Page 1

ExpressionS VOLUME

3

ISSUE

NOVEMBER - DECEMBER

6

2012

featuring

photo stories

Turtles of the World Kostas Papafitsoros The Green Economy Isabelle Richaud Safeguarding Zebras Christina Bush 3 Green Snakes Amit Dutta

Sea Turtle Photography by Kostas Papafitsoros The Insectum by Anand Amembal

by

by

by

by

icareindia bringing people together

ExpressionS

www.expressions.icareindia.co.in

NOV-DEC 2012

1


contents

2

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

3


the readers’ expressions The power of the human dimension was quite captivating to say the least. Very well articulated. Radhikya Iyer Kolkata Over the years we have all heard of Corbett, Ranthambore, Tadoba but hardly do we come across any article on other prominent parks in the country. The feature on Bandipur was a real surprise and kudos to the team. Please try to feature more such parks. Kritesh Shah Gujarat

contents

Had never heard about Pench National Park. Thanks to the team now I am aware one such park exists. Jokes apart Expressions is the way forward for a beautiful tomorrow. Chetan Kapur Gurgaon

4

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

Loved the cover page. Simple yet so captivating. Keep up the good work guys. Gaurav Rathod Indore The whole of October issue was a treat not just in terms of the diverse topics it touched upon but the subtle approach which was clearly visible in terms of the designing. Rohit Singh Gurgaon I was forwarded the link to your magazine by a friend and I have become a fan since then. Amazing work you guys are doing. Keep it going. All the best Nidhi Sharma Delhi Photo-stories in Expressions are always a delight and this month was no different. Great job Ateeb and Shovna. Richard Thomas New Zealand


from the editors’ desk Dear Readers, We have lived to see yet another year. Remember exactly an year back all of us had made many resolutions that we gradually lost count of. Why not let’s do something different this time around? Let us make resolutions that we can realistically stick to. How about all of us work towards saving the environment? I am sure you must be wondering here we go again. I know such phrases eventually lead to recycling, carpooling, say no to Suv’s. No denying that these are great ways to go green but at the same-time these are not the only ways either. So why not ignore that perennially-failed weight loss resolution and try out a green (yet simple) resolution this year? Trust me we all can contribute in our own little ways. We bring to you all a few suggestions as put forward by many experts at Greenpeace: SAY YES TO A TOXICS-FREE HOUSEHOLD. This might take a while in research, so plan to do it over the whole year. From beauty products to clothes detergent and computer parts, we have become used to toxics products in our daily lives. Time to stop it. When buying new products, check what they are made of, and pick the one that will have the least toxic residues. TAKE RECYCLING TO THE NEXT LEVEL. You probably have two different bins in your kitchen, sorting your waste to have it recycled. It doesn’t end here though. In 2013, try to reduce the amount picked up by the garbage truck. If you have a garden, start your own compost. SPEND MORE TIME OUTDOORS WITH NATURE. Learn to enjoy nature again. Make a habit of taking a weekly walk outside. We have become so used to live in our houses and in our cars, many people have no idea what nature looks like anymore. SWITCH OVER TO CFL. You can also consider replacing some or all of your traditional 100 watt light bulbs with more efficient fluorescent bulbs. They may be more expensive, but they consume less electricity and give better lighting, thus reducing your electricity bill and damage to the environment by emissions from power plants. KEEP YOUR ELECTRONICS FOR THE YEAR. New cellphone? Must absolutely have the latest iPad? How about the newly released gaming console? Our consumption of electronics is reaching records. Make a break, and promise not to buy new electronics this year, unless the one you already have breaks down (and when it does, ensure it is recycled properly!). Going green is by far one of the best ways to start off the new year, but at the same-time it’s quite a broad term that the specifics of how you’ll go green eventually lead to you taking a back seat. Instead of making a broad generalization, try to pick and choose a few specific ways to green your life in 2013. In the end I would like to quote Dennis Gabor who had once famously said, “Till now man has been up against Nature; from now on he will be up against his own nature.” Let us all hope the coming year we can all come forward and lead the change for a healthier tomorrow. Happy Holidays….!!

Best,

Yudhishter Puran Singh Founder & Editor

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

5


ExpressionS IN THE ISSUE

8

the

14

Girl e

with th

Green

ANOTHER ECONOMY IS POSSIBLE The “green economy” is with no doubt a trendy concept, and for good reasons. by ISABELLE RICHAUD

Festivals and Pollution by

16

g

Handba

PRIYANKA SETHY

SEA TURTLE PHOTOGRAPHY by KOSTAS PAPAFITSOROS

SAFEGUARDING ZEBRAS At first glance they may look alike, but their stripes are as distinctive as human fingerprints.

40

by CHRISTINA BUSH

contents

THE EXPRESSIONS’ YOUTH TEAM

Founder & Editor

Yudhishter Puran Singh

ExpressionS NOV-DEC

Monika Singh

ALL EDITORIAL QUERIES SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES MUST BE DIRECTED TO For subscription queries, The Editor, Expressions, write to expressions@icareindia.co.in 51-A Subhash Road, or call us at +919634796880 Dehradun 248140, Uttarakhand, India 919411114921, Fax: 011-66173614 2012

PERMISSIONS For permissions to copy or reuse material from EXPRESSIONS, write to expressions@icareindia.co.in or call us at +919634796880

6

Content Editor


THE INSECTUM

66

Photography 48 Wildlife as a Career in India

PHOTO STORY by ANAND AMEMBAL

an interview with

DR. CAESAR SENGUPTA

54

18 TURTLES OF THE WORLD by KOSTAS PAPAFITSOROS 86

SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP by NAIM KERUWALA

88

FESTIVAL OF NOISE & AIR POLLUTION by SURBHI ARORA

3 GREEN SNAKES The three venomous green snakes of India by AMIT BIJON DUTTA

This emagazine is user interactive. Click on above page numbers to navigate to the respective section. To arrive back on this index page, Click on the bottom left of any even numbered page.

Creative Editor/Designer

Akshay Madan

Senior Editor

Pooja Bhatt

News Editor

90

IN THE NEWS

Harshit Singh

Views and opinions expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of Expressions., its publisher and/or editors. We at Expressions do our best to verify the information published but do not take any responsibility for the absolute accuracy of the information

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

7


regular feature

ANOTHER ECONOMY IS POSSIBLE

T H E G R E E N ECO N O M Y

Isabelle Richaud

contents

A 31-year-old citizen of the world, Isabelle Richaud works in Antwerp, Belgium for the European branch of TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, based in New Delhi).

8

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


regular feature

T

he “green economy” is with no doubt a trendy concept – and for good reasons. Our capacity to continue producing the goods and services to satisfy our needs (the purpose of economic activities) while preserving natural resources (what is intended by “green”) is the central challenge of our generation. Current views and current policy-making, though, seems to have lost sight of these objectives. Our economic system has merely become a vehicle to enrich the already rich and a machine to produce growth and create unessential needs in the mind of consumers – irrespective of its environmental and social impacts. The search for quick monetary profit and consumption at any cost – founding elements of our current model of economic thinking – have encouraged inconsiderate risk-taking in investment strategies of financial organisms, excessive private and public indebtedness, rapid depletion of all the natural and cultural resources that has no monetary value. This led to a sudden collapse of the financial system in 2008 and the consecutive persistent economic

crisis. But this also led to a far more important collapse, although much more progressive and much less visible, of the real, universal, stabilising foundations of our economic and social system, namely ecosystems and natural resources, but also morals, cooperation, social links and human dignity. Not-so-green economists have advocated economic growth as the solution to overpopulation, social inequalities and unemployment. In this view, GDP growth would lead to birth rate stabilisation through increased revenues, poverty reduction by offering economic opportunities to all, and job creation through increasing productive capacity. As we could expect, the environmental crisis would equally find its remedy in economic growth. The argument put forward to justify that position is that the pursuit of growth is associated to the “Environmental Kuznets Curve”, showing that with economic growth environmental problems first increase up to a certain point and then start to decrease. But

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

9


regular feature contents

even within industrialised countries, where the Environmental Kuznets Curve is supposed to have reached its turning point, the relative environmental efficiency of production has not compensated the impact of a considerable increase in economic activity.

spiritual improvements. And, in contradiction with widespread belief, the term development implies qualitative improvement rather than quantitative growth. Development, therefore, does not suggest putting the focus on economic growth.

Instead, John Stuart Mill, a 19th century economist and political philosopher, emphasised that an economy in which physical growth was no longer the primary goal would be more conducive to political, ethical, and

In biology, physical growth of organisms or cells has an optimum level beyond which further growth is not beneficial, and can turn malignant. In microeconomics, the same concept

10

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


regular feature of optimum size is expressed through the law of diminishing marginal utility and increasing marginal costs. The law of diminishing marginal utility of income tells us that we satisfy our most pressing wants first, and that each additional unit of income is dedicated to the satisfaction of a less pressing want. So the marginal benefit of income growth declines. Similarly, the law of increasing marginal costs tells us that we first make use of the most productive and accessible factors of production – for instance the most fertile land in food production – and only use the less productive factors as growth makes it necessary. Consequently, the marginal costs of production growth increase. According to economist Herman Daly, there is no reason why the laws of diminishing marginal utility and increasing marginal costs could not be applied to the domain of macroeconomics. This would suggest that once the optimal level of GDP is attained, further growth would increase costs more than it increased benefits1. Economic growth is necessary to improve social welfare when essential needs still have to be satisfied. But once society has reached a

certain level of prosperity, continuous growth of the economy becomes less and less useful because the needs it is supposed to fulfil are more superficial, or simply non-existent (marginal utility diminishes). In parallel, growth, when fuelled by the use of limited, non-renewable resources, comes with higher economic and environmental costs, because resources become scarcer (marginal cost increases). Typically, the easily extracted oil deposits are dwindling, making oil extraction more costly, and pollution become such as to undermine the profitability of economic activities. Of course, growth in revenues and consumption is a necessity for the poor citizens of the world. For these populations, the correlation between revenue and welfare growth is more straightforward, since any increase in revenue is used to fulfil essential needs. But even in countries with low and medium income per capita, economic growth as such is no guarantee of improvement in human welfare. In the 1990s, the United Nations Environmental Programme pointed as an example the Indian State of Kerala, which

Herman Daly, 1996. Acceptance Speech - THE RIGHT LIVELIHOOD AWARDS. December 9th, 1996 - http://www.rightlivelihood.org/daly_speech.html 2 UNDP, 2010. Human Development Report 2010. The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development - http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2010/chapters/en/ 3 Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh, 2007. Abolishing GDP. Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper - http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=962343 4 Tim Jackson, 2009. Prosperity without growth 1

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

11


regular feature achieved a level of human development far higher than countries with a comparable level of incomes. According to the UNEP “these achievements were possible because growth had decoupled from the processes determining progress in the non-income dimensions of human development”2.

contents

Changing the most widely used economic indicators is the primary pre-requisite for changing economic thinking and the even values underlying economic practices. The focus of current policy-making on GDP is both the engine and the typical consequence of the one-dimensional thinking that govern our economy, and which is unable to apprehend the world if not under the unique measurement tool represented by money. The general focus on GDP – a materialist and productivist indicator par excellence – only fuels the problems underlined here-above and the systemic crisis we are facing. It appears crucial to re-confine GDP as an economic indicator to its rightful role, and complement it with the use of other indicators, which would better account for the non-monetary aspects of human welfare.3

12

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

The search for alternative or complementary socio-economic indicators to GDP has been the focus of a number of recent initiatives. A first type of alternative indicator that has been developed is based on accounting adjustments to GDP to make it a new indicator integrating variables such as environmental degradation or social equity. Among such indicators we can find the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) or the Sustainable National Income (SNI). Another type of indicator consists not in a monetary value, but in a composite index that combines different indicators capturing relevant aspects of human welfare . The bestknown and most respected example of this type of indicators is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations. The HDI of a nation aggregates its level of GDP per capita, the life expectancy, adult literacy rate, and school enrolment ratios of its population. HDI is intended to assess the satisfaction of the elementary needs of a population. The search and experimentation of alternative economic, social and environmental indicators


The other, more fundamental need of the hour is to come up a new macro-economic model that is compatible with the finitude of this planet while ensuring socio-economic stability. One of the most comprehensive basis for that possible model was proposed by economist Tim Jackson in his 2009 book Prosperity without growth. In this model, progress in labour productivity would considerably slow down; investments would be encouraged to massively shift to eco-friendly solutions; and the ratio of investment to consumption would rise. Jackson suggests that an economic model that does not rely on economic growth without undermining stability and employment is possible. What we need is a widespread recognition of the illusion and pitfalls of neverending growth and a radical change in social priorities and values, with a shift in focus from material consumption to a sense of community, meaning and purpose4.

regular feature

are the focus of a growing number of political and governmental initiatives, reflecting the progressive emergence of new political priorities. The most achieved experience on that matter is provided by the Gross National Happiness (GNH), created and implemented by the small Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan. In 1972, Bhutan’s newly crowned leader, concerned about the problems afflicting other developing countries that focused only on economic growth, decided to make his nation’s priority not GDP, but GNH.

Economics and the ecology are, at least in theory, very similar disciplines, aiming at satisfying human needs in a world with limited resources. Both should therefore pursue the preservation of human dignity and natural resources as core objectives and principles. Rather than being seen as a goal per se, the economy must regain its fundamental role in serving human beings and preserving the essential resources sustaining their lives. This should be our conception of a “green economy”.

The priority given by the current economic model to growth of production and accumulation of profit has obscured the essential principles that must underlie any economic activity if it is to be durable. By favouring production at the expense of any other consideration, the economic system is encouraging a mentality of “ever more” and “ever faster” that is in frontal opposition with the principles of precaution and wellconsidered action, which are so necessary to social and environmental stability.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

13


regular feature

the

Girl with the

Green

contents

Handbag

14

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


regular feature

Priyanka Sethy Writing has always been her greatest passion. Lock her in a room with a pencil and a paper, with the occasional glass of tea, and she’ll be a happy person. Priyanka feels strongly about social issues like the degradation of the environment. She’s 16 and is currently studying in Dehradun and she hopes to pursue a literary career in future.

FESTIVALS&POLLUTION V

ivid sparks of colour light up the dark canvas of the sky on the dusky night of the 24th of October. New Survey Road (Dehradun) is pulsating with the high-spirited hordes of humans, all gathered to see the Ravan burn. It is October once again, and the festive season is upon us. But who stayed behind to witness the miserable clouds of dark grey smoke hanging low over Parade Ground? Who noticed the multitude of flimsy white polyethene bags and wrappers littering the whole area after the celebrations were done and over with? Are we fair-weather friends of this very environment that sustains us? To this end, ladies, and gentlemen, I present to you the idea of a Green Diwali. This year, let the festival of lights chase away the gloomy pollution that it otherwise causes. Let the goodness of our natural environment triumph over its earlier defilement! Firecrackers are, of course, the main cause in increased air pollution levels during Diwali. They release toxic elements into the air, which then enter the lungs of us frail humans and other animals, and do all the damage that they possibly can. This Diwali, let us try to reduce the number of crackers burned by pooling firecrackers with our neighbours, or bursting them at a common place for everyone to regale in their splendor. Eco-friendly fireworks are a great alternative as well.

Reducing noise pollution is a task that should be high on the Diwali priority list. Every Diwali, the noise reaches unimaginably high decibel levels, sometimes going beyond the limitsset by the Pollution Control Board. Not only are we harming ourselves, but also the innocent animals that loud sounds have an even more adverse effect on. My own dog needs at least a week to recover from the fright experiencing a Diwali gives him! Let’s make an effort to use firecrackers that cause less noise, and more of visual displays. The sheer amount of energy and electricity that puts the light in ‘festival of lights’ is a startling figure. Diwali and the days leading up to it put an enormous strain on the already overworked power supply of the country. In the true spirit of Diwali, let’s go back a few centuries, and light up our dwellings with traditional earthen diyas. Perhaps most importantly, let’s not forget to clean up our own mess! Don’t leave your burst cracker debris out on the road, where it sits unpleasantly and rots. If I burst a cracker, I’m solely responsible for its residue. Sweep away the litter and throw wrappers safely into dustbins. Little things like these can make a big difference. This Diwali, we all must make an effort to portray the environmentconsciousness of our green town!

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

15


cover photo story

SEA TURTLE PHOTOGRAPHY BY

contents

Kostas Papafitsoros 16

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

17

cover photo story

“

I am a 28 year old PhD student at the University of Cambridge studying mathematics. For the last 6 years I have been involved in sea turtle conservation in the Greek island of Zakynthos through ARCHELON-the Sea Turtle Protection Society of Greece. Zakynthos and particularly Laganas Bay, hosts approximately the 25% of all the Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtle’s nests. I started taking photos of turtles from my rst year and still enjoying it. I particularly like taking long exposure photos of nesting females under the moonlight and I am spending hours snorkelling in Laganas Bay trying to get a capture of these marine reptiles.


cover photo story

Hatchling

contents

“ 18

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

This is one of the rst hatchling photos I took back in 2007. I remember it was the first hatchling to come out from his nest. These little creatures usually emerge at night around 50 days after their mother lays the eggs. However, it is not unusual to see them early in the morning. Only few in a thousand hatchlings will survive so if that guy got lucky, he is 5 years old now!


of the WORLD I

f someone would like to study the history of sea turtles from its start, he/she would have to go million years ago, when dinosaurs were still dominating the earth. Their appearance has not changed much since then but unfortunately we cannot say the same for their population size. It is estimated that there used to be millions of them. Sailors arriving in America for the first time in the middle ages were describing the Caribbean sea full of sea turtles. Around the middle of the 20th century, some pioneers of conservation, like Archie Carr, started to realise that most of the turtle populations were at the edge of extinction. Those people’s legacy consists today of hundreds of conservationists working all around the world for the protection of the seven turtle species. So, let’s get to know these species better!

THE GREEN TURTLE This is one of the most common species of sea turtle in the world. It can be found in all continents. It is classified as an endangered species and its diet, unlike most of the other species, consists mainly of sea grass. Main nesting habitats for the green turtles are located in Costa Rica (Tortuguero), Australia (Raine island), Oman, Comoros islands, Seychelles, Malaysia, Brazil. THE LOGGERHEAD This turtle also can be found almost everywhere in the world. It has powerful jaws that uses in order to crash and eat crabs, sea shells and several crustaceans. It is the most common turtle in the Mediterranean but the largest colonies are in Florida and Oman. It is classified as an endangered species.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

19

cover photo story

TURTLES


cover photo story

THE HAWKSBILL This turtle has a characteristic beak like a hawk that helps her eat its exclusive food: sponges. It has been vastly exploited in the past for its shell. It is now a critically endangered species. It can be found in many countries but mainly in the Caribbean sea, Seychelles, Indonesia and Australia. The Kemp Ridley: This is the rarest sea turtle in the world. It nests only on specific areas of the Mexican gulf. Sometimes hundreds (or even thousand in the past) turtles are nesting on the same (or a few consecutive) nights a phenomenon known as arribada. They are critically endangered. THE OLIVE RIDLEY Like their ”sisters” the olive ridley’s also nest in arribadas but not only in Mexico but also in places like Costa Rica and India. There are also other areas in the world where they nest solely. The olive and kelp ridley are the smallest among sea turtles. This species is classified as vulnerable. The Flatback: The flatbacks can only be found in northern Australia. It is the turtle that we have the least information about. This is why there not enough data to determine its conservation status.

contents

THE LEATHERBACK This is the largest of all sea turtles. An almost 3 metre long and 900 kilos heavy leatherback was washed up in Wales in 1988. In has a leathery shell unlike of all other hard-shelled turtle species and her diet consists almost exclusively of jellyfishes. It is a critically endangered species. They mainly nest on the Caribbean, western Atlantic (French Guiana, Suriname, Trinidad) and Gabon.

20

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

For all the species of sea turtles their life begins and evolves in a similar manner. One warm night their mother will crawl up to an (ideally) quite and dark beach, dig a hole with her back flippers and lay her eggs which usually have the shape and the size of the ping-pong ball, slightly larger for flatbacks and leatherbacks. After a few weeks incubating in the warm sand, the eggs will hatch and the small hatchlings will run to the sea. Little is known about their first years. We know that they usually follow the sea currents, resting and protecting themselves among seaweeds in the surface of the sea. Most of them, they will come back a few decades later to the same area where they were born to lay their own eggs. So why have most of turtle populations decreased during the last century? If a turtle makes it to adulthood (naturally only a few in a thousand achieve that.) they are made to last and they don’t really have any natural predators apart from big sharks. The main reasons for a turtle population to collapse is one, or a combination of the following: POACHING: In many areas of the world, turtle’s eggs or even turtle meat was a significant source of food. Some of them, especially the hawksbills, were killed for their valuable shell. In other places, like Mexico, turtle eggs were used as an aphrodisiac. Poaching has been forbidden in most areas by national and international laws. It is still allowed up to certain extent in places like Costa Rica. COAST DEVELOPMENT AND DESTRUCTION OF NESTING BEACHES: The sea turtles are very loyal to their nesting grounds. They return to nest to the same beach again and again. Once an nesting area is destroyed, the same will happen to the local population. Coastal development, artificial lights and noise often make a beach unsuitable for nesting.


Zakynthos Turtle

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

21

cover photo story

The photo of this particular male loggerhead turtle was taken last year, but it could have been taken any year. His name is Sotiris and he is one of the resident turtles of Laganas Bay, staying in Zakynthos all year round while most of the turtles are migrating. Living near the area where many turtle spotting boats operate has made him the most photographed Mediterranean sea turtle that lives in the wild. Just type “Zakynthos turtle” into Google and you will see many photos of him!


cover photo story contents

22

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


cover photo story

Nesting

“

I tirelessly tried to take long exposure photos of nesting females - the use of ash is forbidden - in 2008 with mediocre results. After 4 years, I have the experience (and the equipment!) to get more satisfactory pictures. One needs a combination of many things like full moon, a turtle facing the moon, a good tripod, a good camera, many trials and patience. In the same time I must be sure that the turtle is not annoyed. The photos must be taken when she is laying her eggs and she is not moving. This photo was taken on Laganas beach, July 2012 during an ARCHELON night survey the purpose of which is to tag nesting females.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

23


cover photo story

Pollution: Like for all forms of life in the planet, pollution is a threat for the sea turtles as well. The recent oil spill in Mexico gulf is an example. Turtles also often consume quantities of plastic, that lookslike jellyfish in the water.
Fishing industry: If we were only to pick one threat for the sea turtle populations today, that would be it. Up to tens of thousands of turtles are trapped in longlines, gill and trawl nets every year. If they get lucky they are released by the fishermen but unfortunately that seems to be an exception. It is clear that in order to conserve the turtle populations one must decrease their mortality rate due to accidental bycatch in fishing gear, prevent them from being poached and make sure that the nesting areas are well preserved and suitable for nesting. Before we ask ourselves how we can achieve this, let us ask why should we do it? It is not clear yet to the scientists what are the ecological roles of sea turtles and what is the minimum number of them to fulfill these roles. One can speculate for example that the leatherbacks control the jellyfish population and the hawksbill, with their sponge diet, promote the growth of corals. Statements that are probably true, yet they need to be confirmed scientifically throughout tedious and rigorous research. So, why should we care about the turtles? Let us reverse the question and ask what would happen if we didn’t care about them. Probably we wouldn’t care about their nesting habitats and then these will probably be developed or even destroyed together with other species that live on these habitats. The fishing industry would kill even more turtles than it does now and the population would soon collapse. So, the question can be summarised into:

contents

Do we want a world with or without sea turtles? It is up to every single one of us to answer to this question.

24

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

This question might be a trivial one to an urbanist who thinks of the sea turtles as part of a paradise in some tropical island but we cannot say the same thing for some poor fisherman whose nets are repetitively destroyed by turtles entangled on them and sees that his catch of fish is much less than in the past, due to heavy industry overfishing. Persuading that fisherman to release safely such a turtle is one of the hard tasks of a conservationist. It is not enough to tell him that turtles are protected by law, since law enforcement is, if not impossible, very difficult in open waters. Any conservation measure that is enforced without taken any accounts of the needs of local com- munities is doomed to cause controversies between conservationists and the locals. Thus, conservation measures should always be adapted to local needs and culture. If a community has some income exploiting turtles an alternative source must be found. Ecotourism is now well established in many nesting sites. Instead of earning a few euros by selling turtle eggs, the locals can earn multiple amounts of money by doing turtle nesting-tour guides.


cover photo story There are a few things that everyone of us can do to help the survival of sea turtles, depending on where he/she lives. AWAY FROM NESTING AREAS • Choose seafood that has been sustainable fished. • Deny buying any turtle products. • Raise awareness by speaking to your friends about turtles • Reduce pollution, recycle, use less plastic bags. IN THE NESTING AREAS • Make sure you do not disturb turtles while they are nesting. They prefer quite and dark beaches. • If you live near a nesting beach, do not use bright lights towards the beach. • Try and preserve the beach, the less umbrellas, sunbeds and artificial obstacles the better. • If you are a tourist visiting such an area, be a responsible one, learn about the regulations and follow them.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

25


contents

cover photo story

“

26

Laganas Bay in Zakynthos is so densely populated by turtles during the summer months that turtle spotting activity has been an important source of income for some local people. Tourists get to take many photos like these, when the turtle is going up in the surface to take a breath.

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

Nesting


cover photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

27


contents

cover photo story

“

What seemed to be a boring morning survey in Marathonissi island in Zakynthos, turned out to be a very exciting one! When we got there, a turtle was wandering around the island early in the morning after 7 unsuccessful attempts to make a nest. While she was returning to sea the sun was rising, making the moment perfect for any photographer!

The Perfect Moment

28

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


cover photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

29


cover photo story contents

“

30

Sea turtles are normally protecting their nests by camouflaging it that is to say by throwing dry sand behind them in order to cover any marks in the sand that may betray its position to predators. It was quite unusual to see a turtle that she was protecting herself by nesting under this spiked branch using it as someone might think as a sort of an armour. It was impossible to approach the turtle to tag her and measure her out without scratching ourselves! This photo was also taken with long exposure using only the light of the full moon.

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


cover photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

31


cover photo story

Caretta Caretta

SOME TURTLE FACTS

contents

• The sex of the hatchling is temperature dependent: The hotter the sand the more females are produced. • A leatherback turtle can lay up to 10 clutches per season. • A sea turtle nests typically contains around 100 eggs. The amount varies among the seven species. • The hatchlings from the same nest, do not necessarily share the same father. The mother turtle mates with many males and stores their sperm for future use.
 • It can take up to 2 days from the moment the hatchlings hatch to the moment they make it to the surface.

32

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

A female Caretta Caretta turtle swimming calmly in Laganas bay.


• This is a team effort as they use each other as a ladder. The depth of the nest is around 50 cm (deeper for a leatherback). • The hatchlings make their way to the sea during the night, through a combination of senses. They go to the brightest light (this is usually the sea surface) and the follow the inclination of the sand. • It is suggested that they can navigate themselves sensing changes in the earth’s magnetic field. This is probably how they return to the same beach to lay their eggs. • A leatherback can dive up to 1200 metres. Ancient turtle skeletons have been found that were 5 metres long. • They breathe with lungs and they can stay for hours without breath when they are nesting.

cover photo story

SOME MORE TURTLE FACTS

It is often said that sea turtles are flying through the water and this is one of the pictures that confirms that. A very good day for snorkelling, as I saw 8 of them!

Flying

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

33


cover photo story contents

34

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


cover photo story

“

Going snorkelling to find sea turtles can be frustrating sometimes as one might swim for hours without spotting one. This would be one of those days if it hadn’t been for that turtle resting 10-12 metres from the shore at the depth of few centimetres. I spotted it the time I was going out of the sea. When they are resting like that, it is an opportunity for the photographer to approach them at a closer distance.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

35


cover photo story contents

“

Zakynthos has also a small population of mediterranean monk seals. We went snorkelling in an area we knew one was living but instead we spotted again one of the usual suspects, a loggerhead turtle. In this photo, it is surrounded by a very common type of sea weed in the mediterranean, the posidonia oceanica.

36

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


cover photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

37


cover photo story contents

38

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


cover photo story

“

Sometimes it is nice to look up when you are at the bottom... ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

39


regular feature contents

SAFEGUARDING

40

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


Christina Bush has been featured by National Geographic, Animal Planet, ABC’s Extreme Home Makeovers, The International Anti-Fur Coalition, The Paw Project and many other organizations around the globe. A lifetime supporter of animal protection and education, she works with groups all over the world using her imagery to help save and improve the lives of animals everywhere, both in the wild and in captivity. This is a very rewarding way for her to turn tremendous value into her passion for wildlife, photography and art. Visit her photogallery at www.christinabush.com

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

41


Z

contents

regular feature

ebras, with their brilliant black and white striped patterns, are among the most recognizable of all mammals. At first glance they may look alike, but their stripes are as distinctive our human fingerprints. Scientists are able to identify individual zebras by comparing stripe width, patterns, color and scars. Underneath its hair, a zebra’s skin is black. It is thought that the stripes help to camouflage the zebra and protect it from being attacked by other animals, especially animals that are color blind, since they have trouble differentiating the stripes from grass and tree branches. Zebra coats are shiny and dissipate over 70% of incoming heat. Many scientists believe that their black and white stripe combinations help the animals to withstand intense solar radiation. The zebra species each have different stripe patterns from narrow to wide. The further south on the African plains they live, the farther apart the stripes are.

42

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


Three sub-species of zebra (the Burchell’s, Grevy’s and Mountain zebras) still occur on the continent of Africa where they live in a wide range of habitats like woodland, hills, grasslands, mountains and savannahs. The most widespread and numerous of the three species is the Burchell’s, also known as the plains or common zebra. On the Serengeti plains, Burchell’s zebras sometimes form migratory herds in tens of thousands of individuals. The second is the Grevy’s zebra, named for Jules Grevy, the President of France in the 1880’s, who once received one from Abyssinia as a gift. The unfortunate animal died on arrival, was stuffed and placed into the Natural History Museum in Paris. Grevy’s zebras are now mostly restricted to desert-like parts of northern Kenya and are thought to be the oldest type. Grevy’s are the wildest and largest species of zebra, weighing up to 900 pounds, yet they require less water than the other types. The third and smallest species, Equus Zebra (also called the mountain zebra), is found in southern and southwestern Africa. Mountain zebras have hard, pointed hooves that are well suited for navigating around difficult slopes. Their climbing skills come in handy in the mountainous areas of South Africa and Namibia where the elevations are up to 6,500 feet above sea level. Unlike the other two species, the Grevy’s zebras are usually not found in herds but are solitary, except for the mother’s that roam with their young foals. Both the Grevy’s and mountain zebras are now listed as Endangered because of loss of habit, competition with other animals for food and water, disease and poaching for their hides and meat. The Burchell’s zebras number is currently around 750,000; there are around 2,000 mountain zebras; and fewer than 2,500 Grevy’s zebras remain today. Their biggest threats are habitat loss due to farming and ranching, droughts, increase in disease, competition for water with livestock, and poachers that hunt them for their skins.

The name “Zebra” is derived from the Old Portugese word “Zevra” which means “wild ass”. Their bodies are horse-like, but the manes are made of short erect striped hair and their tails are tufted at the ends. These creatures are Ungulates, which means “hoofed animals”, and are part of the Equidae family along with horses and donkeys and have an average lifespan of around 25 years in the wild and 40 years in captivity. They are extremely social animals that live in large groups of a dozen members or so called “harems” with one stallion as the head of the group. Communication is made with barks,

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

43


regular feature

sniffs, brays and snorts. Zebras tend to be unpredictable in behavior and panicky under stress. Occasional fights are characterized by biting each others legs and kicking. Their main predators of are lions, hyenas, leopards, wild dogs and cheetahs. Nile crocodiles are also great threats during migratory river crossings. As zebras travel across the plains a lead stallion usually always stays at the back of the group to defend the herd against predators, if necessary. If they spot a predator, they will whinny or bark loudly to warn the other members of their group. When being chased, zebras run very fast from side to side in a zigzag manner. Once cornered, they will bite their predators and kick fiercely with their rear hooves. Zebras have large muscular bodies, long legs and one toe on each foot. They have a long striped mane that goes from the forehead to

contents

THE NAME “ZEBRA” IS DERIVED FROM THE OLD PORTUGESE WORD “ZEVRA” WHICH MEANS “WILD ASS”.THEIR BODIES ARE HORSE-LIKE, BUT THE MANES ARE MADE OF SHORT ERECT STRIPED HAIR AND THEIR TAILS ARE TUFTED AT THE ENDS.

44

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

their shoulders, large noses, tall ears that are indicators of their moods, a tail that measures about 18 inches, beautiful long eyelashes and a strong incisor teeth for grinding and chewing their food. Their herbivorous diet is made up of leaves, grass, shrubs, herbs, twigs and bark. Zebras walk, trot, canter and gallop although they are generally slower than horses, although they can run at speeds up to 40 miles per hour. They sleep standing up and in shifts so that some members of the herd are always awake and alert to dangers. Each individual has its own “smile”, a bare-teethed grimace that serves as a friendly greeting and helps to reduce aggression when others approach. They also reinforce bonds with one another through grooming and nibbling on each other with their teeth to pull out loose hair and give each other a good scratching. Unlike their closest relatives, horses and donkeys, zebras have never been truly domesticated.


Foals are born with brown and white stripes as opposed to black and white stripes and can walk within 20 minutes of being born. This is very useful because the mare needs to constantly move with the herd to find food and water. She can’t leave the baby behind, so it must quickly be up and running to keep up with the family. Mares usually won’t let others around her baby for at least 2-3 days until it recognizes her be sight, sound and smell. From a young age zebras have excellent eyesight and are thought to have color vision. Their night vision is thought to be nearly as good as that of a cat or an owl. They also have a keen sense of smell and hearing and are extremely sensitive to smoke. Communication is done with facial expressions, loud braying, barking or snorting sounds. Herds are commonly seen grazing with other animals like antelopes and wildebeests and often take dust or mud baths

Increasing human population, reduction of water sources, hunting, disease and the resulting competition from alternative land uses continue to be a threat to zebra ranges. The best thing we can do is safeguard this beautifully striped animal from extinction by providing protection to them from poaching and habitat loss. The African Wildlife Foundation is working with reserve management and their rangers, who conduct regular patrols and are best placed to monitor the health of wild animal populations and their habitat in a sustainable way, to develop a ranger-based monitoring system. They are also attempting to work closely with local communities to raise awareness and a greater understanding about the need for conservation of this species on not only local, but national and international levels as well. The Grevy’s Zebra is currently being used as a flagship species to promote the overall conservation of wildlife in the area and is being used as an entry point to facilitate peace talks between both ethnic groups who periodically come into conflict over lifestock and resources, according to the Grevy’s Zebra Trust. Strategies must be developed and maintained that benefit the local people as well as the zebra populations in order to achieve a positive balance and wildlife preservation.

Article & All Images: Christina Bush Animal Magnetism Wildlife Awareness column Visit at www.youthforwildlife.com

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

45

regular feature

to clean themselves, shaking off the dirt to get rid of flaky skin and hair. What’s left protects them from wind, sun and insects. Many hours each day are spent chewing on grass. Zebras prefer to eat the tough tips of grass and foliage that other grazers are not able to digest. This constant chewing wears down their teeth, so their teeth keep growing for their entire lives.


Education is the Golden D

OLYMPUS HIGH CBSE AFFILIATED

contents

DAY & RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL

46

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


the key to unlock Door of Freedom - GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER

Address: NIRANJANPUR, OPP P.C.F. GODOWN, P.O. MAJRA, DEHRADUN - 248171, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA

ADMISSIONS OPEN 2013-14

Tel.: 0135-3292711 • Fax: 0135-3292711 www.olympushigh.in

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

47


WILDLIFE PHOTOGRAPHY AS A CAREER IN INDIA & AS A CONSERVATION TOOL

contents

AN INTERVIEW

48

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


feature

WITH Dr Caesar Sengupta MD

the General Manager and Head Laboratory Operations of Thyrocare Technologies Ltd. He has been passionate about photography since he was a child of 12 years. He still manages to take out time to nurture his passion of wildlife photography amidst his busy schedules of corporate professionalism. He has traveled extensively across the country and his work has been acknowledged and appreciated in various media, publication houses, forums and organisations throughout India.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

49


feature

WHAT IS YOUR IDEA ABOUT WILDLIFE PHOTOGRAPHY AS A CAREER IN INDIA ? Wildlife photography as a career in India, used to sound like a dream a couple of years back. Lucky had been those who could persuade their profession and passion simultaneously. For most, wildlife and wildlife photography remained as a childhood passion and one amongst the many lost dreams condemned by our professional pursuits. Today the trend is visibly changing. We foresee endless opportunities for a wildlife photographer from print media to graphic designing, from exhibitions to stock photography, from photo tours to guided expeditions, from organized camps to sponsored projects, from natural history to conservation photography – options are too many.

contents contents

WHAT IS YOUR SAY ABOUT CONSERVATION PHOTOGRAPHY IN INDIA? Conservation photography is an evolving concept, well appreciated world over. It is a blend of the art of wildlife photography and the science of natural history documentary photography. Conservation photography can work as a fantastic tool for the non scientist and non biologist community to contribute

50

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

enormously for building up a rich database. Conservation photography creates awareness amongst common man since it unveils the hidden beauties of nature. Today with the help of internet, social networking sites and various other forums, we come across hundreds of people sharing their images and talking about their conservation. A drastic change is visible over last couple of years, which is really motivating.

YOU ARE RUNNING A PROJECT NAMED ‘INDIA’S MOST WANTED’ – WOULD YOU LIKE TO EXPLAIN A BIT ABOUT IT? Yes. We have established a national platform for all Wildlife Photographers of the country to contribute their photographs of the most endangered species of India to this platform. Since it is a conservation photography platform, the forum gives equal importance to both conservation as well as photography. Every precious contribution are acknowledged and evaluated for its possibility of inclusion in ARKIVE database (www.arkive. org), one of the World’s richest databases of images of endangered life on earth. We at DCP, are just facilitators for a worldwide movement.


establishing Wildlife Photography as one of the most sought after career opportunities in India. Having travelled through the same road, we understand the hurdles and challenges faced in taking this hobby to the next orbit. We, as a team, are putting our honest efforts to make photography learning available to the enthusiasts and amateurs at an affordable cost.

CONSERVATION PHOTOGRAPHY CREATES AWARENESS AMONGST COMMON MAN SINCE IT UNVEILS THE HIDDEN BEAUTIES OF NATURE.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

51

feature

WOULD YOU LIKE TO SHARE SOMETHING ABOUT INCEPTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF DCP? A few years back, which started as a dream, DCP (as we call it in short) today, has grown upto one of the fastest growing Wildlife Photography Training academies, with a strong team comprising of highly skilled and established photographers of the country and veterans in the field of digital photography. We have been putting our sincere efforts towards


feature

WHAT DO YOU TEACH IN YOUR WORKSHOPS OR EXPEDITIONS? We are not another Travel Photography company. For every project we conduct, every workshop we do and in every expedition we lead, in addition to the development of photographic skill sets, conservation photography remains one of the key learning element. We help people to learn how to make better images and how to use photography as a tool to depict the untold and unseen beauties of nature. We work in association with environmentalists, conservation activists, naturalists, scientists and researchers in an attempt to impart knowledge and generate awareness amongst common man about the earth’s natural history.

better to advanced exposure control in wild environments, advanced photographic techniques, post processing tools, presenting the images in a better way to the world. The complete wildlife photography course is not only for those who want to escalate their hobby of photography to a passion but also specially crafted keeping in mind the need of a photographer, who is willing to take his / her work to a commercial stage.

IT SEEMS DCP HAS RECENTLY LAUNCHED WILDLIFE PHOTOGRAPHY COMPLETE LEARNING COURSE; TELL US SOMETHING ABOUT IT ‘Wildlife Photography – a complete learning course’ is an exhaustive yet comprehensive wildlife photography learning experience crafted and designed by a panel of renowned Wildlife photographers of India. Wildlife Photography learners, who wish to escalate the hobby to the next level, have been looking exactly for this for quite some time. This is a national project in the country with a clear objective of establishing Wildlife Photography as one of the most sought after career opportunities in India. It surely is a commercial project and it is crafted in that way only so that it can become a revenue generation model which can be replicated all across the country thus creating employment opportunities for many aspiring wildlife photographers. Panasonic is one of our strongest channel partners, who have taken keen interest in spreading the message.

WHAT IS NET TAKE BACK FOR A PARTICIPANT FROM THIS COURSE? He / she gets 32 hours of extensive training by top wildlife photographers of the country, complete technical and field knowledge of Wildlife Photography, facility to handle various cameras, lenses and gadgets, opportunity to exhibit his / her work to the entire world in exhibitions conducted by us, handholding to participate in photography contests, opportunity to get their work published in renowned publications, possible job opportunity to work with DCP group as Wildlife photography trainer or lead DCP national and international expeditions, establish professional contacts with the most established Wildlife Photographers of India. It is a direct handholding for all entrepreneurs who wish to make a difference.

contents

WHAT THIS COURSE WILL TEACH? This course is complete in itself. It covers everything that a Wildlife Photographer needs to know starting from knowing his equipments

52

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

ANY PLANS FOR INTERNATIONAL ESCALATIONS OF YOUR WORKSHOPS? We had conducted a massive multi-city


YOU HAVE BEEN AN ACTIVE MEMBER OF ‘LOST AMPHIBIANS OF INDIA’ PROJECT. WOULD YOU LIKE TO TELL US A BIT ABOUT LAI? Yes. I have been fortunate enough to have worked in close association with India’s frogman – Sathyabhama Das Biju. Dr Biju is a Professor in the Department of Environmental Biology (Systematics Lab http://www.frogindia. org/), University of Delhi. He has a PhD in Biology (Animal Science: Amphibians) from Vrije Universiteit (Brussels) with the greatest distinction, as well as a PhD in Botany from Calicut University in plant systematics. He is also Scientific Associate at the British Museum of Natural History, London and a visiting researcher/faculty at Vrije Universiteit, Brussels. SD Biju specializes in systematics of Indian amphibians, with over 25 years of field experience. He discovered over 100 new species of amphibians (46 formally described

till 2011), including the description of three new families, six new genera and the smallest Indian tetrapod. SD Biju is the recipient of the prestigious IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group’s Sabin Award for the year 2008 in recognition of his amphibian research and conservation initiatives. In 2011, Biju was the recipient of the Sanctuary Wildlife Service Award for his “extraordinary passion which led to the discovery of several new species”. Presently, he is the coordinator of Lost! Amphibians of India program, an initiative to rediscover 50 ‘lost’ amphibians which have been not reported after their original description, for a period ranging from 30 to 170 years. Teams of scientists and naturalists from India have started the lost amphibian search. This initiative is launched with the hope of rediscovering over 50 species of lost amphibians in India. These animals are feared to be extinct but there is hope that some may be holding on in a few remote places. This search, which is taking place in 15 states of India, is the first ever coordinated effort to find such a large number of lost creatures involving both scientists, biologists as well as no scientific community. Globally amphibian populations are on a shocking decline – with more than 30 per cent of all species threatened with extinction. To know more about LAI - please refer http://www.lostspeciesindia.org/LAI2/ For complete publication and research visit: http://www.frogindia.org/

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

53

feature

Wildlife Photography seminar series in association with internationally acclaimed Wildlife Photographer, Mr. Raymond Barlow, thus bringing in hundreds of Indian Wildlife photographers together in a single platform and also helping them to understand the international standards and patterns of creative wildlife photography. The very first series of workshops conducted during the early part of this year, had involved more than 300 Indian Wildlife Photographers under a common roof, which in itself was a record in Indian Wildlife Photography history. The project is crafted very meticulously with an objective to evaluate our own photographic skillsets against International benchmarks and we are happy to understand that this project has established a platform for all Indian wildlife photographers to escalate their work to the next orbit.


feature contents

54

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


feature Amit Bijon Dutta Amit B. Dutta is an Engineer by profession and a photographer by heart and can be contacted at www.amitbdutta.in

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

55


feature

1 BAMBOO PIT VIPER (TRIMERESURUS GRAMINEUS)

T

rimeresurus gramineus goes by many common names; Bamboo pit viper, Indian tree viper, green tree viper, and Bamboo snake. Specifically, Trimeresurus is Latin for “three part tail�, presumably named after the tripartite pattern of the tail. As for the specific epithet, T. gramineus, is Latin for grassy, probably for the grassy colour of the pit viper scales. Here is some more information of the linage of the Bamboo pit viper. GEOGRAPHIC RANGE Pit vipers span a huge portion of the world. In Asia, pit vipers extend from eastern Europe to Japan and Indonesia. Specifically, the Bamboo pit viper is mostly found in the dense jungles of Southern India. Some Individual snakes may be in other Southeast Asian countries like China and Nepal, but for the most part this species is isolated in southern India.

contents

The Bamboo pit vipers prefer the cool environment created by dense jungle or bamboo foliage. Bamboo pit vipers are often found close to streams, where there is an abundance of small prey to hunt. The thick foliage provides for coverage for the Bamboo pit viper to hide from prey and predator, as well as coverage from the unpredictable jungle weather. The climate in Southern India is mostly a warm, wet, tropical climate.

56

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


feature Like most snakes, pit vipers are solitary creatures, coming together only to mate. However, Bamboo pit vipers interact with smaller prey and larger predator mammals. Ideally a Bamboo pit viper would live in an environment where there is only prey and no predators. Obviously, this is unlikely, so the Bamboo pit vipers have many adaptations that allow them to hide from predators and catch prey. The pit vipers also share their environment with other organisms such as the Asian elephant and the red panda, though there is not much interaction between Bamboo pit vipers and larger animals. Like many other organisms, the Bamboo pit viper is threatened by human expansion into their habitat. India’s population is increasing very rapidly, and as humans tear down the jungles in southern India, they are destroying the Bamboo pit vipers’ home. Because these pit vipers are only found in

a small part of the world, destroying their habitat can happen quickly, and the Bamboo pit viper could become extinct in a very short time. Hopefully, laws will soon be created to protect the Bamboo pit viper’s home before it’s too late.

REPRODUCTION MATING Pit vipers reproduce sexually by means of internal fertilization. The male penetrates the female with the hemipenes organ at the base of his tail. No specific mating ritual has been seen between the males and females, though males are known to sometimes fight for the right to mate with a female. Snakes are solitary animals, so the male leaves soon after mating and does not share any responsibility with the young.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

57


feature THE MIRACLE OF BIRTH Pit Vipers are classified as ovoviviparous. This means the female produces eggs, but they hatch inside the female and thus she gives birth to live young. This is unusual in the reptile class of organisms, a feature unique to certain families of the Squamata order. The litter size of the pit vipers varies, but is typically 4 to 5 young. Variation in litter size can be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Studies have shown that females with a larger mass and more energy reserves will give birth to a larger

litter. Likewise, in regions where resources are plentiful, larger litter sizes have been observed then in regions suffering from drought or other environmental factors. YOUNG Young pit vipers are around 18cm in length and tend to exhibit brighter colour scales, especially at the tail. The brighter colours are used to attract frogs and other prey. The young are also venomous and able to hunt on their own, and are therefore independent of the mother, who leaves soon after birth.

FACTS ABOUT BAMBOO PIT VIPER

contents

• The Bamboo pit viper’s fangs are a hollow tube hooked up to venom producing sacks behind the snake’s eyes. Bamboo pit viper fangs are so long that they fold up to the roof of the viper’s mouth so they won’t bite themselves. • If a snake loses a fang, it will simply grow another one.

58

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


feature • Bamboo pit vipers hunt mostly at night by using heat sensing pit organs. • Have you ever wondered how a snake breathes when their mouth is full of prey? Snakes have small tubes in the back of their throat that stick out far enough to draw air in so they won’t pass out while trying to swallow. • A snake’s throat takes up to a third of its body. • Why do snakes not blink? Because they don’t have eyelids! Instead, snake’s eyes are covered with a clear scale called a spectacle. • How does a pit viper smell? Not with its nose! Instead, it sticks out its tongue to collect scents. When the tongue is drawn back in the mouth it touches the Jacobson’s organ on the roof of the mouth, which tells the pit viper what it is smelling. • Bamboo pit vipers are deaf. While they cannot hear, snakes can sense vibrations with the Jacobson’s organ to give them a sense of what’s around them.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

59


feature

INDIAN GREEN VINE SNAKE

2

(AHAETULLA NASUTA)

G

reen Vine Snake with pretty geometrical colour pattern is also called the Longnosed Whipped Snake. Ahaetulla nasuta is a lithe green tree snake found in India (excluding the northwest; Maharashtra (Nasrapur, Mahabaleshwar, Koyna), Karnataka (Castle Rock), Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. The green vine snake is periodical and mildly venomous. They are slow going, relying on masking as a vine in foliage. The snake enlarges its body when agitated to show a black and white shell marking. In addition, they may open their mouth in threat display and direct their head in the direction of the sensed threat.

DISTRIBUTION All over India except Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab and North-East. STATUS Common in its distribution parts, uncommon on moving towards Western parts.

contents

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Length: Adults measure 4ft approx but can grow upto 6.5ft.

60

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


feature Dorsal body: Body is slender, very thin and long with smooth scales. Dorsal colour is faint or dark green (appears blue), yellowish green or yellow, pink and brown (in variety Isabellinus). Appears uniform coloured but on provocation inter-scalar colour of black and white appears which may appear like narrow cross bars in a zigzag manner up to half of fore body. Sometimes white or yellow line in first dorsal row runs along the side dorsal from neck to tail. Ventral body:Belly colour is shiny light green, yellow; sometime gray, red or pink. Belly scales are narrow and not good for creeping on ground but gives good grip in an arboreal surrounding.

Head: Head extremely pointed and looks like a sharp arrow or the beak of a bird; clearly broader than neck. Rostral scales are very long and weak. Large eyes are brown coloured with a black coloured horizontal pupil. Tongue is coloured whitish. Tail: Like other arboreal snake this snake also has a very long and thin tail which ends with a pointed tip. Variety Isabellinus: In this form of Green Vine whole dorsal body colour is brown with blackish dots in head scales, also belly colour dark brown most of the times. Such morph has been recorded from South India, Maharastra, Gujarat, Rajasthan etc.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

61


feature KEY CHARACTERS FOR IDENTIFICATION • Very long and thin body with a very pointed head with green range colour on the whole body. • This species can be easily identified by its horizontal pupil which is speciality of this genus. • Looks like Bamboo Pit Viper, Green Keel back and other Vine Snakes. SCALATION Head: 8 Supralabials; 5th touches eyes; 1 Preocular; 2 Pre Sub-ocular; No Loreal; Prefrontal touches Supralabials: 2 Postocular; Temporals usually 1+2 or 1+3. Dorsal: Scales smooth with 15/15 in front body while 13 on posterior side. Ventral: 166-207; Anal divided. BEHAVIOUR Common Vine is diurnal in activity. It is exclusively arboreal and spends its most of its life in trees and vegetation; rarely comes on ground. Lives in trees, dense vegetation and prefers greenery to get best camouflage. It feeds on rodents, lizards, frogs, small birds and other snakes including small sized venomous snakes also. It can stay in same position for few hours. Behaviour is usually calm and slow, on threatening enlarges its fore body, opens the mouth and shows its fascinating gorgeous pink coloured oral cavity to threaten its enemy and confuse it. REPRODUCTION Mating period starts from starting of summer to the end of monsoon. Female directly gives birth to more than 20 youngs at a height; she simply drops them in plant tree branches where they go to safer places.

contents

RESCUE SITUATIONS Green Vine is one of the many green coloured snakes who rarely enter the human house, since they do not get any greenery for safety. It prefers to live at heights. Sometimes it will climb on the roof of the house but barely tries to enter. In such situation, rescuers must not bag the snake since its rostral scale (snout) of this species is very weak and is always in the danger of hurting in the process of bagging. The snake should be released as soon as possible in the same area where there is a proper vegetation and greenery.

62

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


(GREEN GRASS SNAKE) (MARCOPISTHODON PLUMBICOLOUR) DISTRIBUTION The species is distributed almost all over India up to Bengal in the East. It is not found on the Eastern Coast. The species may not be present in North India. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Length: Adults measure approx. 6cm, but can grow up to 94cm. Dorsal body: Body shape stout with highly keeled green coloured scales. Sometime Yellow mixed colour exists on side dorsal surface. Juveniles have irregular black bands on the whole body and they become faint or totally absent in adults. In some places, both the adults and the juveniles may have interscalar sky-blue or milky white colour. One or Two “A� shape markings of Black colour present on neck clearly in juveniles between them clear yellow colour exists. They have sharp rear fangs for a better grip on their prey and can be observed during their natural hunt. Ventral body: Belly entirely glossy white or greyish in colour, with the edges greenish in colour. Sub-caudal scales paired in a zigzag manner, their colour is similar to ventral scales but sometimes can be darker or more yellowish.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

63

feature

GREEN KEELBACK

3


feature

Head: Head rounded with smooth shiny scales. Head is slightly broader than the neck. Blackish colour patches are present in an irregular or asymmetrical manner. Eyes have rounded pupil. Tongue colour shiny black on the front and pinkish red on posterior side. Tail: The tail also has highly keeled scales. Normal as typical range with pointed tip. Tail colour almost same like rest of the dorsal body. KEY CHARACTERS FOR IDENTIFICATION • Body green in colour with Black patches or bands. Juveniles have a yellow neck. • Neck has yellow and black coloured “A” shaped markings. LOOK ALIKE Green Pit Vipers, Chequered Keel back from Central Indian morphology. When threatened, it tends to show a “False Hood” and thus sometimes referred to as a “Green Coloured Cobra”.

contents

BEHAVIOUR Green Keel back is a nocturnal and crepuscular species. It is active mostly at the time of dusk and dawn. It remains hidden in dark and silent places during day time. Lives in grass, gardens, bushes, etc and they prefer dark and moist surrounding. They feed mostly on toads,

64

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


feature and sometimes frogs and lizards. It’s a silent species in handling and rarely bites. On provocation they flatten their neck in “Cobra Style”, at some height above the ground and show their full alertness. REPRODUCTION Mating is during summer till the start of November. The female lays about 6 to 14 eggs in a clutch preferably in dry places. The hatchlings come out of the eggs during March to August. RESCUE SITUATIONS Green Keel back is one of the 3 common Green colour snakes (others are Green Vine and Bamboo Pit Viper) of India. It is totally harmless & non venomous small species and rarely comes in contact with humans as it likes to live in grass and gardens and not inside human houses. Their release in new places is strictly opposed by experts. We should always release this snake in 50-100mtr range from the rescue site.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

65


contents

photo story

anandamembal

66

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

A doctor by profession whose passion for photography is clearly visible in this exclusive photo-story. Dr. Amembal can be contacted at amembal444@yahoo.com

THE

INSECTUM

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

67


photo story contents

68

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

69


photo story contents

70

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

71


photo story contents

72

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

73


photo story contents

74

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

75


photo story contents

76

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

77


photo story contents

78

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

79


photo story contents

80

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

81


photo story contents

82

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

83


photo story contents

84

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


photo story

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

85


feature

SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP by

contents

Naim Keruwala

A PLATFORM TO GENERATE EMPLOYMENT FOR ECONOMICALLY UNDERPRIVILEGED

86

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


Today, we have highest number of young people in the world than any time before in the history. Over 65% of the population of India is below the age of 30 but most of them deprived of a decent job. There cannot be social empowerment unless people are empowered economically. This is a huge problem and an opportunity too which was realized by Rushabh Gandhi; a young activist, entrepreneur and blogger from Vadodara, Gujarat. Rushabh initiated “Handmade Hope” to generate sustainable employment for the economically underprivileged in the city of Vadodara. A project that was started in a small room at a friend’s garage in 2008 has moved today to seven different localities in the city employing over 40 young people from the less privileged sections of the society; who are not only the employees but the joint owners too of the organization. Handmade Hope offers a variety of ecofriendly products such as Greeting cards, Bags, Notebooks, Diaries, Planners, Mobile covers and much more. An artist creates a product in form of his service. He trains individuals to make the product. These trained individuals in turn, train other individuals from their communities or people belonging to weaker sections of society. Thus, a project is generated. The project involves a specific number of industrious, self employed individuals. The clientele of Handmade Hope includes many national and international companies, design studios and garment stores. In 200910, Handmade Hope had supplied over 10,000

eco-friendly bags to Baskin & Robbins in Surat. Currently, Handmade Hope produces over 40,000 bags per month. The organization is still young but growing at a phenomenal rate; not in terms of numbers but the impact it is generating in the lives of the people involved. “In the process of community building, we came across as many individual who were highly skilled craftsmen at creating artistic souvenirs. We gave them a platform by acting as a connecting link between them and the market. Increasing their sales and helping them achieve self sustainability. We are the tool, instrumental in people’s efforts to achieve self sustenance. The achievements are a result of their hard work and passion. We do not derive any sort of monetary gain out of their success, neither do we wish to.” Rushabh Gandhi, Founder of Handmade Hope The products of Handmade Hope are available at various boutiques and designer studios in Ahmedabad, Vadodara and Mumbai but they aim to open their own stores across the country in the future. This is an ambitious plan but with the leadership of a person like Rushabh who has lead organizations such as YUVA Unstoppable and Kalam Foundation and the young, passionate and skilled members of Handmade Hope, I am sure this dream would see light of the day and the membership-base would grow in thousands. I would conclude by saying that organizations like Handmade Hope are an example of how very simple ideas if executed properly can create a huge difference in the society. More information about Handmade Hope and their wonderful products can be availed at: www.handmadehope.in P.S: Merry Xmas and happy holidays to all..!

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

87

feature

S

omeone had rightly said “Words are good. They can be powerful. But words with actions don’t only create power, they result into a Change”. Everyone one of us have brilliant ideas but how many of us make them a reality. This column highlights those bright individuals who made their Ideas a reality and changed the lives of many through their passion, vision and most importantly “Actions”.


regular feature

DIWALI

?

festival of noise and

air pollution

Mrs. Surbhi Arora a UGC NET qualified faculty member, with around fourteen years of experience in industry and academics. She is a graduate in Commerce and Law. Presently she is pursuing PhD from UPES in the area of Oil & Gas Management. She believes that our thoughts lead to actions and actions to results. According to her, hard work and consistency have to be the two pillars supporting one’s achievement.

T

he festival of lights has just gone by but the festivities are still in the air. The time for family socializing and partying is over. The houses have been cleaned and decorated with tiny lights. The gifts have been shared and so have been the smiles. The blessings of GaneshLakshmi have been sought and the sweet tooth has been satisfied. Firecrackers have been lit and louder the noise the greater was the thrill!

contents

These are all different facets of Diwali. But there is yet another perspective to Diwali. Have we made it a festival of noise and air pollution

88

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

affecting our own environment? The fire crackers have degenerated the already noisy and polluted atmosphere. The toxic substances used in the firecrackers release toxic gases that are harmful to the health of all living beings. The noise generated by the crackers, cause immense suffering to birds and animals, besides being dreaded by the sick and ailing. Not many of us realize that the firecrackers used on Diwali are mostly made by very young children and many of them get sick and die in their early teenage years as the substances being handled by them are extremely toxic.


CHEMICAL

ITS IMPACT

COPPER CADMIUM LEAD MAGNESIUM SODIUM ZINC NITRATE NITRITE

Causes irritation of respiratory tract Causes anemia and damage to kidney Affects the nervous system Its dust and fumes cause metal fume fever Reacts violently with moisture and can attack the skin Leads to vomiting Could lead to mental impairment Could lead to coma

As per the WHO guidelines, noise level above 100 decibels can be harmful but during Diwali, the sound limit exceeds 120 decibels. Crackers that make a noise of more than 125 decibels at four meters distance from the point of bursting are banned by the law. The hazards posed by excessive noise pollution caused by crackers are hearing loss, high blood pressure, heart attack and sleeping disturbances. Sudden exposure to loud noise may cause temporary deafness or permanent relative deafness. As per a study done by Chest Research Foundation (CRF), Pune, the burning of firecrackers increases the level of sulphur dioxide 200-fold above the safety limits prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). This gaseous air-pollutant along with other noxious gases emitted from the burning of fire-crackers aggravates the risk of triggering an attack in 30 million asthmatics in India and also has the potential to cause new cases of asthma. Every year, the newspapers are full of stories about the alarming rise of pollution after Diwali. Fireworks are one of the provoking factors for childhood bronchial asthma, particularly in children between 6-12years and it has now been established that 26% of people without any prior history of respiratory ailments develop symptoms of coughing, wheezing and breathlessness especially during Diwali.

regular feature

Following is the list of the harmful effects posed by each of its chemicals

Most of the burn cases are of children as they have a lesser body surface compared to adults. Hence, they are prone to complications even in case of small burns. Respiratory or lung complications in burn patients following smoke inhalation can result in injury to the respiratory tract due the chemicals used in firecrackers. Besides, the noise and air pollution that we face, another challenge is the energy crunch. The decorative lights use tremendous amount of electricity. This festival of lights puts a considerably heavy load on electrical energy sources that are already overloaded. The use of electric lights to adorn homes, business establishments, monuments and roads requires a huge amount of electricity. The older tradition of burning oil lamps is a possible alternative to electric lights, even though it does use oil. But the duration of the lamps is shorter. With the growing recognition of the impacts of Diwali on the environment, several groups have started to reinterpret the rituals and traditions to become more sensitive to nature. Do you know that the diyas lit on the moonless Diwali night signifies the end of darkness of ignorance and the beginning of light that enlightens all? Let us pledge to care for our environment and enlighten ourselves towards the hazards that boisterous celebrations of Diwali poses to our environment.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

89


in the news

in the

NEWS

MASSIVE DEFORESTATION THREATENS TO TURN SOMALIA INTO DESERT AFP | Nov 23, 2012, 06.00 PM IST

contents

People prepare to remove fallen trees on Wednesday, Aug. 29, 2012 in Pyongyang’s Sunan District in North Korea, after a typhoon hit the area. A second typhoon in less than a week is approaching North Korea, threatening more rain in a country where storms often mean catastrophe because of deforestation and fragile infrastructure.Photo/Kim Kwang Hyon)

90

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

JALELO: Hassan Hussein cuts down 40 trees every month to fuel his charcoal business, fully aware of the impact his action has on the environment. But for the livestock keeper, the forests are the last remaining resource. And he is not alone. Hundreds of thousands of Somalia’s traditional pastoralist herders do the same, putting their impoverished country on a path of heavy


“I used to keep animals, but I lost my herd to famine and disease and am the eldest in the family,” said Hussein, 27, adding that he had 10 mouths to feed back home -- two children, seven brothers and his mother. Four years ago, Hussein had 25 camels and 300 goats. Now, only three camels and 15 goats from his once respectable sized herd are left. Every morning, with an axe slumped over his shoulder, he sets off in search of wood for charcoal. Once he locates and cuts down a tree, it takes two days of burning, and two more days of cooling the smouldering heaps before he can sell the charcoal, at six dollars (five euros) for a 20 kilogramme sack. The village of Jaleo, in the northern self-declared state of Somaliland, once prided itself on being at the heart of the savannah. British explorer Harald Swayne recounted, in his 19th century memoirs, the adventures he had while tracking and hunting “a large herd of elephants.” But the last elephant was killed in 1958, and were Swayne to retake his journey today, he would only find the smallest of game in a rocky landscape dotted with shrubs and charred tree stumps. “Twenty percent of the forest has disappeared in the last ten years -- definitely this country is turning into a desert,” Ahmed Derie Elmi, director of forests in Somaliland’s environment ministry, told AFP. “If the deforestation continues at this pace, this country will be a desert in two or three decades,” said Ahmed Ibrahim Awale of the Candlelight organisation, which tackles environmental and

health issues in Somaliland. Charcoal burning has not always been preferred in Jalelo. Three years ago an outbreak of Rift Valley Fever in the Horn of Africa forced Gulf states to suspend importation of animals or animal products from the region, forcing the herders to look for alternative sources of income. But it is urbanisation and a population explosion that are the biggest threats to the country’s environmental well-being. Somaliland’s capital Hargeisa has a population of 850,000 people, six times its population in the 1970s, which consumes approximately 250 tonnes of charcoal daily. Elmi says that charcoal is the main source of energy, as electricity is rare and expensive for many. The rampant deforestation is not unique to Somaliland. In southern Somalia, Al Qaeda-linked Shebab insurgents turned charcoal burning and exportation into one of their major sources of income. In a report, the UN monitoring group on Somalia and Eritrea says the Islamist group made up to 25 million dollars every year from charcoal trade. Several regions of southern Somalia were declared famine zones by the United Nations last year, with the deforestation contributing to an extreme drought. In a bid to put an end to rampant deforestation, Somalia’s newly elected President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud in one of his first official duties banned all exportation of charcoal, in line with a UN embargo in February.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

91

in the news

deforestation that risks turning large swathes of it into desert.


in the news

However, much more than a UN declaration and a presidential decree are needed to bring the deforestation to an end. “The underlying causes of poverty and the general decline of the size of livestock herds have to be addressed,” said Awale. Alternative sources of energy must be harnessed to cater for the population, massive reforestation campaigns need to be initiated and some of the pastoralists need to switch to agriculture. In a country where the government faces numerous challenges, environmental matters are not a priority.

“The Ministry of Environment has the smallest budgetary allocation that only covers the salaries of 187 employees,” said Elmi. “All the mature trees have disappeared.... In the past one could get six or seven 25 kilogramme sacks of charcoal from a tree. Today, maybe one or two,” Awale said. As a consequence, charcoal prices in Somaliland have doubled in the past four years, to 10 dollars a sack. “Each time I cut down a tree, I am left with a bitter taste in my mouth,” Hussein said. “The future is bleak.... All the trees will have disappeared.”

AUSTRALIA APPROVES PLAN TO SAVE VITAL RIVER SYSTEM AFP | Nov 22, 2012, 02.17 PM IST SYDNEY: Australia approved an “historic” plan on Thursday to save an ailing river system vital to the nation’s food bowl by returning the equivalent of five Sydney Harbour’s worth of water to the network each year. Environment minister Tony Burke said he signed into law the final draft of a water reform plan for the Murray-Darling Basin, a river network sprawling for one million square kilometres (400,000 square miles) across five Australian states.

contents

The scheme will see 2,750 gigalitres of water, equivalent to five Sydney Harbours, returned annually as environmental flows to the system -- short of the 4,000 gigalitres sought by conservationists but more than wanted by farmers. Burke said the figure could reach 3,200 gigalitres with infrastructure improvements to which the government had committed Aus$1.77 billion (US$1.83 billion).

92

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

Two million tonnes of salt -- enough to fill the Melbourne Cricket Ground -- would also be flushed out every year under the plan, which he described as “historic”. “The foundation and reason for the reform is unequivocally and unapologetically to restore the system to health,” Burke told reporters “Consistent over-allocation and mismanagement (have) seriously degraded the health of the system.” The rivers and their basin stretch thousands of kilometres from Queensland state to South Australia and cross various climates, affecting the livelihood of millions of people, but it has been over-exploited for years. It has also been seriously depleted by years of drought while suffering from increased salt concentrations due in part to low rainfall. Burke said the system had been existing in a state of drought even before the last El Nino weather event triggered a crippling 10-year dry


“By the time the last drought hit, the basin’s ecosystems had essentially been living in drought conditions and had no resilience to cope,” he said. The government has been torn between irrigators and farmers in the key food-growing area who have urged against removing too much water from industry, and environmental groups who argue the basin needs a huge boost.

Burke said the government had done “everything we can to minimise the impact on communities short of saying we will make a compromise on the health of the system”. “There will be more magnificent waterbirds and native fish, and people will be able to visit river tourist locations to experience the stunning natural ecosystems of the basin,” he said.

ANOTHER RHINO KILLED, HORN CHOPPED OFF TNN | Sep 16, 2012, 11.26 PM IST ORHAT: Barely five days after a female rhino was killed in Kaziranga National Park, an adult male rhino was killed by poachers in the park’sBagori forest range on Sunday. Poachers shot dead the rhino and chopped off its horn before forest guards arrived at the spot. With this, the number of rhino deaths in Kaziranga had mounted to 11 this year so far. “We have found a carcass of an adult male rhino from Bagori forest range of the park this morning (Sunday). The rhino was an adult male one and its horn was missing,” a park official said.

group of foresters went out it in search of poachers. But they couldn’t find anyone then. However, at around 9am, we found a carcass of a rhino and an axe was also recovered from the spot. The rhino sustained bullet injuries.” Preliminary investigations suggest the rhino was shot dead by poachers on Saturday night. The carcass has been sent for an autopsy, he said. On Tuesday last, forest guards had found the carcass of an adult female rhino from Bagori forest range in the park. The rhino was killed by poachers and its horn was chopped off.

He added, “We heard some gunshots from the forest side at around 4am today. On hearing the shots, a

NAGARAHOLE TIGER AT MYSORE ZOO IS SUFFERING FROM ANEMIA By HM Aravind, TNN | Sep 4, 2012, 04.15 PM IST MYSORE: The Nagarahole tiger, who is recuperating at the Mysore Zoo, has now lost its fractured digit of right forelimb. He is diagnosed with anemia and

liver problems and the zoo vets have put him on antibiotics.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

93

in the news

spell that devastated farming communities across southeastern Australia.


in the news

The zoo has sent his first faecal samples to Hyderabad-based Laboratory for the conservation of endangered species (LaCONES) for cross examination since he is suspected to have mauled a woman. It is to confirm that he indeed is a man-eater, sources told The Times of India. The big cat, who is believed to be 10 years, is now getting iron tonics and medicines to attend to his liver complications. But vets have suggested that anemia is common among tigers in the wild. It is indicative of his hunger, which could be because of territorial disputes, they added. That explains why he is eating over 10 kgs of meat daily, they stated. According to the executive director B P Ravi, the male tiger has multiple infected wounds throughout the body, which, he said, could be caused by aggressive fight with other tiger in the wild. “There are severe infected wounds with multiple pockets of pus accumulation in left forelimb and around base

of the tail. He has sustained compound fracture of middle phalanx bone of fourth digit of right forelimb with infection and tissue loss,” he explained on Tuesday adding the animal condition is weak and anemic due to injury and parasitic infestation. Blood sample analysis report suggests liver problem may be caused by toxaemia (a condition that is characterized by the presence of bacterial toxins in the blood) from the infected wounds. The vets led by Suresh Kumar conducted the surgery and removed fractured digit, the director stated adding due to severe anemia and liver problem, the condition of the animal continue to be critical and he needs to be treated and observed for at least two weeks to assess his health condition.

SC EXTENDS BAN ON TOURISM IN CORE AREAS OF TIGER RESERVES PTI | Aug 29, 2012, 03.20 PM IST NEW DELHI: Extending the ban on tourism activities in the core areas of tiger reserves, theSupreme Court today pulled up the Centre for the depleting population of the wild cats in the country. A bench of justices A K Patnaik and Swatanter Kumar put some searching questions to the Centre as it made a fresh plea for the review of the apex court’s July 24 order banning tourism in the core areas of tiger reserves.

contents

“You are trying to make up. You have done it (guidelines) after due deliberation. We want to know

94

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

on what basis you want to do it? What is the data available? “What are you going to do to save tigers? Earlier it was 13,000, now it has come down to 1,200. You are more worried about the commercial activities,” the bench told the Centre’s counsel Waseem Ahmed Kadiri. The apex court made the observation after the Centre made a mention of its affidavits filed in the court for permission to review its earlier guidelines for conservation of tiger.


“What have you done for the tiger project? What about the core areas you have promised to take steps for? The Union of India has not done anything except filling affidavits. Why did you initially recommend the ban?,” the court asked the counsel.

The apex court later while ordering that its interim ban order would continue posted the matter for further hearing to August 29.

in the news

The apex court earlier on July 24 had imposed an interim ban on tourism in core areas of tiger reserves on the basis of same guidelines. The ban extended today would remain in place at least till next hearing on August 29.

The Centre had filed an affidavit seeking permission to review the existing guidelines for conservation of tigers in the wake of the apex court’s order banning tourism in core areas of tiger reserves.

INDIAN SPECIES ON MOST THREATENED LIST By TNN | Sep 12, 2012, 03.38 AM IST NEW DELHI: They may disappear even before we get to know them. Four Indian species feature in a list of the ‘100 most threatened’ species in the world. The list consists of critically endangered animals, plants and fungi that don’t serve any obvious purpose for humans and are, therefore, not priority for government conservation efforts. Titled, “Priceless or Worthless,” the list was compiled by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Zological Society of London and released on Tuesday. The ‘Great Indian Bustard’, one of the heaviest flying birds, ‘Gooty tarantula’, a poisonous spider known for its vibrantblue colour, ‘Batagur buska’, an endangered turtle and the ‘White Bellied Heron’ are all on the brink of extinction, according to the list, released at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in South Korea. ‘Priceless or Worthless,’ highlights the plight of species that have been endangered but haven’t received adequate attention from governments. Conservationists fear the neglect will continue as none of them provide humans with obvious

‘benefits.’ For the first time, more than 8,000 scientists from the IUCN Species Survival Commission (IUCN SSC) came together to prepare such a list. The four species lack the charisma of bigger endangered animals like tigers. But The disappearance of the four species is of concern as all four they once occurred in great abundance in India. The Gooty Tarantula (also metallic tarantula or peacock tarantula), was plentiful in Ooty, Tamil Nadu. According to the list, there are just 50 to 249 adult birds left of the Great Indian Bustard that was very common in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Karnataka. “At least through this list the bird may get some attention. In 1969-70, there were around 1,200 to 1,300 GIBs but with hunting and change in agricultural methods, it’s disappearing,” says Pramod Patil of Pune-based Great Indian Bustard Foundation.

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

95


contents

96

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


www.rettula.com

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

97


contents

98

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012


Expressions has a readership of approximately 15,000 people from all walks of life, and is delivered online to public libraries and is also easily accessible to general population who cares for the environment. Expressions is also sent to consulates, govt. organization in India to help provide information to the people who really matter i.e., policy makers. Our research shows that the vast majority of our readers regularly read the advertising pages, and respond well to adverts for products, courses and services. Expressions online e-magazine that enables you to market products and services to a select audience. The quality and consistency of Expressions ensures a longer shelf life, maximizing the number of times each issue is read and your advertisements are viewed. Sponsorship of Expressions magazine gives your organization an excellent opportunity to both reach this desirable audience and be recognized as a supporter of ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION, thus helping in building your social image as well.

For Advertising rates, visit us at www.expressions.icareindia.co.in or call +919411114921, or send an email to advertise@icareindia.co.in

ExpressionS

NOV-DEC 2012

99


contents

100

ExpressionS NOV-DEC 2012

Expressions  

Vol. 3 Issue 6

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you