Vaccine Mandates Are mandates nega vely impac ng the immuniza on eﬀort? Is there a be er way?
Table of Contents
History & Nature of Vaccine Mandates …………..3 Scope of Vaccine Mandates …………………………….5 Ramifica ons of Vaccine Mandates ………………...7 Solu on 1: Elimina ng Controls…...…………………..9 Solu on 2: Balanced Access…...……………………….11 Solu on 3: Increasing Coverage……………………….14 Addi onal Resources……………………………………….16 Bibliography……………………………... ……………………18 Appendix…………………………………………………………20
The Beginning of Vaccinations Historically, the preserva on of the public health has been the responsibil‐ ity of state and local governments, and the authority to enact laws relevant to the protec on of the public health derives from the state’s general police powers. With respect to the preserva‐ on of the public health in cases of communicable disease outbreaks, these powers may include the ins tu‐ on of quaran ne or the enactment of mandatory vaccina on laws. Mandato‐ ry vaccina on laws were first enacted in the early nineteenth century; with Massachuse s enac ng the first such law in 1809.
England had been more aggressive in manda ng vaccina on: the Compulso‐ ry Vaccina on Act of 1853 required infants born in England and Wales to be vaccinated for smallpox, though it allowed an exemp on for “those unfit for vaccina on.” An 1871 expansion of the law ght‐ ened enforcement of the requirement. However, objec ons to compulsory vaccina on led to an ac ve, organized an ‐vaccina on movement.
The Bri sh Vaccina on Act of 1898 provided a conscience clause to allow The development and growing use of exemp ons to mandatory smallpox vaccina on. This clause gave rise to the smallpox vaccine in the early 1800s triggered the establishment of vaccina‐ term “conscien ous objector,” which on mandates, especially for children. later came to refer to those opposed to As small pox became less of a concern military service. By the end of 1898, over the years, the mandates began to magistrates had issued more than loosen when it came to the vaccina‐ 200,000 vaccina on ons. The exemp ons. government at this me School though did Vaccina on create new agencies to Today in the United help with States, all states the tes ng require that of new children be vaccines. vaccinated for In 1855, certain diseases Massachu‐ before school entry se s (the required became the immuniza ons vary first U.S. by state). Early state to Source: blog.acpinternist.org statutes required require vaccina on vaccina on against smallpox and were for schoolchildren. At that me, only smallpox vaccine was available. Other amended as new vaccines were states and locali es began to pass introduced. Many modern school similar regula ons, though the rules vaccina on laws are the result of were o en only spo ly enforced. measles outbreak since the1960's and
Professional View Lyne er Anderson, who is an RN at Legacy Hospital gives vaccines shots almost daily. Even though Lyne e is not for mandated vaccines she feels that they are a benefit and do more good than harm. However she thinks that it should be the person's choice to decide whether or not they want to put it in their body. She makes the point that more people are now ques oning vaccines. She said, "Maybe someday they will say that we should have never vaccinated. However, polio and smallpox are gone and chicken pox is
1970's. Generally, states use the Centers for Disease Control and Preven on’s schedule of immuniza‐ ons as a guide, and require children to be vaccinated against a number of diseases on the schedule, including diphtheria, measles, rubella, and polio. A variety of exemp ons are allowed, depending on state and local regula ons. Mississippi and West Virginia are the only states to oﬀer only medical exemp ons to vaccina on. In other states, medical, religious, and o en philosoph‐ ical/personal belief exemp ons are available.
One U.S. study showed that children with nonmedical vaccina on exemp ons were 35 mes more likely to contract measles than vaccinated children. Another study showed a similar risk with pertussis
just now making a comeback on a small scale. In my life me these have gone away because of vaccines."
Poten al Risks For Not Vaccina ng Overall, vaccina on rates in the United States remain high, but many experts are wonder‐ ing what the eﬀect will be on public health of increasing numbers of children being exempt from vaccina on. Some point to the increasing measles incidence that emerged in England a er a study (published in 1998 but since with‐ drawn) proposed an associa on between the MMR vaccina on and au sm. Vaccina on rates in England dropped in response, from more than 90% to 80% and lower. Measles cases, meanwhile, began to rise. While only 56 cases were confirmed in Wales and England in 1998, 1,348 were confirmed by 2008.
(whooping cough). And several measles epidemics have been traced to religious communi es that do not commonly prac ce vaccina on. In Philadelphia in 1990‐91, nine children died from measles centered in a religious community that shunned vaccina on.
Reported deaths per year before and a er introducing vaccina ons for measles, scarlet fever, Typhoid, Whooping Cough, and Diphtheria diseases.
Scope of Vaccine Mandates month of the first birthday, month, day and year are required” according to the State of California Department Currently in the United States there of Health Services. This record has to are vaccine mandates for children show that all vaccines have been up who a end public schools. In order to date for all children who are under for children to a end public schools the age of 18. Vaccina ons that are they need to present an immuniza‐ required include Polio, Diphtheria, on record. An immuniza on record Tetanus, Pertussis, Measles, Mumps, is a, “wri en immuniza on record, Rubella, Hepa s B, and Varicella. either a personal record with entries While these may vary between states, made by a physician or clinic, or a currently all fi y 50 states require school immuniza on record‐the blue vaccines for those who a end public California School Immuniza on school. Record from a former school or According to the Na onal Network another state's school record. It must for Immuniza on Informa on (NNII), include at least the month and year “In the United States, the federal each dose was received; for measles, government plays a variety of roles in rubella and/or mumps vaccine and immuniza on programs. Although for varicella vaccine given in the
School Vaccina on Requirements
Professional View When asked if parents should be concerned about ge ng vaccines for their children, Jus n Heyrend, an anesthesiologist in Ontario, Oregon said, “This is an understandable worry for a parent. But there is a lot of reassuring evidence that mul ple vaccina ons at the same me do not overload a healthy baby's immune system. Vaccines rou nely recommended for children use only a small por on of the immune system's memory.
vaccines are made by private companies and immuniza on policies are set individually by every state, various agencies of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) have roles in regula ng vaccine produc on, purchasing vaccines and making them available to states.” The federal government will give recommenda ons to each state regarding their immuniza on policies. The federal government also makes sure that the vaccines are made available to the states.
Con nued from page 5….
Vaccine Exemp ons
In fact, only ny fragments of viruses
There are three specific types of exemp ons that may vary from state to state. They are philosophical, religious, and medical. These exemp ons make it possible for parents to choose to have their child not vaccinated and/or revaccinated.
or bacteria are in vaccines compared with the large amounts of germs children come in contact with every day. Parents who are worried about the increasing number of recommended vaccines also may take comfort in knowing that vaccines today expose children to fewer bacterial or viral parts than in the past, yet protect against more diseases. A baby's immune system can handle considerably more germs than they will ever get from vaccines. In fact, babies are exposed to thousands of germs every day from the day they are born. Worrying about too many vaccines is like worrying about a thimble of water ge ng you wet when you are swimming in an ocean.”
Philosophical exemp ons are based oﬀ of personal, philosophical, or conscien ously held beliefs. If a person feels that vaccines are wrong then they have the op on to file a philosophical exemp on in the following states: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin, according to the Na onal Vaccine Informa on Center. However, New
Mexico allows exemp ons from personal beliefs as part of religious exemp ons. If an individual decides to file a philosophical exemp on it applies to all vaccines and not a par cular one according to most states. Religious exemp ons can be filed in all states except California, Mississip‐ pi, and West Virginia, according to the Na onal Vaccine Informa on Center. This exemp on varies widely between states. Some states believe that a religious exemp on can apply to anyone who holds a sincere belief against vaccina ons, that if the state were to force them to be vaccinated it would infringe upon their religious freedom rights. Other states believe that a religious exemp on applies only to those who are a part of The First Church of Christ, Scien st religion, or any other religion whose wri en beliefs are against vaccina ons. The Na onal Vaccine Informa on Center says, “The religious exemp on is granted based on the First Amendment of the Cons tu‐ on, which is the right to freely exercise your religion. Because ci zens are protected under the First Amendment of the United States, a state must have a "compelling State interest" before this right can be taken away. One "compelling State interest" is the spread of
communicable diseases. In state court cases, which have set precedent on this issue, the freedom to act according to your own religious belief is subject to reasonable regula on with the jus fica on that it must not threaten the welfare of society as a whole.”
physicians to write a wri en exemp on for a pa ent, most require them to be wri en by a Medical Doctor.
Medical exemp ons are available in all 50 states, and are made for those whose health would be harmed by receiving a vaccine. In most cases, a Medical Doctor or Doctor of Osteopathy would fill out the medical exemp on for a pa ent sta ng that taking the vaccine would be detrimental to their health. While some states allow private
Ramifications of Vaccine Mandates
Professional View According to Michelle McNea RN, the
The necessity, safety, and eﬃcacy of vaccines is a highly debated, divisive, and emo onal social topic. Our safety and that of our families is at the heart of the debate on whether or not to vaccinate, par cularly babies and small children. With that in mind we may be er weigh the available informa on on vaccina ons and make the best choices possible.
mothers. However, this immunity goes away during the first year of life.”
Vaccines as Disease Preventa ve With No Apparent Ramifica ons
Regarding the safety of vaccines, the CDC outlines how they monitor this concern:
According to the Center for Disease Control, “The diseases that vaccines prevent can be dangerous, or even deadly. Vaccines reduce the risk of infec on by working with the body's natural defenses to help it safely develop immunity to disease.” By the same token the CDC acknowledges, “Newborn babies are immune to many diseases because they have an bodies they got from their
The safety of vaccines is thoroughly studied before they are licensed for public use. There is a strong system in place to help scien sts monitor the safety of vaccines.
flu vaccine mandate became eﬀec ve in 2011 for health care workers in Nebraska. The target goal for this mandate is 90% vaccina on but currently it is s ll possible for health care workers at GPRMC to decline for any reason. The compliance rate in 2011 was about 85%. She said on the eastern seaboard and other places the flu vaccine is actually “mandatory” and if a health prac ‐ oner declines, even due to allergies or religion, they must wear a mask while prac cing health care. The
Like any medicine, vaccines can cause side eﬀects. However, serious adverse events from vac‐ cines are rare.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
Receiving combina on vaccines or several diﬀerent vaccines during one visit is very safe and oﬀers the quickest protec on again mul ple diseases.
Michelle feels that vaccines should
You can play a role in monitoring the safety of vaccines.
and the Advisory Commission on Immuniza on Prac ces (ACIP) recom‐ mend everyone 6 months and older be vaccinated against the flu. not be forced on people, including those working in health care posi‐ ons. She doesn’t think it is ethical to demand that people have something enter their body that they do not want.
Vaccines As Cause Of Disability Or Death The number of doctors, other professionals, and parents with concerns over the safety of vaccines seems to have increased along with the increase of the availability of vaccines and vaccine mandates. Personal and professional accounts tes fy of healthy babies and children falling ill and some mes dying following the administra on of vaccines. Dr. Viera Scheibner stated, "There is no evidence whatsoever of the ability of vaccines to prevent any diseases. To the contrary, there is a
great wealth of evidence that they cause serious side eﬀects." Another authority, Dr. J. Anthony Morris, former Chief Vaccine Control Oﬃcer at the US Federal Drug Administra‐ on said, "There is a great deal of evidence to prove that immuniza on of children does more harm than good." The late pediatrician, Dr. Robert S. Mendelsohn, M.D. said, "There are significant risks associat‐ ed with every immuniza on and numerous contraindica ons that may make it dangerous for the shots to be given to your child....There is growing suspicion that immuniza on against rela vely harmless childhood
“There is growing suspicion that immuniza on against rela vely harmless childhood diseases may be responsible for the drama c increase in autoimmune diseases since mass inocula ons were introduced.” diseases may be responsible for the drama c increase in autoimmune diseases since mass inocula ons were introduced. These are fearful diseases such as cancer, leukemia, rheumatoid arthri s, mul ple sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's disease, lupus erythematous, and the Guillain‐Barre syndrome." ‐‐
iza on provides a net benefit to anyone or to society in general. This ques on can only be determined by proper studies which have never been performed. The flaw of previous studies is that there was no long term follow up and chronic toxicity was not looked at. The American Society of Microbiology has promoted my re‐ search...and thus acknowledges the need for proper studies."
Some professionals are calling for ethical, long term studies that will show clear data to se le the ques on Source: Vaccina on Libera on. regarding either the safety and necessity or inherent danger of vaccines. One doctor, John B. Classen, M.D., M.B.A., had the following to say concerning the studies that have been done to date: "My data proves that the studies used to support immuniza‐ on are so flawed that it is impossible to say if immun‐
Source: h p://img. meinc.net/ me/daily/2008/0805/360_wvaccines_0602.jpg
Solution 1: Eliminate Controls “Interes ngly, some other countries such as Canada and Mexico do not Eliminate controls on vaccines. u lize mandates and have generally higher immuniza on rates than in the Iden fy/clarify the issue United States. However, in Canada there is universal health care coverage, including immuniza ons, and in Mexi‐ Individuals should have the choice to co very successful countrywide immun‐ receive or decline vaccines. iza on weeks three mes per year reach almost all of the children.” Key components Source: h p://vaccines.procon.org/ 1. States should have standards for h p://www.immuniza oninfo.org/ vaccine exemp ons that aren’t as issues/immuniza on‐policy/indica ons rigorous, and that make it easy for ‐recommenda ons‐and‐immuniza on‐ people to obtain exemp ons. This mandates#8 way people aware and have made the conscious and informed deci‐ sion if they choose to have their children vaccinated or not because they made the decision them‐ selves. It wasn’t forced upon them. 2. If people are not forced to do something than they are more likely going to make a decision that they honestly feel is right, instead of having the need to be defiant because of pressure from the government. Nobody likes being told that they have to do something. People deserve the right to choose for themselves. 3. There are many parents that hold religious beliefs against vaccina‐ ons. Tighter controls can make it harder for these parents to file a religious exemp on. If these par‐ ents are forced to vaccinate their children then it would, “violate the 1st Amendment which guarantees ci zens the right to the free exer‐ cise of their religion” according to vaccines.procon.org.
Eliminate Controls: Pros
This will help to diﬀuse the vaccine controversy This may help in restoring trust in the govern‐ ment agencies and medical field People will be more in control of the decision a er talking it through with a health care provid‐ er carefully considering the benefits and risks in‐ stead of feeling coerced into ge ng vaccinated
Eliminate Controls: Cons
Some people may feel it is not necessary or im‐ portant without a mandate
There is the possibility the vaccina on rates would drop and there may be greater risk for dis‐ eases to become more prevalent
This could increase health care costs in general, which would eventually get passed on the con‐ sumer
Solution 2: Balanced Access to Information Solu on
A solu on to vaccine mandates is to provide an accessible, equitable bal‐ ance of informa on on the ramifica‐ ons of vaccines.
Informa on is knowledge communi‐ cated or received concerning a par‐ cular fact or circumstance.
Iden fy/Clarify the solu on In order to clarify the solu on the following words are defined: accessi‐ ble, equitable, balance, informa on, and ramifica on. (dic onalry.com) Accessible means obtainable or a ainable. Equitable means characterized by equity or fairness; just and right; fair; reasonable. Balance is a state of equilibrium or mental steadiness or emo onal sta‐ bility; habit of calm behavior, judg‐
Ramifica on is consequence; impli‐ ca on
Key components of the program: Informa on program implementa on Defini ons: Brochures must be read‐ ily available to expectant and new parents and other consumers re‐ garding the debate between possible advantages/eﬀects of diseases vers‐ es possible disadvantages/eﬀects of vaccines. Explana ons: A few of the many parents and professionals who are already ar cula ng the ramifica ons of vaccines would compile some of
"There has been a tendency (by doctors) to play down the likelihood of common adverse reac‐ ons...Immunisa ons are thus commonly given with‐ out the informed consent of parents. When problems arise a er vaccina on, these doctors tend to play down the severity of the complaints and will o en deny a connec on with the vaccina on." ‐ MJA (Medical Journal of Australia) Submis‐ sion on Vaccina‐ on. Dr. Mark Donohoe MB BS. Sub‐ mi ed to the Medi‐ cal Journal of Australia, Feb 97 rejected May 97, then published in Australian Vac‐ cina on Network, "Vaccina on Roule e" 1998.
their acquired informa on and expe‐ rience to create a tasteful, balanced brochure outlining possible conse‐ quences of vaccines Linking to quality health services Defini ons: Expectant and new par‐ ents would have access to infor‐ ma on on the ramifica ons of vac‐ cines, both for and against. Explana ons: Along with the litera‐ ture outlining the necessity and ex‐ pecta on of rou nely giving infant vaccines, parents would have acces‐ sible, equitable and balanced infor‐ ma on on the possible ill eﬀects of vaccines. Examples: Parents and others would be provided brochures that either: 1)included both the pros and cons of vac‐ cines or
the possible adverse eﬀects along with the schedule of recommended childhood immuniza ons. Sustainability Defini ons: In order to implement and sustain this solu on there would need to be a stepping forward and an organiza on of concerned con‐ sumers as well as some type of fi‐ nancial backing to create, print, and distribute informa on. Explana ons: There would likely be a strong counter campaign figh ng the provision of accessible, equitable balance of informa on on the ramifi‐ ca ons of vaccines. Examples: The Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Food and Drug Administra on (FDA) as well as drug companies may have ulterior mo‐ ves in wide‐spread promo on and manda ng of vaccina ons. An or‐ ganiza on against mandates would need to be well armed with calm but credible informa on and be pre‐ pared for the possibility of strong opposi on.
2) outlined Source: psychologytoday.com
Balanced Access to Information: Pros
Advantage: Accessible, equitable balance of infor‐ ma on on which to base decisions Advantage: Informed public will make health care decisions according to the dictates of their con‐ science Advantage: Possibility of fewer adverse eﬀects from vaccines
Balanced Access to Information: Cons
Disadvantage: Possible distrust of medical professionals Disadvantage: Fear and uncertainty among consumers concerning best course of ac on Disadvantage: Less revenue for drug compa‐ nies, medical professionals, & governments
Solution 3: Improving Delivery Methods and Opportunities Solu on
The conflic ng informa on and even sta s cs in the vaccine debate make the decision to vaccinate or not even more diﬃcult to determine. The info graphic below conflicts with the sta s cs from another source noted in the ar cle to the right.
Improving Delivery Methods and Opportuni es Iden fy/Clarify the issue Despite many recent advances in vac‐ cine delivery, the goal for universal immuniza on set in 1977 has not been reached. In 2001, only 77.2% of US toddlers 19 to 35 months of age had received their basic immuniza on se‐ ries of 4 doses of diphtheria and teta‐ nus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 3 doses of inac vated poliovirus vaccine, 1 dose of measles‐
mumps‐rubella (MMR) vaccine, and 3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Children who are members of a racial or ethnic minority, who are poor, or who live in inner‐city
or rural areas have lower immuniza‐ on rates than do children in the gen‐ eral popula on. Addi onal challenges to vaccine delivery include the intro‐ duc on of new childhood vaccines, ensuring a dependable supply of vac‐ cines, bolstering public confidence in vaccine safety, and suﬃcient compen‐ sa on for vaccine administra on.
Key Components Recent research has demonstrated specific and prac cal changes physi‐ cians can make to improve their prac‐ ces’ eﬀec veness in immunizing chil‐ dren, including the following: 1. Sending parent reminders for up‐ coming visits and recall no ces 2. Using prompts during all oﬃce visits to remind parents and staﬀ about immuniza ons needed at that visit 3. Repeatedly measuring prac ce‐ wide immuniza on rates over me as part of a quality improve‐ ment eﬀort 4. Having in place standing orders for registered nurses, physician assistants, and medical assistants to iden fy opportuni es to ad‐ minister vaccines. Pediatricians should work individually and col‐ lec vely at local and na onal lev‐ els to ensure that all children re‐ ceive all childhood immuniza ons on me. Pediatricians also can proac vely communicate with parents to ensure they under‐ stand the overall safety and eﬃca‐ cy of vaccines.
Improving Delivery Methods and Opportunities: Pros
More children would receive their vaccina‐ ons on me Physicians would always be sure they are giv‐ ing quality vaccines For the people who are just not remembering to vaccinate but would like to, they would have reminders Source: fiercehealthcare.com
Improving Delivery Methods and Opportunities: Cons
People that don’t want to vaccinate are not going to want the reminders or feel the pres‐ sure The focus of this program might emphasize numbers more than safety and looking at a case by case basis for immuniza on This method may come across as pushy and people may be turned oﬀ if they felt that the doctors or nurses were trying to push im‐ muniza ons on them at every opportunity
Additional Resources Vaccination News-A non-profit corporation founded by longtime vaccine freedom of choice advocate, Sandy Gottstein. The mission statement of Vaccination News is “Freedom of Choice is Not Free.” Website: http:// www.vaccinationnews.com Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction a book published by the Institute of Medicine (2002). A review of the medical literature that discusses the potential biological mechanisms and evidence for and against a causal relationship between multiple vaccinations and immune and brain dysfunction. The Vaccine Book: Making the Right Decision for Your Child by Robert Sears, M.D. This book offers tips for parents who want to vaccinate their child with all government recommended vaccines but prefer to use an alternative schedule for vaccination. Includes suggested schedules for spacing recommended vaccines out and giving fewer vaccines on one day. National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) is a national charitable, non -profit educational organization founded in 1982. NVIC launched the vaccine safety and informed consent movement in America in the early 1980's and is the oldest and largest consumer led organization advocating for the institution of vaccine safety and informed consent protections in the public health system. Website: http://www.nvic.org/
U.S. Food and Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov/
Center for Disease Control (CDC) Vaccine Information http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/
VAERS Database - Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System - link to site where you can download the data base. Call VAERS at 1-800-822-7967 http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Activities/vaers.html
Additional Resources Cont.
Type of Content
1.Immunization Action Coalition. http://www.immunize.org/laws/
1. State mandates on immunization and vaccine-preventable diseases 2. National Vaccine Information Center eNewsletter Subscription 3. News and views on vaccinations and policy. 4. Uncensored information on immunizations.. Hundreds of peer reviewed studies. 5. There is no central federal authority for vaccine policy. 6. There is a refusal to vaccinate form that doctors can use if a parent decides against vaccinating their child. Even though it is not considered a legal document, doctors still may use it for their own records. 7. Stats about Hepatitis B requirements and screenings by state. 8. What vaccines are required where.
2.National Vaccine Information Center. http:// visitor.r20.constantcontact.com/ manage/optin? v=0018GC6MpVjY0SMRqdM9qSOynPFyMcI4P47m_4rOpZh5nhAeWv7AoinUhOOMjU2an
3. Vaccination News. http:// www.vaccinationnews.com/homepage
4. Think Twice Global Vaccine Institute. http://thinktwice.com/; http:// thinktwice.com/studies.htm 5. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/ RL31793.pdf
6. http://www2.aap.org/ immunization/pediatricians/pdf/ RefusaltoVaccinate.pdf 7. http://www2a.cdc.gov/nip/ StateVaccApp/statevaccsApp/ HepatitisScreenandReport.asp 8. https://www.myvaccs.com/home/ travel-vaccinations.aspx
Works Cited "Immunization Policy." National Network for Immunization Information (NNii). N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. Koren, Tedd, and Jeff Hockings. "Truth About Vaccinations (part 1 of 4):Tedd Koren D.C." YouTube. n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. Miller, Neil Z. Vaccines: Are They Really Safe and Effective?Santa Fe, N.M: New Atlantean Press, 2002. Print. N.p., 1999. Print. "National Vaccine Information Center ? Vaccine Watch Dog." Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nvic.org/>. "NVIC ? Vaccine Law Information." National Vaccine Information Center ? Vaccine Watch Dog. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nvic.org/vaccine-laws.aspx#>. "Parents Requesting Open Vaccine Education (PROVE)." Parents Requesting Open Vaccine Education (PROVE). N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://vaccineinfo.net/index.shtml>. "Say No to Vaccines - don't put your health at risk!." Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sayingnotovaccines.com/ >. "School immunization requirements." San Dieguito Union High School District. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. "Travel Vaccinations." NetDoctor.co.uk - The UK's leading independent health website. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/travel/vaccines_index.shtml>. "USCIS - Vaccination Requirements." USCIS Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.uscis.gov/ portal/site/uscis/menuitem.5af9bb95919f35e66f614176543f6d1a/? vgnextoid=3384cc5222ff5210VgnVCM100000082ca60aRCRD&vgnextchannel=6abe6d26d17df110VgnVC M1000004718190aRCRD>. "Vaccination Liberation Home Page." Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.vaclib.org/>.
Â "Vaccinations - Travelers' Health - CDC." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/vaccinations.htm>. "Vaccines: Vac-Gen/Side Effects." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm>. Welcome to ASTHO. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.astho.org/uploadedFiles/Programs/ Immunization/ASTHO%20Vaccine%20Refusal%20Brief.pdf>.
Appendix Tammy Haws
Writer: Tammy Haws Tammy Haws is a senior at BYU‐ Idaho majoring in University Studies with minors in Communica on and Marriage and Family Studies. Besides being a full‐ me student she is a mother, grandmother, hospital volunteer, and Nutri onal Herbologist through The School of Natural Healing
SELECTION OF ISSUE Our team chose to research and write on the issue of the safety and eﬃcacy of vaccines because it is a cri cal social issue which aﬀects everyone. Our overall aim is to provide for ourselves and our readers balanced and equitable informa on to draw on in making future vaccine decisions. TEAM MEMBER TASKS My tasks were to help decide our research and wri ng issue, chose a profes‐ sional to interview and visit with her, research the issue and provide prelimi‐ nary findings, write up the interview, and write and submit background infor‐ ma on and propose a possible solu on on the ramifica ons of vaccine man‐ dates based on researched informa on. RESEARCH Professional Interview Michelle McNea, Employee Health Nurse at Great Plains Regional Medical Center (GPRMC), North Pla e, Nebraska. Center for Disease Control (CDC). h p://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/vaccine‐decision/prevent‐ diseases.html; h p://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac‐gen/howvpd.htm h p://www.cdc.gov/Features/VaccineSafety/ Vaccina on Libera on. h p://www.vaclib.org/basic/quotes.htm PERSONAL REFLECTION As a responsible mother I du fully provided vaccina ons for each of my 8 children at the recommended mes and in the recommended dosages. I shuddered as I read the fine print at the very bo om of the parental consent pages sta ng possible implica ons, rare, I was assured, that follow some vac‐ cine administra ons. My signature on each form iden fied that I knew there were risks, some as serious as permanent brain injury and death, and as a parent I was willing to permit and allow foreign material to enter my innocent children’s bodies. Their pain, discomfort, fevers, and any other side eﬀects, I was reminded, were for the greater good. These, I was informed, would be a
small price to pay since the vaccines would then protect my babies and chil‐ dren from something far worse, diseases. Several years ago I studied health and nutri on through The School of Natural Healing and was introduced to a side of vaccines that I was unfamiliar with, excep ng the fine print on vaccine parental consents. As I read How to Raise a Healthy Child in Spite of Your Doctor by Robert S. Mendelsohn, Vaccines: Are they Really Safe and Eﬀec ve by Neil Z. Miller, and Dr. Mom by Sandra K. Livingston Ellis, I gained a greater understanding of the other side of vaccines. Not long a er my health and nutri on studies, my youngest child, 3‐years‐old at the me, though immunized against whooping cough, acquired the dis‐ ease. This incident was the beginning of my personal knowledge that vaccines do not always prevent diseases. The safety and eﬃcacy of vaccines then, as the subject for a research topic in my Persuasion course at BYU‐Idaho, has led to acquiring s ll addi onal informa on on the vaccine dilemma. I have learned first‐hand through my research that there is a plethora of in‐ forma on, some credible and some not, recommending both for and against vaccines. Although it can be confusing to make sense of the available infor‐ ma on, par cularly because those both for and against vaccines are quite adamant in their posi ons, at some point everyone must weigh in on the ar‐ gument. While I am certainly not in a posi on to make recommenda ons one way or the other on the vaccine debate, it seems wise to commend that each consumer weigh the available informa on for themselves, perform addi onal research if there are s ll any doubts in mind, and then make an informed decision regarding the safety and eﬃcacy of vaccines as con‐ science dictates.
Aubrie Larson SELECTION OF ISSUE Our group chose to research and write on the issue of the safe‐ ty and eﬃcacy of vaccines. We felt that this was an issue that had a large impact on the majority of people. Most of us have or will deal with vaccina ons and the posi ve or nega ve consequences associated with them. We hope that the in‐ forma on that we present will make people take the me to think about vac‐ cines and form their own educated opinion about them. TEAM MEMBER TASK My tasks were to help decide our research and wri ng issue, find a professional person to interview that was related to our topic, research the issue. I then did write‐ups about the interview and compiled the diﬀerent research that I found
Writer: Aubrie Larson Aubrie is a senior at BYU‐Idaho and is studying communica ons with an emphasis in Public Rela ons. She is from California and comes from a family of three children with two brothers.
into background and solu on informa on for the book. SOURCES "Government Regula on." History of Vaccines RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <h p://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/ar cles/government‐ regula on>. "Vaccina on Myths." Vaccina on Myths. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <h p://www.relfe.com/vaccine.html>. PERSONAL REFLECTION I have always heard about diﬀerent controversies surrounding vaccines. Some people are ada‐ mant that all children be vaccinated. They insist that it is the safest thing for all children and that the pros of vaccines greatly outweigh the cons. Even schools require certain immuniza ons be‐ fore children are allowed to a end. And then you would also hear the other side of it; the dan‐ gers of vaccines. I had heard stories of people who would get all of the appropriate shots for their children and then they were never the same again. They were sure that vaccines were the causes of other issues that their child developed. A er hearing such a radical diﬀerence in opinion I feel it is more important than ever that parents educate themselves as much as they can about vaccines so that when the me comes they are able to make educated decisions about what is best for their child.
Brianna Evans SELECTION OF THE ISSUE
Writer: Brianna Evans
Our group chose to research on how eﬀec ve and safe vaccines are. Our main goal was to provide unbiased informa on to our readers as well as us. We also strived to be as informa ve as possible to educate our readers, because it is a very mely issue.
Brianna Evans is a senior a ending
TEAM MEMBER TASK
Brigham Young University – Idaho.
My tasks were to research the specific vaccine mandates and compile important informa on, provide a basic background and solu ons document covering vaccine mandates, conduct a pro‐ fessional interview, and write up the interview.
She is studying Communica ons with an emphasis in Public Rela ons. She is from Vancouver, Washington. She
is married with no children, and is
currently working for the Edwards
h p://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/vaccina ons.htm
Center as an HR intern doing some PR work.
h p://www.immuniza oninfo.org/issues/immuniza on‐policyh p:// www.immuniza oninfo.org/issues/immuniza on‐policy/exemp ons‐immuniza on‐laws
PERSONAL REFLECTION Before researching vaccines more closely I was completely for vaccines. I thought that they should be made mandatory, because of the possible risks those who aren’t vaccinated pose to
society. However, a er researching the issue more closely, and reading the informa on that my group members posted, my thoughts and opinions and have somewhat shi ed. What also shi ed my views was learning about the diﬀerent exemp ons and why those exemp ons exist. I also learned a lot from the RN I interviewed, because she deals a lot with cancer pa ents and the elderly, so she is constantly giving vaccines. When I asked her for her personal opinion on vaccines and if they should be mandated or not, she told me that she thinks vaccines are great tools to keep society safe. But, even though she feels that vaccines are a great benefit to society it is a very personal decision. Personally, while I feel that vaccines do more harm than good, I strongly believe that it should be a personal choice. Since there are possible ramifi‐ ca ons that come with being vaccinated, it should be a personal choice. This kind of decision shouldn’t be forced on anyone.
Ida Mae Simmons SELECTION OF THE ISSUE Our group decided to con nue our previous research into vaccina ons and the current mandates. We wanted to try and get as much informa on as possible for ourselves and create a tool for others to also find more balanced informa on about vaccina ons. I personally wanted to research this topic more for myself. O en when I make decisions I rely a lot on the opinions and sugges ons of people that I trust, especially when I have limited me to make a decision or some other limita ons. I have really wanted to dive into this for myself, but felt overwhelmed by the argument with informa on and propaganda being spread around and not being able to figure out conclusively what is true and what is not. So I felt like I needed to research it further for myself and get as much informa on as I could to make an informed decision.
Editor: Ida Simmons Ida Simmons is a Senior at BYU‐ Idaho. She is comple ng her Bache‐ lors degree online in General Studies with a minors in Business and Com‐ munica ons. She lives in Tacoma
TEAM MEMBER TASK
Washington with her husband Dean
I had the task of being the editor. As editor I designed the layout and format for the Issue book and the appendix as well. I also gave feedback to other members on their research and wri ng and made sugges ons. Finally I also tried to keep on top of reminding team members about deadlines and assignments in order to complete the project.
and three li le boys and besides being a part‐ me student she is a full ‐ me Mom.
PERSONAL REFLECTION I have three li le boys and none of them have received vaccina ons. From the beginning of this research I have had strong feeling against vaccina on mandates and some strong feelings against vaccina ons. I do not feel that the government or any other organiza on has a right to force something on me and my children or try to push an agenda on my family. Whether it is good or bad, because it is not 100% safe, a person should always have a choice if they want to take the risk either way. However, I feel like this assignment has given me a new perspec ve. Through the discussion between our group and the posts of the other team members about things along with my own research, my thoughts about vaccina ons have changed. I do think there is some good to them and they can benefit us. I think I may have my children get some selected vaccines in the future. I don’t think they are all necessary and I think that many of the organiza ons pushing vaccina ons have lost credibility in my mind because of the unnecessary vaccina ons the are pushing on people that have can have severe side aﬀects. So even though I have so ened somewhat on my stance regarding vaccina ons, I s ll firmly believe that it is a choice that should be le to the person and family to make, not governments or even doctors.