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INDEX 1. Guide to acronyms...................................................................................................................................05 2. Current Energy Sector...........................................................................................................................08

a. 2009 Energy Matrix....................................................................................................................................09

b. Institutional organization by energy sector....................................................................................... 18

i. Policy making in the energy sector....................................................................................................... 21

ii. Regulator.......................................................................................................................................................... 22

iii. Electricity subsector.................................................................................................................................. 26

iv. Oil subsector................................................................................................................................................... 31

3. Historic development of the energy sector...................................................................................... 32

a. Evolution of the energy matrix............................................................................................................... 33

i. 1971-1974.............................................................................................................................................................34 ii. 1984-1987..........................................................................................................................................................38 iii. 1999-2002 ......................................................................................................................................................42 iv. 2005-2008......................................................................................................................................................46

b. Institutional developments in the energy sector............................................................................. 50

i. Main reforms..................................................................................................................................................... 52

ii. Policy transition and oil liberalization ................................................................................................54

iii. Significant electricity sector reforms ................................................................................................56

iv. IRHE privatization....................................................................................................................................... 60

v. Institutional strengthening and electricity subsidies................................................................... 62

vi. National oil policies: Decree No. 36....................................................................................................63

vii. Fuel prices: attempts to mitigate volatility....................................................................................65

viii. The state business and regulator in the electricity market ������������������������������������������������66

ix. Centralizing policies: the National Energy Secretariat ............................................................ 67

x. The third reform of the framework law: mission, reducing electricity rates....................68

xi. Important reforms.......................................................................................................................................70

Energy Dossier Panama

4

energy dossier: panama  

this dossier analyzes the energy sector in panama as it stood in 2010 and its changes over time. it describes the country's energy flow by c...

energy dossier: panama  

this dossier analyzes the energy sector in panama as it stood in 2010 and its changes over time. it describes the country's energy flow by c...

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