Page 1


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the censorship square. an instrument to aid education.

ivรกn m delvasto.


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play has a basic role in a child’s development. frank caplan. toy designer / educator.


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tab


ble of content table of content.

.002

introduction what is censorship? ways to censor real-world application

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the abstract capstone abstract raised questions public service announcement

.029

the experiments global engagement studio—mÊxico cultural background independent press graduate poster glyph recognition form recognition

.207

capstone project applied project

.227

references

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colophon


introduc introduction.


ction. .001 .002


suppression of speech censorship of communicative material censorship which may be considered objective, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient censorship to the government or media organizations as determined censorship by a censor.

suppress the censorship censorship is the censorship of comm of speech censorship suppression of speech censorship censorsh ative material of communicative material ered obje hich may be considcensorship which may be consid- tive, or i e, harmful, sensiered objective, harmful, sensito the go venient censorship tive, or inconvenient censorship organiza ment or media to the government or media censorsh s as determined organizations as determined y a censor. censorship is the restriction censorship by a censor. censorsh of what people censorship may of what p the restriction say, hear, write, read, or see. censorship is the restriction say, hear le censorship may censorship can affect books, of what people censorship may censorsh ite, read, or see. magazines, newspapers, movies, say, hear, write, read, or see. magazin an affect books, radio and other arts. censorship can affect books, radio and ewspapers, movies, magazines, newspapers, movies, er arts. censorship occurs when the radio and other arts. censorsh government impose their moral governm ccurs when the or political values censorship censorship occurs when the or politic mpose their moral on others by suppressing words, government impose their moral on others alues censorship photographs, or ideas that they or political values censorship photogra suppressing words, censorship find objectionable. on others by suppressing words, censorsh or ideas that they photographs, or ideas that they censorship is the censorship censorsh nd objectionable. censorship find objectionable. suppression of speech censorship suppress the censorship of communicative material censorship is the censorship of comm of speech censorship censorship which may be consid- suppression of speech censorship censorsh ative material ered objective, harmful, sensiof communicative material ered obje hich may be consid- tive, or inconvenient censorship censorship which may be consid- tive, or i e, harmful, sensito the government or media ered objective, harmful, sensito the go venient censorship organizations as determined tive, or inconvenient censorship organiza ment or media censorship by a censor. to the government or media censorsh s as determined organizations as determined y a censor. censorship is the restriction censorship by a censor. censorsh censorship of what is the people childcensorship of may of what p the restriction fear andsay, thehear, father write, of ignorance. read, or see. censorship is the restriction say, hear le censorship may — lauriecensorship hales anderson. can affect american books, writer. of what people censorship may censorsh ite, read, or see. magazines, newspapers, movies, say, hear, write, read, or see. magazin an affect books, radio and other arts. censorship can affect books, radio and ewspapers, movies, magazines, newspapers, movies, er arts. censorship occurs when the radio and other arts. censorsh government impose their moral governm ccurs when the or political values censorship censorship occurs when the or politic mpose their moral on others by suppressing words, government impose their moral on others


sion of speech censorship municative material hip which may be considective, harmful, sensiinconvenient censorship overnment or media ations as determined hip by a censor.

hip is the restriction people censorship may r, write, read, or see. hip can affect books, es, newspapers, movies, d other arts.

hip occurs when the ment impose their moral cal values censorship s by suppressing words, aphs, or ideas that they hip find objectionable.

hip is the censorship sion of speech censorship municative material hip which may be considective, harmful, sensiinconvenient censorship overnment or media ations as determined hip by a censor.

hip is the restriction people censorship may r, write, read, or see. hip can affect books, es, newspapers, movies, d other arts.

hip occurs when the ment impose their moral cal values censorship s by suppressing words,

what is censorship? the system or practice of censoring improper parts—obscene words, graphic images— for political, morality or religious beliefs.


ways to censor. subtraction shape / form (meaning) white out markers (highlighters) cutout tear pieces / shredded transparency string (embroidering) strokes of line collage / tape


anatomy guide

real-world application.


.

censorship of sexual education. the state of sexual education in schools for today’s youth is having an adverse effect on their future. abstinence only programs are depriving students vital knowledge to prevent sexually transmitted infections, teen pregnancies and unhappy relationships. with the implementation of comprehensive sexual education, youth will have a better chance at a healthier and more fulfilling experience with a multi-viewed approach. photograph of an aids patient


parental advisory label.


censorship of music is the practice of restricting free access to musical works. this censorship may stem from a wide variety of motivations, including moral, political, military or religious reasons. the infamous black and white label, parental advisory: explicit content, was created in 1990.


in the united states, academic freedom enjoys some degree of protection under the first amendment. the essentiality of freedom in the community of american universities is almost self-evident. no one should underestimate the vital role in a democracy that is played by those who guide and train our youth. to impose any strait jacket upon the intellectual leaders in our colleges and universities would imperil the future of our nation. teachers and students must always remain free to inquire, to study and to evaluate, to gain new maturity and understanding; otherwise our civilization will stagnate and die.

academic freedom, in its broadest sense, is the freedom of teachers and students to express their ideas in school without religious or political or institutional restrictions. academic freedom means the exclusion of governmental intervention in the intellectual life of a university. it matters little whether such intervention occurs avowedly or through action that inevitably tends to check the ardor and fearlessness of scholars, qualities at once so fragile and so indispensable for fruitful academic labor. although academic freedom is related to freedom of speech under the first amendment, the two are not co-extensive. first, the first amendment applies only to public schools, colleges and universities, which are legally deemed to be state actors. nonetheless, most institutions of higher education endorse some notion of academic freedom, which applies as a result of bargaining agreements, or historical understandings. source: the kids right to read project and the national coalition against censorship.


censorship of books


c a


capstone abstract. capstone abstract.

Censorship exists—and is not always political. It might stem from a variety of motives, including morality and religion. The negative aspect is, that it is an instrument of suppression to freedom of expression and can manifest itself in distinctive shapes and forms. The positive aspect is, that it forms a sense of curiosity, which stimulates investigation. This forges an active role for the observer, which in return, can provoke a dialogue. How can censorship be implemented as an educational instrument thru visual communication design? This capstone project is an experiment on the act of censoring. It is a photographic and typographic experiment with the intent to construct an system—based upon the act of censoring— as a positive instrument with an educational function.

adolfo mexiac. libertad de expresión, 1968 .020 .021


censorship hides parts of the truth and changes its meaning.

censorship reflects a society’s lack of confidence in itself, it is a hallmark of an authoritian regime. — potter stewart. supreme court justice.


alternative questions how can the act of censorship be an useful tool to educate how can censorship play a role in visual communication design how can censorship play a positive role in visual communication design. how can censorship raise awareness thru visual communication design. how can censorship be a positive tool in visual communication design.


public service announce public service announcement.


a public service announcement is a message in the  public interest distribute by the media without charge, with the objective of raising awareness, changing  public attitudes and behavior towards a social issue. a public service announcement is a message distribute by the media without charge, to raise awareness, changing public  attitudes and behavior towards a social issue. a public service announcement is a message distribute by the media to raise awareness, changing public attitudes and behavior towards a social issue. a public service announcement is a message distribute by the media to raise awareness, changing attitudes and behavior towards a social issue.

ement.

a psa is a message distribute by the media to raise awareness, changing attitudes and behavior towards a social issue.

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experiment 00—awareness on aids. fact: number of people wordlwide which has been affectted by the aids / hiv epidemic. raised question: how would one convey awareness thru visual elements and typography.


as of 2015

650,000 people have die of


m global engagement studio.

population mĂŠxico mĂŠxico df. oaxaca unemployment rate 5.0%

118.4 million 22 million 4 million


méxico.


MEXICO Economic Freedom Score 25

World Rank:

59

Regional Rank:

3

Least free 0

exico’s economic freedom score is 66.4, making its M economy the 59th freest in the 2015 Index. Its score has declined by 0.4 point since last year, with improvements in

50

75 Most

100 free

66.4

Freedom Trend 69

three of the 10 economic freedoms, including freedom from corruption and labor freedom, offset by declines in the management of government spending, fiscal freedom, and business freedom. Mexico is ranked 3rd out of three countries in the North America region, but its score is well above the world average. Over the past five years, economic freedom in Mexico has declined by 1.4 points. Deteriorations in the fiscal and regulatory environments have occurred in an environment of slow economic growth despite a reform-minded leadership bent on increasing competition and opening the economy to trade and investment. Mexico’s economic growth has been driven largely by integration with Canada and the U.S. in NAFTA, but economic performance remains far below potential. Despite a more open economic environment, business regulations continue to undermine economic efficiency. Ensuring more dynamic growth will require broader-based reforms to improve the investment climate and enhance the rule of law. BACKGROUND: President Enrique Peña Nieto took office in December 2012 and has made solid progress in reforming the constitution in the areas of education, energy, and telecommunications, but whether new legislation will boost competition is unclear. The government has moved to centralize power further with a fiscal reform that raised taxes and promised a return to deficit spending. A new anti-trust law has increased investor uncertainty. Efforts to reform the criminal justice system and combat endemic corruption that began in 2008 have lagged and are not expected to meet 2016 targets. The recent migration crisis on the border with the United States and the rise of citizen militias in Michoacán highlight weaknesses in Mexico’s security forces. The Peña Nieto administration contends that the homicide rate has declined, but conflicting government findings indicate otherwise. Organized crime is endemic. How Do We Measure Economic Freedom?

See page 475 for an explanation of the methodology or visit the Index Web site at heritage.org/index.

68 67 66 65 64

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Country Comparisons 66.4

Country World Average

60.4

Regional Average

74.0

Free Economies

84.6 0

20

40

60

80

100

Quick Facts Population: 118.4 million GDP (PPP): $1.8 trillion 1.1% growth in 2013 5-year compound annual growth 1.8% $15,563 per capita Unemployment: 5.0% Inflation (CPI): 3.8% FDI Inflow: $38.3 billion Public Debt: 46.5% of GDP 2013 data unless otherwise noted. Data compiled as of September 2014.

317


experiment 01—unemployment rate fact: unemployment rate is 5.00% comparison: mexico unemployment rates are relatively low compared with other latin american countries raised questions: are this the faces of unemployment? do they look like the faces of unemployment?


experiment 02—we are all humans fact: a humanistic approach design a series of posters that connect the viewer thru an emotional connection. chosen quote: we are all humans until, race disconnects us religion separated us politics divides us, and wealth classified us.


the principles of durable typography legibilty readabilty serif typefaces has feet, which makes it easier to read cause of the form. sans serif typefaces are bigger than the serif—in theory it is good to use both types in one document.

readability is the ease with which a reader can understand a written text.


preschoolers whose parents read to them, tell stories, and sing songs tend to develop large role vocabularies, become better readers—and perform better in school.

research has shown that children who can recognize letters of the alphabet have an easier time learning to make connections between the letters and the sounds they stand for. children need to memorize the letter names, and they can do this through direct instructions along with many exposures to the letters in print. practice with writing the letters is a proven method for building and reinforcing letter recognition.

source: reading-tutors.com


teach letter names before children learn the sounds with which they are associated. teach the child the alphabet song and sing it daily. point to the letters of the alphabet as you sing the song with the child. provide the letters in different forms: printed on cards, cut out from pieces of fabric, especially felt or fuzzy materials, or cut out from materials such as sandpaper or styrofoam. have the child trace the letter with her or his finger as she or he says the letter name. have the child make the letter out of clay, pipe cleaners, finger paint, or form the letter with her or his body. provide practice in writing the letters. let the child write the letters on unlined paper first. children can use paint or pencils. be consistent, and use only one style of writing.

write a series of words on a piece of paper. ask the child to circle all the words that begin with a letter. select a letter and write it on a large sheet of cardstock. have the child cut out the words from old magazines that start with that letter. the child can aslo add her or his drawings of things that start with that letter. there are many trade and library alphabet books available. read a variety of these books to the child and help her or him find things in the pictures on the pages that start with the different letters. encourage the child to use the alphabet books as models to create her or his own alphabet book, for example, an a to z book about animals. ways to teach the alphabet.


independent press. independent press was born out of the empirical exposure from a 9-day trip to mĂŠxico. the citizens in mĂŠxico are individuals of a colorful society and from a thoughtful culture. yet, beneath the surface a plethora of social issues are undoubtedly noticeable. the lack of education, social injustice, economic instability and government corruption, to name a few, are in existence. the term independent press refers to any form of media, that is free of influence by government or corporate interest. however, in mĂŠxico, that is not the case for journalism. the government, mostly for their own benefit, often suppresses journalist and newspaper articles. censorship in newspapers, or freedom of expression for a journalist, is still present in the 21st century. the newspaper has been part of the cultural media for over 400 years. it is used to educate, enlighten, entertain and provide information that people need to make an intelligent and informed decision.


this project is an experiment on the act of censorship based in the appropriation of newspaper articles—written by actual journalist, about the current social issues in méxico. it is a typographical experiment at its core. for instance, the argument in how using lowercase letters instead of pausing sentences structures with the expected uppercase letter, produce a better flow for making reading agile and effortless—while conserving space—is put to the test. furthermore, by omitting certain words, a sense of curiosity can be establish within an spectator to farther investigate, this can be an active role for the observer. in the process of doing such experiment, word count was cut in half during the act of censoring and in return manipulated different outcomes of the original newspaper article. by doing this experiment, a question related to typography, the methods applied of censoring and experimentation arouse:

how can censorship play a role in visual communication design?


supresión insurreción censura

suppression insurrection censor (ing, ship)

pessimist pervade

redactada impunidad abuso justicia crisis anarquía

redacted impunity abuse justice crisis anarchy (ism)

rebelde propaganda

rebel propaganda

crime iconoclasm snickers (half-suppress)

leyes laborales prejuicio conquistar industrialismo rebelión dictadura régimen burgués mediocre erradicar imperativo inestabilidad discriminación racismo desempleo

labor laws prejudice conquer industrialism rebellion dictatorship regime bourgeois mediocre eradicate imperative instability discrimination racism unemployment

eradicate ignorant systematize defeat compromise dispute conformist unknown imperative crucial vital failure mediocre conquer revolution (ary)

advocacy appreciation provoke resourceful craft (manship)


unemployment in méxico is becoming more and more troubling. young mexicans are the segment of the population that is most affected, suffering unemployment rates twice as high as those among adults. even worse, better-educated professionals have the highest unemployment rate. government efforts to raise educational levels in order to promote economic development have failed. some people blame the neo-liberal economic model, claiming it puts too high a priority on price stability, limits investment, restricts wage growth, and makes conditions even more precarious for the unemployed - a situation that has forced the government to permit indiscriminate growth in the informal, underground economy. still other critics cite increased emigration to the united states as proof of méxico inability to generate the jobs that people demand. the mexican economy faces a dilemma: either choose the path toward growth or choose to control inflation; the latter option has a negative impact on job growth. in méxico, industrial production grew by only 1.6% between january and may, yet inflation grew by 4.33% over the same period. méxico’s production problem is a serious one when compared with other latin american countries such as chile, argentina and brazil where industrial production grew 6.8%, 6.3% and 6.8%, respectively during those months. over the last five years, the official unemployment rate in mexican cities has growth by 0.72% to reach 3.8%. although that figure is far below the unemployment indexes in the rest of latin america, the european union, the united states and much of asia, méxico faces a serious problem generating jobs. the mexican economy’s inability to generate jobs has become a chronic problem. according to ibrahim villaseñor, a mexican researcher currently in the economics doctor ate program at the complutense university of madrid, “the structural reforms begun by neo-liberal governments have limited the ability of economy to create jobs.” villaseñor says that the strategies of recent mexican governments have focused on three goals: first, economic liberalization - above all, free trade. second, privatization of 1,200 stateowned companies; this has left only a portion of the energy sector in state hands. third, deregulation of the national legal framework to make it easier for the neo-liberal model to function.

digital typesetting. georgia, 09 pt / 15 leading.


unemployment in méxico is becoming more and more troubling. young mexicans are the segment of the population that is most affected, suffering unemployment rates twice as high as those among adults. even worse, better-educated professionals have the highest unemployment rate. government efforts to raise educational levels in order to promote economic development have failed. some people blame the neo-liberal economic model, claiming it puts too high a priority on price stability, limits investment, restricts wage growth, and makes conditions even more precarious for the unemployed - a situation that has forced the government to permit indiscriminate growth in the informal, underground economy. still other critics cite increased emigration to the united states as proof of méxico inability to generate the jobs that people demand. the mexican economy faces a dilemma: either choose the path toward growth or choose to control inflation; the latter option has a negative impact on job growth. in méxico, industrial production grew by only 1.6% between january and may, yet inflation grew by 4.33% over the same period. méxico’s production problem is a serious one when compared with other latin american countries such as chile, argentina and brazil where industrial production grew 6.8%, 6.3% and 6.8%, respectively during those months. over the last five years, the official unemployment rate in mexican cities has growth by 0.72% to reach 3.8%. although that figure is far below the unemployment indexes in the rest of latin america, the european union, the united states and much of asia, méxico faces a serious problem generating jobs. the mexican economy’s inability to generate jobs has become a chronic problem. according to ibrahim villaseñor, a mexican researcher currently in the economics doctor ate program at the complutense university of madrid, “the structural reforms begun by neo-liberal governments have limited the ability of economy to create jobs.” villaseñor says that the strategies of recent mexican governments have focused on three goals: first, economic liberalization - above all, free trade. second, privatization of 1,200 stateowned companies; this has left only a portion of the energy sector in state hands. third, deregulation of the national legal framework to make it easier for the neo-liberal model to function.

digital censorship. georgia, 09 pt / 15 leading.


suppress.


unemployment.


graduate show poster. graduate show poster.


e


version 01.


version 02.


capstone exhibit.

master of visual communication design. christian montoro iris zhu soumya kasungati ivan delvasto lori long arina anoschenko wade bies lizhou zhang valerie skorpion ling wei shangning wang

05. 09. 2016

the design school arizona state university 810 south forest mall tempe, az 85281


M VCD GRAD SH0W arizona state

university

master of visual communication design

graduate show

20 16 may 08 12 — 10 pm

ling wei arina anoschenko valerie skorpion lizhou zhang soumya kasuganti

810 s. forest mall tempe, az 85281

version 03.

minhua zhu christian montoro shangning wang lori long ivan delvasto wade bies


M VCD GRAD SH0W


censorship.

glyph recogniti glyph recognition.


A ion.

some typographic trends explore notions of reduction. some were being broken down into their purest forms, and superfluos information is being discarded. typography continues to play with simpole optical illusions, allow our brains to engage in some creative fiction to make sense of what we are reading. designers are taking the familiar and removing parts, leaving just enough for the type to remain legible. characters are sometimes reduced to just their basic horizontal and vertical strokes, leaving only the bare minimum for our brains to decipher. if very few elements are on a page, the designer is leaving lots of room for imagination. by having vowels excluded, it is designed to reflect a state of development—something unfinished, yet at its best in a seemingly perpetual movement towards completion. reducing words to their most basic form has the effect of drawing the viewer into the type as they mentally complete the puzzle. source: computer arts collection. two thousand thirteen, typography volume 02 / part 02.


designer, bruno munari invested in shapes with specific qualities— tell stories, and sing songs tend to velop large role vocabularies, the triangle provides a key connective form for designers. the circle relates to the divine, and the square signifies safety and enclosure.


shape (3 in. square)


A

glyph (300 pt. letterform a)


a

A

studies of proportional shape with a letterform, in increments of double the size from the previous one—starting with 1in. square and a 100pt. glyph.

A


the following experiments where produced using a printer and different weights of paper.


AAAAA AAAAA AAAAA AAAAA AAAAA


AAAAA AAAAA AAAAA AAAAA AA AAA


EEEEE EEEEE EEEEE EEEEE EEEEE


EEEEE EEEEE EEEEE EEEEE EEEEE


I I I I I

I I I I I

I I I I I

I I I I I

I I I I I


I I I I I

I I I I I

I I I I I I I I I I I


OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO


OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO


UUUUU UUUUU UUUUU UUUUU UUUUU


UUUUU UUUUU UUUUU UUUUU UUUUU


a


the vowels. the vowels

aeiou


vowels are a speech sound made with your mouth open and your tongue in the middle of your mouth not touching your teeth or lips. When sounding vowels, your breath flows freely through the mouth. the alphabet letters a, e, i, o and u are vowels. this is five out of the twenty-six letters in the alphabet. the letter y is sometimes considered a sixth vowel because it can sound like other vowels. the vowels in the english language differ considerably between dialects. because of this, corresponding vowels may be written down with various symbols depending on the dialect under consideration. the english language alone can provide a list of short vowel words that could seem to be never ending. a short vowel word is any word that does not allow the vowel within it to generate that vowel’s long vowel sound. for instance, the word bug is a short vowel word, because there is no long u sound. the key difference between vowels and most consonants is that the passage of air from the lungs is not restricted in any way in the production of vowels. unlike consonants, each of the vowel letters has more than one type of sound or can even be silent with no sound at all. considering that you must move your lips or tongue to form consonants, but not vowels.


a helvetica


a a a a a a a a a


form recogniti form recognition.


ion.


censorship. should we censor nudity based on discrimination and sexism?


censorship.

censorship.


1980

Self-Portrait,


1980

Self-Portrait,

robert mapplethorne. 1980 a perfect moment: photographs.


frieda kahlo


chĂŠ guevara


gue vara.


chĂŠ


ché

gue vara. Ernesto Ché Guevara, commonly known

as simply Ché, was an Argentine marxist

revolutionary, author, guerrilla leader, physician, diplomat, and military theorist.


ché

gue vara. Ernesto Ché Guevara, commonly known

as simply Ché, was an Argentine marxist

revolutionary, author, guerrilla leader, physician, diplomat, and military theorist.


a puzzle is a toy that tests a person’s ingenuity or knowledge. in a puzzle, one is required to put pieces together in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct solution of the puzzle.


inspired by children’s books and mental games such as puzzle, crosswords and pictionary.

applied project. applied project.


marion bataille. 10 and numero books.

i intended to construct an instrument and system—based in the act of censoring—as a positive tool with an educational function. it would also test the knowledge and sense of recognition towards shapes and forms—based on principles of a toy function.

.206 .207


marion bataille. abc 3d-book.


erno rubik. rubik’s cube


placing trigger warnings on material that could be potentially discomforting will not only hinder the academic growth of a student, it will also invite self-censorship.

creative playthings toys


play has a basic role in the drama of a child’s development. it is a serious business for the child, his true means of learning and growing. every child should have a wide variety of play materials to evoke in him a spirit of inquiry; to develop physical manipulation to the fullest; to stimulate creative expression. he requires not only the miniatures of real objects in the adult world, but also building blocks, clay, finger paints, etcetera, that he can adapt to his particular needs. frank caplan, 1949. toy designer / educator. founder of creative playthings.


blackbar app — user interactive experience a game of text by neven mrgan and james moore.


digital game about the act of censoring as an instrument to test knowledge.


blackbar app — user interactive experience page samples


notes for project


initial concept.


the censorship square. an instrument to aid education.


berger, j., and dougher, s. (2003). xxx: the power of sex in contemporary design. gloucester, ma: rockport. bringhurst, r. (2012). the elements of typographic style. point roberts, wa: hartley & marks. cushing, l. (2003). ยก revoluciรณn!: cuban poster art. san francisco, ca: chronicle books llc. glaser, m., and ilic, m. (2005). design of dissent. gloucester, ma: rockport. heller, s. (2005). the graphic imperative: international posters for peace, social justice & the environment, 1965 - 2005. boston, ma: massachusetts college of art.

referenc references.


king, e., and brownjohn, r. (2005). robert brownjohn, sex and typography, 1925 - 1970: life and work. new york, ny: princeton architectural press. lupton, e. (2004). thinking with type: a critical guide for designers, writers, editors, & students. new york, ny: princeton architectural press. munari, bruno. (2015). bruno munari: square, circle, triangle. new york: princeton architectural resnick, e. (2010). graphic intervention: 25 years of international aids awareness posters, 1985 - 2010. boston, ma: massachusetts college of art and design.

ces.

richter, b. (2002). visual strategies against aids: international aids prevention posters. baden, switzerland: lars mĂźller. taborda, f., and wiedemann, j. (2008). latin american graphic design. hong kong: taschen.

.226 .227


colophon colophon.


n.

typeset with helvetica and times experiments made with hp 800 printer white uncoated #70 lbs. paper designed by ivรกn m delvasto.

.228 .229


Profile for iDelvasto

The Censorship Square: An Instrument to Aid Education.  

A master of visual communication design capstone project. the censorship square is a digital instrument with the design intent to aid educa...

The Censorship Square: An Instrument to Aid Education.  

A master of visual communication design capstone project. the censorship square is a digital instrument with the design intent to aid educa...

Profile for idelvasto
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