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The Institute for Domestic and International Affairs

Committee on Disarmament and International Security Migration as an International Security Concern Rutgers Model United Nations 16-19 November 2006

Director: Kyle Gruber


Š 2006 Institute for Domestic & International Affairs, Inc. (IDIA) This document is solely for use in preparation for Rutgers Model United Nations 2006. Use for other purposes is not permitted without the express written consent of IDIA. For more information, please write us at idiainfo@idia.net


Introduction _________________________________________________________________ 1 Background _________________________________________________________________ 3 Causes and Types of Migration ______________________________________________________ 5 Economic and Labor Migration _____________________________________________________________5 Refugees _______________________________________________________________________________7 Forced Migrations _______________________________________________________________________12

Effects of Migration on the Security of Host States_____________________________________ 13 Economic Impact _______________________________________________________________________14 Terrorism and Crime _____________________________________________________________________15 Perception of a Culture Besieged ___________________________________________________________17 The United Nations on Migration ___________________________________________________________18

Current Status ______________________________________________________________ 21 Immigration Attitudes and Policy in the EU and Australia ______________________________ 21 The United States, Foreign Policy Shifts, and Migration ________________________________ 23 Refugee Populations in Least Developed Countries ____________________________________ 24

Bloc Positions_______________________________________________________________ 26 Regional Positions________________________________________________________________ 26 Developed States________________________________________________________________________26 Developing States _______________________________________________________________________28

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) ___________________________________________ 29 Media Positions __________________________________________________________________ 30 Business Positions ________________________________________________________________ 31

Summary___________________________________________________________________ 32 Discussion Questions _________________________________________________________ 34 Works Cited ________________________________________________________________ 35 Works Referenced ___________________________________________________________ 40


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Introduction Migration, the flow of peoples from one state to another, has occurred at unprecedented rates in the 20th Century. As of a 2005 United Nations study, there were 191 million international migrants in the world, a number that is believed to have doubled since 1970.1 Causes for migration in the second half of the 20th Century and today are often economic, as people leave their homes to seek out economic opportunity. Refugee flows can also be involuntary, resulting from persecution to environmental disasters, and tend to occur spontaneously due to the unpredictability of natural disasters or political crises. While states saw potential security threats caused by migration mainly in the form of economic downturn or financial crisis, terrorist attacks carried out by migrants in the beginning of the 21st Century have put national security at the forefront of migration policy. As voluntary migration most often related to economic opportunity, it is not surprising that people typically move from developing to developed states. When jobs are not available in least developed states (LDCs), people are often forced to travel to neighboring or even distant states in search of work.

While this seems a natural

progression of markets – labor supply moving to locations in which there is ample demand, the process poses many risks to security for each of these groups. Developed countries realize the value of migrants as a cheap supply of labor, offering an opportunity to bolster an economy dependent upon unskilled workers. This economic growth does not come without costs, however, as a significant influx of people from a given region or ethnic group can considerably alter the makeup of communities and entire regions. Migrants are viewed as outsiders, people who possess foreign ideas that do not coincide with the identity of citizens of a particular state. National security is put at risk in the contemporary world, where terrorism and battles with non-state actors have surpassed conventional warfare between states as the primary threat. In the past five years, attacks 1

“International Migration and Development,� United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/hldmigration/Text/Migration_factsheet.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2006.


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carried out in developed were done so by terrorists who migrated to the state for that purpose under the guise of economic or political refugees. The natural reaction is to crack down on migration in order to prevent enemies from entering the country, but economic interests must also be balanced. LDCs face challenges due to migration in two different ways, depending upon if populations are leaving or are arriving. In cases where people are emigrating

from

developing

countries, economies can face a significant shock as surplus labor

Least Developed Countries: A term which refers to the 48 countries and territories which are recognized by the United Nations General Assembly as being among the least developed countries and which are accorded special priority for the purpose of granting assistance. Source: www.itu.int/osg/spu/intset/whatare/glossary.html

becomes scarce. Economic downturn can lead to internal strife, often resulting in the instability of the ruling government. Moreover, these states can face a “brain drain,� in which most of the skilled laborers, those expected to drive a developing economy, relocate to another state, thereby depriving the state of origin from its economic potential. There are similar concerns when a significant population of migrants arrives in a developing country, since there is now an economically depressed population seeking to supplant traditional workers and to take available jobs at lower wages. The state must cope with an increased burden on local economies and government finances. Failure to do so can result in resentment and threats to the security and stability of the state from both the new arrivals and the existing population. Preventing migration to avoid the potential security risks that accompany the movement of people can be an impossible task, when logistical and legal concerns are considered. Advances in transportation and the continued existence of a wealth gap Sovereignty: The principle that the state exercises absolute power over its territory, system of government, and population. Accordingly, the internal authority of the state supersedes that of all other bodies. Source: www.afsc.org/trade-matters/learn-about/glossary.htm

between

states

encourage

people

to

relocate in search of better opportunities. Oppressive

regimes

and

warfare

throughout the world force innocent victims to seek refuge in nearby states to


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avoid persecution or death. Legally speaking, the United Nations (UN) does not possess the power to directly change individual states’ policy on migration, as the organization was founded on the principles of sovereignty. Yet while the UN cannot impose policy change on states to better handle the issue of migration, it does have the ability to offer incentives and to work towards developing circumstances in which these population flows are orderly and safe for both the migrants and the host states. The impact of migration on international security is felt in a multitude of ways, including the national and economic security of the state. The policy dilemma facing the international community is how to effectively protect states from the potentially harmful effects of migration while simultaneously helping the migrants themselves, who in many cases are just searching for a better life. Transforming states into closed societies that do not allow for immigration is not feasible, because migration provides economic benefits to many states. The humanitarian aspect of migration, particularly refugee flows, must also be taken into consideration when contemplating new migration policies. Refugees move to other states because there is a better chance of survival. Yet, at the same time, even political refugees may pose threats to the national security of the states they enter. Finding a solution that takes into account all aspects of migration and strikes an appropriate balance between differing types of security is necessary for the safety and security of states throughout the world.

Background The Second World War devastated Europe and undermined the global economy. By 1945, the European population and infrastructure lay in shambles, resulting in severe shortages in labor, at a time when there was a surplus of work necessary to rebuild states throughout the continent. The war also resulted in a significant period of decolonization, as the funding and manpower was no longer available to properly control territorial possessions, coupled with a push for self-determination.

Citizens of these former

colonies in Africa and Asia moved en masse to Europe seeking the vast opportunities offered by their former imperial masters. Business interests in Western European states


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actively recruited this inexpensive, replaceable, and vast labor force.2

International

migration into Europe after the war was highly liberalized, emphasized by the recruiting of guest workers. Problems today, however, are rooted in the fact that this labor force was considered to be temporary in nature, and was

Guest Worker: A foreign worker who is permitted to enter a country temporarily in order to take a job for which there is shortage of domestic labor. Source: www-personal.umich.edu/~alandear/glossary/g.html

expected ultimately to return to its country of origin...When it became clear that migrants intended to stay and settle in these West European states, segments of the public became xenophobic and racial tensions grew, culminating in changes to immigration policy reflective of public opinion. Decolonization also had an important impact on migration. Colonial powers, when establishing national boundaries for their former possessions, often disregarded the natural divisions among the differing peoples of the region. The political boundaries established when colonies were granted independence after the Second World War often cut across cultural lines and sometimes forced numerous ethnicities to cohabitate within the borders of a single state.3 Colonial powers sought to abandon these possessions sometimes as quickly and easily as possible, resulting in a process that seldom took cultural and regional differences into account.

Some states, such as Cote d’Ivoire,

Tanzania, Zambia and Kenya, were able to prosper despite the fact that the newly independent states were made up of diverse populations. These states succeeded by emphasizing cooperation among ethnic communities, and by promoting nationalism over cultural identity. In other newly born states, such as Rwanda, Sudan, Angola or Uganda, instead of fostering cooperation, the political boundaries caused a power vacuum among ethnic groups, and there was no longer a government of authority to maintain the peace.4

2

Goran Rystad, “Immigration History and the Future of International Migration” International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 4 (1992): 1171 3 Constance G. Anthony, “Africa’s Refugee Crisis: State Building in Historical Perspective” International Migration Review, Vol. 25, No. 3 (1991): 587 4 Ibid 587


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The social inequity and political infighting in these states has been a notable cause of the refugee problem in Africa, both past and present.

Causes and Types of Migration Economic and Labor Migration One of the primary reasons people decide to leave one state in favor of another is financial opportunity. The disparity in wealth between the rich and the poor causes a gap in economic opportunities amongst populations. The resulting migration normally occurs from developing to developed states, as the latter generally offer increased economic opportunity. Migrants who move to seek employment fall into one of two categories: unskilled and skilled. Unskilled laborers constitute the majority of emigrants, and new employment opportunities typically pay far more than the migrants would otherwise earn in their homeland. These employment opportunities are not without costs or risks, however, including travel expenses, administrative costs, and the price of basic necessities of life such as securing shelter, food, and clothing.5 Many migrants of this variety do not carefully weigh the costs and benefits of such a move, as they see the opportunity for employment in the host country as far outweighing the economic costs of the journey. Migrants expect to find employment, wages that exceed that which they received in their home state, and an overall higher standard of living. One specific case study, done by Russell King and Melanie Knights, examined the migrant community of Bangladeshis living in Rome, Italy. In Rome, Bangladeshi immigrants working in the service sector, an area where many unskilled laborers find employment, were making approximately USD $12,000 per year. Comparatively, Bangladesh is home to one of the world’s lowest average incomes, as the average citizen earns a mere USD $210 USD per year.6 Even the jobs considered

5

Solomon Barkin, “The Economic Costs and Benefits of International Migration” The Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 2, No. 4. (1967): 503. 6 Russell King & Melanie Knights, “Bangladeshis in Rome: Migratory Opportunities” in Population Migration and the Changing World Order, ed. W.T.S. Gould and A.M. Findlay, 139-140 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994)


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undesirable by the indigenous people of Italy, because of their low earnings, pay wages that greatly trump the opportunities available to migrants in Bangladesh. For

the

poor,

the

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Total value of a country's output, income or expenditure produced within the country's physical borders.

potential for migration has

Source: www.gftforex.com/resources/glossary.asp

increased in recent decades

Per capita GDP: a value of how much a person produces in a year. It is calculated by dividing the Gross Domestic Product for a country by the number of people who live there. Source: www.angliacampus.com/public/sec/geog/gn009/glossary.htm

due

to

widening

the

continuously income

and

employment gap between developing and developed

states. In 1950, the average per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of low-income countries was USD $164 per year, and the average for high-income countries was some 23 times higher, or USD $3,841.7 More recently, in 2004, the average per capita GDP among low-income countries was USD $510, while it was a staggering 63 times higher in high-income 8

$32,040.

countries,

at

USD

The gap has widened

Per Capita GDP in Selected Regions Relative to that of the Developed World, 1950-2001

considerably in the past 50 years, with the poor remaining poor whilst the rich became far richer. Further increasing the potential for migration is the wealth of knowledge that mass media

has

provided

the

world.

Citizens of LDCs are, more than ever before,

aware

of

the

economic

Source: http://www.un.org/esa/policy/wess/index.html

disparities between their home and the developed world.9 7

Lucie Cheng & Philip Q. Yang, “Global Interaction, Global Inequality, and Migration of the Highly Trained to the United States” International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 3 (1998): 634 8 World Bank, “Key Development Data & Statistics”, The World Bank Group, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20535285~menuPK:119269 4~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html (accessed February 1st 2006) 9 W.T.S. Gould and A.M. Findlay, Population Migration and the Changing World Order, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994), 117


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In addition to the majority of unskilled laborers and the unemployed, there is a growing group of professionals seeking jobs in developed states. This also includes an increase in students who look abroad when selecting a university for post-secondary education. Motivations to migrate for professionals are not entirely dissimilar from that of the unskilled laborers: they seek better wages, improved living conditions, and similar monetary goals in addition to career opportunities. Differing from the typical laborer, professionals seek opportunities to better their

the host, the state sending their professionals

Brain Drain: The emigration of a significant proportion of a country's highly skilled, highly educated professional population, usually to other countries offering better economic and social opportunity (for example, physicians leaving a developing country to practice medicine in a developed country).

abroad experiences what is termed as a “brain

Source: www.planetwire.org/glossarylist.php

current position or advance their careers, whether it is through promotions, raises, or access to superior equipment.10 While an obvious boon to

drain.”11 Migration of professionals results in a loss of very valuable human capital.

Refugees Migration also occurs in the form of people escaping persecution and oppression, fleeing from international or internal wars and conflict, environmental disasters and degradation, or economic peril.

Refugee movements, or flows, are often sudden,

Refugee: a person who has been forced to leave his/her home and has crossed an international border. Source: www.doctorswithoutborders.org/education/bol/Glossary.htm

potentially catching receiving states off-guard and unprepared to deal with the influx of people. Refugee flows are typically large in number,

further exacerbating the problems caused by lack of preparation. Contrary to popular belief, the vast majority of refugees do not seek asylum in developed states, they leave an area of impending danger and travel to neighboring states for safety. There were 9.2 million registered refugees in 2004.12 The majority of refugee movement in the world 10

Lucie Cheng & Philip Q. Yang, “Global Interaction, Global Inequality, and Migration of the Highly Trained to the United States” International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 3 (1998): 635 11 Ibid 12 United Nations High Commission on Refugees, “Refugees by Numbers (2005 edition)”, UN, http://www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/basics/opendoc.htm?tbl=BASICS&id=3b028097c#Refugees


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occurs among developing nations, in areas such as Africa, South Asia, and more recently, the Middle East (see Figures 1.1 and 1.2). Examples of recent events causing refugee flows include armed conflicts in states such as Angola, Burundi, the Sudan, and Colombia, recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and natural disasters in South Asia, specifically

the

Pakistani

earthquakes and the tsunami of December 2004.13 Environmental reasons for migration are not new, but the severity of the problem has increased in both number of people affected and size of the natural disasters. disasters

in

Natural

South

Asia,

including the 2004 tsunami and earthquakes in Pakistan in 2005,

are

people

than

affecting

more

ever

before

because the region has both a high

population

population

and

growth

high rate.

Increased population growth not only results in a larger

Origins of Major Refugee Populations in 2004 Country of Origin1 Countries of Asylum Total Afghanistan2 Pakistan, Iran, Germany, 2,084,900 Netherlands, U.K. Sudan Chad, Uganda, Ethiopia, 730,600 Kenya, DR Congo, Central African Republic Burundi Tanzania, DR Congo, 485,800 Rwanda, South Africa,Canada Democratic Republic Tanzania, Zambia, Republic 462,200 of Congo of Congo, Burundi, Rwanda Somalia Kenya, Yemen, U.K., USA, 389,300 Djibouti Palestine3 Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, 350,600 Libya, Algeria Vietnam China, Germany, USA, 349,800 France, Switzerland Liberia Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, 335,500 Sierra Leone, Ghana, USA Iraq Iran, Germany, Netherlands, 311,800 U.K., Sweden Azerbaijan Armenia, Germany, USA, 250,500 Netherlands 1. This table includes UNHCR estimates for nationalities in industrialized countries on the basis of recent refugee arrivals and asylum seeker recognition. 2. This is a UNHCR estimate. Despite major returns in 2004, the figure for Iran has been revised upwards in the light of a comprehensive registration exercise. The figure for Pakistan only includes Afghans living in camps, and does not include some 1.9 million Afghans living elsewhere in the country, some of whom may be refugees, who were counted for the first time in a census in early 2005. 3. This figure excludes some 4 million Palestinians who are covered by a separate mandate of the U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). Source: United Nations High Commission on Refugees, “Refugees by Numbers (2005 edition)”, UN, http://www.unhcr.ch/cgibin/texis/vtx/basics/opendoc.htm?tbl=BASICS&id=3b028097c#Refugees

amount of people that would be displaced by a natural disaster, but also contributes to the degradation of the environment, as a disorderly flow is taxing a region unprepared for the population inflow.. 13

Council on Foreign Relations, “Global Conflicts Map”, CNN, http://www.cnn.com/interactive/maps/world/fullpage.global.conflict/world.index.html


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The larger populations impact the environment because of the increased strain on the output capability of the land. Due to these effects, along with poor agricultural and business practices, 11 per cent of Africa’s total land area has been affected by humaninduced soil degradation, resulting in a 25 per cent drop in the productivity of cropland throughout much of Africa.14 Population growth, however, is not the only reason for environmental degradation. This process normally occurs in LDCs, where there is less funding to practice environmentally sustainable programs, and less government ability to enforce regulations that restrict pollution. While most environmental factors cause internal displacement, there is a growing sense that international migration is being seen by refugees as a solution to environmental degradation. The idea follows the simple logic that if a region has deteriorated to the Major Refugee Arrivals in 2004 Origin Countries of Asylum Total Sudan Chad, Uganda, 146,900 Kenya D.R. Congo Burundi, Rwanda, 38,100 Zambia, Uganda Somalia Yemen, Kenya 19,100 Iraq Syria 12,000 Côte d'Ivoire Liberia, Mali 5,900 Burundi Rwanda, Tanzania 4,200 Liberia Sierra Leone, Côte 3,700 d'Ivoire, Guinea Central African Chad 500 Republic Rwanda Malawi, D.R. Congo 500 Russian Azerbaijan 500 Federation Source: United Nations High Commission on Refugees, “Refugees by Numbers (2005 edition)”, UN, http:,, www.unhcr.ch, cgi-bin, texis, vtx, basics, opendoc.htm?tbl=BASICS&id=3b028097c#Refugees

point

where

it

cannot

sustain

the

population inhabiting it, then the people should relocate and settle into a new area. This plan is flawed in the long-term, however, because refugee flows are sudden in timing and vast in number. Makeshift

settlements

are

often

established to provide emergency shelter for the refugees.

The very creation of

large settlements in other countries, quite possibly

experiencing

environmental

problems themselves, will lead to environmental degradation in the area to which refugees migrated.15 Additionally, migration due to environmental degradation can also

14

“Fact Sheet Desertification: Africa” GTZ CCD Project, http://lada.virtualcentre.org/eims/download.asp?pub_id=93546&v=5 15 Graeme Hugo, “Environmental Concerns and International Migration” International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 1(1996): 123


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be related to economic issues, as unemployment, poverty, and increased pressure on available resources tend to be an underlying factor.16 The primary cause of refugee movements in recent times, though, is armed conflict. There are multiple types of such conflict, but two are prominent in today’s world: inter-state wars and intra-state ethnic conflict. Inter-state warfare is that in which two states and their respective armies meet in battle. In centuries past, armies would meet on a battlefield away from the centers of population to fight. The lives of civilians, while affected, were not disrupted in ways that are comparable to modern times. Modern warfare, and its highly advanced and destructive weaponry results in the death of civilians and devastation of the infrastructure needed for the survival of other otherwise innocent bystanders, resulting in refugee flows. Afghanistan serves as a recent example of what inter-state warfare can cause, as they have experienced two major wars since the 1980s. The first war was the Soviet Union’s invasion in 1979, and the second the United States’ military action to remove the Taliban in 2001. According to Human Rights Watch, 3.7 million Afghan refugees fled the country to escape these conflicts.17 Similarly, refugee flows have stemmed from the two wars fought in the Persian Gulf, in 1991 and in 2003. The Persian Gulf War of 1991 resulted in the uprooting of between 4 million and 5 million people in the Middle East in a span of just 12 months.18 Ethnic conflicts, on the other hand, are fought between internal forces. Ethnic conflicts are defined as groups of people of differing religions, ethnicities, languages, cultures, or tribes waging war on one another or against the state within the borders of the country.19

Problems

stem

from

the

Shari’a Law: the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed; "sharia is only applicable to Muslims"; "under Islamic law there is no separation of church and state" Source: wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

government being unable to properly mediate and manage populations that are divided 16

Ibid 118 Human Rights Watch, “Safe Refuge for Afghan Refugees”, Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/afghanistan/refugees-facts.htm 18 Sharon Stanton Russell, “International Migration and Political Turmoil in the Middle East” Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 4 (1992): 721 19 Ibid 100 17


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11

In cases where the government is actively agitating the

situation by persecuting a minority group, ethnic violence can break out between the majority and minority.

For example, in 1983, the Sudanese government instituted

Shari’a law throughout the country. The government was imposing Islamic law onto minority groups that were of other religions. Non-Arab Sudanese felt their rights were being threatened by the state and, as a result, the Second Sudanese Civil War broke out. A highly publicized conflict of this type occurred when the Hutu majority in Rwanda began a campaign of genocide to rid the country of the Tutsi minority in 1994. In 1990, President Juvenal Habyarimana and the Hutu-dominated government of Rwanda utilized existing ethnic tensions to consolidate support for his regime, which was suffering from a severe economic recession. In 1994, the killing began when President Habyarimana was assassinated. His death was blamed on Tutsi rebels, and members of this tribe were declared enemies of the state. The former colonial ruler of Rwanda, Belgium strongly supported the superiority of the Tutsi, the minority, over the Hutu, the majority.20 Between April and May 1994, between 5 per cent and 10 per cent of Rwanda’s population was killed, and more than two million Rwandans fled the country.21 Armed conflict within a state is not always fought because of ethnic tensions. Two warring political factions in Colombia, the left-wing Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the right-wing Auto-Defense Forces of Colombia, have been waging a bloody battle for control of the government for more than four decades. Colombians have had to abandon their homes to escape the conflict, for each organization has been targeting civilians believed to be aiding the enemy their opposition. Some 250,000 Colombians currently reside in Ecuador, and the number of displaced Colombians seeking refuge in other states is increasing each year.22

20

Helen M. Hintjens, “Explaining the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda” The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2 (1999): 250 21 Ibid 241, 242 22 “UN Refugee Agency Official Spotlights Plight of Displaced Colombians”, States News Service, February 3rd, 2006, final edition. Lexis-Nexis.


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Forced Migrations Refugee flows are often caused by the government of a state taking an active role in the removal of its “undesired” citizens, usually ethnic minorities or political dissidents. The policies implemented to force migratory movements range from merely pressuring groups to leave, to creating conditions that make continued residence unbearable. While the former can compel people to leave of their own accord, the latter often entails the idea of forcible expulsion. An example of a state implementing an expulsion policy towards a group of people occurred during the Persian Gulf War. The government of Saudi Arabia supported the fight against Iraq, and expelled one million Yemeni migrants living in Saudi Arabia, because their home state supported Iraq in the war.23 More commonly, though, governments put forth antagonistic policies with the purpose of threatening minorities and stripping them of their rights, a coercive way to remove people. Discriminatory laws can attack a minority’s religion, language, culture, political viewpoint, restrict free speech and other individual rights, and essentially relegate them to the status of second-class citizens.24 The goal of these policies is to establish an environment of fear and persecution conducive to driving out a particular group. Removing a minority achieves a cultural uniformity that, in turn, can achieve another crucial goal: national security.

Governments feel threatened by political

opposition, no matter the level of strength that the group possesses. Fidel Castro, shortly after establishing a new communist regime in Cuba, ordered the exile of more than 500,000 members of the Cuban middle class, because middle and upper social classes are seen as enemies of socialism, and are likely to support ongoing efforts to remove a socialist regime.25 In doing so, Castro believed he made the environment more secure as revolts would be less likely to happen. Similarly, the genocide in the Darfur region of the

23

Jeremy Hein, “Refugees, Immigrants, and the State” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 19 (1993): 48 Myron Weiner, “Security, Stability, and International Security” International Migration Review, Vol. 17, No.3 (1992): 100 25 Ibid 99 24


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Sudan began due to insurgents carrying out attacks on the Sudanese government. The government, seeing threats to its power, responded by trying to remove the non-Arabs.

Effects of Migration on the Security of Host States Security, and threats to it, can take on different forms depending on the area of a state that is perceived to be at risk. The conventional definition of security is national security. This type of security can be broken down into three parts. The first component of national security, the traditional view, is the ability of the state to militarily defend itself from external attack.26 The second component is defense against internal threats, such as ethnic conflicts.

Lastly, national security also encompasses balancing the

demand for resources by the population with the availability of such resources.27 A breakdown in the balance, where the population’s demands exceed the available supplies, can threaten the structural integrity of a government.28 Security is not merely limited to physical attacks on the state. In addition to national security, are concerns over economic and social concerns.

Protecting the

economic security of a state is just as important as shielding it from acts of war. The security of economics is a concern of the state on both the state level and the individual level: on the state level, the extra costs that migration can bring may place a strain on the government’s funds and hurt overall economic performance, whereas on the individual level, citizens of a state can have their economic

Xenophobia: an irrational fear of foreigners or strangers Source: wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

status threatened by the loss of employment to incoming foreigners. Cultural security can greatly influence a state’s immigration policy and increases the tension between the existing populations and new immigrants. Xenophobia, the fear of foreign persons or ideas, can have a profound impact on the way security is envisioned. 26

Indigenous

Karen Jacobsen, “Factors Influencing the Policy Responses of Host Governments to Mass Refugee Influxes” International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3 (1996): 672 27 National security concerns have recently been used to support claims that resources such as oil are of significant national concern. States have declared that protection of a free flow of oil represent important national security objectives, as a disruption in supply could cause significant economic damage. 28 Ibid


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populations may fear their culture or their identity will slowly disappear with the infusion of undesired persons and ideas.29 If anti-immigrant attitudes become popular with the public, ensuing violence can pose a threat to national security.

Economic Impact Host states experience both economic benefits and costs from migrants. Some of the rewards to the receiving states are obvious. For one, the host is on the receiving end of the “brain drain.” This process adds an educated, skilled group of workers into the state’s economy, and is beneficial because skilled workers have a more positive impact on the economy than those with limited abilities. Unskilled laborers provide a larger workforce to fill jobs that are often low-paying, and unattractive to existing populations. Another benefit to the host is that the government receives more revenue from taxes.30 While the advantages are many, migration does not come without costs, both perceived and real. Any belief of the existence of threats can cause change in public policy towards immigration, regardless of whether that threat is realisitic. Arguments put forth about the economic costs of migration include the belief that unskilled laborers put unnecessary burdens on the state, the straining of government resources to cope with refugees, and the fear that acceptance of refugees will lead to more asylum applicants, thereby aggravating the problem.31 A popular belief, especially in Western Europe, is that the unskilled migrants prove to be much too costly to justify their entrance into the state. The distinction between skilled and unskilled migrants here is important. The public sees the skilled migrant who is working higher-level jobs as a benefit to the economy, and not a burden, whereas the unskilled migrant is seen as someone who will require more assistance from the government than he is able to provide for the economy. The types of costs that unskilled migrants put on the economy are numerous, including costs borne by 29

Ibid 110 Mark Kleinman, “The Economic Impact of Labour Migration” in The Politics of Migration, edited by Sarah Spencer, 61. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. 31 Myron Weiner, “Security, Stability, and International Security” International Migration Review, Vol. 17, No.3 (1992): 116 30


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administrative agencies, investments in infrastructure and housing for immigrants, job training, and welfare agencies providing assistance to the poor.32

These costs are

potentially more perception than reality; in truth, migrant contributions to the economy through employment can counteract many of the costs placed on the government. The economic impact of refugees is an entirely different problem. The bulk of the economic problems stemming from refugee flows occur in least developed countries, with an estimated 80 per cent of people who flee their homes seeking refuge in other, similarly economically challenged states.33 Economic capacity is the ability of the host state to absorb refugees into their country, and it is determined by factors such as availability of land, employment opportunities, infrastructural limitations, and the land’s capacity to support additional populations34. In LDCs, areas in which refugees tend to settle are already heavily populated and cannot withstand a large influx of refugees. Refugees also place strains on medical and educational services, transportation, infrastructure, available housing and available jobs. These stresses can potentially cause strife within the local community.35

Beyond the costs to local economies, the

government itself often has to provide shelter, food, and other supplies for the new arrivals. Many of the governments called upon to provide assistance to new arrivals are quite poor and the dire economic situations prior to the refugee flow become much worse.

Terrorism and Crime Not all immigrants enter a country to escape poverty, oppression, or environmental degradation. As evidenced by recent attacks against the United States, Spain, and the United Kingdom, migration has become a means for terrorists and other transnational criminals to achieve their goals. Transnational crime is carried out by 32

Goran Rystad, “Immigration History and the Future of International Migration” International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 4 (1992): 1183 33 William B. Wood, “Forced Migration: Local Conflicts and International Dilemmas” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 84, No. 4 (1994): 62 34 Karen Jacobsen, “Factors Influencing the Policy Responses of Host Governments to Mass Refugee Influxes” International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3 (1996): 667 35 Ibid


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organizations spread across the globe, not individuals acting alone. Terrorism involving international migration is also seldom ever one individual acting alone, but rather organized networks that carefully plan attacks. Highly organized criminal networks pose multiple threats to international security. The ability to bribe, coerce, or use other illegal means to influence public officials undermines the credibility and legitimacy of a state, in turn leading to the destabilizing of a country. If large enough, criminal organizations can threaten order on an international level. The worst threat posed to international security comes about when organized crime uses this ability by funding revolutionary movements to overthrow the government.36 With these organizations operating in many states across the world, the movement of people and goods is necessary, so if a state that was deemed important to these organizations was not cooperating, the organization would take steps to undermine the state’s government in order to gain influence and improve its situation. These groups are involved in the trafficking of many illegal goods across national boundaries, including weapons and humans. The largest international crime trade, however, is in drugs. Production of illegal narcotics, like cocaine and heroin, is focused primarily in East Asia and Latin America. The drug trade in East Asia consists of products grown in one nation, such as Burma, manufactured in another, like the Philippines, and then shipped off to their final destination state for sale, frequently the United States. The crossing of multiple national borders has produced security problems for entire regions, and is often difficult to interrupt. By gaining more power and money, these illegal traffickers can bribe government officials to allow for easier trade. For example, Vietnamese border patrols, responsible for guarding the Vietnam-Laos border, were arrested when it was that discovered they were working with Laos drug dealers to facilitate narcotics smuggling.37 The Philippines is especially troubled by the influence of organized crime. In 1997, Philippine Senator Ernesto Herrera described the state of Philippine politics: “Drug money is corrupting and co-opting elements in immigration, 36 37

Alan Dupont, “Transnational Crime and Security in East Asia” Asian Survey, Vol. 39., No. 3 (1999): 436 Ibid 447


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customs, the police, and the military. It has even penetrated the ranks of court officers and some well-placed officials.”38 The corruption of state officials by organized crime, through the purchasing of government influence to facilitate illegal activities subverts the legitimacy of the government. Recently, migration has spawned terrorism as a new threat to the security of states. The 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States have illustrated the possibility that international migration can pose a significant military threat. These attacks were carried out by 19 men, all of whom were foreigners that had migrated to the United States.

Subsequent attacks in Bali, Indonesia, Madrid, Spain and London,

England have further demonstrated the severe security risks that can stem from migration.

These attacks involved terrorists who where migrants to the targeted

country.39 Links to the terrorist organization al-Qaeda were found in all of the attacks, meaning the preparation and organization behind terrorism is found across many state lines.40

Perception of a Culture Besieged The possible dilution or erosion of culture is a threat to a host state’s security and is sometimes more perception than reality. Xenophobia does not discriminate based on the idea of racial superiority, but instead is “predicated on the imperative of preserving the group’s identity, whose purity it sanctifies.”41 The belief is that those who are different and unwanted must be kept out in order to maintain the purity of the culture. The culminating theory of this neo-racism is a term French social scientists coined seuil de tolerance, which translates to “the threshold of tolerance.”42 European states have rejected the integration of migrants into society by issuing temporary worker permits, rather than citizenship, hoping that migrants will return to their native homes. These anti38

Ibid BBC, “The Suspects”, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/investigation/html/suspects.stm, (accessed 26 February 2006) 40 BBC, “The Bali Bombers’ Network of Terror”, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2499193.stm (accessed 26 February 2006) 41 Roxanne Lynn Doty, “Anti-Immigrantism in Western Democracies” (New York: Taylor & Francis, 2003) 19 42 Ibid 66 39


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migrant actions were taken in an attempt to avoid crossing the perceived seuil de tolerance after which the integrity of the culture at large is at risk. This public belief that their culture is under siege, or that the state’s sovereignty is in jeopardy, puts pressure on the government to react in accordance to popular opinion. As evidenced in the Western states reactionary right-wing parties can gain popularity and strength on the basis of anti-immigrant platforms. These parties provide a threat to the state’s power and national security where governments are weak, such as in LDCs, and could potentially topple regimes in some areas. States often shift their public policy to more restrictive, anti-immigration stances to avoid the potential problems that could arise if the reactionary right-wing parties gain more power. Discriminatory policies towards immigrants are partly to blame for the riots in Paris, France and Sydney, Australia. Also, the riots in the Middle East, caused by outrage over inflammatory political cartoons published by a Danish newspaper, have roots in the deep anti-immigrant sentiment among the public. National security is threatened if the public becomes too entrenched in the idea of protecting cultural security.

The United Nations on Migration International Migration Report 2002, published by the United Nations expressed concern about the number of people residing in countries other than their own. Some 175 million people, or 3 per cent of the world population, fit this category in 2000, twice the level measured in 1970. As a result, the UN has taken further measures to encourage states to document and show the effects associated with migration on destination and origin states.43 The UN is not quick to label migration as a problem as it can have positive implications. Migration can help the communities that migrants leave as well as the ones that they go to, including the transfer of skills and knowledge, and the enhancement of cultural development.44 Many international organizations, including the World Bank, 43

"The United Nations on Levels and Trends of International Migration and Related Policies," Population and Development Review, Questia, 18 Aug. 2006 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001973756>. 44 Ibid.


Rutgers Model United Nations 2006 feel that migration is beneficial for poverty reduction. In 2005, developing countries received USD $167 billion in remittances sent from migrants, more than twice the amount of development aid from all sources.45 Secretary-General Kofi Annan noted that several countries that were sources of migrants are now popular destination areas for new migrants, including Ireland, South Korea, Chile and

19 Remittance: Money sent from one place or person to another. A remittance economy is one dependent on such money transfers, often from a family member abroad to relatives back home. Source: research.amnh.org/ biodiversity/symposia/archives/ seascapes/glossary.html

southern European states.46 Despite its positive potential, the UN is also aware of the negative aspects of migration. Since many migrants are from poor backgrounds, the result for workers in receiving states has been a reduction in unskilled labor wage rates as migrant workers are willing to work for less than their domestic counterparts.47 In the United States, foreign born residents living in poverty use social services twice as much as native born Americans. Another concern over migration is the “brain drain” effect. For example: [T]here are currently more African scientists and engineers working in the United States than there are in Africa, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) … In Zambia, emigration has reduced the number of practicing doctors from 1,600 a few years ago, to a mere 400 today. The IOM estimates Africa's brain drain has cost nearly $9 billion in lost human capital and growth potential since 1997. Nearby in India, 100,000 skilled technology workers are expected to leave in the next three years. Since it costs India about $20,000 per student to educate these individuals, India essentially will subsidize the rest of the world for $2 billion worth of technology education.48

This is an obvious problem for states of immigration origin. The loss of knowledge can be compounded over time to affect the economy and social structure. In an effort to balance the positive and negative effects of migration, the UN Secretariat has taken on the task of “collection, analysis and dissemination of information

45

“World Bank hails benefits of migration,” Aljazeera, 17 November 2005, http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/B277D1BD-E8C4-45B1-946F-3D06EEF2541D.htm, Accessed 18 August 2006. 46 Heinlein, Peter, “UN Study highlights benefits of migration,” United Nations, 6 June 2006, http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-06/2006-06-06-voa58.cfm, Accessed 18 August 2006. 47 “Economic Effects of Migration,” Globalization 101, http://www.globalization101.org/index.php?file=issue&pass1=subs&id=176, Accessed 20 August 2006. 48 Ibid.


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on the levels, trends and national policies of international migration.”49 Other UN bodies have addressed “human rights, internally displaced persons, family reunification, undocumented migrants, trafficking and the social and economic integration of migrants.”

Also, specialized agencies dealt with issues directly related to their

disciplines, “such as labor flows, refugees and asylum seekers and remittances.”50 Numerous resolutions have been passed by the UN in light of migration and its trends. The 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, ratified by 19 countries, “establishes an international definition of the different categories of migrant workers.”51 Further, in 2000 the UN passed the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air making the distinction that migrants may be in danger and in need of help and that migration in and of itself in not a crime. On 21 December 2001 the General Assembly passed resolution 56/203 calling for the UN and similar organizations to address the issue of international migration and to provide appropriate support for process reform as necessary. As a result of this resolution, in 2002 the UN Population Division instituted the first Co-ordination Meeting on International Migration.52 Recently, the UN started three initiatives in light of the ongoing difficulties that have arisen from migration.

The first is the Global Commission on International

Migration which will study how to improve cooperation between UN agencies to help migration issues. Second, a resolution was adopted by the Second Committee of the General Assembly which called for high-level dialogue in the General Assembly devoted to migration. Lastly, the Geneva Migration Group was established by the International Organization on Migration, and is made up of the heads of 4 UN agencies.53

49

"The United Nations on Levels and Trends of International Migration and Related Policies," Population and Development Review, Questia, 18 Aug. 2006 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001973756>. 50 Ibid. 51 Ibid 52 Ibid. 53 “UN Initiatives on International Migration,” United Nations, http://www.un-ngls.org/international_migration.htm, Accessed 20 August 2006.


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Current Status Immigration Attitudes and Policy in the EU and Australia European politics have shown the effects of the public perception in recent years. Using nationalism, populist groups have stirred up anti-immigrant sentiments and gained a strong following. In 2002, Jean-Marie Le Pen of the National Front, a reactionary right-wing party that proposes to send immigrants home and close the borders, took France by complete surprise When he won 17 per cent of the national vote in the first round of presidential voting. Even more telling about this political shock was from where Le Pen received the majority of his support: most of his votes were received in communities that had large immigrant populations.54

Also during that year, in the

Netherlands, thought to be one of the most tolerant and inviting countries in Europe, the Pim Fortuyn’s List (PFL) won the second most seats in the Dutch parliament. The PFL is a Dutch version of the National Front, advocating closing the borders because the Netherlands is “full.”55 Further fueling public opinion of immigration in Europe are four events of security significance: the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States, the Madrid bombing on 11 March 2004, the London subway bombings on 7 July 2005, and most recently, the Parisian riots, which began on 27 October 2005 and lasted for nearly three weeks. The first three were terrorist attacks, carried out by immigrants following a militant brand of Islam who were able to migrate into the various states in order to attack. In light of these acts of terror, governments in Europe became more concerned with the security threat posed by relaxed migration laws. The Parisian riots, on the other hand, served to both demonstrate the results of migrant suffering in Europe and stoke the flames of public resentment to foreigners. The vast majority of youths involved in the rioting were of immigrant descent, living in ghettos outside of Paris. These areas were built outside of major French cities during the 54

Ibid 70 Shamit Saggar, “Immigration and the Politics of Popular Opinion” in The Politics of Migration, ed. Sarah Spencer, 190 (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003)

55


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wave of immigration from former colonies – primarily Muslims from North African colonies – during the 1960s.56 These people moved to France, attempting to escape poverty in their homeland to attain a better life for themselves and their children in the affluent West. Today, unemployment is 40 per cent in many of these ghettos, and the youths living there feel trapped, as if they have no possibilities of moving upward in French society.57 The people in these ghettos complain of racial discrimination in education, employment, and treatment by police. At the same time, attitudes towards immigrants in France have become even more combative, and the National Front has gained support in the wake of these riots. Recent surveys showed that 25 per cent of French support Jean-Marie Le Pen’s ideas on immigration, including the removal of immigrants from French suburbs.58

With

prejudice against immigrants increasing after the riots, and the riots occurring because of socio-economic conditions created by racism, the situation has no foreseeable solution. Australia is coping with the same tension between migrants and the native population. The beaches of Sydney erupted in riots on 11 December 2005 after two Anglo-Australians were attacked by a group of Lebanese-Australians. Violence escalated as the Australians retaliated when 5,000 young men descended on the beaches and began attacking anyone who looked Middle Eastern.59

In response, Lebanese immigrants

roamed the streets near the beaches and destroyed storefronts. The causes of the tension between Lebanese Muslims and Australians are the same as those in France: the Lebanese live in communities with “disproportionately high unemployment and poverty rates,” causing the youth of these communities to feel trapped in these conditions because of their race.60 In recent years, Australian attitudes towards promoting immigration have sharply declined. As a result, government policy has shifted to restrict migration. Yet, 56

BBC, “Ghettos shackle French Muslims”, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4375910.stm (accessed February 2nd, 2006) 57 Ibid 58 Emma-Kate Symons, “Mood Turns Darkly Towards the Right”, The Weekend Australian, December 17th, 2005, Lexis-Nexis 59 Yvonne Abraham, “On the Beach: Why the Recent Riots in Australia Should Surprise No One”, The Boston Globe, December 25th, 2005, Lexis-Nexis. 60 Ibid


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while public attitudes may be against migration, the economic future of Australia depends on workers able to fill the jobs being left open by an aging population. European and Australian immigration policy is currently caught at a crossroads. The population of both continents is aging, and migration provides a possible solution to the employment issue in the coming years. Terrorism is a very real security threat, with two major terrorist attacks occurring in Europe in the past two years. Both Europe and Australia also face the prospect of future riots and conflict between the native population and the migrant population. The publicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s anti-immigration sentiment is not only creating tension between the public and immigrants, something that can create potentially volatile situations, they empower reactionary right-wing groups to the point where some fear their views are becoming a part of the political mainstream.

The United States, Foreign Policy Shifts, and Migration The events of 11 September 2001 marked a turning point in the history of the United States. Foreign policy in America shifted dramatically, thrusting the fight against terrorism into the spotlight as its prime objective. With the focus on terrorism also came an analysis of American immigration policy. The US has a well-documented history of being a haven for immigration, openly accepting waves of immigrants from all parts of Europe at the beginning of the 20th Century, and most recently immigrants from Latin America and Asia, before the security threat that migration poses was so gruesomely exposed. A new development in US immigration policy is the profiling of males from Arab and Muslim countries, the states from where the 19 hijackers originated. Legal immigrants saw their rights further restricted by the USA Patriot Act, which was passed with the hope of preventing future terrorist attacks.61 The international effects of the American reaction to the attacks of 11 September 2001 are felt throughout the world as a result of its Global War on Terror. The United States took a proactive approach to preventing terrorism: with a mission statement of 61

Susan Martin, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Politics of US Immigration Reformâ&#x20AC;? in The Politics of Migration, ed. Sarah Spencer, 139 (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003)


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finding terrorists and bringing them to justice to ensure the peace and security of the world, the United States began a campaign scouring the globe to hunt down terrorists. Wars were begun in Afghanistan, in 2001, and Iraq, in 2003. International security was the primary reason these wars were fought, but while threats were removed, overlooked in these conflicts are the refugee flows stemming from them: 200,000 Afghans fled their country in 2001 after the war began, 500,000 left Iraq for Syria, and an additional one million Iraqis sought refuge in Jordan.62 While the United States maintains that these conflicts are vital to the security of the international community, Pakistan and Syria are bearing the brunt of the challenge posed by migration away from the war zones, and are at risk of internal unrest due in large part to these migratory flows.

Refugee Populations in Least Developed Countries There are multiple refugee crises around the world. The earthquake in Pakistan resulted in the deaths of 87,000 people and the displacement of 3.5 million more.63 The majority of those now taking refuge in emergency camps do not want to return to their poverty-stricken regions of Kashmir or the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. The tsunami of December 2004 resulted in more than 200,000 deaths and hundreds of thousands left homeless. For Least Developed Countries, foreign aid is critical to the mission of providing for these refugees. Refugees can pose a threat to the stability or existence of the government in their host state. Potential for violence arises because refugee flows can provide newly created internal threats to the government or place significant strain on the government’s ability to properly supply its population with food, water, and shelter.64 Since the governments of some LDCs are weak, the inability to provide its people with basic necessities of life can cause protests and rioting. In November 2005, 500 refugees at the Krisan Refugee 62

UN High Commission on Refugees, “2001 Global Refugee Statistics”, UNHCR. http://www.unhcr.org/cgibin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=3d0f66ef2 (accessed February 3rd, 2006) 63 Hans Greimel, “Pakistan braces for next quake challenge: sending survivors home” The Associated Press, January 29, 2006, Lexis-Nexis 64 Karen Jacobsen, “Factors Influencing the Policy Responses of Host Governments to Mass Refugee Influxes” International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3 (1996): 672


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Camp in Ghana escaped and integrated into the broader Ghanaian population. The reasons for leaving the refugee camp included “poor accommodation and feeding … health and sanitation problems and lack of education scholarships.”65 With a refugee population of 64,000, Ghana faces serious problems if the actions of the 500 inspire other refugees to protest the government over their deplorable living conditions. The influx of refugees also produces new internal enemies. Refugee camps often house guerillas, which results in serious security implications for both the host state and the refugees themselves.66 In some cases, the sending state may launch raids into the host state to attack refugee settlements.

In the 1980s, refugees fled South Africa to

neighboring states only to be hunted down by the South African military.67 South Africa justified its actions by claiming that the refugee camps were home to armed insurgents that threatened its national security. The host state feels threatened by armed enemies of the state residing in its borders and, to remove the threat, may attack refugee camps. This, in turn, endangers the lives of people living in the camps, the vast majority of whom may be innocent. Furthermore, policy towards refugees is likely to take a more restrictive turn if security issues arise because of the admittance of these individuals. Neighboring states began to ask refugees to seek asylum elsewhere after the South African military attacked the settlements, in order to avoid further conflict, whether internal or external.68 The situation in the Darfur of the Sudan is particularly alarming for security in Africa. The genocide in Sudan is causing an exodus of non-Arabs from Sudan seeking to escape the conflict. The Janjaweed militias are killing non-Arab Sudanese in the Darfur region causing the death of 200,000 civilians and leading 200,000 Sudanese to flee across the border to Chad in search of safety. Unfortunately, a region of barren desert awaits

65

The Analyst, “500 Refugees on Rampage in Ghana” Africa News, November 11th 2005, Lexis-Nexis Karen Jacobsen, “Factors Influencing the Policy Responses of Host Governments to Mass Refugee Influxes” International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3 (1996): 672 67 Ibid 68 Ibid 673 66


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these refugees.69 There is a camp in the town of Kolloye, Chad where “10,000 refugees live in roofless grass shelters that give little protection from the frigid night air and no shelter from the punishing sun.” 70 Moreover, basic necessities of life like water and food are scarce at best. These difficult living conditions can cause unrest and frustration among a population of already unsettled people. Recently, the Janjaweed started to attack refugee settlements established in Chad, not only causing the displacement and death of Sudanese refugees, but more than 20,000 citizens from Chad have been driven from their homes and had their property destroyed.71 Beginning in December 2005, militias based in the Sudan and armed by the Sudanese government joined with existing rebel groups in Chad to attack and eventually topple the government of the host country. General Abakar Youssouf Mahamit Itno, the man in charge of border security, believes that “Sudan wants to export the war in Darfur to us here … they want to use the Janjaweed they armed to terrorize Darfur, to terrorize our population.”72 Not only are the Janjaweed terrorizing people within Chad’s borders, but now rebels from Chad are establishing bases in Sudan to rest and gather supplies for further attacks on the government of Chad. The refugee flow from the Darfur crisis now directly threatens the national security of Chad.

Bloc Positions Regional Positions Developed States Developed nations view migration with extreme caution.

On the one hand,

immigrants help with economic growth by adding to the labor supply. Still, migration poses serious risks to national security in the form of crime and terrorism.

The

immigration of skilled or professional peoples to developed states is viewed not only as a 69

UN High Commission on Refugees, “Chad/Darfur Emergency”, UNHCR. http://www.unhcr.org/cgibin/texis/vtx/chad?page=intro (accessed February 3rd, 2006) 70 Lydia Polgreen, “Refugee Crisis Grows as Darfur War Crosses a Border: 20,000 in Chad are Uprooted by Attacks.” New York Times, February 28th, 2006. 71 Ibid 72 Ibid


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27 The European Union is

working towards easing restrictions on labor migration to fill what it perceives as a “growing skills gap,” but this is aimed at attracting the skilled workers of LDCs, not unskilled laborers.73 Its goal is a policy of “targeted migration,” which allows migrants to bolster employment in sectors experiencing labor shortages, but limits migration to other.74 Targeted migration means taking an active role in determining what type of migrant is desirable for the economy, and refusing entry to others.

Restrictive

immigration policies towards unskilled laborers play a significant role in increasing illegal immigration, another problem facing developed states. The European Union and the United States have put significant emphasis on cracking down on illegal immigration. On 28 February 2002, the EU laid out plans to fight illegal immigration, including the establishment of a European border patrol and the toughening of laws to prosecute those who promote illegal immigration.75 The United States faces similar problems, as an estimated eight million illegal immigrants currently reside in the US.76 Part of the problem is that the US-Mexican border is porous, due to the sheer size of the land border. Potential ways developed states can hinder illegal immigration include positive solutions, such as investment in LDCs to promote economic growth and “bring work to the workers rather than workers to the work,” or bolstering security through methods such as increased patrols, walls, or fences.77 While most developed states have a somewhat restrictive stance on migration, Japan’s policy is incredibly rigid. At the forefront of the reasons Japan enforces such a strict entrance and integration policy is the goal of preserving ethnic homogeneity, the same concept that is gaining popularity in the European Union. Both Japan and the 73

Claude Moraes, “The Politics of European Union Migration Policy” in The Politics of Migration, ed. Sarah Spencer, 125 (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003) 74 “The US National Intelligence Council on Growing Global Migration” Population and Development Review, Vol. 27 No. 4, 2001: 818 75 “Combating Illegal Immigration at EU Level”, European Commission. http://europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home/fsj/immigration/illegal/fsj_immigration_illegal_en.htm (accessed February 3rd, 2006) 76 W.T.S. Gould and A.M. Findlay, Population Migration and the Changing World Order, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994), 121 77 Ibid 119


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European Union foresee a looming economic upheaval in coming years, due to an increasingly aging population not being able to produce a sufficient labor force. This cautious, “wait and see” approach to migration is only sustainable if Japan is able to recover economically, and to retrofit its economy to accommodate the realities of an older workforce. If they do, increased demand for labor will result in shortages across the country, and may require the loosening of immigration regulations.78

Developing States The primary concerns for developing states are the ability to cope with influxes of refugees and to combat transnational crime. Some 70 per cent of the world’s refugees are located in Africa or Asia, regions predominantly comprised of LDCs.79 Refugees face many challenges in establishing new settlements, including procuring enough food, the availability of safe drinking water, and accumulating materials with which to build shelter. As a result, environmental degradation is a significant concern in any new area in which refugees settle.80 Additionally, the receiving state in a refugee flow may not possess the funds necessary to properly care for the new arrivals. These states could look to foreign aid, from either developed states or Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), to assist in funding the programs needed to sustain the new arrivals. The governments of LDCs sometimes seek other routes, because the acceptance of foreign aid can mean allowing outsiders to influence public policy initiatives, thus sacrificing some degree of national sovereignty.81 National security is also at risk if refugee flows disturb the stability of ethnic, racial, or religious groups in the state. Many states in Africa are already coping with 78

“The US National Intelligence Council on Growing Global Migration” Population and Development Review, Vol. 27 No. 4, 2001: 819 79 United Nations High Commission on Refugees, “Refugees by Numbers (2005 edition)”, UN, http://www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/basics/opendoc.htm?tbl=BASICS&id=3b028097c#Refugees (accessed February 4th 2006) 80 United Nations High Commission on Refugees, “Environmental Concerns During Refugee Operations”, UN, http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/protect/opendoc.htm?tbl=PROTECTION&id=3b03b6f44 (accessed February 4th 2006) 81 Karen Jacobsen, “Factors Influencing the Policy Responses of Host Governments to Mass Refugee Influxes” International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3 (1996): 663


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deep divisions among their populations based on the grounds of ethnicity, race, or religion. A sudden influx of refugees can further aggravate the existing tensions. The possibility of this is greater if incoming refugees have a connection to a group already there.82

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Non-governmental organizations play a vital role in assisting states with the financial burden of supporting and supplying refugees.

Refugee flows strain local

infrastructure and resources, meaning even the most basic of necessities, like food and clean water, become scarce. NGOs help alleviate the situation by providing additional funding or supplies that the government cannot produce on its own. Africare, the leading NGO in African charitable work, suggests it has been heavily involved in “virtually every humanitarian emergency in Africa since the 1970s.” This association includes the Somali refugee crisis of the 1980s, and crises created by armed conflict in countries such as Burundi, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Angola in the 1990s.83 Africare is among the myriad NGOs that specialize in the delivery of aid to areas in dire need. Africare is but one of many NGOs, including the International Red Cross and Oxfam International, that specializes in distributing legal aid to migrants and refugees. Other NGOs, such as Human Rights Watch (HRW) or Amnesty International, are advocacy groups that focus on the discriminatory aspects of migration. HRW recently addressed the International Organization of Migration to voice its displeasure at the inadequate measures taken to protect the basic rights of migrants. Additionally, in a piece drawn up by HRW, International Catholic Migration Committee, and numerous other NGOs, a declaration was made on the basic human rights that refugees possess that must not be violated by the receiving state.84 While not doling out humanitarian aid like Africare and other similar NGOs of that nature do, NGOs like the HRW seek to assist 82

Gil Loescher & Alan Dowty, “Refugee Flows as Grounds for International Action” International Security, Vol. 21, No. 1 (1996): 48 83 Africare, “About Africare”, Africare. http://africare.org/about/history/history.html (accessed February 6th, 2006) 84 HRW, “NGO Background paper on the Refugee and Migration Interface”, Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/refugees/ngo-document/ngo_refugee.pdf (accessed February 6th, 2006)


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migrants by ensuring their rights as humans are protected regardless of where they move or their motivations for migration. NGOs may be acting with the best of intentions, but their actions often have unforeseen consequences.

Many refugee aid NGOs have administrators who see

government officials in LDCs as “inefficient, indifferent, corrupt and inadequate.”85 This view toward the very governments these relief organizations are supposed to be assisting often results in friction between the government and the organization, which in turn limits the efficiency the aid distribution process. The conflict between NGO and state can become so severe that the state actually takes an obstructionist stance to hinder the relief effort. Sudanese government officials in the 1980s refused to issue work permits or visas to volunteers as retaliation to the critical stance taken by various aid groups.86 In the end, these feuds only hurt the refugees.

Media Positions Media reactions are partly to blame for the hostile attitudes toward immigration in developed states. In 2006, the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten printed twelve political cartoons that depicted the Prophet Mohammed as, among other things, a terrorist or a terrorist sympathizer.87 The negative attitude of much of the Danish population towards Muslim immigrants is similar to that of the French and Dutch, and these feelings were put into print in these cartoons. Reaction across the Islamic world was swift and the outrage intense. Islam forbids the depiction of the Prophet Mohammed, therefore any illustration, let alone a politically charged cartoon, is offensive. Violent riots broke out in many Middle Eastern states, resulting in the deaths of several bystanders, the boycotts of Danish goods, and destruction of Danish property.88 Newspapers in various states across Europe reprinted the cartoons, in a sign of solidarity of with the Danish paper.89 85

Karen Jacobsen, “Factors Influencing the Policy Responses of Host Governments to Mass Refugee Influxes” International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3 (1996): 663 86 Ibid 87 Dan Bilefsky, “Danish Cartoon Editor on Indefinite Leave.” New York Times, February 11th, 2006. 88 Ibid 89 “Fingerprinting Visitors Common, Necessary” The Daily Yomiuri, April 17th, 2006, final edition. Lexis-Nexis.


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Business Positions Businesses in the developed world depend and thrive on the influx of migrants into a state. Unskilled immigrants are able to find a variety of minimum-wage jobs available in most developed states.

The wages are considerably higher than the

immigrants would receive in their state of origin, so it is a beneficial arrangement for the worker. When businesses perform well, it translates into economic growth, but using immigrants to fill jobs causes difficulties in public perception, as can be seen in the United States.

Some eight million illegal immigrants work in the United States,

translating to 1 in 20 members of the American work force.90 Their status as illegal immigrants fuels public criticism not only of the government for not securing the borders, but also of businesses for hiring them. While business comes under fire for employing illegal immigrants, it is often these immigrants that are willing to work the menial jobs that need to be performed.

90

Hanah Cho, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Demand and Supply; American Businesses Offer Jobs, and Illegal Immigrants Comeâ&#x20AC;? The Baltimore Sun, April 2nd, 2006, final edition. Lexis-Nexis.


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Summary Migration is an issue that affects all states of the world, in varying forms and with varying results. As long as there are natural disasters or countries resort to war, there will be humans fleeing the affected areas in seek of refuge. Similarly, the difference in wealth between states will continue to motivate some to migrate in search of better opportunities for themselves and their families.

The growing interconnectedness of the world

facilitates migration, with better transportation and information access encouraging people to move from one state to another. Acknowledging migration as a cause for concern is the first step. States face real and perceived threats to their national, economic, and cultural security from migration. At the same time, however, migration provides benefits to the state.

Developed states have to properly balance the benefits and drawbacks of

migration. The fears of their people that their culture is eroding and the increased threat to national security that transnational crime and terrorism pose place pressure on the governments of these states to restrict migration.

Despite these reservations, the

economic problems of unemployment and declining productivity can sometimes be solved by increased migration. The LDCs of the world are particularly vulnerable to internal threats to national security from migration.

Ways to appropriately and

effectively fund aid for refugees that enter into states must be found, or else the government may find itself governing over an angered group of refugees or an upset indigenous population.

Refugee flows can also destabilize local economies from

significant increases in demand for food, water, shelter, and employment. Migration is not an occurrence that can be stopped. Whether done legally or illegally, people will find ways to move across borders. Policy addressing migration will only be successful if this is taken into account. For economic migrants, the key is in finding a balance between the threats to national security that migration causes and the economic benefits that it achieves. Support systems of international aid must be in place


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to assist states in helping meet the needs of refugees, or else national security could be jeopardized.


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Discussion Questions • Does a state have the right to deny entry of an economic refugee? Can it ethically deny a political or religious refugee? What body should have the right to determine the immigration policy of a given state? • What security risks posed by migration are the most significant in today’s world? • Are restricted migration policies feasible in today’s world of globalization? • Is the concept of “targeted migration” for economic migrants fair? Should developed states be picking the best candidates from LDCs to enter their country? What affect does this selective process have on the host country? The country of origin? • How can refugee populations be effectively controlled to ensure that national security interests are maintained? • To what extent should the root of migration be examined? Should the focus be on migration itself, or the causes of migration? • Hostile populations in host states can lead to violence. How can these attitudes among the public of host states be properly managed to avoid internal security concerns? • How can the international community better assist LDCs in coping with refugee flows? Should refugees be denied entrance into a state if the state deems them a security risk? • Developed nations and developing nations are impacted differently by migration, yet in some areas, such as international crime and terrorism, there are common problems. In what ways can different states work together to deal with migration? • What realistic steps can the UN take towards resolving some of the ongoing problems migration is causing today?


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Migration as an International Security Concern Director: Kyle Gruber Rutgers Model United Nations 16-19 November 2006 The Institute for Dome...

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