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20 years of Action: Mines and Arms Department Portfolio 2012

Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

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Norwegian People’s Aid

Mines and Arms Department Storgt. 33 A, Oslo, Norway P.O. Box 884, Youngstorget, 0028 Oslo, Norway Telephone: +47 22 03 77 00 Fax: +47 22 20 08 70 E-mail: npaid@npaid.org

Donation information

In order to continue its work and expand into other regions the NPA Mines and Arms Department needs financial support. Any donations are greatly appreciated. For donations, please use the information below: Name of bank: DNB Bank ASA Account number: 1503 18 47823 IBAN NO2215031847823 SWIFT/BIC: DNBANOKKXXX Bank address: DNB, N-0021 Oslo, Norway Or visit our webpage www.npaid.org for online donations

Front page: © Werner Anderson

© Werner Anderson

© Werner Anderson Cox/NPA

NPA treats all information regarding your gift in strict confidence and we do not share information with other parties.


About

© Dixie

Norwegian People’s Aid

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) is a humanitarian organisation rooted in the Norwegian Labour Movement. We support people in their struggle for more power and influence over their own lives and in the development of their societies. In Norway, NPA has more than 9,500 members organised in local branches all over the country. First aid, mountain rescue services, reception centres for refugees, voluntary activities for the elderly and persons with disability, and work against racism are important components of our national work. On an international level, NPA runs development programmes and is one of the leading organisations worldwide in mine action. Approximately 1,500 men and women in almost 30 countries around the globe implement NPA’s mine action operations. More than 90% of the staff are local employees. About 50 international experts on mine and explosives clearance and munitions handling, undertake the training of local staff, and manage the operations. Local employees are the backbone of NPA’s mine and explosives clearance programmes. They are the heroes: the women and men who take on the most difficult job, who put their own lives in danger for the sake of their own and other people’s children, and work tirelessly to improve conditions for life and development in their local communities. Deminers and searchers are given a very thorough training before being sent into minefields or areas containing unexploded ordnance. They are trained and led by international experts and work under the strictest operational and safety procedures. Many demobilised soldiers may be found among our clearance workers, some of whom have actually used mines previously and who now have chosen to remove them with NPA’s logo on their uniform.

CONTENT Greetings

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From Fear to Security

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Introduction

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The NPA approach

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The Mine Ban Treaty

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The Convention on Cluster Munitions

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The Threats

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Releasing land

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Toolbox

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Impact Assessment

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NPA programmes

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Telethon 2011

38

Timeline

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Abbreviations

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Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

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Greetings

from the Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs

r Støre, n Affairs Jonas Gah r of Foreig n Ministe Norwegia

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© Berit Roald, Scanpix/Statsministerens kontor

lives of saving

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des Two deca


© Werner Anderson

From Fear to Security

Imagine constantly being afraid that something awful is going to happen... When your children are out playing; when you till your land to provide them with food; when you fetch water or gather wood; when you walk along the road to school or work. Mines, unexploded submunitions from cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) mean that millions of people around the world must live in constant fear. And every day, civilians are killed or maimed by such weapons. This is an unacceptable and wholly unnecessary threat. NPA is working to make it a thing of the past. As one of the world’s leading mine action organisations, we deliver security to war-torn countries.

Our staff locate and destroy mines, unexploded submunitions and other ERW. They also destroy stockpiles of mines, cluster munitions, and other weapons to prevent them from ever being used, and help secure Ammunition Storage Areas (ASAs) to prevent accidental explosions and diversion of weapons and ammunition which leads to increased violence. They make people’s immediate environment a safe place to be again: safe for playing, living, reconstruction, and development.

Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

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© Lars Huse/Werner Anderson, Cox/NPA

Since 1992, NPA Mine Action has released and cleared the equivalent of a highway around the earth in 28 countries!

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Introduction In 2012 NPA is celebrating 20 years in mine action. Since the small beginnings of humanitarian mine action in the early 1990s, including NPA’s first clearance programme in Cambodia in 1992, there have been tremendous improvements in quality, cost efficiency, and impact. NPA has actively promoted and participated in the methodological development that has enabled this process. The global mine action community has made a significant impact and we should all be proud of our achievements. Nonetheless, mines, cluster munition remnants and other ERW continue to pose a serious threat in most parts of the world, and it is a sad fact that there will still be a lot of work ahead in this area for NPA and other mine action organisations. Our top priority will remain the implementation of the clearance obligations of the Mine Ban Treaty (MBT) and the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM). In the past few years, however, NPA’s policies and programmes have expanded from mine action into broader areas of Armed Violence Reduction. Armed violence, and particularly the extensive use of explosive weapons in populated areas in Libya and more recently Syria, illustrate the complexity and challenges involved in designing appropriate responses that can reduce civilian suffering. NPA increasingly responds to situations where the use and impact of landmines are limited, while all types of ERW are abundant. Bombed or insecure ASAs represent huge explosive risks for civilians. NPA is also deeply concerned that the use of explosive weapons in populated areas has become a global pattern, with direct civilian deaths and injuries sustained during the actual use of explosive weapons running into the tens of thousands each year. NPA believes that it is better to deal with the problem directly, than with the symptoms. We choose to take a proactive approach that can lead to prevention, rather than what we so often have to be, a cure. NPA will therefore in addition to focusing on mine

Per Nergaard former Director NPA Mine Action Department, current Strategic Director, Security and Preparedness

action activities after the use of explosive weapons, strengthen our focus on initiatives before use and during conflict. The size, extent, and complexity of the NPA Mines and Arms portfolio continues to expand steadily with a record 10 new country programmes established in 2012, thereby bringing the total number of operational NPA Mines and Arms programmes to 28 countries for 2012! There are a number of reasons for this steady growth. In addition to our willingness and ability to develop in order to respond to the diversity in challenges explained above, we believe that our focus on establishing close partnerships with national authorities in affected communities is essential. NPA is grateful for the trust and support provided by National Mine Action Centres (MACs) in all country programmes. NPA is also in the fortunate position of having established long-lasting partnerships with a number of key donors to mine action. Their unwavering support has given NPA a possibility to think and act long-term – creating cost-efficient programmes with impact, with a clear focus on treaty compliance. Finally, NPA would not have been able to expand and develop as an organisation had it not been for the pool of competent and loyal staff on all levels of the organisation; many whom have been with NPA since the early 1990s. NPA greatly appreciates their flexibility and willingness to contribute outside the borders of their duty countries, supporting NPAs efforts to establish new programmes, develop new methods and tools – ensuring the continuation and strengthening of the “NPA approach.”

Steinar Essén Director Mines and Arms Department

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The NPA approach NPA has in the past few years expanded from traditional mine action into broader areas of Armed Violence Reduction. NPA will maintain emphasis on, and even scale up, mine action efforts to support implementation of the MBT and the CCM, and is in 2012 also establishing two additional and complementary pillars of work. Like the mine action pillar, the new pillars will focus on the instruments of armed violence – weapons and ammunition. The second pillar will accommodate work to reduce other explosive risks, beyond mines and ERW, most importantly the use of explosive weapons in populated areas and explosive incidents at ASAs. The third pillar will focus on advocacy efforts with a view to addressing effectively unresolved or emerging armsrelated issues, contributing to the development and promotion of rules and norms that can restrict and eventually end the use of weapons that expose civilians to unacceptable risk.

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All three pillars build on the specific set of capabilities accrued in NPA during 20 years as an innovative and actively engaged mine action operator. Just as NPA has always seen field operations and advocacy as two sides of the same coin, field operations and advocacy will be mutually reinforcing activities in the two new pillars – both contributing to changing realities on the ground. NPA will continue to place great emphasis on capacity building of, and support to, national authorities. NPA will always be seeking to develop more effective methodologies, improve performance, and innovate. As a point of principle NPA will share knowledge and new developments with all those working in the same field, enabling effective collective efforts to solve the world’s mine and ERW problems.


• Continue to maintain a role as a strong mine clearance operator, with programmes in medium to heavily affected countries globally. • Establish, and develop, strong cluster munition clearance programmes in the most affected countries, and be a leader in the development of efficient and effective methodologies and approaches.

• Reinforce efforts to support states with relatively limited mine and/or cluster munition contamination problems and which are not far from reaching their goal of clearing the land, to ensure speedy clearance completion in accordance with Article 5 of the MBT and Article 4 of the CCM. • Reinforce our efforts to provide assistance for national selfhelp cluster munition stockpile destruction programmes, with a focus on creating momentum and optimism regarding the implementation of the stockpile destruction obligation contained in Article 3 of the CCM. • Continue to work for the universalisation of and full compliance with the MBT and the CCM. • Participate actively in the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC). Steinar Essén NPA Director Mines and Arms Department ses@npaid.org

© Dixie, NPA mine action South Sudan

The long-term objective of NPA’s Mines and Arms Department is to reduce the risks from mines, cluster munitions, and other explosive weapons to a level where civilians can live safely and development is not constrained. In terms of mine action, our most important pillar of work, NPA’s immediate objective is to remain a catalyst that ensures that all stakeholders work in a coordinated fashion for increased quality, impact, and more cost-efficient release of suspected and confirmed mineand ERW-affected land. To this end, NPA willl:

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MBT

The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Treaty The MBT has been instrumental in reducing drastically the number of victims from landmines, mine-contaminated land, and the laying of new mines. Because of great strides in the development of methodology, we no longer talk about the hundreds of years it will take to rid the world of its landmine problem, but rather decades, perhaps even less. Today we have better skills to acquire an understanding of the nature and extent of a given country’s mine and ERW problem and this, in turn, makes us better equipped to find the right solutions. Nevertheless, many States Parties are still far from meeting their obligations under Article 5 of the MBT. This is partly due to the complexity of the task of clearance, but also a reflection of how the mine action community has failed to address the main challenges: insufficient national ownership, lack of understanding (and hence underuse) of available updated methods and tools, and inefficiencies and ineffectiveness of some of the systems and structures established. The shift to a system of land release that combines Non-Technical Survey and Technical Survey approaches introduced in recent years has already brought about a significant change of pace in the restoration of land to productive use. However, continuous follow-up, quality control, assessment, and evaluation is needed in order to have the intended effect. Another crucial task for the mine action community is to develop even stronger partnerships with affected states in order to secure national ownership of, and resources to, more efficient land release under the MBT. The growing discourse on implementation and on international assistance and cooperation under the treaty will also be key to securing the most efficient and effective use of the resources that the international mine action community receives every year.

Grethe Ă˜stern Policy Advisor, NPA Mines and Arms Department gretheo@npaid.org

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CCM

The Convention on Cluster Munitions

The CCM has already gained wide support and implementation is well on its way. NPA will continue focusing on guiding all efforts seeking to map and document countries’ cluster munition contamination in order to avoid the mistakes made during the same phase of the MBT. It will also continue working to improve cluster munitions clearance methodologies, focusing on efficient release of areas contaminated by cluster munitions. The number of countries affected by cluster munition remnants is considerably lower than the number of countries affected by landmines, since the ban on cluster munitions – unlike the ban on anti-personnel mines – came early enough to prevent this weapon category from causing a global humanitarian crisis. With the exception of the extraordinarily heavily cluster bombed countries of Lao PDR and Vietnam, it is NPA’s view that it is possible to reduce considerably the number of affected countries in a matter of a few years. With targeted efforts and appropriate use of land release, country by country can be ticked off the list. NPA also wants to make sure that the implementation of the CCM is as “needs based” and straightforward as possible. Finally, NPA will continue to provide assistance for national selfhelp cluster munition stockpile destruction programmes, so that stockpiles can be destroyed as quickly as possible in accordance with Article 3 of the CCM.

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© Mariella Furrer

Grethe Østern Policy Advisor, NPA Mines and Arms Department gretheo@npaid.org


The Threats

© Werner Anderson

The Refuse of War Lao PDR, January 17th, 2008: Nine children were out playing in their village when they found what they thought was a ball. The ball was an unexploded bomblet from a cluster bomb. When it exploded, four of the children were killed. The remaining five survived with minor injuries. Two year old Dokthjan survived because he was sitting protected on his big brother’s back. His big brother was killed. This tragedy is just one among so many others. Every day, both children and adults fall victim to mines, unexploded submunitions from cluster bombs and other types of ERW. This is the refuse of war. Wars and armed conflicts come to an end but the refuse of war continues to terrorise millions of people for decades afterwards. Every year, thousands of civilians are killed or maimed. There are far too many instances of such pointless suffering – from all around the world – which never become known. Mines and ERW are a serious, long-lasting threat to civilians. These weapons may be found, both during and after a conflict, beside roads and paths, in fields, woods and the desert, along borders, around houses, schools and other places where people

go about their daily business. They hamper access to food, water and health services and limit opportunities to get an education. Mines and ERW also hinder humanitarian aid and the return of refugees or internally displaced people. Countries which are already put back years as a consequence of war or internal unrest, find that the fear of the refuse of war stands in the way of reconstruction and development.

Did you know that: • Over 70 countries and contested areas around the world have a significant problem with mines, unexploded submunitions, and other ERW. • In 2010 alone, there were 4,191 recorded mine and ERW casualties, a 5% increase from 2009. However, casualty data remains poor and incomplete in some countries, so the true figure is probably considerably higher. • Between 2007 and 2009, almost half of all registered civilian victims of mines, munition remnants and ERW were children.

Kampho (14) died

Thanghe (11) died Vee (12) died Joy (10) survived

Som (12) died Watshana (4) survived

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Sivohn (6) survived Noy (8) survived

Dokthjan (2) survived


© NPA

Thousands of people had to flee for their lives when a series of powerful explosions took place in a military ASA in the Venezuelan city of Maracay on 30 January 2011. © Reuters/Gerard Aponte

Dangerous Ammunition Storage Areas Beyond mines/ERW, a significant further explosive risk to civilians is accidental explosions at ASAs. The results are often catastrophic. In countries with weaker economies in particular, ASAs with large amounts of degrading and unstable munitions, coupled with poor physical security and poor management practices, are a growing humanitarian problem. Thousands of civilians are killed, injured, made homeless and forced to flee every year because of accidental explosions at ASAs. The explosion at the ASA in the Republic of Congo in 2012 was one example of the humanitarian impact that such explosions can have on civilians. Many more are just waiting to happen. The increase in the rate of such explosions has gradually occurred as urban populations have spread from city centres to the outskirts, closer to previously isolated ASAs. These accidents also spread unexploded ordnance over areas that were previously safe. In addition to the explosive risk they pose, poorly secured ASAs result in weapons and ammunition being diverted, leading to increased conflict-related and crimerelated explosive violence and further impact on civilians.

What can NPA do? To help reduce these explosive risks, NPA has established a capacity to help states and non-state armed groups mitigate the risk of accidental explosions at ASAs and help them destroy and thus reduce surplus stocks of weapons and ammunition. To help safeguard civilians, NPA has developed SHADOW, a concept and expertise for ammunition management and destruction which emphasises support for self-help, national ownership, capacity building, local employment and investment, simple and safe low-tech solutions to complex challenges, and mitigation of environmental impact. SHADOW features an effective and achievable Operational Management System encompassing all technical, safety, and quality critical aspects.

Explosive Violence in Populated Areas

Mine action traditionally deals with the refuse of war, clearing contamination left after the use of explosive weapons. NPA is also committed to help prevent civilian suffering taking place during the actual use of explosive weapons. The direct civilian deaths and injuries sustained during use of explosive weapons are in the tens of thousands each year, and these are augmented by the consequences of social and economic losses and damage to infrastructure. NPA is deeply concerned that use of explosive weapons in populated areas (recently coined EWIPA) has become a global pattern, with civilians and not combatants bearing the brunt of the harm.

In 2011 84% of the casualties caused by EWIPA were civilians. This is happening despite the fact that international humanitarian law (IHL) dictates that all sides in a conflict must distinguish between legitimate military targets on the one hand and civilians and civilian objects on the other.

Yet this pattern of indiscriminate military action and associated civilian harm is receiving too little attention and is all too often treated as an unfortunate, but unavoidable – even normal – part of conflict. It has tended to escape the scrutiny of humanitarian organisations, governments, and the media. This tendency must be countered. NPA is engaging in advocacy to build the international discourse on and stigmatize EWIPA. We are working to help strengthen the international rules and norms that protect civilians from unacceptable harm caused by EWIPA. To this end we will document, research, and analyse the impact on civilians of EWIPA, and promote a greater understanding of the practical, policy related, and legal steps that can be taken to enhance the protection of civilians against it. We are a founding member of the International Network on Explosive Weapons (INEW).

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for safe use

Mine action has developed into a professional and well managed industry in relatively few years since the start in the early 1990s. One of the most important developments has been the introduction of the Land Release concept. Efforts to improve and optimise mine clearance have been significant. However, with limited demining resources and the studies revealing that resources are used too frequently to clear land with little or no actual contamination, NPA and the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) were a global driving force for a new Land Release Concept and the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS 8.20 series) issued in 2009. The Land Release method frees expensive and time consuming demining resources for the clearance of actual mined areas and more rapidly frees land for the population for housing, infrastructure projects, agricultural purposes, or other development activities. The Land Release method emphasises the use of Non-Technical and Technical Survey for the release of land, now widely recognised by stakeholders; however there is still a need for improvement as well as global implementation of the concept. As a leading operator and a member of the IMAS Review Board NPA is working with GICHD to review and implement standards. The ability to maximise release through survey is the key to an efficient and successful mine action programme.

Toolbox Landscape, climate, and existing infrastructure also impose limits as to how each specific problem can be solved. Mine infested areas in the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, regions where NPA work, all demand different solutions due to technical and logistical challenges. NPA has developed an adaptable response to the many challenges represented by mined areas around the world. These instruments, a variety of assets, can be deployed where they are most suited. We call this our demining toolbox.

Rune Dale-Andresen, NPA Mines and Arms Department, Head of Operations:

NPA is unique and leading globally in that it challenges established notions and conceptions of mine action and its methods. I feel both proud, and privileged to be part of the very important developments that have taken place in the mine action sector over the years, and I firmly believe that they could not have taken place had it not been for NPA’s courageous and continuous determination to improve both the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of mine action”

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© Dixie

Releasing land


Manual Demining

Dogs

This method is used worldwide. Deminers systematically search an area with metal detectors and prodders in order to locate mines. When a suspicious object is detected, the surrounding soil is carefully removed and the mines are defused or detonated. Manual demining is work and time consuming, but very reliable to the defined depth, and has the advantage of not requiring large investments to get started. Manual demining is also an excellent tool for targeted investigation in Technical Survey. Manpower is recruited and trained locally, and therefore manual demining has the added advantage of creating employment.

Mine Detection Dogs (MDD) and Explosive Detection Dogs (EED) are trained to detect mines and ERW. NPA breeds, trains, and uses dogs in its operations in the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Dogs are particularly effective in detecting mines and ERW in areas where it is difficult to determine the exact location of the threat and where bigger areas must be verified. Also where mines have been scattered randomly, in difficult terrain and where mines and ERW are buried deep, dogs are an effective and sometimes the only tool that can be used. On clearance tasks, NPA uses a two-search procedure where dogs on a long-leash first search a defined area, then the area is covered by a short-leash dog search, and the dog handler walks in the area cleared by the dog. NPA is the only organisation which uses this approach, an approach that has built up a high level of trust between the handler and the dog as well as the end user.

Machines Armoured machines with various forms of earth removing equipment, rotating chains and the like are driven over the minefields. The machines reveal, destroy, and/or explode mines lying in the ground. Different follow-up techniques to assure that the land is safe for the end user are then applied, from visual investigation to a follow up sub-surface search depending on the situation in terms of terrain, vegetation, type of mines/ERW. Machines are effective in suitable areas, and have proven extremely useful both for systematic and targeted investigation in Technical Survey. The development of machines has progressed from heavy military equipment to lighter, more flexible civilian machinery.

Š NPA

Š NPA

Rune Dale-Andresen NPA Mines and Arms Department, Head of Operations runerka@npaid.org

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Impact Assessment Since the late 1990s, NPA has been using Impact Assessment surveys. These actively involve the local population in the data collection process to ensure that target groups benefit as much as possible, in order to justify operational activities.

In 2011, new NPA Impact Assessment Framework and Guidelines (IA F&Gs) were developed. These assist the NPA Mines and Arms Department in gaining a more holistic understanding of the impact of NPA programme activities on a much wider scale, than just at the operational level. The IA F&Gs support the programme planning cycle, decision making of programme activities and enable reporting requirements to be maintained at all levels. The different levels are as follows: • Level 0: applied at the National/Country level and involves a countrywide assessment of the situation in the country prior to starting a programme. • Level 1: applied at the different Intermediate National Administration levels within a country, for example at Province or District levels. Level 0 National/Country

Level 1 Province/District PRIORITIES National versus Grassroots Level 2 Community/Village

COUNTRY CONTEXT Emergency versus Post-conflict

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• Level 2 : applied at the Community/Village level. It consists of conducting Impact Assessment surveys prior to clearance (phase 1), during clearance and at handover stage (phase 2), and post-clearance (phase 3), this level of Impact Assessment is conducted alongside Technical Survey in NPA’s area of operations. All factors that influence people’s lives are analysed using the sustainable livelihoods approach and contaminated areas are viewed, not as sections of a mine belt or cluster strike, but as communities or community tasks. The different levels of assessments are by no means a blueprint; instead Impact Assessment is a concept that needs to be adapted to fit the context of the country in question in order to ensure that it is applicable and realistic. For example, at the Community level (Level 2) the blockages of landmines and cluster munition remnants are seen to be similar but the ways of measuring the impact can vary considerably. In South Sudan for instance, people do not use the land if it is mined, whilst in Lao PDR and Vietnam, people use land contaminated by cluster munitions regardless, and have been doing so for 35-40 years. Furthermore external factors and dynamics that could affect programme activities need to be taken into consideration when conducting impact assessments. These include, but are not limited to: national versus grassroots priorities; the context of the country including transitioning through emergency to post-conflict stages (which can be at different stages in different parts of a country at the same time); the political context; recession; logistical constraints, etc. For example, at the National/Country level (Level 0) it is important that NPA demonstrates to key stakeholders, a good understanding of the changing complex political and contextual situation in many of the countries where we currently operate; or are planning to operate in, in the near future. Anna Roughley NPA Mines and Arms Department, Impact Assessment Advisor annar@npaid.org


NPA Mine Action Programmes In 2012, NPA mine action will be active in 28 countries

Angola Bosnia and Herzegovina Cambodia Chile/Peru The Democratic Republic of Congo The Republic of the Congo Croatia Ethiopia Grenada Iraq Jordan Lao PDR Lebanon Libya Macedonia Mauritania Moldova Mozambique

NPA mine action will start up 10 new projects in 2012 alone Since 1992, NPA mine action has released and cleared the equivalent of a highway around the earth, or one school road to the moon

NPA mine action has released more than 762km2 for safe use in 28 countries since 1992

Myanmar Senegal Serbia South Sudan Tajikistan Thailand Uganda

NPA has, since 1992, found and destroyed more than 1.2 million explosive objects around the globe

Vietnam Western Sahara Zimbabwe Guinea Bissau Zambia Georgia Kosovo Iran Sri Lanka Malawi Rwanda Gaza Strip Afghanistan

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Angola

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Angola is a State Party to the MBT and a signatory to the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 January 2013 (requested five year extension)

Angola has been plagued by civil war since its independence from Portugal in 1975, until the peace accords between the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) were signed on 4 April 2002. Mines, as well as a wide range of other ammunition and explosives, were used by both sides during the conflict, making Angola one of the most mine-infested countries in the world. Following a request from the United Nations (UN), NPA initiated mine clearance in Angola in 1994. Initially, the task was to map the coastal provinces and other areas pinpointed as camps for demobilised soldiers, as well as to clear the main highway between Luanda and Malanje. From 1995 to 2004, NPA had bases for operations in Angola located in the cities of Lubango, Luena, and Malanje. In 2003, NPA took part in the country-wide survey of the mine problem, becoming responsible for five provinces in the northwestern part of Angola. The result of the survey served as the basis for strategic plans for mine clearance in Angola by national authorities for the period 2006-2013. NPA has since 2003 reduced its assets in Angola, including the bases in Lubango and Luena; as well as its MDD project. At the end of 2009 NPA also closed its base in Gabela, Kwanza Sul Province, and is now running all provincial operations out of Malanje, with its country office in Luanda. Currently, NPA’s main focus is less on large scale full clearance, and more on the development of methodologies for Land Release to release impacted land via Non-Technical Survey and Technical Survey utilising its remaining mechanical and manual demining capacities in a more focused, effective, and cost-efficient manner. Additionally, NPA supports national authorities on land release policy, survey, and capacity building training in these areas.

Capacity

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has left behind a grim legacy of mines and ERW, which can be found in almost all parts of the country. Mines and ERW have a great impact on the society in BiH and its economy. One fourth of populated places and one third of the population are affected by mines and ERW. Bosnia and Herzegovina is among the countries with the largest average number of mine and ERW casualties per million inhabitants. Since 1992, more than 5,000 casualties have been registered. NPA has been running its mine action programme in BiH since 1996. In co-operation with the Bosnia-Herzegovina Mine Action Centre (BHMAC), NPA conducted in 2011 a country-wide survey of areas suspected to be contaminated with unexploded submunitions. NPA started Technical Survey/clearance of these areas in 2012. Since 1996, NPA has surveyed close to 200km2, returning 100km2 to local communities for productive use. In the process, approximately 9,000 mines and more than 50,000 ERW have been destroyed.

Capacity Personnel: one community liaison team, eight general survey teams, six manual clearance/Technical Survey teams, two Mini MineWolf medium sized tiller/flail machines, one Tempest-5 miniflail, one armored front loader, eight operational MDDs, one EOD Team, six medical teams.

Personnel: 127 local employees, two international staff. Consisting of two manual demining teams, mechanical demining with Aardvark machines, Casspir vehicles, a mini MineWolf, two Combined Survey/Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) teams, logistics personnel, medics and communication as well as administrative staff.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2019 CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: 1 March 2021 CCM Article 3 stockpile destruction deadline: 1 March 2019

Azir Ibric, NPA mine action Bosnia Herzegovina:

My brother Zijad and I are very proud to work for a professional organisation like NPA, which through humanitarian demining provides a safe environment for citizens and will help Bosnia and Herzegovina to be free of mines. Looking back at the last 16 years, I am really proud to be a part of the NPA team, saving lives and enabling the safe return of the local population to their homes”


Cambodia

Chile/Peru

Cambodia is a State Party to the MBT. It has not joined the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 January 2020

Chile is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2020 CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: 1 June 2021 CCM Article 3 stockpile destruction deadline: 1 June 2019

After three decades of armed conflict, Cambodia is one of the most mine-, cluster munition- and other ERW-contaminated countries in the world. Cambodia sees several hundred victims per year. In collaboration with several operators, including NPA the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA) aims by this year to complete a Baseline Survey (BLS) that estimates the extent of the remaining contamination. This will enable the national authorities to make the necessary priorities and long-term plans to solve the problem. NPA’s presence in Cambodia dates from 1992 with the first demining units deployed to the north-west under UN support. Since 1993 and until today, NPA has provided technical and financial assistance to the Cambodian Mine Action Centre (CMAC). In January 2007, upon request by the CMAA, NPA initiated a project to assist the national authority, the army and police, and other local operators in analysing and disseminating mine action data, as well as creating realistic survey and clearance plans. Today, NPA has three ongoing mine action projects in Cambodia. One of them is an Information Management project with the CMAA in which NPA supports the database unit at CMAA. The second project focuses on survey and Land Release aiming to develop and implement a Land Release concept and methodology. The last project deals with the usage of Mine- and Explosive Detection Dogs capacities with CMAC, ensuring costefficient, high-quality capacity and performance EDDs. NPA also takes an active role in influencing the Cambodian government to adhere to the CCM.

Peru is a State Party to the MBT and signatory to the CCM MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2017 Both Chile and Peru are contaminated with landmines in various locations. In 2012, NPA was asked to undertake a rapid emergency demining project on the border between Chile and Peru where heavy rains had caused mines to be displaced from Chilean territory into a small area in Peru along their border near the Pacific coast. The Government of Chile sent a team from its military to mark the hazardous area in Peru; however, the governments on both sides agreed that a third, neutral party should do the clearance work. NPA thus brought in experienced staff from the NPA Bosnia and Herzegovina mine action programme, who assessed the contamination and possible solutions. On the basis of the assessment, the plan is for the NPA demining programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina to return to the area with team leaders and deminers, and other assets needed for clearance, in order to demine the area. The project is planned for the fall of 2012. The project will be funded by the Chilean Government.

Capacity

© Werner Anderson

NPA presently provides one Technical Advisor to the CMAC EDD programme. In further support to CMAC, the NPA Programme Manager provides advice and assistance to further development of the CMAC Technical Survey capacities in line with the Land Release methodology. NPA has one national Advisor on Information Management who assists CMAA and local operators to streamline their information management systems.

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The Democratic Republic of Congo

The Republic of the Congo

DRC is a State Party to the MBT and a signatory to the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 January 2015

The Republic of Congo is a State Party to the MBT and a signatory to the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 January 2013

Since 1996 and continuing today, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has seen several armed conflicts. As a result, mines, cluster munitions, abandoned ammunition and other ERW are widespread throughout the country. The extent of contamination has not yet been clearly defined. Mines and ERW obstruct development in DRC as access is denied on roads, land is inaccessible for farming and housing, and suspect hazardous land cannot be used for infrastructure projects. The NPA Mine Action Programme in DRC was established in August 2011 in response to a request from the United Nations Mine Action Coordination Centre (UNMACC) and the National Focal Point (NFP) for mine action in DRC to assist with NonTechnical and Technical Survey, and clearance operations in order to help the country meet its obligations under Article 5 of the MBT. The overall objective of NPA in DRC is that mines, cluster munitions, and other explosive weapons no longer expose civilians in DRC to unacceptable risks or inhibit economic, social, and political development. NPA’s approach is to carefully assess its areas of operation and to return them to safe civilian use through its systematic application of the Land Release methodology in its operations. NPA was mandated by the UNMACC and the NFP to train its national staff – a mission that was completed in 2011, providing NPA with relevant input and information about where and how the mines are laid; thereby allowing for a more efficient and accurate survey. In February 2012, NPA DRC deployed its first teams to the field to conduct survey and clearance operations in Bas Congo province on the border with Angola.

Capacity NPA has a growing professional team with both international and national staff. Currently, NPA DRC employs 41 staff (13 female/28 male); seven are international and 35 are national. Twenty-eight are technical staff, six non-technical, five support staff, and three management staff. By training and hiring staff from the areas of operations, NPA teams are familiar with the local culture and play a vital role during the collection of information from the communities. The teams are trained to record and map hazardous areas as well as systematically remove and destroy landmines and UXO.

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Landmine contamination in the Republic of the Congo has not been confirmed. The suspected hazardous area is located in the southwest of the country, in the territory of Cabinda, an enclave of Angola which wished to secede; any contamination is thus a spillover from the Angolan conflict. NPA was requested by the authorities in the Republic of the Congo to assist with Non-Technical and limited Technical Survey in order to confirm or discredit any contamination. The NPA Mine Action Programme in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was thus tasked to survey the area, estimated at approximately 2,250km2. The survey will take place in the fall of 2012, with a DRC team and counterparts from the Republic of the Congo.

A group of African mine action experts trained by NPA over the years successfully established the Mine Action Programme in the Democratic Republic of Congo in August 2011. As Africans, we feel elated that we are improving the rural livelihoods in Africa and ensuring positive changes in people’s lives by removing landmines and UXO” NPA Mine Action DRC Programme Manager, Quartim Matonguiero


Croatia

Ethiopia

Croatia is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2019 CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: 1 August 2020 CCM Article 3 stockpile destruction deadline: 1 August 2018

Ethiopia is a State Party to the MBT. It has not joined the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 June 2015

Landmines were used extensively during the conflict in Croatia in 1992-1995, and as a result, several hundreds of square kilometers of land in the country are still contaminated or suspected to be contaminated with mines, cluster munitions, and other ERW. Almost one million people, roughly one quarter of the entire population of Croatia, live in areas which are impacted by suspect hazardous areas. NPA started its Mine Action Programme in Croatia in the fall of 2001. The programme was set up in the town of Benkovac located in Zadar County. NPA’s strategic goal in Croatia was to ensure sustainable improvement of living conditions for returnees by releasing contaminated farmland in Zadar county. From 2001 to 2011 NPA released more than 26km2 of land, clearing more than 6,300 mines and ERW. Although NPA closed its mine action programme in 2011, it is, with support to the Croatian Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the destruction of stockpiles of cluster munitions, still active in Croatia. In 2011, NPA was invited by the Croatian MoD to make an evaluation of its cluster munitions stockpile and options for their destruction. Working in cooperation, they conducted a research and development project where each type of cluster munition was dismantled and examined. Tests regarding destruction and sound disposal options were identified for all ammunition types. NPA provided the MoD with a report containing an analysis of the various options and recommendations regarding safe and environmentally acceptable solutions as to their destruction. The next phase will be to implement an ammunition disposal project in partnership and cooperation with the Croatian MoD. NPA is currently negotiating this phase.

Mine and ERW contamination in Ethiopia stems from a series of internal and international armed conflicts, including the Ogaden war between Ethiopia and Somalia (1977-1978), and the Ethiopian-Eritrean war (1998-2000). NPA was first involved as the implementer of the 2003– 2004 Ethiopia Land Impact Survey (ELIS) conducted with the national authority, the Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO), established in 2001. NPA later became directly involved with capacity development initiatives which resulted in the introduction of MDDs and specialised Technical Survey teams using the Land Release methodology for a nationwide evidence-based survey in a 2005–2007 project period and a 2008–2010 project period later extended to 2011. In October 2011 the Government of Ethiopia announced that EMAO would be under review for disbandment in 2012 and NPA phased out its support project to EMAO when this was confirmed. The government’s decision is based on the viewpoint that EMAO has fulfilled its mandate to a sufficient standard where it is no longer required to remain as an institution, and that residual risk and the areas remaining to be cleared will be more cost effectively dealt with by the Ethiopian Ministry of National Defence (MoND).

Capacity At its peak the project employed four international staff and five national staff for the capacity building and funding of an MDD Capacity of 52 staff and MDDs, five Technical Survey/Rapid Response Teams with the total of 51 staff and the development of a Mine Action Training Centre as well as advice to and direct cooperation with the Director General of EMAO.

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Grenada

Iraq

Grenada is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: Completed

Iraq is a State Party to the MBT and signatory to the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 February 2018

Grenada was affected by cluster munitions in 1993, during an invasion by the United States. The United States Navy aircraft dropped 21 Mk.-20 Rockeye cluster bombs on Grenada in close air support operations during the invasion of Grenada in October–November 1983. A total of 5,187 bomblets were dispersed. In 2012, NPA was requested by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Grenada to assist with Non-Technical and Technical support on cluster survey and clearance. NPA entered Grenada with an assessment team in the summer of 2012, and through Non-Technical Survey and Technical Survey found no evidence of cluster munitions remnants. Given that no evidence was found; no accidents related to cluster munitions were recorded since the conflict in 1983; no sightings of cluster munitions by the land owners were documented; the area in question was in partial use; and there was no fear from the local population using the area, NPA recommended, in consultation with the Grenadian Police and Government, that Grenada declare itself in compliance with its Article 4 obligations of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

The effect of internal conflicts including the 1980-1988 war with Iran; the 1991 Gulf War; and the conflict that has been ongoing since 2003, the invasion by the US-led Coalition, has left Iraq massively affected by landmines, cluster munition remnants, and ERW and there have been almost daily attacks with car bombs and other Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) on civilians. The Iraqi security forces and coalition forces indicate vast amounts of abandoned ammunition left unsecured after the overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime. Much of this has been plundered and is assisting ongoing insurgencies. In addition to this, ERW are currently limiting access to agricultural and pasture land, and also affecting other areas including school yards. NPA was involved in mine action in Northern Iraq from 1995 to 2009. In addition, in 2003, NPA established a oneyear programme in Baghdad. In 2010, NPA established a mine action programme in central/south Iraq. NPA mine action is now located in the Basra region, aiming to capacity build the Regional Mine Action Centre South (RMACS). NPA will in 2012 start clearance operations in Missan Province.

Capacity

© Werner Anderson

NPA has, since 2010, had three international experts stationed in Basra to assist in strengthening the capacity of RMACS.

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Jordan is a State Party to the MBT. It has not joined the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: Completed The mine and ERW problem in Jordan derives from the 1948 partition of Palestine, the Arab-Israeli conflict in the 1960s and the confrontation with Syria in the 1970s. The minefields were limited to three major areas: the Northern Highlands, the Jordan Valley, and Wadi Araba in the south. Clearing the landmines along the Jordan-Israel border from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea was an immense task both in scale and impact; consequently, in 2006, the Jordanian Government requested NPA’s assistance in the elimination of these landmines. In June 2006, NPA launched its operations along the JordanIsrael border. By May 2008, it had already fulfilled the task of clearing a total of 126 Israeli minefields on the Jordanian side, and as a result, 52,000 mines were destroyed leading to the release of 14km² of land. The National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation (NCDR) and NPA worked closely together in operations along Jordan’s border with Israel. Following a successful conclusion to this work, a new undertaking was launched to clear the border between Jordan and Syria. In July 2007, a Landmine Retrofit Survey (LRS) was conducted by NPA along the Jordanian border towards Syria. This survey revealed and confirmed 93 minefields along the 104km-long mine-belt covering approximately 10.4km². April 2008 witnessed the launch of the Northern Border Clearance Project (NBP). More than 3km² of land have been both cleared and handed over to the NCDR. By April 2012, almost 120,000 landmines had been removed and destroyed throughout the NBP. On 1 May 2012, the NPA Mine Action Programme had completed the clearance of all mined areas along the northern border. However, due to the topographies of the area, along with possible migrating mines due to several factors such as weather and human interference (smugglers) crossing the mined areas, NPA continues survey and verification operations of suspected mined areas. The survey/verification activities will be accomplished by July 2013 when the “residual risk” posed by possible migrating mines has been addressed, which will contribute towards a successful development of the area.

Capacity Current manning levels for the programme is 93 staff of which 4 are expatriate staff, 10 are administrative or other support staff, and 79 are field staff. The operational assets located at the border with Syria consist of two integrated verification/

The National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation (NCDR) is proud of its collaboration with NPA, and we cherish the high professionalism that NPA employees and supervisors have shown” The National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation, Jordan National Director Mohammad Breikat

© Courtesy Awad Awad/AFP

Jordan

survey teams including manual, mechanical, and MDD assets. The two integrated teams are supported by a Verification and Survey Support Section providing planning, Quality Assurance (QA), NTS, Geographic Information System (GIS), Medical and technical support.

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LAO PDR

During the Indochina war, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) experienced the heaviest aerial bombardment in history. US bombing records show an average of 176 attacks a day over nine years with more than two million tons of bombs dropped between 1964 and 1973. NPA’s programme in Lao PDR started in 1997 through technical assistance to the national operator UXO Lao with the deployment of technical advisors in the fields of EOD, Mine Risk Education (MRE), QA and Finance. 2010 was a key year for the UXO Sector in Lao PDR as the country hosted the first Meeting of States Parties (1MSP) to the CCM. NPA has been a key stakeholder in the ‘Oslo Process’, as a member of the Cluster Munitions Coalition (CMC), and provided substantive support to the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) in the build-up to the important international meeting. 2010 was also a key year for NPA as a new approach to surveying for UXO (and particularly cluster munitions) was introduced. Over the last two years NPA has honed this survey methodology: its Cluster Munition Remnants Survey (CMRS) is currently seen as national best practice and has been incorporated into national standards. NPA signed a new, 5-year Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of Lao PDR in February 2012.

© Werner Anderson Cox/NPA

Lao PDR is a State Party to the CCM. It has not joined the MBT. CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: 1 August 2020

Capacity At the time of writing NPA has established operations in Atapeu, Saravan, and Sekong. Approximately 200 staff comprise the programme.

NPA have been stoic supporters to the UXO sector since 1997. They were instrumental in the development of UXO Lao, the national UXO clearance and risk education entity in its founding years, through support to two of the southern provinces. In addition, NPA supported the less glamorous but critical tasks of developing central office areas of administration, quality management, and finance. Following the maturity of UXO Lao to a capacity where external support from NPA was no longer needed they embarked on establishing independent operations. The NPA contribution has been of sector-wide significance with a continually questioning review process and drive towards ever-greater operational efficiency. Most recently the NPA drive to improve cluster munition survey and clearance has led to sectorwide focus and improvements. The impact of their presence has challenged convention from time to time but has always been delivered in spirit of open cooperation and support. We would like acknowledge the good and entertaining works of NPA” Phil Bean, Advisor to the National Regulatory Authority, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

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Libya

Lebanon is a State Party to the CCM. It has not joined the MBT. CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: 1 May 2021

Libya has not joined the MBT or the CCM

Lebanon is contaminated with landmines, unexploded submunitions and UXO as a result of two main events. Contamination from cluster munition remnants is the result of Israeli attacks on southern Lebanon in mid-2006, where approximately 4 million submunitions were fired into southern Lebanon, and of 15 years of civil conflict ending in 1990. Additionally, 20 years of Israeli occupation, which ended in 2000 when Israel withdrew from Lebanon, contributes to the current contamination. As of June 2012, 17.86km2 of land contaminated with cluster munitions remains to be cleared in Lebanon. 70% of the previously contaminated territory has already been cleared. According to the Lebanon mine action strategy, Lebanon should clear all cluster-munition-contaminated areas by 2016, subject to sufficient funding resources. It is assumed that across Lebanon and along the Blue Line – in an area totaling 19km2 – more than 360,000 mines have been laid. The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor has registered a total of 3,846 mine and ERW casualties in Lebanon, of which more than 400 were wounded or killed after 2006. NPA and local partners launched a landmine victim assistance and a risk education programme in Lebanon in 2001. NPA works with national partner non-governmental organisations involved in victim assistance and risk education (RE) on projects such as micro-credit to mine victims, physical rehabilitation and provision of prosthesis and walking aids and community meetings about the risk of mines and cluster munitions. NPA has in 2012 also conducted a victim assistance needs assessment to enable a longer term victim assistance strategy to be developed in Lebanon. As of June 2012, the NPA Mine Action Programme in Lebanon had cleared 5.3km2 of land, clearing and destroying more than 5,400 unexploded submunitions.

Capacity Following the end of the 2006 war in Lebanon, NPA established a mine action programme in Tyre to support the efforts by Lebanese authorities and the Lebanese Mine Action Centre (LMAC) to remove and clear cluster munition remnants in the country. NPA recruited and trained staff in battle area clearance and currently has nine battle area clearance teams operating in southern Lebanon, one of which is all-female.

© NPA

Lebanon

Following the insurgency of 2011 that resulted in the overthrow of the Gaddafi regime, Libya is now in an unstable political situation. There are numerous regional, religious, ethnic, and tribal factions vying to be part of a new government, and at the time of writing, the first elections since the pre-Gaddafi era have been held. Governance itself has been made all the more complex by two main factors: the plethora of UXO littering the country from the recent fighting, as well as conflicts dating back to World War II, which include vast minefields, and the dramatic rise in illegal weapon ownership. These two factors have a considerable humanitarian impact and may prove to be devastating destabilising factors in the future. The Libyan Mine Action Centre (LMAC) was founded in late 2011 to deal specifically with issues such as weapon and ammunition storage security, ERW and mine clearance along with the prerequisite of a national contamination survey. NPA has been requested to work towards capacity development of the staff in the various functions of the LMAC, develop a framework for taking weapons out of reach of the hands of unauthorised owners and, subject to the availability of funding, conduct a nationwide ERW contamination survey.

Capacity The current staff is mainly made up of short-term international specialists each working with the LMAC in their field of expertise. The plan to commence the national ERW survey will require the employment of significant numbers of national staff that will be trained, equipped, and supervised by NPA.

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Mauritania

Macedonia is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: Completed. CCM Article 3 stockpile destruction deadline: 1 August 2018

Mauritania is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 January 2016 CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: 1 August 2022

During the 2nd Meeting of States Parties (2MSP) to the CCM in Beirut, Lebanon, in September 2011, NPA met with the Macedonian delegation and offered to assist Macedonia in its efforts to destroy its cluster munition stockpile through the NPA Self Help Ammunition Destruction Options Worldwide project. An NPA Verification and Feasibility Assessment to Macedonia was conducted in January 2012. Further to this, a Research and Development (R&D) phase for the destruction of the Macedonian stockpile of cluster munitions was conducted in April 2012. This was initiated and implemented as a cooperation between the Macedonian Ministry of Defence and NPA, and is a step in the direction of Macedonia completing the destruction of its stockpiles of cluster munitions and meeting its obligations under Article 3 of the CCM. Based on the successful R&D phase, options and processes for the destruction of the Macedonian stockpile of cluster munitions will be developed and implemented. The Macedonian MoD and NPA plan to start destruction of cluster munitions during the Fall of 2012.

Capacity NPA assisted with a Project Manager and Technical Advisors during the R&D phase and will also deploy Technical and Quality Management Advisors during the implementation phase to assist the Macedonian MoD in its effort to destroy their stockpile of cluster munitions.

NPA made history in 2011, when it became the first International NGO to get involved with demining in Mauritania. NPA is saving lives and providing its local staff with valuable training and a professional working environment. I would like to thank NPA for assisting Mauritania in ridding itself from the threat of mines”

Cheikh Ould Samba, Deminer, NPA Mauritania mine action

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© NPA mine action Mauritania

Macedonia

Mauritania is contaminated with mines and other ERW primarily as the result of the conflict over Western Sahara, which lasted from 1975 to 1978, and the continued conflict between Morocco and Western Sahara. The three mine-affected regions in the north cover some 310,000km2. A total of 64.8km2 is suspected to contain anti-personnel mines, and a further 34.1km2 of land is suspected to contain anti-vehicle mines and/or ERW. The impact of contamination is predominantly social and economic rather than humanitarian. This results in blocked access to pasture and other community resources, and occasionally killing livestock. NPA commenced its operations in Mauritania in 2011. The National Humanitarian Demining Programme for Development (PNDHD) requested the assistance of NPA to assist with survey and clearance operations in order to help the country meet its treaty obligations. NPA is working in Mauritania, both as an operator and in a capacity building role as it strives to be a catalyst, working together with all stakeholders in Mauritania to ensure that Mauritania fulfils its Article 5 obligations under the MBT, as well as comply with Article 4 of the CCM.

Capacity As of 1 June 2012, NPA has four manual demining teams and one survey team operating in the area of Tiris Zemour. Staff capacity is 50 national staff and two international staff.


Moldova

Mozambique

Moldova is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2011 (completed in accessible areas). CCM Article 3 stockpile destruction deadline: Completed

Mozambique is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2014

Moldova took a lead role in meeting its obligations under Article 3 of the CCM when with the assistance of NPA, it destroyed its stockpile of cluster munitions in 2010. This joint project with NPA showed other countries that challenges in the destruction of cluster munitions stockpiles can be overcome. NPA´s self-help, low-cost solutions concept offered a number of extra advantages to this small country, notably the building of the capacity of the national army in disarmament processes, and this approach is now being adopted by various other countries. The capacity and processes within the Moldovan National Army that were developed by NPA during the cluster munitions project have since been employed by the Moldovan army in other stand-alone disarmament projects. Recognising the strength of cooperation with NPA, the Moldovan Ministry of Defense invited NPA back to Moldova in 2012 to assist with the development of an explosive risk mitigation project. As the explosion in the Republic of the Congo demonstrated in March 2012, unstable, poorly stored ammunition and explosives pose an unacceptable risk to surrounding civilian communities. Since the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, Moldova is still suffering from a legacy of surplus and old ammunition, which in its current state of storage poses a high level of risk to the surrounding population.

Capacity NPA provided four EOD technical advisors to the Cluster Munitions Disposal project who worked in close collaboration with Moldovan authorities and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The explosive risk mitigation project was mentored by an NPA Ammunition Management specialist in close cooperation with the Moldovan National Army.

The landmine contamination in Mozambique has its origin in three eras: the decolonialisation war with the Portuguese, the struggle with the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) during the Zimbabwean independence war, and the ensuing civil war. Mines were laid to defend economic infrastructure, military installations, on roads, bridges, and river crossings as well as more widely in an indiscriminate manner. NPA initiated its mine action programme in 1993 as an emergency activity in order to secure the repatriation of refugees from the neighboring countries after the signing of the general peace accords. NPA mine clearance ran for 12 years until mid-2005 when operational clearance was phased out. In 2012, NPA was asked to return to Mozambique, in order to aid Mozambique in reaching its Article 5 obligations by March 2014. As one of the more landmine contaminated countries in the world, and given NPA’s experience from the country and the region, NPA decided to return to Mozambique and aid in the final efforts for compliance. Current operations are planned for Manica, Sofala, and Tete provinces.

The mine action work carried out by NPA in Mozambique in the past was relevant. It saved lives and improved the living conditions of large numbers of people. NPA mine action is most welcome back to Mozambique and I feel very proud of being part of this programme again” Jose Omar Nihembe, Supervisor, NPA mine action in Mozambique

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Myanmar (Burma)

Senegal

Myanmar has not joined the MBT or the CCM.

Senegal is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2016

The problem of landmines in Myanmar originates from decades of post-independence struggles for autonomy by ethnic minorities. Both parties in the conflict – the Myanmar armed forces and various non-state actors – have used landmines. The main contaminated areas are located in the eastern districts bordering Thailand, in addition to some areas bordering China and Bangladesh. In particular Karen state and Bago division have been identified as the most heavily mine-affected areas. Although there are no official accident statistics available in Myanmar, different sources have reported more than 200 victims per year. This ranks Myanmar among the five countries with the greatest number of casualties recorded in the world. Until recently, on-going conflicts and lack of approval from the government left no room for humanitarian demining in Myanmar. However, the situation is about to change as the peace process and political reforms continue to develop. On 12 January 2012, a historic ceasefire agreement between the Government of Myanmar and the Karen National Union (KNU) was concluded – the agreement ended the nation’s longest civil war, which lasted for 63 years. In connection with the Karen state peace process, NPA plans for the first major mine action intervention into Myanmar. In May 2012, NPA completed a preliminary Non-Technical Survey in Kyaukkyi, in Bago division as part of the Norwegian-supported Myanmar Peace Support Initiative (MPSI). Mine action will, in such areas, play a vital role in ensuring the safe resettlement of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), in addition to creating trust in and support for the peace process. When the necessary permissions are in place, NPA will start mine action in Kyaukkyi and in Karen state. At a later stage it will most likely expand in to other areas covered by the peace talks and where there are identified landmine problems.

As a result of the conflict between the Government of Senegal and the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (MFDC), Senegal has a mine problem in the Casamance region situated in the south of the country between the Gambia and Guinea-Bissau border. The extent of the mine problem is, however, still unclear. In addition to the suspected mined areas identified during the Emergency Landmine Impact Survey (ELIS) conducted in 2005–2006, suspect hazardous areas have been subsequently identified and mine-related incidents continue occurring in the country. In 2011, the Government of Senegal asked NPA to assist it in solving its mine problem. The NPA mine action programme in Guinea-Bissau ended in March 2012; staff and equipment were thus moved to Senegal, where the programme is currently being established. In addition to survey and clearance support, NPA aims to support the national authorities on capacity building as requested.

Capacity

© Dixie, South Sudan

NPA Mine Action is currently awaiting necessary permission from the Government of Myanmar for setting up a programme in the country.

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Serbia

South Sudan

Serbia is a State Party to the MBT. It has not joined the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2014

South Sudan is a State Party to the MBT. It has not joined the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 9 July 2021

Following the split from Yugoslavia, parts of the border between Serbia and Croatia were mined. During the NATO bombing campaign in 1999, approximately 37,000 submunitions were dropped from NATO aircrafts on several targets in Serbia, leaving unexploded submunitions affecting 28 local communities in 16 municipalities. From 2006 to 2008, NPA cleared approximately 1km2 of minefields on the Serbian border between Serbia and Croatia, locating and destroying 349 landmines. In cooperation with the Serbian Mine Action Centre (SMAC), NPA has, since November 2007, been conducting NTS of areas suspected to be contaminated with unexploded submunitions in Serbia. In late 2010, NPA started a three-year project to clear the municipalities of Bujanovac, Kursumlija, and Presevo of unexploded submunitions. From May 2011 to April 2012, approximately 975,000m2 were released by NPA through clearance. In the municipality of Presevo, an additional estimated area totalling 550,000m2 was released through NTS. Moreover, 105 unexploded submunitions and other ERW were found and destroyed. The Republic of Serbia holds a considerable stockpile of cluster munitions. Representatives of the Serbian government have indicated that this is the reason Serbia has failed to sign and ratify the CCM. In 2012, NPA conducted a research and development project in cooperation with the Serbian Ministry of Defence. Additionally, safe and environmentally friendly procedures for the destruction of cluster munitions of the type BL-755 were made. This approach made it possible to recycle valuable metals in the destruction process. The next phase in the stockpile destruction effort is to implement the destruction project.

Capacity Personell: There are 34 employees with the NPA Mine Action programme in Serbia and two surveyors seconded to the SMAC. The NPA regional office in Belgrade provides administrative and logistical support. The regional IM advisor provides assistance on Information Management, and the regional QA advisor provides assistance on quality control and management.

After 21 years of civil war between the north and the south of Sudan, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was finally signed on 9 January, 2005. The two parties were offered a roadmap towards a referendum which was held in 2011, where the people in the south voted for the separation of the country. On 9 July 2011 South Sudan declared its independence. The long civil war has resulted in a considerable problem with landmines and ERW, mainly in South Sudan and the disputed border areas. South Sudan became a party to the MBT as an independent nation in July 2012. The highest threat of mines in South Sudan are in the states of Eastern and Central Equatoria (on the border with Kenya and Uganda), and on the border areas of Ethiopia, but which for various reasons have not yet been mapped. It is expected that this region is contaminated with both mines and ERW. Since 1986, NPA has been consistently working in South Sudan. NPA has mainly worked within four areas: food security, health care, development of local communities, and various training programs for the local population. Peace negotiations between the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Government of Sudan started to bear fruit in 2002, with the signing of the Machakos Protocol in July. There has been a de facto cease-fire since the end of 2002. Given the favourable circumstances with sustainable peace in sight, NPA decided to establish a mine action programme in South Sudan in March, 2004. Initial priorities were to train national staff, and to start opening up transportation routes for the delivery of humanitarian aid.

Capacity NPA have a support base for the mine action programme in Yei, Central Equatoria with flexible field assets deployed in several South Sudan states as well as smaller tasks abroad (currently Uganda and previously Rwanda). Expatriate positions in the programme have been reduced according to a capacity building plan for national staff that has gradually taken on more senior positions. Today the programme has 10 international personnel (including three staff in the Capacity Building Project of the South Sudan Mine Action Authority (SSMAA)) and approximately 200 national staff.

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Tajikistan

Thailand

Tajikistan is a State Party to the MBT. It has not joined the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 April 2020

Thailand is a State Party to the MBT. It has not joined the CCM. MBT Article 5 deadline: 1 November 2018

Tajikistan is contaminated with landmines, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and explosive remnants of war (ERW). ERW exists within three distinct regions of Tajikistan: the Central Region a result of the civil conflict that took place in 1992–1997; areas at the Tajik-Afghan Border (TAB), which was contaminated in 1991-1998; and the Tajik-Uzbek Border (TUB) contaminated with anti-personnel mines laid in 1999-2000. NPA mainly focuses its efforts in clearing the TAB-region. According to the data gathered and information from national authorities, the impact of the current landmine threat is significant. Currently, there are 456,790 people living in minecontaminated areas – of these, it is estimated that approximately 70% are women and children. The risk areas are usually situated in hills and mountains where most villages are located, which in turn slows down the development of the region. NPA was invited in 2009 by the national mine action coordination centre, Tajikistan Mine Action Centre (TMAC), to assist Tajikistan in reaching its Article 5 obligation by the extended deadline of March 2020. After signing a Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of Tajikistan in mid-2010, NPA commenced its in-country operations. The first demining task was along the TAB where NPA Tajikistan has completed several subsequent tasks. In 2011, an MDD component was added to the land clearance operations. All of NPA’s mine action activities are implemented in close cooperation with TMAC.

Thailand has experienced intense ground warfare and deployment of a large number of landmines and littering of ERW. Land is still out of bounds due to landmines and ERW; the main problem is a high level of landmine contamination in the Cambodia-Thailand border areas, many of which are designated for the establishment of national parks. NPA carried out the national Landmine Impact Survey of Thailand in collaboration with the Thailand Mine Action Centre (TMAC). NPA resumed support to TMAC in 2008, mainly providing technical advice on TMAC’s capacities in strategic planning and information management and introducing the concept of land release.

Capacity NPA Tajikistan has approximately 100 staff, of whom 94 are local. The staff composes of six manual clearance teams, six MDD handlers, two national site supervisors and five medical personnel. NPA Tajikistan employs two Technical Advisors to the MDD Programme and two Technical Advisors to the Manual Demining Programme. Clearance is supported by six operational MDDs.

30 Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

Capacity NPA has supported TMAC since 2009 with technical advice on strategic planning, information management and land release, coordinating closely with TMAC, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and civil society in general on advocacy and the Landmine Monitor. The Programme also works towards getting Thailand to sign the CCM and address the issue of stockpile destruction in particular which is the only known challenge for Thailand in regards to the CCM. As Thailand is a regional force, both economically and strategically in the area, and given tensions in the contested border region with Cambodia, the issues of disarmament in regards to both the MBT and the CCM have a high impact on regional peace and security. NPA’s involvement in these issues in Thailand has a positive effect on regional stabilisation. The issue of violence, particularly with the use of explosive weapons in the southern provinces, led NPA to initiate the Thailand Network for Humanitarian Disarmament (TNHD) with other core civil society members. NPA along with its partners will continue to work towards addressing the concerns of explosive violence in southern Thailand. In 2011 NPA established an operational capacity in partnership with the local Thai NGO, Thailand Civilian Demining Association (TDA).


Uganda

Vietnam

Uganda is a State Party to the MBT and signatory to the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 August 2012

Vietnam has not joined the MBT or the CCM

Mines and ERW contamination in Uganda are a result of armed conflict and civil strife over the past four decades. The main problem is in the north of the country, following many years of conflict with the non-state armed group, the Lord Resistance Army (LRA), and includes mines, UXO and abandoned explosive ordnance. In 2009 Danish Demining Group (DDG), which was supporting the Ugandan Mine Action Centre (UMAC), inquired if NPA could assist with mechanical support on one of the two remaining minefields on the border to South Sudan, in order to help Uganda reach its MBT deadline. NPA, alongside UMAC and DDG, completed the Ngomoro minefield in 2010. Currently operations are on-going in another minefield recently discovered in the Bibia region. The support is provided entirely from the NPA Mine Action South Sudan programme.

Capacity

© Werner Anderson

In agreements with donors, NPA have brought equipment and personnel from South Sudan for the project period. NPA have deployed one MineWolf 370, one MineWolf Bagger and one Mine Protected Vehicle with field managers and operators.

In 1972, the area of Quang Tri was subjected to one of the war’s most intense bombing campaigns, after which almost every village in the province had been destroyed. According to statistics at that time, 328,000 tons of bombs and other explosive weapons were fired at the Demilitarized Zone and thousands of landmines were also laid. The United States combat records show that out of the ten most bombed provinces, Quang Tri was ranked as the most targeted and it is where the majority of BLU-26/36 cluster bombs and M79 4mm grenades are found, accounting for 65% of all injuries since 1975. In June 2006, NPA was requested by the People’s Committee of Quang Tri Province to provide an Explosive Ordnance Disposal capacity to Project RENEW. Since then, NPA has expanded, not only in support to Project RENEW, but also establishing its own operational capacity in Thua Thien Hue Province, and support to National Authorities such as the Vietnam Bomb and Mine Action Clearance Centre (VBMAC) and the Technology Centre for Bomb and Mine Disposal (BOMICEN). In 2010/11 NPA supported VBMAC to establish a national mine action database unit, while in 2012 it has been providing Technical Advice and support to BOMICEN on Land Release through the “Pilot Project on Land Release”.

Capacity NPA maintains a project office in Thua Thien Hue Province which is located in central Vietnam south of Quang Tri Province. NPA provides technical, financial, and managerial support for four multipurpose teams manual (manual, survey, clearance and EOD) and two Community Support teams totaling 72 people under its partnership with Project RENEW. Project RENEW’s clearance team is assisted mechanically by a Cat Excavator used for vegetation reduction and sifting. NPA Operations in Hue include three multipurpose manual teams and support staff totaling 51 people. All operations are supported by the country office located in Hanoi with 4 staff. Additionally, four international staff provide managerial and technical support to the programme in the positions of Country Director, Operations Manager, and Technical Advisor.

NPA brought one of its Mine Wolf 370 machines to Uganda in 2010 to help the authorities reach its MBT deadline.

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Western Sahara

Zimbabwe Zimbabwe is a State Party to the MBT. It has not joined the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 January 2013

The conflict over Western Sahara broke out between Morocco, Mauritania and the Saharawi independence movement after Spain’s withdrawal in 1975. The status of Western Sahara is still the subject of a dispute between Morocco and the Polisario Front. The territory is divided by a 2,000km-long wall, known as the ‘berm’, which was built by the Moroccan army during the 1980s and was fortified with landmines. The Polisario Front controls the sparsely populated area that lies east of the berm. As a result of the conflict, Western Sahara is significantly contaminated by landmines, cluster munitions, and other ERW. The presence of mines/ERW constitutes a high threat for the approximately 10,000 Saharawi nomads who live in these areas; in addition, Saharawi refugees frequently travel to Western Sahara. In 1998, NPA established a MRE project in Western Sahara. In 2000, the project was closed, but a national NGO; the Saharawi Campaign to Ban Landmines (SCBL), was established by local staff of NPA to continue RE activities. As the situation today is unchanged for the Saharawi population, there is still a clear need for further RE activities to be conducted. NPA will draw on resources from the NPA MRE project in Lebanon to set up a new risk education project, using SCBL as its implementing partner, conducting RE in the refugee camps, in addition to MRE in Western Sahara (east of the berm).

Capacity NPA is planning to deploy five teams of three trainers in each of the four refugee camps and a mobile team of four persons in Western Sahara east of the berm. In addition, NPA will draw upon the capacities of its MRE project in Lebanon, with its method and design for MRE sessions and material, in addition to monitoring the project implementation.

32 Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

In the 1970s during Zimbabwe’s war for independence, a significant amount of landmines were laid. The mine problem is believed to be concentrated in five known areas along the Mozambique border and the scope of the problem is believed to be substantially limiting and blocking agricultural activities, access to water sources and cross border movements, To date, only limited NTS has been done. NPA was asked to assist with survey and clearance by the Zimbabwe Mine Action Centre (ZMAC), initially in order for Zimbabwe to have a clear picture of the mine problem so that it could request a realistic extension to its MBT obligations and consequently create realistic clearance plans. NPA established in the late spring of 2012 an office in Chimoio, Mozambique, from where it will also run its operations on the Zimbabwean side of the border. The programme is expected to be operational in the fall of 2012. In addition to survey and clearance operations, NPA is currently in the process of negotiating the establishment of a civilian mine action centre in Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe.


The NPA Global Training Centre The NPA Global Training Centre (GTC) is located in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and it supports all NPA programmes worldwide. Currently 24 people are employed at the centre and approximately 110 dogs are under training annually.

Š Gemima Harvey

The facilities have been steadily upgraded over the last few years and are today an excellent centre for breeding and training dogs, and training dog handlers and dog trainers. The centre has built up an international reputation for being one of the leading MDD centres in the world. GTC breeds high quality dogs and currently has a capacity of producing 70 puppies a year. The centre has competent staff mainly recruited from the NPA mine action programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina. GTC is the leading provider to mine action operators of quality solutions for cost efficient land release in addition to being a supplier of specially trained detection dogs for governmental and commercial organisations. Strategically NPA wants to expand its areas of operation and respond to requests for support both from NPA mine action programmes and from other mine action NGOs. GTC has formalised its cooperation with other national mine action bodies such as CMAC (Cambodia) and EMAO (Ethiopia). GTC has managed to build a good internal breeding base and is not dependent on external dog purchases. There is occasionally a need to purchase specially selected dogs for

breeding material. Close supervision and training of the dogs, combined with a good veterinary system is fundamental for minimising the number of dogs that fail accreditation. There is also a continuous process to improve the tactical use of dogs to reduce down time and increase productivity.

Quality Maintenance MDD is a field that continuously changes and improves. GTC is actively participating in international forums and workshops in order to increase its knowledge and experience. The centre also puts a strong emphasis on strengthening its human resources.

Capacity Personnel: 22 local staff, two international staff, and 110 MDD.

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Guinea-Bissau

2012

Guinea-Bissau is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: Completed CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: Completed CCM Article 3 stockpile destruction deadline: 1 May 2019

A former Portuguese colony, Guinea-Bissau was affected by the liberation war initiated by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). On 24 September 1973, the PAIGC National Assembly declared Guinea-Bissau’s independence but Portugal recognised its independence only on 10 September 1974 following the 25th of April military coup in Portugal. In late 1980, Guinea-Bissau’s government was removed from power in a military coup and in June 1998, a civil war broke out, ending only in May 1999. Both the liberation struggle and the civil war displaced a large number of people and left the country affected by mines and ERW. In the 2000s the conflict in Senegal between the Senegalese armed forces and the MDFC extended into GuineaBissau’s territory. This period of fighting left the areas along the border with the Casamance region in Senegal, particularly in the São Domingos sector, contaminated with mines and ERW. According to a Landmine Impact Survey conducted in Guinea-Bissau, 81% of the communities affected by landmines and ERW were small villages, relying on small-scale agriculture for survival. Clearance thus improved blocked or compromised access to agricultural and pasture land for almost half of these communities. The National Mine Action Coordination Centre (CAAMI) and UNDP asked NPA to assist with NTS and TS in order to help Guinea-Bissau comply with its MBT Article 5 obligations on clearance before the expiry of the deadline. From September 2010 to June 2011 NPA conducted a landmine and ERW national survey to complement the national LIS previously conducted by Landmine Action. The results of the survey conducted by NPA in Guinea-Bissau set the foundation for NPA’s involvement in the clearance phase. On 1 February 2012, NPA declared that all known anti-personnel mines had been cleared. NPA did, however, continue working until the end of March to clarify all doubts and clear the residual ERW threat. At the beginning of 2012, Guinea-Bissau declared it had completed its MBT Article 5 clearance obligations.

34 Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

Zambia

2010

Zambia is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: Completed CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: Completed

During the period 1960-1990, liberation movements and various other groups, established military camps throughout Zambia. Although conventional minefields were not laid in Zambia, mines, unexploded submunitions and other items of UXO were left around military camps, roads and border crossings where combat between rebels and armies from neighboring countries were taking place. NPA conducted in 2008-2009 a mine mapping survey in Zambia. All previously known mine contaminated areas had been cleared by the Zambian army. Based on the results of the NPA survey, which indicated that Zambia was no longer contaminated with anti-personnel mines or antivehicle mines, the national authorities declared that Zambia had fulfilled its obligations under Article 5 of the MBT. Furthermore, with assistance from NPA, Zambia was also able to meet its Article 4 obligations of the CCM.

Georgia

2010

Georgia has not joined the MBT or the CCM. The war between Russia and Georgia in 2008 left many items of UXO in Georgia. During the conflict, both sides also used cluster munitions. The cluster munition remnants problem in Georgia is mainly limited to the conflict area, especially in the region Karteli, north of Gori. NPA began its battle area clearance programme in Georgia in September 2008. Within three months, the clearance team managed to clear the village of Ruisi, resulting in more than 1.1km2 of land being cleared and returned to the population. It was then decided that the programme would continue its operations with locally employed and trained staff. During 2009, NPA cleared an additional 4.2km2 and released another 657,000m2 of land through NTS.


Gaza Strip

2009

© NPA

ERW remain in Gaza as a result of armed conflict with Israel. The Gaza strip has been surveyed and partly cleared by the Palestinians, but limited support with security assessment of collapsed buildings and some explosive ordnance disposal operations during the reconstruction and development phases will be required. NPA has been present in Gaza with different development projects since 1987. In February 2009, NPA established a separate EOD project in Gaza which terminated the same year.

Afghanistan

2009

Afghanistan is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: 1 March 2013 (requested ten year extension). CCM Article 4 clearance deadline: 1 March 2022. CCM Article 3 stockpile destruction deadline: Completed In March 2009, the NPA GTC was contracted by the GICHD to conduct a nine-month instructor course at the Mine Dog Centre (MDC) located in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. NPA GTC’s mission was to introduce and implement the GTC training philosophy and method; in addition GTC supplied 12 dogs for the students to use during the course. The GTC team consisted of two technical advisors present in Kabul at all times, in addition to a close follow up by the Head of the GTC. All objectives set were accomplished and all 12 dogs were accredited on schedule in December 2009.

Rwanda

2008

Rwanda is a State Party to the MBT and signatory to the CCM. MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: Completed Rwanda was contaminated with landmines and ERW as a result of the 1990–1994 war and from the retreat of the army and Interahamwe militias to neighboring countries and their subsequent attacks launched from the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1996–1998. In a 2002–2003 assessment, four of the 12 former provinces reported a mine threat. After several years in which its demining programme had come almost to a standstill, since 2006, Rwanda made tremendous progress in reducing its own mine problem. In May 2006, nearly 900,000m2 remained to be cleared of mines and unexploded ordnance in 16 minefields in the four provinces. By the end of November 2008, the National Demining Office (NDO), with support from NPA, had finished clearing the Kanombe minefield and only one small Dangerous Area (DA) remained to be cleared – Muhororo, 2,242m2. In December 2009, Rwanda declared itself in compliance with its MBT Article 5 clearance obligations.

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SRI Lanka

2008

Sri Lanka has not joined the MBT or the CCM As a result of the civil war between the Sinhalese government forces and Tamil rebels, which lasted for two decades, large parts of Sri Lanka – mainly Vanni and Jaffna regions – became densely covered with landmines and UXO. The Armistice Agreement, which came into force on 22 February 2002 made it possible to initiate a comprehensive mine action intervention in the north and east. NPA entered the country as the only international demining organization, which in cooperation with the local partner Humanitarian Demining Unit (HDU), operated in government-controlled areas throughout 2007. At the end of the same year, NPA and HDU had demined roughly 18km2 of land and destroyed more than 30,748 mines and items of UXO. NPA concluded its work in January 2008.

Capacity At its peak, the programme employed 650 national and five international staff. When the programme was halted in January 2008, there were 475 national and three international staff.

Industrial destruction of cluster munitions

36 Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

Iran

2008

Iran has not joined the MBT or the CCM As a result of the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), Iran is today contaminated with landmines and other ERW. Active combat during the war in many areas created a significant problem with UXO in Iran. NPA worked in Ihlam province in western Iran, along the border with Iraq. This area was an important area during the Iran-Iraq war. It is unknown how much of the area is covered with UXO. With technical assistance from the Norwegian aluminum and renewable energy company, Norsk Hydro, NPA was able to start its programme in Iran in 2001, providing MRE to all personnel who were associated with the project, and providing support in the form of quality assurance and documentation of the clearance of mines and ERW. In the period 2001-2006 and in 2008 NPA was also responsible for field operations with evaluations and clearance of roads, seismic lines, drilling points, areas for administrative installations and oil rigs. From 2001 to 2006, NPA had 16 international demining operators in the field when capacity was at its maximum.


Malawi

2007

kosovo

2001

Malawi is a State Party to the MBT and the CCM MBT Article 5 clearance deadline: Completed As a result of the civil war in Mozambique, it was suspected that mines and cluster munition remnants were contaminating the 1,000km-long border between Mozambique and Malawi, and around the refugee camps in the area. It was also suspected that 33 former training sites for Malawi Young Pioneers (MYP) were affected by items of UXO. NPA operated in Malawi in 2006 and 2007, bringing demining resources to Malawi that were formerly deployed in its programme in Mozambique which closed in 2006 in order to initiate a national survey of landmines and ERW. From May to October 2007, NPA’s survey identified six potentially hazardous areas. On the basis of this survey, the areas suspected to be contaminated were cleared or otherwise released by survey and Malawi declared itself in compliance with its Article 5 obligations.

Large areas of Kosovo were in 1999 contaminated with cluster munitions and other ERW in addition to mines. The contamination resulted in serious and immediate threats to the lives and well-being of the local population; created significant obstacles to the delivery of humanitarian assistance; and impeded the reconstruction of homes, infrastructure, and the provision of basic services. NPA started its operations in Kosovo in 1999 as one of the first organisations to establish a mine action programme in country. From July to September 1999, emergency clearance was commissioned under the leadership of the United Nations to carry out clearance in the western parts of Kosovo. They conducted surveys and clearance in high priority areas, such as houses, wells and schools. All clearance was operated under the Civil Emergency Corps in Kosovo (KPC).

Capacity

© Werner Anderson Cox/NPA

Staff: 23 employees from Mozambique and one from Angola, as well as 12 deminers.

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Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation’s Annual Telethon to

NPA Mine Action 2011

The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation’s (NRK) annual telethon (“TV-aksjonen”) is the world’s largest fund-raising event both in terms of the amounts raised and number of volunteers who participate in the event.

The NRK Telethon has been held annually since 1974. On one Sunday evening in late October each year, 100,000 volunteers go from door to door with collection boxes for two hours, visiting more than 1.8 million households. In addition to the door-to-door visits, on the Sunday of the telethon NRK devotes its evening programme schedule to the event with a six-hour live TVbroadcast of nationwide fundraising activities, field reports and studio interviews relating to the topic of the year. In 2011, the Telethon was awarded to NPA and our efforts to clear mines, cluster munition remnants, and other ERW. The NPA proposal, titled “From Fear to Safety”, was selected among many other applications from Norwegian NGOs. The focus of the NPA proposal was that mine and cluster munitions contamination can actually be solved quite easily, and that the equation is simple: Funding + Clearance = Life. The more funds that are made available for clearance the faster we may solve the problem and save lives. All NPA local branches participated in the telethon, and more than 230 activities organised by local chapters were registered during the campaign period. A total of NOK 220 million was raised for NPA Mine Action through the telethon – the second best result in the history of the telethon! The funds raised will be spent over a period of five years (2012-2017) in the countries presented in the proposal – some of the most mine-, cluster munition-, and ERW-affected countries worldwide: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Lao PDR, Lebanon, South Sudan, Tajikistan, and Vietnam. Funds will also be provided to the NPA Global Training Centre for Mine Detection Dogs in Sarajevo. In addition a limited amount will be used towards new initiatives and programmes.

The focus of activities during the five years will be to strengthen clearance capacities in the country programmes and accelerate the release of land back to the local communities for resettlement, agricultural and income generating activities – subsequently contributing to socio-economic development in previously mine and cluster munitions contaminated areas. What can be achieved with the Telethon funds? • South Sudan: 10 million square metres of land released for resettlement and agriculture • Bosnia and Herzegovina: Increased release of land will facilitate for resettlement and agriculture – a precondition for lasting peace • Lao PDR: Comprehensive mapping of cluster munition contaminated areas resulting in more efficient clearance. • Lebanon: NPA will contribute to Lebanon declaring the country free of cluster munitions by 2016 • Vietnam: Funds from the telethon will help clear 100 football fields from cluster munitions • Tajikistan: Increased clearance capacity will contribute to a Tajikistan cleared of mines before 2020. • NPA GTC: 70 Mine Detection Dogs bred and trained for field operations

Jane L. K. Filseth Andersen Senior Advisor, NPA Mines and Arms Department jfan@npaid.org

Tord Johansen Søgstad (8) collected funds for NPA with his grandmother.

38 Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012


Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012 © Eivor Eriksen

39


1994 First all-female team is operational in Mozambique 1992 First mine action programme in Asia (Cambodia)

First use of Mine Detection Dogs (Mozambique)

1996 First use of mechanical mine clearance assets (Angola) First mine action programme in Europe (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

DANGER MINES

1992

1993

1994

1993 First mine action programme in Africa (Mozambique) First MRE programme (Mozambique)

1995

DANGER MINES 1996

1997

1998

1995 First survey team begins operating in Angola

1997 The Mine Ban Treaty is adopted in Oslo, Norway

First mine action programme in the Middle East (Northern Iraq)

ICBL is awarded the Nobel Peace Price

NPA joins the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)

40 Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

1999

DANGER 2000

1999 First Impact Assessment tool developed (Angola)

2001

2002


2007 The M85 report, a crucial document in the process of banning cluster munitions, is launched

2004 The Global Training Centre is established in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

MINES 2003

2010 The first stockpile destruction project begins in Moldova

DANGER MINES 2004

2005

2006

2007

2006 First cluster clearance programme is established in Lebanon

2012 First clearance project in the Americas (Chile/Peru)

DANGER MINES

2008

2009

2008 The ban on cluster munitions is adopted in Dublin and signed in Oslo

2010

2011

2012

2013

2011 NPA mine action is awarded the Norwegian NRK Telethon

NPA becomes a Co-Chair of the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) NPA becomes a founding member of the International Network on Explosive Weapons (INEW)

Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

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Abbreviations 1MSP First Meeting of States Parties 2MSP Second Meeting of States Parties APM Anti-Personnel Mine ASA Ammunition Storage Area ATM Anti-Tank Mine AVM Anti-Vehicle Mine AXO Abandoned Explosive Ordnance BAC Battle area clearance BHMAC Bosnia-Herzegovina Mine Action Centre BiH Bosnia and Herzegovina BLS Baseline Survey BOMICEN Technology Centre for Bomb and Mine Disposal CAAMI National Mine Action Coordination Centre Guinea Bissau CCM Convention on Cluster Munitions CDI Capacity Development Initiative CMAA Cambodia Mine Action Authority and Victim Assistance CMAC Cambodia Mine Action Centre CMC Cluster Munition Coalition CMRS Cluster Munition Remnants Survey CPA Comprehensive Peace Agreement DA Dangerous Area DDG Danish Demining Group DMZ Demilitarized Zone EDD Explosive Detection Dog ELIS Emergency Landmine Impact Survey ELIS Ethiopian Landmine Impact Survey EMAO Ethiopian Mine Action Office EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal ERW Explosive remnants of war EWIPA Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas FSD Fondation Suisse de Déminage Swiss Foundation for mine action GICHD Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining GIS Geographic Information System GMAA General Mine Action Assessment GTC Global Training Center HMA Humanitarian Mine Action HMU Humanitarian Demining Unit IA F&G Impact Assessment Framework and Guideline

ICBL IDP IED IMAS INEW KNU KPC LIS LMAC LMAC LR LRA LRS MA MAC MBT MDC MDD MDR MFD MoD MoND MoU MRE MPSI MSP MYP NATO NBP NCDR NDO NFP NGO NRA NPA NRK NTC NTS OSCE PAIGC

International Campaign to Ban Landmines Internally Displaced Person Improvised Explosive Device International Mine Action Standard International Network on Explosive Weapons Karen National Union Civil Emergency Corps in Kosovo Landmine Impact Survey Lebanon Mine Action Centre Libya Mine Action Centre Land Release Lord Resistance Army Landmine Retrofit Survey mine action Mine Action Center Mine Ban Treaty Mine Dog Centre Mine Detection Dog Mine Detection Rat Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance Ministry of Defence Ethiopian Ministry of National Defense Memorandum of Understanding Mine Risk Education Myanmar Peace Support Initiative Meeting of States Parties Malawi Young Pioneers North Atlantic Treaty Organization Northern Border Clearance Project National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation National Demining Office National Focal Point Non-governmental organisation National Regulatory Authority Norwegian People’s Aid Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation National Transitional Council Non-Technical Survey Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde

42 Norwegian People’s Aid Mines and Arms Department Porfolio 2012

PNDHD Programme National de Déminage Humanitaire pour le Développement The National Humanitarian Demining Programme for Development QA Quality Assurance R&D Research and Development RE Risk Education RENAMO Resistência Nacional Moçambicana Mozambique National Resistance RMAC Regional Mine Action Centre SCBL Saharawi Campaign to Ban Landmines SHA Suspect hazardous areas SHADOW Self-Help Ammunition Destruction Options Worldwide SMAC Serbia Mine Action Centre SPLA Sudan People’s Liberation Army SSMAA South Sudan Mine Action Authority TA Technical Advisor TAB Tajik-Afghan Border TDA Thailand Civilian Demining Association TMAC Tajikistan Mine Action Centre TMAC Thailand Mine Action Centre TNHD Thailand Network for Humanitarian Disarmament TS Technical Survey TUB Tajik-Uzbek Border UMAC Uganda Mine Action Centre UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNITA União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola UNMACC United Nations Mine Action Coordination Centre UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia UXB Unexploded Bomb UXO Unexploded ordnance VA Victim Assistance VBMAC Vietnam Bomb and Mine Action Clearance Centre


Human history is a history not only of cruelty

compassion, sacrifice, courage, kindness.

but also of What we choose

to emphasize in this complex history will determine our lives.

the worst, it destroys our capacity to do something. If we remember those times and places – and there are so many – where people have behaved magnificently, this gives us the energy to act, If we see only

and at least the possibility of sending this spinning top of a world in a different direction. And if we do act, in however small a way, we don’t have to wait for some grand utopian future. The future is an

infinite succession of

presents, and to live now as we think human beings should live, in defiance of all that is bad around us, is itself a marvelous victory”

(Howard Zinn, The Optimism of Uncertainty)


We thank our

Main donors: The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs US Department of State The German Federal Foreign Office The Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Magnolia design as

donors

Former Donors: ASEZA Austcare The Australian Embassy in Zagreb The Danish Agency for Development Assistance (DANIDA) The European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) The Government of the Principality of Monaco Gilde Irish Aid Japan Alliance for Humanitarian Demining Support The Kingdom of Spain The Norwegian Agency for Development and Co-operation (NORAD) Mine-Ex NERA The Swedish Agency for Development Co-operation (SIDA) The United Nations Children`s Fund (UNICEF) The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNCHR) Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation The World Food Program (WFP) Veidekke AS

US Department of State

Š Dixie

Other donors: AusAid Coop The International Trust Fund for Demining and Victim Assistance Government of Japan Government of Brcko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina Government of Republic of Austria The Swiss Ministry of Foreign Affairs Swiss Federal Department of Defense, Civil Protection and Sports The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) The European Commission The Government of the Principality of Monaco The Department for International Development (DFID) The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland STATOIL Norwegian Transport Workers’ Union Fagforbundet


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