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Making Effective Use of Trade Agreements

Presentation by Pamela Coke-Hamilton


Access to Foreign Markets • • • • • • • •

CARIFORUM-EC EPA (2008) CARICOM-Costa Rica (2004) CARICOM-Cuba (2000) CARICOM-Dominican Republic (1998) CARICOM-Colombia (1994) CARICOM-Venezuela (1992) CARIBCAN (1986) CBI (1983)


Status of Agreements • EPA – all CARIFORUM Member States expected to have completed domestic procedures to allow for provisional application of the EPA by mid December 2008 • CARICOM-DR – to discuss the implications of the regional preference provision of the EPA • CARICOM-Cuba – consideration is being given to expansion of market access provisions


19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07

US$ millions 150

100

50

Venezuela

200

Colombia Dominican Republic

Costa Rica

Cuba

Dominican Republic

Colombia

Venezuela

CARICOM Exports to FTA Partners 350

300

250

0

Cuba Costa Rica


Limited Effective Market Access Share of Imports from CARICOM in Respective Country Total Imports (%) Date of 2007 Signature of FTA Costa Rica

0.24% (2004)

0.15%

Cuba

1.06% (2000)

0.76%

Dominican Republic

0.65% (1998)

1.85%

Colombia

0.52% (1994)

0.97%

Venezuela

0.52% (1992)

0.19%


Utilization Rate (%) of CBI by CARICOM 45

43.3

42.8

40 33.1

35

34.3

32.4

34

29.3

30 25 20

16.6

15 10 5 0 2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007


30

20

10

0

60

2007 CARICOM

Trinidad & Tobago

St. Vincent & the Grenadines

St. Lucia

St. Kitts & Nevis

Jamaica

Haiti

90

Montserrat

Guyana

Grenada

70 Belize

80

Dominica

40 Bahamas

50

Barbados

Antigua & Barbuda

2007 Utilization Rate (%) of CBI


% of Imports that Benefit from CARIBCAN

Year

Imports Under CARICAN Total imports ($CDN millions)

($CDN millions)

CARIBCAN Imports as of total imports (%)

2006

114.7

925.8

12.4

2005

116.7

862.0

13.5

2004

120.9

784.1

15.4

2003

109.4

769.6

14.2

2002

152.5

705.6

21.6

2001

111.6

764.9

14.6

2000

62.0

519.0

11.9

1999

64.9

527.2

12.3

1998

40.7

547.6

7.4

1997

22.6

531.6

4.3


Canada Imports from CARICOM in 2006 MFN Free as % of Total Imports

GPT Free as % of Total Imports

CARIBCAN Free as % of Total Imports

Total Free as % of Total Imports

Antigua & Barbuda

38.42

..

20.08

58.50

Bahamas

73.25

0.00

20.88

94.13

Barbados

44.28

30.65

21.66

96.59

Belize

87.68

2.02

0.66

90.36

Dominica

31.64

..

..

31.64

Grenada

44.16

29.36

26.06

Guyana

95.8

3.54

0.26

99.59

Jamaica

94.42

0.05

3.59

98.06

Montserrat

77.41

..

..

77.41

34

0.11

..

34.11

Saint Lucia

86.69

..

..

86.69

St. Vincent/Gren.

79.07

1.62

..

80.68

Trinidad & Tobago

69.12

0.05

29.62

98.79

Total

84.20

1.08

12.39

97.67

Country

St. Kitts & Nevis

99.58


EC 27 Imports from CARIFORUM Countries (€’ millions) Jan-Aug 2007

Jan-Aug 2008

Antigua & Barbuda

177.3

100.1

Barbados

34.5

28.7

Bahamas

480.7

511.9

Belize

68.5

78.8

Dominica

8.8

6.9

Dominican Republic

573.7

579.0

Grenada

3.9

8.6

Guyana

131.0

132.8

Haiti

23.5

22.0

Jamaica

337.9

379.1

St. Kitts & Nevis

2.8

1.6

St. Lucia

43.9

15.1

St. Vincent & the Grenadines

79.6

117.0

Suriname

176.9

131.9

Trinidad & Tobago

657.9

1,594.8


Reasons for the Lack of Implementation • • • • •

Capacity Funding Shift of methodology – Private Sector Infrastructure Supply side constraints, etc.


Need for Implementation Mechanism • Critical need for implementation mechanism • Currently present institutional structures extremely overwhelmed and under funded • Mechanism would implement all agreements in cohesive and coherent manner • Regional linked to National


Structure for Implementation

gional Implementation Mechanism Executive Director

Research

RA

RA

LA

LA

National Impl. Liaison

Private Sector

Legal

RA

Lobbying /Political

LA

PSO

PSO

PSO

T.S.

T.S.

T.S.

Project Fund Development

P.O.

P.O.

P.O.

National Implementation Bodies

BS

BB

BZ

GY

HT

JM

SR

TT

OECS Member Countries

AG

DM

GD

KN

LC

VC

Mon.& Eval. Unit

ME.O

ME.O

ME.O


Potential Winners • Tourism • Cultural/Entertainment Services • Geographical Indicators – eg Caribbean Rum, Grenadian Nutmeg, Trinidad Cocoa, • IPR – biological diversity – development of natural medicines – traditional knowledge


Example of the functionality of the mechanism • Eg. The objective would be to increase the CARICOM’s share of the EU tourism market - # of visitors and € & £ – Need to identify target market and their current and future needs – Develop plans with countries to harmonize or sufficiently diversify industry in the region so that CARICOM countries are not in competition with each other – Ensure that development of industry is sustainable – Discuss with the private sector and individual country implementation units their needs to undertake industry development – Develop project profiles in accordance with donor requirements to submit for funding


Thank you

Pamela Coke-Hamilton Director of Trade and Tourism Organization of American States

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