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I C A REER P LU S Volume-1/issue-III

WHAT WE ARE ?? I career plus is a monthly magazine, published in English/Hindi language. The Magazine endeavours to enable its readers to face the challenges of globalization economy. It provides in -depth information and career guidance. I career plus will also provide regarding general knowledge, solution , questionnaires , entertainment , sports updates, crime’s, national / international news etc.. to help you achieve career dreams.


Page no.

1) About us 01 2) Editor Eye. 02 2) Articles 3,4, 4) Academic i) Science 31,32 ii)Commerce 17,18,19,20,21 iii) Maths Formula 36,37,38 5) Competitive i)SSC/PO/UPSC15,16,33,34,35 6) Professional i)CA 10 ii) CS 11 iii) CMA 12 iv) Law 05 v) IT Level 27,28 7) COMPUTER TRICKS 29,30 Fundamental Rights 6,7 8) Develop Your Skills 8,9 9) News Of The Month i) NEWS 39,40,41,42 This magazine is published 10,000 copies in English / Hindi both languages and it will ii) SPORTS 43,44,45 be circulated all over India includes competition preparing coaching centres, regular colleges, universities, distance institutes, schools, local stall / book shops, Delhi library 10) Delhi hot Spots 46 and all govt. Sector includes ugc, dec, all state govt. Secretaries, all state pr, all state cm, all psu chairman, Ph.D., rni office, pci, bci,mci,mhrd, income tax commissioner, service tax commissioner, sales tax commissioner, all political parties office..




Editor in chief Dr. S.K.Singh Associate Editor Dr.Sailendra Chatterjee Dr. Sanjeev Sharma Special Correspondent R.K.Singh (Advocate SC of India ) Production Anjum Saurabh Kumar Marketing/Circulation Vishal Shaini Vishal Gautam Chintu Kumar Vivek Kr. Singh Brij Raj Singh Design & Layout Subhash Kumar HR & Administration J.N.Patel (Advocate ) Abhishek Kumar Singh (CA) Editorial Team can be contacted at : A-123 ,Gali no :2 , Metro Pillar no:36 , Shakarpur ,Near Laxmi Nagar Metro Station , Delhi-92 Subsciption& Corporate Sales Contact : Kanhai Kumar Subhash Kumar

(All information in ICP is obtained from source that the management consider reliable, and is disseminated to readers without any responsibility on our part . Any opinions or views on any contemporary or past topics, issues or developments expressed by third parties, whether in abstract or in interviews, are not necessarily shared by us. Copyrights reserved throughout the world. Reproduction of any material of this magazine in whole, or in part(s), in any manner, without prior permission, is totally prohibited .The publisher accepts no responsibility for any material lost or damaged in transit. The publisher reserves the right to refuse, without or there wise deal with any advertisement without explanation. All disputes are subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of competent courts in New Delhi only.) Name of the Printing Press M/S. BHARAT GRAPHICS C-83, OKHALA IND AREA, PHASE-I NEW DELHI-110020 Notes:In this magazine all content’s are being collected from various sources, if in any case any content is similar to anyone, in that case we are highly apologized and intentionally we are not doing this.


HELP LINE : 011-22043114

Executive Team

Today is the world of competition every person is involving to prepare any competition for achieving a reputed place in the society, thus education of each and every person was also dependent upon the scope and demand of industries as well as the government. Nowadays, the education scenario those jobs and courses which were not popular in ten years ago, are in boom now which require hardcore study material for understanding and advance techniques to solve them. This magazine has been designed with a view to giving and outlook of various career options available in today’s competitive era. Our endeavor has been to educate the students of various sections starting from the aspirants of civil services, banking sectors, staff selection commission jobs, or even for the students preparing for various entrance examinations of management, law, mass communication and hotel management . We will be grateful to you if you give us your valuable suggestions to improve the magazine further. Anticipating your positive feedback Sincerely yours Editor in chief Dr. S.K.Singh “If you have Knowledge, There is no Dearth of jobs for you”


HELP LINE : 011-22043114 When life is busy, or all your energy is focused on a special project, it’s all too easy to find yourself off balance, not paying enough attention to important areas of your life. While you need to have drive and focus if you’re going to get things done, taking this too far can lead to frustration and intense stress.

The Wheel of Life...

That’s when it’s time to take a “helicopter view” of your life, so that you can bring things back into balance. This is where the Wheel of Life® (or Life Wheel) can help. Commonly used by professional life coaches, it helps you consider each area of your life in turn and assess what’s off

balance. As such, it helps you identify areas that need more attention. Figure 1 below shows an example wheel of life with example “dimensions” (we’ll explain how to choose the right areas of life or dimensions for you below).

Wheel of Life Example The Wheel of Life is powerful because it gives you a vivid visual representation of the way your life is currently, compared with the way you’d ideally like it to be. It is called the “Wheel of Life” because each area of your life is mapped on a circle, like the spoke of a wheel. The concept was originally created by Paul J. Meyer, founder of Success

Motivation® Institute, Inc. Using the Tool There are two ways you can use this tool. One is to use our interactive Wheel of Life tool below (click on the diagram to activate it). Alternatively, use the following steps to create your Wheel of Life and assess your balance. (This allows you to define your own dimensions.)

Wheel of Life Template 1. Brainstorm Life Areas Start by brainstorming the 6 to 8 dimensions of your life that are important for you. Different approaches to this are: •The roles you play in life, for example: husband/wife, father/ mother, manager, colleague, team member, sports player, community leader, or friend. •Areas of life that are important to you, for example: artistic expression, positive attitude, career, education, family, friends, financial freedom, physical challenge, pleasure, or public service.


•Your own combination of these (or different) things, reflecting the things that are your priorities in life. 2. Write These Down on the Wheel Write down these dimensions on the Wheel of Life diagram, one on each spoke of the life wheel. 3. Assess Each Area This approach assumes that you will be happy and fulfilled if you can find the right balance of attention for each of these dimensions.


How to Live the Best Life You Can : 1 Start off by looking at yourself. Not in comparison to anyone else, but just look at yourself. Ask yourself these questions. • Who am I ? • Where do I currently stand in my life ? • What role do I play in others lives? (Sister, mother, friend, role model, teacher, partner, etc..) • Am I living to my fullest potential ? • Am I happy? Fulfilled? At peace ? • Why, or why not ?

Key Points The Wheel of Life is a great tool to help you improve your life balance. It helps you quickly and graphically identify the areas in your life to which you want to devote more energy, and helps you understand where you might want to cut back. The challenge now is to transform this knowledge and desire for a more balanced life into a positive program of action

2 One huge mistake : One huge mistake people make in their lives is sheltering themselves from pain. Hiding from the truth. Denying reality. DEATH exists. Become at peace with that. MURDERS and RAPE and DISEASES happen. Accept it. Once you face the facts that life isn’t all rainbows and butterflies, you will be more prepared to handle tough situations, and you won’t take disappointment as such a shock.

3 Determine which people in your life : Determine which people in your life are actually worth your care. Eliminate all the fake friends and the users from your list, and list only those who make you feel happy when you’re around them. Now make an effort to spend more time around those people, and less time around the people who do no good for you or your life. It’s okay to be a little selfish in this sense every once in a while. Just be sure you give back an equal amount to what you take (and that doesn’t only mean physical things, but emotional needs, as well).

Brief summery in next edition………



Non-profit Company- The creation of Article 19(1)(c) of the Constitution An association can be formed under Article 19 (1)(c) of the Constitution of India. A Non Profit Organization can 2013be registered in India as a Society, under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 or as a Trust, by making a Trust deed. A third option is registration as a section 8 of the Companies Act, 2013 w.e.f. FRIDAY, AUGUST 30, 2013( old section-25 of the Companies Act, 1956 ). Whether a trust, society or section-8 company, the Income Tax Act, 1961 gives all categories equal treatment, in terms of exempting their income and granting 80G certificates, whereby donors to non-profit organizations may claim a rebate against donations made. Foreign contributions to non-profits are governed by FC(R)A regulations and the Home Ministry. For an organization to be termed as Charity it requires Income tax clearances under 12 A Clause of Income Tax Act. Section 2(15) of the Income Tax Act defines ‘charitable purpose’ to include‘relief of the poor, education, medical relief and the advancement of any other object of general public utility’. A purpose that relates exclusively to religious teaching or worship is not considered as charitable.

REGISTRATION Registering a Non Profit association in India can be done in a total of four ways: • Trust ( both Central and State Acts like the Bombay Public Trusts Act, 1950 ) • Society ( both Central and State Acts ) • Company under Section-8 of the Companies Act, 2013 ( old section-25 of the Companies Act, 1956 ) • Special Licensing Society: Charitable societies, military orphan funds or societies established at the several presidencies of India, societies established for the promotion of science, literature, or the fine arts, for instruction, the diffusion of useful knowledge, the diffusion of political education, the foundation or maintenance of libraries or reading rooms for general use among the members or open to the public, or public museums and galleries of paintings and other works of art, collection of natural history, mechanical and philosophical inventions, instruments or designs In addition to registration, a non-profit engaged in certain activities might also require special license/permission. Some of these include (but are not limited to): 1. A place of work in a restricted area (like a tribal area or a border area requires a special permit – the Inner Line PERMIT – usually issues either by the Ministry of Home Affairs or by the relevant local authority (i.e., district magistrate).


2. To open an office and employ people, the NGO should be registered under the Shop and Establishment Act. 3. To employ foreign staff, an Indian non-profit needs to be registered as a trust/society/company, have FCRA registration and also obtain a No Objection Certificate. The intended employee also needs a work visa. 4. A foreign not-for-profit may be registered as a branch, liaison or project office [and not necessarily as an Indian entity] after the requisite permission has been granted by the RBI. Upon receipt of approval from the RBI, the foreign office must within 30 days seek registration under the Companies Act, 1956. Alongside of these permissions, the office must acquire tax registrations. The Doctrine of basic structure: NON-PROFIT COMPANY is unique creature of the Companies Act but the Constitution of India has the over riding effect upon it. The salient feature of the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the Company comprising TWO ORGANS such as Managing Committee ( Governing body ) and Board of Directors ( ornamental body ) or vice versa, being basic structure cannot abolish each other by any special resolution, nor Ministry of Corporate Affairs, nor Parliament can abolish it. THE DOCTRINE OF ULTRA VIRES TO COMPANY: Any amendment made in the Memorandum and Articles of Association without the prior sanction of the Government or without obtaining the fresh incorporation certificate from the Registrar of Companies is ultra vires to the Company, hence, null and void. The Companies Act, 2013 Section 8(4) (i) A company registered under this section shall not alter the provisions of its memorandum or articles except with the previous approval of the Central Government. PENAL PROVISION: The Companies Act, 2013 section 8 (11) If a company makes any default in complying with any of the requirements laid down in this section, the company shall, without prejudice to any other action under the provisions of this section, be punishable with fine which shall not be less than ten lakh rupees but which may extend to one crore rupees and the directors and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees, or with both: Provided that when it is proved that the affairs of the company were conducted fraudulently, every officer in default shall be liable for action under section 447. CONCLUSION: The incorporation certificate granted by the Registrar of Companies is birth certificate of the Company and the Company is always the Dominus Litis, juristic person with perpetual succession and common seal.


Right to Information Act 2005 India’s right to Information Enacted on 15th June 2005. Substantively comes into effect on 12th October 2005 . Covers the whole of India except the State of J&K. Covers entire Central / State Government / Public Sector. (Including Government funded organizations / institutions, Schools, hospitals, NGOs.) Why right to information? Right to Information is a Fundamental Right and guaranteed as per Article 19 and 21 of the Constitution of India. It is part of the Fundamental Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression recognized by the Constitution and various Supreme Court decisions. Spirit of Disclosure To generally provide all information to the public. Information which cannot be denied to Parliament will not be refused to a citizen. Even the decisions of the Cabinet and basis thereof are to be made public. Even exempted information to be disclosed if in “public interest” or if public Interest outweighs loss to private interest. Preparation Manuals i The particulars of its organizations functions and duties. ii The powers and duties of its officers and employees. iii The procedure followed in its decision making process, including channels of supervision and accountability. iv The norms set by it for the discharge of its functions. v The rules, regulations, instructions, manuals and records used by its employees for discharging its functions. vi A statement of the categories of the documents held by it or under its control. vii The particulars of any arrangement that exists for consultation with or representation by the members of the public, in relation to the formulation of policy or implementation there of. viii A statement of the boards, councils, committees and other bodies consisting of two or more persons constitute by it. Additionally, information as to whether the meetings of these are open to the public or the minutes of such meeting are accessible to the public. ix A directory of its officers and employees. x The monthly remuneration received by each of its officers and employees, including the system of compensation as provided in its regulations.


xi The budget allocated to each of its agency indicating the particulars of all plans, proposed expenditure and reports on disbursements made. xii The manner of execution of subsidy programmes, including the amounts allocated and the details and beneficiaries of such programmes. xiii Particulars of recipients of concessions, permits or authorizations granted by it. xiv Details of the information available to, or held by it reduced in an electronic form. xv The particulars of facilities available to citizen for obtaining information, including the working hours of a library or reading room, if maintained for public use. xvi The names, designation and other particulars of the Public Information Officers. Salient Features of the Act As per Sec.2(i) the Public can get information on the following which includes records, documents, memos, e mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, log books, contracts, reports, samples, models, data/material in electronic form. As per Sec.3 of the Act the citizens shall have the right to information. Appointment of Public Information Officer/Assistant Public Information Officer. As per Section 5(i) every Public authority shall designate PIO in all administrative Unit / Offices as may be necessary with the following. a Set up their Front Offices b Give them Facilities c Computer, Net-working, Staff to afford assistance to Public. Sec.5(2) provides powers to AIPOs to receive application from the public and to forward it to PIO. Senior-most Officer shall be appointed as AIPO. Sec.5(3) 1 To receive applications from Public for information or appeals under this Act. 2 To deal with requests of persons seeking information and render reasonable assistance to the persons seeking information. 3 Forward the same to PIO/Appellate Authority / Commission (Central/State), as the case may be. 4 Applications pertaining to other Public Authority shall also have to be accepted vide Sec.6(3). 5 To dispose off requests by written orders (Sec.7). 6 To render reasonable assistance to persons seeking information. Brief summery in next edition……….5(4)




Top 10 Tips on Writing a Good Resume All of us study for almost half of our lives just with the aim to do something big in the life ahead. We nurture for ourselves some dreams and ambitions keeping in mind which we struggle all our childhood and most of our youth. The success of a person and caliber of his abilities is judged on the basis of the work he does and the progress he has made. Getting a good job remains the primary concern for every graduate be it from any field. Your job decides your fate from there on. Most of the people these days are in through the campus interviews while some go for walk in interviews after checking vacancies in the firm they desire. Some employers even publish ads in newspapers for recruitment’s So opportunities are many it simply depends on your ability to capture it. Yes it is important to have good quali-

fications but it is also equally important to know how to present and portray your potential. The first step on your quest to bag a job is the CV or Resume. The CV sets your first impression on the interviewer way before than you can actually see him or her. Thus having a great CV and understanding the needs of the job profile you are applying for is important. Thus you need to know what kind of resume you should make so as to bag an interview and make the interviewer consider you. The resume must be elaborate , up to the point , crisp and comprehensive. It must give the piece of information that is needed by the employer for that job. So no matter how well you can speak what determines your fate is how well you write your CV. There are a few guidelines that you should keep in mind. The following are 10 tips that can help you make a concrete CV and

1.Pro help

3. Over writing

hen you write your CV make sure you have a properly A pro is a professional. Since CV’s are so important in the com- W planned format and the matter to be included ready with you.

petitive world there is a whole new department where in there are people who are professionals in CV writing. These experts know how to write and what to write depending upon your need. When you not sure about how to go about with your CV seek their help. They will charge you of course but it is worth an investment if it can assure your entry into your dream company.

2. Highlight

This is a very important practice because as I mentioned ear-

lier your employers are very busy and do not have whole day to read the CV’s. So you need some way to get their attention. Highlight certain area of your CV that is most important. Use bullets or underline them. For example if you were promoted in your last job so mention that and underline that or use a slightly bigger font there or use some bullet there that directly takes his attention there. Use such tricks to make them see what you want them to see.


Do not be into practice that your are thinking and writing your CV like some essay. Keep a note ready that has all the points to be included mentioned on it. After you have included all the details go ahead and cross check that all the points on the note are covered in the CV. Read your CV at least 3 times in detail to check any possible error. Check your personal info and make sure your e mail and phone number are mentioned correctly. Only then finalize the CV and get it printed. Never over write the CV. Any error go ahead and correct the hard copy and get a new print out.

4. Condition I

t is not only the lay out of your CV and its presentation that is important but also the state or condition in which it reaches the interviewer is important. If you are sending your application by post then make sure the CV reaches in a crisp condition. Use A4 envelopes to post your CV. Do not fold your CV. If you going


5. Choose wisely

There are hundreds of vacancies out there. It also depends how you choose an employer. When you planning to apply check very well what are the requirements of that position and do you have all that is required. Once you sure than apply there. While adding descriptions on the CV choose wisely which experience or skill of yours is suitable for that position and emphasis on that. Like if you applying for marketing job emphasis on your communication skill and influencing ability. Give your past sale experiences.

6. Be honest

Always try to give a detailed in sight of your qualification. But do not randomly go on stating anything to set an impression. Remember you are required to present all the documents to the company if you get hired. So never write any lie in the resume. If you do not have a particular qualification then just forget about it. Do not give wrong details nor go for forged documents. The employers are way smarter than you think. Be honest and if you do not have some required qualification on certificate then use some of your past experience relative to it as a substitute.

7. Job experience

This is definitely the most important part on your resume. The employer is the most interested in finding out what have you done earlier and how well were you in your job. When you write about your job experience mention the profile very well. The status of your work there. Use positive and assertive language and mention your achievements throughout your stay there. If you were involved with some other activities in the company than state that. Mention your recent experience with most detailing as it determines a lot about the offer that you might get.

8. Presentation

the resume sets your impression. It shows how well you plan you plan things and can take care of. Always have a printed resume. Make sure that the font is even and big enough to be read without any burden on the eye. Do not use colours on the resume nor use a colored paper. Do not add your picture unless and until specified. Try to keep it as professional as possible. If you want to add to the presentation use a font that you think adds to the style. Make a great looking yet formal resume.

9. Correct order

Just presenting a piece of paper that has your information is not enough. You need to know how to present the information. The pattern in which you write the CV is very important. The first thing that any employer would want to know is your name and probably the age etc. Include your personal info followed by your qualifications and then your work experiences. Write in ascending order with the latest work experience in the last and more elaborated than the rest as it is what interests them the most- your current status. Have a crisp format which makes going through your information easier.

10. Not lengthy

Remember this thing that the people you are forwarding your resume to are really busy people and the position you are aiming for is the target for many. So there will be many resumes reaching your employer along with yours. He or she obviously does not have the time to go through the entire lot reading each and every detail. So they already are in need of reasons to reject CV’s. When you present a CV that is 4 pages long it is a perfect reason for them to avoid it. Include all your information but make sure your CV is not more than 2 pages. Try to shortlist your qualifications and include only those that are required for that particular job.

Brief summery in next edition………

Like your appearance and personality makes an impact on the interviewer the same is applicable to your resume. The look of



CA (Chartered Accountancy)

Careers in finance and accounts have gained tremendous popularity in the last decade. In accountancy the most prestigious career option is that of a Chartered Accountant. Chartered Accountants hold key position in firms. Moreover under the Company’s Act, only CA’s are entitled to be appointed as auditors in companies. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) is a statutory body that was set up to regulate the profession of chartered accountants.

The Route to CA - Step-by-Step

Under the existing chartered accountancy scheme of education, training and examination, the requirements for becoming a chartered accountant are as follows:

FAQ CPT (Common Proficiency Test)

•CPT is an entry level test of four subjects i.e. Accounting, Mercantile Laws, General Economics and Quantitative Aptitude. Examinations are conducted in June and December. •Enroll with the Institute for Common Proficiency Test (CPT) after passing class 10th examination conducted by an examining body constituted by law in India or an examination recognized by the Central Government as equivalent thereto. •Appear in CPT after appearing in the senior secondary examination (10+2 examination) conducted by an examining body constituted by law in India or an examination recognized by he Central Government as equivalent thereto and after completion of specified period (60 days)from the date of registration for CPT

Intermediate (IPC)

This is first stage of CA curriculum wherein only working knowledge of core and allied subjects to accountancy profession is covered. The subjects of IPCC are classified into two groups which


a student can study and appear in the examination group-wise or both the groups together. •After passing CPT, enrol for Group I or Group II or for both Group I and Group II of Integrated Professional Competence ( IPC) Course. ( Please note that B.Com/M.Com with 55% marks and non-commerce Graduates/Post Graduates with 60% marks will get Direct Entry to IPCC without the need for appearing for CPT Exam) •Appear and pass Group I as well as Group II of Integrated Professional Competence Examination (IPCE). Group I is composed of four papers and Group II is composed of three papers. Register as Articled Assistant for a period of 3 years, on passing either Group I or both the Groups of IPCE.

CA Final

CA Final covers advanced application knowledge of core subjects like financial reporting, strategic financial management, advanced management accounting, advanced auditing and professional ethics and information systems control and audit •After passing Intermediate (IPC), Register for CA Final Course and prepare for CA Final Examination. •Complete 3 years period of articled training. •Appear in the Final Examination on completion of the practical training or while serving last 6 months of articled training on or before the last day of the month preceding the month in which the examination is to be held. •Pass final examination and complete GMCS, if not completed earlier. •Enroll as a member of ICAI and designate as “Chartered Accountant”. For more details visit the official site of ICAI HELP LINE : 011-22043114


HELP LINE : 011-22043114 CS (Company Secretary)

With the increasing importance of Corporate Governance, the role of a company secretary has become even more prominent over the past couple of years. Any company/organization that has a paid-up capital that exceeds Rs. 5 crores requires a company secretary to administer legal matters of that company. This norm has been laid down by the Companies Act. A company secretary is one of the main officers on the board members of any company. In order to pursue a company secretary career, there are certain aspects that aspiring company secretaries should be aware of. Few such aspects include- the eligibility conditions or who can pursue a career in this field, the types of company secretary courses offered, institutes extending these academic programs, admission procedure, time of entrance examination and finally the job prospects. Information about these important aspects has been dealt with in this write up. Read on to know more about each.

The Route to CS - Step-by-Step

The Institute of Company Secretaries of India or ICSI conducts the company secretary course in 3 parts, namely, Foundation course, Executive course, and Professional course. Foundation Course

Foundation course.

Eligibility for Final/ Professional Course After having qualified in the Executive course, a student is eligible to study the final course.

Company Secretary Training

A Student has to undergo 15 months Management Training in Companies sponsored by the Institute after passing the Executive or Professional Programme or under the guidance of a Company Secretary in Practice. After qualifying Professional Examination and on successful completion of training a candidate is admitted as an Associate Member of the ICSI and can use the letters ACS after his/her name i.e. Associate Company Secretary. Admission to the CS Course is open throughout the year. Examinations are held twice a year in June & December.

New Syllabus ( 2013)

Students who register now onwards will have to write the exam under the New Syllabus ( 2013). For more details please visit the oďŹƒcial site of ICS1

The minimum educational qualification required to apply for a company secretary foundation course is 10+2 in any stream. Students who have appeared in their class XII exam and are waiting for their results are also eligible for the course. However, the final year students have to produce pass certificate within 6 months from the time of admission. After completing the Foundation course, the students can apply for the Executive course. Examinations are conducted in June and December.

Executive Course

Graduates of all streams except Fine Arts are eligible for a company secretary executive course. Candidates who are qualified in Foundation course and are below 17 years of age can also apply for executive program. ICAI and ICWAI students, graduates, post graduates can take direct admission into Executive without having the need to complete



CMA / ICWA (Cost and Management Ac- Intermediate Course Minimum qualification : Passed CWA Foundation/ Graduation in countancy)

The Route to CMA / ICWA - Step-by-Step The Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India ( Now The Institute of Cost Accountants of India) conducts the exam for the ICWAI qualification. The foundation course of the ICWAI qualification is open to students completing the class 10+2 equivalent examination in any discipline, once they complete 17 years of age.

There are three stages to pursue Cost Accountant course :

FOUNDATION COURSE Foundation course is an entry level exam of four subjects i.e. Accounting, Mercantile Laws, General Economics and Quantitative Aptitude. Minimum qualification is 10+2 examination or any examination equivalent thereto, recognized by the Institute. Examinations are conducted in June and December.


Final Course

A student who have passed Intermediate Examination of the Institute are eligible for admission to Final Course. New Syllabus ( 2012) Students who register now onwards will have to write the exam under the New Syllabus ( 2012). For more details please visit the official site of CMA

HELP LINE : 011-22043114

A Cost Accountant (CMA/ICWA) is a professional accountant by virtue of his/her being a member of the professional body of accountants conducting the cost accountancy course. The Institute of Cost Accountants of India (ICAI/ICWAI) is a statutory body that was set up to regulate the profession of cost accountants. Cost accountants enjoy good employability across all industies, in the private sector and the public sector and in the public sector, in the government, in the financial services sector, in consulting, and in academia. A cost accountant may also build up his own practice by obtaining a license from the institute, which would enable him to practice as a cost accountant.

any discipline other than Fine Arts/ Foundation (Entry Level) Part I Examination of CAT of ICWAI/ Foundation (Entry Level) Part I Examination and Competency Level Part II Examination of CAT of ICWAI. Age-your age should be not be less than 18 years.


PROFESSIONAL STUDIES 1.What is Capital? Ans: The excess of assets over outsider liabilities of an enterprise can be termed as capital. 2.Define Debtor? Ans: A person, who owes money to business, due to any sales made to him previously, is called debtor. 3.Define Creditor? Ans: A person to whom business owes money, due to any purchase made from him previously, is called creditor. 4.A-L=C, stands for what? Ans: This is an accounting equation where A stands for assets of entity L stands for liabilities of entity and C stands for capital. 5.What is contra entry? Ans: When both debit and credit aspect of a transaction are recorded in the same account but in different columns, each entry, whether in the debit side/in the credit side shall be deemed to be the contra entry of the other. 6.What is trial balance? Ans: At the end of the financial year the balance of all the ledger accounts are extracted and a schedule is prepared to test whether in fact, the total debit equals to total credit. This schedule of balances is called a trial balance. 7.What are the causes of depreciation? Ans: The principal causes of depreciation are as followsWear and tear use Effluxion of time Depletion Obsolescence 8.What is Re order level? Ans: Re order Level is the quantity for a stock item. When Stockin-hand- reaches the quantity, you should place order for suppliers. 9.What stands for TDS? Ans: TDS stands for Tax Deducted at Sources. 10.What are fictitious assets? Ans: Fictitious assets are assets which are not visible, they are imaginary assets, and they are not real. 13.What is discount? Ans: A deduction made from the normal cost or purchase price is called discount. 14.What is Intangible asset? Ans: Intangible assets are defined as those non-monetary assets that cannot be seen, touched or physically measured and which


are created through time and/or effort. 15.What is EMI? How is it calculated? Ans: EMI stands for Equated Monthly Installment. This installment comprises both interest and principal components.EMI would be calculated depending on the tenure chosen to repay loan. The EMI would be higher if you choose to repay within shorter period as against a longer term loan. 16.What is overdraft? Ans: When the account holder can withdraw more money from a bank account than has been deposited, it is called overdraft. 17. What do you mean by Flexi –Accounts? Ans: Flexi-Accounts are nothing but a combination of Fixed deposit and Savings deposit. 18. What is term loan? Ans: Where a loan is generated for a fixed period exceeding one year and is repayable according to a schedule of repayment as against on demand and at time is known as a term loan. 19. What is Acid-Test Ratio? Ans: Quick Assets/Quick Liabilities is called Acid Test Ratio, where Quick Assets mean current assets minus inventory and Quick Liabilities means current liabilities minus bank overdraft. 20. What is Debt/Equity Ratio? Ans: This ratio indicates the proportion of debt to equity. In other words it is the relationship between borrowed loan and own fund. 21.What is Proprietary Ratio? Ans: It is the ratio of funds belonging to proprietors to the total assets of the company. 22.What are the different modes of securities? Ans: Banks provide credit on the basis of the following modes of security:.a) Hypothecationb) Pledge. 24.What is D.D? Ans:A Demand Draft is an instrument most banks in India use for effecting transfer of money. 25.What are the reasons for dishonor of a cheque? Ans: There can be various reasons for the dishonor of a cheque, e.g.— Insufficiency of funds in drawer’s account Payment stopped by the drawer. Discrepancies in the cheque. Lapse of time. Overwriting or crossing on the cheque.


17. The builders receive non-refundable deposits and other charges under the agreement such as electricity deposit, water charges, legal charges, development charges etc. Whether such receipts will also form part of sale price for VAT? Ans: The amounts which are received as deposits will be a deduction to the extent such amounts are actually paid to other authorities. 18. In under construction flats, the amounts are received in installments. How the sale price will be determined? Whether the actual receipts will be taken as sales or the whole of the agreement value will be taken as sale at the time of execution of the agreement, even though the amount is yet to be received? Ans: Received or receivable. Receivable means due and payable. 19. Can the VAT applicable in above cases be collected by raising a debit note or the same should be mentioned in the agreement itself? Whether VAT should be collected on each installment or at one go upon execution of the agreement? Ans: Yes. It can be collected by raising a debit note. Specific mention in the agreement is a choice of the contracting parties. It will be payable on the installments received. 20. Whether any interest or penalty will be attracted for non-registration with sales tax authorities under VAT and non-submission of VAT returns for the transactions executed for sale of flats / shops under construction between intervening period i.e.20.06.2006 to 07.02.2007? Ans: Please refer to circular 14T of 2012 Dt. 6th August, 2012. 21. What will be the VAT implications where mere advances are received from buyers and agreement for sell is not executed with the buyer? Ans: There is no tax liability. 22. If a project based partnership firm is created for the project which commenced in the year 2006 and completed in the year 2008 and stands dissolved as on today and the bank account is also closed as of now, then what would be the legal implications of producing the partnership deed that is already dissolved for obtaining MVAT registration? Ans: The developers have to provide evidence for the period when the firm was in existence. The necessary instructions have been issued to the registration authorities. Dealer may contact to respective registration authority in this regard. 23. Whether a possession letter or letter from architect can be termed as completion of building. Who is the proper authority to grant the completion letter? Sometimes application for completion is made but completion is granted much later in such case whether date of application is considered to be the date of completion? Ans: Whether sale is of a completed flat is to be ascertained from books of accounts. Necessary clarification had been issued


in Trade Circular 12 T of 2007 dt. 7/2/2007. 24. In the event where an agreement entered into is cancelled and said flat is sold to someone else and the agreement is again entered. What would be the VAT implication for the first sale and the second one? Ans: If the first sale of flat is cancelled then the subsequent sale of the same flat by the developer is taxable. The tax paid on first sale can be adjusted towards subsequent sale. 25. If builder constructs the flat on the land which is owned by landowner and out of the constructed flats some flats are given to landowner and other flats are sold by builder to prospective buyer. Landowner sales the flat afterwards to buyers. In such instance what will be the point of taxation? Whether landowner is liable to pay the VAT on sales of flats which were handed over to him by builder? Ans: Builder is liable to pay tax only in respect of sale of flats to prospective buyers. The flats which are given to landowners will not be taxable. The landowner when subsequently sales the flat will not liable to pay any tax as he is not a dealer. 26. Out of the three different methods of tax working, the builders/developers are given option to choose a method of their choice with a restriction that method should be applied to whole of the project concerned and no deviation is permitted. It may happen that in a project having execution period of more than 2 years, there may be possibility that some flats may have been sold before 31.03.2010 and some may be sold after 31.03.2010. In that scenario, whether the flat purchasers who have entered into an agreement after 31.03.2010 will be entitled to pay VAT to the developers @ 1% of Agreement Value? Ans: The composition scheme of 1% is applicable in respect of agreement registered on or after 1st April 2010, irrespective of the method adopted for periods prior to 01/04/2010. However, set-off or deductions earlier claimed in respect of such agreements will have to be reversed. 27. Most of the development / redevelopment projects involve purchase of Transferable Development Rights (TDR) as these are related to land only, the cost of TDR should also be available as deduction from sale price, along with cost of land. Ans: Yes, the cost of TDR will be available for deduction from sale price along with cost of land.

Brief summery in next edition‌‌‌


About UPSC Civil Service Examination Schedule •UPSC Advertise normally in the month of November / December in EMPLOYMENT NEWS December/ January/ February •Preliminary Examination of objective type held every year between May and August. •Preliminary examination result - July -October. •Mains Examination Descriptive type test held in - November - December. •Mains Examination result - MARCH •Oral Interview (viva - voce ) APRIL-MAY at New Delhi. •Final Result – MAY

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Career in Commerce It is the most popular career options in India. Commerce is

exchange of items of value and products between persons or companies and any such exchange money for a product or service is considered a deal of commerce. It is of one of the three fundamental academic streams, the other two being humanities and science. While pursuing a course in the field of commerce, one acquires the knowledge of business or trade, nature and fluctuations in market, basics of economics, fiscal policies, industrial policies etc. The concept of commerce consists of a wide range of interdisciplinary branches including Accountancy, Business Administration, E-Commerce, Finance, Economics and Marketing. Since the Indian economy is one of the fastest growing economies among the third world countries, the need for talented professionals, who can contribute towards the growth of the economy, is i ncreasing. To serve the purpose, many commerce colleges in India are imparting quality education. A commerce aspirant can pursue course related to the field at any of the colleges and work in organizations that deal with finance and commerce.

→ Course Details

Several commerce colleges and institutes in India are imparting courses in the field of commerce at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. At the undergraduate level, one can pursue Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com), a three-year full time program and Master of Commerce (M.Com), at the postgraduate level. To


be eligible for undergraduate course, the candidates have to pass 10+2 level examination in commerce stream, from any recognized state/national Board. For the PG level program, one should have done Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com), from any statutory University/Institute.

→ Career Prospects

After completing course in the field of commerce, a student can join any private or government organization as a specialist in any of the streams of commerce, such as economics, accountancy or work as management executive, accounts executive, junior accountant or pursue a career in auditing or banking.

→ Institutes Offering

Some of the top commerce colleges in India are Shri Ram College of Commerce (SRCC) Delhi, Loyola College (Chennai), St Xavier’s College (Kolkata), Presidency College (Chennai), Symbiosis Society’s College of Arts & Commerce (Pune), St. Joseph’s College Bangalore, Narsee Monjee College, BM College of Commerce (Pune) and St. Xavier’s Mumbai.

REMUNERATION Remuneration in the field of commerce largely depends upon the standard of organizations and the area of specialization. Private and government organizations have their own policies regarding salary of professionals working in the field of commerce..


NOW, familiarise yourself with lucrative career options available for you after 12th for science, commerce and arts stream and find out the best options that will suit your interests. There are a variety of courses that are available out there for you which can get you a good job with a comfortable pay scale and perks, thereby enhancing your lifestyle. Below are some of the best courses you can choose from. RETAIL/ TELECOM SKILLS FOR JOBS COURSE

Skills for jobs ( ) is the quickest way to get a job in the retail and telecommunication sector after your 10th/12th, by accessing training by experts on your mobile phone/desktop. You get the freedom to learn when you want. On course completion, you get a certification from Government of India. Complete the course in a month and get a job in best of retail brands in less than two months! Course details:


Chartered Accountancy is an extremely admirable stream that a 12th pass out commerce student can opt for. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) regulates the enrolment and certification of CA’s in India. After completion of the CA program, aspirants can seek for jobs in big corporate houses and hi-tech companies. There are various institutions which conduct training for clearing exams for CA and CFA. If you have an aptitude and interest in statistics accounts, this could be the best career path for you.


Law is also one of the most popular and sought after careers. The legal profession demands within it a host of qualities which are extremely essential for becoming a successful lawyer. After completion of LLB/LLM courses you can work as lawyers or legal consultants. You can also join judicial services by qualifying competitive exams conducted by public service commissions. Lawyers can also work independently as consultants in legal matters. Remuneration in legal professions can also be quite attractive if a firm base is laid out.


For pursuing a management course, you can go for BBA after 12th. Management courses are one of the best courses to opt for as it provides the highest packages if you do it from a reputed college and have an aptitude for it. A good management college will groom you for high paid jobs which require a lot of responsibility and dedication.


IT sector is one of the most sought after sectors today and it is one of the best careers to choose from after 12th. The salary perks and increment associated with this sector is increasing exponentially with each year. The academic programs for such fields are BE in computers after your 12th in science. After completion of an engineering course from a good college, you can always get placed in a reputed IT company and kick start a fruitful career in the sector.


The medical field is one of the most popular and sought after career after 12th. The fields of Medical studies have different branches and each branch has it specialization. You have the choice of medicine, surgery, dental, ENT, cancer specialist, Aids, brain, cardiac, neurology and lots more. Each branch is rewarding and has its own recognition. Getting through the top medical colleges of India would require you to give entrances which are extremely competitive and require utmost dedication. This is a vast area but the basic requirement is a professional degree from a reputed educational medical institute.



Iasam group is offering short term job oriented courses after 12th. On completion of these courses, students will get a certification from iasam group and an opportunity to get a job in different companies. Students will also get access to free study material. Iasam group will also provide free 3G/2G internet access so that students can access these courses even on their mobile phones from any place. Not just this, there will also be a focus on personality development of the candidate and they would be exposed to systematic working strategies. For those of you who want to try something other than the medical and engineering field can consider the following options: 1. Career in Forensic Science 2. Career in Bio Technology 3. Career in Geology 4. Career in Zoology 5. Career in Food Technology 6. Career in Microbiology 7. Career in Textile 8. Career in Architecture Have you found what you were looking for? We have something which may interest you, looking at growing queries we are scheduling a FREE career counseling conference where you can talk directly with expert on call and clear your doubts. IF YOU ARE INTERESTED THEN SEND ‘CAREER’ TO 09268972567. We will get back to you with conference date and time details.



Commerce is a branch of business. It is concerned with the exchange of goods and services. It includes all those activities, which directly or indirectly facilitate that exchange. Commerce looks after the distribution aspect of the business. Whatever is produced it must be consumed, to facilitate this consumption there must be a proper distribution channel. Here comes the need for commerce which is concerned with the smooth buying and selling of goods and services. Definition of Commerce According to James Stephenson, “Commerce is an organized system for the exchange of goods between the members of the industrial world.” In a broader sense, “Commerce is that part of business which is concerned with the exchange of goods and services and includes all those activities which directly or indirectly facilitate that exchange.” Importance of Commerce The importance of trade and commerce are mentioned in following points :1. Commerce tries to satisfy increasing human wants Human wants are never ending. They can be classified as ‘Basic wants’ and ‘Secondary wants’. Commerce has made distribution and movement of goods possible from one part of the world to the other. Today we can buy anything produced anywhere in the world. This has in turn enabled man to satisfy his innumerable wants and thereby promoting social welfare. 2. Commerce helps to increase our standard of living Standard of living refers to quality of life enjoyed by the members of a society. When man consumes more products his standard of living improves. To consume a variety of goods he must be able to secure them first. Commerce helps us to get what we want at right time, right place and at right price and thus helps in improving our standard of living. 3. Commerce links producers and consumers Production is meant for ultimate consumption. Commerce makes possible to link producers and consumers through retailers and wholesalers and also through the aids to trade. Consumers get information about different goods through advertisements and salesmanship. The manufacturers are regularly


informed about the likes and dislikes of the consumers through marketing research. Thus commerce creates contact between the centers of production and consumption and links them. 4. Commerce generates employment opportunities The growth of commerce, industry and trade bring about the growth of agencies of trade such as banking, transport, warehousing, advertising, etc. These agencies need people to look after their functioning. Increase in production results in increasing demand, which further results in boosting employment opportunities. Thus development of commerce generates more and more employment opportunities for millions of people in a country. 5. Commerce increases national income and wealth When production increases, national income also increases. In a developed country, manufacturing industries and commerce together accounts for nearly 80% of total national income. It also helps to earn foreign exchange by way of exports and duties levied on imports. Thus, commerce increases the national income and wealth of a nation. 6. Commerce helps in expansion of aids to trade With the growth in trade and commerce there is growing need for expansion and modernization of aids to trade. Aids to trade such as banking, communication, advertising and publicity, transport, insurance, etc., are expanded and modernised for the smooth conduct of commerce. 7. Commerce helps in growth of industrial development Commerce looks after the smooth distribution of goods and services made available by the industry. Without commerce, industry will find it difficult to keep the pace of production. It helps to increase demand for goods on one hand and on the other hand it helps industries by getting them the necessary raw materials and other services. Hence, commerce helps in attaining better division of labour and industrial progress. 8. Commerce encourages international trade Through commerce we can secure a fair and equitable distribution of goods throughout the world. With the help of transport and communication development, countries can exchange their surplus commodities and earn foreign exchange, which is very useful for importing machinery and sophisticated technology. It ensures faster economic growth of the country.


9. Commerce benefits underdeveloped countries Underdeveloped countries can import skilled labour and technical know-how from developed countries. While the advance countries can import raw materials from underdeveloped countries. This helps in laying down the seeds of industrialization in the underdeveloped countries.

Basic Accounting Accounting Introduction & Definition : Accounting is recording Financial transaction Summarizing them and communicating the Financial information to users the proprietors, Creditors, investors, Government agencies, employees, etc. it is called the language of Business. According to the (AICPA) Accounting is the out of recording, Classifying and summarizing in a Significant mann or and in terms of money transaction and averts which are in a part at least of a Financial character and interpreting the result there of. Advantage of Accounting: 1.Financial information about Business : Financial Performance during the accounting decide profit or cors and also the Financial position at the end of the accounting period is known through accounting. 2.Assistance to Management : the management makes officers on the Basic of accounting information. 3.Replaces Memory: A, Systematic and timely recording of transaction obviates. The necessity to remember the transactions. The accounting record provides the necessary Information. 4.Facilitates Settlement of tax Liabilities : A systematic Accounting record immensely helps settlement of Income tax, Sale tax, VAT, and excise duty liabilities since. It is a goods evidence of the correctness of transaction. 5.Facilitates Coons : Coans is granted by the beach and Financial institution on the basic of growth potential which is supported by the performance accounting makes available the information


10. Commerce helps during emergencies During emergencies like floods, earthquakes and wars, commerce helps in reaching the essential requirements like foodstuff, medicines and relief measures to the affected areas

with respect to performance. 6.Evidence in Court : Systematic record of transaction is often accepted by the courts as good evidence. Users of Accounting Users of Accounting information may be categorized into internal users. And external users. Internal Users: Owners: Owners. Contribute capital in the Business and thus are exposed to maximum risk. Naturally they are interested in knowing the profit earned or loss suered by the Business besides. The safety of their capital. The financial Statements gives the information about profit or loss and financial position of the Business. Managements : The managements makes extensive use of accounting information to are risk at informed Decision such as determination of selling Price. Cost Control and reduction investment in to new projects etc.


Employee and works: Employee and works are entitle to bonus at the year end, which is Linked to profit earned by an enterprises. Therefore the employees and workers are interested in financial statemants. External Users Batch and Financial Institutions: Bank and Financial institutions are an essential part of any Business as they Provide Loans to the Busineses. Investors and Potential Investors : Investment investors risk and also the investors do not have direct control over the Business affairs therefore they rely on the accounting information available to them and seek answers to the question such as what is the earning capitally of the enterprises and how safe is their investment ? Creditors : Creditors are those parties who supply goods or services on credit it is a common. Business Practice that a large amount of suppliers. Remains invested in credit sales- Before granting credit, creditors, stisfy themselves about the credit worthiness of Business. The financial statement help them immensely in making such as assessment. Researchers : Researchers use accounting information In their research work. Public : They want to see the Business running since it makes substaintial contribute to the economy in many weys. Employment of people patronage to suppliers etc thus financial information to various users group for Decision making. Accounting Principles: 1. Accounting Entity or Business Entity Principle : According to the Business entity Principal, Business is considered to be separate and district from its owners. Business transaction therefore are recorded in the books of accounts. From the Business paint of view and not owners. Owners being considered separate and district from business they are considered creditors of the Business to the extent of their capital. 2. Money Measurement Principal : According to the money measurement Principal transaction and event that can be measured in money terms are recorded in the books of account of the extended in the other words money is the common denominator in recording and reporting all transactions. Consider that enterprise has Rs. 10,000 cash 6, tones of raw material 6 tracks and 10000 sq. yards cand. These assets. Cannot be added and shown in the financial statements unless their monetary value is ascertained.


3. Accounting Desired Principal : According to the accounting desired principle the life of enterprise are maintained following the gaing concern concepts. 4. Materiality Principle : The materiality Principle refers. To the relative importance of an item or an event according to the American accounting association, an item should be regarded as material if share is a reason to belive that knowledge of it would influence. The decision of an internal investor. 5. Prudence or conservation Principal: the prudence Principal in mony a times described using the phrase donat anticipate a profit but provide for all possible cases the application of this concept for all possible ensure that the financial statement present a realistic picture of the state of affairs. Of the enterprise and do not paint a better picture than what actually is for example closing stach. Is valued at lower of cost or net realizable value or making the provision for doubtful debts and Discount on debtors is anticipation of actual bad debts and Discounts. 6. Cost concept or historical cost: According to the cost concept an assets is recorded in the boods of account at the price paid to acquire it and the cost is sthe basic for all subsequent accounting of the assets. Accounting Process : Based on the main attributes of accounting we may list the step accounting process as fallows. (1) Financial transaction (2) Recording (3) Classifying (4) Summarising (5) Analysing and interpretig (6) Communicating (i)Financial transaction if should be (ii)Recorded (a) Cash book (b) Parchase Book (c) Sales Book (d) Purchase Retern Book (e) Sales Retern Book (f ) Bills Payable Book (g) Bills recivable book (h) Journal Proper (iii) Classifying (Poshing into Cedger) (iv) Summarising Trail Balance Trading & Profit & Loss A/c Balance Sheet (v) analysis and interpretation (vi) Communicating to the users



In order to obtain English fluency for

ESL students, studying grammar can slow your progress down significantly. Basic grammar is a necessity, but focusing on grammar will prevent you from being able to speak English fluently in a reasonable time frame. Grammar is most effective to improve communication and writing skills, but this only pertains to those who have a solid foundation in English fluency. If you are studying for an exam or want to learn the details of grammar rules, you can study our grammar section at English Grammar Basics. One commonality among everyone in the whole world is that they learned to speak before they learned grammar. Speaking is the first step for any English learner. So if you are a novice at English, please focus on your speaking and listening skills prior to studying grammar. After being able to speak English fluently, you will realize how much easier grammar is. But it does not work the other way around. Being fluent in English speaking will help you with your grammar studies, but studying grammar will NOT help you with your speaking. In this article, the four most basic grammar topics are explained, which consists of 1) subject, 2) predicate, 3) verb, and 4) article. This is the absolute minimum you should know. After you become comfortable with speaking, then you can study more advanced grammar topics. For now, please review and study the four items described below.

What is a subject?

The subject in a sentence is “who” or “what” you are talking about. Every sentence needs a subject. If you don’t have a subject, then the sentence is incorrect and nobody will understand what you are


talking about. In other languages, the subject is not always required. Verbally, the person listening to you will understand what you are talking about, so a subject is not required. In English, a subject is always required. Here are examples of small sentences with the subject underlined. “I am hungry” “My brother is very smart” “That computer is very expensive” “We are going to the store now” “My sister and I will be waiting here” “The building is very big” “When are you going to eat lunch?” “Why are they waiting in line?” “Who is going to take you to the store?”

What is a predicate?

The predicate in a sentence is the section that informs the person what the subject is or what it is doing. It is a phrase that contains a verb. The verb is always in the predicate. Let’s look at the sentences we used in the subject lesson to identify the predicates. They will be underlined. “I am hungry” “My brother is very smart” “That computer is very expensive” “We are going to the store now” “The building is very big” In the above short sentences, we have identified the subject and predicate. In the most basic sentences, you need a subject and an action associated with the subject. Let’s go on to verbs to understand this in more detail.


What is a verb?


A verb is an action, existence, or occurrence. In the simple sentences we used so far, the verb is mostly in the existence form. They are “am”, “is”, and “are”.

“A” and “An” have the same meaning. They are both indefinite articles. They are only different depending on what word or sound is following. Here is a brief explanation. You should use “A” when the following word starts with a consonant.

Other types of verbs are action verbs such as: Wash,Run,Walk,Throw,Jump,Dance,Laugh,Learn,Teach There are many action verbs, but I only listed a few to let you know what I am referring to. Here are some sentences to help you understand. “I need to wash my face” “Jane taught Jill” “Mike is laughing” A verb can also start at the beginning of the sentence. “Throw the ball at the catcher” “Run towards the finish line” It is important to understand the verb, but having just a subject and a verb is not sufficient. For example, “Jill run” is not a complete sentence. Although Jill can be the subject, and “run” is the verb, this is not a complete sentence. That is why the previous lesson on predicate is important. With the predicate, we can turn the sentence into a proper sentence. “Jill is running”

What is an Article?

“A dog...” “A boy...” “A building...” “A hamburger...” You should use “An” when the following starts with a vowel sound. “An eagle...” “An umbrella...” “An elephant...” “An awesome book...” “The” is a definite article. The difference is if the noun or subject you are talking about is specific or not. Examples are the best way to understand the difference, so let’s take a look. If you say, “I am going to a library to study”, then the person you are speaking with does not know which library. If you say, “I am going to the library to study”, then the person you are speaking with knows the specific library you are going to.

Articles seem so easy, but it is extremely difficult to teach.

“I am going to a coffee shop” (No specific coffee shop) “I am going to the coffee shop” (A specific coffee shop both the speaker and listener know)

“A”, “An”, and “The” are all articles. It is easy to explain the difference between them, but it is difficult to explain when they are

Here is a slightly different example, but still using the same concept of specific or general.




Means: A Feeling Of Intense Dislike 25. Apparent 1. Abase Means: Cause To Feel Shame Means: Obvious 2. Aberration 26. Append Means: A State Or Condition Markedly Different From The NorMeans: Add To The Very End mal 27. Apt 3. Abject Means: Naturally Disposed Toward Means: Most Unfortunate Or Miserable 4. Abrasive 28. Arbitrate Means: Sharply Disagreeable, Rigorous Means: Act Between Parties With A View To Reconcil5. Abstain ing Differences Means: Choose Not To Consume 29. Ascetic 6. Abundant Means: A Person Who Practices Such Self-discipline. Means: Present In Great Quantity 7. Abundant 30. Aspire Means: Present In Great Quantity Means: Have An Ambitious Plan 8. Accede 31. Assail Means: Yield To Another’s Wish Or Means: Attack Someone PhysiOpinion cally Or Emotionally 9. Accentuate Means: To Stress, Single Out As Im32. Asunder portant Means: Into Separate Pieces 10. Acclimate 33. Atone Means: Get Used To A Certain CliMeans: To Doing Something mate Right For Some Wrong Done 11. Accomplice Means: A Person Who Joins With 34. Attire Another In Carrying Out Some Plan Means: Clothing Of A Distinctive 12. Accord Style Or For A Particular OccaMeans: Concurrence Of Opinion sion 13. Acerbic 35. August Means: Harsh Or Corrosive In Tone 14. Acme Means: Dignified Means: The Highest Stage Of Devel36. Austere opment Means: Severely Simple 15. Acquiesce 37. Avarice Means: To Agree Or Express Agreement Means: Extreme Greed For Material Wealth 16. Acquit 38. Aversion Means: Pronounce Not Guilty Of Criminal Charges Means: A Feeling Of Intense Dislike 17. Ad Hoc 39. Avid Means: Provisional, Temporary Means: Marked By Active Interest And Enthusiasm 18. Adverse 40. Awe Means: Contrary To Your Interests Or Welfare Means: An Overwhelming Feeling Of Wonder Or Ad19. Afflict miration Means: Cause Physical Pain Or Suffering In 41. Awesome 20. Allege Means: Amazing Means: Report Or Maintain 42. Banality 21. Allude Means: Make A More Or Less Disguised Reference To Means: Predictable, Obvious 43. Bemused 22. Ample Means: More Than Enough In Size Or Scope Or Ca- Means: Filled With Bewilderment 44. Beseech pacity Means: Ask For Or Request Earnestly 23. Anticipate 45. Besiege Means: Be Excited Or Anxious About Means: To Attack With Army 24. Antipathy 2014





Galgotias University’s mission is to graduate socially responsible future technologists and business leaders with good communications skills, problem solving skills and an entrepreneurial spirit with a commitment to economic development. With a strong multidisciplinary knowledge base, graduates of GU will be well prepared to succeed in an increasingly competitive global economy. With a focus on multidisciplinary research and education and a learning model that emphasizes active learning, GU aspires to be globally known for innovation at the intersection of disciplines. GU’s bold vision builds upon over a decade of excellence of Galgotias Institutions in engineering and business education. Galgotias Institutions have been nationally ranked by India Today, Business Today and Outlook for their programs in engineering. Galgotias Business School was recently recognized by Dun and Bradstreet as a leading business school in India. With a 100% placement record for the last four years supported by multinational firms like Accenture, Hewitt, IBM, Infosys, Nokia, and Samsung, Galgotias Institutions have earned the respect of top performers in the industry. We invite you to visit our campus in Greater Noida and inquire about the programs and activities that interest you.



FORM HANDLING IN SERVLET Most of web applications are used to handle the incoming request of user through a client i.e. web browser. Request generated from browser is a standard HTTP protocol request. Browser renders a request according to HTTP protocol and sends request to server. Request contains header and data that is processed by server. Server that handles request has inbuilt capability to understand HTTP request and server starts to parse it. When server processes any request, it gets header and data and intercepts them properly. Server implements a procedure that is used to accept the request and to create response for that request. One of the nice features of Java servlets is that all of this form parsing is handled automatically. You simply call the getParameter method of the HttpServletRequest, supplying the parameter name as an argument. Note that parameter names are case sensitive. You do this exactly the same way when the data is sent via GET as you do when it is sent via POST. The return value is a String coresponding to the uudecoded value of the first occurrence of that parameter name. An empty String is returned if the parameter exists but has no value, and null is returned if there was no such parameter. If the parameter could potentially have more than one value, as in the example above, you should call getParameterValues instead of getParameter. This returns an array of strings. Finally, although in real applications your servlets probably have a specific set of parameter names they are looking for, for debugging purposes it is sometimes useful to get a full list. Use getParameterNames for this, which returns an Enumeration, each entry of which can be cast to a String and used in a getParameter call.


1 <html> 2 <head> 3 <title>This is Test Example</title> 4 </head> 5 <body> 6 <h1>Submit this form</h1> 7 <form action=”ProcessForm” method=”POST” enctype=””> 8 Name : 9 <br/> 10 <input type=”text” name=”name”/> 11 <br/> 12 Phone Number : 13 <br/>


14 <input type=”text” name=”phone”/> 15 <br/> 16 Prefered Job type : 17 <br/> 18 <select name=”jobtype”> 19 <option>Full time</option> 20 <option>Part time</option> 21 <option>Weekend</option> 22 </select> 23 <br/> 24 Programming Language Known (Select mulitple pressing CTRL key): 25 <br/> 26 <select name=”lang” size=”4” multiple=”multiple”>


27 <option>Java</option> 28 <option>C</option> 29 <option>C#</option> 30 <option>C++</option> 31 <option>HTML</option> 32 <option>VB6</option> 33 <option>SQL</option> 34 <option>Javascript</option> 35 </select> 36 <br/> 37 Highest Qualification : 38 <br/> 39 <input type=”radio” name=”qualification” value=”M Tech” />M Tech 40 <input type=”radio” name=”qualification” value=”B Tech.” />B Tech 41 <input type=”radio” name=”qualification” value=”MCA” />MCA 42 <input type=”radio” name=”qualification” value=”BCA” />BCA 43 <br/> 44 Select Prefered job location(s) : 45 <br/> 46 <input type=”checkbox” name=”locations” value=”Delhi” />Delhi 47 <input type=”checkbox” name=”locations” value=”Noida” />Noida 48 <input type=”checkbox” name=”locations” value=”Pune” />Pune 49 <input type=”checkbox” name=”locations” value=”Channai” />Channai 50 <br/> 51 Assress for communication : 52 <br/> 53 <textarea name=”address” rows=”4” cols=”30”> 54 </textarea> 55 <br/> 56 57 <input type=”submit” value=”Submit Now” /> 58 </form> 59 </body> 60 </html>

1 2 import*; 3 import javax.servlet.*; 4 import javax.servlet.http.*; 5 6 public class ProcessForm extends HttpServlet { 7 8 public void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { 9 response.setContentType(“text/html”); 10 PrintWriter out = response.getWriter(); 11 String name = request.getParameter(“name”); 12 String phone = request.getParameter(“phone”); 13 String jobType = request.getParameter(“jobtype”); 14 String programmingLanguages[] = request.getParameterVal-


ues(“lang”); 15 16 String qualification = request.getParameter(“qualification”); 17 String locations[]=request.getParameterValues(“locations”); 18 19 String address = request.getParameter(“address”); 20 21 /////////////Printing received data///////////////////// 22 out.write(“<br/>Name : “ + name); 23 //data from text field 24 out.write(“<br/>Phone Number : “ + phone); 25 //data of drop down list 26 out.write(“<br/>Job Type : “ + jobType); 27 //data of drop down list with multiple select 28 out.write(“<br/>Programming languages”); 29 for (int i = 0; i < programmingLanguages.length; i++) { 30 out.write(“<br> - “ + programmingLanguages[i]); 31 } 32 //data of radio buttons 33 out.write(“<br/>Qualification : “ + qualification); 34 35 //Processing data of check boxes 36 out.write(“<br/> Job Location(s) : “); 37 for (int i = 0; i < locations.length; i++) { 38 out.write(“<br> - “ + locations[i]); 39 } 40 //data from text area 41 out.write(“<br/>Address : “ + address); 42 out.close(); 43 } 44 45 public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { 46 doPost(request, response); 47 } 48 }


1 <?xml version=”1.0” encoding=”UTF-8”?> 2 <web-app version=”2.5” xmlns=” javaee” xmlns:xsi=”” xsi:schemaLocation=””> 3 <servlet> 4 <servlet-name>ProcessForm</servlet-name> 5 <servlet-class>ProcessForm</servlet-class> 6 </servlet> 7 <servlet-mapping> 8 <servlet-name>ProcessForm</servlet-name> 9 <url-pattern>/ProcessForm</url-pattern> 10 </servlet-mapping> 11 </web-app> OUTPUTS :


Computer Tips & Tricks Everyone Should Know Many hardcore computer users might think themselves above learning new tricks, but there’s always new things to learn that will help improve your skills. Our bet: you will find at least one useful thing here that you didn’t know before. Inspired and with the help of this Ask Reddit discussion, we’ve compiled some of the most handy computer tricks you might not be taking advantage of. Our ultimate goal is to help you become more productive by shaving valuable seconds off your workflow. Of course, you can always pass along these tips to your not-so-savvy friends and family members to help them become better PC users as well. General Tricks Windows hidden “god mode” folder Windows offers a centralized Control Panel for all of the OS settings, which makes it easy for users to tweak everything from desktop background to setting up a VPN. To enter this mode, create a new folder with this exact name (copy and paste it): God Mode.{ED7BA470-8E54465E-825C-99712043E01C}. The folder icon will change to a Control Panel-style icon, and you will be able to jump in and change all kinds of settings. Note: Don’t try this on Windows Vista 64-bit as it’s known to cause a reboot loop.

Dropbox, Google Drive, or any of the other popular cloud storage solution which will do the legwork for you on the background. Of course, you can also throw the files on a thumb drive or external HDD just to be safe but backing up to the cloud can be done seamlessly which is twice the advantage.

Use Problem Steps Recorder This handy tool automatically records any mouse clicks and takes screenshots for you. If you need tech assistance with your computer, go to Run by typing Windows + R, and then type “psr.” Use the tool and by the time you are finished, you can send this information, neatly compiled automatically, to the person helping you with the issue. It will make the process of finding the problem much easier for them, which means you will be able to get your system up and running faster.

Move Cursor to beginning of the next or previous word Moving the cursor around manually while typing is a great way to make your work take longer than it needs to. To speed of the process, move the cursor around with keyboard shortcuts. To move it to the beginning of the previous word, use CTRL + Left Arrow. To move it to the beginning of the next word, use CTRL + Right Arrow. In OS X you can accomplish the same using the Option key.

Find/Delete large files wasting space A handy tool called WinDirStat (Windows Directory Statistics) can be used to easily find which files and folders are taking up the most space on your drive. From there, you can delete them and open up a ton of storage space. Reduce the number of programs running at startup If your PC is taking too long to boot, it’s probably because you have far too many programs running at startup. Reducing this is easy, it will make your PC launch noticeably faster and lighter upon first load. To change the items running at startup, go to Run using the hotkey Windows key + R, and type “msconfig.” A small window will appear (see the screen shot below), select the Startup tab. From here you will be able to turn off many startup programs, which can shave several seconds (or minutes) off your boot time. (Note Windows 8 has moved this functionality to the Task Manager). Try to make sure you research what you are turning off as some processes might be needed by third party programs or drivers you have installed. Cloud backup important files If you’re working on a critical paper for school, work, or any other major project, make sure you are backing up the file not just locally. You can use services like


Typing Tricks Delete an entire word Instead of deleting a single letter, pressing CTRL + BKSP will delete the entire word behind the cursor. This makes deleting text quicker if you screw up a whole word.

Making sub and superscript text If you need to make sub or superscript text (think exponents for superscript), press CTRL + = for subscript and CTRL + SHIFT + = for superscript. Paste plain text of what was copied When you copy text from any source, programs will usually copy any formatting that comes with it. To paste this as plain text, press CTRL + Shift + V instead of the standard CTRL + V, and the system will paste unformatted text. Note that many programs follow this parameter (Chrome, Firefox, etc.) but not all, particularly Microsoft programs like Word or Outlook. For those there’s a few alternatives that go beyond copying and pasting in Notepad: 1) CTRL + ALT + V will show a ‘paste special’ dialog box. 2) CTRL + Spacebar will remove formatting in already pasted text. 3) Download Puretext and choose a hotkey to always paste plain text with it. Keyboard Shortcuts Copy only active window to clipboard Normally, the Print Screen key copies the entire display (or two displays if you got them), ALT + Print Screen only copies the currently active window to the clipboard. Whether taking a screenshot to diagnose a problem, or just because you want to show something to a friend, this will come in handy.


Fix those little mistakes Did you know you can undo almost any action? CTRL + Z is the ultimate hot key, and for sure you knew about it already, however note that undo doesn’t just apply to typing. If you accidentally delete or move a file, you can hit CTRL + Z to bring it right back to where it was. In Chrome and Firefox you can also undo closing a tab using CTRL + SHIFT + T. Cycle through open windows Pressing ALT+TAB allows you to cycle through currently open windows. This makes switching back and forth between running processes quick and painless. If you want a more stylish method of cycling through open programs, Windows + TAB will do the job for you. Interrupt all processes CTRL + ALT + Delete is one of the most common PC shortcuts, and one almost everyone is familiar with. The important thing to note is that it interrupts all processes, including the one that is bogging down your system, which can mean the difference between needing to restart or not. Close the current program Typing ALT + F4 will close the program that is running. This is useful as it saves you time mousing over the “X” and clicking. People will often use this as a joke, telling you to press ALT + F4 to fix a problem. Don’t fall for it unless you want to close what you are doing. Minimize all windows Sometimes you have a bunch of stuff running, and you want it all to go away so you can get to the desktop. Simply pressing Windows + D will minimize everything you have up, which will save you some time pressing the minimize button for each window. It should be noted that Windows + M offers similar functionality, but there is no undoing, so Windows + D is the more favorable approach. Open the task manager directly If you want to bypass the interrupt that happens when pressing CTRL + ALT + DEL and jump right to the task manager, typing CTRL + Shift + ESC launches it directly. Close the current window/tab Stick of moving all the way to that X button? Press CTRL + W and the current window will close. (Don’t do it now, or you will miss the rest of the tricks!) Bring up the system information window This is so much quicker than digging this out the traditional way... Just press Windows + Pause/Break and the System Information panel will be ready to go. This might be the only use for the Pause/Break key you will ever find, so enjoy it! Better multiple monitor control There are several useful keyboard shortcuts for controlling open windows on multiple monitors. Pressing the Windows Key + Arrow Keys will cause a window to quickly snap to each side of either monitor. Alternatively, hitting Shift + Windows Key + Arrows will cause the window to jump to the other monitor. Lastly, pressing Windows + P will allow you to quickly set up a second display or projector. Web Browsing Tricks Automatically add www. and .com to a URL You can shave off a couple of seconds typing in a URL by simply click CTRL + Enter after you type the name of the site. Need .net instead of .com, press


CTRL + Shift + Enter instead. Jump to address bar There are a number of ways to jump right to the address bar from anywhere in browser. Pressing CTRL + L, F6, and ALT + D all accomplish this goal. Bring back a closed tab We covered this already, but it’s super useful. Accidentally closed a tab? Simply press CTRL + Shift + T to reopen the most recently closed tab and get back to what you were doing. Use private browsing The uses for not having cookies and history saved are obvious for certain activities, you know, like shopping for gifts on a shared computer (of course!). Pressing CTRL + Shift + N will launch a new private in Chrome, CTRL + Shift + P will do it in Firefox and Internet Explorer. Cycle through open tabs Pressing CTRL + TAB while in a browser will flip between each one. This can be much faster than moving the mouse and clicking on a tab. CTRL + NUM (1, 2, 3, 4, n..) will also take you to certain tab in that numeric order. File Management Tricks Rename a file quickly Right-clicking and selecting rename is not very efficient. Instead, simply press F2 while a file is selected to change its name. To alter the name of another file, type TAB without deselecting the current file. Rename files sequentially in Windows You actually don’t need to download any programs to perform a batch file rename in Windows. Instead, you can select all the files you want to change, rightclick the first one in the list, select rename (or use F2), and type in the name. This will automatically change all the other files with the same root name with a suffix: (1), (2), and so on. Select multiple files using the keyboard To select a bunch of files using your keyboard, you can press Shift + down arrow to select a single file or Shift + Page Down to select a large group of files at one time. Security Tips Run programs on an infected PC Often times, malware will prevent a computer from running certain programs. Changing the name of the .exe file can often override this. If that doesn’t work, changing the extension to .com is another useful alternative, and the program will still be able to run in spite of the extension change. Read installers Even major programs can install toolbars and other unwanted pieces of software during installation. Take a few seconds to read each step to make sure you are not agreeing to install something other than the program you were actually seeking. Far too often people just push next over and over, and end up with a browser covered in various search bars that just aren’t needed. In the worst of scenarios, these can have nefarious intentions. Lock your computer if you get up Sick of your “friends” going onto your computer at work or home and posting things on your Facebook/Twitter page on your behalf? It’s certainly an annoyance, but an easy one to prevent. Windows + L will lock your system right away, requiring a password (if you’ve set one) to log in again.


What is Science’s Definition ? The word science comes from the Latin “scientia,” meaning knowledge.

sified along two major lines:

How do we define science? According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, the definition of science is “knowledge at-

Natural sciences, the study of the natural world, and Social sciences, the systematic study of human behavior and society.

tained through study or practice,” or “knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method [and] concerned with the physical world.”

The Different Fields of Science

What does that really mean? Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena. The term science also refers to the organized body of knowledge people have gained using that system. Less formally, the word science often describes any systematic field of study or the knowledge gained from it. What is the purpose of science? Perhaps the most general description is that the purpose of science is to produce useful models of reality. Most scientific investigations use some form of the scientific method. Find out more about the scientific method. Science as defined above is sometimes called pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to human needs. Fields of science are commonly clas-


This is just a partial listing of some of the many, many different possible fields of study within science. Many of the fields listed here overlap to some degree with one or more other areas.


Anatomy Immunology Astrobiology Marine biology Biochemistry Microbiology Bioinformatics Molecular Biology Biophysics Morphology Botany Neuroscience Cell biology Physicalanthropology Developmental biology Physiology Ecology Population dynamics Entomology Structural biology Epidemiology Taxonomy Evolution (Evolutionary biology) Toxicology Freshwater Biology Virology Genetics Zoology



Astrophysics Biophysics

Analytical chemistry Polymer chemistry Biochemistry Physical chemistry Computational chemistry Quantum chemistry Electrochemistry Spectroscopy Inorganic chemistry Stereochemistry Materials science Thermochemistry Organic chemistry


Acoustics High Energy Physics Astrodynamics Materials physics Astronomy Mechanics

Science and

Classical mechanics Particle physics Computational physics Plasma physics Condensed matter physics Polymer physics Cryogenics Quantum mechanics Dynamics Solid State physics Fluid dynamics Thermodynamics

Earth Science

Environmental Science Meteorology Geodesy Oceanography Geography Paleontology Geology Seismology of particles ranging in size from quarks to stars and at times scales from femtoseconds to millions of years.


So what does all this mean? It means that science does not presently, and probably never can, give statements of absolute eternal truth - it only provides theories. We know that those theories will probably be refined in the future, and some of them may even be discarded in favor of theories that make more sense in light of data generated by future scientists. However, our present theories are our best available explanations of the world. They explain, and have been tested against, a vast amount of information. Consider some of the information against which we’ve tested our theories: We’ve examined the DNA, cells, tissues, organs, and bodies of thousands if not millions of species of organisms, from bacteria to cacti to great blue whales, at scales from electron microscopy to global ecology. We’ve examined the physical behaviour


Nuclear physics Optics

We’ve characterized the 90 or so chemical elements that occur naturally on earth and several more that we’ve synthesized. We’ve poked at nearly every rock on the earth’s surface and drilled as much as six miles into the earth to recover and examine more. We’ve used seismology to study the earth’s internal structure, both detecting shallow faults and examining the behavior of the planet’s core. We’ve studied the earth’s oceans with dredges, bottles, buoys, boats, drillships, submersibles, and satellites. We’ve monitored and sampled Earth’s atmosphere at a global scale on a minute-by-minute basis.

We’ve personally explored the surface of our moon and brought back rocks from there, and we’ve sampled a huge number of meteorites to learn more about matter from beyond our planet. We will do more in the centuries to come, but we’ve already assembled a vast array of information on which to build the theories that are our present scientific understanding of the universe. This leaves people with a choice today. One option is to accept, perhaps with some skepticism, the scientific (and only theoretical) understanding of the natural world, which is derived from all the observations and measurements described above. The other option, or perhaps an other option, is to accept traditional understandings3 of the natural world developed centuries or even millennia ago by people who, regardless how wise or well-meaning, had only sharp eyes and fertile imaginations as their best tools.

We’ve scanned outer space with telescopes employing radiation ranging in wavelength from infrared to X-rays, and we’ve sent probes to examine both our sun and the distant planets of our solar system.


Time and Distance Questions


1. How many minutes does Aditya take to cover a distance of 400 m, if he runs at a speed of 20 km/hr 115min 215min 315min 415min 2. A cyclist covers a distance of 750 meter in 2 minutes 30 seconds. What is the speed in km/hr of cyclist 16 km/hr 17 km/hr 18 km/hr 19 km/hr 3. A car moves at 80 km/hr. What is the speed of the car in meters per second ? 2029msec 2229msec 2429msec 2629msec 4. An athlete runs 200 meters in 24 seconds. His speed is ? 10 km/hr 17 k/hr 27 km/hr 30 km/hr 5. A person crosses a 600 meter long street in 5 minutes. What is the speed in Km/hr 6.2 km/hr 7.2 km/hr 8.2 km/hr 9.2 km/hr 6. A man is walking at the rate of 5 km/hr crosses a bridge in 15 minutes. The length of the bridge is 1000 meters 1050 meters 1200 meters 1250 meters 7. A train covers a distance in 50 minutes, if it runs at a speed of 48kmph on an average. Find the speed at which the train must run to reduce the time of journey to 40 minutes. 50 km/hr 60 km/hr 65 km/hr 70 km/hr


The bar graph given below shows the foreign exchange reserves of a country (in million US $) from 1991-92 to 1998-99




3. For which year, the percent increase of foreign exchange reserves over the previous year is the highest ? 1994-95 `1995-96 1998-99 1992-93 4. The foreign exchange reserves in 1996-97 were approximately what percent of the average foreign exchange reserves over the period under review ? 80% 100% 125% 130% 5. The ratio of the number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves are above the average reserves, to those in which the reserves are below the average is: 3:5 2:3 4:7 3:7

Pipes and Cisterns Questions

1. Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 20 and 30 minutes respectively. If both the pipes are used together, then how long it will take to fill the tank ? 10 mins 12 mins 15 mins 20 mins 2. A cistern can be filled by a tap in 4 hours while it can be emptied by another tap in 9 hours. If both the taps are opened simultaneously, then after how much time cistern will get filled ? 7 hours 7.1 hours 7.2 hours 7.3 hours 3. A tap can fill a tank in 6 hours. After half the tank is filled then 3 more similar taps are opened. What will be total time taken to fill the tank completely. 2 hours 30 mins 2 hours 45 mins 3 hours 30 mins 3 hours 45 mins

1. The foreign exchange reserves in 1997-98 was how many times that in 1994-95 1.5 2 3.5 2.6 2. What was the percentage increase in the foreign exchange reserves in 1997-98 over 1993-94 ?


4. A water tank is two-fifth full. Pipe A can fill a tank in 10 minutes and pipe B can empty in 6 minutes. If both the pipes are open, how long will it take to empty or fill the tank completely ? 6 min to empty 7 min to full 6 min to full 7 min to empty 5. Pipe A can fill a tank in 5 hours, pipe B in 10 hours and pipe C in 30 hours. If all the pipes are open, in how many hours will the tank be filled ? 2.5 hours 2 hours 3.5 hours 3 hours


Geography Questions

1. Study of the Universe is known as ? Sociology Cosmology Universology Petology

4. Indus people were first to produce cotton in the world ? TRUE FALSE

2. Approximately how many Galaxies are there ? 10 Billion Galaxies 100 Billion Galaxies 1000 Billion Galaxies 10000 Billion Galaxies

5. Which two Indus sites found in Afghanistan ? Lothal and Daimabad Shatughai and Dainabad Shatughai and Mundigaq Mundigaq and Daimabad

3. Big Bang theory explains ? Origin of Universe. Origin of Sun. Laws of physics. None of above.

6. Which was the ancient port of Indus Civilization ? Harappa Lothal Dholavira Surkotada

4. Big Bang was an explosion that occurred ? 10 Billion years ago 15 Billion years ago 20 Billion years ago 25 Billion years ago

7. Vedic Culture was from 1500 BC to 600 BC 1400 BC to 500 BC

5. Which is correct order of solar system starting from Sun ? Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus Mercury, Venus, Earth, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

World History Questions

6. Which Planet is dwarf planet Mercury Pluto Mars Uranus

1450 BC to 550 BC 1300 BC to 400 BC

1. Rivers Tigris and Euphrates are associated with ? Mesopotamian Civilization Egyptain Civilization Harappan Civilization Chinese Civilization 2. Which is considered as oldest civilization of the world ? Mesopotamian Civilization Egyptain Civilization Harappan Civilization Chinese Civilization 3. Which among following is called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Gift of the Nileâ&#x20AC;? ? China India Iraq Egypt 4. Who is considered as the master of Greek comedy ? Aeschylus Sophocles Aristophanes Philip

7. Diameter of Sun is ? 12 Lakh kms 13 Lakh kms 14 Lakh kms 15 Lakh kms

5. When ancient Olympic games first held ? 776 BC 780 BC 790 BC 800 BC

Indian History Questions 1. What was the time period of Indus Civilization / Harappan Civilization ? 2400 BC - 1700 BC 2400 BC - 1750 BC 2500 BC - 1700 BC 2500 BC - 1750 BC

6. Who is known as the father of Modern Medicine ? Euclid Pythagoras Hippocrates Erastosthenes 7. Rome was founded around ? 1000 BC 1200 BC 1400 BC

1600 BC

2. Which was the largest site of Indus Civilization ? Mohenjodaro Lothal Chanhudaro Dholavira 3. Which was the largest Indian site of Indus Civilization ? Mohenjodaro Lothal Chanhudaro Dholavira 2014


Statement and Arguments Questions

Each of the following questions consists of a statement followed by two arguments I and II. (A) If only argument I is strong (B) If only argument II is strong (C) If either I or II is strong (D) If neither I nor II is strong and (E) If both I and II are strong. 1. Statement: Should the railways immediately stop issuing free passes to all its employees? Arguments: I. No. The employees have the right to travel free. II. Yes. This will help railways to provide better facility. Only argument I is strong Only argument II is strong Either I or II is strong Neither I nor II is strong Both I and II are strong 2. Statement : Should number of holidays of government employees be reduced ? Arguments : I. Yes. Our government employees are having maximum number of holidays among the other countries of the world. II. Yes. It will lead to increased productivity of government offices. Only argument I is strong Only argument II is strong Either I or II is strong Neither I nor II is strong Both I and II are strong 3. Statement : Should there be reservation of seats and posts on communal basis ? Arguments : I. Yes. It will check most of the inter-communal biases. II. No. Ours is a secular state. Only argument I is strong Only argument II is strong Either I or II is strong Neither I nor II is strong Both I and II are strong 4. Statement : Should government stop spending huge amounts of money on international sports ? Arguments : 2014

I. Yes. This money can be utilised for poor. II. No. Sports-persons will be frustrated and will not get international exposure. Only argument I is strong Only argument II is strong Either I or II is strong Neither I nor II is strong Both I and II are strong 5. Statement : Should education be made compulsory for all children up to the age of 14 ? Arguments : I. Yes. This will help to eradicate the system of forced employment of children. II. Yes. This would increase the standard of living. Only argument I is strong Only argument II is strong Either I or II is strong Neither I nor II is strong Both I and II are strong 6. Statement : Should the tuition fees in all post graduate courses be hiked considerably ? Arguments : I. Yes. This will bring some kind of seriousness among the students and will improve quality. II. No. This will force the meritorious poor students to stay away from post-graduate courses. Only argument I is strong Only argument II is strong Either I or II is strong Neither I nor II is strong Both I and II are strong 7. Statement: Should students union in universities be abolished ? Arguments : I. Yes. Students can pay full attention to their career development. II. No. All the great leaders had been students union leaders. Only argument I is strong Only argument II is strong Either I or II is strong Neither I nor II is strong Both I and II are strong




MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE Algebra 1. (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ; a2 + b2 = (a + b)2 − 2ab 2. (a − b)2 = a2 − 2ab + b2 ; a2 + b2 = (a − b)2 + 2ab 3. (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca)

4. (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b); a3 + b3 = (a + b)3 − 3ab(a + b) 5. (a − b)3 = a3 − b3 − 3ab(a − b); a3 − b3 = (a − b)3 + 3ab(a − b) 6. a2 − b2 = (a + b)(a − b)

7. a3 − b3 = (a − b)(a2 + ab + b2 )

8. a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 − ab + b2 )

9. an − bn = (a − b)(an−1 + an−2 b + an−3 b2 + · · · + bn−1 )

10. an = a.a.a . . . n times

11. am .an = am+n am 12. n = am−n if m > n a =1 if m = n 1 = n−m if m < n; a ∈ R, a = 0 a m n 13. (a ) = amn = (an )m 14. (ab)n = an .bn  a n an 15. = n b b 16. a0 = 1 where a ∈ R, a = 0 1 1 17. a−n = n , an = −n a a √ 18. ap/q = q ap 19. If am = an and a = ±1, a = 0 then m = n

20. If an = bn where n = 0, then a = ±b √ √ √ √ 21. If x, y are quadratic surds and if a + x = y, then a = 0 and x = y √ √ √ √ 22. If x, y are quadratic surds and if a + x = b + y then a = b and x = y = loga m+loga n 23. If a, m, n are positive real numbers and a = 1, then loga mn m = loga m − loga n 24. If a, m, n are positive real numbers, a = 1, then loga n n 25. If a and m are positive real numbers, a = 1 then loga m = n loga m logk a 26. If a, b and k are positive real numbers, b = 1, k = 1, then logb a = logk b 1 where a, b are positive real numbers, a = 1, b = 1 27. logb a = loga b 28. if a, m, n are positive real numbers, a = 1 and if loga m = loga n, then m=n

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Ram Vilas Paswan, BJP seal deal, change Bihar NEW DELHI: BJP and LJP leader Ram Vilas Paswan sealed a seat-sharing pact in Bihar that will see Paswan’s group contesting seven Lok Sabha seats, a development that marks the much-travelled politician’s return to the NDA-fold. Paswan surfaced on Wednesday after keeping Congress, RJD and BJP on tenterhooks for the last few days and announced that his options are open. “Opinion in LJP is not against going with BJP. In our party’s interests we need to take tough decisions,” he said. The nitty gritty of the pact saw Paswan agree to contest on seats that are not currently being held by the BJP. The decision is bound to cause heart burn among BJP hopefuls, but the party is pleased with the bargain. Paswan is seen to command the loyalty of a dalit community that is assertive and can add three-four per cent votes to BJP’s base that includes upper castes and some middle castes as well. Paswan prepared the ground for breaking with Congress and RJD by saying he was made a measly offer of a few seats. But his decision to make up with BJP after having quit the NDA cabinet over the Gujarat 2002 riots seems driven by the assessment that saffron PM hopefulNarendra Modi is gaining traction in Bihar. Paswan’s switch helps BJP counter criticism that Modi’s projection as PM has isolated the party as sources point to Asom Gana Parishad leader Prafulla Mahanta’s statement on Wednesday that he does not rule in or rule out a tie-up with BJP. Mahanta along with BJD leader Naveen Patnaik stayed away from a third front inaugural on Tuesday and the Odisha CM’s posture is seen to reflect a convergence with BJP on seeing Congress as the common enemy.


“There is no seat sharing with BJD, but we can work in our own ways to contain Congress,” said a BJP leader about the Odisha scene. BJP leaders feel the party has a satisfactory understanding with Paswan, and talks have centred around the need to select “clean” candidates. Though CBI is threatening to question Paswan in an appointments scam, the process will not be complete until the elections. In Tamil Nadu, BJP is striving to stitch up an alliance with smaller parties like PMK and DMDK besides MDMK leader Vaiko who is already in NDA. Paswan’s return is significant as he had quit the NDA over the Gujarat 2002 riots, although he was also unhappy over being removed from the telecom ministry when he was in the Vajpayee government. A party leader close to Paswan said, “We have reached an understanding but have had to cede the choice to BJP. It’s a last minute alliance and BJP has already finalised candidates for more seats. We did not have much room to negotiate on the choice of seats. But we are not disappointed, the allocation is respectable.” Sources, however, said there is an agreement on LJP contesting from Vaishali, Hajipur, Jamui, Samastipur and Khagaria. Paswan’s son Chirag who is also the chairman of party’s Parliamentary board, said, “LJP Parliamentary Board has passed a resolution that all steps, even if they are strong ones, should be taken in the interest of the party and if an alternative alliance is to be firmed up, party chief Ram Vilas Paswan should take the decision.”



Subrata Roy, owner of the financial services group Sahara India Pariwar, surrendered to police after India’s top court issued a warrant in a probe into over whether he failed to refund 240 billion rupees (HK$30 billion) to his depositors. Roy, 65, was co-operating with the court’s directive, his son Seemanto Roy said in New Delhi yesterday. The financier defied a summons and failed to appear in court on Wednesday, prompting a non-bailable arrest warrant. In a statement issued yesterday, Roy cited the need to be at his ailing mother’s bedside. Roy, who began operations in 1978 by going door to door to collect small cash deposits, is seeking to convince the top court that Sahara has complied with an order to refund the loans to 30 million depositors. In June 2011, India’s market regulator alleged two of his companies sold convertible debt without approval. The financier, who calls himself “Sahara Sri”, is part of the US$670 billion shadow banking industry in Asia’s third-largest economy. Roy earlier dismissed reports in newspapers that he was evading arrest after police, seeking to serve the warrant, could not find him at his house. “I am not that human being who will abscond,” Roy said yesterday in a media statement, explaining he had left his house in Lucknow to consult doctors on his mother’s medical reports when the police were looking for him. “I’ve started hating myself. Now, I can’t handle this level of agony and humiliation. They are bullying and indulging in character assassination.” Sahara says the 31,675 cartons of documents in 128 trucks it had sent to the Securities and Exchange Board of India proved it had repaid the money. Lawyers for the market watchdog have told the court the paperwork was muddled and the paper trails often led nowhere. In his statement, Roy said he had sought house arrest until Monday, which is the next hearing date. Over the past 35 years, Roy has built an empire that at the end of 2012 was valued at US$11 billion by collecting amounts as small as 32 US cents from rickshaw pullers and laundry washers.



NAVY CHIEF DK JOSHI RESIGNS AFTER INS SINDHURATNA FIRE New Delhi: Navy Chief Admiral DK Joshi on Wednesday resigned taking “moral responsibility” over the spate of mishaps involving naval warships in the last seven months. Joshi, who had about 15 months more left in service, submitted his resignation hours after submarine INS Sindhuratna had a mishap in which seven sailors were taken seriously ill and two officers were missing. After quitting Joshi said, “I accept all moral responsibility for all the incidents and accidents that happened in the last few months. Former Indian Navy chief Admiral DK Joshi. Image courtesy PIB The defence ministry immediately accepted his resignation and ordered that Vice Chief of Naval Staff Vice Admiral RK Dhowan should take over as the Acting Chief till regular Chief is appointed. “Taking moral responsibility for the accidents and incidents which have taken place during the past few months, the Chief of Naval Staff Admiral DK Joshi today resigned from the post of Navy Chief,” defence ministry said. “The Government has accepted the resignation of Admiral Joshi with immediate effect,” it said. This would be the first time in the last 15 years that a Naval chief has had to leave office in controversial circumstances after Admiral Vishnu Bhagwat was sacked by the NDA Government in 1998 when George Fernandes was the defence minister. Reflecting the gravity of the mishap, Defence Minister AK Antony briefed President Pranab Mukherjee, who is also the Supreme Commander of Armed Forces, and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on the accident. There have been 10 reported incidents involving naval assets in the last seven months involving the INS Sindhuratna mishap early today in which two officers are missing and seven sailors were affected severly due to smoke inhalation. The biggest mishap occured when the INS Sindhurakshak sank inside the Mumbai harbour killing all 18 personnel on board on 14 August. Earlier this month, INS Airavat, an amphibious warfare vessel, ran aground after which the commanding officer was stripped of his command duties. After the sinking of the INS Sindhurakshak, one of the mishaps involved INS Betwa which was damaged after probably hitting some underwater object. India’s leading minesweeper, the INS Konkan that was undergoing repairs in Vizag, also caught fire and suffered major damage to its interiors. The Pondicherry-class minesweeper was getting a refit at a dry dock when the incident occurred. The naval headquarters is concerned over the spate of mishaps in the Western Command and had even summoned Western Naval Commander Vice Admiral Shekhar Sinha on the issue. The Western Command headquarters was damaged when Naval Armament Depot personnel misfired a heavy-calibre gun at it while checking it.




YUVRAJ SINGH, DINESH KARTHIK AND KEVIN PIETERSEN STEAL THE SHOW ON DAY 1 Yuvraj Singh fetches the highest price in the auction with Rs 14 crore, while England’s Kevin Pietersen went for Rs 9 crore. Catch all the live updates from the IPL auctions here. (Full player list) # So that concludes an exciting day of IPL player auctions. A lot of action took place early on in the day when the likes of Yuvraj and Dinesh Karthik were fought hard for and some very strategic utilization of the right-to-match card was also seen. Most teams seem to have built a majority of their side. Here’s acomplete list of players who were bought today. It will be interesting to see how the action pans out tomorrow with a lot of young, uncapped Indian players up for grabs. How the franchises plan out their remaining budget and approach will be the deciding factor for their squad. The following is the budget remaining at the disposal of all eight teams: CSK - Rs 3.20 crore, DD - Rs 8.60 crore, KXIP - Rs 14.20 crore, MI - Rs 5.15 crore, RR - Rs 12.10 crore, RCB - Rs 1.80 crore, SRH - Rs 8.40 crore, KKR - Rs 9 crore.

# England veteran Simon Jones up for grabs at Rs 30 Lakh. No bids for him. UNSOLD! # Sri Lanka’s Nuwan Kulasekara, a former CSK bowler, is also UNSOLD! # Former DC and KXIP player Juan Theron is up next. Base price of Rs 30 Lakh. No bids again.UNSOLD! # New Zealand’s comeback man Kyle Mills is up for Rs 50 Lakh. No bids for him either. UNSOLD! # West Indian Jerome Taylor is up next at Rs 30 Lakh base price. No bids again. UNSOLD! # England’s Jade Dernbach is up next at Rs 50 Lakh. No takers. UNSOLD! # West Indian pacer Tino Best is next. The base price is Rs 30 Lakh. No bids again. UNSOLD!

# The last player up for grabs of the day, Sri Lanka’s Isuru Udana for Rs 30 Lakh. No takers for him.UNSOLD!

# SOLD! CSK break the deadlock and bid Rs 30 Lakh. They get him for that amount.

# Indian pacer Aavishkar Salvi is up next for Rs 30 Lakh. No takers for him. UNSOLD!

# New Zealand’s Matt Henry is up next at Rs 30 Lakh.

# New Zealand’s Ian Butler is available at Rs 30 Lakh. None of the teams are bidding. UNSOLD! # Shamiga Eranga is the first in the list at a base price of Rs 30 Lakh. UNSOLD! # Final set of the day coming up


# Ben Laughlin from Australia is next at Rs 30 Lakh. The drought continues. No bids. UNSOLD! # New Zealand’s Mitchell McClenaghan is up next. His base price is Rs 30 Lakh. No bids. UNSOLD! # South Africa’s medium pacer Merchant de Lange comes up. Rs 30 Lakh his base price but none of the sides interested. UNSOLD!


The Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics

Each Russian medalist at the Sochi Games rewarded with a Mercedes-Benz Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev has given a Mercedes-Benz to each Olympic medallist from the host country of the 2014 Sochi Games. Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev speaks with Russian Olympic figure skating champion Julia Lipnitskaia, sitting in her new Mercedes-Benz in Red Square. All Russian medallists were given similar vehicles as a reward. (Feb. 27, 2014) MOSCOW—Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev has given a Mercedes-Benz to each Olympic medallist from the host


country of the 2014 Sochi Games. Russia topped the Sochi medal standings with 33 medals, including 13 gold, 11 silver and 9 bronze medals. T white Mercedes-Benz cars were decorated with the Russian Olympic team logo. While some of Russia’s star athletes, like 15-year-old figure skater Julia Lipnitskaia or 17-year-old teammate Adelina Sotnikova, don’t even have their licenses yet, Medvedev found a way around that problem by providing a driver — all services paid. After an embarrassing sixthplace finish in the medals table at the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, Russia finished at the top in Sochi. Medvedev says that it is important for the government to continue supporting athletes financially.






DTC Bus Routes in Delhi Bus Number Bus Route 1 Rajendra nagar to noida 2 Indrapuri to saahadara 3 pragati maidan to shakti nagar 4 Cenral Secretariat to jankpura market 5 RK Puram Sector-1 to Ambedkar Nagar Sector-4 6 AAnand vihar to noida 7 Kendriya Terminal to Kewal Park MCD Flats 8 Badarpur MB Road to Noida Phase-II 9 Bus stand to uttam nagar 10 Central terminal to jahanjir puri 11 Jama Masjid-I - Adarsh Nagar 12 Old Delhi Railway Station - Sawan Park 13 Old Delhi Railway Station - Ashok Vihar Phase II 14 Shaheed Bhagat Singh Terminal - Wazirpur Depot 15 Kendriya Terminal - Azad Pur Terminal 19 Shivaji Stadium - Jahangir Puri 20 Red Fort-I - Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 22 Seema Puri Depot - Anand Parbat 23Anand Vihar I.S.B.T - Kashmiri Gate (ISBT) N.N Marg 24Kailash Nagar Pusta to Bhajanpura 26Mukherji Nagar Bandh to Sewa Nagar Railway Xing 28Bhai Mati Das Chowk - West Patel Nagar 33Bhajanpura to Noida Sector-37 34Mehrauli to Noida Sector-32 36Dilshad Garden Terminal - Sector-1 Rama Krishna Puram 39Jheel to Tri Nagar Jai Mata Market 40Laxmi Narayan Temple to Badarpur MB Road 41Kamla Market Terminal - Tyag Raj Marg 42Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium - Kalyan Vihar 45Anand Parbat - Sewa Nagar Railway Station 46Anand-Parbat Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 47Inder Puri JJ Colony to Central Workshop -II 50Kendriya Terminal-Sarojni Nagar Market 51Old Delhi Railway Station-Sarojni Nagar Depot 53Nand Nagri Community Center to RK Puram Sector-1 54Kamla Market-Sarojni Nagar Market 55Kendriya Terminal-Lodhi Colony 56New Delhi Railway Station Gate No. 2


to Vasant Vihar CPWD Colony 57Regal-Sarojni Nagar Market 61GTB Nagar to Jharoda Village 62Kamla Market Terminal-Shahbad Dairy 66JLN Stadium to Vasant Kunj C-9 70Anand Vihar ISBT to Naraina Vihar 71Maharana Pratap ISBT to Inder Puri JJ Colony 72Bhai Mati Das Chowk-Indra Puri Police Post 73Anand Vihar ISBT to Hari Nagar Clock Tower 74Red Fort-I-Naraina Vihar 75Mori Gate-Dwarka Sector-14 76Anand Vihar I.S.B.T-Inder Puri J.J Colony 77Bhai Mati Das Chowk-R-Block New Rajender Nagar 78Azad Pur terminal to Inder Puri JJ Colony 79Azad Pur-Sarai Kale Khan I.S.B.T 80Kendriya Terminal-Karam Pura 81Inder Puri JJ Colony to Mukherji Nagar Bandh 82Jama Masjid-I-Ranjeet Nagar 83Hari Nagar Village-Bara Tooti 84Hari Nagar Village-Arya Samaj Road 85Anand Vihar ISBT to Punjabi Bagh Terminal 86Bawana-Old Delhi Railway Station 87Old Delhi Railway Station-Jahangir Puri 88Rana Pratap Bagh-Kalyan Puri 89Tri Nagar Jai Mata Market to Sarojini Nagar Depot 90Kendriya Terminal-Narela Terminal 91Maurice Nagar-Shahdara Border 92Anand Vihar ISBT to Gulabi Bagh 93Mori Gate-Harewali 94Mukhmel Pur-Fateh Puri 95Palla Village-Fateh Puri 96Old Delhi Railway Station-Badli Exchange 97Haider Pur Village-Old Delhi Railway Station 98Khera Khurd-Mori Gate 99Old Delhi Railway Station-Jhangola Village 100Bawana-Kendriya Terminal 101Nizamuddin Railway Station to Swaroop Nagar JJ Colony 102Railway Station to Rohini Sector-22 103Fatehpuri to Narela 104Shivaji Stadium to Jharoda Village 105Maha Rana Pratap ISBT to Mukhmel

Pur 106Fatehpuri to Qutab garh Border 107Fatehpuri to Katevara Village 108Old Delhi Railway Station-Hamidpur 109Balak Ram Hospital to Hari Nagar Clock Tower 110Kendriya Terminal to Balak Ram Hospital 111Maharana Pratap Bus (T) I.S.B.T-Jahangir Puri 112Fatehpuri to Shafiabad Border 113Fatehpuri to Sanoth Village 114Fatehpuri to Qutab garh Border 115Railway Station to Ashok Vihar Phase -II 116Old Delhi Railway Station to Bawana J.J.Calony 117Old Delhi Railway Station-Tajpur 118Pragati Maidan-Adarsh Nagar 119Fatehpuri to Bajit Pur Village 120 Shadi Pur Depot-Mukhar Ji Nagar Bandh 121Maurice Nagar-Rajender Nagar Market 122Karol Bagh-Ashok Vihar 123Mori Gate Terminal to Harewali Border 124Fatehpuri to Mukhmel Pur 125Fatehpuri to Palla Village 126Birla Mills-Nand Nagri Terminal 127Fatehpuri to Haider Pur Village 128Mori Gate to Khera Khurd 129Old Delhi Railway Station to Jhingola Village 130Maharana Pratap Bus (T) I.S.B.T-Sarswati Vihar A-Block 131Fatehpuri to Lampur Border 132Kendriya Terminal-Ashok Vihar Phase II 133Maha Rana Pratap I.S.B.T-Katewara Village 134Maharana Pratap ISBT to Ibrahim Pu 135Delhi Secretariat to Narela Terminal 136Railway Station to Ghoga Village 137Fatehpuri to Holumbi kalan 138Fatehpuri to Hamid Pur 139Mori Gate-Katewara Village 140Old Delhi Railway Station-Narela Terminal 141Azad Pur Terminal I-Narela Terminal 142ISBT to E-Blk Jahangir Puri 143Anand Vihar ISBT to Keshav Nagar 144Fatehpuri to Singhu School

Brief summery in next edition………


Delhi is known for many things. There is the chaotic traffic, the stunning Mughal-era monuments, the street food, the burgeoning cultural scene that sees a steady stream of European designers and artists heading east in search of inspiration. There is poverty, of course, and the hubris that is the right of every emerging power. And then there is ONE THING THAT WE CANNOT FORGET IS DELHI POLICE. Delhi Police is the biggest metropolitan police in the world with 149 Police stations with its headquarter at Indraprastha Estate.

Delhi Police is composed of the following personnels:

• 3 Special Commissioners • 17 Joint Commissioners • 7 Additional Commissioners • 74 Deputy Commissioners • 272 ACPs Delhi is the capital of India and is the centre of wide range of political, cultural, social and economic activities. The Delhi police have to play a number of roles so far maintenance of law and order is concerned. Delhi Police is considered to be having the most advanced administrative system in India. It believes in the principle of ‘Citizen First’. Traffic control is very important in order to avoid accidents and in this field Delhi police is taking strong measures to assure safety to the people.

•CSAT - Civil Service Prelim •CLAT (Common Law Admission Test)

Control Room 100 Women 1091 Reward for giving information 1090, 011-23490312, Senior Citizens 1091 & 1291 Inform about crime 1090 Terrorism (Your identity will be kept secret) 1090 Traffic 1095 & 011-25844444 Vigilance Cell 011-23417995 Anti-Corruption Cell 011-23890018 & 011-23890019 Legal Cell 011-23490258 & 011-23490010 Ext.4258 Anti-Obscene Calls Cell 1091 Anti Stalking Cell 1091

•Bank PO/ Clerk / SSC / PSC •IELTS and TOEFL

MORE DETAILS :- 011-22043114 2014