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2.2013 (99)

Director General Valeriy Stolnikov Deputy Director General Ilya Kolikov Marketing Director Sergey Matveyev

CONTENTS

Procurement India, China, Indonesia buy Russian fighters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Technologies Flying radars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

Chief Editors Vladimir Karnozov

Air Lifters

Editors Maxim Khrustalev Kirill Yablochkin Alexander Bukharov Mikhail Khondoshko Dmitry Drozdenko Dmitry Sergeyev

Acceptance trials

Designers Mariya Marakulina Olga Khrisanova Timofey Babkin

Syllabus

MTA development in earnes . . . . . . . . .10 for Il-76MD90A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Upgrade Glass cockpit for Dornier 228 . . . . . . .14

Pilot training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Civil aviation

Print Manager Anton Patsovsky

Saga of Superjet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Cover photo Vladimir Karnozov

Business aviation

Photos in this issue Vladimir Karnozov, open sources and courtesy of advertizing companies

Interiors

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Industry Shipbuilding in Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Circulation: 10000

Success story

The magazine is registered in the Committee for Press of the Russian Federation. Certificate № 016692 as of 20.10.1997. Certificate № 77-15450 as of 19.05.2003.

Long Range Superjet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36

© AIR FLEET, 2013 ADDRESS P.O. Box 77, Moscow, 125057, Russia Tel.: + 7 495 459 9072 Fax.: + 7 495 459 6042 E-mail: market@a4press.ru

Advertorial Russia is back on jetliner market

. . . . 40

Marketing Rotorcraft for military, civil clients . . .

44

Kamov responsible for Z-10 design .

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Procurement

INDIA, CHINA, INDONESIA BUY RUSSIAN FIGHTERS

Indian defense ministry’s Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) demonstrated at Aero India 2013 a large-scale model of Advanced Multirole Combat Aircraft (AMCA), a completely Indian alternative to the Indo-Russian FGFA. This model differs from the original one on display at Aero India 2011, thus providing evidence that the project develops in parallel to FGFA. Although the Indian top officials attending the show declined to compare AMCA and FGFA, they insisted that “homegrown” projects be continued, especially in the area of mission equipment and fighter engines, since “no-body will give us these technologies”. During February 2013 both Russian and Indian air force chiefs declared their intent to get Sukhoi fifth generation fighter prototypes into hands of their own pilots to attest the design merits and make decisions whether to continue with funding the project development. Russian air force commander Gen. Victor Bondarev said that “starting in March” he expects all four flyable prototypes to assemble at Chkalov’s GLITS, being a Defense ministry’s test base and firing range near Akhtubinsk in Southern Russia, for customer assessment and weapons release trials. By the year-end their number shall increase to eight. If tests are a success, the PAKFA [Future Aviation Complex

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of Frontal Aviation] will go into series production in late 2015 or early 2016. Alexander Fomin, director at the Federal Service for military-technical cooperation with foreign countries (FSVTS), and head of Russian official delegation to the show in Bangalore, says he is enthusiastic about the FGFA being developed jointly with the Indian partners on the base of the Sukhoi PAK FA fifth generation fighter. “There is lots of high ambitions loaded into this project. India is very actively participating with its scientific, technological and industrial potential. Both sides involved in this [FGFA] project invest a lot into it, and on equal terms”. In his turn, Indian air force chief of staff told journalists at Aero India 2013 that he expects arrival of three PAKFA development prototypes in India, first in 2015, second in 2017 and third in 2018. Air Marshall Norman Anil Kumar Browne said “Design and Development” (D&D) phase under “a small-value contract” proceeds well, and that on its completion later this year, India and Russia will sign a new contract on “Research and Development” (R&D), “which is the mother of all phases”. In case the Indian pilots find PAKFA flight performance coming to customer expectations, the Indian government will fund the next phase – creation of a customized version for the Indian air force by a joint team of Russian and Indian engi-

neers. Two designations for the latter are currently in use, Fifth-generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) and Prospective Fighter Aircraft (PFA). The Indian version would use same airframe, engines and main systems, and differ in mission hardware and software, as well as weapons nomenclature. Series airframes manufacturing would commence at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in 2012, Browne added. At Aero India, United Aircraft Corporation’s president Mikhail Pogosyan said that upon completion of D&D phase, he expects India and Russia sign “a fullscale development contract” on co-development of the fifth generation fighter. While admitting that as of this time there are no firm orders for production airplanes, Pogosyan said that Russia and India would buy “over 400” aircraft and that the total market would exceed 600. He insisted all four prototypes built todate are employed on flight-test program, and said that additional development aircraft will be completed “as necessary, after the two sides sign the full-scale development contract”. Pogosyan further insisted that both Russian and Indian versions “will be based not only on the same platform, but also have unitary onboard systems and avionics set”. This is so due to the fact that the Indian air force specialists had been involved in working out specification to the aircraft


Procurement “from the very beginning and through all development phases”. “It may happen that in future there will be some specific requirements to an individual onboard system or to certain additional tasks the airplanes shall be solving… But these would-be requirements will then be worked upon so as to get them properly formulated into formalized requirements agreed by both customers”. Pogosyan expects the FGFA to follow the Su-30MKI/MKM example, in which “the Indian and Malaysian air forces use the very same platform, with difference confined to few avionics items”. Despite being involved in the FifthGeneration Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) joint program with Russia, India develops a next generation fighter of its own, the Advanced Multirole Combat Aircraft (AMCA). Last month Indian defense ministry’s Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) demonstrated a large-scale model. Even at short glance it is clear that the aerodynamics shape has been considerably refined as compared to an earlier model exhibited at Aero India 2011, and a model for wind-tunnel testing demonstrated at Aero India 2009 (that time it was “MCA”, without “Advanced”). It is obvious that AMCA has been developed in parallel to FGFA. AMCA is being led by DRDO’s Aeronautical Development Establishment. Addressing the next-generation fighter issue, Indian air force chief of staff declined to compare AMCA and FGFA, but insisted that “home-grown” projects shall be continued, especially in the area of mission equipment and fighter engines, since “no-body will give us these technologies”. Air Marshall Norman Anil Kumar Browne also spoke in support of the Light Combat Aircraft “Tejas” despite continuing slow progress of this “homegrown” fighter project already delayed by some twenty years. He said the Tejas shall attain Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) at the end of this year and through Final Operational Clearance in 2015, with the rider that the air force does not expect this airplane to fully meet requirements until the advent of the Tejas Mk.2 with entryinto-service planned for 2024. A I R

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Normal Anil Kumar Browne The most interesting thing relating to both AMCA and Tejas is that AMCA is likely to be powered by the indigenously developed Kaveri motor. It had been conceived for the Tejas but ran slower and, at a certain stage, was “detached” from the airframe effort. Instead, experimental and series production Tejas aircraft received F404 and, later, more advanced F414 engines from General Electric. The very fact that India continues with AMCA indicates that New Delhi has

Mikhail Pogosyan

Victor Bondarev some concerns about FGFA. Browne hinted that because of the late decision to join the Russian project, FGFA is difficult to arrange as a 50/50 program – the baseline airframe is too advanced for that. There are also some other fears, such as maturity of the Russian technology in certain spheres. In particular, the prototypes constructed so far feature extensive use of metal in their airframes – reflecting gaps and shortcomings in the modern composite technology available to Sukhoi; this at

Alexander Fomin

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Procurement a time when “home-grown” Tejas has a 43% share of composites in the airframe. Official information on AMCA at Aero India 2013 was limited to a one-page leaflet with three views and magic words such as net-centric warfare, vehicle management [in addition to weapons], data fusion, decision aids, integrated modular avionics, internal carriage of weapons, signature control with sharpening for low-observability, AESA radar, IR search-and-track, supersonic persistence, high-speed weapon release, thrust vectoring. The aircraft shall be able to “swing roles”: long- and short- range air-to-air and ground strike. According to press reports, scientist Dr. A.K. Ghosh heads AMCA development effort. Suggestions are made that, unlike FGFA, AMCA’s primary role will be ground attack roles, and so it will be a direct replacement to the MiG-27M and the Jaguar. Also, there are reports about “revolutionary” pilot station concept employing a panoramic active-matrix display(s) with touch-screen interface and voice commands, and helmet-mounted sight replacing – rather than supplementing – head-up display. AMCA is likely to be “electronically” actuated airplane rather than hydraulically operated. Instead of a central digital flight control computer on the Tejas, AMCA is to have a distributed processing system employing fast proces-

AMCA sors and smart sub-systems which can pass over and combine the processing power available in them. This commands employment of IEEE-1394B-STD rather than MIL-STD-1553B. The new airplane shall have “central computational system connected internally and externally on an optic-fiber channel by means of a multiport connectivity switching modules”. Also mentioned there are fly-by-light electrooptic architecture with fiber-optic links for signal and data communications Following a purchase agreement on 42 additional Sukhoi Su-30MKI twin seat fighters signed in December 2012 during Vladimir Putin's visit to New Delhi, top Russian officials have confirmed deals with China on the Su-35 and with Indonesia on an additional quantity of Su-30MK2

LCA “Tejas”

Kaveri

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multirole combat aircraft. In the aftermath of the decisions made during Russian defense minister Sergei Choigu's visit to Beijing in November 2012, China and Russia signed, in January 2013, an intergovernmental agreement on the Su-35. This statement was made by Vyacheslav Dzirkaln, deputy director at Russia’s Federal Service for MilitaryTechnical Cooperation (acronym FSVTS), during the press briefing of the Russian delegation to IDEX’2013. Dzirkaln, who headed the Russian delegation to the arms show in Abu Dhabi, added that the work on firm contract is ongoing “in a planned manner” as the sides are “detailing” delivery terms. “There will be direct shipments only, not license production”, he clarified. Last time China purchased fighters from


Procurement Russia in 2004, adding 24 Su-30MK2s and bringing grand total of Flanker series aircraft procured from Russia to 283. In a matter of days before IDEX'2013, Anatoly Isaikin, director general at Rosoboronexport weapon-sales agency told the media that Indonesia placed firm order for six more Sukhoi Su-30MK2 twin seaters. The deal also includes an unspecified number of Saturn AL-31F engines and other equipment needed to keep the growing Indonesian Flanker fleet intact. The Indonesian air force already operates five Su-27SK /SKM single-seat and five Su30MKK/MK2 twin-seat fighters. Jakarta has long been negotiating on additional Sukhoi jets, with first public mentioning of negations on a follow-on contract in 2010. That time then-defense minister voiced Jakarta’s ultimate intent to form ten Sukhoi fighter squadrons comprising 180 aircraft within the next fifteen to twenty years. Although in late 2011 the negotiators came to terms on the main parameters of the deal - 470 million dollars for six planes – they then long negotiated on spare engines, maintenance tools and munitions. After a Superjet s/n 95004 on a salespromotion tour collided with the Mount Salak on 9 May 2012, leaving 45 dead, the Indonesian MoD told the media as though they were no longer inclined to buy from Russia, and that instead they would take more Lockheed Martin F-16As. Turning to used F-16As from the USAAF stocks was explained by a shortage of funds for Air Force acquisitions. In order to facilitate further sales to Jakarta, the Kremlin-controlled VEB bank provided an export credit to the Indonesian finance ministry worth $399.5 million on seven-year term. The credit agreement was signed in January this year, which time VEB said that the one is intended for covering costs of an aviation equipment purchase. The Moscow-based MK (Moskovsky Komsomolets) newspaper linked VEB’s decision and overall softening of Russian positions in the fighter negotiations to the Superjet case. In an article about the Superjet project, the daily newspaper wrote that the Kremlin A I R

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improved Su-30MK2 sale terms in return for Indonesian “understanding” on the Superjet case. Meantime, China is expected to undertake modernization of earlier delivered Sukhoi Su-27SK/UB and Su-30MKK/ MK2 fighters (NATO codename Flanker) says Sergei Kornev, head of Rosoboronexport's department for aviation. "Equipment such as this normally undergoes two or three mid-life upgrade and modernization programs", he insisted. Kornev confirmed that Russia has submitted its proposal on the matter, and that the Chinese customers are considering those. In particular, the Russian propose adding "more modern, more precise guided missiles and other munitions", the sources collaborated. At the same time, China has been looking at integration of its own PGMs onto Sukhoi fighters operated by the PLA Air Force and Navy Air Arm. If China makes a move with the Su-30 modernization, this may entail resumption of Russian missile deliveries after a pose of several years. Kornev confirmed that as of now, Russia's Tactical Missile Corporation does not make shipments to China. Rosoboronexport tries to keep open to China in relations to these fighter jets. On the eve of the Airshow China 2012 and during it, Russian air force commander, his deputies, pilots and technicians of the Russian Knights team on the Su-27 had "many meetings" with their Chinese colleagues "who were very open to communications", Kornev insisted. It is interesting to note that China and India look like in a some kind of competition, as who would buy more Russian fighters? By placing a follow-on order for 42 Su-30MKIs in late December past year, the Indian government increased the total number of Sukhoi fighters on order to 290. Thus, New Delhi "outperformed" the government of People’s Republic of China which has so far signed for 283 Su-27UBK/SKs and Su-30MKK/MK2s (including assembly under license of a hundred Su-27s). The abovementioned deal was signed in presence of Vladimir Putin in New Delhi, to where it paid an official visit. The deal is for

Su-35 Su-35 cockpit

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Procurement

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (center)

Su-30MKK shipment of 42 additional jetfighter kits for subsequent assembly at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. Respective contract’s value is estimated between 2 and 3.7 billion US dollars. The recent order for additional 42 Su-30MKIs came on the top to the earlier signed contracts covering 230 such fighters (and 18 Su-30Ks). In the move-countermove sort of action, China has most recently signed for 24 Sukhoi Su-35 single seat multirole fighters, the deal worth $1.5billion. Deliveries of newly built Su-35s to China are expected to start in 2015, after the plant in Komsomolsk-onAmur deliveries a sufficient number of the newly built Su-35s to the Russian air force. Today, the Su-35 is the most advanced Russian heavyweight multirole fighter available for export. In its current form, the Su-35 flew for the first time in 2008. It represents a further development of the Su-27. While retaining aerodynamics shape and outward appearances, the Su-35 differs in having a totally new pack of avionics

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including Tikhomorov’s NIIP N-035 Irbis radar with passive electronic scanning replacing the N-001 Mech with Cassegrain parabolic antenna with mechanical beam scanning. To attain supersonic cruise (supercruise) capability, the Su-35 is powered by a pair of NPO Saturn Item 117S motors each delivering 14,500kg [31,967lb] of thrust at full afterburner and 8,800kg [19,400lb] at military power. In part, the Su-35 development was funded with refundable loans, including those from VEB, one of the five large state banks under Kremlin’s control. The Russian MoD placed a first firm order in 2009, for 48 airplanes, while Rosoboronexport continues negotiations with Venezuela, Vietnam and Indonesia. Su-35 prototypes have made nearly 700 test flights in frame of the type certification program, which is not yet complete. Initial batch of six Su-35s is expected for delivery later this month; series production shall commence next year. The Russian air force commander

Gen. Bondarev says the service expects 250 deliveries of newly built Sukhoi fighters of the Su-34, Su-35 and PAKFA types in 2012-2020 timeframe. Moscow had long been ready to sell China a quantity of Su-35 fighters provided Beijing would place a worthwhile order, ‘not merely a couple of specimens for reverse engineering’. Negotiations went for several years, with Russia insisting on larger – a minimum of 48 - and China on a smaller number of aircraft. Using Airshow China 2012 as a convenience, a large Russian delegation met Chinese customers last month to run an addition presentation of the Su-35. President of United Aircraft Corporation Mikhail Pogosyan and Russian air force commander Gen. Victor Bondarev were among members in the delegation. The Su-35 deal heralds a new era in the long-lasting Sino-Russian fighter relationship, which was in stagnation since 2004. That time the Kremlin learnt about China making unlicensed copies of the Su-27SK in the form of the J-11. At the same time, China terminated license assembly of the Su-27SKs after completing 105 units out of 200 in the license agreement. With unlicensed Su-27 "clones" taken into account, the numerical strength of the Chinese Flanker fleet is estimated at 400 units. While having lesser number of Sukhoi heavy weight combat jets, India - unlike China - also operates a large fleet of MiG-29 lightweight frontal fighters. The Indian air force is reported as deciding whether to increase its MiG-29 fleet to eventually a total of 80-85 MiG-29UPGs – the current standard to which in-service aircraft are being upgraded. The customer has an option to increase the MiG-29 fleet from the current figure of slightly above sixty by taking newly built or second hand aircraft with their subsequent up-gradation to the UPG standard. Under already signed contracts, some sixty of earliermodel MiG-29s out of Indian air force inventory are subjected to upgrading into the UPG standard, with the work under respective contracts worth some one billion US dollar.


Procurement During the past year, The Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (RAC MIG) delivered to India a total of seven aircraft: four new MiG-29K/KUB deck fighters and three MiG-29UPGs produced from earlier built MiG-29As. “Having delivered [4] MiG29K/KUBs and [3] MiG-29UPGs, we have fulfilled, on time and in full, all our contractual obligations before India, a priority customer for our corporation”, RAC MiG general director Sergei Korotkov commented. He further said that RAC MiG’s most lucrative business now is mid-life upgrade and modernization of MiG-29s in service with the Indian and other air forces. In addition to the air force, the Indian navy has its own fleet of MiGs of over twenty units. The first batch of 16 navalized MiG-29K/KUB jetfighters ordered in 2004 was delivered in 2009-2010. In 2010 India firmed up follow-on order for 29 units. First four of those were handed over in December 2012, and a second four is now being prepared for shipment. Meantime, the Indian navy is reported as being looking for more MiGs, so as to increase the current figure of 45 aircraft on the list of delivered and ordered items up to over sixty – the figure considered sufficient to equip all STOBAR type carriers being built or whose construction has been approved by the government. If so, RAC MiG may expect an additional order for between fifteen and twenty deck fighters. Today, the Indian air force has 32 fighter squadrons, including 15 on the Su-30MKI. In addition to other Russian types, namely MiG-29, MiG-27M and MiG-21, it also operates Mirage-2000 and Jaguar combat jets imported from Western Europe, while the navy runs a tiny number of British Sea Harriers. The US is another candidate to supply combat jets to India. A large US industry delegation to Aero India 2013 was headed by Jeff Kohler, vice president of Boeing Military Aircraft and Kevin Cosgriff, senior vice president for international business with Textron Systems. The US-India Business Council coordinated their efforts. Defense sales to India from the US have risen from an annual value of just 200 million dollars in 2001 to over 14 billion A I R

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Su-30MKM today. “India’s defense modernization requirements and capacity building measures are vast, and reflect a growing need to secure critical infrastructure assets and defend sizeable borders, while securing their economic growth. The US industry leads the way in offering the most advanced technology with long-term support for the multitude systems offered,” said Kohler. “We are eager to initiate cooperative programs with India’s defense industry to take advantage of Indian industry’s engineering talent, growing production capability and regional expertise,” Cosgriff commented. The American equipment on display includes a C-17 heavy lifter, a C-130J, a F-16 and a KC-135. Also on display there were armored security and light combat vehicles, tactical communications equipment, integrated weapons systems, thermal imaging technologies and network munitions systems. Today, American defense products provide a tough competition to Russian ones. The AH-64 Apache defeated the Mil Mi-28NE in the competition for 22 attack helicopters and the CH-47 Chinook came ahead of the Mi-26T in the international tender for 15 heavyweight helicopters. New Delhi says

it will allocate funds for the Apache and Chinook purchases in the 2013-2014 defense budget. In an interview with the Russian media on the eve of the Aero India 2013, Alexander Fomin, director at the Federal Service for military-technical cooperation with foreign countries (FSVTS), and head of Russian official delegation to the show in Bangalore, said that although Russia did lose in a number of international tenders recently, it still keeps selling its weapons to India at large scale. He stated that that today’s share of India in Russian military export is about 30%. This keeps India the largest importer of Russian weapons. Russian Technologies (Rostec) corporation was at AeroIndia 2013 in the role of official organizer of the Russian exposition which took 875 sq.m of roofed space in hall A. Thirty seven Russian firms were brought together here; jointly they had 180 various exhibits on display. Among them there is a special simulator, one for MiG-29 aerial refueling, exhibited for the first time at an air show. Vladimir Karnozov

Su-30MKI

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Technologies Su-34

FLYING RADARS

Malaysia is yet to make its choice of a flying radar in a time when most of its close neighbors have already acquired such tools, just to name China (KJ-200 and KJ2000), India (A50EI), Thailand (ERIEYE), Singapore (G550 AEWs) and Taiwan (E-2T/K Hawkeye). This article focuses on latest development to do with flying radars in India. Following the ill-fated “Airavat” (Airborne Surveillance Platform) program which terminated after only technology demonstrator aircraft on the HS 748 platform crashed in 1999, India has been relying on the Beriev A50EI “Phalcon” as its only Airborne warning and control system (AWACS) currently in service. The A50EI features Israel's IAI EL/W-2090 radar and mission software

from Russia’s Vega. Based on the Il-76MD90A platform, three A50EIs are already in service with the Indian air force. At AeroIndia 2013 it become known that “contract negotiations are ongoing” on two more A50EIs, against earlier plans for a total of nine. Presumably, India’s new “home grown” AWACS effort initiated by Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) is pursued as a cheaper alternative. By the end of India’s 12th five-year plan, five AWACS and two AEW&C India should be operational. Should the local designers fail, New Delhi has a contingency plan for additional Phalcons, which may be placed on alternative platform, such as the Airbus A330 which has came first in

Russian air force operates 26 A-50s 8

the air tanker competition MRTT (Multi Role Transport and Tanker). It shall also be noted that US firm Northrop Grumman continues promoting in India the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye – the newest exportable version of its highly successful E-2 Hawkeye. This airplane has long been in service with the US Navy, flying from carriers. India might buy a quantity especially in case the Hawkeye proves capable of operating from the Russianbuilt INS Vikramaditya and Indian “home grown” carriers, a pair of which is now under construction. The side KW3555 – a prototype for “AEW&C India” indigenous airborne early warning and control system – had its air show debut at Aero India 2013. The airplane flew on the opening day of February 6, 2013 and remained in the static for two more days. Besides, a relatively large scaled model on the display in the central square of the show site had glassed cutaways to give an idea of operators’ positions and equipment placing. The model was marked “CABS DRDO”, abbreviation for Center for Air Borne Systems of DRDO. CABS situates at Belur, Yemalur Post, Bengaluru. The primary radar comes from LRDE. Dehradun-based DEAL is responsible for the Data Link and Com-


Technologies

munication Systems. Various DRDO establishments provides other key components, including self-protection suite (two panels forward of the wing-fuselage junction). Information on the KW3555’s equipment set was available at CABS stand in Hall D. CABS says the whole of 2012 was spent to perform system integration and testing using various ground facilities such as System Test and Integration Ring (STIR), Anechoic Chamber, Roof-Top Test Rig, Planar Near Field Measurement Facility and Indoor Far Field. The infrastructure will be used for follow-on national programs to do with AESA, such as “AWACS with enhanced operational radar”. The platform is an Embraer 145I with up-rated Rolls-Royce AE 3007 AIE motors and a 4480-kg payload capability. In August and December 2012 respectively Embraer Defense and Security delivered a first and a second “green” aircraft to the Government of India which ordered three airplanes and holds options for other units under a deal worth US$ 210 million. It includes a comprehensive logistic package that entails training, technical support, supply of spare parts and ground support equipment. According to the Brazilian maker, “These EMB 145 AEW&C feature major capabilities such as in-flight refueling system, significant increase in electric and cooling capacity and a comprehensive set of structural changes to which will allow the installation of the advanced mission systems that have been developed by CABS”. It adds that the airplane’s main mission is to detect, track and indentify targets within its patrol area, and transmit that information into friendly forces, so as to supply them with a precise and broad overview of the theatre of operations. The KW3555 had its first flight with radio electronic set installed in January. By Aero India opening initial flight testing had been complete, together with radar checks on ground (including Electro-magnetic Interference/Compatibility). First flight test on the primary radar is expected “within a month or two”. The second aircraft is being outfitted with the radar suite; it should join in later this year. CABS must be very A I R

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optimistic when it claims initial operational readiness of the system in early 2014. Although CABS claims KW3555 as first indigenously developed flying radar with AESA, a closer look reveals considerable similarities with Sweden’s ERIEYE AEW developed by Ericsson Microwave, now a SAAB company. The radar works in the S-band (5-santimeter wave length) and considered good for aerial and sea targets, and not for land surface observation. The overall structure and main principles seem to have been made using foreign assistance. At the same time, the system features some “Indianisation”: transceiver modules are produced locally. Besides, the AEW&C India suite is being integrated by local specialists. The Indians are focusing on perfecting key technologies applicable to the Transmit-Receive Multi-Module and other AESA components. CABS director S. Christopher explains: “The program is the indigenous effort going as a guarantee against technology-denial by nations that have acquired these already”. Meantime, DRDO has taken up development of Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) on the base of AEW&C India. "AWACS is a heavier and high endurance system which can give you in terms of coverage about 360 degrees (using adaptive e-scan technologies – ed.) as against AEW&C which is about 270 degree coverage", a senior official was reported as saying. “Compared to AEW&C, AWACS flies at a higher altitude (AEW&C India’s mission system operations from 5,000 to 30,000 ft - ed.) and can be in the sky for longer duration, and

can penetrate deeper into enemy territory by way of radar”. “India sees a case for a combination of AWACS and AEW&C”, the source adds. DRDO’s faces many challenges in development of AWACS on AEW&C India base due to the need for far more electrical power, appropriate mission software and algorithms, and cooling of the overheated primary radar’s antenna – the primary issue for any AESA system. The KW3555 has its antenna positioned high above the fuselage along the air flow so that the latter cools the slotted antenna inside a long fairing by entering via the window at the front, taking the heat from the transmitters, and going through the side slots to the area between the antenna and the fairing before finally going out into the rear window. Meantime, Embraer has delivered sixteen mission-tailored EMB 145 aircraft: eight to Brazil, three Mexico and four to Greece. The ERIEYE is also found on Saab 340 and Saab 2000 platforms in Sweden (EIS 1996), Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Thailand. Built by Ericsson Microwave, the ERIEYE AEW system has intelligent sensor technology and a user-friendly command and control system capable of quickly acquiring accurate and comprehensive information. The radar can track both sea and airborne targets over land and water. It can work against ground clutter, and track multiply aerial and sea targets, with instrumented range of 450km. IFF interrogator is associated with supporting C2 databases. Vladimir Karnozov

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Air Lifters

MTA

DEVELOPMENT IN EARNEST The Indo-Russian joint venture Multirole Transport Aircraft Ltd (MTAL), one that leads the project of the Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA), had its show debut at Aero India 2013 with a stand in Hall E. The company is headed by General Director N.C. Agarwal and runs its activities basing on the respective framework agreement signed in the middle of October 2012 with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and the United Aircraft Corporation – Transport Aircraft (OAK-TS). The latter two companies are acting as the MTA contractors. According to the plans of the sides involved, the airplane shall have the following characteristics: payload 15-

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20 tons, cruise speed 800 km per hour, maximum flight range 2,500-2,700 km. The airplane shall have modern built-in self-monitoring systems and two engines. The MTA is supposed to be able to perform short takeoffs and landings. During Aero India 2013, there were some bits of new information released on the MTA, including some on placards at the MTAL stand. The fuselage length, measured from nose tip to the tail fairing aft of the cargo ramp, is 35.1 meters. With tail unit included the overall length rises to 39.7m. Wing span is 39.4 meters and that of the empennage is 12.4 meters. The maximum height is 12.55 meters,

when the airplane is stationary on the ground. Airframe and landing gear design allows for maximum pitch at takeoff/ landing 12 degrees. Six equipped soldiers can be seated in a fuselage cross section, which is 3.4 m high and 3.4 wide. Alternatively, two standards Indian army tracks, each 7-meter long, can be transported inside the fuselage. Practical work by Russian and Indian specialists on implementation of this contract has already started, using specifications issued by the Indian and Russian defense ministries. Representatives of these ministries will supervise the process of contract fulfillment, including compliance of the aircraft being developed to the specifications. The core of the design team is composed of Ilyushin engineers and employees at HAL’s Design and Development division – the group of 30 Indians, composed of HAL design center’s best employees, joined in the Russian designers’ team in December. Victor Livanov, General director – General designer at Ilyushin, said: “About 150 designers now are working on the MTA draft design. It will be a brand-new airplane. The core of the Russian engineering and design team is formed by employees


Air Lifters

of Ilyushin Aviation Complex. We hope that the aircraft will have its first flight in 2017 and that deliveries will commence in 2018 to the Indian air force and the Russian air force”. At his press briefing on February 6, 3013, United Aircraft Corporation president Mikhail Pogosyan told reporters that he wants a contract for MTA’s full scale development to be signed later this year, after the current project definition and draft design phase (also known as D&D, for Design &Development) is complete, as planned, in the second half of 2013. The sooner the full scale development (also known as R&D, Research and Development) commences – which in turn requires specification freezing – the more likely that the current aggressive MTA schedule be met, he noted. Mikhail Pogosyan further said that starting in December 2013, HAL designers and engineers have been working hand-in-hand with Ilyushin designers in Moscow on the MTA draft design. Speaking to journalists at Aero India 2013 on the issue of powering MTA, Victor Livanov confirmed that the readily available Aviadvigatel PS-90A76 – the motor has already been selected for the Il76MD-90 and Il-76MD-90A/Project 476

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– is the primary candidate to equip development prototypes and initial production batch of the MTA aircraft that shall appear in the 2017-2018 timeframe. The more recent and fuel efficient PD-14, being developed for the Irkut MC-21 narrowbody passenger jetliner, is considered in the role of the primary MTA power when this motor becomes available. At the same time, the earlier Indian proposition of the CFMI CFM-56 has been dropped after more careful evaluation with focus on thermodynamics and required performance when operating from hot and high, and dusty, airfields. The final choice, however, remains the responsibility of the MTAL and the airplane’s end-users being the Russian air force and the Indian air force. Right now specialists from both services are working closely with the industry to determine the maximum evaluation of aerodromes from which the MTA shall be able to operate. There is "an idea" to increase the earlier target of 3,300m evaluation up to 4,100m and even above. In Livanov's view, this will severely get the engine requirements up, "so that the PS-90A76 might not be able deliver the required thrust” due to limitations of its thermodynamics. The current

production version of this motor develops a thrust of 14 tons while its thermodynamics allows a maximum thrust of 16-17 tons (in case of zero aerodrome evaluation and standard atmosphere). Livanov concluded that the PD-14 is likely to be developed in a very special version for the MTA to take account of the specific requirements to airlifter's power as compared to the baseline version for the passenger airliner. Vladimir Karnozov

PD-14

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Air Lifters

ACCEPTANCE TRIALS FOR

IL-76MD90A Ilyushin and Russian defense ministry have commenced “joint flight test and certification” program on the Il-76MD90A four-engine air lifter, with the first flight in frame of that program taking place on 18 March 2013, using the first operable airframe that took to the air for the first time in September 2012. In early February this airplane was ferried from the Aviastar manufacturing plant in Ulianovsk where it was built to LII, Gromov’s Flight Test and Research Institute, in Zhukovsky near Moscow. To enable the joint program to start, Ilyushin installed additional testing equipment, checked for flaws in onboard systems and conducted testing for integrity and frequency compliancy on the avionics and electrical systems. The first phase of the joint program calls for 22 test missions. Speaking to media earlier this month, Ilyushin general director Victor Livanov, who also holds the post of general designer for Russian air force air lifters, said that the advent of the Il-76MD90A “means restoration of our in-country skills to design and manufacture air lifters. This was something we lost after the Soviet Union had collapsed, since the Il-76 was in production

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in Uzbekistan… While Antonov is now a Ukrainian company, and none of their air lifter designs is in series production right now. In plain words, we had to start from a zero point in 2006, when we recommended re-launching into production a redeveloped Il-76, the initiative supported by the Russian government in December 2006. Aviastar was ordered to undertake production”. Livanov further said that in 2006 Aviastar had only ten computers, and Ilyushin design house with workforce of 2,600 only a little more. In addition to purchase and mastering of the computer aided design technologies, Aviastar has restored 500 machine tools and modernized them with new re-programmable units in frame of the Il-76MD90A effort. Redevelopment of the Il-76 commenced in earnest in 2008, with simultaneous digitizing of the old drawings. The new wing was modeled from that of the Il-96 and now features very long structural members, lower weight and higher lifetime. “About 70% of the original onboard systems were replaced by new ones”, Livanov said, adding that only hydraulics largely remained unchanged. Almost all vendor items for

the Il-76 were out of production and have been replaced with newer analogues available in the market. Lamps gave way to LED lights throughout the airplane. The Il-76MD90A received a new avionics set and a digital flight control system. “In the end, we have redeveloped the whole airplane”, Livanov insisted. “Any new airplane requires 6-8 years to be developed, and certain western jets actually required 10-12 years due to extensive use of brand-new technologies whose mastering requires more time”. Livanov insisted that Aviastar is on track to hand over the Russian air force a first pair of deliverable aircraft as planned in 2014 under the contract for 39 Il-76MD90As worth Rouble 140 billion placed in October last year. Aviastar shall gradually gear up production rate until it reaches 20 aircraft annually. The Russian air force operates nearly a hundred of Il-76s, and various special mission aircraft on its platform raise the number by over fifty. “We will need to replace them all at some point in time, some will be withdrawn by 2020, while the remaining ones will undergo modernization for 15-20-year lifetime extension”,


Air Lifters

Livanov said. “There is rule in aviation. If the airframe is good, make the longest possible use of it, and you can change engine and systems”, he added. The Il-76MD90A is made capable of carrying and air dropping the BDM-4 infantry fighting vehicle, a newly developed replacement to lighter and more compact BMD-3 now equipping the Russian paratrooper units. The baseline four-engine quad had its maiden flight in 1971 and entry-into-service three years later. It was built in nearly a thousand copies. Among other nations, the type continues in service with the Russian air force (over 250 examples including special versions), Indian air force (16 Il-76MD air lifters, 6 Il-78MKI tankers and three AI flying radars), Pakistan (four Il-78 tankers acquired from Ukraine after overhaul) and China (about fifteen aircraft) as well as Algeria. Presumably, by placing the large order for the Il-76MD-90A, Moscow meant to convey a signal to potential customers in China and India. These countries already operate a number of “classic” Il-76 quads on which the Il-76MD-90A design is based. Beijing and New Delhi

Russian air force Il-76MD have long been targeted as primary foreign buyers of the newer airlifter able to transport a 114,500-lb payload over a range of 2,700 nm. The launch order for the Il-76MD-90A was placed on 3 October, when Vladimir Putin visited Aviastar-SP plant in Ulianovsk. After witnessing a demonstration flight by the type’s first operable prototype, the Russian president said that the Rouble 140 billion ($4.5 billion) contract [or $115 million per aircraft] is expected to be followed

by foreign sales. He especially mentioned China as a potential client for the renewed Il-76. “Some six years ago we were talking to our partners in the Asian countries, including the People’s Republic of China. They were ready to buy form us some 50 airplanes. I am sure this new airplane will be in demand both in Russia and our potential partners abroad”, Putin said. Vladimir Karnozov

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Upgrade

GLASS COCKPIT FOR DORNIER 228 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) demonstrated, in Hall E of Aero India 2013 roofed area, a cockpit section of the Dornier 228 with new technology insertions. The 6,400-kg-MTOW aircraft powered by a pair of 715-hp Garrett TPE-331-5-252D turboprops can seat up to 19 passengers. The new cockpit was on display for the first time. The eye-catching feature is [partial] replacement of outdated analogue “dial” instruments by four “smart” displays with large-diagonal liquid-crystal matrixes. Two of those normally serve as Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and two other as multifunctional. Besides, the reworked cockpit features the following new systems: Integrated Standby Instrument (ISIS), Dual Flight Management (FMS), Dual Engine Data Concentrator Unit (EDCU), Dual Altitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS), Dual Digital Air Data Computer (DADC), Engine Indication and Crew Alerting

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(EICAS). Flight and system parameters are kept with help of Combined CVR/ FDR data storage units. To facilitate new equipment integration, ARINC 429 data bus interference architecture is used. To address specific Indian requirements, the cockpit is equipped with FMS integrated with SBAS/ GAGAN national GPS augmentation systems. The reworked Do-228 is optionally offered with a surveillance/ weather radar, forward-looking infrared and video cameras. The reworked cockpit is developed by RUAG (which took over the Do-228 project following M/s Dornier bankruptcy) in cooperation with HAL. The two have long A I R

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been cooperating through a joint venture looking into license production – at HAL’s Transport Aircraft Division in Kanpur - and product upgrade and modernization issues as required by the Indian customers. First flight of a Do-228 with the reworked cockpit is planned for later this year. Should the demo machine prove successful in flight tests, it will become a new production standard. HAL says it has the capacity to produce 5-6 airframes a month for both commercial and governmental clients. A small number of Do-228s fly in the role of commuter transports, and HAL also seeks to sell newly assembled machines in VIP configuration.

The Indian armed forces and law enforcement agencies operate a total of 115 Do-228s; some are configured for special missions, while a number acts as public transports to support life in remote, hard-access areas, and stay on medical, search-and-rescue and disaster relief duties. HAL hopes for an order to upgrade the whole of the governmental fleet – such a move would give the rework program a strong footing and initial boost. The respective proposal has been filed and is being considered by competent governmental bodies. Vladimir Karnozov

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Syllabus

Sitara

PILOT TRAINING At the Aero India 2013 opening day press conference, Indian defense minister Arackapabambil Kurian Antony said that according to the [newly] revised HJT-36 schedule, the readiness for production shall be achieved by 2015. Previously known as the Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT), the airplane is now being referred to HJT-36 Sitara. Its development and production are responsibilities of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). This project is a long going one and is attempted by the local industry. Continuing difficulties with curing teething problems of the airframe and its systems has repeatedly postponed readiness of the HJT-36 to quantity production. However, the Indian air force says it remains committed to the project and will take a large number of these training aircraft after their certification and production preparations are complete. During the press briefing of the Russian delegation at the opening day of Aero

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India 2013, the Russian side insisted that the AL-55I engine “has been matured to the level sufficient for launching it into series production”. Chiefs of Russia's United Engine Corporation, Vladislav Masalov and Alexander Ivakh, attended the show. Two previously flown AJT operable prototypes – maiden flight occurred in March 2003 - initially had Turbomeca Larzac series engines but the Indians instead opted for more recent NPO Saturn AL-55. PC-7 Mark II

Taking the baseline AL-55 developed to the Russian air force specification, the engine maker has introduced its customized version, the AL-55I, tailor to the specific needs of the Indian client. Although the AL-55I project had had a series of delays, it finally got through and was accepted by the customer in 2008. As of now, the engine has a guaranteed lifetime before a major check of 100 hours, “which is OK for a brand-new


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Vladislav Masalov

Alexander Ivakh engine”, says Victor Komardin, deputy director general of Russia’s Rosoboronexport arms exporter. The Russian side is working on extending it to 300 hours, “but nonetheless, the engine in the current form meets customer requirements”, he added. Meantime, sixteen BAe Systems Hawk advanced jet trainers are “aircraft on ground” due to shortage of spares, after affected spares were dispatched to vendors HAL and BAe for repair, Indian defense minister Arackaparambil Kurian Antony told reporters on the eve of the show in Bangalore. In 2004 India ordered 66 Hawks including 22 assembled in the United Kingdom. Follow-on orders for 57 and 20 aircraft for the Air Force and the Navy air arm are expected as the Hawk continues to be considered the main trainer type of the Indian Armed Forces in foreseeable future. The government initiated establishment of in-country repair and overhaul facilities at HAL aided by long term support agreement with BAe. Pilatus has delivered three PC-7 Mark II training aircraft to India, including Side P101 which took part in Aero India 2013. The Indian air force was so pressed on time with assembling and brining the aircraft to the show that had to tolerate the P101 arrival at the show site in the original Pilatus corporate livery. The P101 was assembled at the Air AL-55I Force Academy in Hyderabad, and flew A I R

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to Yelahanka a day before the show opening, with test-pilot Stefan Greub and squadron leader Sushant Mitra at the controls. The latter told reporters that the ferry flight was “uneventful and enjoyable”, and called the Pilatus “an excellent training aircraft”. Pilatus shall deliver 14 aircraft by June, - just enough to form a squadron and commence pilot training that month. Delivery of 75 PC-7s on order, reportedly worth Rs 2600 crore, shall be completed in 2015. A follow-on order for 37 more is expected. The PC-7 Mark II is currently the smallest aircraft in the Indian air force inventory and the primary candidate to fill its re-

AL-55I

quirement for 181 basic training airplanes and hence with replace the aged HPT-32 Deepak. The latter had suffered from engine and other failures, making the Indian air force training command ground the entire fleet of the type. HAL is trying to provide a competition to Pilatus with the HHT-40, a new design in the same class. With mockup inspection (the mockup was on display at the show) and tunnel testing completed, HAL is going to cut metal on first flyable airframe “shortly”. The “home-grown” airplane is said to be superior to the Swiss rival and yet less expensive – Rs 34.5 crore per unit compared to Rs 37 crore, and also less expensive on the basis of lifecycle costs. Engines and ejection seats will be imported. The Swiss government forbidding arming this Pilatus model is also a factor in favor of the HAL product. The HTT40 shall have six weapons stations in addition to a large under fuselage hard point for targeting/reconnaissance pod. However, when Defense minister A.K. Antony inspected the P101 in a company of N.A.K.Browne, the chief of staff of the Indian air force voiced his preference for the Swiss type while calling the HAL project “unnecessary”. Vladimir Karnozov

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Civil aviation

SAGA OF SUPERJET The SSJ100LR brings Sukhoi Civil Aircraft (SCAC) more hope as the company strives to emerge into profit. The manufacturer continues to lose money on the project. According to SCAC 3-rd quarter 2012 report, the maker was selling new airplanes for US$20.5 million apiece while manufacturing costs amounted to US$28 million. But Sukhoi expects the Superjet program to achieve zero operation profitability in 2015, after production gears up from thirty in 2013 to sixty in 2014, according to SCAC vice-president, finance, Eugeny Konkov. More recently, however, another SCAC official, director of SCAC branch in Komsomolsk-upon-Amur, Dmitry Bloschinsky, said only forty Superjets could be produced in 2014, and that the target of sixty can realistically be attained in 2015. As of March 2013, SCAC delivered fourteen aircraft to three Russian airlines, one to PT Sky Aviation of Indonesia and one to Lao Central Airlines of Laos.

Aeroflot Sukhoi continues curing the type’s teething problems, following the Russian civil aviation authority Rosaviatsiya’s decision, dated February 11, to ground four of ten Aeroflot Superjets (earliest examples) due to reoccurring landing gear and leading edge extraction failures. Two Aeroflot Su-

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perjets experienced landing gear failures; SCAC together with Messier-Bugatti-Dowty were reported as introducing “the necessary changes to fix the problem”. A week later SCAC reported about four Aeroflot aircraft having been repaired through implementation of a service bulletin as prescribed by the civil aviation authority in an airworthiness directive. Subsequently, SCAC brought the whole of Aeroflot’s Superjet fleet back in operation by March. Sources in Aeroflot confirm information that the airline’s loses from SSJ being grounded, are fully compensated by the manufacturer. According to a document issued by a Russian governmental body, in 2011 and 2012 the airline’s Superjet suffered 18 incidents, of which 16 were caused by technical faults. The document further stated that unscheduled repair takes 45% of calendar time whereas for Boeing and Airbus airplanes it takes less than 3%. The total expenses per seat-kilometer on the round trip Moscow – Copenhagen amount to Rouble 3.3 for the Superjet, against Rouble 2.8 for Airbus A319. According to Aeroflot’s special report on flight safety issued in January 2013, the number of incidents on its jetliners increased from 60 in 2011 to 95 in 2012. “Difficult situation” numbers rose from four to nine, of which 63% were caused by technical failures. A total of 24 events (or 40%

of the total) occurred on Superjets which make for only 8% of Aeroflot fleet (ten out of 125). On this type, Aeroflot experienced nine cases of false alarms for air conditioning leaks, seven failures in the flight control system, six landing gear failures, one due to fire-fighting equipment and one to SaM.146 engines. At times, readiness of the Superjet fleet fluctuated between 17% and 45% below the fleet’s average. SCAC says that seven out of ten airplanes were in operation in January before two consequent landing gear incidents happened. But by Aeroflot data, Superjets could at best be operated with average daily utilization rate of about four hours compared to A320 family’s eleven hours per airplane. By comparison, during May 2012 St. Petersburgbased Rossiya conducted 943 revenue flights on a fleet of six Antonov-148s, while Aeroflot managed 589 on eight Superjets. Low utilization is partly due to customer support system not yet working properly. Some 70% of required spares and consumables are supplied within ten days, the rest comes even later. Second factor is due to faulty systems. During first year of operations, Aeroflot Superjets had an incident rate of one in less than 500 FH compared to Il-96-300’s one in 1600 FH. While giving a generally positive assessment of the airplane’s handling qualities, Aeroflot pilots point at the following


Civil aviation

flaws. High noise during extension/extraction of the wing high-lift devices disturbs and annoys the passengers. Incorrect functioning of fuel measuring system leads to wrong remaining fuel readings. Reliability of air conditioning system, especially at high ambient temperatures, is low. Software, although constantly improved through issues of new versions, still has some flaws. Frequent failures of various sensors especially those indicating health of onboard systems. Some flaws were discovered in Flight Management System (FMS), including those with RTE2 activation, typing-in FPL through flight path number and MDH setting. More serious is a flaw in Terrain Awareness Warning System (TAWS): this mode works correctly only when both pilots have same map scale selected on their Navigation Displays (NDs). Should a crew member selects a different map scale, warning messages “TAWS FAIL” comes on and “TERRAIN” disappears from both screen. Furthermore, TAWS

does not supply the crew with information on terrain at flight altitudes over 2000ft above underlying ground. Aeroflot hopes for a radical improvement in Superjet’s reliability after the manufacturer replaces, as agreed, all ten airplanes delivered to Aeroflot between June 2011 and September 2012 by newly-built examples. The first replacement aircraft comes in April 2013, and a total of seven by the year-end. The replacement aircraft shall fully meet the airline’s specification to interior. They shall also come equipped with a new Honeywell weather radar capable of wing shift and improved flight control system. These new airplanes will correspond to so-called “Aeroflot-Full” configuration as opposed to “Aeroflot-Lite” in use now. The ten used airplanes will be subjected to a major rework. Most likely they will be converted into corporate and business versions, following Sukhoi Business Jet certification as now planned in late 2014.

Technical flaws On the matter of Superjet technical perfection, Pogosyan said: “I think that the decisions made and implemented into the Superjet 100 design were right in principle. We also anticipated this [teething problems after entry-into-service], as this is commonplace during the initial period of operations normally lasting for 2-3 years. Launch customers do receive preferences from the aircraft manufacturer because it is taken for granted that some issues may arise. The issues that we have with the Superjet 100 are, from my point of view, carry “working character” [i.e. can be solved by cooperative efforts of the manufacturer and the aircraft operator]. We have identified a number of issues to do with the air conditioning system. This system itself works perfectly well, almost. We, having created a modern intellectual [aviation] complex, have introduced a large number of built-in self-monitoring means. These enable us to diagnose the condition of the airplane in

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the air and on the ground, and get a report upon landing. For instance, the system for detecting leaks comes equipped with highly sensitive thermal sensors. The system [several times] generated some sort of fault. We had to make some work to finetune this system. This is not to do with real problems to do with flight safety. On the

contrary, this is to do with higher levels of it. The airplanes of the previous generation did not have such systems and they had experienced leaks of hot air from the air conditioning system. Such leaks are fraught with damage to airframe elements. That is far more dangerous when our defects [false alarms]. We have [done] a complete

analysis of the issues that Aeroflot experienced during the initial period of Superjet operations. We have implemented or are implementing a whole pack of service bulletins, including those to do with air conditioning. I also think that [another] important point for us is software improvement and modernization. Today’s airplanes are “flying computers”. We had two cases related to landing gear retraction. The defect was on the level of checking for the system’s readiness. Again, this is to do with modern service functions that are meant to improve flight safety and make modern airplanes modern indeed. I think that the software improvement process, which went on very intensively throughout 2012, and that must complete in 2013, will also contribute to reliability of our aircraft in operation. This is very important in the view of Yakutia, Lao Central and PT Sky Aviation commencing revenue operations on the type.”

Asian market During United Aircraft Corporation’s press conference on the opening day of AeroIndia 2013, UAC president Mikhail Pogosyan gave estimations on the Indian and Chinese markets for the Superjet, at 5070 and 250 units respectively. On Indian

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Civil aviation

airlines which may operate the aircraft, he specially mentioned Go Air and Air India. UAC is speeding up work on the Indian certification for the Superjet in a hope to obtain it later this year. Pogosyan described the move as “logical”, after the type was certified in Indonesia and Laos at the end of the past year. Speaking of possible industrial collaboration, Pogosyan praised “exhibits at TATA stands – they make various parts and components to Boeing, Airbus, Embraer and Bombardier…”. “Why cannot they make same things for us?” he asked polemically. “We are interested in speeding up production and so in the need of good overseas suppliers”, he added. Meantime, UAC president said that the airplane formally handed over to Lao Central Airlines and the other one accepted by PT Sky Aviation are now undergoing various formalities to do with their new national registrations. They are expected to commence revenue services in March. Pogosyan further said that two Superjets are now at Superjet International (SJI) completions base in Venice. They are receiving Pininfarina interiors before delivery to Interjet “as planned in the middle of this year”. The airplanes for Lao Central Airlines

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and PT Sky Aviaion were ferried from Russia to Laos and Indonesia respectively in late February (Sky’s arrived on February 27) with a difference in days. None of those commenced revenue flights as of the middle of March, though. Sukhoi says that it expects Lao to start revenue service a bit earlier than PT Sky because the Laotian flight safety procedures and rules are a bit easier than those in Indonesia. In other words, PT Sky Aviation is expected to spend more time getting all sorts of permission necessary from the aviation authorities to commence passenger operations. Sky’s director for marketing Sutito Zainudin was quoted as saying the airline will take five Superjets in 2013 and commence revenue services with flights between Makassar on Sulawesi to Papua island airports. UAC president estimated Indonesian market at 50 Superjets, while stating a minimum of 150 is necessary for a costeffective final assembly line. And yet, with as a workforce of 6,000, PT Dirgantara Indonesia/Indonesian Aerospace (IAe) is worth involvement into the Superjet industrial cooperation. "I inspected their plant... it works on European propellerdriven airplanes and makes components

for Airbus and Boeing. Dirgantara has mastered quality standards of prominent western manufacturers. Sukhoi is interested in cooperation with it". Discussions are held on manufacture of Superjet airframe parts and subassemblies. Pogosyan said the purpose of cooperation would be to "create comfort conditions for both sides" and "improve flight safety and assist air traffic development" rather than to use industrial cooperation in political trade for more sales to Indonesian customers.

Kartika In late February sources in Sukhoi told Moscow-based Vedomosti newspaper that the contract for 30 Superjets with Kartika, signed at Farnborough 2010, is likely to be cancelled. At the moment of signing, its value was given at US dollar 0.9 billion by then-active catalogue prices. Deliveries were scheduled for 2012-2015. From the customer’s side, the document was signed by Karkika chairman Johanes Mulia Jiauw. Sources in Sukhoi told the newspaper that the contract cancellation is due to the intended customer being unable to prove its ability to pay up. When the contract was being signed, Kartika operated a pair of 737-200s and a single MD-83. But in late-February the airline’s status turned to “inactive”. At the same time, Sukhoi has no fears about another Indonesian airline - PT Sky Aviation. The latter placed firm order for 12 aircraft at MAKS’2011 with deliveries due in 2012-2015. Touching on the situation with Kartika in early March 2013, UAC president Mikhail Pogosyan said: “Kartika is the airline which, at the moment when the contract was being signed, had certain business development plans. Those plans were based on support of the Indonesian ministry for transportation, whose representatives took part, along with our employees, in negotiations on the contract. I must say that practical materialization of these plans eventually followed another scenario, not the one that was in mind at the moment of contract signing. It is true to say that the mechanisms of materialization of our agreements – ones that were signed – required some detailing

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Civil aviation

from the side of [our] shareholders and the Indonesian aviation authorities. We are still considering the ways to work further [with Kartika]. At the same time, we do have the information about the fact that Kartika is far from the materialization of the initially declared plans, and this fact is also a subject for our analysis”.

Interjet In the middle of March 2013 the media reported about skeptical attitude of banks and investors being felt by Interjet airline (ABC Aerolineas) towards its plans to add Russian-built jetliners to the fleet. This is sensitive to the airline as it prepares to Initial Public Offering (IPO). The negative background is created by the 95004 crash in Indonesia in May 2012, which the manufacturer is still fighting to overcome. Interjet keeps optimistic towards the Superjet technical capabilities, but warns it will not tolerate another shift in delivery times. Interjet prepares to IPO in September as it wants to attract one billion US dollars through selling a 25% stake, according to the airline’s announcement in January by Executive President Miguel Aleman Magnani. Initially the IPO was planned for 2011, but postponed due to Mexico stock market

decline. Interjet launched operations in 2005 with three A320s. By the end 2012, the airline controlled 24% of the Mexican air transportation market with 24%. With a fleet of 37 airplanes (all Airbus narrow bodies), Interjet carried 7.2 million passengers in 2012. It took second place after AeroMexico in the domestic flights sector and lost only to AeroMexico и Volaris in the international flights. The airline has plans to increase the fleet up to 111 aircraft by 2015, of which 20 are SSJ100Bs. However, first delivery has been postponed four times already, from July 2012 to May 2013. This fact has been used by competitors, the company says, adding that the catastrophe in Indonesia further darkened the situation. Past summer the airline took decision to increase the firm order from 15 (placed in January 2011) to 20 Superjets at Farnborough 2012, while going from a mix of B and LR versions to B only. This decision was described as “a calculated risk” after the supplier had given guarantees of aircraft residual value and “unprecedented preferences”. That time the airline CEO told reports that SSJ100 is better than the Embaer-190. Right now, Interjet leaders are concerned with SJI and SCAC as not being able to stand up to the flow of critics inspired by competitors. Despite the

Pavel Vlasov, Yuri Slyusar, Igor Vinogradov, Alexander Donchenko

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continuing affection to the Superjet, the Mexican customer warns that it would not tolerate new postponement with deliveries and expects the first airplane no later than May 30, 2013. This is necessary to enable revenue services to start on July 1. Initially, the Superjet services shall be from the capital city to destinations in the country (Acapulco, Veracruz, Oaxaca), and, later, to San-Antonio in the US. The airline expects Superjet average daily utilization rate of no less than six flights or ten flight hours. In its turn SCAC says about plans to deliver eight “green” airplanes to its partner SJI during the whole of this year. First airframe was handed over in October 2012 and second in February 2013. SJI CEO promised 9 deliveries to Interjet in 2013 and 11 in 2014. But SJI has reportedly run into problems when installing Pininfarina-designed interiors to the green Superjets.

Crash report The human factor and a number of small technical snags in the Indonesian air traffic control system led to Sukhoi Superjet 100 msn95004 crash on May 9, 2012, in which 45 people died (two Sukhoi test pilots, a navigator, a flight test engineer, and 41 passenger including a SNECMA


Civil aviation

representative, four SCAC employees and 36 invitees [34 Indonesian passport holders, a US and a French citizens]). This is the gist of the findings made by an international investigation team on the ill-fated Flight RA 36801. The Russians held a special briefing on the matter on December 18, the day the commission's report was made public. The briefing participants - Pavel Vlasov, head of Mikhail Gromov’s Flight Test Institute, Yuri Slyusar, deputy minister for industry and trade, Igor Vinogradov, SCAC vice-president and Alexander Donchenko, head of ARMAC aviation authority - had hard times explaining to the media members the findings of the investigation committee led by the Indonesian aviation authority KNKT and assisted by Russian, European and US specialists. The most difficult was to explain why a brand new airplane outfitted with best western systems and claimed to be completely intact and technically flawless, ended up in Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT). And this at a time when world famous airframer Sukhoi is desperate to secure Superjet sales after its Civil Aircraft branch (SCAC) made $17million and $100 million losses in 2011 and 2012 respectively. Honored test pilot with the country's highest decoration - the A I R

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Star "Hero of Russia" - and former MiG deputy director general, Pavel Vlasov believes that the Superjet flight crew - two Sukhoi test pilots and an Indonesian pilot representing customer airline on the jump seat - simply lost orientation when making what he called "orbit" (an incomplete 360-degree turn) in the conditions of poor visibility, as their airplane flew through a complete muck. It appears that both Russians did not even know about the very existence of the mountain chain going along the West Java island. They were further misled by their Indonesian companion, who insisted that the area down the airplane's flight path was "flat". The crews' assurance in "flatness" of West Java island was so strong, that the commander completely ignored TAWS audio warnings. During 38 seconds the system issued a "Terrain ahead, pull up" and six "Avoid terrain" audio warnings, and then, seven seconds before impact, it signaled "Landing gear not down" after the radio altimeter detected ground less than 800ft down below. Even then the Navigation display (ND) automatically went into TAWS (“TERR”) mode and pictured terrain ahead in red, the commander switched the display into meteorological radar mode as he feared thunderstorms

more than high grounds. Investigation revealed that the Russian crews had with them a complete set of paper maps made in their home country with Salak and other mounts depicted on them. Besides, US-based ACC firm provided digital maps, and these were downloaded into Thales-made TAWS computer. None of these maps proved useful to the Russian pilots, though, as they failed to realize how close they were to the mountains. The investigators confirmed that the illfated demo flight was to be made under Instrument Flight Rules (not Visual), at altitude of 10,000ft. When the crew asked for descent down to 6,000ft, the air traffic controller gave his permission without hesitation, in belief the pilots wanted to start descending in preparation for landing at the Halim airport. While repeatedly stating the msn 95004 was completely benign and functioning (something confirmed by the investigators), mr. Slyusar had to admit that "this catastrophe delivered a strong blow to the commercial perspectives of the Superjet project". He, however, believes that the airplane's image is somewhat repaired by the fact that Indonesia certified the type and local airline PT Sky Aviation is about to commence Superjet revenue services.

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Civil aviation

SaM.146

Finance Sukhoi Civil Aircraft (SCAC) is confident of securing funding to address its liabilities, after auditors raised concerns about the airframer's financial position in an interim statement. The condensed financial statement for the first half of 2012 shows that the airframer made an operating loss of US dollar 45 million. This included an US dollar 8.4 million impairment on several earlyconfiguration Superjet 100s delivered on lease to Aeroflot, which will be returned to Sukhoi for resale. Heavy interest expenses

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pushed the net loss to US dollar 100 million, six times the previous year's figure of US dollar 17 million. Independent auditor KPMG points out that the company's current liabilities exceed its current assets by more than US dollar 710 million, and notes that this situation indicates a "material uncertainty" that might cast "significant doubt" over the company's ability to continue as a going concern. SCAC says this imbalance arose mainly through the reclassification, on the balance sheet, of certain debts as current liabilities. It says that, at the balance sheet date, it was "in breach" of certain

financial covenants relating to long-term borrowing facilities from banks including the EBRD, West LB and VTB. But it says it has obtained a waiver from the EBRD for 2012 and "is negotiating" a waiver for 2013, which it expects to receive before the end of this year. Later, SCAC received a long-term loan from Russian bank VEB amounting to US dollar 1 billion to cover the "liquidity gap" with. This, together with other financial support measures from the Russian government, as well as the company's other sponsors, are "sufficient" to meet obligations, the manufacturer said. In 2012 SCAC produced a dozen of Superjets at KnAAPO plant in Komsomolsk-Upon-Amur, but delivered only eight to airline customers. Meantime, Aeroflot alone expected between 10 and 14, and planned pilot training for that many, about which chief pilot Igor Chalik told journalists in May. SCAC managed only four deliveries to the Russian flag-carrier in 2011 and six in 2012. In late December UAC president Mikhail Pogosyan confirmed that VEB, one of the top five Russian banks under Kremlin's control, has opened a new credit line worth US dollar 2.5billion in support of Superjet sales. “The sum is large enough for 30 airplanes to be placed with foreign airline customers in 2013-2015 timeframe�, he said. Lao Central Airlines of Laos and PT Sky Aviation of Indonesia will benefit from this action. Pogosyan added that airplanes going to PT Sky Aviation will remain in possession of VEB's leasing arm. PT Sky Aviation signed for 12 aircraft at MAKS’2011 accepted its first Superjet on December 29, 2012. But he noted this scheme is not universal and in other cases VEB may instead directly credit airlines willing to operate Superjets. He further collaborated that "we will use all available means and forms of financial support to promote Superjet sales". UAC president also confirmed VEB's decision to provide a separate $1billion rescue package to SCAC, and said this package is meant to help the loss-making airframer reduce a heavy debt burden. Touching on SCAC achievements in the past year, Pogosyan named EASA type certification as "most important milestone, one that was more recently followed by


Civil aviation

Superjet Superjet certifications by Indonesian, Laos and Mexican authorities". The main priority for 2013 is creation of a well-functioning after sales support system, using some experience amassed in the past a yearand-half through interaction with Aeroflot regarding the carrier's Superjet fleet. On 18 December Yakutia took delivery of its first Superjet, thus becoming second Russian airline to operate the type. It added a second in January 2013. The Russian government lived up to SCAC expectations. On December 29, 2012, the government issued Order 2619-r. It was published it on a governmental website on January 11, 2013. It says that in frame of the Federal budget, the government grants Sukhoi Civil Aircraft Co. (SCAC) guarantees worth US$ 1billion under the credit line opened by [Kremlin-controlled] VEB bank to finance work related to manufacture of Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft. Thus, the government makes it possible for SCAC to repay the credit as agreed with first payments due in January 2015. A I R

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The credit must be paid off within 144 months, while the terms of the governmental guarantees expire in July 2026. The government says that this and other measures of state support to SCAC are aimed at “creation of necessary conditions” for the manufacturer to fulfill earlier taken financial obligations and for “provision of stable funding the SSJ100 series production under contracts with Russian and foreign airlines”. In its turn, VEB says the abovementioned credit has been meant to ease the financial burden of SCAC under earlier-attracted commercial funding raised on the open market. In the recently published thirdquarter 2012 report, SCAC acknowledges “uncovered loss” of Rouble 11.1 billion (US$ 367 million) as of September 30, 2012. The respective figure was Rouble 8.56 billion (US$ 283 million) as of December 2011 and 4.7billion (US$155 million) at the end of 2010. The report explained this by the fact that airplanes continued to sell at prices below manufacturing expenses. It says that

in the first nine months of 2011 SCAC sold three aircraft for Rouble 1.658 billion (roughly, US$18.4 million per unit) and six in the same period of 2012 for Rouble 3.713 billion (US$ 20.5 million per unit). Rough calculations based on the report figures render manufacturing expenses per newly made Superjet at US$ 28 million. The report also says that SCAC has about 2,500 employees with salary’s fund of Rouble 1.52 billion in the given period (which makes US$ 2,233 per employee a month). SCAC report gives the figure of the company’s "long term debt obligations" at Rouble 49.63 billion and short-term debt obligations at nearly Rouble 9 billion. Separately, it was stated that Russian industry loses Rouble 40 million (or about Euro 1 million) on every SaM.146 engine produced, while the share of Russian components by their financial value is merely 12%. Vladimir Karnozov

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Business aviation AKAI

INTERIORS Income of Russian firms specializing in aircraft interiors saw a 15% rise in 2012; now they hold over 90% of the completions market for indigenously produced VIP airplanes and helicopters, and hope to expand their business further by mastering repair and renovation of interiors on imported business and passengers jets, says Vitaly Romanyuk, chairman of AKAI, Russian acronym for the Association of Aviation Interior Companies. The association unites 17 companies with a combined workforce exceeding a thousand skilled specialists. Development, manufacture and installation of new interiors take 60% share of AKAI’s business, parts production 30%, repair and maintenance of interiors on in-

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service aircraft 10%. “Today, AKAI represents a highly capable group with sufficient experience, able to provide a whole of interior package to any aircraft type, be it a passenger airliner, corporate or VIP jet”, Romanyuk said. “We work hand-in-hand so as to better fulfill comprehensive aircraft interior projects on time and with high quality”. Romanyuk further said the association members managed to get most out of the world economy crisis by hiring more talented specialists and conducting programs on improvement of engineering and manufacturing capacities. AKAI’s biggest achievement has been its becoming the primary provider of interiors to the fastgrowing governmental fleet of VIP and special purpose jets.

During 2012 the association members completed interior installation work on two Tupolev-154 tri-jets belonging to the Russian defense ministry and one Ilyushin96-300PU-M1 quad (RA-96020) of the Special Air Detachment serving the Russian government. Also, AKAI is deeply involved in interiors on the Tupolev-214 twinjet family, covering all versions going to the above mentioned customers. With four shipments in the fourth quarter of 2012, the number of Mi-8/17 helicopters outfitted with AKAI interiors has exceeded sixty. Most of those are VIPs, with remainder being improved passenger cabins for 20-22 travelers featuring toilet blocks, improved life support system and noise insulation.


Business aviation

Large governmental orders permitted Kvand to reach all-time-high output of VIP seats (IARS.324327.100.0001), divans, partitions, LED-based lighting, etc. Two years ago a derivative of the baseline seat passed certification for 16g, and since then the share of this newer version in total deliveries has been increasing. In 2012 alone, Kvand shipped 67 IARS-series seats, including 37 able to withstand 9g and 30 able to withstand 16g, as well as 26 two-seat and four four-seat divans. They find places in VIP cabins of the Il-96, An-148, Tu-204/214 and Mi-8/17 helicopters. Another AKAI member, Aerostyle, also claims an increase in output of the seat design, KP-1, as well as two- and three-seat divans. A side business – repair and improvement of interiors on Aeroflot passenger jets – also saw a rise, to a rate of ten Airbus and Boeing aircraft annually. The increase is partly due to expiring lease terms of Boeing 767s – these undergo a comprehensive “uplifting” before going back to lessors. Among targets for 2013, AKAI lists a considerable increase in output of parts and components to business jets of US and European origin. Association member Vemina-Aviaprestige (http://www.aviaprestige.ru) holds EASA Part 21 and Part 145 certificates, and acts as the locomotive. According to executive director Sergei Davydov, the company expands its facilities in all major airports of Moscow. In addition to the main base in Sheremetievo (where Aeroflot jetliners are overhauled), last year the firm signed agreements with Avcom-D

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running FBO in Domodedovo, and with VIP Port running the Vnukovo-3. Under those agreements, Vemina-Aviaprestige leads the work on repair or renewal of interiors on business jets having down time, including at Jet Aviation service station. The Russian market of interiors on new and used jets with VIP cabins is “large enough”. AKAI sees its place there, in the business of repair work on imported business jets. Currently, many business jet owners send their airplanes for maintenance checks into Europe, where these airplane also get interior work done at large maintenance centers. This practice often leads to overpricing. More recently, Russian owners have tended to use local interior specialists for repair work and renovation of interiors, especially during downtime in Russian airports. “We have started such work last year, and although first experience is positive, it takes time for aircraft owners to get used to the new practice”, Davydov said. Following acceptance of the RA-96020 in December 2012, the Russian government is purchasing two additional Il-96-300s in VIP configuration, both with “totally Russian” interiors. This brings in more business for AKAI. And provides a contrast to the earlier practice, under which Boris Yeltsin’s Il-96300 had its interior installed in Switzerland with help of UK firms. The RA-96020 was the first Ilyushin quad to have a completely redeveloped air conditioning system and a reworked water supply system. For the first time in Russian practice, not Ilyushin design house but an interior specialist Vemina-

AKAI Aviaprestige won the respective contract and successfully fulfilled it. “The government is now considering us as provider of these systems on follow-on Ilyushin jets, thereby demonstrating the trust they have in us”, Sergei Davydov said. This gives AKAI hope for a large amount of work on new Il-96, Tu-204/214, Superjet and An-148 aircraft that the Russian government is planning to buy under so-called “consolidated order” for between 100 and 115 units. The order is expected to be formalized and awarded to the industry later this year. Another, but more distant, hope comes from the Irkut-led MC-21 project. “This project is not yet mature… We presented our offer on the interior two years back, and they are still considering it. In our view, more political will is necessary to get the project off ground”, Davydov says. During the past two years AKAI amassed more self-assurance and practical experience, and now in a position to claim that

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Business aviation

An Italian solution

the association is completely ready to lead the interior work on the MC-21 and other projects of high importance to the nation. Meantime, its member companies continue R&D work in relation to “all indigenous aircraft projects” on the account of their own. “We have amassed sufficient experience on pilot cockpit, passenger cabin, electrical power, oxygen, panels, seats, water and air conditioning. Almost every part and component to these systems is now localized. It is within our power to completely supersede imported items in any aircraft interior”. Likewise, AKAI is ready to completely supersede the foreign interior component in the Sukhoi Superjet 100, currently at 90%, “but this also requires a political will”.

Sukhoi Superjet 100 AKAI member Aerostyle (http://aerostyl. ru) claims “growing involvement” into the Sukhoi Superjet 100 project through streamlining production of pilot cockpit interiors and their installation onto newly assembled airframes. Following a ten-month R&D, production preparation, specimen fabrication and testing process, the company won approval of the aviation authorities in 2010. Aerostyle delivered 25 kits to Sukhoi in 2010-2012 and won a follow-on contract for 39 more. But this is below the capacity of equipment Aerostyle bought and installed under the

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Superjet program – Sukhoi delivers far less airplanes than initially planned. “In an effort to get sufficient workload, we have been expanding into adjacent areas… we have commenced production of various fairings for aircraft exterior”, Aerostyle general director Ilgiz Nafikov said. “Last year we won orders for cockpit interiors on the Kamov-52 [reconnaissance and strike] helicopter”. Another AKAI member, Vemina-Aviaprestige acts as authorized local support center for Ipeco pilot seats and B/E Aerospace passenger cabin interior. During 2012 its involvement into the project grew thanks to Aeroflot, which placed contract for support of its Superjet fleet, now ten units strong. Besides, more work to AKAI members are coming as more Superjets get their interior installed at Aviastar-SP plant in Ulianovsk (the process started with Aeroflot’s Superjet number ten, S/N 95018 – all previous airplanes received interior at Sukhoi’s KNAAPO plant in Komsomolsk-upon-Amur). It is interesting to note that the Russian suppliers are rarely mentioned by Sukhoi in its product presentations and briefings of potential customers. “We do not care about this as long as they pay for work done and accept deliveries”, Nafikov says, “their [SCAC’s] policy towards Russian companies has been to apply to us only at extreme urgency, when the foreigners cannot help them out”. Sometime ago AKAI approached SCAC

with proposals to increase their involvement into the Superjet. Ilgiz Nafikov said: “There was rather serious discussion, during which we pointed out at the deplorable quality of the passenger cabin on first deliverable Superjets. These came without individual fresh air distributors – about which Aeroflot and its passengers bitterly complained lately – and the wry lines inside the cabin. We told them we can do a better fresh air distribution for the passenger cabin using the experience we had with that on the pilot cockpit. Besides, we offered SCAC an alternative tubing layout for the conditioning system. From our vast VIP aircraft experience, we know well how to make the interior more pleasing to travelers, and how to make it look in harmony to passenger eyes. Our technologies and solutions are well tried on VIP cabin projects, and we have maintained vigorous quality standards as required in the business aviation industry”.

Sukhoi Business Jet Although AKAI proposals on the passenger Superjets have not been accepted, the association is fighting hard to get a larger share in the Sukhoi Business Jet (SBJ) formally launched at the Paris Air Show in June 2011. So far, the SBJ has just one customer: Swiss-based Comlux Aviation ordered a pair of the aircraft (plus two options) for its managed charter fleet during the 2011 NBAA show. Deliveries of the aircraft are set to start in 2014, with Comlux’s facility in Indianapolis, Ind., set to do the first two cabin completions. Starting in 2014, the airframer expects to deliver between 4 and 6 SBJs out of an annual total of 60 Superjets. Russia is projected to account for a significant share of this demand. AKAI believes domestic interior makers are better suited to meet requirements of local customers with whom they worked for over fifteen years now. The primary foreign competitor is Pininfarina S.p.A of Italy, which is contracted to provide interior for Interjet passenger planes. “Superjet is a political project”, insist Aerostyle general director, “Italy’s Aermacchi holds 25% stake in Sukhoi Civil Aircraft. Superjet interior is considered


Business aviation

a lucrative part of the business, and the Italian shareholders try hard to drag it into their home territory. They entered the project at a very hard time for Sukhoi and got many rights. We acknowledge this. And yet our policy has been that we take part in every open competition and are all set to work hard to win”. After having been stored for over a year, S/N 95009 is now being prepared to become a Sukhoi Business Jet, most likely in the role of a demonstrator. Knowing this, Vemina-Aviaprestige has recently submitted its proposal on the SBJ cabin. It follows “a BBJ kind of approach” with block-module structure (including office, sleeping chamber, shower etc) and the ability to interchange positions of certain blocks and transform them. Engineering documentation prepared by AKAI is made unified, so that it allows for “up to seven” vastly different cabin layouts with minimum changes into the primary docs package. AKAI claims that the depth of their proposals runs “at least the same” as that of Pininfarina. The Russians claim they can offer better prices and delivery terms. Documentations is highly unified to allow for a number of interiors based on one baseline pack of engineering documentation, which promises to cut customization and manufacturing cycles and thus decrease costs. Manufacturing tooling and equipment are the same for all of the interior options. Sukhoi says SBJ shall be available with a number of interior options, since this aircraft is intended for three distinct groups of customers: businessmen, corporations and governments. AKAI believes that, being a primary supplier of interiors to Russian governmental structures, it is best prepared to meet their specific requirements.

and economy passenger cabins to support training of cabin crews. The three-year project gives first year for manufacture and shipment of the simulator (in late 2013), and covers customer support for two years of its operations. Kvand managed to meet all customer requirements and underwent audits on engineering, manufacturing and accounting. Chairman of Kvand executive board Oleg Ponomarev says that his company, being a Russian-Belarus joint venture, won a competition against five other bidders that also took part in the respective competition run by Malaysia Airlines. “We came first because our proposal offered better terms. Besides, we’d had successful experience of working with the customer. Our company has been participating in Aircraft Interiors EXPO in Hamburg for over ten years now, and it was there when the customer first spoke to us”. In 2007 Kvand proposed improvement to the airline’s procedural simulator for the Boeing 747 which centered on adding twelve first-class seats [to existing business and economy classes]. “We got an order to rework the cabin and try firstclass seats on it. The customer accepted our work”.

In June 2012 the airline took delivery of its first A380 out of ten on order [officially, MAS signed for 4 firm orders and two options]. “Malaysia Airlines are going to retire their 747-400 fleet, and are seeking our help on various solutions related to their new flagship”. Kvand has already developed and shipped a door simulator for the A380. If the new contract is fulfilled properly, Kvand may expect to be the leading contender on a A380 double-decker cabin simulator. The one is planned for completion in 2017-2019. It shall have full-size first and business class cabins complete with kitchens, and a fragment of the economy class cabin. Kvand’s primary business is VIP cabins for indigenous aircraft types. It has outfitted a total of 15 passenger jets of the Tu-134 and Yak-42 types with VIP cabins. Ponomarev says: “We are now on firm footing with this business, and have amassed enough experience to produce interior not only for any type of aircraft but also simulators”. In addition to the core business, Kvand runs interesting projects on unmanned aerial vehicles in the interests of the Belarus defense ministry and for a Saudi customer. Vladimir Karnozov

Airbus A380 In December 2012 Kvand Aircraft Interiors (http://kvand.com/) signed framework agreement with Malaysia Airlines on a procedural simulator for the Airbus A380 covering design, manufacture, delivery and support of this onedecker simulator. The latter is 15 meters in length, 5 meters in width and 3 meters in height. It shall simulate first, business A I R

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Industry

SHIPBUILDING IN RUSSIA Last year the Russian shipbuilders completed twenty tankers (against 7 in 2011), seven large cargo ships (against 8), five large passenger vessels (3 in 2011) and 17 towing boats (6). The total number of civilian ships completed rose from 46 in 2011 up to 87 in 2012. This indicates that the industry is on the rise. This growth is well supported by domestic and foreign orders for defense equipment. In one of his keynote speeches, Russian president Vladimir Putin said that 4.44 trillion Roubles will be spent on construction of new ships for the Russian navy’s “multi-purpose groupings of general use”. He added that one-third of that sum will be provided in the next five years. Another important statement made by Putin on July 30 was: “By 2020, the navy will take delivery of 51 surface combatant and 16 multi-purpose submarines.” According

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to the Armament Program 2011-2020, during the next eight years, the Russian Navy shall receive eight Project 955/A strategic underwater cruisers; eight Project 885 fast-attack submarines; 15 frigates and 35 corvettes. This will boost the share of modern equipment in the navy’s arsenal to 30 per cent by 2016 and further to 70 per cent by 2020. Putin stressed the need to equip new ships with modern long range rocketry. “It is exactly the weaponry that always determined power and worthiness of combat ships in wartime,” he said. The Russian shipbuilding consists of 166 key enterprises with 163,000 employees, including 53 design houses and scientific research establishments, 51 dockyards and repair stations. There are also 62 main vendors, of which 16 specialize in propulsion. The system also includes over 2,000 various suppliers, mostly from the

Russian military industrial complex. The grant total of public, private and mixedcapital companies involved in this business is over 3,000. Roughly half of the national engineering and production capacity is under the banner of the United Shipbuilding Corporation (OSK), effectively the Kremlin's arm executing governmental control functions in the shipbuilding. Incumbent OSK president is Andrei Diachkov, who previously headed the nation’s largest shipbuilding plant Sevmash. Starting in 2007, the Kremlin has put in place a number of programs through which it pumps public money into development of national shipbuilding technologies and capacities. After a sharp drop in production activities following collapse of the Soviet Union, in 2006 the Russian dockyards began to gear up. Since then the production output has doubled.


Industry

National defense procurement prevails. With export taken into account, military products account for roughly two-thirds of the industry's order book. Commercial orders from the domestic markets add about 28% in 2012, and those from overseas civilian customers 5%. Since the production output began to rise, all sectors saw a proportional rise, except for civilian export, which has been fluctuating between 4% and 11% since 2005. In the period from 1986 to 2010 inclusive, the Russian shipbuilding industry completed 1,319 various ships, barges and platforms for the civil market, - roughly half of that in 1986-1990 and the rest in 1991-2010 (during that period Russia almost ceased fishery and barge production, leaving this market for Chinese and Korean competitors). The aforementioned grand total includes 3 icebreakers, 20 oil and drilling platforms, 66 big sea-going merchant ships and 295 smaller ones for inner water routes (including some capable of sea entry), 11 scientific ships, 749 barges and 770 vessels for fishery. The Kremlin has been trying to ensure that transformation of this industry goes on the way of its narrower specialization, while keeping critical competences in defense and strategic civilian areas. This is important in the view of very small Russian presence in the global market for civilian shipbuilding, with only 1% share. The governmental programs in place pursue the following main targets. To keep national competences through funding scientific and R&D projects, and creation of modern technologies, to maintain design and construction capabilities at adequate level ensuring national security and fulfillment of sea weapon procurements, to keep in place the cadre potential, to make the industry more economically effective and improve its investment attractiveness. State officials acknowledge the need to narrow the industry's product range while making steps on further integration into the global system. While the Russian industry considerably loses to China and South Korea in the field of cost-effective construction of large and medium merchant ships, it still keeps high positions in the field of design A I R

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and manufacturing quality, comparable with the European level. In the sphere of shipbuilding, the Kremlin is going to invest, in 2017-2025, Rouble 319 billion (US dollar 10.25 billion) into R&D and technologies, Rouble 940 billion into improving national design competences and production capabilities, and Rouble 45 billion into ensuring high quality and improving productiveness. The program for development of civilian sea equipment already in place calls for Rouble 90.5 billion of public funds to be spent in the 2009 - 2015 timeframe, 74% into R&D and technologies. In the period of 2017-2025 the priorities will be firmly on efforts to ensure an effective NSR usage, ecologically sound exploration of fossil fuel fields in the Arctic and improving transport accessibility of remote regions in the northern and pacific coasts of Russia. Minpromtorg estimates solvent demand in the local market at 1,400 civil vessels of all classes worth Rouble 1.5 trillion by 2020. This would include a nuclear-powered icebreaker with a 110mWt power unit, five icebreakers each with a 60MWt nuclear unit, twelve 25MWt diesel icebreakers and eight port and auxiliary icebreakers with 4-7MWt conventional power units. To supply electricity and heat to northern regions, Russia has in place a program on construction of seven Project 20870 floatable

nuclear power stations. For transportation of liquid gas, various local customers need 40 new ships, most of them must be able to move in icy waters. There is also a need in 25-30 platforms for off-shore field exploration, and 80-90 dedicated vessels for servicing those and delivering supplies to them. Sales of oilers and other specialized transportation vessels are predicted at 230 units, sea going passenger ferry ships at 25-30 and fishery vessels at 180. The domestic market also needs 750 vessels for river transportation, some capable of sea entry. On the military side, the most illustrative export project is that of the Project 11430 Vikramaditya, a 45,000-t displacement aircraft carrier for the Indian navy. That said, the most popular Russian products have been underwater vessels with diesel-electric propulsion. As new designs are concerned, the great hopes are placed in the Project 677 Lada from the Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering “Rubin”. Igor Vilnit, who took over as general director in March 2012 from Andrei Diachkov, said, “Rubin will continue to work closely with Sevmash Shipyards in Severodvinsk, which builds Rubin-designed strategic underwater cruisers. There is a big ship-building programme in place, giving both enterprises a high workload. This requires making right decisions on time regarding submarine development and

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Industry

construction so that governmental orders are completed in the shortest time possible and at the lowest expense.” The Saint Petersburg, head ship of this new design, has seen extensive trials recently while construction resumed on her sister ships, the Kronshtadt and Sebastopol, following the Russian navy decision to supplement its third-generation conventionally powered underwater vessels with these more advanced designs. Russia’s most newest and advanced diesel-electric submarine, the Lada continues undergoing various trials to attest the design solutions and various onboard systems on the head ship before series production starts in earnest. Upon completion of manufacturer’s trials, the Saint Petersburg was handed over to the Russian navy in May 2010 under tactical number B-585. Since then the ship has been involved in a number of naval exercises in the Baltic. Among other things, these included various “games” when the Saint Petersburg acted against surface combatants or/and other submarines. Adversaries included

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some fairly modern surface combatants such as the recently completed frigates of the Project 11356 Talwar-class for the Indian navy, the Project 20380 the Steregushchiyclass corvettes for the Russian navy. U-boats involved in these games were attributed to the Project 877, Project 636 and the Project 636.1 (specifically for the latter: the newly completed Hanoi and Ho Shi Ming for the Vietnamese navy). Among other things, the sea trials were to attest functioning of the state-of-the-art hydro acoustic complex, the Lira (L-01) from Electrobribor holding. The Baltic sea is rather shallow and has very intensive traffic with all sorts of ships, from high-speed motor boats and luxury yachts to high-displacement ferry and cruise ships. Operations in these conditions were not the design point for the Lira. This system, nonetheless, performed immaculately. In many instances, the depth was 60-90 meters and less, with many civilian ships of various dimensions and noise signatures around, and yet the Lira operators were able to differentiate these ships from one another,

classify them and help the Saint Petersburg’s commander successfully conduct attack against surface combatants on simulated anti-submarine patrols. In other cases, the surface combatants were “hunting”, and hence with their interaction with submarines resembled “cat and mouse” sort of game. Here, it must be noted that the Project 677 is, in fact, has somewhat larger displacement than optimal for the shallow waters of the Baltic Sea. Although this water reservoir saw intensive submarine actions in the World War I and World War II, many lucky submarine commanders such as those who struck dozens of enemy ships with torpedoes and mines, complained about the shallowness of the sea which severely restricted their maneuvering. Due to these points, it was all the more difficult for submarine commanders of the Project 677, 877, 636 and 636.1 to act against one another or in a group (“wolf pack”). And yet, in many instances the Lira gave the Saint Petersburg the upper hand in simulated combat situations. It enabled her commander to “see first and strike first”,


Industry

regardless whether the opponents were on surface or submerged. It must be noted that the Lada-class was designed specially to win duels with hostile underwater ships. For that purpose her designers led by General designer Yuri Kormilitsin (also responsible for 641B, 877, 636, 685 and other designs) tried to minimize the submarine’s dimensions, making them just enough to carry the Lira with its huge antennas, other customer-specified sensors and the powerful weaponry. The Project 677 has standard displacement of 1,765 t, underwater speed of 21 knot, endurance of 45 days and compliment of 34. One of the design points was to enable the submarine commander make a big salvo with cruise missiles or torpedoes. Although the previous generation submarines, such as the Project 636, can also fire cruise missiles using torpedo tubes, the Project 677 was designed so as to considerably increase the number of weapons in a single strike. This makes it far more difficult to the enemy to intercept these weapons, and easier for the submarine crew to survive should the enemy comes for retaliation. Unlike his predecessor Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky, the incumbent Russian navy comA I R

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mander Admiral Victor Chirkov is a keen supporter of the Project 677. He became that way only after he himself learnt about the Lada’s capabilities as demonstrated in the above described exercises. The skepticism that surrounded the project during its early stages – and that skepticism was shared by Vysotsky – was rooted in the fact that Russia has an excellent design of diesel-electric submarine, the Project 636, attributed to the previous (third) generation. This former design has many times proved its merits. It has been very successful world-wide with production run coming to sixty hulls (including the earlier Project 877 differing in a shorter hull). The most recent mutations of this 30-year-old design, the exportable Project 636.1 and non-exportable Project 636.3, have been equipped with improved systems (such as all-digital hydro acoustics) and the powerful missilery (the Novator Club-S complex with 91R, 3M-14 and 3M-54 missile types) which make them very competitive even in today’s market. The Russian Navy has on order six Project 636.3 submarines. First of them, the Novorossiysk, was laid down at the Admiralty Shipyards in St. Petersburg in August 2010, her commissioning is

expected later this year. She has standard displacement of 2,350 t, underwater speed up to 20 knots, endurance of 45 days and compliment of 52. Because the Russian navy’s primary assets are large nuclear-powered submarines, certain naval officers see the diesel electric submarines only as a means of crew training and amassing basic skills in sea-fairing and underwater operations. After amassing some experience, these crews would go to the larger fast-attack and strategic patrol U-boats. This sort of altitude made the previous navy commander to prefer the Project 636.3 to newer Project 677 despite all the advantages that Lada offers. However, some of those advantages are such that they shall be very much interesting to the Russian navy, and also to overseas customers as they allow for stronger defenses of home waters. The Lada is an ideal ship for the Russian navy on such tasks as close defense of the naval bases. On such a role, the Lada would detect (and attack if necessary) hostile underwater vessels which try to shadow departing nuclear submarines or act against shipping in the area. Besides, the Lada, with her very low signatures, long-range target-detection/identification systems and

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Industry

powerful missilery (the above mentioned anti-submarine, land-strike and anti-ship missiles, plus non-exportable long-range nuclear-tipped cruise missiles) can herself pose a considerable threat to enemies of all sorts and sizes. Some specialists involved in the Baltic operations in 2011-2012, and early months of 2013, assert that the Saint Petersburg was “rather active”, and took part in almost every exercise of the Russian navy forces in the Baltic waters. Initially, her crew was that of the Russian navy’s Baltic Sea Fleet. But in 2012 another crew, from the navy’s Northern Fleet, came to master the submarine. This other crew had the opportunity to learn from their Baltic colleagues who by that time had already amassed some experience of running this state-of-the-art ship (noting that the head vessel of a nextgeneration design has many innovations, idiosyncrasies and peculiarities). Besides, there were some convenient moments for the Northern sea sailors to get to know the Saint Petersburg better. At one time, she was in a dry dock for maintenance, repair and system installation/checks/ alteration work (docking is prescribed by the ship developer to be conducted once in three years). The reason for the other crew to take over is the long planned voyage into the Arctic waters. As part of the ship certification trials (“state acceptance” in Russian practice), the Saint Petersburg must go to the Russian navy’s deep water test ranges in the Barents and White Sea to attest her systems in the respective conditions. These provide the conditions to which the Lira was design to operate and so can demonstrate its capabilities to full extent. The Lira (L-01) complex has a number of detection channels through use of various antennas and sensors integrated into a single package. Sensors include a towed antenna. Although it was already tried in the Baltic waters, their shallowness and other specific features do not allow full-scale trials for that sort of equipment. It is well known that the towed antenna was initially designed for operations in the Arctic, where the NATO forces tried to establish a contact with Soviet navy

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Igor Vilnit submarines departing their bases in the White and Barents Seas for the expanse of Atlantic. Although the B-585’s northern voyage has long been planned, the Russian navy has repeatedly postponed it for a number of reasons. Firstly, testing the ship to utmost possible in the Baltic had the convenience of making necessary changes to the ship systems at the builder’s facilities: the head vessel of the Project 677 was constructed in St. Petersburg-based Admiralty Shipyards. Secondly, her developer, the Rubin design house, is also headquartered in that city. Many vendors are here as well. Thirdly, the Baltic Fleet is the oldest in the Russian navy, with good traditions and numerous scientific and training facilities – and that is what is badly needed to properly attest a brand-new design. However, after the intensive trials in 2012-early 2013, the Saint Petersburg has little left of what it can do in the Baltic waters with all their restrictions in mind. The ship is now being prepared for the long journey. The Baltic Fleet, however, wants to keep this stateof-the-art vessel for a little longer so that she would take part in the celebrations of the Fleet’s 310 anniversary since foundation later this year. On the eve of LIMA’2013 we spoke to Andrei Baranov. He works at the Rubin de-

sign house and leads the exportable diesel electric submarine operations. According to him, the Asia-Pacific region is getting ready for a massive influx of conventionally powered U-boats. Vietnam, which never operated a submarine, has placed order for six Project 636.1 vessels. A pair of them has been completed and undergoing trials before delivery to the customer later this year. China continues building its own designs in increasing numbers. Besides, according to Moscow-based Komersant newspaper, PRC awarded Russia a firm order for four Amur 1650 submarines. The latter is an exportable derivative of the Project 677. India continues construction of locally designed nuclear submarines of the Arihant class and the refit and lifetime extension program on the ten Project 877EKM vessels in service. Besides, there are Project 75 and Project 75I efforts through which India wants foreign designs of conventional submarines to be built at Indian shipyards under license. Vietnam's order is considered a bold step into the club of submarine nations. This country chose the well tried Project 636 design in a new version with formidable landstrike missiles. DPRK is also known to be working on improved local designs, inspired by the sinking of the RoK corvette not long ago. Japan has made decision to increase the active submarine fleet from 18 to 22.


Industry

Australia is considering next-generations submarines under the Sea 1000 project, these would supplement and then replace the Collins-class. Malaysia took delivery of two Scorpene class vessels, while Indonesia ordered Project 209s from RoK. The government of RoK is finalizing a follow-on order with Hyundai Heavy Industries on nine improved Type 209/1200 Chang Bogo class submarines. Delivery is due in 2018. These are built in partnership with Germany's ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS). The new version of the diesel-electric submarine will weigh 1,400 ton and accommodate 40 crew members. Originally developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (now part of TKMS), the current version was built by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering. This newly announced project will increase the total number of the Chang Bogo class submarines in service with RoK navy to 18. Besides, RoK navy has on order nine Type 214 submarines, designated as Son Won-Il class. They are being built

locally by Hyundai Heavy Industries and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering. Three first-batch examples had entered service since 2007, and six second-batch models will enter service starting this year. The reason behind placing such a large order for rather old (yet well tried) design, is to rapidly increase the submarine force by adding cheap yet proven units already mastered in production and operation. "These facts give a clear indication of ongoing arms race in the region. We see a number of new nations coming to possess underwater capabilities and many more considering such a move", Baranov said. For example, Bangladesh indicated its intent to follow the trend as well as Thailand. Philippines may also join in. There is a number of disputed islands in the Asia-Pacific waters. Submarines are seen as the right argument in defending a smaller nation’s claims to these islands in the case when these are disputed by a larger nation with far bigger naval forces. "Submarines are the sort of weapons

that can be successfully employed in the region", Baranov insists. "There are indications that many nations of the region are going to buy submarines… and buy them in worthwhile quantities". Therefore, Southeast Asia is becoming a very perspective market for shipbuilding companies. Traditional suppliers of such equipment in Germany, Russia and France hope for a big portion of orders expected from the region. But they are to meet growing competition from within the region. Advent of new exporters is another tendency of the recent times. As mentioned above. RoK has mastered Type 209 and 214 license production and even exporting 209s to Indonesia. A lot more interesting move is that made by China. At IDEX'2013 the Chinese shipbuilders demonstrated for the first time an export version of their own submarine, the S-20. This certainly adds a new dimension. Vladimir Karnozov

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Success story

Msn 95032

LONG RANGE

SUPERJET

Lecturing students at the Moscow Aviation Institute in the first week of March 2013, Russia’s Minister for Industry and Trade mister Denis Manturov sounded optimistic about the new versions of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ100) featuring longer ranges. “The SSJ100 Long Range is an airplane with range boosted by 1,500km [810nm], which makes it possible to start development of a business jet version. It is not that I have some illusions [about its prospects] and not that I think we would beet our competitors from Bombardier on the Global Express or Gulfstream on the G650 or the Airbus on the ACJ319, but [our] airplane is made very comfortable. Therefore, the distance of 7,500-8,000 km [4,0474,317nm] can be flown for a [good] price, taking account of how much are going to sell this airplane for. This means this airplane does have some prospects.” Sukhoi sees Embraer as its primary competitor in the battle for the global market of large regional jets. The Long Range (LR) version of the Superjet is meant to unseat the Embraer E190LR. First-built Sukhoi Superjet 100-95LR, msn 95032, had its maiden flight on February 12, 2013, from the Dzemgi aerodrome of the Komsomolsk-

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upon-Amur Aircraft Production Organization (KnAAPO). After completion of factory's trials, the aircraft was ferried to the Ramenskoye aerodrome near Moscow and is being prepared to trials for complimentary certificate. A second LR is expected to fly later this month and join in the certification effort later. The already-certificated Basic (B) version has a maximum takeoff weight of 45.88t [109,019lb], while the LR targets 49.45t [101,150lb]. The LR has an up-rated 1S18 version of the PowerJet SaM.146, generating 5% more thrust at takeoff. Fuel tanks are the same, 4,175 US gallons, and they can take in 12,690kg [27,977lb] at 0,803 kg/ litre density. The landing gear does not need strengthening, the maker says. Seating 98 passengers in a mono-cabin, five-abreast at 32in, the cabin is the same for B and LR. The wing shape is unchanged, at 84 square meters. And yet its structure is strengthened to withstand higher loads. The airplane looks the same inside and out, reflecting Sukhoi’ strategy to keep as much as possible unification between B’s and LR’s force-bearing structures. “We strengthen the wing without changing construction materials”, the maker says. The LR

is not meant to have improved systems as such – all improvements are on a united plan and due for introduction on a certain msn rather than version. Sukhoi has applied for the SSJ100-95LR complimentary certification to the CIS aviation authority ARMAK, which issued the type certificate in February 2011. Applying to it in the first place is only natural since the first LR customer is in Russia. Takeoff and landing tests are due in March-April and noise pattern tests in April-May, to enable completion of documents for submission to the authorities in late May. Complimentary certificate is expected before MAKS’2013. After domestic approval is obtained, Sukhoi is going to apply to EASA for validation, submitting takeoff/landing test and strength analysis data. Should EASA inspectors find it necessary to conduct additional testing on the LR specimen, the maker will have to ferry the airplane to an appointed base in Europe. “There is a standard practice for validation, and we do not expect anything supernatural there”. The msn 95033 will be the first LR to deliver, and the first to come off line with interior installed. Whereas msn 95032, now flying “green”, will remain with the


Success story maker for a few months. Sukhoi plans to use it or winglets testing. “This choice is logical since the 032 is the first airplane to have the strengthened wing”. If necessary, the testing period will last longer, should aerodynamics refinement or system improvement be found necessary during initial testing. Winglets are a special issue; they will be available as an option for all versions. “The winglets can be fitted to both LR and B, - and yet the LR will benefit from them more”. Sukhoi says it has in place a long-term weight reduction program which should compensate for an increase in structural weight the LR does have. The program targets not only airframe, but also systems as some come from vendors with excessive kilos. Superjet's structure is largely made of aluminum, and at this stage there are no talks of changing construction materials. Composites are found in wing’s trailing edge, rudder and elevator, wing-fuselage attachment fairing and landing gear doors, for a total of 950kg [2,095lb]. Besides, the engine nacelle is also made of composites (with exception of the intake ring, which is metallic to withstand heat supplied into it for anti-icing). Sukhoi is looking at lighter seats, estimating the potential outcome at 400kg [882lb]. A Russian airline customer has ordered a lighter seat model already. The factorystandard B/E Aerospace seats are an old design, but it was changed a bit to meet specific requirements set by Sukhoi. The bad thing for the manufacturer is that Aeroflot obviously wanted to save on the seats and ordered simple cloth upholstery, in which these seats look miserable compared to same airline’s leather Recaro seats on the newly-delivered Airbuses. Besides, there is no individual fresh air supply vents. These are an option not executed in the Aeroflot-Lite configuration. Both Yakutia's airplanes have these vents, to delight of the passengers. Aeroflot will also use those on the Aeroflot-Full airplanes, the first of which is expected in April. Among various improvements, this version will have a reworked FMS. Besides, software package upgrades come regularly. Superjet avionics A I R

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is compliant to the latest IMA (Integrated more active usage of relatively short routes. Module Avionics) technology, open and These shorter routes used to be unprofiteasy to upgrade, including adding new able, and Superjets help the airline make functions to FMS. them profitable. “There is a good dynamics The first airline to take an SSJ100-95LR coming from some of those routes. Aeroflot is Gazpromavia, an aviation arm of RAO starts a service by placing a Superjet, and Gazprom fossil fuel giant. Contract with flies it for 2-3 months. The people notice Gazpromavia calls for first delivery by that there is a reliable Aeroflot service now the end of 2013 and Sukhoi insists it is on available, use that service and gradually track with that. The target for 2012-2020 get used to that service. In the beginning a production is 491 Superjets as given by Superjet takes 35-40, then 50-60 passenRussian vice-premier Dmitry Rogozin. Sukgers on a flight, and then Aeroflot places hoi says the annual production rate shall an A319 on this same route, and shortly it gear up to 60 in 2014, and promises to comes flying with a full cabin”. give an exact split between B and LR later Aeroflot often places a Superjet on night, on, after the order book is reviewed after late evening or early morning flights to some recent dropouts (Kartika etc.). “The increase frequencies. "Should an Airbus split depends on customer choices, and we does not fill up, the smaller Superjet procertainly have some for the LR”. vides a worthy replacement”. Even with LR induction, the Superjet Focused on short-range domestic services, will not reach up for the A319 or 737Aeroflot is not interested in the LR. Mexico's 700HGW range. Early airframes can Interjet considered the LR, but later contransport 98 passengers 4,100 km [2,212 verted the whole of its order to the Basic. nm], well below a would-be requirement “The increase in MTOW gives little to them. for US East - West coast services (over Interjet operates from hot-and-high airports, 3,000nm). “For an airplane of that size, from where even 46-ton all-up weight is such distances do not make sense. Honestly, not always possible… the Basic meets their ours is not spacious enough for long-haul practical needs very well”. flights. The Superjet is a feeder, the maAirplanes operating thin routes into chine that brings in passengers to mainline Siberia will certainly benefit from the LR airlines. This work was used to be done by induction. Gazpromavia provides a good the Yak-42 and Tu-134”. example, as it operates a network of 400 Sukhoi is happy to observe a recent routes across the vast Russian territory. Adchange in Aeroflot policy towards usdition of the SSJ100-95LR might be good ing Superjets “on the routes they were for airlines with a mixed fleet, to cater for purposely designed for”. The airline the low/high season. The LR should be enjoys year-on-year increase in passengood in the role of “a winter airplane", ger numbers, which in part comes from a replacing 737s and A320s in a low season

Superjet cockpit

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Success story to keep up the frequencies, and, in the high season, it would work in the intended role of a feeder. Sukhoi says that replacing a 737-500 with a Superjet results in absolute fuel burn reduction on a revenue flight between 13% and 15%. Armavia used its Superjet on long-haul services when a narrowbody was difficult to fill up: out of Erevan to Marcel, Madrid and Barcelona (3,350km), the latter with 50-60 passengers, flight time was up to 5.5 hours. The LR fits well into European distances, and also covers a good part of North Africa and the whole of Middle East when operating out of Moscow. A Moscowbased airline can fly as far as Novosibirsk (3,000km) and Krasnoyarsk (3,350km) being largest cities in Siberia. Irkutsk is further East (with 4,200km); the LR can reach it with a reduced payload. Business aviation companies will certainly benefit: Swiss-based Comlux is the launch customer for the Sukhoi Business Jet (SBJ) on the LR platform. It differs in having additional tanks in place of belly-cargo, which increases the range to 7,100km [3,832nm] and makes it possible to reach US Atlantic coast from Paris. The SSJ100-95LR directly challenges the E-190 LR version, which dominates Embraer’s orders. “We do believe that the recently announced modernization of the E-Jet calling for replacement of engine, avi-

Cabin of Yakutia's aircraft

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onics and flight control system is a testimony of Embraer understanding of their shortcomings in relation to the Superjet", Sukhoi marketologists say. By the level of FCS and envelop protection, the Superjet is claimed to be on the par and even better than the Airbus A380 and Boeing 787. Sukhoi admits parity in noise levels with Embraer only with the rider that the noise pattern measuring was done in a hassle as Sukhoi team was fighting for earlier certification dates, and so that rather conservative figures were submitted to the authorities. Now, with the LR noise pattern testing planned for this spring, there is a good chance to do the work over again for lower advertized levels. Despite weight increase, the more powerful engine shall enable a steeper trajectory in the initial climb. The Bombardier CRJ series is acknowledged to have better fuel performance than the competition (data from Bombardier people gives hourly fuel burn for CRJ700 at 1.45t, CRJ900 1.6t and CRJ1000 1.74t). Sukhoi marketologists observe: "there are certain airplanes that consume less fuel and yet have weaker sales. One example is CRJ, which burns notably less fuel than the E-jets, and yet sells in lesser numbers. Our airplane gives passenger more comfort. This is something that helped Embraer win over Bombardier, and this is what helps us now to win over Embraer”.

The Superjet has a larger cross section which makes it look more of a mainline airliner than a regional. “People often compare Superjets with A320s and 737s by passenger comfort levels, but few would seriously compare a narrowbody to a regional with four seats in the cross section". The Superjet has a large luggage bin above the three-seat block, similar in size to that of the A320. The bin on the other side is smaller by volume, and yet with an adequate height. As a result, Superjet's passengers have a better chance of fitting their luggage into the overhead bins than Embraer’s. The height of the cargo hold door is compliant to requirements of airport workers' trade unions, "while in case of a CRJ they have to use a stick to get bags out”. The large space under the floor enables airlines to take belly cargo. Sukhoi marketologists insist the Superjet has advantages over the Brazilian design in flight performance. Although both have been optimized for long range cruise at Mach 0.78, altitude 39-40 thousand feet, the Russian design has "a better shaped high-speed wing made of more advanced supercritical airfoils". As a result, the Superjet burns only 3% more fuel at the maximum cruise speed of Mach 0.81 compared to "over 5%" for the competition due to the latter's less advanced and larger wing. The PowerJet SaM.146 engine is described as "best in its class today". Having a bit lower bypass ratio than the GE CF3410, the Franco-Russian motor features a lower decrease in thrust as Mach number increases, contributing to Superjet's better performance at the maximum cruise mode. Sukhoi gives SSJ100-95B's block fuel at 1.75 tons per hour "or 2% better" than the respective figure for the Embraer E-190. For regional routes the Superjet is better as it is more tolerant to lower cruise altitudes to which ATC sometimes directs “smaller airplanes”: from the desired but congested FL370, FL390 down to FL320, FL330. “Less tolerant to altitude changes, Embraer loses to Superjet in such situations”. Sukhoi does not like to draw a comparison to the newest Bombardier CSeries, noting that the 58-ton MTOW CS100 with 110 passengers and larger dimen-


Success story sions falls in another class of jetliners. “We do not consider it a competitor. This larger airplane is designed for bigger traffic and longer routes”. Bombardier’s claim for 1.8t hourly fuel burn is a bit more than the actual fuel-flow observed on the operational Superjets. “We are at the level of 1.75t per hour for block fuel” (block fuel takes account of kerosene burnt during taxi, takeoff, descent and landing). Sukhoi claims that the data it collected indicates the Superjet is 2% better at fuel burn than the E-190 (the latter burns 1.782t per hour). Meantime, Russia’s Transport Clearing House gave another figure as an average for the Superjet fleet in 2011, at 2.296t. Figures for the An-148, A319, A321 and Tu-204 are 1.968, 2.518, 3.085 and 3.688t accordingly. These statistics indicate that the Superjet fits well into the line of in-service jetliners. There was some speculation in the media after an Aeroflot source claimed the airline's Superjets have fuel burn 11% above the promise - but this may well be due to the airplane's excessive construction weight rather than engine performance. As confirmed by Sukhoi, ten Superjets that Aeroflot received from May 2011 to September 2012 are to be taken aback by the manufacturer for rework before delivery to another operator. While airframe and systems will be subjected to some work, the engines will not. “There is no need to do any work on these engines since they are compliant to the specification”, Sukhoi explains. Giving their view on the excessive fuel burn story, Sukhoi people say that the exact figures that once leaked to press, did indicate higher-than-expected fuel burn, but it was measured on experimental airplanes, not deliverable ones. “It was largely due to the fact that the fuel burn tests were done on the prototype that had seen extensive use, including high-alpha and field performance testing. Besides, these engines were of experimental nature, with additional holes and channels for testing purposes. By the time they were subjected to fuel burn tests, they had experienced loads equating to five-to-ten years of airline service”. A I R

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Superjet prototype In 2011 Saturn - a Russian partner to Snecma of France on Powerjet joint venture that leads the SaM.146 project – won additional funding from the Russian government on reduction of the SaM.146's fuel burn by 4%, some weight-saving measures and gearing up production. As of 2012, the fuel burn target was met, while the work on the weight reduction is still ongoing (measures are planned through 2015). Sukhoi confirms that the deliverable engines coming off assembly line are meeting specification. “When an engine comes to us,

we subject it to tests. So far we have had no claims for inadequate thrust or fuel burn – all supplied engines meet the specification”. Perhaps a good indication of improving SSJ100 chances on the market is the decision of Russia’s largest aircraft lessor, Ilyushin Finance Co. (IFC), to order twenty such airplanes. IFC general director Alexander Rubtsov told us that the firm order is being finalized and that all twenty airplanes shall come in the Long Rong version. Vladimir Karnozov

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Advertorial

RUSSIA IS BACK

ON JETLINER MARKET

During the past twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has produced a modest number of passenger jets. Even the domestic market is now dominated by foreign manufacturers. Airplanes in service with Russian airlines carry registration of certain “banana” islands. Passengers are now used to the fact that routes from one regional airport inside Russia to another one are served by good looking and capacious Boeing or Airbus aircraft. But this service is quite often via Moscow, where the passengers need to change planes. Every flight on an aged Ilyushin or Tupolev is a stress to these passengers. Indigenous airplanes are often old: the aviation industry of the big country produced new civil and cargo planes at a rate of some ten units annually. And those ten airplanes came off production lines of several gigantic plants. Because of the low productivity, these plants were often covered in the dust of laziness, clever hands and banal indifference, supported by regular injections from the government on feeding big teams of these plants – big on paper only. Design houses, as though in agreement, launched activities not related to their

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core business. At the same time, they began selling real estate in Moscow inherited from the Soviet times, benefiting from the inflated property and land prices in the city. Sukhoi design house is one of the very few that managed without this humiliating novelty. The team continued to work in their premises within the Sokol region of Moscow city. Before the age of 27, I lived in the city of Khabarovsk, watching closely activities of KnAAPO, the Komsomolsk-upon-Amur Aviation Industrial Organization named after Yuri Gagarin, where most of Sukhoibrand warplanes were produced. As time went, the production output gradually decreased. In the 1990s the Russian defense ministry did not have enough funds even for keeping their in-service aircraft combat ready. There were no talks about purchasing new equipment. The government invented various schemes and projects that would one way or another keep the industry alive. Then, a portion of the fresh air came in the form of export orders. In the early years of the new century, some governmental funding became available for an increase in national defense orders. But here came

another problem. While we were fighting for survival, the modern war concept changed dramatically. The need in a massive fleet of piloted airplanes crewed by specially qualified humans has gone. Missiles of various types and firing ranges, unmanned air vehicles and spacecraft can do the job with much higher efficiency, and without risking pilots’ lives – and their lives are very precious, literally. Once that change takes effect, production runs of fighter jets will never be counted by thousands. Sukhoi had few options. Either die slowly or find a new niche. The latter meant the company needs to expand into the civilian aviation sphere. To be successful the Sukhoi Superjet 100 project needed good partners - not merely partners, but those who have massed experience how to survive in adverse weather conditions and how to solve tasks in the interests of the nation. People such as those live in Eastern Siberia and are employed by Yakutia Airlines. Those are the people who know how to keep operational some modern high-tech aviation equipment in extraordinary situations. Yakutia Airlines has taken delivery of two Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft.


Advertorial Now, they fly revenue services from Yakutsk to Khabarovsk, Novosibirsk and Harbin. Together with blogger colleagues and journalists I flew one of those airplanes recently, on the Khabarovsk-Yakutsk round trip. I also witnessed this airplane being prepared for proof-route mission to Harbin. In the conditions of northern latitudes (up to 78 degrees) and ambient air temperatures dropping to almost minus 60 degree Celsius, the airline’s ground crews did their job well, without grumbling. Flight tests had been done in same conditions, to check for proper functioning of the avionics, notably the inertial navigation system and the satellite-aided navigation with help of GPS and GLONASS. Airplane: what is this? For some people this is an air vehicle in which to travel. Like a car, yet a lot faster. It is so fast that one with an airline ticket can arrive on the other end of the planet within few hours. For some other people the airplane is also their passion, an object of esthetics and perfection. Amateur photographers who like picturing airliners in the airport often hear from security agents on guard: “that’s a strategic object”. You can be certain: there are very few people absolutely indifferent to aviation. For me the airplane is a source of impression. Regardless of what one dreams of, the most important thing in his life is about impressions. It is about getting to know other countries and

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cultures, breathing in the Atlantic breeze and watching sunset at Bali, running for happiness and enjoying company of the beloved person. You may lead any way of life, be a romantic person or a pragmatic, jobless or billionaire, but everything you do, you do for impression. It still a puzzle to me how pieces of metal taken from inside the Earth, lose their cumbersome looks and turn into an elegant, flyable design. The design that is quintessence of human genius. Even though I saw with my own eyes how a winged machine is born, I am still puzzled… and I am happy about it. Not long ago we attended the rollout ceremony. Now, a whole bevy of birds are getting alive in the KnAAPO workshops: airplanes for Gazpromavia, LAO Airlines, Interjet, Sky Aviation, Aeroflot… Life is boiling here, and there is a very tasty smell there, the smell of newly painted jetliners. They will unfold their wings soon... Before allocating budgetary funds for reanimation of the local aircraft manufacturing, the government consolidated various airframers under a single roof by establishing the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). The government has united independent and often competing enterprises into large mergers specialized in airplanes, helicopters and engines. Russia has once again had a chance to take a prominent place in the global aviation market together with Boeing and Airbus. Sukhoi Superjet 100 is

the first project meant to bring Russia back to the league of aircraft-manufacturing nations. I am not talking about airplanes as such. This is a strategic project, whose materialization has led to reappearance of equipment and cadre for a fully-fledged system of aircraft, engine and component development, manufacture and certification by European standards. This is something not present in the Ukraine, which was, historically, a second center of the Soviet aircraft design and manufacturing. They also have a project, the Antonov-148. A direct competitor to the Superjet made using the Soviet experience and legacy items. Funds for series production and perfecting the design were available only in Russia; the Ukraine could not have managed it alone. This is why the Ukrainians did all they could to place this burden on us, Russians. For the sake of keeping friendship and good neighbor relations, as well as to keep the aviation plant in Ulianovsk alive (and not letting it die from absence of orders), a hard decision was made to produce a batch of An-148 airplanes in Russia. Afterwards, we bought them for ourselves, sending 70% of the respective funding to the Ukraine. Sometimes politics contradicts with economics. Finally, everybody understood: this airplane gives nothing to us. Outdated, it dries up our industry, depriving it of resources, eating them out together with market prospects. Thanks God, the jump out of it has been

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Advertorial made, and the production of the product from which are unable to gain has been curtailed. At the same time, we saved our plants by launching (instead) into production a new version of the Il-476 freighter. United Aircraft Corporation, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft Company, United Engine Corporation, NPO Saturn and its joint venture with Snecma, PowerJet, are no longer listed among corrupted structures invented to channelize public funds. Now these are viewed as companies that have attained international level and proved able to produce competitive products – aircraft and engines – in sufficient numbers. A regional aircraft as of this time, but this is only a starting point for materialization of more ambitious plans. The production run is already about second dozen copies, and those already in service transport passengers daily, making profit for their owners. Series production is established; current production rate is one aircraft per month. It will soon be increased two-three fold. Orders are sufficient for three to four years. Their number will increase as the airplanes are delivered to airline customers and prove their worth in service. On the wave made by the Superjet team, and using the infrastructure they have created, a new airplane project is being pursued, the UAC/Irkut MC-21. This is a replacement to the ageing Tupolev-204. There is no need to argue in favor of us-

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ing best vendor items available worldwide, not only those available from local makers and those in the Ukraine. Busily shaping the wings and the fuselages, UAC had for about five years been ignoring the fact that a couple of central TV reports with Putin wearing pilot’s helmet year on year is not a sufficient information background to support the aviation project of the national scale. In the routine of economic tasks and accomplishments present in every business, advertising, PR and news were often moved to the third level of importance. There was a complete lull on the subject in the social networks and blogs. As a result, the empty space in the global information field has been occupied by certain masters of the pen, battalions of those paid by competitors both inside and out of the country. UAC has recently come to its senses; it has become more open and talkative. The corporation began encouraging its employees to share trustworthy information with bloggers. Leaders of the company and of its industrial partners have begun speaking to cameramen clearly, without using Soviet-style cliches. On February 28, 2013, the Sukhoi Superjet 100 registration RA-89011 in the Yakutia livery flew from Yakutsk in Russia to Harbin in China for the first time. The inbound service was flown with 59 passengers onboard, while the outbound went with a full cabin. Flight time was 2.5 hours.

There had been a long-living rumor that the engine for the Russian-made SSJ100 is imported. In fact, the engine was designed and assembled by us in cooperation with the French partners. Two-thirds of the engine is produced in Russia. Officially, the SSJ100 had entry-intoservice in April 2011. As of February 2013, deliverable examples of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 have been in airline service for one year and ten months. In February 2012 the European agency for aviation safety (EASA) issued type certificate for the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (model RRJ-95B). This document provides evidence that the Sukhoi Civil Aircraft Company demonstrated compliance of the SSJ100 to the current EASA airworthiness requirements and ecological standards. This EASA certificate permits commercial operations on the SSJ100 (RRJ-95B) airplanes to European airlines and airlines in those countries that accept EASA certificates and standards. The Sukhoi Superjet 100 is the first Russian passenger jetliner certified to have been certified to CS-25 airworthiness requirements set by EASA. Source: http://freekaliningrad.ru/livefly_articles/ 2012 © freekaliningrad.ru. This text was translated by A4 Publishing House under agreement with UAC. The original Russian text was prepared by Alexander Klimenok.


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ROTORCRAFT

FOR MILITARY AND CIVIL CUSTOMERS Russian rotorcraft continue to sell well in the Asia-Pacific. New evidence to this fact came from the recent aviation shows in Zhuhai, China and Bangalore, India. India's Ministry of Interior placed an order for 12 Mil Mi-17V5s, Victor Komardin, deputy general director at Rosoboronexport arms vendor told the media during the press briefing of the united Russian delegation at Aero India 2013. He said that the respective contract had been signed, but, as of the show time, was still awaiting approval from the Indian government. Such is the system of defense procurement in this country that deals are meant to undergo a long, multi-layered check-and-control scrutiny. Of the twelve rotorcraft on order, three are specified in VIP version, while the remaining nine are a special version for coastal guards who report to the Ministry of Interior. Besides, Rosoboronexport also hopes to formalize soon a follow-on order for 59 Mil Mi-17V5 helicopters, - its chances are dependent on its performance with materialization of the previous deal worth US dollar 1.345 billion on 80 such rotorcraft signed in December 2008. Since 2011, Russia has delivered

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36 Mi-17V5 helicopters in frame of that 1986. After a long pause, India resumed contract. It is due to ship the remainder of purchasing the Mi-17 series in the new 44 in 2013-2014. century. In 2000 it bought 40 Mi-17s for US dollar 170 million. The newly shipped helicopters came Today, the Indian armed forces operate from the Kazan Helicopters plant belonga large fleet of Mil designs: three super ing to the Russian Helicopters holding heavy Mi-26s, 25 Mi-25/35 attack and company. These machines represent a new production standard and feature many im160 Mi-8/17s medium transport helicopprovements. With takeoff weight of 13 tons, ters. This makes Russian Helicopters say: the Mi-17V-5 can carry either 36 armed "India has been our long term strategic soldiers internally or 4.5t of cargo on sling. partner, especially as government strucThe customized Indian Mi-17V-5 tures are concerned". features brand-new KNEI-8 navigation, Another Russian brand, Kamov, is popular with the Indian navy. The latinformation-display and cueing system. The ter operates 25 "Ka" series rotorcraft flight crew station features four MFDs - this featuring coaxial rotor layout. This cusprovides for a reduction in pilots’ worktomer is set to receive four additional load as compared to dial instruments on Ka-28 anti-submarine warfare and five previous Mi-17 models. Integration of the Ka-31 radar picket helicopters when new avionics with advanced night-vision its new Vikramaditya aircraft carrier equipment and a glass cockpit was made is delivered, hopefully by the end of by Mil and its partner Russian Avionics 2013. These rotorcraft will supplement company. This new version shall become a nine Ka-31s delivered between 1999 factory standard from now on. and 2004 and 16 Ka-28s that entered Over 11,000 Mi-8/17 series heliservice in the late 1980s. The Indian copters have been assembled so far at Navy has been a good customer to the Kazan and Ulan-Ude plants. Starting in Russian helicopter manufacturer and 1971, India procured 124 Mi-8s. Then has a tiny number of Ka-25PLs that it its attention shifted to the evolved Mi-17 received from the stocks of the Soviet featuring a new gearbox and more pownavy in the 1980s. If India opts to order erful engines - deliveries commenced in


Marketing

more Talwar-class frigates from Russia, this could lead to further contracts for Russian-made naval helicopters. There is three international competitions the Indian defense ministry is going to open soon in the interests of the navy. These are for 16, 56 and 120 machines respectively in different classes. Information on respective tenders remain scarce and controversial. Head of the Russian delegation at Aero India 2013, mister Fomin had to acknowledge that Russia "was not yet invited” to bid in these new tenders that are meant to be international competitions. Depending on what requirements are set forward by the Indian side, the Russian Helicopters will reply with either a further development of the Ka-27/28/32 series medium weight rotorcraft or the Ka-226TM light helicopter. The latter was described as a navalised version of the Ka-226T. The main functional difference between the bigger and lighter offers was said to be confined in the former’s ability to carry “much more capable sensor suit” that would include a powerful antisubmarine detection systems and the ability to deploy missiles, depth charges and torpedoes. Speaking about advantages of the Kamov machines, Dmitry Petrov, general director at the Russian Helicopters, said that their characteristic feature - the coaxial layout of the rotors - is "optimal for operations over the sea surface, and from the ship's deck", as it provides for a precision landing and can better withstand winds. Petrov said that the Russian engineers continue working on coaxial rotorcraft designs in the two distinct variants: light and heavy deck helicopters. The former is intended primarily for search and rescue, fire support, visual surveillance and reconnaissance. The latter is capable of carrying "a more complex and heavy avionics set" for antisubmarine warfare operations as well as for detection of surface vessels at long ranges. It is interesting to note that Ka-226T model has been offered by Rosoboronexport in the long-going tender for 198 Research and Surveillance Helicopters (RSH). Competition is provided by the Eurocopter Fennec. Fomin told the media A I R

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that Russia still hopes to win this tender despite certain rumors being spread on the eve of the show. Generalizing on the Indian prospects, Fomin said: “Russia has lost many times over the past few years, so that’s a tendency. But we do not see any catastrophic […] in it. We lose some and win some”. Well-positioned in the Indian defense market, Russian Helicopters won to expand its presence in the civilian one. Speaking to journalists at AeroIndia 2013, Dmitry Petrov said he expects to sell fifty Mi-17 series helicopters to Indian civil operators. The main focus in his marketing efforts is placed on the local old-and-gas as well as offshore operator companies. "Right now we are having quite positive and productive negotiations with that sort of firms. We will focus on them in the first place since it is the strength of our helicopters to operate reliably in harsh climates serving fossil fuel operators in our home country", Petrov said. Russian rotorcraft are rare not yet popular with commercial users. Although the Indian civil fleet grew from 117 in 2002, to 190 in 2007 and to nearly 300 at the end of the past year, it has only six Mi-17s. The last pair of which delivered in 2012. Russian Helicopters company find the Indian rotorcraft fleet as largely outdated and in the need of renewal, and hopes to win a substantial number of the replacement market. For commercial operators the firm is offering the Mi-172 with a glass cockpit, a strengthened gearbox and a

Dmitry Petrov (center)

pair of 2500-hp Klimov VK2500 turboprops. With takeoff weight of 13 tons, the Mi-172 can carry up to 24 passengers or 4.5t of cargo. In addition to India, there is one more big customer for Russian rotorcraft in AsiaPacific. China operates nearly four hundred of those. Most of them are with the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Chinese naval aviation possesses about twenty Kamov Ka-28 helicopters and their Ka-31 derivative with the powerful Oko observation radar. "We continue working with the customer in that direction", Sergei Kornev, head of Rosoboronexport aviation division, told reporters at Airshow China 2012. He noted, however, that China is now able to independently produce a wider spectrum of modern defense equipment and precision guidance munitions. For instance, Airshow China 2012 saw debut of the two helicopters. The Z-10 antitank and fire support, and Z-19 for armed reconnaissance. Despite this, China continues buying Russian rotorcraft. On fulfillment of deliveries under contract on 32 Mi-17 series helicopters, Russia won a followon order for 52 such machines. Kornev insisted that the Mi-17 series has big sales prospects in China. Finally, several dozens of Russian helicopters are in service with Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand. Vladimir Karnozov

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Marketing

KAMOV RESPONSIBLE FOR Z-10 DESIGN During the press conference of Russian Helicopters holding at Heli-Expo 2013 convention in Las Vegas, Kamov general designer Sergei Mikheyev revealed that his design house had been responsible for the initial conceptual design for Changhe Z-10 attack helicopter. The Z-10 publically debuted in November last year at Airshow China 2012 – the biggest aerospace expo in People’s Republic of China (PRC). It is in the early stages of production. A small number of the Z-10 examples have entered service with People’s Liberation Army (PLA). Mikheyev stated that in 1995 the PRC government asked Russia to assist in development of a six-ton attack helicopter. Having secured “go-ahead” from the Kremlin, Kamov secretly supplied the Chinese customers with drawings and documentation that it had prepared while working on the Project 941, a medium-weight attack helicopter for the Soviet Armed Forces. Presentation slides shown in Las Vegas revealed graphics and wind-tunnel models of that project. These were to provide some evidence and support the statements that the Project 941 design bears resemblance to that of the Changhe Z-10. 46


Marketing

Mikheyev said that documentation on the Project 941 was handed over to China. He praised Changhe and other Chinese companies for having brought the design to mass production. “This project was of a sensitive nature. Therefore, it shall make no surprise that until recently our involvement into that project has not been made public. I wish every success to this helicopter”, Mikheyev told reporters in Las Vegas. Kamov is understood to have addressed general arrangement and aerodynamics, structure and engine arrangement, and weight calculations. At the same time, Sergei Mikheyev stressed that his design house provided only docs, while the Chinese themselves built all the prototypes for flight testing and carried completely responsibility for the project refinement and manufacture. While Mikheyev’s announcement came as a surprise to the many, there were reports about Kamov’s involvement in Chinese helicopter programs dating back to 2007. That time it was reported that a former Kamov employee claimed to have worked on the design. China supplied a basic set of requirements including the specification of General Electric’s T700 engine (as used in the Black Hawk) and a 23-mm rapid-fire gun. Mikheyev’s revelation adds another element to the story of international assistance in the Z-10 program. Denel of South Africa was also involved in the Z-10 development. It assisted with stability issues around 2000. Rumors have it that China tried to buy a complete Denel Rooivalk attack helicopter during the course of the Z-10 development program. There are rumors that Western companies assisted China with the Medium Helicopter, a six-ton rotorcraft of the classic layout for civilian use. Companies from the West were involved in its development. Eurocopter committed in May 1997 to assist with the rotor system. AgustaWestland secured a contract in March 1999 to help with the transmission. Some reports suggested that Italy shipped to China prototype transmissions. The new Chinese helicopter was designed with a universal engine bay. Initially, its operable prototypes (five in total) were each powered by a pair of Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6CA I R

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Sergei Mikheyev with Ka-226 in background

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76C motors. The United Technologies and subsidiary Hamilton Sundstrand were together fined $75 million in June 2012 for violating US export restrictions. Allegedly, they earlier provided ten engines and associated FADEC software to their Chinese partners. The sanctions came after the US government bodies rendered the Chinese program as a military one. Eventually, the Medium Helicopter project was shelved. As per the Z-10, its designers had to give up the idea of using western engines and instead went for the Klimov VK2500 and Motor Sich TV3-117SBM, the two models being broadly similar and replaceable. These engine models appear to be installed in current-production aircraft. Motor Sich is known to be assisting in the development of the indigenous WZ9 that might later equip production examples of the Changhe rotorcraft. As the above case indicates, Russia can be helpful to China as the latter develops its economy and national defense. People’s Republic of China entered the 21 century as a big and united country with fast-growing economy. At the beginning of the new century Chinese economy grew at 8-10% year on year. During the period of 2006-2011 this growth continued at 10.5% (peaking at 11-14% in 20052007) against India 8%, Russia 3.7% and Brazil 4%. Chinese economy grew with a 9% rate even in 2008-2009, when world's GDP was flat. In 2011 China's GDP rose by 9.2%, exports and imports grew by 20.3 and 24.9% respectively. Last year the growth slowed down to 7.4% in the third quarter of 2012, and yet this three times

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above of the entire world (2.4% in 2012). Ongoing reshuffle on the top of Communist Party of China (CPC) following the 18 Congress in November coincides with growing interest of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) in procurement of modern Russian weapons and technologies. PRC continues importing jet engines (AL-31F/FN, D-30KP, AI-222F), multirole helicopters (Mil-17) and anti-aircraft systems. Besides, it takes additional Kamov naval helicopters and Ilyushin heavy airlifters (contract for ten is being materialized). Most recently, PRC ordered four Amur 1650 diesel electric submarines, in addition to twelve Kilo-class the last of which was delivered in spring 2006. PLA Navy air arm operates about twenty Kamov helicopters of the Ka28 and Ka-31 types. They share Kamov’s characteristic coaxial rotor layout. The Ka-

Mi-17

31 is a derivative of the Ka-28 with main difference being the powerful Oko observation radar. Nine Ka-31s were shipped to China in 2010-2011. Upon delivery of 32 Mi-17s in 2010-2011, Rosoboronexport won follow-on Chinese order for 52 more such helicopters in September 2012. A joint Sino-Russian group has been formed to address the issues of after sales support. It is now looking at the issue of setting up technical service centers to support Mi-17 series helicopters and their engines. Today, China operates three hundred Mi-8/17 rotorcraft. According to some experts, PRC may seek to eventually enlarge the number up to a thousand units through additional purchases in Russia and local assembly under license. Vladimir Karnozov


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