 2016

June 24, 2016

NTT Training

Riverside, CA

July 19-22, 2016

July 22, 2016

NTT Training

Fairfield, OH

August 1-3, 2016

August 3-4, 2016

CFC Industrial Training

Virginia Beach, VA

September 13-16, 2016

September 16, 2016

NTT Training


February 6-10, 2017 IFPS 2017 Spring Meeting Location tba September 25-29, 2017 IFPS 2017 Annual Meeting Location tba February 26 - March 2, 2018 IFPS 2018 Spring Meeting Location tba September 24-28 2018 IFPS Annual Meeting Location tba

Fairfield, OH

Call for dates

Call for dates

CFC Industrial Training

Phone: 513-874-3225

Centennial, CO

July 12-14, 2016

July 15, 2016

NTT Training

Virginia Beach, VA

October 18-20, 2016

October 21, 2016

NTT Training

Ontario, CA

October 27-29, 2016

October 30, 2016

NTT Training

Irving (Dallas), TX

December 6-8, 2016

December 9, 2016

NTT Training


Call for dates

Phone: 513-874-3225

CFC Industrial Training

Centennial, CO

June 21-24, 2016

June 24, 2016

NTT Training

Sacramento, CA

June 21-24, 2016

June 24, 2016

NTT Training

Riverside, CA

July 19-22, 2016

July 22, 2016

NTT Training

Virginia Beach, VA

September 13-16, 2016

September 16, 2016

NTT Training


Call for dates

Call for dates

CFC Industrial Training

Phone: 513-874-3225


June 7-9, 2016

June 9, 2016

NTT Training

Centennial, CO

August 23-25, 2016

August 25, 2016

NTT Training

Fairfield, OH

August 24-26, 2016

August 26, 2016

CFC Industrial Training

Cincinnati, OH

December 13-15, 2016

December 15, 2016

NTT Training • May/June 2016 •





f you are a manufacturer who equips hydraulic units with rotational speed measurement devices, or if you’re a user who buys such units from a supplier, the question is almost always the same: Does the standard integrated solution for measuring rotational speed fit? All too frequently, the answer is no. Or, if you’re a hydraulic supplier, the question could be: Does your standard-use rotational speed measurement device precisely fit your customer’s demands? Again, the answer is often no. Custom solutions, while well-functioning, offer disadvantages such as project-related, unplanned development expenditure; no amortization with larger number of items; additional testing and qualification expenditure; additional documentation expenditure; defect potential while upgrading the system; and defect potential when servicing in the field. The engineers at RHEINTACHO in Germany frequently experienced the above scenarios, so they developed the FE rotational speed sensors with three electronic versions—1-channel,

Rotational Speed Sensors for Hydraulic Drive Units By RHEINTACHO Messtechnik GmbH 2-channel, and PWM signal output—the “three musketeers of the sensor world” with installation-compatible, highly compact housings. The range also offers two different immersion depths (18.4 mm and 32 mm) and a variety of different cable lengths and types of plugs (on the cable). All sensors are built to protection classes IP6K9K and IP67. The 1-channel version is suitable if the needs are limited to the measurement of rotational speed. Carefully selected components guarantee highly tolerant contact behavior with respect to all types of target geometries and air gaps. The output signal is a square wave, the amplitude of which is independent of the rotational speed. In this way, stable signals are achieved, even with slow rotational speeds. With its two-phase shifted square wave signals, the 2-channel version offers the same advantages as mentioned above. However, with its two offset signals, you have the additional possibility of identifying the direction of rotation.

In contrast to the two variants described above (voltage signal), the 2-channel construction with pulse-width modulated signal (PWM) works using a current signal with information regarding the rotational direction transmitted via the varying length of the pulses. In this way, this sensor also produces a signal with constant amplitude, independent of the rotational speed. This sensor has the ability to identify the rotational direction and also can carry out other diagnostic functions such as the identification of idle status, a critical air gap, and critical installation position. The mechanical interfaces of this sensor product range are identical, regardless of which signal you or your users select. You choose the appropriate rotational speed sensor based on your application’s specific requirements. For more information: RHEINTACHO Messtechnik GmbH specializes in the field of rotational speed. Based in Freiburg, the company has over 70 employees. Its subsidiary, RHEINTACHO UK, Ltd., specializes in the production of non-electronic measurement and indication instruments, and acts as a sales and service center for the UK and Ireland. Visit

Rotational speed sensors of the FE series

Cylinder Sensing Without Rod Drilling By Rota Engineering UK



ota Hall-effect linear sensors in the mobile materials-handling industry offer solutions for all cylinder types. Cranes, telehandlers, forklifts, or platform-access machines need electrical-position feedback for a diverse range of cylinder sizes. For example, boom extension cylinders on cranes and telehandlers can have stroke lengths from 4 to 8 m, while stabilizer cylinders are around 1.5 to 2.5 m. To the other extreme, steering cylinders may only be 150 to 300 mm. To date, position feedback is usually achieved by the • May/June 2016 •

use of linear wire pull or rotary transducers fitted near the cylinder. While these types may be a convenient solution, they often have to be placed in less-than-ideal exposed positions and so unfortunately are more prone to suffer failure by physical damage often by icy conditions in the winter or by the mechanical nature of their design. Rota Engineering in the United Kingdom has a range of linear transducers that are used in agricultural and construction machinery because of their compact design that do not

With any of the external-type transducers, the OEM continues to use their existing supplier who can prepare the cylinders and either fit the transducers as part of their supply or alternatively allow the OEM to fit them on their assembly line. For more information: Rota Engineering Ltd. is located in Manchester, UK, and specializes in the design and manufacture of piston transducers and ex connectors. They can be reached by phone: +44 (0) 161 764 0424 or on the web:

ELA Cylinder Cutaway

usually extend a cylinder’s mounting dimensions, which are mounted inside a cylinder’s drilled-out piston rod that carries a small ring magnet to achieve a non-contact operation. They are a robust choice of using a transducer, however they may not always be the most cost effective for long-stroke cylinders or suitable for some types of cylinders such as those with double-rods. By use of the same Hall-effect technology, Rota has developed a way of using their transducers now mounted directly to the outside of the hydraulic cylinder’s tube. Operation is still non-contact, but this time by the use of a specially designed magnet assembly that simply fits into a milled slot cut across the piston and propagates its magnetic field through the cylinder wall. What really helps is that the cylinder supplier can continue to use standard steel tube up to 15-mm thick. This means for outrigger cylinders, the costly drilling of the piston rod is eliminated with the advantage of maintaining the piston rod strength. Mounting the transducer is done simply by sliding the transducer into welded-on blocks at each end of the cylinder, but the big advantage is the ability to quickly make the change without having to dismantle or remove the cylinder from the machine if a transducer needs to be replaced. This is particularly useful if that cylinder is buried deep in a machine and difficult to get to, or if the transducer is critical to the working of the machine and a replacement must be made to achieve minimum downtime. For the very long-length boom cylinders (up to 130 feet in length) on cranes and telehandlers, there is a modular design that allows the external transducer to be dovetailed together in a number of shorter, more manageable lengths. Users of short-stroke cylinders can find the external designs useful as an ideal solution for the through-rod or steering-type cylinders found, for instance, on many platform-access machines or small telehandlers. The most common solution for these applications has been the use of angle sensors with linkage arms located nearby on the king pins, often having to be mounted in less-than-ideal areas and therefore prone to being damaged. The external design brings the transducer back to being mounted as part of the cylinder gaining better protection and being mechanically simpler.

Unprecedented Flexibility CAN-IO14 introduces unprecedented flexibility, durable and compact design and is IP67 rated. Its functionality is ideal for mobile, equipment used in harsh environments ranging in temperatures from -40°F to 185°F. The device converts analog and digital signals to CAN messages for use in conjunction with other devices on the CAN network. Load-holding valve Hydraulic control valve Hydraulic pump

Programmable Valve Control CAN node type CAN-IO14

Slewing gear control

Software function packs ■ Position measurement ■ CAN bus communication ■ Position, Pressure and flow control

■ Fault detection ■ Limit load control ■ Stability

Booth #3801 May 2-5, 2016 Houston, TX

Hydraulic control

■ Closed circuit control ■ Electronic flow sharing ■ Ganging

Booth #4146 June 7-9, 2016 Las Vegas, NV

9009 K Perimeter Woods Dr. Charlotte, NC 28216 P: 704-509-1599 � Email: HAWE.COM CIRCLE 228

Fluid Power Journal Half-Page Ad - Fluid Power Software 032116 MAY-JUNE ISSUE.indd 1

3/22/2016 9:38:03 AM • May/June 2016 •


Managing SOFTWARE Updates An interview of Yolanda Petre, Software Engineering Manager at Eaton


Yolanda Petre manages the software engineering group at Eaton’s Hydraulics Technology Organization in Eden Prairie, Minn. With over 20 years of experience developing embedded systems, software, and controls for hydraulic systems, she leads a global team in delivering embedded software and PC-based solutions. She offered her insight into how Eaton manages software development and helps its customers manage updates.

CAN YOU describe your group and its role in software development? We have a team of approximately 25 software engineers, in the U.S. and overseas, developing software. We develop embedded software for hydraulic components, such as pumps, valves, and hydraulic systems, as well as a software development environment that our customers use to build their own applications for their specific needs.


WHAT ARE some examples of

embedded software? Our software products enable customized control of our hydraulic components and systems. For example, in an electro-hydraulic steering system, the software controls the flow and/or pressure in the steering valve that determines the desired steering angle of the wheels. The software also monitors other sys-

tem inputs and parameters and uses them to optimize operator comfort, manage faults, and improve the overall performance of the machine. Other software products enable valves to perform advanced control functions in industrial motion control applications, as in injection molding machines or presses.


HOW DO end users customize

applications to fit their needs? Our Pro-FX® Control product is a collection of libraries and tools that can be used by customers to build their own applications running on our family of HFX programmable controllers and VFX programmable displays. Pro-FX Control is an open platform based on the CoDeSys programming languages. The product is distributed in a way that provides flexibility for customers. The different components within this product are offered

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either as a complete package – the Pro-FX Control software – or as separate components that can be plugged into an existing Pro-FX Control package that the customer is already using. This way, customers can download only what they need when they need it.


CAN YOU describe how libraries are used and updated? The Pro-FX libraries give customers building blocks for their custom applications. They range from simple mathematical blocks to complex algorithms, from generic functions to functions finely tuned to a specific component. The customer can download these blocks and use them to develop various applications with these components. They can use prepackaged joysticks or pedal modules, pump modules, or simple ramps or input conditioning functions. They can also add their own decision logic for starting or stopping a machine and develop a vehicle control, such as for a skid-steer machine. A number of libraries encapsulate control algorithms optimally tuned for Eaton components and ready to use in building applications with these components. Eaton is constantly adding to this collection of libraries.


HOW DOES Eaton manage software updates and help its customers do the same? On our end, we research market and customer needs and select the functions that seem to bring the most value to our customers. In general, we release two updates in a year, but we are careful to generate a new release only when we have a number of new libraries that together provide a good incremental value over our current package. A new release has to have significant value to justify an upgrade. Communication with the customer is key. We need to understand their needs and we need to support them to get the best use from our products. In addition to direct contact with customers, we have a Pro-FX forum for posting and discussing issues, and we also have a site available for suggestions. We keep track of these suggestions and create a backlog of potential upgrade features, then prioritize those features to be incorporated into the next releases. On the customer side, when looking to update software, it is important to understand how this new software will meet their needs and how it will fit with their existing software and applications. The Eaton distribution site includes release notes for the software. The customer should always first check the release notes

to learn what new functions are provided, to understand potential compatibility issues with older packages, and to get directions for software upgrading. For users already using the Pro-FX Control environment, we sometimes release libraries separately from the Pro-FX Control package. When customers place a high demand on certain libraries, it is not practical for them to wait for the bi-annual Pro-FX Control release, so these stand-alone libraries can be downloaded and plugged into an existing Pro-FX Control.


HOW ARE support packages

handled for HFX controllers and VFX displays? A new release of the HFX/VFX Support package component takes place when we offer new features linked to a hardware change (additional communication channels, more memory, etc.) or when we update the CoDeSys platform with new tools (tracing and breakpoint capability for debugging, etc.). Occasionally an updated package may affect the compatibility with applications developed with an older package. The customer should check the release notes for the HFX/VFX Support package to determine if the new package has features of interest and how it will work with older applications.


WHAT ADDITIONAL advice would you offer end users in managing software updates? Before downloading new software, customers should always ask themselves some key questions: Do I need the features that this software provides? Is this a stand-alone library or a hardware support package? Is it compatible with my current Pro-FX Control package? How can I use this new software with applications I have developed with older versions? The release notes can help provide the answers. Eaton also has experienced application and support engineers available to assist with any questions and advice. The Pro-FX forum is another resource where customers can place questions and get fast responses. When developing applications, follow good software development practices, perform thorough testing, and maintain a version control system. In support of tracking applications, the Pro-FX Control environment tags applications with a unique ID number.

For more information, visit • May/June 2016 •




NFPA’s Day on Capitol Hill BY ERIC LANKE, NFPA CEO

Thanks to all the NFPA members who joined me February 9-10 for our first “day” on Capitol Hill. Representatives of Caterpillar, Bosch Rexroth, Danfoss Power Solutions, Deltrol Fluid Products, Eaton, HydraPower Systems, Parker Hannifin, and Moog teamed up with NFPA and with Kim Stelson and Mike Gust of the CCEFP to talk to legislative staff members about a $10-million appropriation for the Vehicles Technology Office of the Department of Energy to manage a program focused on energy-efficiency hydraulics research for off-highway equipment. We met with 20 different staffers—some on the House side, some on the Senate side—and all with positions on their chamber’s Energy and Water subcommittees, the place where appropriations for the DOE must begin. Although they weren’t able to send someone to participate in

the visits, the Association of Equipment Manufacturers is also a partner in this initiative, recognizing the need to keep innovating in the off-highway vehicle market. And innovation and competitiveness were common themes discussed in all of our meetings. A desire to keep the United States in a position of technological leadership and an expected growth in the number of engineering and manufacturing jobs was a motivator for every staff person we met with. It was a good thing we had done our homework before each meeting, counting up the number of jobs the companies listed above represented in each state and congressional district. Several offices agreed to work with us on crafting appropriate language for the appropriations request, which is supposed to be finalized in the next 60 days. Stay tuned for further updates.



26 • May/June 2016 •

FPIRC16 DATES AND LOCATION SET, CALL FOR ABSTRACTS OPEN and academic research in North America. It connects industry to university resources and talent through technical sessions, networking opportunities, laboratory tours, and panel discussions on the technologies and workforce skills needed to continue growing the fluid power industry.

Mark your calendars. The next Fluid Power Innovation and Research Conference (FPIRC) will be held October 10-12, 2016 at the Hyatt Regency Minneapolis in Minneapolis, Minn. NFPA and the Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power (CCEFP) invite both industry and academic researchers to submit a short abstract of their work for consideration as a

presentation at FPIRC16. Presentations should address fundamental or applied research or innovative development in fluid power or closely related fields. The deadline for submission is April 29, 2016. FPIRC, co-sponsored by NFPA and the Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power, is the premier conference for fluid power industry

FPIRC will be co-located and held in conjunction with the ASME Dynamic Systems and Controls Conference, October 12 – 14, 2016. To learn more about the requirements for conference presentations, or to respond to the call for abstracts before the April 29 deadline, go to: events/conferences/fpirc/call-forextended-abstracts/




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CIRCLE 234 • May/June 2016 •



NFPA Elects Tricia Fulton to be Chairwoman of the Board of Directors The NFPA officially has elected Tricia Fulton, the CFO at Sun Hydraulics, to be the Chairwoman of the Board of Directors for the 2016-17 fiscal year. Fulton is the first woman to hold the position in the Association. The election took place during NFPA’s 2016 Annual Conference in San Antonio in early March. Her appointment will begin July 1, 2016. “We are thrilled to have Tricia coming on board as the Chair of our Board of Directors,” said Eric Lanke, NFPA president & CEO. “She has been deeply engaged in many of our initiatives and has proven leadership capabilities.” Fulton has been involved with the association for a number of years. She became part of the NFPA Board of Directors in 2012 and was elected

to the Executive Committee in 2014. During her time on the Board, she was particularly involved in the Inclusiveness Strategic Task Force. The Task Force set recruiting strategy, particularly aimed at distributors, and also set strategy to increase engagement among existing members, particularly younger professionals. Her other activities included chairing the Future Leaders Network from 2012-14, becoming the first Future Leaders Chair to have a voting seat on the Board, and chairing the Econ & Stats Committee from 2013-15. During her time on the Econ & Stats Committee, a number of committee initiatives broadened the scope of the data available to NFPA members and increased engagement in the association’s market information services.

Tricia Fulton

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28 • May/June 2016 •

IFPE 2017 EXHIBITORS’ EDUCATION MEETING ON AUGUST 23 IN CHICAGO Rick Guidish of Deltrol Fluid Products, representing the IFPE 2017 Management Committee, and Rich Goldsbury of Bobcat/Doosan, chair of the CONEXPO-CON/AGG Management Committee, kicked off the IFPE 2017 and CONEXPO-CON/AGG Exhibitor Education Meeting in Las Vegas last week to help companies prepare for a successful show experience and achieve improved trade show results. The exhibitor education meetings are free of charge for all show exhibitors. A robust webinar series, live and on demand, was offered free of charge, including exhibiting best practices as well as show-specific education modules. A variety of exhibitor-engagement marketing tools are available to help companies promote their show presence. During the IFPE

FLUID POWER CHALLENGE RE-CAP: ALEXANDRIA TECHNICAL AND COMMUNITY COLLEGE Alexandria Technical and Community College (ATCC) hosted an NFPA Fluid Power Challenge event for the first time on its campus on February 24, 2016, where 68 eighth-grade students from 10 local schools competed in a competition to solve a real-life engineering problem using fluid power. During the Workshop Day, held on January 6, 2016, teams came together to learn about fluid power, build a pneumatic lifter, and receive their challenge kits. On Competition Day, the teams were given four hours to construct and test their prototype before presenting them in front of the judges. The goal was to use the machines to grab a small, weighted cylinder and place it on a choice of three levels after rotating it, with the top level being smaller and worth the most points. The students were judged on machine design, portfolio, teamwork, challenge, and overall. The participating middle schools were Ashby, Brandon-Evansville, Campbell-Tintah, Fergus Falls, Frazee, Melrose, Minnewaska, Osakis, Parkers Prairie, and Perham. For more information about the Fluid Power Challenge, contact Lynn Beyer at NFPA at

2017 and CONEXPO-CON/AGG exhibitor meeting, attendees learned about new show features and planning tips to simplify their show participation and better connect with customers. They also met with show management and official show vendors to ask specific questions and discuss their planning needs. “We know trade shows are a significant investment, and these educational offerings will assist companies in gaining the most value from their exhibiting dollars,” said Bob Mortensen, IFPE 2017 chair and chief operating officer of Husco International. The next IFPE 2017 Exhibitors’ Meeting will be held on August 23 in Chicago. While this meeting is open to all IFPE 2017 and CONEXPO-CON/AGG exhibitors, the session will focus on information of particular use for new-toshow and smaller exhibitors. Details will be available in the upcoming weeks. For more information on exhibitor education, contact Mary Bukovic (, tel: 414-298-4173).

Air Compressors

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CIRCLE 236 • May/June 2016 •



There is often much confusion with regards to the units used to measure the vacuum level being generated in an application. This article explains which ones are the most common, their origins, where one should be used instead of another, and how to convert between them. The most common unit of vacuum measurement used in North America for general vacuum is inches of mercury, denoted by "Hg, where (") refers to linear inches and (Hg) is the chemical symbol for mercury. The most important point to understand about "Hg is that it is a measurement of differential pressure. In vacuum terms, this means that "Hg is the difference between the ambient atmospheric pressure and the vacuum that is being created in an application. Fig. 1 shows this graphically. As the vacuum level increases, the level in "Hg does also. Inches of mercury refers to just that—a linear measurement of mercury. Fig. 2 illustrates a glass tube in two conditions. State 1 is without vacuum or pressure being applied to either side. Therefore, the atmospheric pressure “pushing down” on both sides is the same and the mercury level is the same. State 2 illustrates a vacuum being applied to the right-hand side. The vacuum pump creates a lower atmospheric pressure. The now higher original atmospheric pressure on the left “pushes” the mercury downwards. The distance is measured at 26 inches. Therefore, a vacuum of 26"Hg (twenty-six inches of mercury) has been created by the vacuum pump. 30"Hg is regarded as the maximum vacuum level available at sea level, and because the oceans are the same height across the planet, this is a good datum point for reference. This number is actually rounded up from 29.92"Hg. Therefore, 29.92"Hg is the maximum difference in pressure based upon a known atmospheric pressure condition, which is agreed upon internationally as 1013 mbar or 14.7 psi at sea level. This atmospheric pressure changes continuously across the globe. In fact, the highest atmospheric condition ever recorded at sea level was 15.6 psi, and the lowest was about 12.5 psi, which was taken from within a hurricane. As the atmospheric pressure changes, the maximum differential available changes with it. If, for example, the machinery was at a very high altitude, such as in Denver, Co., the atmospheric pressure is reduced and the possible differential pressure that can be created is reduced, too. The average atmospheric pressure in Denver is about 12.1 psi, and the pressure differential that can be

30 • May/June 2016 •


1 • May/June 2016 •


created is only 24.63"Hg. Vacuum-lifting apparatus would be less effective by this lower pressure differential or vacuum level. Because of this forever-changing atmospheric condition, "Hg should only be used as a guide and in applications where accurate vacuum levels are not required, such as process-type applications. Inches of mercury is ideal for vacuum lifting with vacuum cups, as the amount of vacuum required is rarely high. Typical vacuum handling utilizes anything between 15 and 25"Hg. Therefore, "Hg is suitable as a measurement of system performance in this type of operation. For more accurate vacuum applications where the user must have a known vacuum level, an absolute vacuum unit should be used. Absolute pressure is the relevant factor here, and an absolute measurement takes its reading based on a datum point of zero. Zero is always zero and never changes. In North America, Torr is very popular. This was a unit of measurement devised by Evangelista Torricelli (b. 1608), an Italian scientist. Torricelli simply measured linear mercury movement using millimeters and based zero on a zero atmospheric condition. Therefore, 29.92 inches converted to millimeters is 760 (759.97). A system running at 50% vacuum is either 380 Torr or 15"Hg. However, the Torr measurement scale is more accurate, as it has a datum point of zero atmospheric pressure. 15"Hg is a guide, as it’s taken from a varying atmospheric pressure. This conversion is simple using 50%, but if the Torr reading were 200, then the equivalent in "Hg would be 21.75. (Refer to Fig. 3 for this comparative scale.) Outside of North America, the mbar(a) unit of vacuum measurement is used. Like Torr, this is an absolute pressure scale where 0 is zero atmospheric pressure and 1013 mbar(a) is the standard for atmospheric pressure. This unit is easily converted to Torr simply by multiplying by 0.760. Therefore, 500 mbar(a) equates to 380 Torr. (Refer to Fig. 4 for the comparative scale.) The mbar scale uses (a) such as 500 mbar(a). This is indicating that this is an absolute scale where 0 mbar(a) is ZERO atmospheric pressure or absolute zero. Often used on a vacuum gauge is –kPa. This is a useful unit of measurement, as it represents the percentage of vacuum and is used widely when discussing a general vacuum system. The user could, for example, explain to an engineer that they require “about 80% vacuum,” which is -80kPa from atmospheric pressure. Regardless of the location of these two people and what unit of measurement they are more familiar with, percentage vacuum is easy to understand and verbally communicate. Fig. 5 compares all these measurement scales for easy reference. Vacuum is the removal or reduction of atmospheric pressure. Depending on the application, the vacuum level may require high accuracy, which means an absolute measurement unit such as Torr or mbar(a) should be used, but in general vacuum applications, "Hg offers an easy guide to achieving a basic vacuum condition. The most common vacuum application encountered by the industrial engineer is vacuum cups lifting.



5 • May/June 2016 •


Using the aforementioned explanation of vacuum level measurement, we shall now apply this to sizing a vacuum cup. There are many types of vacuum cups available from a large range of manufacturers. The primary use of vacuum cups is in automated machinery, such as packaging lines, robotic palletizing, automotive steel stamping, and so on. Selecting the correct vacuum cup for each application is key in enabling the machinery to operate in an efficient, safe, and reliable fashion. The most common selection process is vacuum cup size because the larger the cup, the higher the holding capacity. However, choosing the cup based on the size is not the first selection criteria that should be considered. Because this is the most common first selection made by the user, however, let’s begin by explaining how a vacuum cup’s size determines its holding force. The shape and height of a vacuum cup is completely irrelevant as to how much holding force it will produce. It’s all about the surface area. That is, how large the surface area is at the point where the cup meets the load to be handled. Fig. 6 shows two vacuum cups: a “bellows” design on the left and a “flat” design on the right. Both cups measure 75 mm or 2.95" diameter at the pickup face or sealing lip. Therefore, the following would apply.

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is assumed to be 14.7 psi (pound per square inch). The action of vacuum is the removal of atmospheric pressure in a known volume­—in this case, a vacuum cup against a piece of plastic sheet, which is the object being handled. The area of the sealing lip is 6.84 in.2 using (A = πr2) 3.142 x (1.475" x 1.475"). Consequently, if this cup is being used at sea level, let’s imagine in New York City with a vacuum pump that can generate a vacuum of 24"Hg (-80 kPa), then this cup has a theoretical holding force of 80 lbs (14.7 psi x 6.84 in.2 x 0.8). In this example, 0.8 represents -80kPa, which is 80% of a “full vacuum.” BOTH the flat cup and bellow cup have the same holding force. Something that is very important to note: the vacuum “inside” the cup is not gripping the load. The inside of the vacuum cup has a lower atmospheric pressure. It’s the HIGHER atmospheric pressure on the OUTSIDE of the cup clamping it against the work piece as shown in Fig. 7. The differential in atmospheric pressure is pushing DOWN on the vacuum cup and pushing UP on the underside of the work piece. Remember, a vacuum cleaner doesn’t suck; the higher atmospheric pressure on the outside pushes dirt into the vacuum hose.



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So, as you can see, a vacuum cup of only 3" diameter lifts 80 lbs quite comfortably, at least in a theoretical calculation, which although accurate isn’t very wise in the “real world.” Safety factors should be employed, and when I am asked what safety factor is recommended, I always state the same answer as much as possible within reason: a safety factor of THREE in a horizontal plane and SIX in a vertical plane to overcome shear force, as shown in Fig. 8. Certain manufacturers recommend TWO and FOUR respectively, but I ask you, which is safer? Put simply, it’s rare that vacuum cups are not lifting because they are too small in size. It’s normally because of poor cup selection, which means they are unable to seal against the load or because during high-speed transfer, the cup seal breaks due to the acceleration inertia of the product being. So to summarize, at 80% vacuum, for every square inch of surface area, a vacuum cup can hold a weight of 11.76 lbs or 5.3 kg. This calculation is based on 14.7 psi of atmospheric pressure (pounds per square inch) being available at the facility where the vacuum cup is being used. This calculation is based on a vacuum level of 24"Hg, which in a vacuum-lifting application is typically more than adequate. It’s clear from

the above calculation examples that a vacuum level of only 15"Hg (-50 kPa) would be sufficient in achieving a holding force of 52 lbs with a 3" diameter vacuum cup. A lot of money is spent by end users and machine builders trying to achieve a high vacuum level to ensure a safe grip of the product, but in the large majority of applications, a lesser vacuum degree is more than adequate to complete the task. Selecting a larger vacuum cup is often less expensive than buying a vacuum pump designed for a higher vacuum level. A regenerative blower, as shown in Fig. 9, offers a vacuum level of about 10"Hg or 30% vacuum, but also offers a much higher flow rate than a rotary vane pump or compressed air vacuum venturi of a comparable energy requirement. If the application involves handling large sheets of drywall or wood that weigh 40 lbs (20 kg), then 10"Hg will be more than adequate if you were using six 3" diameter vacuum cups. Always consider the vacuum cup size and its lifting capacity at a modest vacuum level. Your options of vacuum pump choice once the cup holding force is understood is much greater and offers potentially considerable savings on equipment cost.


Vacuforce LLC is a manufacturer and distributor of vacuum components and systems for industry in North America. Vacuforce can be reached via its website ( or directly at Illustrations and 3D models supplied by Daniel Pascoe at Davasol Inc., an industrial distribution branding company. Daniel can be reached at

This article is intended as a general guide and as with any industrial application involving machinery choice, independent professional advice should be sought to ensure correct selection and installation.

CIRCLE 239 • May/June 2016 •



LOCAL ENTREPRENEUR IS NEW OWNER OF CHARLOTTEAREA PIRTEK FRANCHISE Viresh Sitapara, a local business owner and engineer, is the owner of PIRTEK in Gastonia, North Carolina. The center features four 24/7 mobile service vehicles and is staffed by a team of five fluid transfer solutions technicians. The service center is one of three in North Carolina, with one in Greensboro and another in Charlotte. Mr. Sitapara, who is originally from India, has a background in engineering and a career spanning such fields as the space industry and medical technology. During his years working for a welding company, Mr. Sitapara was responsible for the manufacture of about two million hoses.

Trelleborg Opens Technology Resource Center for Engineers “The Knowledge Center” by Trelleborg Sealing Solutions was developed to bridge the gap between design engineers’ needs and standard technology documentation, bringing useful information together as part of one digital portal. It is aimed at design engineers working in industries that require sealing technology, including fluid power, chemical processing, oil and gas, automotive design, and life sciences. The online tool, fully compatible across all platforms including tablets and smartphones, contains “bite-size” information, including technical articles and seal advice. There is also an “ask the experts” section where users can send information directly to the company’s technical team.

NATIONAL OILWELL VARCO SPONSORS “IMPACT A HERO” EVENT National Oilwell Varco (NOV), together with Impact a Hero, hosted the fifth-annual NOV sporting clay shoot on October 30, 2015 at Westside Sporting Grounds in Katy, Tex. The event raised more than $65,000 for the Impact A Hero organization. With more than 330 participants in attendance and more than 40 sponsors showing support, it was the event’s most successful year yet. Auction items generated more than $4,000 for the organization, which helps severely wounded post-9/11 combat men and women, providing financial and emotional support to veterans and their families.

PARKER HOSTS ENGINEERING STUDENT CHALLENGE The “Stretch Your Mind” engineering challenge by Parker Hannifin Corp. gives university students an opportunity to design and create original market solutions utilizing Electroactive Polymer (EAP) sensor technology. In addition to a cash prize, winning teams are eligible for an International Engineering Experience, where they will work with research teams at Germany’s Saarland University to continue their work with EAP. Students create a team of up to five members to develop an application using EAP. The challenge focuses on new technologies, smart materials, entrepreneurship, and product engineering. stretchyourmind


The Thomas Division of Gardner Denver opened the Thomas Center of Applied Technology (TCAT) facility in Sheboygan, Wis. This 65,000-ft2 facility provides to OEM systems and value-added services, as well as aftermarket and refurbishment services. The center also provides support for other company production activities.

Enerpac has been awarded a contract from S.T. Cotter Turbine Services to build a rotor removal system that will provide a tool to reduce the time and labor needed during removal and installation of a generator’s rotor. The hydraulically actuated system will improve the efficiency and safety of turbine field maintenance.


34 • May/June 2016 •



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0.76 CFM @ 40 PSI / 12V 0.62 CFM @ 90 PSI / 12V Max. Amp Draw 16A / 12V 0.81 CFM @ 40 PSI / 24V 0.66 CFM @ 90 PSI / 24V Max. Amp Draw 9A / 24V Duty Cycle 100% @ 100 PSI


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GREASE INJECTION PUMP The high-pressure hydraulic Dyna-Star grease injection pump is designed for wireline, slickline, and wire rope applications. It is capable of operating at pressures up to 10,000 psi, even with low flow rates, and reduces freezing, stopping, and stalling. The pump requires about one-third of the energy of pneumatic pumps, and operates more quietly. It is self-lubricating, reducing the need for maintenance, and suitable for oil and gas well services, as well as for preventing internal corrosion in the wire rope applications.



Graco Inc., • May/June 2016 •




7-9 Connector & Conductor Certification Review and Test Cincinnati, OH (NTT Training) Contact IFPS: 800-308-6005 7-9 Pneumatic Technology for Industry Elk Grove Village, IL Parker Hannifin Tel: 216-896-2495 9 IFPS Detroit Chapter 1 Annual Golf Outing Northville Hills Golf Club, Northville, MI Tel: 734-536-1009

June 5-8 Electric Utility Fleet Managers Conference Williamsburg Lodge and Conference Center Williamsburg, VA Tel: 757-220-1795 6-8 Hydraulic Conductors—Fittings, Tube, Pipe, Hose, and Leak Prevention Cincinnati, OH CFC-Solar, Inc. Tel: 513-874-3225

9-10 Introduction to Pneumatics—Concepts and Components Cincinnati, OH CFC-Solar, Inc. Tel: 513-874-3225 13-16 Hydraulic Specialist Certification Review and Test Milwaukee, WI (MSOE) Contact IFPS: 800-308-6005 13-17 Troubleshooting Maumee, OH Eaton Hydraulics Training Services 800-413-8809

6-10 Introductory Basics to Industrial Fluid Power—Concepts and Components Cincinnati, OH CFC-Solar, Inc. Tel: 513-874-3225

13-17 Circuit Design Eden Prairie, MN Eaton Hydraulics Training Services 800-413-8809

6-10 Electro-Hydraulic Maintenance & Troubleshooting Eden Prairie, MN Eaton Hydraulics Training Services 800-413-8809

13-17 Design Considerations for Industrial Hydraulic Systems (HYi-202) Ontario, Canada Bosch Rexroth Tel: 905-735-0510

6-10 Principles of Hydraulics Bethlehem, PA Bosch Rexroth Tel: 610-997-6745

14-17 Industrial Hydraulic Technology Calgary, Alberta, Canada Parker Hannifin Tel: 216-896-2495

36 • May/June 2016 •

16 IFPS Webinar: “Pressure Controls: Factors to Predict Setting in Applications” 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m. Presented by Ernie Parker, CFPAI, Hennepin Technical College Contact IFPS: 800-308-6005 20-24 Set-up of Industrial Hydraulic Systems Bethlehem, PA Bosch Rexroth Tel: 610-997-6745 20-24 Principles of Hydraulics (HYi-101) Ontario, Canada Bosch Rexroth Tel: 905-735-0510 21-22 Fluid Power Technology Conference Milwaukee, WI MSOE Tel: 800-321-6763 21-24 Electro-Hydraulic Feedback Systems Elyria, OH Parker Hannifin Tel: 216-896-2495 21-24 Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic Certification Review and Test Centennial, CO (NTT Training) Contact IFPS: 800-308-6005 21-24 Mobile Hydraulic Technician Certification Review and Test Centennial, CO (NTT Training) Contact IFPS: 800-308-6005 21-24 Mobile Hydraulic Technician Certification Review and Test Sacramento, CA (NTT Training) Contact IFPS: 800-308-6005 28-JULY 1 Hydraulic Specialist Certification Review and Test Centennial, CO (NTT Training) Contact IFPS: 800-308-6005









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Visit WWW.IFPS.ORG or call 1-800-308-6005 for more information CIRCLE 241


Clemson Elevates Engineering, Brings National Engineering Forum to South Carolina

From left to right: Anand Gramopadhye, dean of the college of engineering, Clemson University; Jeff Wilcox, vice president for engineering and program operations, Lockheed Martin; Deborah Wince-Smith, president and CEO, Council on Competitiveness; James P. Clements, president, Clemson University; Keith Young, director of composites technology, Boeing; David Stafford, executive vice president of human resources, Michelin North America; Kurt Goodwin, general manager of advanced manufacturing works, GE Power, at NEF Clemson regional dialogue on February 18.

Key Themes from the Regional Dialogue Keith Young, director of composites technology for Boeing, provided the evening’s keynote remarks, highlighting the critical demographic challenges facing engineering intensive enterprises—with a potential shortfall in the current rate of graduating engineers coupled with the expected and dramatic number of retiring engineers over the next five years. Following the keynote remarks, a group of leaders – Clark Gillespy, president of Duke Energy, South Carolina; David Stafford, vice president, personnel, and chief human resources officer, Michelin North America; and Kurt Goodwin, general manager of advanced manufacturing works, General Electric – took a deeper dive


into each of the NEF’s “3 C’s” of engineering: Capacity, Capability, and Competitiveness. Addressing a wide range of issues, all reiterated the need to inspire a broad array of students to look toward engineering as a career path, especially those interested and able to collaborate with colleagues outside engineering disciplines. Dialogue participants continued this theme in conversation, noting more must be done to attract students from varied backgrounds into engineering and equip them with the tools to engage in creative professions. Participants emphasized that breaking down traditional silos and driving collaboration with a diverse peer group facilitates learning and innovation. While these changes may take time to implement, participants were confident current and future engineers will have the diversity of thought to address America’s engineering challenges. Recommendations

that Emerged from the Dialogue ƒƒ Expose primary and secondary education students to engineering by leveraging local industry and manufacturing centers ƒƒ Break down silos between engineering disciplines to improve collaboration and problem solving ƒƒ Engage the next generation of engineers by • May/June 2016 •

communicating the ability of engineers to build the future ƒƒ Connect industry leaders to academia, ensuring educators are developing appropriate skills in students

Photos courtesy of Clemson University

Industry, government, and academic leaders from the greater Greenville region gathered on February 18, 2016 for a NEF regional dialogue marking South Carolina’s place in American engineering. Clemson University and its president, Dr. James P. Clements, hosted the event at the Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research, with executives from Boeing, GE Power, Duke Energy, and Michelin providing a local perspective on challenges facing engineering.

Engineers Must be Uniquely Prepared for the Future A Q&A with Clemson University President Dr. James P. Clements


What is engineering’s role in keeping America competitive in the global economy? Engineers are the critical link between theory and application. They take ideas out of the lab and translate them to technology that can be used in the real world. To remain competitive, the United States needs to produce engineers who can develop high-quality, transformational technology with global impact. Adapting to change will be crucial. It will require continuous innovation and shared partnerships.


What skills and abilities do today’s engineers need to be successful in solving 21st-century challenges? Engineers need to be uniquely prepared to solve the complex challenges of the 21st century. The fundamentals will always be important, but engineers also need to round out their education with a diverse skill set. Entrepreneurial experience, a global perspective, interdisciplinary experience, hands-on experience, and an appreciation of the engineer’s positive impact on society are essential.

bine drivetrains to lower the cost of wind energy. Meanwhile, companies that do business in South Carolina are investing in clean energy, including wind and solar. This is one of the grand challenges of our time, and South Carolina is rising to it.

The information above was published with permission from NEF, which brings together leaders concerned about the sustainability of engineering in the United States and the impact on the nation’s security and prosperity. NEF involves industry executives, academics, policymakers, media, engineering societies, and nonprofits to develop solutions to the challenges facing the U.S. engineering enterprise. For more information, contact by phone: 202-969-3410; by email: info@, or on the web: www.

This Q&A first appeared in the February edition of the National Engineering Forum newsletter.

Share Your #IamAnEngineer Photo! The NEF is inviting you to be a part of its social media campaign. Whether you’re on Facebook, LinkedIn, Instagram, Twitter, or all of the above, post your photo with the hashtag #IamAnEngineer to celebrate your work, show future engineers how engineering matters, and elevate the conversation through social media.

Innovative vacuum for automation


What are South Carolina’s business leaders and educators doing to train and retain engineering talent in the region? Educators and business leaders are working collaboratively to provide cutting-edge educational opportunities in world-class facilities, such as Clemson University’s innovation campuses. We are recruiting top talent to our research universities with SmartState, an incentive program focused on clusters that are key to the state’s economic development. South Carolina also maintains a pro-business environment and low cost of living that make it an ideal place to locate and grow a company.


What is South Carolina doing in the field of energy that contributes at a national level to keep the U.S. competitive? South Carolina’s research universities and business leaders are developing new ways to create energy more sustainably and to make a broad range of products more energy efficient. For example, Clemson University’s faculty and students are developing lighter automobile parts, creating more efficient industrial motors, finding new ways to adapt the electrical grid to clean-energy technology and testing wind tur-

Power, when it‘s needed. Powerful vacuum generation, modular design and easy maintenance - our new SBPL basic pump with eco nozzle technology and lightweight design offers maximum strength and efficiency. | | Tel 919-713-0880 CIRCLE 242 • May/June 2016 •


MAY 2-5, 2016 • HOUSTON, TX HOURS:

Founded in 1969, the Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) is where energy professionals meet to exchange ideas and opinions to advance scientific and technical knowledge for offshore resources and environmental matters. OTC is sponsored by 13 industry organizations and societies who work cooperatively to develop the program each year. OTC also has endorsing and supporting organizations.

TRAINING COURSES SATURDAY, APRIL 30 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Marine Broadband Technologies: Theory and Practice 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Modern Well Design 9:00 am – 5:00 pm: Recognizing Catastrophic Incident Warning Signs SATURDAY, APRIL 30 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: ASME Code Design Requirements for HP/HT Well Head Components 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Deep-water Riser Engineering 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Petroleum Systems of Deepwater Settings 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Subsea Production and Technologies 8:30 am – 5:30 pm: CM at Risk: Contracting for Owners, Consulting Engineers, and Contractors 8:30 am – 5:30 pm: Deep Foundations: Design, Construction, and Quality Control

View floorplans at http://exhibits.otcnet. org/otc2016/public/MainHall.aspx


Monday, May 2: 9:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.

Tuesday, May 3: 9:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.

SUNDAY, MAY 1 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Additive Manufacturing: Processes, Materials, and Applications 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Friction Stir Welding for the Oil and Gas Industry 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Deep-water Drilling and Production Technology 8:00 am – 5:00 pm: Petroleum Geology for Engineers 9:00 am – 5:00 pm: Managing Process Safety Risks During Organizational Change

9:00 am – 5:00 pm: University R&D Showcase 9:00 am – 5:30 pm: Exhibition 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Technical Sessions 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Topical Luncheons 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Technical Sessions 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm: OTC Closing Reception


OTC offers key insights by global experts on technological advances, safety, and environmentally focused solutions, and economic and regulatory impacts.

MONDAY, MAY 2 7:00 am – 5:00 pm: Registration 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Topical Breakfasts 8:00 am – 4:30 pm: The Next Wave Program 9:00 am – 5:00 pm: University R&D Showcase 9:00 am – 5:30 pm: Exhibition 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Technical Sessions 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Topical Luncheons 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Technical Sessions 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm: Spotlight on New Technology Presentation 4:00 pm – 6:00 pm: Networking Event TUESDAY, MAY 3 7:30 am – 5:00 pm: Registration 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Topical/ Industry Breakfasts 9:00 am – 5:00 pm: University R&D Showcase 9:00 am – 5:30 pm: Exhibition 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Technical Sessions 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Topical Luncheons 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Technical Sessions 4:00 pm – 6:00 pm: Networking Event 7:05 pm: OTC Night at the Ballpark (Houston Astros vs. Minnesota Twins at Minute Maid Park) WEDNESDAY, MAY 4 7:30 am – 5:00 pm: Registration 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Topical/Industry/ Ethics Breakfasts • May/June 2016 •

FRIDAY, MAY 5 7:00 am – 4:30 pm: d5 at Rice University TECHNICAL PROGRAM

HIGHLIGHTS Continued Operations: Addressing the current cost of oil, continued operation of aging fields and hardware, improved production, oil reservoir production, cost controls, and better applications for renewable energy offshore—all in an effort to better place oil prices in line with the current market. New and Emerging Markets: The opening of the Mexican market via the Gulf of Mexico has sparked a lot of interest, which is expected to be sustained for the immediate future. Current Environment: Topics that have relevance in today’s offshore atmosphere, including input by key middle-eastern oil giants, and bringing oil prices better in line with today’s market. Protecting our Resources: Taking a look at cyber security, tools for process safety, and other risk management. Looking Back to Move Forward: Foundational areas of the offshore industry are observed, as well as areas that are considered to have impacts on future developments.

CONTACT Tel: 972-952-9494 Email: Sales: Wednesday, May 4: 9:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.

SCHEDULE MONDAY, MAY 2 Breakfast/Luncheon 7:30 am – 9:00 am: The Next Chapter: How Oil and Gas Companies Can Adapt to the New Environment 7:30 am – 9:00 am: WISE: Are You Cyber Savvy: Smart Connectivity in the Global Energy Ecosystem 7:30 am – 9:00 am: 5,000 Wells and Only 5 Separators: An Industry Perspective on Subsea Separation Future 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: WISE: Career GPS: Mapping Your Professional Future 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Pre-Salt Brazil: Strategic Thinking with a Pragmatic Approach for Massive Investment Panel 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: WISE: From Sponsorship to Significance: Building Effective Support Systems in Today’s Energy Industry 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: The Perspective of IOC Investments in Brazil’s Oil and Gas Business 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Energy Outlook and Future of Innovations for Deepwater in a Cost Competitive Environment Technical 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Well Cementing 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Offshore Drilling I: Deepwater Advancement 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Chemistry of Production Flow Impediment and Remediation 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Decommissioning and Well Abandonment: Case Studies and the Technologies Involved 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Material Integrity Management 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Overcoming Challenges on Offshore Field Development 12:15 pm – 1:30 pm: ePoster Session 1

Thursday, May 5: 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.

2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: How to Enhance Well Productivity of Lower Tertiary in the Gulf of Mexico 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Flow Assurance: Engineering and Projects 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Continued Service for Aging Offshore Infrastructure and Structural Integrity Management 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Topsides: New Technologies Driving Cost Down 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: CFD Verification and Validation TUESDAY, MAY 3 Breakfast/Luncheon 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Tools for Process Safety in Offshore and Upstream Operations 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Industry Breakfast – Egypt 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Major Capital Projects Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow: Is There a Need for Change? 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Reinforcing Your Social License to Operate Panel 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Mexico’s Sweeping and Historic Energy Reform 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Mexico Energy Reform II: Changes to the Service Sector and First Look at New Deepwater Plays Seen in New Multiclient Exploration Data

Technical 7:30 am – 4:30 pm: Taking a Deeper Look at the Offshore Industry 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Floating LNG Projects and Development 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Offshore Drilling II: Managing the Pressure 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Seismic Design of Subsea Structures 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Advances in Reliability and Failure Analysis 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Advances in Quantitative Reservoir Characterization 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Materials Advancement 12:15 pm – 1:30 pm: ePoster Session 2: Best of ATC 2015 at OTC 2016 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Pipelines: Technical Innovations Offshore 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: World’s First Subsea Compression 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Downhole Fluid Analysis and Reservoir Connectivity 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Pipe-in-Pipe System for HP/HT Application 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Developments in Metocean Science 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: New Developments in Offshore Mining • May/June 2016 •


MAY 2-5, 2016 • HOUSTON, TX

WEDNESDAY, MAY 4 Breakfast/Luncheon 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Expectations of Energy Ethics 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Deepwater Exploration and Development: Creating Value Has Rarely Been Tougher 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Risk Management at NASA and Its Applicability to the Offshore Industry 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Moving Forward in Offshore Newfoundland and Labrador Despite the Tough Times 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Industry Breakfast – Ireland 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: The Search for MH-370: Survey Strategy and Technology 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Bringing Mega Gas Discoveries to the Market 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Gas Hydrate Exploration and Production Testing: Encouraging Results and Future Plans 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Forging a World-Leading Supply Chain 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Emerging Oil and Gas Developments Offshore Isreal Panel 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Coping with Lower Oil Prices: Perspectives from Industry Leaders 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Energizing Worldwide Oil and Gas Developments Technical 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Alternative Offshore Gas Monetization 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Offshore Drilling III: Technology and Reliability Improvements to Reduce Cost 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Subsea Processing: Technology and Projects 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Offshore Wind 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Geotechnics for Well Design 12:15 pm – 1:30 pm: ePoster Session 3


View floorplans at

2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: DeepStar: A Global Offshore R&D Consortium: A New Direction of Value Creation and Cost-Effective Technology Deployment in a Cost-Sensitive Environment 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Wireless Communication and Radio Frequency Identification Technologies 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Managing Data for Integrity 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Developments in Offshore Structural Engineering 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Moving Renewable Energy Offshore 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Practical Steps Towards FPSO Cost Reduction THURSDAY, MAY 5 Breakfast/Luncheon 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Center for Offshore Safety Breakfast: Offshore Safety Regulatory Collaboration and Oversight 7:30 am – 9:00 am: Industry Breakfast – Guyana 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Energy Institute High School 12:15 pm – 1:45 pm: Center for Offshore Safety Luncheon: Perspectives Regarding Safety and Safety Management from Senior Regulatory Leadership Panel 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Cyber Security Assurance: Data and Critical Infrastructure Protection 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Center for Offshore Safety Panel: Improving Safety Through Industry Collaboration 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: What’s Next for SEMS? Technical 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Advances in EOR for Offshore Environment 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Flexible Risers: Pushing Technology to the Limit • May/June 2016 •

9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Deepwater Brownfield Technology: Making Money on Ultra-deep Aging Fields 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Human Factors and Organizational Management: Can We Improve the Mindset? 9:30 am – 12:00 pm: Applying Geoscience Technology to Drilling and Completions 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Well Completion Technology 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Integrated Asset Optimization for Offshore Fields 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Addressing the Pressing Needs of Offshore Ultra-deepwater Floating Facilities and Risers 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Hydrate Remediation Methods: Innovative Active Technologies 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Advances in Mooring Systems and Related Technologies 2:00 pm – 4:30 pm: Geostatistical Reservoir and Lithology Characterization 2016 D5: THE NEXT BIG THING MAY 6, 2016 Game changing, forward-thinking, global innovators will speak and lead group discussions that will spark creativity to identify the next big step for the energy industry, through technology, leadership practices, and competitive advantages. The d5 will bring together the brightest minds in Exploration and Production to listen to presentations and participate in discussions that inspire Ideas, Innovation, and leave a lasting impact. This dynamic event will be held at Rice University in Houston, Tex. The d5 will include thought-provoking presentations focused on diverse topics: • Ideas: energy outlook, startups, competitive advantage, and winning strategies • Innovation: game-changing capabilities, science, and big data • Impact: motivation, sense of purpose, risks, and workplace culture


James Irenaeus “Jim” Morgan James Morgan, formerly of Kenosha and Hales Corners (Milwaukee), Wis., died on March 24, 2016 at the age of 92. In 1960, Mr. Morgan was a Founding Member of the Fluid Power Society. He came out of retirement in 1992 to help support the Society’s certification and training programs, and he was among the leadership that decided to launch the Fluid Power Journal. Mr. Morgan was a graduate of Marquette University College of Engineering, a Registered Professional Engineer in Wisconsin, and a member of many local, national, and international business and professional organizations. Mr. Morgan was a decorated veteran of the Normandy invasion with the Army Corps of Engineers. After victory in Europe, his reassignment to the Pacific theater was scuttled by Japan’s surrender. Besides spending time with his family, Mr. Morgan’s hobbies included golf, global travel, genealogy, and the pipe organ. Pictured from left to right: Jim Morgan, Donna Pollander, and Paul Prass at the IFPS 50th anniversary meeting in 2010


Now Available SC Hydraulic Engineering introduces its new portable test cart. This compact mobile design offers many popular features found on our standard power units.

SC Hydraulic’s Newest Addition 90 Series Portable Test Cart

Visit us at Booth S-81942 March 7-11, 2017 Las Vegas, NV

• Mobile self contained power unit • Air drive controls, pressure • Air operated - No electricity gauges and valves included needed • Used in: • Pressures up to 65,000-psi with Hydrostatic testing 100-psi air drive Burst testing • Available with a 5 or 10 gallon Water-jet blasting stainless steel reservoir Hydraulic press operation • Compatible with most fluids Hydraulic cylinder & valve • Available with all 10-series pumps actuation

*Contact factory for gauges over 60,000 psi SC Hydraulic Engineering Corporation 1130 Columbia Street • Brea, California 92821 • USA Phone (714) 257-4800 • Fax (714) 257-4810 Email


CIRCLE 244 • May/June 2016 •



Proportional and Servo Valves, Fluid Power Software, Pneumatic Cylinders, Power Units, and Pneumatic Assemblies, Sensors

Elevate Cylinder Efficiency Stops Leaking Hydraulic Lines

Elevate cylinder efficiency with Muncie Power Products’ single-acting telescopic cylinders. Available in pin-pin and trunnion mounting options, our cylinders are built with precision engineering and specialized machining to exacting standards. Featuring an extended stage overlap to minimize bending and reduce hydraulic fluid usage, our cylinders ensure maximum seal performance and reliability to meet your application needs.

Save Time • Save Money • Save Labor • Save Oil • No tools required, one hand installation • No expensive hardware needed • No more rags stuffed into hoses • No more messy plastic caps • The ultimate contamination control tool • Eliminate hydraulic oil spills & clean up • Quick installation & ease of usage • Safe for personnel & environment • Industry acclaimed

Muncie Power Products

FlangeLock™ Contact Mike Pearl at 914.980.8890 or email: •



YOULI Hydraulic Directional Control Valves Direct Acting Electric available: Youli directional control valves, rated to 4600psi, monoblock or sectional styles, are now available from stock in Corpus Christi, with electric direct acting solenoids on the MB-4 series, rated to 10GPM. Pneumatic operators are also available on all Youli valves, and also kept in stock. Youli quality is based on 25 years of industrial hydraulic valve manufacturing for the machine tool business in Taiwan. A quality product line with a major commitment to inventory in Corpus Christi, Texas, and offered at competitive prices, is growing our reputation.

Youli Hydraulic Industrial Co., Ltd. Proudly sold through distribution. Please call to be referred. Contact the company at 1-888-330-8041 or email to View basic specifications at Visit us at Booth S-81942 March 7-11, 2017 Las Vegas, NV CIRCLE 261

Peninsular Cylinder's CAD Configurator Saves Time and Money! PENINSULAR CYLINDER’S CAD CONFIGURATOR is designed to eliminate ordering confusion & complexity in today’s hydraulic & pneumatic cylinder industry. Our CONFIGURATOR allows you to download & quote any NFPA or METRIC standard cylinder - quickly & efficiently. It provides you with our Peninsular part number along with a 2D or 3D cylinder CAD image that can be easily downloaded into your CAD drawings. Our CAD downloads are available in most common 2D & 3D formats. With decades of cylinder engineering & application experience, we build longer lasting cylinders for virtually any cylinder application! Call us for your next cylinder requirement

44 • May/June 2016 •



FluiDyne Fluid Power's A4V Piston Pumps FluiDyne Fluid Power's A4V piston pumps are in stock and ready to ship immediately. Available in DR, FR, DRG, DFR, LR2 controls. Our A4V piston pumps pressure to 350 bar (5000) psi nominal. Pressure controls include pressure only, remote pressure, pressure & flow and horsepower limiting, side porting, Metric and SAE mounting. Model codes for FluiDyne new A4V pumps and Rexroth remanufactured pumps are available in a wide range of part numbers. Contact our customer service team for more details!

FluiDyne Fluid Power 586.296.7200 • • CIRCLE 264

Eaton’s Mobile Fluid Purifier Increase the performance and efficiency of your hydraulic and lubrication system with the IFPM 72 Fluid Purifier System • Extends service life of hydraulic and lubricant fluids • Continuous measurement of fluid temperature, water saturation and filter flow-through rates • Removes free, emulsified and dissolved water, free and dissolved gases, and solid contaminants • Visit to view the video Scan QR code to see how the mobile purifier works

Corrosion Resistant Window Sights Stainless steel is resistant to corrosion, rust, and staining. It maintains its appearance over long periods and minimizes unwanted bonding between parts. Sight glasses enable viewing inside a reservoir, hydraulic line, or machine compartment. Oil-Rite offers 303 stainless steel window sights with straight or NPT threads. Made in the USA.

(920) 682-6173 •



3-Port Diverter Valves

Caplugs Standard Hose Guards

Inserta® 3-Port Diverter Valves provide a simple means to install a diverter ball valve in a circuit that uses an SAE J518 4-Bolt mounting flange pattern. Compact assemblies can be made, and adjoining components are face sealed with a leak resistant O-ring.

Caplugs’ SHG Series of standard hose guards shields hydraulic, pneumatic and high-pressure hoses from damage and wear. The guards are made of a high-density polyethylene to fit hoses ranging from 3/4” to 6” in diameter. The SHG Series is available in black, red, blue, green, yellow, orange and gray.

These valves are used to divert flow from Port 2 (Bottom Port) to either Port 0 or Port 1 as the handle is rotated between either of two end positions that are 90° apart.

1.888.CAPLUGS • CIRCLE 267

The pressure containing flange body is traceable to manufacturing and material lot. A variety of lock plates are available.

Inserta® Products Blue Bell, PA 215.643.0192 • CIRCLE 266




Proportional and Servo Valves, Fluid Power Software, Pneumatic Cylinders, Power Units, and Pneumatic Assemblies, Sensors

Stainless Steel Window Flow Sights Window flow sights are primarily used in low pressure oil lines to allow visual observation of liquid flow, clarity, and condition. Stainless steel is known for its non-corrosive and non-magnetic properties. Oil-Rite 303 stainless steel flow sights can be installed in any direction. An optional ball enhances flow visibility.

OEM Linear Slides & Air Cylinders When built-to-order actuators are beyond the scope of your automation needs, PHD Optimax® provides prefabricated solutions that are economical and efficient, allowing you to integrate reliable components that get the job done. Built on the foundation of quality you’ve come to expect from PHD, these actuators meet machine builders' stringent performance requirements at a more competitive price.

PHD, Inc. (920) 682-6173 •

(800) 624-8511 •



“AA” Flange, 1DG Series Double Pumps “A” Flange, 2DG Series Double Pumps “B” Flange, 3DG Series Double Pumps New from Honor Gear Pumps. Now available from Corpus Christi inventory. "B" flange group 3, and "A" flange group 2, and "AA" flange group 1 double pumps are now available from the factory warehouse. Standard group 3 models come with 7/8-13 tooth spline shaft and are available from 52cc on the front pump down to as small as 5cc on the rear. Standard group 2 models come with either the 5/8-9 tooth spline or 5/8" keyed shaft, in displacements from 22cc on the front to 5cc on the rear. Standard group 1 models come with with a 1/2" keyed shaft, in displacements from 9cc on the front to 1cc on the rear. Subject to center section displacements being 5cc, or 7cc, or 9cc, or 11cc, triple pumps are also available in the group 2 size pump frame. Aluminum bodies with cast iron covers are standard heavy duty construction for all Honor single and double gear pumps.

Honor Gear Pumps Corp. Proudly sold through distribution. Please call to be referred. 222 S. Navigation Blvd. • Corpus Christi, TX 78405 Toll free: 800-984-9727 • Local: 713-984-8144 • Fax: 713-461-9631 Email: • Web: CIRCLE 270

46 • May/June 2016 •

TORQTITE Adjustable Torque Wrenches Flaretite’s new adjustable open-end torque wrenches allow all tube and hose ends to be precisely tightened to their correct torque requirements. These new wrenches can be used on all fittings requiring a torque specification. Developed to compliment Flaretite’s patented flared seals for 30, 37 and 45 degree flare fittings, these wrenches are used by quality conscious mechanics in all industries. Torque Wrench Benefits: • Five Sizes with ranges from 7 to 500 ft-lbs (10 - 700 Nm). • Fixed wrench ends with hex sizes (jaw opening) from 7/16” thru 3”. Box ends available as specials. • Ratchet end and adjustable ends also available. • Low profile, reversible, spanner design • Precision quality design with +/- 5% accuracy • Shipped with torque rating tables for all common fittings

Flaretite, Inc. Booth S-81942

Fenton, MI, USA • Tel: 810-750-4140 • CIRCLE 271


Pipe Mounted Suction Screens Pipe mounted suction screens can be used for straining oils, chemical liquids, and water. They will not rust. The connector end is made of a glass-reinforced nylon with stainless steel wire cloth screens that are sonically embedded into the nylon. No epoxy is used. They are available with male or female NPT threads. There are 10 different wire mesh sizes to choose from. They range from 4 to 200 mesh. The finer mesh sizes, 60, 100, and 200, are backed up by a much heavier 30 mesh for inner support.

Flow Ezy Filters, Inc.

Go ahead. Push me.

Phone 800-237-1165 Fax 800-252-1730 CIRCLE 273

Ordinary heavy duty not heavy enough? Choose Yates Heavy-Duty Mill Cylinders for: • Induction-Hardened, Chrome-Plated Rods • Heavy Wall Tubing • Replaceable Glands & Retainer Rings • High-Load Piston Design Think indestructible and call Yates.

Corporate 586.778.7680

Alabama 256.351.8081

Georgia 678.355.2240 CIRCLE 272

Suction and Return Line System The latest addition to the AFP product family simplifies suction & return line connections. Connections are available in NPT, SAE, flanged, and hose barb in sizes up to 4". Our lockable LV2B series ball valves will complete your assembly and are available with limit switches or proximity sensors ensuring proper startup.

SC Hydraulics Newest Addition L6-40 High Volume Pump • • • • • •

Pressures up to 5,000 psi with 125 psi air drive Flows over 4 GPM at no pressure and 3 GPM at 1,000 psi. with 140 scfm air drive All wetted parts stainless steel Compatible with most fluids Air operated - No electricity needed Dimensionally interchangeable with most competitive model pumps

SC Hydraulic Engineering Corporation 714-257-4800 • • CIRCLE 274

D03, D05, D07, D08, D10 Valves & Circuit Stack Modulars Power Valve U.S.A. represents, as factory warehouse and sales office, a Taiwan manufacturer of D03, D05, D07, D08, and D10 valves, and modular circuit stack valves. With inventory in the Corpus Christi warehouse, all products are competitively priced, and machine tool quality. In fact the parent company, Tai Huei Oil Industry Co., Ltd. has been selling valves for over 25 years to the machine tool industry in Taiwan. All standard AC and DC voltages are available, and all standard spool configurations are in stock. Special spools are available. Pressures to 5000psi and flows from 16GPM (D03) to 211GPM (D10) are standard. With inventory on the shelf and very competitive pricing, we invite your inquiry.

Power Valve U.S.A. 1 866-FLANGES CIRCLE 275

Proudly sold through distribution. Please call to be referred. 222 S. Navigation Blvd. Corpus Christi, TX 78405 Contact the company at 713-869-1064 or e-mail to View basic specifications at CIRCLE 276


Visit us at Booth S-81942 March 7-11, 2017 Las Vegas, NV • May/June 2016 •



PV-4 Load Sense Design Proportional Valve Quality • Price • Local Availability • Up to 5000 PSI • Up to 61GPM with mid section inlet • To 37GPM with standard inlet • Up to 10 Sections • Electric, hydraulic, and manual actuators See our catalog on our website

The 450C-IG Compressor Industrial Grade (IG) compressors are specifically designed to fill air reservoir tanks and feature a head assembly that includes a newly-developed, patents pending innovative head design for better heat dissipation. All IG compressors are certified CE spec. and feature outstanding sealing properties to the elements. Additionally, all IG compressors are equipped with a separate stainless steel braided PTFE-lined leader hoses and check valve assembly that protects the compressor against high amperage restarts. IG compressors are available in 12 and 24 volt options. 1-888-618-2001

Youli Hydraulic Industrial Co. Ltd. Proudly sold through distributors. Distributor inquiries are welcome. 222 S. Navigation Blvd. Corpus Christi, TX 78405 Toll free: 844-251-7646 Local: 361-561-1525 Fax: 361-883-3893 CIRCLE 278


Visit us at Booth S-81942 March 7-11, 2017 Las Vegas, NV

Unified Code U61 Modular Connectors

EZ-P Series “Performance” Spring Driven Hose Reels

Inserta® Unified Code 61 Modular Connectors are made with optimized connecting flange footprints. These connectors are smaller, lighter, and more cost effective than standard Modular Connectors.

COXREELS EZ-P Series “Performance” spring driven hose reels have a long history of dependability and durability. Time-tested proven components and professional grade, heavy duty steel construction has contributed to its worldwide reputation as the most trusted hose reel. Coxreels’ EZ-Coil safety system retracts up to 80% slower than conventional spring driven reels.

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48 • May/June 2016 •



Elevator Stopping A simple circuit was designed to lift a service elevator up from the basement to the third floor. The HPU had a pressure-compensated pump and a three-position proportional directional valve. A proximity switch was used at each floor to signal the small PLC that, in turn, would signal the valve amplifier card to start de-acceleration until the elevator stopped at each floor. The elevator had a hard stop at the bottom floor and relied on the proportional valve and proximity sensors for the stopping position at the upper floors. The valve’s amplifier card had four separate ramp adjustments so both acceleration and de-acceleration could be adjusted independently of each other in both directions. An average weight normally loaded in the elevator was used to set the ramp speeds and stopping positions. The proportional valve was ordered with an LVDT spool feedback option to assure spool position accuracy. During installation and de-bug, the engineer discovered that if a load with a different weight was used, the elevator cylinder’s stopping point at the upper positions would vary and cause the elevator floor to stop short or over-shoot at all three floors. Heavier loads caused the elevator to stop short of the desired position and lighter ones would over-shoot the desired stopping point, leaving the three floors with an unacceptable offset. The engineer could adjust the de-acceleration ramps, fixing the current problem. But as soon as a different weight load needed to What do be lifted or lowered, adjustments were required again. If the proporyou think tional valve spool would go to the same open position with ½% is the accuracy due to the LVDT option, why did the stopping point change as much as 4" when the load weight changed? problem?

Solution to Previous Problem

OIL RIG TOP DRIVE KNOCKING NOISE IN THE PUMP The lubrication holes on piston shoes allow high-pressure oil to float the piston shoe slightly off the shoe plate. If this hole gets plugged, the piston shoe loses the pressure that hydrostatically floats the shoe. The shoe loses its film of oil that would reduce any wear between the shoe and shoe plate. When we looked down the hole in the center of the piston from the opposite side of the shoe, we could see a piece of O-ring plugging the hole from the topside of the piston’s shoe. We examined the new filter housing O-ring and found it had a small nick that cut a piece of the O-ring off, and as luck would have it, getting caught in the small piston lubrication holes. We installed a new piston barrel assembly from a spare pump, and they were up and running again. The problem was printed in our March/April 2016 issue. See it on our website at

By Robert Sheaf, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPE, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPMT, CFPMIP, CFPMMH, CFPMIH, CFPMM, CFC Industrial Training • May/June 2016 •








pecial thanks to the 35 IFPS members who recently met in San Diego, California, to conduct the IFPS 2016 spring meeting. These dedicated members steer the Board of Directors meeting, committee meetings, and strategic planning sessions, and are instrumental in driving the IFPS forward in its mission. The Fluid Power Educational Foundation (FPEF) Board of Trustees also held a meeting during this time. In addition to board and committee meetings, attendees enjoyed a San Diego SEAL tour, a sunset cruise around San Diego’s famous Harbor and a tour of the USS Midway Museum. 4





Named from left to right: 1. Dean Houdeshell and Jon Jensen 2. Jeff Hodges and Bill Jordan 3. Scott Bittler, Adam Krebs, Dan Helgerson, Scott Nagro, Sam Kaye, and Rich Bullers 4. Rocky Phoenix, Robert Post, Randy Smith, Tom Blansett, Jon Jensen, Marti Wendel, and Genie Wendel 5. Paul Prass, Lisa Prass, Janice Sheaf, Bob Sheaf, Dean Houdeshell, and Ken Dulinski 6. Donna Pollander, Bill Jordan, and Pat Maluso 7. Jeff Morrow and Sharon Morrow 8. Ken Dulinski, Sam Kaye, Rocky Phoenix, Bob Sheaf, Dean Houdeshell, Randy Bobbitt, Donna Pollander, Bill Jordan, Randy Smith, Scott Sardina, Rance Herren, Rich Bullers, Jeff Hodges, Tim White, and Scott Nagro

50 • May/June 2016 •


Named from left to right: 9. Tom Blansett, Rance Herren, Janice Sheaf, Bob Sheaf, Jeana Hoffman, Ken Dulinksi, Ernie Parker, Dean Houdeshell, Hotness, Randy Smith, Rich Bullers, Marti Wendel, John Juhasz, Scott Bittler, Frank Stilwagner, Adam Krebs, Jon Jensen, and Genie Wendel 10. Jim O’Halek, Randy Bobbitt, Ed Rybarczyk, Robert Post, Scott Sardina, Rich Bullers, Dan Helgerson, and Dean Houdeshell 11. Jim O’Halek, Dean Houdeshell, Rance Herren, Tim White, Jeff Morrow, Sharon Morrow, Marti Wendel, Dan Helgerson, Genie Wendel, Lisa Prass, Paul Prass, Rich Bullers, Donna Pollander, and Jeana Hoffman 12. Scott Nagro, Ernie Parker,Todd Zarbok, and Jon Jensen



12 • May/June 2016 •






Hydraulic oil in mobile equipment reservoirs has disturbances caused by the motion of the equipment. Fluid disturbances are commonly called “sloshing” and cause a number of issues, such as breather damage, short-circuiting, diffusion, and entrainment. In this article, sloshing is illustrated, along with a solution.

Rapid vehicle deceleration frequently occurs in forklifts and pick-up truck-mounted snowplows. During rapid deceleration, sloshing fluid can saturate the reservoir breather. When sloshing fluid covers the breather, air cannot escape as fast as the fluid entering the reservoir. The resulting pressure rise damages the breather, allowing fluid to spill out of the reservoir. Forklift operators can also subject equipment to rapid acceleration. Fig. 1 illustrates the behavior of a fluid in a cylindrical reservoir when subjected to a rapid change in velocity. Conventional designs have a reservoir breather installed at the top of the reservoir. If

a reservoir breather was installed in the reservoir during these simulations, the internal surfaces of the breather would be wetted by the fluid. Damaged breathers can cause catastrophic system failures and create environmental issues due to fluid loss. Laboratory tests show that a breather element, which is merely saturated with fluid, will allow air to escape with low-pressure drop. The problem begins when attempting to push fluid through the breather. Under normal operating conditions, fluid returning to a reservoir pushes air out of the reservoir through the breather. However, during sloshing, the fluid covering the breather opening is forced into the breather. Far greater pressures


10 PPI

15 PPI


20 PPI

25 PPI

30 PPI

Fig. 1: Fluid sloshing, Fig. 2: Three-dimensional baffle, Fig. 3: Pore densities, approximately full scale

52 • May/June 2016 •

35 PPI


are required to push fluid through a breather filter element designed for air passage. Three-dimensional baffles, as shown in Fig. 2, are effective at controlling fluid motion in all directions. Three-dimensional fluid agitation requires a three-dimensional solution. Scaling down rigid 3D baffles from tanker trucks to reservoirs smaller than one gallon requires another solution. Decreasing the size of discrete rigid 3D baffle elements is not a practical solution. Small discrete baffle elements interfere with assembly of the mobile equipment reservoirs with internal components, such as pumps, valves, and suction ports. Compliant open-cell foam provides the structure necessary for three-dimensional dynamic fluid damping without adding assembly complexity. A custom three-dimensional shape can be made at a relatively low cost, often less than $1 for four-liter (one-gallon) reservoirs. Caution should be exercised when selecting foam for this application. Open-cell foam is manufactured two very different ways, and one method is highly preferred over the other. Reticulated foam manufactured using the quench method can leave powdery deposits from the caustic solutions used to remove membranes between the pores. Reticulated foams manufactured with the zapping method are cleaner and smoother. With the zapping method, an explosive gas wave front propagates through the foam, melting pore membranes and smoothing contact surfaces. The explosive gas melts loose ends together and does not leave a residue. Polyester open-cell foam has good resistance to chemical attack from hydraulic fluid and phosphate ester fluids, such as Skydrol. However, it is recommended that users collaborate with foam providers on specific applications for temperature and chemical compatibilities. To observe how little fluid is displaced by the foam in the reservoir, simply compress the foam to a solid. Increasing the number of pores per inch (PPI) in the foam will increase fluid stability, but may

create an issue for suction lines. Increasing gaps with lower PPI allows fluid to pass more freely. Increasing PPI decreases the size of the pores. Decreasing pore size decreases the size of the openings in the foam, which reduces fluid passage cross-sectional area, resulting in increased pressure drop. Only open-cell foams with a pore density less than 20 PPI are suitable for mobile equipment hydraulic fluid reservoirs. Open-cell foams with higher PPI values are used in aircraft fuel reservoirs and automotive fuel cells. PPI densities greater than 30 are common. The fluids in those applications have considerably lower viscosities and have far lower fluid exchange rates than mobile equipment reservoirs. (See Fig. 3 and Graph 1.) Testing shows that fluid in a reservoir with reticulated open-cell foam is stable and nearly motionless during rapid deceleration. At rest, the black porous foam can be seen above the fluid in Fig. 4. White flecks above the fluid are the reflections in the open-cell foam. Fluid at the bottom of the reservoir appears solid black in this illustration. The low fill levels in this experiment were chosen to illustrate the movement of the fluid. Greater fluid levels are damped in the same manner, but clear illustration of such damping proved difficult. In Fig. 5, the fluid displacement is negligible when open-cell foam damps the fluid. Fig. 1 shows the response of fluid motion inside a reservoir without baffles when exposed to rapid deceleration; Fig. 5 illustrates the same reservoir with an open-cell foam damper installed. The same amount of energy was transferred during all of these experiments. The fluid with a foam baffle is considerably more stable, and slosh is eliminated. While fluid damping is a desirable asset, there are several other advantages from open-cell foam baffles. Open-cell foam disperses and diffuses returning fluid to prevent short-circuit flow. Reservoirs without internal baffles allow short-circuit flow.

Open-cell foam diffuses the returning fluid stream. Without a diffuser, the return flow can adversely interact with the internal walls of the reservoir. That interaction can deliver fluid to any or all internal surfaces of the reservoir, including the breather. Additionally, a solid stream of fluid entering a reservoir can create air bubbles. Aerated fluid drawn into the suction port can cause erratic system performance or damage components. Open-cell foam also provides cavities to capture solid contaminants similar to a filter element. When a fluid is allowed to rest in a reservoir, solid contamination precipitate out. Mobile reservoirs are often too small to allow the fluid to precipitate contaminants by gravity and do not have return filters. When mobile fluid power reservoirs are serviced, it is common to find very small particulate contamination at the bottom of the reservoir. This is called “silt.” Non-ferrous silt cannot be removed by a magnet, but can damage hydraulic system components. Silt can be rinsed away by fast-moving fluid, returning the contamination back into suspension. Open-cell foam allows small particulates to remain at the bottom of the reservoir by dispersing the return flow. When servicing the equipment, the open-cell foam is removed and rinsed, releasing trapped contaminants before being reinstalled. In conclusion, open-cell polymer foam baffles with low pore-per-inch values provide cost-effective fluid damping and other desirable features in mobile equipment reservoirs.

This article is based on a webinar offered by the International Fluid Power Society. For a list of upcoming webinars, visit

About the author: Robert Post, CFPHS, is an application engineer for Bailey Hydraulics and a member of the IFPS Board of Directors.



Graph 1, Fig. 4: Reservoir at rest, Fig. 5: 0.15 seconds after impact • May/June 2016 •




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Fluid Power Journal May June 2016

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Fluid Power Journal May June 2016