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Poster Paper Proc. of Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Transportation, Environmental and Civil Engineering 2011

Embedded Based Vehicular Communications for Platform Services M. Inbalatha1, R. Madhan Mohan2 1

Research Scholar, VIT University, Vellore, India Email: inba_lathaa@yahoo.co.in 2 Assistant Professor in CSE, Annamalai University, India Abstract—The emerging vehicular networks in the forms of intra-car, Car- to –infrastructure, Car-to-car communications will enable a variety of applications for safety, traffic efficiency, driver assistance, as well as infotainment to be incorporated into future automotive designs. In this paper, the development of vehicle to infrastructure communication using embedded system Electronic Control Unit with sensors sensing engine temperature, climate and parking availability and examined the simulation output for data transmission speed with the distance of the vehicle and the temperature of the engine.

electronic device you use today. There is embedded software inside your watch, cellular phone, automobile, thermostat and industrial control equipment, scientific and medical equipment. Defence services use embedded software to guide mistakes and detect enemy aircraft. Communication satellites, medical instruments and deep space probes would have been nearly impossible without these systems. The PIC series in general are microcontrollers will be always RISC-based processors with an accumulator, which use the Harvard architecture; therefore the microcontroller has separate memory data bus for both program and data. Separate buses mean that simultaneous access of program and data can be done, which gives a greater bandwidth.

Keywords—Info-security, RF network, Vehicular networks, Communications, Embedded controllers.

I. INTRODUCTION III. PROPOSED MODEL

Vehicular networks are cornerstone of the Intelligent Transportation System. By enabling vehicles to communicate with each other by Inter-vehicle Communication, or with roadside vehicle, vehicular networks will contribute to safer and more efficient roads by providing timely information to drivers and concerned authorities. Fig. 1 shows the example of Intra-car, C2C and C2I communications.

Fig. 1

Information technology is the driving force behind innovations in the automotive industry, with perhaps 90% of all innovations in cars based on electronics and software. Networked Electronic Control Units are increasingly being deployed in cars to realize functions such as engine management, air-bag deployment, and even in intelligent brake systems. Furthermore, the emerging vehicular networks in the forms of intra-car, car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure communications [3] will enable a variety of applications for safety, traffic efficiency, driver assistance as well as infotainment to be incorporated into future automotive designs. Objective of our paper is to design an ECU kit with sensors to sense the input signal and communicate with wireless RF network for traveller and passenger information and simulate output using data speed analyzer for data communication with speed variations of a vehicle, simulation output for data transmission with change in distance and speed and a simulation output and to develop a model for ease access of parking for the drivers, that consumes less time.

Example of Intra-Car, C2C and C2I Communications.

Services provided by a dedicated server infrastructure provisioning of warning messages, up-to-date traffic information, parking information and any service making travelling more safe and enjoyable is imaginable are called Platform Services.

IV. DESIGN DESCRIPTION Based on the domain Vehicular Communication, design of our system architecture consists of 2 sides, Vehicle side and Infrastructure side. In this design, three input parameters like temperature of the engine, Climate, and vehicle parking are considered and the analog output is converted into 8-bit ADC and given to the microcontroller and after processing it is transmitted to the system side and MAX232 logic converter block converts the data signal of Vehicle side TTL logic of 0 – 5V into CMOS logic of -12V to +12V using the serial port in the infrastructure side. The LCD display unit is used in the

II. LITERATURE SURVEY Embedded system generally is a combination of both hardware and software. It is microprocessor based system both hardware and software are inbuilt in a single system or single chip. In this system, software is the integral part of the hardware and developed to perform specific function. The end user cannot alter the program after the embedded product is developed. Embedded Software is present in almost every © 2011 ACEE DOI: 02.TECE.2011.01. 9

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Poster Paper Proc. of Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Transportation, Environmental and Civil Engineering 2011 it consumes less time for parking. The MAX232 logic converter block converts the data signal of Vehicle side TTL logic of 0 – 5V into CMOS logic of -12V to +12V using the serial port in the infrastructure side. The LCD display unit is used in the vehicle side of the model to display the information required by the driver.

vehicle side of the model to display the information required by the driver. In the next session, we present our initial prototype and test results. V. PROTOTYPE The designed prototype of our solution is shown in Fig. 2. The microcontroller used in the design is PIC16F877. It is an 8-bit microcontroller. It consists of I/O ports, 3 timers, ROM, RAM, Flash memory and inbuilt ADC. The output of the temperature sensor circuit is given to an analog input pin of a microcontroller.PIC consists of an 8-channel 10 -bit inbuilt ADC which convert the analog value into a 10- bit digital data. PIC is programmed to convert the 10-bit data to an 8-bit data and to transmit the data into a transistor driver. The transmitter is getting the signal from the microcontroller and then transmits to the receiver part. The receiver receives the signal from the transmitter part. In this transmission the RF communication is handled. Electrical energy moves from place to place in one of two ways. It either flows as current along a conductor (a bunch of electrons moving down a metal wire), or it travels in the air as invisible waves. In a typical wireless system, the electrical energy starts out as current flowing along a conductor, gets changed into current flowing along a conductor again. The transmitter and receiver used in this project is TWS-434 and RWS-434 as the RF transmitter and RF receiver for V2I communication. (Frequency: 433.92MHZ, Modulation: Amplitude Modulation, Operating Voltage: 2-12VDC).The LM35 series are precision IC temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade temperature). The LM35 is rated to operate over a -55• to +150•C temperature range while the LM35C is rated for a -40• to +110•C range. The output from the temperature sensor is an analog signal and it is given directly to the analog input pin of the microcontroller where it converts the analog signal to digital signal using the ADC which is inbuilt in the PIC microcontroller.

VI. RESULTS &DISCUSSION Firstly, the prototype is designed and embedded our system with software Visual Basic and our database is linked with MS SQL Server Compact Edition 2005 as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig.4 Data Speed Analyser for 4 Vehicles

The main output screen window which consists of three input parameters like temperature of the engine, climate of the environment and parking availabilty. Also data speed analyser for analysing the data communication speed with that of variant speed of a vehicle and variations in temperature and distance are available. Fig. 4, analyse the data speed transmission among four vehicles in different directions with different speeds and Transmitter Baud rate for 50 seconds and comparison graph output is produced. Fig. 5, shows the output screen for data speed analyser in 2-D line chart and 3D step chart for four vehicles.

Fig.5 Data Speed Analysis 2D Line & 3D Step Chart

Secondly, the designer analyse the variant speed of a single vehicle while driving the vehicle and analyse how the data transmission speed varies with that of variations in the speed of a vehicle as in Fig. 6. Fig.2 Prototypes of the Vehicle & Infrastructure side

According to the temperature of the engine, suggestions are given to the driver for further proceedings. It is one of the input parameter given by the user from the vehicle side. Depending upon the climatic conditions, driver assistance is to be given for proceedings. Climate may be hot or cold. It is also one of the parameter from the user side. By providing the vehicle model number to the infrastructure side, makes the driver know immediately where he can park his car in a multi-storeyed building parking area. It is easy to access and © 2011 ACEE DOI: 02.TECE.2011.01. 9

Fig. 6 Variant Speed Data Analyser output

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Poster Paper Proc. of Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Transportation, Environmental and Civil Engineering 2011 In the future, the prototype will continue working on wireless network i.e. RF network with embedded system kit on vehicle side and realize secure car communication (1Km). Also we can use Wi-Fi wireless network communication (6Km) with better advantages of info-security like e-ticketing can be done online in vehicular networks and for communication worldwide we can use GSM/CDMA/3G. Also ease of access for the parking facility for the car owners using Wi-Fi or WiMax for paying the parking fare through their credit cards in future.

Thirdly, analysing the speed of a single vehicle while driving the vehicle and analyse how the data transmission speed varies with that of variations in the distance from the infrastructure and temperature of the engine as in Fig. 7

REFERENCES [1] Ai Hua Ho, Yao Hua Ho, K. A. Hua, R. Villafane, “A NearOptimal Broadcast Technique for Vehicular Networks”, Wireless Telecommunications Symposium, 2009.WTS2009. [2] Z. Ahmed, H. Jamal, S. Khan, R. Mehboob, A. Ashraf, “Cognitive communication device for vehicular networking” Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Volume 55, Issue 2, May 2009. [3] E. Coronado, S. Cherkaoui, “An AAA Study for Service Provisioning in Vehicular Networks” Local Computer Networks, 2007. LCN 2007. 32nd IEEE Conference. [4] S. Eichler, “A security architecture concept for vehicular network nodes” Information, Communications & Signal Processing, 2007 6 th International Conference on 10-13 Dec. 2007. [5] Y.H. Ho, Ai Hua Ho, K.A. Hua, “Dynamic route Diversion in vehicular networks” Telecommunications, 2008. ICT 2008. International Conference. [6] Huaqun Guo; Lek Heng Ngoh; Yongdong Wu; Lian Hwa Liow; Choon Hwee Kwek; Feng Tao; Jun Jie Ang; “Embedded infosecurity solutions for vehicular networks” Communications and Networking in China, 2008. ChinaCom2008. Third International Conference. [7] Hyder, C.S.; Iqbal, A.; Rosi, U.T.; Tai-hoon Kim; “Towards Automated Traffic System Using Vehicular Network with Directional Antenna”.

Fig. 7 Temperature, Distance Vs Data Speed

VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK This generated embedded prototype faithfully represents the behaviour of the real time system. It concludes our initial works on information communication for platform services and solutions to protect the critical data exchanged withinside and with outside car using RF network proving the concept of vehicle-to-infrastructure communication on the roadside vehicular networks. The prototype is also carried out to test the simulation output for the data speed analysis and the results show that the data transmission speed varies with respect to distance and temperature of the engine and our solution is highly feasible.

© 2011 ACEE DOI: 02.TECE.2011.01. 9

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