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Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa, Ph.D. Instituto de Ense単anza y Aprendizaje (IDEA) Universidad San Francisco de Quito March 2010


 Master’s

from Harvard University in International Education and Development and doctorate (Ph.D.) from Capella University (cross-disciplinary approach comparing findings in neuroscience, psychology, pedagogy, cultural anthropology and linguistics).  Director

of the Institute for Research and Educational Development, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador.  Author

of five books on languages, learning and the brain, including Raising Multilingual Children (2001), The Multilingual Mind (2003), and Living Languages (2008). Research and Investigation areas:

(pre-kindergarten through university) with more than 20 years experience.

A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE NEW BRAIN-BASED TEACHING

EDUCATION SCIENCE

 Teacher

Mind, Brain, and Education Science

and

 Sense and Meaning (organization and affect) in classroom planning

MIND, BRAIN,

 Mind, Brain, and Education Science (teacher book and textbook out in 2009 and 2010);

TOKUHAMA-ESPINOSA

 Current

NORTON

Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa


1.  2. 

3.  4. 

Background and biases Defining “competencies” and shared vocabulary and concepts “Backward Design” Option 1: Teaching English as an Additional Language (EAL)
 Optional 2: Individual classroom planning


Powell y Powell, Bangkok, 2004


The Four Components of Teaching according to

Knowledge of the Subject Matter

Class Design

L.Dee Fink (2003)

Student-Teacher Interactions

Classroom Management

L. Dee Fink (2003) Creating Significant Learning Experiences, p.22


ď ˝â€Ż

Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998/2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.


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Start with the end in mind

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Step 1: Identify desired results: Objectives

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Objectives can be expressed in terms of “competencies” Competencies: knowledge, skills and/or attitudes* Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design. *This definition of competencies in adopted from the PISA exams and the organizing body, the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development)


Competencies: Knowledge, skills and attitudes vs.   Areas of competency: Responsibilities  


Start with the end in mind. Think of “competencies” (knowledge, skills and attitudes): What should students know, understand and be able to do? •  Determine important knowledge (facts, concepts, principles, dates, formulas). •  Determine important skills (processes, strategies and methods). •  Determine important attitudes (e.g., empathy, intellectual honesty, perseverance) •  Determine what content area will be the focus of evaluation. •  Why it is important to do so? •  What is the enduring understanding that is the object of the teaching? Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.


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Backward design’s focus forces us to think about each unit of the class in terms of assessment evidence to document and validate desired learning objectives. How do we know if the students are achieving the results we desire and the standards we need? What will we accept as evidence of learning (the achievement of the competencies)? Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.


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What activities will provide students with the knowledge and skills needed in this subject (in this unit, in this class)? What should be taught and how should I teach it in order to reach my stated goals? What materials are needed to conduct the activities?

Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.


Backward design can help at the level of yearly planning, unit planning, or lesson planning.  

Choose one level:   1: Determine your objective(s)   Knowledge?   Skills?   Attitudes?   2: Determine how you will measure progress   3: Decide which activities should be undertaken  


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UNESCO adopted the term multilingual education at its General Conference in 1999, to mean “use of at least three languages in education - the mother tongue, a regional or national language and an international one”.


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Mother tongue education and multilingualism are increasingly accepted around the world and speaking one’s own language is more and more a right. International Mother Language Day, proclaimed in 1999 by UNESCO and marked on 21 February each year, is one example. Encouraging education in the mother tongue, alongside bilingual or multilingual education, is one of the principles set out by UNESCO in a new position paper. This includes: ◦  1. Promoting education in the mother tongue to improve the quality of education. ◦  2. Encouraging bilingual and/or multilingual education at all levels of schooling as a means of furthering social and gender equality and as a key part of linguistically diverse societies. ◦  3. Pushing languages as a central part of inter-cultural education.


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“When we are talking about programmes with learners from 0-4, how much time would make a programme worthwhile? What would make a significant difference to a learner? Is half an hour once week enough, for example, or is it better then not to bother? What would be an ideal, dream situation when setting up a programme in a daycare situation?”


Time and Age:   Time spent on language (the more the better)   Age when language is learned (the earlier the better) Student   Speaker’s level of proficiency in first language   Linguistic awareness   Education level of the student   Number and proficiency of languages already known Parents   Home value of second/third languages (parent respect for school and community languages)   Parent involvement   Typology (language similarities or differences) Community School   Quality of the program (curriculum)   Quality of the teacher   Quality of the school (administration and policies)


Oral Skills (Basic Communication) Time 1

Definition 2

Characteristics 3

Origins

Literacy Skills (Academic)

Average 2 years to reach native language equivalent (however, this is highly influenced by the age and motivation of the learner)

Average 5-7 years to reach native language equivalent

“Playground language”

“Classroom language”

Supported by interpersonal cues such as gestures, facial expressions and intonation.

De-contextualized language

Anglo-Saxon

Graeco-Latin

1. Cummins (1981); 2. Gibbins (1999); 3. Corson (1993, 1995)


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The more language is practiced, the more proficient one becomes. “Amount of exposure has a strong effect on the likelihood of both positive and negative language transfer…” (Murphy, xx). The role of linguistic exposure functions similarly in L2 and L3 acquisition.


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In a comparison of children in grades 2, 6 and 9, it was found that the older children used more language transfer (displaying greater metalinguistic awareness). The younger the child: the general guideline is that child learners are less likely to draw on the L1. “…the ages 4-10 are marked by ‘syntactic conservationism’ during which children tend to stick to one syntactic pattern, whereas adults are more flexible.


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The more languages you know, the easier it gets to learn an additional one; Third-language learners are highly successful; they learn more language faster than second language learners of the same target language; and (2) their behaviours are those of the selfdirected learner.


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In 2000, more than a third of the population of Western Europe under 35 was of immigrant origin, according to a recent UNESCO report on linguistic diversity in Europe_. A study done in The Hague in 1999 showed that in a sample of 41,600 children aged between 4 and 17, about 49% of primary and 42% of secondary school pupils use a language other than Dutch at home, such as Turkish, Hindi, Berber or Arabic. The results of the Dutch study by Aarts and Verrhoeven (1999) indicate that the level of biliteracy of the children in the Netherlands turned out to be primarily related to the factors of (1) Home stimulation, (2) Parents' motivation for schooling, and (3) Children's self-esteem.


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“There is a general consensus among researchers that language transfer is more likely to occur at lower levels of proficiency” when they use L1 or L2 to fill in language gaps in L3.


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“…characterized by increased metalinguistic awareness, greater creativity and cognitive flexibility, and more diversified mental abilities.” “Awareness is not limited to linguistic structure and semantics but also affects phonological, pragmatic, and sociolinguistic knowledge…”


“This appears to be the most important variable in determining the likelihood of language transfer”   Similarity between languages  

◦  Languages which share grammar (as with Latin roots), vocabulary, or have a similar phoneme base are easier to learn.


VSO

SVO

SOV

(verb-subject-object)

(subject-verb-object)

(subject-object-verb)

Arabic (ancient), Berger, Gaelic, Hawaiian,

Arabic (modern), Chinese, English, Finnish,

Armenian, Basque, Korean, German (and SVO in

Hebrew, Irish, Maori, Masai, Swedish, Tagalog,

French, German (and SOV in past tense), Greek,

present tense), Hindi, Japanese, Manchu,

Tongan, and Welsh

Guarani, Khmer, Indonesian, Malay, Russian,

Mongolian, Navajo, Persian, Quechua and Turkish

Spanish, Swahili, Thai, Vietnamese, Yoruba


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[Language] learners who have highly developed language skills (such as reading, writing and richness of vocabulary) in their native language will most likely find that these skills facilitate second language acquisition,” though this has been less explored in L3 learners. (Murphy, xx)


The degree of proficiency, time and order of foreign language learning are less important than motivation and interaction with the target language.   Furthermore, proficiency and degree of activation are more important than typological similarity with target language  


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“Parents who want their children to learn their mother tongue must realize that it will take work, beyond simply speaking their mother-tongue to all the time to their child….This means things like reading out loud…singing to them and teaching them the songs and nursery rythms, showing video films…and having other adults and children speak to the child…taking the child for a visit in the country where the language is spoken…_ “…minority-language maintenance [is] embedded in a more general attempt to maintain traditional cultures…”_


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Characteristics of Good Parent Involvement:

◦  Links with school to support child’s academic, not discipline, concerns ◦  Monitor children’s homework ◦  Help students with school work (research, etc.)


High level parent involvement has a direct correlation to third language success.   Clear parental roles (as identified in “contracts” at the start of the year) ensure appropriate intervention.   Parental support in ensuring native language fluency (and literacy) a key to academic success.   Parental use of and attitudes about home language directly impact language maintenance, self-esteem and  


◌  Sociocultural processes strongly influence, in both positive and negative ways, students' access to cognitive, academic, and language development. It is crucial that educators provide a socioculturally supportive school environment that allows natural language, academic, and cognitive development to flourish.


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Community or regional social patterns such as prejudice and discrimination expressed towards groups or individuals in personal and professional contexts can influence students' achievement in school, as well as societal patterns such as subordinate status of a minority group or acculturation vs. assimilation forces at work. These factors can strongly influence the student's response to the new language, affecting the process positively only when the student is in a socioculturally supportive environment.


ď ˝â€Ż

Learning a second language for school is not simply a linguistic challenge; it poses social, cultural, academic, and cognitive challenges as well.


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Cenoz and Lindsay (1994) in their study, "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds” highlight the important role of the teacher³.

1. UNESCO. (July-Sept. 2003). The mother-tongue dilemma. Education Today Newsletter 2. Aarts and Verrhoeven (1999). "Literacy Attained in a Second Language Submersion Context." Applied Psycholinguistics 20(3): 377-394.). 3. Cenoz, J. and D. Lindsay (1994). "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds." Language and Education 8(4): 201-210.


According to Sass (1989), the eight most influential factors that motivate students and that are controlled by the teacher are: 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8. 

Teacher enthusiasm Relevance of the subject Oagnzaition of course course Appropriate difficulty level Active participation by student Variety of activities and methodology Personal link between teacher and student Use of approrpriate, concrete and clear examples.

Sass, E. J. "Motivation in the College Classroom: What Students Tell Us." Teaching of Psychology, 1989, 16(2), 86-88.


Typically, teachers who have more graduate education and more specialized training for working with language minority children are more successful._   Teachers with greater knowledge of the home language(s) of their students are more successful.   Knowledge of evaluation methods that ensure “instructually embedded assessment”._  


“Does the proficiency of the careers/teachers in English make a significant difference?   “Is it acceptable if teachers make fossilized errors/are fairly weak in their use of English or do you think those teachers would be better advised to make more use of Dutch?   “Would they be better off not teaching English at all if they feel ill-equipped to do so?”  


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“Regarding translations, we do not have any specific guidelines about what to do. We encourage teachers to use English for classroom management and to translate utterances in Dutch into English and recast it. We always give the advice that a child needs to be understood first and foremost.”


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High EFL teacher qualifications means:

◦  Being versed in appropriate teaching methods ◦  Understanding of students’ native language structure (or being able to speak it) ◦  Understanding of learning styles ◦  Owning a good toolbox of motivational skills ◦  Appropriate use of evaluation and feedback mechanisms ◦  Respect for other cultures


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Do most of the talking in classrooms (poor language teachers make about twice as many utterances as do students). Students produce language only when they are working directly with a teacher, and then only in response to teacher initiations. In over half of the interactions that teachers have with students, students do not produce any language as they are only listening or responding with non-verbal gestures or actions. When students do respond, typically they provide only simple information recall statements. Rather than being provided with the opportunity to generate original statements, students are asked to provide simple discrete close-ended or patterned (i.e., expected) responses. Ramirez, Yuen, & Ramey, 1991, Executive Summary


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Teacher should make classes student-centered and try NOT speak most of the time, nor initiate the majority of the exchanges by asking display questions, but rather seek out student-initiated requests. As students prefer to verbally request help only in small group or one-to-one interactions with the teacher, teachers should call on students individually and approach them personally to offer support. Teachers should not only modify their own speech in response to students' requests (verbal or non-verbal), they should also request modifications of the students' speech. Sustained negotiation - in which teachers and students verbally resolve incomplete or inaccurate messages – should occur frequently.

Musumeci, D. (1996). "Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Content-Based Instruction: Communication at CrossPurposes." Applied Linguistics 17(3): 286-324.


◦  Train teachers in English language instruction; ◦  Have regular meetings for discussing instructional issues and exchanging ideas; ◦  Develop an activity-based and thematic syllabus; ◦  Program co-ordinators observe classrooms several times a year; ◦  Apply a formative evaluation using          

Portfolios Observation An attitude survey of teachers, parents, and administrators A teacher survey, and English language testing.


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Ongoing assessment using multiple measure. Inetgrated schooling (all language learners together) High expectations by teachers Equal status of languages Healthy parent involvement Continuous staff development Second language taught through academic content Critical thinking across language program Activation of students' prior knowledge Respect for students' home language and culture Cooperative learning Interactive and discovery learning Intense and meaningful cognitive/academic development


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“What should be our priorities in teaching reading? Is a test available that helps to measure EFL proficiency or is it better to observe reading behaviours? (Class teachers often ask coaches “What is the norm? What should they know after1/2/3 years of English?”)”


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“In reading matters, we are really struggling to come up with effective solutions for schools where English starts in the first groups but where we want to avoid confusion with learning to read in Dutch. “This happens in group 3 here, when children are around 6 &7 years old. Our main problem is bridging the gap between the knowledge children have gained of the language in three years of the programme and the fact that text books that introduce reading/writing skills assume that the learners also need to build up basic vocabulary! “For example, if you learned how to say ‘Hello’ three years ago, you don’t need to spend a whole unit of a book learning it again, though you may never have come across those words before in their written form! How can we continue to challenge learners when the text books do not cater for them? Do you have any ideas?”


The questions:  Can a child develop strong second language skills if they have a weak mother tongue (as in when they come from poorer backgrounds and have not been properly schooled in the home language)?  “Amount of exposure has a strong effect on the likelihood of both positive and negative language transfer…”1

Part of the answer:   [Language] learners who have highly developed language skills (such as reading, writing and richness of vocabulary) in their native language will most likely find that these skills facilitate second language acquisition…”2

1. Dewaele, J. (2001). “Activation or inhibition? The interaction of L1, L2 and L3 on the language mode continuum”; 2. Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. .


1.  2.  3.  4.  5. 

Understand the use of the written word Learn the phonemic alphabet Acknowledge exceptions in sound to letter relation Acknowledge exceptions between languages Practice: Familiarity, Repetition and Frequency


Bilingual students achieve higher results on Englishlanguage proficiency tests than their Anglophone, monolingual peers_:  Significant effects of bilingualism were found on four of five measures, i.e., listening, speaking, writing, & vocabulary/grammar. No significant effect on reading ability was observed.


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Assessment must be developmentally and culturally appropriate. The child's bilingual linguistic background must be taken into consideration in any authentic assessment of oral language proficiency. Bilingualism is a complex concept and includes individuals with a broad range of speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending abilities in each language. Furthermore, these abilities are constantly in flux. The goal must be to assess the child's language or languages without standardizing performance, allowing children to demonstrate what they can do in their own unique ways. Assessment must be accompanied by a strong professional development component that focuses on the use of narrative reporting, observations of language development, and sampling the child's language abilities.


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A fully contextual account of the child's language skills requires the involvement of parents and family members, the students themselves, teachers, and staff in providing a detailed picture of the context of language learning and the resources that are available to the child (Nissani, 1990). What is called for is a description of the child's language environment, of the extent to which significant others-adults or childrenprovide language assistance by modeling, expanding, restating, repeating, questioning, prompting, negotiating meaning, cueing, pausing, praising, and providing visual and other supports. Assessment of the child needs to take into account the entire context in which the child is learning and developing.


PRODUCT   PROCESS   PROGRESS   Assessment must be developmentally and culturally appropriate.  

McLauahglin, B., Blanchard, A.G., & Osani, Y. (1995). Assessing Language Development in Bilingual Prechool Children. NCB Program Information Guide Series, Number 22, Summer 1995.


According to Arter & McTighe (2005), a rubric is a simple way to share expectations with students, assure the achievement of standards, facilitate differentiated instruction, and remove subjectivity from the evaluation process.   Rubric design forces the teacher to think clearly about what s/he is out to measure.   Rubrics are a natural feedback tool.  


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“As for assessment rubrics, apart from the observation forms we have developed, we do not use them as a matter of course. Every teacher is encouraged to use her own preferred method of record keeping, with an Early Bird report card as a possible way of reporting to parents.”


Rubrics can be simple and general, or detailed and explicit.   For example…  


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2. 

3. 

Is the rubric holistic of analytic? Is the rubric generic or specific? How many points should I use?


ANALYTIC

HOLISTIC

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Gives a grade for the final product.

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Divides the product into essential characteristics and gives a grade for each.

For example, in a math class a teacher can give a grade based on the correct answer )holistic), or s/he can give a grade for the resolution steps in the process (analysis).


GENERIC

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Can use the same rubric to grade similar activities….

SPECIFIC

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…while specific rubrics can only be used for a specific type of activity.

For example, a language teacher can design a generic rubric for all group discussions which can be used daily, or s/he can design a rubric for a particular discussion with unique characteristics.


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You can create a rubric with two points or a thousand; the decision depends on the teacher, though a three to seven point scale is recommended. The decision about the number of points depends on the range of aptitudes in the class; it must be useful to the teacher to distinguish between student achievements. However, if the goal of the rubric is to indicate progress of students over the course of the class or unit, the scale may necessarily be larger and more detailed. Many teachers use rubrics on a five point scale (A-F), however, there is a statistical tendency to give grades in the middle (“C”).


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An example of an efficient scale can be seen in the following. Let’s say a drama teacher has decided he wants to measure four key aptitude (verbal expression, non-verbal expression, projection and fluidity of speech). The teacher can assign 25 points to each for a 100 point total.


Some teachers give out the major rubrics at the beginning of the school year. Others give out rubrics along with the assignment.   Other teachers include the students in the design of the rubric.  


The beauty and the difficulty of rubrics is in the fact that the teachers MUST know what s/he wants to measure before the assignment is given.   Rubrics serve to take the mystery out of grading.  


Choose a focus

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Decide the types of rubric you want to use.

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◦  ◦  ◦     

Create a rubric for one assignment in one class you teach. Is it holistic of analytic? Is it generic or specific? What scale serves you best?

Design a rubric. Questions?


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Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A socialcognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Battro, Antonio M., y Percival J. Denham. (Argentina: Papers Editor, 2003); http://www.byd.com.ar/ed6www4.htm Barell, John (2003). Developing More Curious Minds. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Brandt, Roland (2000). Education in a New Era. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Chapter 6: “Assessment in education, where have we been? Where are we headed?” Ciencias de la Tierra, Libro electrónico. http://www1.ceit.es/ Asignaturas/Ecologia/Hipertexto/01IntrCompl/104PensCri.htm Clark, Leonard H. (1968). Strategies and Tactics in Secondary Teaching: A Book of Readings. New York: Macmillan Company. Cole, W.R (Ed.) (1995). Educating Everybody’s Children: Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Creamer, Monserrat. (Mayo 2004). USFQ, conversación personal.


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Daniels, H.& Bizar, M. (1998). Methods that Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice Classrooms. Maine: Stenhouse. Ennis, R. (1992). “Critical thinking: What is it?” Proceedings of the Forty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Philosophy of Education Society Denver, Colorado, March 27-30. Facione, Peter. (2003). Mesa Redonda, Universidad Central de Chile. http://www.ucentral.cl/Sitio%20web%202003/htm %20mr/mr-pensamiento%20critico.htm Herrera, Alejandro (s/a). Modus Ponens, Boletín Mexicano de Lógica. http://www.filosoficas.unam.mx/~Modus/MP2/ mp2alex.htm Huitt, W. (1992). “Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of individual differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator”. Journal of Psychological Type, 24, 33-44. Joyce, Bruce, Marsha Weil and Emily Calhoun (2000). Models of Teaching. Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon. Levine, Mel. (2002). Developing Minds Video series. (Author of: All Kinds of Minds, 2000) Lillard, Paula Polk (1996). Montessori Today: A Comprehensive Approach to Education from Birth to Adulthood. New York: Schoken Books.


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Losada, Luz Stella and José Miguel de Angulo (1999). Educando...¿Enseñando o Facilitando el Aprendizaje Crítico? Bolivia: MAP Internacional. Marzano, Robert J., Debra J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Monereo, C. (coordinador), M. Castello, M. Clariana, M. Palma, and M.L. Pérez (1998). Estrategias de enseñanza y aplicación en la escuela. Barcelona: Cevagraf S.C.C.L. Muñoz Hueso, Ana C. y Jesús Beltrán Llera (2001). “Fomento del Pensamiento Crítico mediante la intervención en una unidad didáctica sobre la técnica de detección de información sesgada en los alumnos de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria en Ciencias Sociales Universidad Complutense de Madrid”. Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, http://www.psicologia-online.com/ciopa2001/actividades/ 54/ Powell y Powell. (marzo 2004). Presentación: “Essential Questions and Critical Thinking Skills.” East Asian Council of International Schools, Bangkok. Proctor, C. (marzo 1984). “Teacher expectations: A model for school improvement”. The Elementary School Journal, 469-481.


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Scriven, M., y Paul, R. (November 1992). “Critical thinking defined.” Handout given at Critical Thinking Conference, Atlanta, GA. Sousa, David. (2002). Como Aprende el Cerebro, 2da edición. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Press. Strong, James H. (2002). Qualities of Effective Teachers. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tama, C. (1989). “Critical thinking has a place in every classroom”. Journal of Reading, 33, 64-65. Tomlinson, A.C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of all Learners. Virginia: ASCD. Zemelman, Steven, Harvey Daniels, Arthur Hyde (1998). Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools. New Hampshire: Heinemann.


Referencias  

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Aarts, R. and L. Verrhoeven (1999). "Literacy Attained in a Second Language Submersion Context." Applied Psycholinguistics 20(3): 377-394. Atkins, B. T. S. & K. Varantola (1998) “Language Learners Using Dictionaries: The Final Report of the EURALEX- and AILAsponsored Research Project into Dictionary Use”. In Using Dictionaries: Studies of Dictionary Use by Language Learners and Translators, ed. Atkins B. T. S. Tübingen : Niemeyer. Beebe, R.M.,&Leonard, K.S. (1993). Second language learning in a social context. In Visions and reality in foreign language teaching: Where we are, where we are going. Chicago: National Textbook. Beebe, R.M., Leonard, K. (January 1994). Second Language Learning in a Social Context. CAL Digest on foreign language education. EDO-FL-94-05 Bernard, J. and Grandcolas, B. (2001) "Apprendre une troisième langue quand on est bilingue: le français chez un locuteur anglo-espagnol", Aile (Paris) 14: 111-113. Best, C.T. (1994) The emergence of native-language phonological influences in infants: A perceptual assimilation model. In J.C. Goodman and H.C. Nusbaum (ed.), The Development of Speech Perception: The Transition from Speech Sounds to Spoken Words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 167-224.


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Bradford, J.D., Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking. (Eds.) (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, expanded edition. Washington D.C.: Nacional Academy Press. Cazden, C.B. (?). “Language Minority Education in the United States: Implications of the Ramirea Report”. Educational Practice Report 3. Cambridge: Harvard Graduate School of Education, National Center for Reserarch on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. Cazden, C. B., & Snow, C. E. (Eds.). (1990). English plus: Issues in bilingual education. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 508. (Also published as a separate volume by Newbury Park, CA: Sage.) Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. and Jessner, U. (2001). "Towards trilingual education", International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, 1: 1-10. Cenoz, J. and Jessner, U. (eds.) (2000). English in Europe: The Acquisition of a Third Language. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Cenoz, J. and F. Genesee, Eds. (1998). Beyond Bilingualism. Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. Cenoz, J. (1996). Learning a Third Language: Basque, Spanish and English. Spanish in Contact: Issues in Bilingualism. A. Roca, & Jensen, John B. Somerville, Cascadilla: 13-27.


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Cenoz, J. and D. Lindsay (1994). "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (28th, Baltimore, MD, March 8-12, 1994." ERIC Database (ED372637). Cenoz, J. and D. Lindsay (1994). "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds." Language and Education 8(4): 201-210. Cenoz, Jasone, Britta Hufeisen and Ulrike Jessner, ed. (2003) TheMultilingual Lexicon, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Clyne, M. and P. Cassia (1999). "Trilingualism, immigration and relatedness of language." ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 123-124: 57-78. Collier, V.P. (Fall 1995). Acquiring a Second Language for School. Directions in Language & Education, vol. 1, no. 4. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Crandall, J. (1992). "Content-Centered Learning in the United States." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 13: 111-127. Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood Bilingualism and Metalinguistic Skills: Analysis and Control in Young Swedish-English Bilinguals." Applied Psycholinguistics 20(1): 1-20. Cummins, J. (2001) "Instructional conditions for trilingual development", International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, 1: 61-75.


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Cummins, J. (April 2001) Language, Power, and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire: Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23. Eggen, P. D. and D. P. Kauchak (1996). Strategies for Teachers. Teaching Content and Thinking Skills. Boston, Allyn and Bacon. A Simon & Schuster Company. Eisenstein, M.,&Starbuck, R.J. (1989). The effect of emotional investment in L2 production. In Variation in second language acquisition: Volume II. Psycholinguistic issues. Clevedon: Newbury House. Flynn, S., Foley, C., and Vinnitskaya, I. (2004). The CumulativeEnhancement Model for Language Acquisition: Comparing Adults' and Children's Patterns of Development in First, Second and Third Language Acquisition of Relative Clauses. The International Journal of Multilingualism. Volume: 1  Number: 1  Page: 3–16 Fuller, J. M. (1999). "Between Three Languages: Composite Structure and Interlanguage." Applied Linguistics 20(4): 534-561. Fung, C.Y. (February 2002). Towards an interactive view of L3 acquisition: the case of the German Vorfeld. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. Gardner, R.C.,&Lambert, W.E. (1986). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Griessler, M. (2001) "The effects of third language learning on second language proficiency: an Austrian example", International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, 1: 50-60.


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Hakuta, K. (1999). Definition of “Bilingualism, APA Encyclopedia of Psychology. Harley, B., D. Hart, et al. (1986). "The Effects of Eearly Bilingual Schooling on First Language Skills." Applied Psycholinguistics 7(4): 295-322. House, J. (2004). A stateless language that Europe must embrace. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL Jacquemot, C., Pallier, C., Dehaene, S., Dupoux, E. The neuroanatomy of language-specific speech processing: A cross linguistic study using event related functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery. Paris, France: SHFJ. Jenkins, J. and Seidlhofer, B. (2004). Bringing Europe's lingua franca into the classroom. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL. Jensen, Eric. (2000). Brain-Based Learning: The New Science of Teaching and Training, Revised edition. San Diego, CA: Brain Store Inc. Jensen, Eric. (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Klein, E.C. (1995) "Second versus third language acquisition: is there a difference?", Language Learning 45,3: 419-465. Lasagabaster, D. (1998) "Learning English as an L3", ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 121-122: 51-83.


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   

Levis, N. (2001). "The Brave New World of Bilingual Teaching." Times Educational Supplement(4418). Llisterri, J.,and Poch, D. (1986) " Influence de la L1 (catalan) et de la L2 (castillan) sur l'apprentissage du système phonologique d'une troisième langue (français)", in Actas de las IX Jornadas Pedagógicas sobre la Enseñanza del Francés en España. Barcelona: Institut de Ciències de l'Educació, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. pp. 153-167.
 http://liceu.uab.es/~joaquim/publicacions/Llisterri_Poch_86/ Llisterri_Poch_86.pdf Lüdi, Georges (2004). Plurilinguisme précoce - représentations sociales et évidence neurolinguistique. Basel : 4e CONFERENCE INTERNATIONALE SUR L'ACQUISITION D'UNE 3e LANGUE ET LE PLURILINGUISME . Meijers, and Sanders, M. (1995) "English as L3 in the elementary school", Review of Applied Linguistics 107-108: 59-78. Murphy, S. (2002). Second Language Transfer During Third Language Acquisition. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Musumeci, D. (1996). "Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Content-Based Instruction: Communication at Cross-Purposes." Applied Linguistics 17(3): 286-324.


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Ogasawara, N. (edition Editor). (May 6, 2004). Book Discussion Forum on LINGUIST List 15.1440. Review: Psycholing/Acquisition: Cenoz, et al. (2003). Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues. Philipson, R. (2004). English yes, but equal language rights first. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL. Poulisse, N. and T. Bongaerts (1994). "First Language Use in Second Language Production." Applied Linguistics 15(1): 36-57. Ramirez, J. D., Yuen, S. D., & Ramey, D. R. (1991). Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit and late-exit transitional bilingual education programs for languageminority children. Final report to the U.S. Department of Education. Executive Summary and Vols. I and II. San Mateo, CA: Aguirre International. Rivers, -. W.-P. (1996). "Self-Directed Language Learning and Third Language Learner. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (30th, Philadelphia, PA, November 22-24, 1996)." ERIC Database(ED411679). Rolstad, K. (1997). "Effects of Two-way Immersion on the Ethnic Identification of Third Language Students: An Exploratory Study." Bilingual Research Journal 21(1). Ruuskanen, D.D.K. Bilingual and Multilingual children: Can my new baby learn two or more languages at home? Ask a Linguist . University of Vaasa, Finland.


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Sanz, C. (2000) "Bilingual education enhances third language acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia", Applied Psycholinguistics 21, 1: 23-44. Sikogukira, M. (1993) "Influence of languages other than the L1 on a foreign language: the case of transfer from L2 to L3", Edinburgh Working Papers in Applied Linguistics 4:110-132. SWAIN, M. et al. (1990) "The role of mother tongue literacy in third language learning", Language, Culture and Curriculum 3,1: 65-81. Schmidt, P. (1991, February 20). Three types of bilingual education equally effective, E.D. study concludes. Education Week, pp.1, 23. Secada, W. G. (1990). Research, politics, and bilingual education. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 508, 81-106. Snow, M. A., A. M. Padilla, et al. (1988). "Patterns of Second Language Retention of Graduates of a Spanish Immersion Program." Applied Linguistics 9(2): 183-197 Sousa, David. (2002). Como Aprende el Cerebro, 2da edición. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. SWAIN, M. et al. (1990) "The role of mother tongue literacy in third language learning", Language, Culture and Curriculum 3,1: 65-81.


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Taboors, P.O. (1997). One Child, Two Languages: A Guide for Preschool Educators of Children Learning English As a Second Language, Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (2003). “Deciding to Teach them All” Educational Leadership, October, 6-11. UNESCO. (July-Sept. 2003). The mother-tongue dilemma. Education Today Newsletter. UNESCO. (July-Sept. 2003). UNESCO and Multiliongualism. Education Today Newsletter. Valencia Garate, J. and J. Cenoz Iragui (1993). "Bilingualism and Third Language Acquisition." ERIC Database(ED364118). Walsh, J. (2004). Minority voices show strong instinct for survival. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL Werker, J.F. and Tees R.C. (1984) Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development 7, 49-63. Wolfe, Patricia. (2001). Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.


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Aarts, R. and L. Verrhoeven (1999). "Literacy Attained in a Second Language Submersion Context." Applied Psycholinguistics 20(3): 377-394. Atkins, B. T. S. & K. Varantola (1998) “Language Learners Using Dictionaries: The Final Report of the EURALEX- and AILA-sponsored Research Project into Dictionary Use”. In Using Dictionaries: Studies of Dictionary Use by Language Learners and Translators, ed. Atkins B. T. S. Tübingen : Niemeyer. Beebe, R.M.,&Leonard, K.S. (1993). Second language learning in a social context. In Visions and reality in foreign language teaching: Where we are, where we are going. Chicago: National Textbook. Beebe, R.M., Leonard, K. (January 1994). Second Language Learning in a Social Context. CAL Digest on foreign language education. EDO-FL-94-05 Bernard, J. and Grandcolas, B. (2001) "Apprendre une troisième langue quand on est bilingue: le français chez un locuteur anglo-espagnol", Aile (Paris) 14: 111-113. Best, C.T. (1994) The emergence of native-language phonological influences in infants: A perceptual assimilation model. In J.C. Goodman and H.C. Nusbaum (ed.), The Development of Speech Perception: The Transition from Speech Sounds to Spoken Words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 167-224.


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Bradford, J.D., Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking. (Eds.) (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, expanded edition. Washington D.C.: Nacional Academy Press. Cazden, C.B. (?). “Language Minority Education in the United States: Implications of the Ramirea Report”. Educational Practice Report 3. Cambridge: Harvard Graduate School of Education, National Center for Reserarch on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. Cazden, C. B., & Snow, C. E. (Eds.). (1990). English plus: Issues in bilingual education. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 508. (Also published as a separate volume by Newbury Park, CA: Sage.) Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B. and Jessner, U. (2001). "Towards trilingual education", International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, 1: 1-10. Cenoz, J. and Jessner, U. (eds.) (2000). English in Europe: The Acquisition of a Third Language. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Cenoz, J. and F. Genesee, Eds. (1998). Beyond Bilingualism. Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. Cenoz, J. (1996). Learning a Third Language: Basque, Spanish and English. Spanish in Contact: Issues in Bilingualism. A. Roca, & Jensen, John B. Somerville, Cascadilla: 13-27.


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Cenoz, J. and D. Lindsay (1994). "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (28th, Baltimore, MD, March 8-12, 1994." ERIC Database (ED372637). Cenoz, J. and D. Lindsay (1994). "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds." Language and Education 8(4): 201-210. Cenoz, Jasone, Britta Hufeisen and Ulrike Jessner, ed. (2003) TheMultilingual Lexicon, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Clyne, M. and P. Cassia (1999). "Trilingualism, immigration and relatedness of language." ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 123-124: 57-78. Collier, V.P. (Fall 1995). Acquiring a Second Language for School. Directions in Language & Education, vol. 1, no. 4. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Crandall, J. (1992). "Content-Centered Learning in the United States." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 13: 111-127. Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood Bilingualism and Metalinguistic Skills: Analysis and Control in Young Swedish-English Bilinguals." Applied Psycholinguistics 20(1): 1-20. Cummins, J. (2001) "Instructional conditions for trilingual development", International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, 1: 61-75.


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 

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Cummins, J. (April 2001) Language, Power, and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire: Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23. Eggen, P. D. and D. P. Kauchak (1996). Strategies for Teachers. Teaching Content and Thinking Skills. Boston, Allyn and Bacon. A Simon & Schuster Company. Eisenstein, M.,&Starbuck, R.J. (1989). The effect of emotional investment in L2 production. In Variation in second language acquisition: Volume II. Psycholinguistic issues. Clevedon: Newbury House. Flynn, S., Foley, C., and Vinnitskaya, I. (2004). The CumulativeEnhancement Model for Language Acquisition: Comparing Adults' and Children's Patterns of Development in First, Second and Third Language Acquisition of Relative Clauses. The International Journal of Multilingualism. Volume: 1  Number: 1  Page: 3–16 Fuller, J. M. (1999). "Between Three Languages: Composite Structure and Interlanguage." Applied Linguistics 20(4): 534-561. Fung, C.Y. (February 2002). Towards an interactive view of L3 acquisition: the case of the German Vorfeld. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. Gardner, R.C.,&Lambert, W.E. (1986). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Griessler, M. (2001) "The effects of third language learning on second language proficiency: an Austrian example", International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 4, 1: 50-60.


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 

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     

Hakuta, K. (1999). Definition of “Bilingualism, APA Encyclopedia of Psychology. Harley, B., D. Hart, et al. (1986). "The Effects of Eearly Bilingual Schooling on First Language Skills." Applied Psycholinguistics 7(4): 295-322. House, J. (2004). A stateless language that Europe must embrace. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL Jacquemot, C., Pallier, C., Dehaene, S., Dupoux, E. The neuroanatomy of language-specific speech processing: A cross linguistic study using event related functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery. Paris, France: SHFJ. Jenkins, J. and Seidlhofer, B. (2004). Bringing Europe's lingua franca into the classroom. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL. Jensen, Eric. (2000). Brain-Based Learning: The New Science of Teaching and Training, Revised edition. San Diego, CA: Brain Store Inc. Jensen, Eric. (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Klein, E.C. (1995) "Second versus third language acquisition: is there a difference?", Language Learning 45,3: 419-465. Lasagabaster, D. (1998) "Learning English as an L3", ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 121-122: 51-83.


   

 

   

Levis, N. (2001). "The Brave New World of Bilingual Teaching." Times Educational Supplement(4418). Llisterri, J.,and Poch, D. (1986) " Influence de la L1 (catalan) et de la L2 (castillan) sur l'apprentissage du système phonologique d'une troisième langue (français)", in Actas de las IX Jornadas Pedagógicas sobre la Enseñanza del Francés en España. Barcelona: Institut de Ciències de l'Educació, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. pp. 153-167.
 http://liceu.uab.es/~joaquim/publicacions/Llisterri_Poch_86/ Llisterri_Poch_86.pdf Lüdi, Georges (2004). Plurilinguisme précoce - représentations sociales et évidence neurolinguistique. Basel : 4e CONFERENCE INTERNATIONALE SUR L'ACQUISITION D'UNE 3e LANGUE ET LE PLURILINGUISME . Meijers, and Sanders, M. (1995) "English as L3 in the elementary school", Review of Applied Linguistics 107-108: 59-78. Murphy, S. (2002). Second Language Transfer During Third Language Acquisition. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Musumeci, D. (1996). "Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Content-Based Instruction: Communication at Cross-Purposes." Applied Linguistics 17(3): 286-324.


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 

 

 

Ogasawara, N. (edition Editor). (May 6, 2004). Book Discussion Forum on LINGUIST List 15.1440. Review: Psycholing/ Acquisition: Cenoz, et al. (2003). Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues. Philipson, R. (2004). English yes, but equal language rights first. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL. Poulisse, N. and T. Bongaerts (1994). "First Language Use in Second Language Production." Applied Linguistics 15(1): 36-57. Ramirez, J. D., Yuen, S. D., & Ramey, D. R. (1991). Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit and late-exit transitional bilingual education programs for languageminority children. Final report to the U.S. Department of Education. Executive Summary and Vols. I and II. San Mateo, CA: Aguirre International. Rivers, -. W.-P. (1996). "Self-Directed Language Learning and Third Language Learner. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (30th, Philadelphia, PA, November 22-24, 1996)." ERIC Database(ED411679). Rolstad, K. (1997). "Effects of Two-way Immersion on the Ethnic Identification of Third Language Students: An Exploratory Study." Bilingual Research Journal 21(1). Ruuskanen, D.D.K. Bilingual and Multilingual children: Can my new baby learn two or more languages at home? Ask a Linguist . University of Vaasa, Finland.


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 

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 

   

Sanz, C. (2000) "Bilingual education enhances third language acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia", Applied Psycholinguistics 21, 1: 23-44. Sikogukira, M. (1993) "Influence of languages other than the L1 on a foreign language: the case of transfer from L2 to L3", Edinburgh Working Papers in Applied Linguistics 4:110-132. SWAIN, M. et al. (1990) "The role of mother tongue literacy in third language learning", Language, Culture and Curriculum 3,1: 65-81. Schmidt, P. (1991, February 20). Three types of bilingual education equally effective, E.D. study concludes. Education Week, pp.1, 23. Secada, W. G. (1990). Research, politics, and bilingual education. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 508, 81-106. Snow, M. A., A. M. Padilla, et al. (1988). "Patterns of Second Language Retention of Graduates of a Spanish Immersion Program." Applied Linguistics 9(2): 183-197 Sousa, David. (2002). Como Aprende el Cerebro, 2da edición. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. SWAIN, M. et al. (1990) "The role of mother tongue literacy in third language learning", Language, Culture and Curriculum 3,1: 65-81.


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         

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 

Taboors, P.O. (1997). One Child, Two Languages: A Guide for Preschool Educators of Children Learning English As a Second Language, Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (2003). “Deciding to Teach them All” Educational Leadership, October, 6-11. UNESCO. (July-Sept. 2003). The mother-tongue dilemma. Education Today Newsletter. UNESCO. (July-Sept. 2003). UNESCO and Multiliongualism. Education Today Newsletter. Valencia Garate, J. and J. Cenoz Iragui (1993). "Bilingualism and Third Language Acquisition." ERIC Database(ED364118). Walsh, J. (2004). Minority voices show strong instinct for survival. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL Werker, J.F. and Tees R.C. (1984) Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development 7, 49-63. Wolfe, Patricia. (2001). Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.

Classroom and curricula design based on competencies in multilingual classrooms(tracey tokuhama espi