Page 43




mediocre '" orks for cenum occasions.

e~ t abl ished

gi\e u"' a la~te of Ihis very pa rt icular music" Ith Ihe requlred delicate

~ nsl ti vil)'.

One yCitr ago many anl ~[~ cx prcsscd thcir opposition to the possible danger of unre necled nombrilism IInd of a mere ~Oktobcrfe<;t"like Myle of cekbration in Il boycott. A fier the firsl six monlhs. however.

1can tcstiry thm ail t'len t" where people of differe nl origins have workcd logether 10 find Il solution .... ith relevant programs. havehad agreal effecl. Thcchorul meeling~ wu h the lr int ensive atel ier "ork. the fe~tive day of the youlh orchestras fil1ed with

rehcarsing oelN .... o rk ~. the cooperation bct .... een school children. )Ol.mg people, choral and spon .. a<;~ocialions. IImmeur acIers and singers. professionals and ama· leur~. the youn g and the not ~o young ..... cre :1 mov ing proof of the IOnovall\'(!' and crem Îve forces III our country. Succe~~ful team\\ork. especial ly III the smaller events of a more human dimension. proved 10 be rral highligh ts. These JOint effons are partlcutarly apprcciable ln our rich countl') wlth Its consumer ~iety As:a cultural contribution. the S\\ i~s R:adio publishec:l a chorat booklcl conmlnin g songs and chor:al arra ngements ln Ihe four languages ofSwitzerlandand a "European part as v.cll as vocal Jazz. Thousand~ of copies arc dismbuted free of charge and Il IS used for lhe five OlX'n Singlngs which are tnk mg place :Il diffcrcrn limes and al dlfferent place~ ail over Switzerl:md. Thus Ille puhlic and the people lislening 10 the r3dio are able to 5mg togelher "iTh the choirs.

••••• Fr a nk M an in : l n Terra Pa \ - Et la \ ie L' Empo r Ia Thi~

il> nodoubt a recordmg \\ hlch Will do Ju<;tlce 10 lhe work of one o f lhe mo,t nt luchlng poe tl cal mu,ician\of ourcentury. Obscr.lOg his tlme wllh open e}e:.. free from an) d(){!nUllI~m. Fran~ MI1I1In was able to find wlthm hls philosophieal and humalll~ t conVICtions the fennenb of hl ~ fcr\'ent and deepl) sincere musIc. The oTtllorio "In Terra Pax and his last work "Et la Vie l'Emportu'' are magnificcnl ilIUMrulions of that art. BOlh are perfeetly "ell mterpreted b) \1ichel Corbo;o:. who ~new lhe compo~rpcr:\Onnlly . This SWI~ ... conductor i5 clearly <inhablled" b) thl~ mUSIc. and he al"a)~ fincls lhe nght tone.-


lkse Open Singmg, are broadcast live in ail regions.-

(p ag!' 58 ) Ja n Dls mas Zelenk:l: l:uu enla l io nes Jer e m iae Pro phelae Counttess composers "rote Lamemauons oft~ Prophet 1eremiah bel"een the XV llh MId the XVll it h cemur). Jan Dismas Zclenka was noe,'(ceptIOn, bul he wrote his 1I1 a ratheroriginal way: he onl} compo~ed rwo lamcntation~ instc:ld of the three usual ones for each da}. The \~ork con~ists of a succession of solo cammas. the natural ~usterity of whlch is remforced b) an Instrumentat ion m the [o"er ranges. Onl) the concluding section~ ure more ornale and therdore escape The ~ombre ~eneru l mood. Kurt Widmer. Guy de Mc)' and, mcne ail. René Jacob~. atthe heighl ofhis art. inlerprelt neS(' Lamcnuuions" ith great rt'J'\.ou r and rigour .•

••••• Codu Engelber g llke mi'") of ilS homo logue, the &nedietine MonasteryofEngelberg. in an liOlaled Swiss valle)'. has in its posse~~ion lI'\3nuscfÎpts wh leh are proof of n conl ln ut'd. more or less ~ignific(lnl. mu~ical ac tivit) \ltlCe the m iddlt' (lge~. The collection of lOngs and poelry no" prc<;CT\cd 10 Codc~ ~14 of the M on a~ l cl') 's libm!) offcrs Il .tlque in~igh[ lOto the music \\ riucn arourK! I ~ ln thut area. Il conlain, q)ngs in Latin and Gennan whreh ni firsl ~ight appear 100mCwhal conservalive in companson 10 lbr French "ar~ ~ ublil ior ". bu t the~ are uperbl)' rcprcSt'OI:l1 ive of the da"n of polyphony. The ~mger~ of the Schola Cantoru m "110't' compcteO!:c I~ \\cU

In nue nl ial composers or Ihe cho r al mo\e m ent in Ihe basque cou ntr). by Jose l u is t\nsor e na (page '- 1 Ge ner al inform aI ion The blrth of the choral movemenl 10 thc b'L<,que COOftry in the 19thcentury issimilar tO tha[ whlch 1001.. place in The parts of SpalO whlch were pioncers in this arca: Cmaluna. Canmbria and Levante. The characterisllcl> peculiar to the ba~ue country are connected "Ilh the place 10 .... hlch the mo\ ement IS encouraged \\ IIh the dale~. objeclhes and" ith the panlcular problem "hieh rt'~ulted in basque brIOS u~ed in profane pol~ phone sînce thls language" as alTeady emplo)'ed in the 18th centul') in religiou~ pol) phone. ThIs phcnomenon has alread) becn the ~ ubJCct of ,tud) and. Il I( pœ..entl) m) imention 10 illu,trale the course ta~en b) eomposers \~ ho. through their ~core\. \u~tumed the earl} c ho ral mo\emem Clcarl} . the influenc{" of re~ident compoq'1'i of !he basque eountl} "as gTe31Cr but i[ mUM be adnol' ledged that man) compo;,en; pral)ed an Imponant role. from abroad. fOi e~!lmple \ Iadnd \\here lhe RoyalConstrvatol') the homeofse\ eml prominent figure~ ln ba~que music.


Let us rcmembcr 'tralghla.... a) thlll Il IS more appropriale. "hen talklO{! of origlO\ to lal~ of the art of band pla) mg rlilheT Ihat the choml mo\ement gi\en that the ri~t "x:al group~ .... cre ealled " t-and~ ~ and consisted solcl) of men ..... ho intcrprcled mu,ic de~i~ned for the "010 \OICC. Their main aim "a~ to propogale H)Cal " II capellu '. ml,.~lc. prefcrabl} profane und 111\ poo.~jble 10 -.ee thl" ldea a... areaction again~l basque musIc \\hlch did nOl .... nte for the ~olce "ilhout II1strumcn lal uccompanl~menl .

ThroughoUl the dC\elopment of nlu, ic. m.. trumental en'\Cmble had taken on theiT o"n pe~onalit) and had an e1(ten~i\C \\ nllen repenOire tll lb dl",po,al. Thc-.e \ ocal ensemble had 10 1I1w achie\ e thll>. Earllcr pol)phofliSh 10 the haroquc penod had abandoned their wrincn \\oorl.. III cnncentrate on rnl'\;ed \ (lice ehoi rs. There aft! no exccption, to Ihe pre-.enl d::ue, Sinct th.: bcgmnmg of the 19th centul') .

compo>.ef<; Ii~e Rossini frequentl) WTOle for chOlrs with deep (low J vOlees but ne\ er \\ Ith accompaniernent. Prinl ed music. Thl!. became cSlabhshed in Ihe basque eountl') allhe begmnmg of the 19thcentul') . Duc to thl ... the diffu!.lon of scores flo"ed much more quickly. However. dunng the whole first half of the century. it i~ the theme of religion whlch contmues 10 dom male in prlmed music. The publishin{! hou:.c Bonifllcio E~Ja\' a dl'mibutcd. from \1adnd. a large numbcrof scores by ba-.que composer; such as thase of I~ uncle Hilarion E ... la\1I t Burlada 1828-1893 ). Mariano Garela CAoiz 1809-18691. CinacoGlméncl Hugalde t Pamplona 1828-IS93). Rem iSlo O'iCozCalahorra (Villurrnnca 183J-18991. Ambrosio Amola fElorrio 1833- 18661. FelipeGorriti (Hlune Araquit 1839-18961. etc,. ail are reliSIOtIs \\ork~ "ith organ accompamement "hich \\ en[ agalO~1 the alm~ of Ihe ne\\ choral 010 \ ement. The elde~t of the baMjUC compoS('~ mcnlloned here. Hllanon E.. lu\a. \\a~ [he main figure hcad of Spanlsh musIc of the 191h cenlury. 1le nOI onl~ hud hi5 works published b) different «Iilor\ but al~o wrote 10 1860 hi~ Bre\'e memoriu hl~t6rica de la \1u\lcti ReliglOsa en Espana , a .... on. 10 \\ hich he e~tabhshed a "a) of cI~!.lfying the di fferenl fonns of re!igious mu~ic. The lirst fonn. mo,1 characteri~tic of Ihl" [emple. is solel) vocal music. Il is ~Irnngc 10 ... ce thal after 1860 he contlnue ~ composing m:l~se" . ~al\e. mOieiS. IitaOl~ elC'. "ilh organ or orehe~tral accompaniemenl. thu,> contradlctlOg the~ prlOciples. Wilh [he e,ception of hi~ J operas. il cun be ~atd thut a catalogue ofhis \\ort.. contam<; nOlhmg hut religious mU)lc. Le[ us. howe\ cr concentrate on Ihls imponant exception. Itconcern~ ~ Elamanecer. l'oro a \ oce~ sola~. dedlcado al Orfe6n Lendano ·. Thi~ \Core l, the oldes! of liS klOd "hich mu) br llttnbutcd 10 a basque compœ.er. The tille read~ : "Biblioteca popular de Orfeonc .. ) Sociedades coralc\ de Espana". Thl~ '.lorI.. "as perfonned in Bilbao fanfare. under the direClion or Eduardo At1(utegul. The prestige eno)ed b~ Hilarion ~Ia\ a meant thal e\'en ci\ ihan choir'i IOterpreted other "orl..... of hls fnr 'iUl0 \ oiee desplte the rcpertOire nOI bcmg \ery rich for deep \oice~. \izca~'an

composers in the 191h c~ nlur~ .

ln mu~jctll clrcle\ m Vi7Ctl}a. and more panlcularl) m the lo "n of BIlbao. the prc~lIge of the comp<l'oCr Nicolru. Lede~ma (Gmel 1791-1883). iluthor of mlln) rcliglou~ mu"c ~COH', "ilh a"companiement. "a, legendal') lib "orks "ere nOI \ultahle rorband~. In "'plte tJfthl~. alll.'mpt~ ai mlll~ 10 find intenned lat) \(Jlutlons m order to get Ihc great mn-ter ~no .... n outside Bilbao "cre c:on,,\tent. gl\cn ail the Imponant mu~ical teachmg. encouragement und guidance A\clmo Agulrre (Bilbao 1838-1t}()1 1 '.lU' anothercompo<'cr\\ hO\\:L' ImO\\ n in Bllban Ihrough hl' .. tu{he" at Madnd and Milan. Il,, departure for Argcnlina marred hl' ropuhlrlt~. t'Iut hefore thill time he ha<! alread)' \\ nUen fnr Ihe 811b:lo band "Canto il Terc.. a" \\ hlch \\ a~ frc4uCntl) perfonncd III [he 1860s. The proliferalton ofbands 10 Virc!!):1 mealll Ihat It "a~ more than neecssaT) 10 haH: il propcr repcrtOlfC. Allcr the band of Bill>ao and Santa Cecilia "hich had .'>Cen plcnt} nf changes dunnll thclT bncf e1(i~Tencc. the "Sociedud Coral de Bilbao". appcared ln 11(!!6. the band" hich was gOlng 10 pcrfonn glonously.

Pre\ iou ... en..cmb,e~ had been led by non· composlOg mU~IC l an~. The new Bilbao band. suecc~~fully dlrected by Cleto Zabala (Bilbao IS'-7- 1912JandAurelianodcl Valle t Bilbao 1&46-191 ~I. found 10 them nunured mlenlto !.uppl) Ih~ necessury repenoirc:: of personal ~ore~ . Cleto Zabala composed in success ion "Eu~~aldun jaio ginan··. "Zonzil..o bat Gemikari " :md "la ea7a dei cor,ano". Aureliuno Valle cOll1po~ed olhcr ,ocre~ and graduall)' undcrtook the changco\erlO c horal "orh unl\e~lIy "ell ~no"n . A c haracteristic e ~umple of This "a~ h" adaptation for -.010 \OIee of Don Giovanni b}' Mozart wllh Il,, famous fugue v.hieh. according to the pape!'>. wa.<;the rea~on for IT~ ~UCCf'," Aillong hi~ original ~c()rc" figure m the rcpcrtoire of lhe Sociedad COrlll hi ... "ZonzILo" and his barearola "En la pla)a", Valentin Zublaurrc (GarJ) 1M37- 191.l) v.a~ equaHy a compo.;erof great pre~lIge . [\ has been a pnviteged pupil of Hilari6n E~lavu and from 1R78 hl" l>ucce~~or iii che Ro}al Chapel in the arch1\le" of which :s greal number of h" lIlul>ical manuscript~ are to be fourK! . HI~ con<;tant vi~lts 10 hi~ place of blnh enabled hlm [0 malOtalO lhe contact "ith lhe band movemcnt m Vlzca)'a. He "a~ on the Jud~emenl panel 01 many differentcompctillons. The choral 'iOCietle~ pcrfonned h i ~ moteb for solo voice, and the choin, hi~ IltL"<jue opera ·· Ledia". In 1885. his "Cantata a la memoria dei ilustre basc6fi1o Don Pedro Pablo de A~1Qrloo ". for chOir and orehe~tra wn .. the fiNt perfonnance at the i:'a!.que festes 01 DurJngo Composen.ofGulpUZCOR III the 19thcenTury Il 1<' onl) right t0 pay tribute to Jo..c JUlin Sante... teban as patriarch of mU~le who. fonn San Scba~tân emanaled a clant) of ideasand mU~lealopllmi~m. Inall faime",s. \\C can cali hlm Ihe fa ther of Ihe chorJ.l mo\'ernenl III GUlpUlCOU. Born in Suntander m 1809 frorn Il we ll-todo famll} "'hich wal> brough 10 ruin in 1813 b) fire in the de!>truction of the town by Wellmg ton', lTUOp .... The populallon was ph)'sicaJl) and mor.tlly crushed. The recon .. lructlon of the to .... n m 1828 and the nommation of 115 us ma~ter of the chapel of the Sa'lta Maria parish in 1104 enable hlm 10 bc a" are of hi~ role a.. the ~aviour of the mu~ical culture ofhis peopel :IIId he de\oted ail hi, mtelligence to the \eT\lce ofreliglou~ music.leachlllg music and papular mu~ic. In 1854. he opcned u mU~lcshop.the lirst ofll~ kmd mGuipulCO:1. He wa.~ "riling Zortzlko~ and ail kind ~ of diffcrent 'ong". pas~acai l les. hymn~.danee wnrk~ :lI the rcquc~tofSan Sebastilln aroup\ "hom he refu..cd nothsng [n 183') he .... "" named dlfcctor of the Cil} phi Ihannon le to ... hlch he gllve great energy. ln 1!\.l~. he founded the municipal nrchc .. trI1 , Gz\cn thal each oflhe poputar\OCietle~ had thclr O"n linle in<;trumcntal groups. he munaged on renain occa~ion~ to unify enonnous groul'\of300 mu_ici:m\, ~lIIger .. mcluded. ln IM5. he founded the lir~t ..ecure (horal group. the San Scb:I ~tian band de~cribed here b) Antonio Penil }' Goni. pupil of SanlC5lehan" il' fundamcntal ba.-.c. acnrdmg to the fi,.,t artide of the rule~ reuted ln thl~ regard ..... a~ 10 propagalc \ocal mu~ie . 1had the pri~ ilegc of bcmS muned 'iCcretary of thi~ lirst choral"oclet} Thc San Sebastian band rcndcred Immea.. urablc ,;;erviccs and <,encd a brillanl cureer. el was the turOig point for al choral ~ociclles "hich "cre Iiller bom and" hlch mndc San Seba'tnlll a