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Institute for Domestic & International Affairs, Inc.

Disarmament and International Security Border Security Director: Ian Liberty


Š 2010 Institute for Domestic & International Affairs, Inc. (IDIA) This document is solely for use in preparation for Philadelphia Model United Nations 2010. Use for other purposes is not permitted without the express written consent of IDIA. For more information, please write us at idiainfo@idia.net


Policy Dilemma ______________________________________________________________ 1 Chronology__________________________________________________________________ 2 September 2001-Present - American War on Terror ____________________________________ 2 November 2005 - Israel turns over control of Rafah Border to Palestinians__________________ 3 February 2009 - Egypt Attempts to Close Rafah Border _________________________________ 4 October 2009 - Saudi Arabia begins building fence on Saudi-Yemen border _________________ 4

Actors and Interests ___________________________________________________________ 5 Rafah Border – Egypt and Palestine __________________________________________________ 5 Iraq-Syria________________________________________________________________________ 6 Saudi Arabia - Yemen______________________________________________________________ 8 The United States _________________________________________________________________ 8 Xenophobia ______________________________________________________________________ 9 Transnational Crime______________________________________________________________ 10

Possible Causes _____________________________________________________________ 12 Lack of Defined Borders___________________________________________________________ 12 Lack of Financial Resources________________________________________________________ 13 American Presence in Region_______________________________________________________ 13 Comparison of Causes ____________________________________________________________ 14

Projections and Implications ___________________________________________________ 14 Discussion Questions _________________________________________________________ 17 Works Cited _____________________________________________________________________ 18


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Policy Dilemma It is indisputable that the modern world has seen a shift from isolation and independence to globalization and interdependence. This shift is a result of technological advancement, economic progress, and overall necessity. As states, groups, and even individuals become more interdependent, borders between states begin to blur and people have the ability to migrate between states. However, with this increased migration, security of these actors becomes a major concern. It is clearly in a state’s interest to insure that its borders are secure from intrusion; however, many states are simply unable to allocate the resources needed to protect their borders. Insecure borders in one state not only effect their own population but can also have detrimental effects on its neighboring states and those states with which they interact. While border security is certainly a concern for every state and within every region of the world, the states in the Middle East have been particularly affected by a lack of proper border security and an increase in migration. In states like Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the UAE, over ninety per cent of the private sector work force is made up by foreigners.1 Many of the foreigners that migrate in search of work are already in debt before entering the state. In some cases, employers bring workers into the country only for them to find out that there is no job available. In other cases, states have enacted policies to attempt to expel foreigners; this often results in violence. 2 In a region that is struggling to develop, more violence will only destabilize the region further. Especially in the Middle East, states are particularly at risk when their borders are insecure. With the huge influx of migrant workers, it becomes very difficult for governments to correctly know the demographics in their country. While some states are beginning to invest in new technologies to increase their border security, many do not have the resources or infrastructures established that are necessary to truly protect

1

Middle East: Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE. http://migration.ucdavis.edu/MN/more.php?id=3172_0_5_0. Ibid.

2


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themselves.3 Wealthy states, like the UAE, have the resources to invest in new biometric systems to protect themselves, but most of the states in the region cannot afford the same protections. A lack of border security in these states does not just allow for violence within individual states. Without adequate border security in the Middle East, other states are at risk as well. If extremist groups and terror organization are allowed to move freely across borders, then it becomes very difficult for the targets of this terrorism to protect themselves from an attack. This is a concern of both regional neighbors and other states as well. Essentially, the issue of border security can be broken down into a simple and real concern for who and what is moving in and out of a state at any given time. Whether it is migrant workers, families, terrorist cells, or nuclear weapons, states have a significant interest in monitoring their borders. While there are many ways to go about addressing the issue of border security in the Middle East, there are certain things that any resolution to the problem must take into account. Not all states have the resources to properly secure their borders on their own. Therefore, any resolution must take this into account when focusing on how to secure borders. It must also be taken into account that not all states agree on what the borders actually are. Especially in the Middle East, there are many disputed territories. This fact adds a new level of complexity to the issue that makes it difficult to resolve. If states can’t agree on whom a territory belongs to, then how can they decide whose responsibility to protect it is?4

Chronology September 2001-Present - American War on Terror In September 2001 American President George W. Bush declared war on terrorism. This was a declaration in response to Al Qaida’s attack on American soil on 11 3

Tiron, Roxana. Biometrics systems help strengthen border security in Persian Gulf nation. http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/442524-1.html 4 Hamas demands border control role. Al Jazeera. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2008/01/2008525172758367350.html. (Accessed: 4 January 2010)


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September 2001. That one act spurred America’s campaign to spread democracy and stop the spread of terrorism in the Middle East. It is important to recognize that America’s war on terror is a significant factor in securing the borders of Middle Eastern states because of America’s presence in both Iraq and Afghanistan. On 8 October 2001 America asserted its role in the region with a bombing campaign on Afghanistan. This position was then further solidified in 2003 when the United States invaded Iraq. This is especially significant because many states in the region currently blame breaches in border security on American presence and thus hold American troops responsible for increasing that security. Many Middle Eastern states have been vocal in stating that the American presence in a Middle Eastern state makes that state more likely targets for terrorist attacks. 5

November 2005 - Israel turns over control of Rafah Border to Palestinians In November 2005 the Israeli government took a huge step in Israeli-Palestinian relations by turning over control of the Rafah Border Crossing between Palestinian controlled Gaza and Egypt. This opened many new trade opportunities for the Palestinian people because it allowed them to move freely between the two states. While this may have been a major step for Israeli-Palestinian relations, it did create many new border security concerns in the region and exemplifies the need for border security reform in the Middle East. Gaining control of the border was very important for the Palestinians; however, the repercussions of this shift in control had some serious implications for the strength of border security in the region. The control of the border allowed Palestinians not only to increase trade opportunities, but also to escape the violence in Gaza. In contrast, Egypt was confronted with many major concerns. While the Egyptian government asserted that

5

Iraq urges tighter Border Control. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3244203.stm (accessed: 2 January 2010)


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they would attempt to mandate identification in order to travel over the border6, they have had trouble enforcing this assertion. This was especially evident since 300,000 Palestinians have crossed the border in search of safety from violence in Gaza since the border has been under Palestinian control.7

February 2009 - Egypt Attempts to Close Rafah Border In February 2009 Egypt decided to close its Rafah Border with Palestinian controlled Gaza. This was a response to the mass exodus of Palestinian people in search of health care and protection from an Israeli attack on the city. The Egyptian government was having trouble securing the border with normal traffic; the number of people crossing over the border after this incident made it impossible to keep track of who was in the country. As a result, the Egyptian government was forced to close the border and placed military personal on the border to stop anyone from getting through. This led to more violence; fighting between Palestinian people and Egyptian officials erupted in response to this new policy. It was such an overwhelming effort that Palestinian people were even attempting to bulldoze barriers on the border to cross.8

October 2009 - Saudi Arabia begins building fence on SaudiYemen border In October 2009 Saudi Arabia announced its intention to strengthen security on its southern border with Yemen by building a fence along the entire border. The Saudi government decided to do this in response to the influx of terrorist and extremist groups crossing the border from Yemen and hiding in the mountains surrounding the border.9 It is not likely, however, that this fence will be completed any time soon as it is facing

6

Donald Macintyre. Israel finally agrees to give Palestinians control of border http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-finally-agrees-to-give-palestinians-control-of-border515516.html. 7

Violence Erupts as Egypt moves to close borders. Adnkronos.

http://www.adnkronos.com/AKI/English/Security/?id=1.0.1810703277 (Accessed: 27 December 2009) 8 Ibid. 9 Asharq Al-Aswat. “Saudi to set up Security Fence on Border with Yemen� Asharq Alawsat. http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=18762 (accessed: 26 December 2009)


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much opposition from the Yemeni government.10 The two governments have met in an attempt to come to some sort of an agreement about how to secure that border; however, these negotiations have proven to be difficult. This example demonstrates one of the hurdles that must be overcome in order to secure a state’s borders.

Actors and Interests When addressing the issue of border security in the Middle East, certainly all states in the region are important actors with their own specific interests. There are, however, certain states in the region that have been particularly affected by the border control issue and have been particularly vocal about a need for change.

Rafah Border – Egypt and Palestine The Rafah Border Crossing is the border between Egypt and Rafah, the Palestinian city in Gaza. This border is defined by shifts in control, security scares, and constant closing and re-opening. Palestinians, Egyptians, and Israelis all have an interest in resolving issues preventing this border from being properly secured; however, they all have different interests. In 2005, the Israeli government finally agreed to give the Palestinians in Gaza control over the Rafah border. This was a deal that was facilitated by the American government in an attempt to aid Israeli-Palestinian relations. Many leaders felt that as long as Israel continued to control the border, they would be preventing “measures which could contribute to longer term stability and therefore security.”11 Considering the amount of pressure placed on Israel by the international community, it was in their interest to turn over control of this border to the Palestinians. Doing so, however, and allowing the Palestinians to open the border and cross into Egypt easily created many security issues that now need to be addressed. 10

Whitaker, Brian. “Saudi security barrier stirs anger in Yemen”. The Guardian.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/feb/17/saudiarabia.yemen (Accessed: 2 January 2010) 11 Donald Macintyre. Israel finally agrees to give Palestinians control of border http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-finally-agrees-to-give-palestinians-control-of-border515516.html. paragraphs 4


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The Palestinians clearly had an interest in obtaining control over the Rafah border. Now that they have control, it is much easier for them to cross into Egypt and take advantage of the new trade opportunities. The “Palestinians consider taking control of the Rafah crossing as an important step in both practical and symbolic terms in their quest for statehood.”12 In order to demonstrate that they are ready for statehood, however, it is important that they demonstrate they can provide adequate security for their people. This means that it is clearly in their interest to address border security concerns. The Palestinian authorities would like to find a way to maintain control of the border while still keeping it open enough to take advantage of the trade benefits that come with control of that border. Security concerns for Egypt increased significantly after the Palestinians took control of the Rafah border. Traffic between Gaza and Egypt increased dramatically immediately after the shift in control took effect. When violence erupted in Gaza from the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, thousands of Palestinians fled over the Rafah border into Egypt. In response to this blatant security concern, Egypt attempted to close its side of the Rafah border. This, however, only resulted in more violence – this time between Egyptian border control agents and Palestinians attempting to cross the border.13 This example clearly represents the interest of Egypt to control the people crossing that border into the state and provide adequate security.

Iraq-Syria The security of the Iraqi-Syrian border has become of utmost importance in recent years. With the presence of American troops in the region, both states have realized the need to improve their own security measures. While agreeing on a need for border security is a step in the right direction, each state has its own stance on how this should be done. 12

Myre, Greg. “Palestinans taking control of a Gaza Border” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/26/international/middleeast/26mideast.html?_r=2 13 Violence Erupts as Egypt moves to close border. http://www.adnkronos.com/AKI/English/Security/?id=1.0.1810703277


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The Iraqi government has recognized that there is clearly a need for tighter border security in the state. The presence of American troops makes Iraq a target for terrorist attacks from extremist groups. Prior to America’s war in the state, Iraq’s border with Syria had not been adequately fortified, making it easy for terrorists to get through. While the Iraqi government recognizes a need for increased security, they would like much of the responsibility to be placed on its neighbors. Iraq does not suspect that Syria is supporting the terrorists trying to cross the borders; however, Iraq does feel that Syria is doing very little to stop it from happening.14 Iraq is not alone in recognizing a problem in border control; however, Syria places the blame for security issues on other reasons. Specifically, Syria blames continued security problems on America’s presence in the region. Bushra Kanfani of the Syrian foreign ministry said that “the problem is America, not Syria.”15 Syrians argue that before America entered Iraq, there was no terrorism. Therefore, it should be America’s responsibility to secure the borders for both Syria and Iraq. Despite disagreements as to who should bare the main security responsibilities, Syria does agree that it is an important task. American presence in Iraq does give them a significant interest in helping to secure the border between Iraq and Syria. As noted by the Syrian government, “when [America] entered Iraq there was no terrorism and now there is the problem of terrorism and of al-Qaeda - and the matter has changed from one of weapons of mass destruction and toppling a regime to a new one of terrorism.”16 It seems fairly obvious, then, that as long as America continues to have presence in Iraq, they will also have an interest in securing its borders.

14

Iraq urges tighter Border Control. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3244203.stm (accessed: 2 January 2010) 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid


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Saudi Arabia - Yemen One of the most pressing border security concerns, specifically for the western world, is the Saudi-Yemeni border. With increased American presence in Iraq and Afghanistan, terrorist cells have begun to move operations to other states. Recent intelligence demonstrates that extremist organizations are beginning to flourish in Yemen. Yemeni officials have recognized that these militant groups have been sited near northern border with Saudi Arabia.17 It is, therefore, incredibly important that security along this border is properly addressed. Due to the ease of extremists to move between Saudi Arabia and Yemen, the Saudi government is also very concerned. The two governments had met in an attempt to come to an agreement on a new security fence that the Saudi government wanted to build along the border. This fence would, if successful, help to stop the flow of terrorists and arms across the border.18 The completion of this fence is far from near, however, due to disputes between the Saudi and Yemeni governments.19 Since both governments have expressed an interest in fighting the terrorist threat in each of their states, it is imperative that they find a compromise that allows them to achieve this goal.

The United States The events of 11 September 2001 marked a turning point in the history of the United States. Foreign policy in America shifted dramatically, thrusting the fight against terrorism into the spotlight as its prime objective. With the focus on terrorism also came an analysis of American immigration policy. The US has a well-documented history of being a haven for immigration, openly accepting waves of immigrants from all parts of Europe at the beginning of the 20th Century, and most recently immigrants from Latin America and Asia, before the security threat that migration poses was so gruesomely 17

Coker, Margaret. “Al Qaeda in Yemen worries west”. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125417307132347371.html (accessed: 2 January 2010) 18 Whitaker, Brian. “Saudi security barrier stirs anger in Yemen”. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/feb/17/saudiarabia.yemen (Accessed: 2 January 2010) 19 Asharq Al-Aswat. “Saudi to set up Security Fence on Border with Yemen” Asharq Alawsat. http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=18762 (accessed: 26 December 2009)


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exposed. A new development in US immigration policy is the profiling of males from Arab and Muslim countries, the states from where the 19 hijackers originated. Legal immigrants saw their rights further restricted by the USA Patriot Act, which was passed with the hope of preventing future terrorist attacks.20 The international effects of the American reaction to the attacks of 11 September 2001 are felt throughout the world as a result of its Global War on Terror. The United States took a proactive approach to preventing terrorism: with a mission statement of finding terrorists and bringing them to justice to ensure the peace and security of the world, the United States began a campaign scouring the globe to hunt down terrorists. Wars were begun in Afghanistan, in 2001, and Iraq, in 2003. International security was the primary reason these wars were fought, but while threats were removed, overlooked in these conflicts are the refugee flows stemming from them: 200,000 Afghans fled their country in 2001 after the war began, 500,000 left Iraq for Syria, and an additional one million Iraqis sought refuge in Jordan.21 While the United States maintains that these conflicts are vital to the security of the international community, Pakistan and Syria are bearing the brunt of the challenge posed by migration away from the war zones, and are at risk of internal unrest due in large part to these migratory flows.

Xenophobia The possible dilution or erosion of culture is a threat to a host state’s security and is sometimes more perception than reality. Xenophobia does not discriminate based on the idea of racial superiority, but instead is “predicated on the imperative of preserving the group’s identity, whose purity it sanctifies.”22 The belief is that those who are different and unwanted must be kept out in order to maintain the purity of the culture. The culminating theory of this neo-racism is a term French social scientists 20

Susan Martin, “The Politics of US Immigration Reform” in The Politics of Migration, ed. Sarah Spencer, 139 (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003) 21 UN High Commission on Refugees, “2001 Global Refugee Statistics”, UNHCR. http://www.unhcr.org/cgibin/ texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=3d0f66ef2 (accessed February 3rd, 2006) 22 41 Roxanne Lynn Doty, “Anti-Immigrantism in Western Democracies” (New York: Taylor & Francis, 2003) 19


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coined seuil de tolerance, which translates to “the threshold of tolerance.”23 European states have rejected the integration of migrants into society by issuing temporary worker permits, rather than citizenship, hoping that migrants will return to their native homes. These anti- migrant actions were taken in an attempt to avoid crossing the perceived seuil de tolerance after which the integrity of the culture at large is at risk. This public belief that their culture is under siege, or that the state’s sovereignty is in jeopardy, puts pressure on the government to react in accordance to popular opinion. As evidenced in the Western states reactionary right-wing parties can gain popularity and strength on the basis of anti-immigrant platforms. These parties provide a threat to the state’s power and national security where governments are weak, such as in LDCs, and could potentially topple regimes in some areas. States often shift their public policy to more restrictive, anti-immigration stances to avoid the potential problems that could arise if the reactionary right-wing parties gain more power. Discriminatory policies towards immigrants are partly to blame for the riots in Paris, France and Sydney, Australia. Also, the riots in the Middle East, caused by outrage over inflammatory political cartoons published by a Danish newspaper, have roots in the deep anti-immigrant sentiment among the public. National security is threatened if the public becomes too entrenched in the idea of protecting cultural security.

Transnational Crime Transnational crime is carried out by organizations spread across the globe, not individuals acting alone. Terrorism involving international migration is also seldom ever one individual acting alone, but rather organized networks that carefully plan attacks. Highly organized criminal networks pose multiple threats to international security. The ability to bribe, coerce, or use other illegal means to influence public officials undermines the credibility and legitimacy of a state, in turn leading to the destabilizing 23

Ibid 66


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of a country. If large enough, criminal organizations can threaten order on an international level. Many would argue that the PLO is the prime example of this The worst threat posed to international security comes about when organized crime uses this ability by funding revolutionary movements to overthrow the government.24 With these organizations operating in many states across the world, the movement of people and goods is necessary, so if a state that was deemed important to these organizations was not cooperating, the organization would take steps to undermine the state’s government in order to gain influence and improve its situation. These groups are involved in the trafficking of many illegal goods across national boundaries, including weapons and humans. The crossing of multiple national borders has produced security problems for entire regions, and is often difficult to interrupt. By gaining more power and money, these illegal traffickers can bribe government officials to allow for easier trade. The corruption of state officials by organized crime, through the purchasing of government influence to facilitate illegal activities subverts the legitimacy of the government. Recently, migration has spawned terrorism as a new threat to the security of states. The 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States have illustrated the possibility that international migration can pose a significant military threat. These attacks were carried out by 19 men, all of whom were foreigners that had migrated to the United States. Links to the terrorist organization al-Qaeda were found in all of the attacks, meaning the preparation and organization behind terrorism is found across many state lines.

24

Alan Dupont, “Transnational Crime and Security in East Asia� Asian Survey, Vol. 39., No. 3 (1999): 436


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Possible Causes Lack of Defined Borders It is clearly in the interest of any nation to adequately secure its borders; however, this task becomes significantly more difficult when states cannot agree on what the borders are and who has control over them. This hurdle is relevant to all states, but it becomes incredibly obvious when discussing border security in the Middle East. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict exemplifies the importance of clearly defining border control responsibilities. While transferring control of Gaza to the Palestinian National Authority was a huge step in Israeli-Palestinian relations, it was not until 2005 that control over the borders was turned over to the Palestinians as well. Specifically, the Palestinians wanted control over the Rafah border between Egypt and Gaza in order to take advantage of the many trade advantages that came with the control.

25

This did not,

however, solve the dispute over that area. By placing control of the Rafah border in the hands of the Palestinians, it was made possible for Palestinians living in Gaza to move easily between Egypt and Gaza. This shift in control created a significant security concern for Egypt, who was affected by mass migration between the two areas. While the Palestinians may have just opened their borders, Egypt’s response was to close their borders to travelers moving from the Rafah border.26 While this is just one example of how ambiguity over border control responsibility can lead to conflict, it does represent a larger possible cause for a lack of border security in general. It is clear that unless states can agree on who controls the borders, then security will inevitably be undermined. Therefore, any resolution to this issue must take into account the fact that poorly defined borders are hindering the security of individual states and the international community as a whole.

25

Donald Macintyre. “Israel finally agrees to give Palestinians control of border� The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-finally-agrees-to-give-palestinians-control-of-border515516.html. paragraphs 1-2 (Accessed: 3 January 2010) 26 Violence Erupts as Egypt moves to close borders. Adnkronos. http://www.adnkronos.com/AKI/English/Security/?id=1.0.1810703277 (Accessed: 27 December 2009)


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Lack of Financial Resources There are states that are initiating policies to increase border security. The problem is that until all states have secure borders, the world as a whole is still at risk. Unfortunately, the states that are not taking steps to secure their borders tend to be developing states with few or no resources to do so. Most states in the Middle East do not have the wealth and growth of the UAE to invest in biometric border security systems that utilize iris scanners and other modern technologies to keep track of anyone moving in and out of the nation.

27

The region

suffers from high unemployment rates, low GDPs, and dependence on oil revenues.28 With little investment in technological sectors, it is not surprising that a lack of border security has become an issue in the region.

American Presence in Region Another possible reason that border security has not been properly addressed is because of the continued American presence in the region. The American war on terror, which began in 2001 and is still policy today, has resulted in the placement of American troops and both Iraq and Afghanistan. The presence of American troops can have two possible effects on terrorist and extremist groups in the region. The troops can scare them out of a particular state, in which case they would have to cross the border into another. The other possibility is that these terrorist organizations will cross borders into the states that American troops are stationed in order to launch attacks on them. No matter which is the case, the fact remains that America’s presence in the region has had an effect on border security. After hearing criticism from states in the Middle East, like Syria, that America is the reason for border security issues between Syria and Iraq and that America must take responsibility for securing this border, America has finally begun to step up. American 27

Tiron, Roxana. Biometrics systems help strengthen border security in Persian Gulf nation. http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/442524-1.html (Accessed: 24 December 2009) 28 The Middle East. CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/region/region_mde.html (Accessed: 26 December 2009)


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Secretary of State Hillary Clinton recognized that securing borders in the Middle East is one of the most important steps to achieving peace in the region.29 This, however, does not address the other issue that states like Syria brought up. This issue is, as long as America is present in the region, it is going to be more difficult to secure borders because terrorists are more likely to cross them.

Comparison of Causes The preceding section of this brief is certainly not the “end and, be all” of possible causes for a lack of proper border security in the Middle East. Rather, it is meant to add a level of complexity to the debate, emphasizing the fact that in order to address this issue, many things must be taken into consideration. No one cause is responsible for the current situation, and a resolution must reflect this fact. For example, properly funding border security can only be useful if borders are properly defined. Similarly, merely assigning border control responsibility to a state does nothing if that state has no resources to institute these security measures. To summarize, any resolution discussed in this committee must address all aspects of this problem to truly be effective.

Projections and Implications It is obvious that borders do no secure themselves. Therefore, if nothing is done to address the problem, then the deduction is that the borders will continue to be insecure. What, then, are the consequences of that? First, citizens will continue to travel across borders freely, flooding the labor force of other countries. As it is, in Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Egypt over 90 per cent of the private work force is made up of migrant workers.30 If this trend continues, there will be no private sector jobs remaining for citizens of these states. Also, terrorist groups will continue to cross borders. With the United States’ recent escalation of the war in Afghanistan, it doesn’t look like America’s 29

Middle East Conflict: US tries new approach for peace. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Foreign-Policy/2010/0108/Middle-East-conflict-US-tries-new-approach-for-peace (Accessed: 22 December 2009) 30 Middle East: Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE. Migration News. http://migration.ucdavis.edu/MN/more.php?id=3172_0_5_0 (Accessed: 20 December 2009)


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presence in the region is going to elapse any time soon. This means that the threat of terrorist crossing borders remains constant, if not increases over time. This puts people in the Middle East at risk as well as people in the western world being targeted by these extremist groups. If terrorists are allowed to cross borders undetected, then intelligence about their next attacks are less reliable. This puts the entire world at risk.


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Conclusion There is a serious problem in the Middle East as a result of a lack of proper border security. States in the region are suffering from mass migrations, violence, and terrorism as a result of this unresolved issue. The recent history of the region demonstrates that many states in the region are suffering from this same problem. There are a variety of contributing factors to the current situation, including a lack of well defined borders, a lack of resources to properly secure borders, and continued American presence in the region. These are not the only possible causes for a lack of proper border security; however, they do demonstrate the level of complexity needed to address this problem. If this problem goes unaddressed, then the Middle East will continue to suffer from a lack of peace and prosperity.


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Discussion Questions • How does a lack of border security in the Middle East affect your state? • How can your state help to change the current situation of insufficient border control in the Middle East? • Does your state provide adequate border security for your people? How? • What would happen to your states economy and safety if this problem goes unaddressed? Would you be hurt by it? Would you benefit from it? • How can you work with other states, both in the Middle East and outside of it, to address this issue?


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Works Cited Alan Dupont, “Transnational Crime and Security in East Asia” Asian Survey, Vol. 39., No. 3 (1999): 436 Asharq Al-Aswat. “Saudi to set up Security Fence on Border with Yemen” Asharq Alawsat. http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=18762 (accessed: 26 December 2009) Coker, Margaret. “Al Qaeda in Yemen worries west”. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125417307132347371.html (accessed: 2 January 2010) Donald Macintyre. “Israel finally agrees to give Palestinians control of border” The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-finallyagrees-to-give-palestinians-control-of-border-515516.html. paragraphs 1-2 (Accessed: 3 January 2010) Donald Macintyre. Israel finally agrees to give Palestinians control of border http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-finally-agrees-togive-palestinians-control-of-border-515516.html. paragraphs 4 Hamas demands border control role. Al Jazeera. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2008/01/2008525172758367350.html. (Accessed: 4 January 2010) Iraq urges tighter Border Control. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3244203.stm (accessed: 2 January 2010) Middle East Conflict: US tries new approach for peace. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Foreign-Policy/2010/0108/Middle-East-conflictUS-tries-new-approach-for-peace (Accessed: 22 December 2009) Middle East: Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE. http://migration.ucdavis.edu/MN/more.php?id=3172_0_5_0. Paragraph 1. Middle East: Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE. Migration News. http://migration.ucdavis.edu/MN/more.php?id=3172_0_5_0 (Accessed: 20 December 2009)


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Myre, Greg. “Palestinans taking control of a Gaza Border” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/26/international/middleeast/26mideast.html?_r= 2 Roxanne Lynn Doty, “Anti-Immigrantism in Western Democracies” (New York: Taylor & Francis, 2003) 19 Susan Martin, “The Politics of US Immigration Reform” in The Politics of Migration, ed. Sarah Spencer, 139 (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003) texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=3d0f66ef2 (accessed February 3rd, 2006) The Middle East. CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/region/region_mde.html (Accessed: 26 December 2009) Tiron, Roxana. Biometrics systems help strengthen border security in Persian Gulf nation. http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-securityinternational/442524-1.html (Accessed: 24 December 2009) UN High Commission on Refugees, “2001 Global Refugee Statistics”, UNHCR. http://www.unhcr.org/cgibin/ Violence Erupts as Egypt moves to close borders. Adnkronos. http://www.adnkronos.com/AKI/English/Security/?id=1.0.1810703277 (Accessed: 27 December 2009) Whitaker, Brian. “Saudi security barrier stirs anger in Yemen”. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/feb/17/saudiarabia.yemen (Accessed: 2 January 2010)


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