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Cedar Rapids/Iowa City Regional Data Report October 2010 Compiled by Ma  Fisher, MS  University of Iowa Department of Urban and Regional Planning 

The report was commissioned by the Corridor Business Alliance,  with direct support from Kirkwood Community College    The Corridor Business Alliance Alliant Energy 

Kirkwood Community College 

Cedar Rapids Area Chamber of Commerce 

Kirkwood Small Business Development Center 

Entrepreneurial Development Center 

MidAmerican Energy Company 

Iowa City Area Chamber of Commerce 

Priority One 

Iowa City Area Development Group 

University of Iowa Research Founda on 

John Pappajohn Entrepreneurial Center 

University of Iowa Small Business  Development Center 

Contacts: Dee Baird, Priority One, (319) 730‐1420 or Joe Raso, ICAD Group, (319) 354‐3939


Table of Contents

1.

1  

Population

2

2. Labor Market

6

3. Income and Wages

12

4. Poverty

19

5. Housing Costs

26

6. Residential Building Permits

31

7. Business Starts

37

8. Patents

41

9. Capital Investment

46

10. Crime

50

11. School Enrollment

57

12. Graduation Rates

64

13. Education

69


1. Population

The corridor region, including the counties of Benton, Cedar, Iowa, Johnson, Jones, Linn, and Washington, is home to around 440,000 people (table 1.1). Our region accounts for nearly 15% of the state population, and this share is growing. In each decade since the 1920s, our population has grown at a faster rate than the state of Iowa (figure 1.1). In 1920, we had 8.3% of the state population. By 2000, the share had increased to 13.8%, and 2009 estimates put it at 14.7%.

Table 1.1. County Population. Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington

Region

1900

25,177

19,371

19,544

24,817

21,954

55,392

20,718

186,973

1910

23,156

17,765

18,409

25,914

19,050

60,720

19,925

184,939

1920

24,080

17,560

18,600

26,462

18,607

74,004

20,421

199,734

1930

22,851

16,760

17,332

30,276

19,206

82,336

19,822

208,583

1940

22,879

16,884

17,016

33,191

19,950

89,142

20,055

219,117

1950

22,656

16,910

15,835

45,756

19,401

104,274

19,557

244,389

1960

23,422

17,791

16,396

53,663

20,693

136,899

19,406

288,270

1970

22,885

17,655

15,419

72,127

19,868

163,213

18,967

330,134

1980

23,649

18,635

15,429

81,717

20,401

169,775

20,141

349,747

1990

22,429

17,444

14,630

96,119

19,444

168,767

19,612

358,445

2000

25,308

18,187

15,671

111,006

20,221

191,701

20,670

402,764

2009*

26,734

18,006

15,811

131,005

20,364

209,226

21,258

442,404

*Estimate Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

2  


Figure 1.1. Populattion Growth h: The State vs. The Coorridor. 20%

Region

Population Growth

15%

Statte

10%

5%

0%

‐5%

‐10%

Source:  U U.S. Census Bu ureau.     

Jo ohnson and Linn L County y account forr 75% of thee regions currrent populattion, and neaarly all of the region’s gro owth in the last l century (figure 1.2). The remainning 5 countties have beeen flat or do own over thee past 100 yeears (figure 1.3). 1 Iowa C County has seen the sharrpest decline, losing neearly 20% off its population. Benton,, Cedar, Wasshington, annd Jones are all within 100% of their 1900 1 populattions, while Johnson and d Linn have ggrown by 3447% and 2466%, respectivvely.    

3  


Population

Figure 1.2. County Population ns, 1900 - 20 009. Benton Cedar Iowa Johnson Jones Linn Washingto on

Source:  U U.S. Census Bu ureau.   

Population

Figure 1.3. County Population ns, 1900 – 20 000

Benton B Cedar C Io owa Jo ones Washington W

Source:  U U.S. Census Bu ureau.  4   


The T smaller five f countiess in the Corriidor have, hoowever, fareed better thann many otheers. Our seveen counties were w among only 30 in th he state to gaain populatioon between 1970 and 20000 (figure 1.4). Though h the countiees of Cedar, Jones, and IIowa gained 3% or less oover the 30 yyear n like the maajority of Iow wa counties. This refleccts the nationnal span, they did not losse population movemen nt from rural to urban an nd suburban locations. O Of the 10 couunties that ggrew the mosst from 197 70 to 2000, 9 were eitherr among the 10 largest too begin with, or were adjjacent to onee of the 10 larrgest countiees in 1970.

Figure 1.4. Percentt Change in Population n, 1970 – 20000.

Source:  U U.S. Census Bu ureau.              5   


2. Labor Market

Figures for employment come from two sources. The Census Bureau releases a report each year called County Business Pattern (CBP). This report includes, among other things, the number of employees in a county in each of some 1,200 sectors. These surveys do not include farmers, the self-employed, or government employees (with the exception of health care workers and public school teachers). The Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, covers a slightly different set of industries, but it includes most government workers. In order to protect firm’s information, the reports will not release employment figures for industries or sectors which are dominated by a few large employers. Of the 19 industries covered by County Business Patterns, only 8 had reportable figures for all seven counties (table 2.1). Unlike the QCEW, the CBP will report an employment range, and from these we can at least establish a minimum industry employment for the region (table 2.2).

Table 2.1. Employment by Industry by County, 2007. NAICS Code 

Description

Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Private Employment  (BLS) 

4,131

4,189

8,162

Total Government  Employment (BLS)     Federal 

1,521 70

1,090 108

  State 

128

  Local 

Jones

Linn

Washington

50,688

5,113 110,567

6,584

1,084 70

23,346 1,492

1,430 61 

12,832 1,126

1,453 71

N/A

29

N/A

415

559

68

1,324

N/A

985

N/A

954

11,148

1,315

4,627

4,198

7,876

59,267

4,675 110,578

7,044

0 ‐ 19

20 ‐ 99

20 ‐  99

0 ‐ 19

0 ‐ 19 

20 ‐ 99

0 ‐ 19

20 ‐ 99

0

0

20 ‐ 99

20 ‐ 99 

51

20 ‐ 99

Total Employment  (CBP)  ‐‐‐‐‐‐     Agriculture,  Forestry,    Fishing  11  and Hunting     Mining  21  6   


22 23 

  Utilities     Construction 

20 ‐ 99

0 ‐ 19

0 ‐ 19

100 ‐ 249

20 ‐ 99 

453

0

443

245

2,615

297

6,168

784

783

606

196 2500 ‐  4999

5,504

931

17,107

1,091

234

272

336

1,298

180

5,159

303

846

596 500 ‐  999

1,223

8,473

1,002

14,406

1,043

7,233

100 ‐ 249

5,509

96

8,832

217

1,167

20 ‐ 99

4,649

202

1,570

20 ‐ 99

7,249

61

3,004

0 ‐ 19

13,297

1,330

1,319

72

9,204

1,263

4,151

328

  Manufacturing  31‐33  42  44‐45 

  Wholesale Trade     Retail Trade 

  Transportation and  48‐49  Warehousing  323 169 4,442 158     Information  20 ‐  51  100 20 ‐ 99 99 2,142 20 ‐ 99     Finance and  52  Insurance  200 156 122 1,875 206     Real Estate and  20 ‐  53  Rental and Leasing  56 24 99 712 0 ‐ 19     Professional,  Scientific, and  20 ‐  87 90 99 1,965 134  54  Technical Services     Management of  Companies and  20 ‐  55  Enterprises  0 0 ‐ 19 99 278 0 ‐ 19     Administrative and  Support and Waste  Management and  20 ‐ 99 356 133 1,940 74  56  Remediation Services     Educational Services  20 ‐  1000 ‐  61  20 ‐ 99 0 ‐ 19 99 2499 88     Health Care and  62  Social Assistance  718 565 718 16,124 801     Arts, Entertainment,  71  and Recreation  94 20 ‐ 99 80 598 46     Accommodation  72  and Food Services  338 303 687 6,783 348     Other Services  (except Public  100 ‐  81  Administration)  247 168 137 2,158 249  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, 2007. U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns, 2007.

Since over half of the industries employment totals are suppressed for at least one county, it is difficult to get a picture of the Corridor labor force from these numbers. Furthermore, different industries could be suppressed next year, making it difficult to track regional changes in anything but total employment. 7  


Chmura Economics makes available, for a fee, estimates for the suppressed BLS employment figures. Table 2.2 gives the estimated employment totals for the seven counties. Health care, education, retail, and manufacturing are the largest industries, with around 30,000 employees each. These figures include both private and public sector employees.

Table 2.2. Regional Employment by Industry, 2009. Industry   Accommodation and Food Services  Administrative and Support and Waste Management  and Remediation Services  Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting  Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation  Construction  Educational Services  Finance and Insurance  Health Care and Social Assistance  Information  Management of Companies and Enterprises  Manufacturing  Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction  Other Services (except Public Administration)  Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services  Public Administration  Real Estate and Rental and Leasing  Retail Trade  Transportation and Warehousing  Utilities  Wholesale Trade  TOTAL  Source: Chmura Economics, 2010.

Employment 18,847  11,927  947  2,182  11,309  29,005  11,099  33,782  7,549  725  30,295  326  6,080  6,754  8,504  2,777  27,726  13,930  1,225  7,632  232,624 

The Corridor had a higher percentage of its workforce in Education (12.5%) and Health Care and Social Assistance (14.5%), compared to the nation and the State of Iowa (table 2.3). In manufacturing and retail, the Corridor devoted a smaller percentage than the State, but larger than the U.S. The Corridor also has a significantly greater percentage of its workforce in the Information (3.3%) and the Transportation and Warehousing (6.0%) industries, compared the U.S. and the State of Iowa.

8  


Table 2.3. Employment by Industry as Percentage, 2009. Industry   Region  State   U.S.   Accommodation and Food Services  7.9% 8.7%  8.1% Administrative and Support and Waste  Management and Remediation Services  5.1% 4.4% 5.6%  Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting  1.1% 0.9%  0.4% Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation  1.5% 1.8%  0.9% Construction  4.6% 4.8%  4.9% Educational Services  9.9% 9.5%  12.5% Finance and Insurance  6.2% 4.4%  4.8% Health Care and Social Assistance  14.0% 13.8%  14.5% Information  2.2% 2.3%  3.3% Management of Companies and Enterprises  0.9% 1.4%  0.3% Manufacturing  14.1% 9.2%  13.0% Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction  0.2% 0.5%  0.1% Other Services (except Public Administration)  2.9% 3.4%  2.6% Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services  3.0% 5.9%  2.9% Public Administration  4.9% 5.8%  3.7% Real Estate and Rental and Leasing  0.9% 1.6%  1.2% Retail Trade  12.2% 11.4%  11.9% Transportation and Warehousing  4.2% 3.9%  6.0% Utilities  0.5% 0.6%  0.5% Wholesale Trade  4.6% 4.3%  3.3% Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, 2009. Chmura Economics, 2010.

The Corridor also has a larger percentage of its employment in the public sector (19.3%) than either the State or the U.S. (table 2.3). Linn and Iowa counties are the only two in the region with above average private sector employment. Johnson County, thanks to the University of Iowa, has nearly a third or its workforce in government employment.

9  


Table 2.3. Private vs. Public Sector Employment, 2009.     Private   Public  Benton  72.6% 27.4%  Cedar  79.9% 20.1%  Iowa  87.4% 12.6%  Johnson  67.1% 32.9%  Jones  76.8% 23.2%  Linn  89.1% 10.9%  Washington  81.0% 19.0%  REGION  80.7% 19.3%  STATE  83.6% 16.4%  U.S.  83.2% 16.8%  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, 2010.

By County Business Pattern figures, regional employment dipped between 2001 and 2004, but rebounded in 2007 (table 2.3). The 2004 drop of more than 7,000 jobs was approximately the drop in Linn County alone. By 2007, Linn County was still 1,000 jobs short of its 2001 mark, and Iowa County was down 1,500 jobs to 7,876. Growth in Johnson and Washington Counties pushed the region up to 198,265 jobs, 6,000 more than in 2001. Table 2.3. Total Employment (CBP), 2001 – 2007    

2001 2004 2007 4,612  4,641 4,627 Benton 4,114  3,629 4,198 Cedar 9,459  8,403 7,876 Iowa 52,276  53,876 59,267 Johnson 4,457  4,555 4,675 Jones 111,650  104,433 110,578 Linn 5,783  5,578 7,044 Washington 192,351  185,115 198,265 REGION 1,255,162  1,241,864 1,303,436 STATE 115,061,184  115,074,924 120,604,265 U.S. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns, 2001, 2004, 2007.

10  


Figure 2.1. 2 Total Employmentt (CBP) by County, C 20001 – 2007. 120,0 000

2001

2004

2007

Total Employment

100,0 000

80,0 000

60,0 000

40,0 000

20,0 000

0 Bento on

Cedarr

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Coun nty Business Patterns, P 20011, 2004, 2007.

             

      11   

Linn

Washington


3. Income and Wages

Average compensation for workers in the Corridor is above the state average (table 3.1). In 2001, workers in the region made about $3,000 (11.5%) more than the state average, but regional wages have grown more slowly than the state average. Accounting for inflation, regional wages increased by 3.9% between 2001 to 2009, compared to 6.4% for the state, although they finished around 10% above the state average. During this period, regional wages grew slightly faster than national wages, but finished 11% lower.

Table 3.1. Average Annual Wage by County, 2001 vs. 2009. (2009 dollars). 2001 2009 Change Benton 28,990 30,229 4.27% Cedar 27,274 29,966 9.87% Iowa 34,542 32,745 -5.20% Johnson 38,356 40,905 6.65% Jones 27,242 30,216 10.92% Linn 41,973 42,976 2.39% Washington 27,094 28,144 3.88% Region 38,976 40,480 3.86% State 34,933 37,165 6.39% U.S. 43,875 45,551 3.82% Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages

Within the region, there are some large disparities (figure 3.1). Linn and Johnson are the only two counties with average pay higher than the state, but they account for 85% of the total jobs. The difference between the lowest (Washington) and highest (Linn) paying counties is almost $15,000.

……………………………

12  


Figure 3.1. Averagee Annual Wage W by Cou unty, 2001 vvs. 2009. (20009 dollars)) 50,0 000

Average Annual Wage ($)

45,0 000

2001

2009

40,0 000 35,0 000 30,0 000 25,0 000 20,0 000 15,0 000 10,0 000 5,0 000 0

Source: Bu ureau of Labor Statistics, Quaarterly Census of Employmennt and Wages

Public sector employees receive r high her pay, on avverage, thann their privatte sector counterparts (table 3..2). The gap p is largest in n Johnson County, wherre Universityy of Iowa sallaries push the average wag ge of public employees up u to $57,1776 a year. Only in Linn C County do private seector workerrs earn moree.

13  


2. 2009 Aveerage Annu ual Wage, Pu ublic vs. Priivate. (20099 dollars) Table 3.2 Pub blic Priva ate To otal Benton $34,0 012 $28,800 $30,2 229 Cedar $30,8 876 $29,737 $29,9 966 Iowa $33,5 523 $32,633 $32,7 745 Johnson n $57,1 176 $32,921 $40,9 905 Jones $35,4 451 $28,637 $30,2 216 Linn $40,6 660 $43,260 $42,9 976 Washing gton $33,6 632 $26,857 $28,1 144 Region $48,6 694 $38,520 $40,4 480 State $41,4 492 $36,316 $37,1 165 U.S. $47,5 548 $45,146 $45,5 551 Source: Bu ureau of Labor Statistics, Quaarterly Census of Employmennt and Wages

Figure 3.2. 2009 An nnual Avera age Wage by y County, P Public vs. Prrivate. (20009 dollars).

Average Annual Wage ($)

$60,0 000

$50,0 000

Public Private

$40,0 000

$30,0 000

$20,0 000

$10,0 000

$0

Source: Bu ureau of Labor Statistics, Quaarterly Census of Employmennt and Wages

14  


Wage figures from the Bureau of Labor Statistics report what the average employee would earn by working full time, year round. Income figures from the Census Bureau or the Bureau of Economic Analysis report all the income a person or household receives in a year, from all sources, regardless of whether or how much they work. Table 3.3. Per Capita Income, 2001 – 2008 (2009 dollars). County 2001  2002  2003 2004 2005 2006 Benton  $33,641  $33,757  $32,688 $33,872 $32,890 $33,317 Cedar  $35,016  $35,138  $35,062 $36,019 $34,352 $34,664 Iowa  $37,210  $38,618  $37,818 $39,132 $36,605 $36,536 Johnson  $36,361  $36,409  $36,013 $36,895 $36,438 $37,330 Jones  $28,142  $28,258  $27,730 $28,342 $27,347 $27,588 Linn  $38,229  $38,059  $37,998 $38,487 $38,493 $39,285 Washington  $33,737  $33,706  $33,931 $36,028 $35,654 $37,027 Region  $36,512  $36,519  $36,262 $37,044 $36,629 $37,386 State  $33,795  $34,386  $34,338 $35,990 $35,516 $36,059 U.S.   $37,729  $37,520  $37,627 $38,479 $38,913 $40,117 Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts, 2010.

2007 $34,866  $36,339  $37,058  $38,364  $28,260  $40,189  $38,470  $38,412  $36,996  $40,759 

2008 Change $36,210 7.63% $37,469 7.00% $38,423 3.26% $38,088 4.75% $28,556 1.47% $39,983 4.59% $38,430 13.91% $38,432 5.26% $37,376 10.59% $40,023 6.08%

Figure 3.3. Per Capita Income, 2001 – 2008 (2009 dollars). 45,000

REGION

STATE

U.S.

40,000 35,000 30,000

Income

25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts, 2010. 15  

2007

2008


As A with wagees, per capitaa income is the t corridor is below thee nation but aabove the staate (table 3.3 3). Regional income grew w only 5.3% % between 20001 and 2008, comparedd to 6.1% forr the U.S. and 10.6% for th he State of Iowa. I Linn L County has the high hest per capitta income ($$39,983), andd Jones Couunty has the lowest ($ $28,556) by substantial margin m (figurre 3.4). Figure 3.4. Per Cap pita Incomee, 2008. (200 09 dollars). $45,0 000 $40,0 000

Be enton

Ce edar

Iow wa

Johnso on

Joness

Linn

Washingto on

$35,0 000

Income

$30,0 000 $25,0 000 $20,0 000 $15,0 000 $10,0 000 $5,0 000 $0

Source: Bureau B of Eco onomic Analy ysis, Regionall Economic A Accounts, 20110.

The T low per capita c incom me in Jones County C is to ssome degreee a reflectionn of the largee incarceraated populatiion. The Jones County median hou sehold incom me (which excludes the institutionalized popu ulation) is sttill the lowesst in the regiion, but is juust behind W Washington County (table 3.4).

16  


Table 3.4. Median Income by Household Type, 1990 - 2008. (2009 dollars.)        

All Households  1990 

2000

Family Households  2006‐ 2008

1990

2000

Non‐Family Households 

2006‐ 2008

1990

2000

2006‐ 2008

Benton

$42,610 $52,858  $57,253 $50,675 $61,920 $69,169 $22,107  $28,474 $28,417

Cedar

$45,489 $52,573 

N/A $52,387 $60,860

N/A $25,687 $29,333

N/A

Iowa

$43,628 $51,357 

N/A $52,013 $60,980

N/A $22,033 $29,385

N/A

Johnson

$45,734 $49,909  $54,863 $65,011 $74,891 $78,776 $26,752  $30,117 $31,325

Jones

$40,183 $46,656  $46,458 $46,194 $55,153 $57,594 $19,965  $27,612 $27,422

Linn

$52,751 $57,566  $54,267 $62,608 $70,384 $70,143 $28,806  $34,038 $32,595

Washington $42,385  $48,717  $53,138 $49,728 $56,856 $61,912 $24,497  $27,222 $29,612 STATE 

$43,053 $49,173  $50,271 $51,967 $59,807 $63,370 $23,292  $27,975 $28,537

U.S. $49,335  $52,319  $53,986 $57,820 $62,350 $65,404 $28,299  $32,025 $32,642 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2000 Census, American Community Survey.

Johnson County had the third lowest median household income in 2000. In median income for family households, Johnson County was the regions highest (figure 3.5). The population of family households excludes much of the student population Though we can’t compute a regional median from the county medians, the seven counties are in the range of the state and national medians for all households and for non-family households. For family households, the five smallest are in the range of state and national median, but Linn and Johnson are well above them.

17  


Figure 3.5. Median n Income by Household d Type, 20000. (2009 dolllars) $100,000

HH In ncome

Fam Incom me

N Non Fam Inco ome

$90,000 $80,000

Median Income

$70,000 $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $0 Benton

Cedaar

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 2000 Census.

      18   

Iowaa

Johnsoon

Jones

Linn

Washinggton


4. Poverty The U.S. Census Bureau calculates poverty rates by comparing a households income to the poverty levels established for that family size and composition. Income is before taxes and includes, most notably, wages from work, social security and pension payments, and public assistance in the form of cash (but not food assistance or housing vouchers). The thresholds were established in 1963, and are adjusted each year for inflation. They do not account for geographic variation in the cost of living.

Table 4.1. 2009 Poverty Thresholds. Size of family unit  One person (unrelated  individual)....    Under 65  years.......................    65 years and  over....................  Two  people............................    Householder under 65  years...........    Householder 65 years and  over......  Three  people..........................  Four  people........................... 

 None     One         11,161       10,289  

      14,366       12,968       16,781       22,128       Five people...........................  26,686       Six people............................  30,693   Seven      people..........................  35,316       Eight people..........................  39,498   Nine people or      more...................  47,514  

Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

19  

  Two 

  Three 

 Four 

 Five 

  Seven 

 Six 

Eight or  more 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     14,787     14,731 

     17,268  17,285        22,490  21,756        27,074  26,245        30,815  30,180        35,537  34,777        39,847  39,130        47,744  47,109 

     21,832 

    

 

25,603 25,211        29,571  28,666        34,247  33,260        38,501  37,610        46,576  45,701 

     28,130     32,108     36,478     44,497 

            30,845                35,300   35,000               43,408   43,138  41,476 


Poverty rates in the corridor are slightly lower than rates for the State of Iowa, and generally 3 percentage points below the national rate. Between 1990 and 2000, poverty rates dropped in the U.S., in the state of Iowa, and in all seven counties (table 4.2). The Iowa poverty rate dropped more sharply than the national rate. The biggest drops in the corridor were in Benton and Cedar counties. Both saw drops of around 5 percentage points, while the number of those living in poverty was cut nearly in half. Poverty rates have come back up across the board in recent years. The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing sample survey of households across the nation. The sample size is such that three year averages were available for five counties in the corridor. Unfortunately, Cedar and Iowa Counties are too small to allow reliable estimates, even over three years. With the long form being discontinued in the 2010 census, it is unclear when we will again have poverty rates for counties of this size.

Table 4.2. Poverty rates.    

Benton Cedar Iowa Johnson Jones Linn Washington Region State U.S.

1990

2000

2006‐2008

11.4% 10.2% 8.2% 17.1% 11.5% 8.6% 9.5% 11.2% 11.5% 13.1%

6.1% 5.5% 5.0% 15.0% 8.6% 6.5% 7.6% 8.8% 9.1% 12.4%

6.8% N/A N/A 16.8% 11.1% 9.9% 9.1% N/A 11.2% 13.2%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2000 Census, American Community Survey.

20  


Figure 4.1. National, State, and Regional Poverty Rates. 14% Region

12%

State

Poverty Rate

10% U.S. 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 1990

2000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2000 Census.

The drop in poverty rates between 1990 and 2000, and the recent resurgence are more likely a result of the business cycles than any permanent structural change. The red shaded areas of figure 4.2 signify the periods for which poverty rates are estimated in the 1990 census, 2000 census, and the 2006 – 2008 ACS average. The 2000 census poverty rates derive from income received during 1999, in which unemployment rates were significantly lower than in 1989 or during the three years of the most recent ACS estimates.

21  


Figure 4.2. State of Iowa Unemployment Rate, 1985 - 2008. 9%

Unemployment Rate

8%

7%

6%

5%

4%

3%

2% 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Source : Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

Iowa County had the lowest poverty rate in both 1989 and 1999, and Jones County had the second highest rate in both of these years (figure 4.3). Differences in poverty rates among the seven counties are not dramatic, with the exception of Johnson County. While the poverty rate has remained more than 5 percentage points higher than any other county, the difference can be attributed to the large student population. Students tend to work less, for lower pay, and report less income. However, they often cover living expenses with student loans or with help from family members, neither of which are reported as income.

22  


Figure 4.3. County Poverty Rates. 20% 18%

Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington

16%

Poverty Rate

14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 1990

2000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2000 Census.

While we do not have data on poverty rates among the non-student population, the Decennial Census and the American Community Survey (ACS) report poverty rates by different household types. Focusing on the household population eliminates students living in dormitories, but students living alone or with friends off campus are still considered to be in households. The population in family households counts some students, and excludes many non-students, but it nonetheless paints a very different picture of poverty in the corridor.

23  


Figure 4.4. 2000 Poverty Rates Among the Population in Family Households. 8%

Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington

7%

Poverty Rate

6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census.

Considering only family households, Johnson County no longer stands out (figure 4.4). The poverty rate in the Corridor in 1999 was 4.6%, compared to 6% in the State of Iowa and 9.2% in the U.S. (table 4.3). 2006 – 2008 estimates were not available for Cedar and Iowa counties, but only Jones County had a poverty rate higher than the State average in the most recent ACS. Table 4.3. 1990 Poverty Rates Among the Population in Family Households. 1990

2000

2006-2008

Benton

10.0%

4.6%

4.16%

Cedar

9.1%

4.0%

N/A

Iowa

6.7%

3.4%

N/A

Johnson

7.8%

5.2%

6.60%

10.0%

6.2%

7.71%

Linn

6.6%

4.3%

6.17%

Washington

8.3%

5.1%

7.17%

Region

7.5%

4.6%

N/A

State

9.4%

6.0%

7.20%

U.S.

11.6%

9.2%

9.63%

Jones

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2000 Census, ACS.

24  


Figure 4.5. Poverty Rates Among the Population in Family Households. 14%

Region

State

12%

Poverty Rate

10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

1990                                                                                2000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2000 Census.

                 

25  

U.S.


5. Housing Costs

The U.S. Census Bureau, in its Decennial Census (long form) and American Community Survey, asks some detailed questions about the housing costs of both owners and renters. Both are random samples of the population. The 1990 and 2000 Census data provides estimates of housing costs in every county in the years 1989 and 1999. The American Community Survey has a smaller sample size, and only estimates three year averages in most counties. In smaller counties, such as Cedar and Iowa, they are not even able to make these estimates. In general, housing costs in the corridor are below the U.S average, but slightly higher than the State of Iowa. In 2006 -2008, Johnson was the only county where rents were above the state average (table 5.1). Linn County had been above in the 1990 and 2000 census. The highest rent county, Johnson, did not come closer than $47 to the national average in any of the three samples. Furthermore, rents in the corridor seem to be growing much more slowly than in other areas. While rents in the U.S. and the State of Iowa grew by a modest 15.5% and 13.9%, Johnson County rents grew only 8.6% over 17 years. Linn County rents grew by only 2.7%, an annual rate of 0.16%.

Table 5.1. Median Rent (2009 dollars).     1990  2000  2006‐2008  % Change  Benton  461  480  526 14.0% Cedar  519  549  N/A N/A Iowa  484  513  N/A N/A Johnson  676  703  735 8.6% Jones  456  518  584 27.9% Linn  606  635  622 2.7% Washington  488  528  628 28.8% STATE  552  586  628 13.9% U.S.  734  750  847 15.5% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2000 Census, American Community Survey.

26  


Figure 5.1. 5 2006 - 2008 2 Median n Rent (2009 dollars). Bento on

Johnson

Jon nes

Linnn

Washington

SState

$900 0 $800 0

Median Rent

$700 0 $600 0 $500 0 $400 0 $300 0 $200 0 $100 0 $0 0

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy.

Figure 5.2. 5 Median n Rent 1990 – 2008. (20 009 dollars) $900 0

19 990

2000

2006 ‐ 2008

$800 0

Median Rent

$700 0 $600 0 $500 0 $400 0 $300 0 $200 0 $100 0 $0 0

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy.

27  

U.SS.


In n owner occu upied housin ng units, the median ownner cost is aggain below tthe national average in i the most recent r samplle (table 5.2)). The 1990 and 2000 ceensus did finnd owner cossts in Johnson County to bee above the nation. n Com mpared to thee State of Ioowa, howeveer, the regionn appears to t be more expensive forr owners. While W the smaaller five couunties have comparable costs, Johnson and Linn have been consistently hig gher, Johnsonn by at least $300 a monnth. Owner O costs have h grown more slowly y in Linn andd Johnson C Counties thann they have nationally y, while cost growth in Benton, B Jonees, and Washhington Couunties has exxceeded statee and national rates. r Table 5.2 2. Median Owner O Costt (2009 dollars). 19 990 200 00 2006-2 2008 Benton 781 7 100 01 1187 Cedar 857 8 97 77 N/A N Iowa 814 8 92 20 N/A N Johnson n 12 207 136 63 1437 Jones 733 7 930 1038 Linn 976 9 115 50 1247 Washing gton 779 7 92 21 1116 STATE E 877 8 99 98 1136 1 U.S. 11 169 131 10 1508 1

Ch hange 5 2.1% N/A N/A 1 9.0% 4 1.6% 2 7.8% 4 3.3% 299.5% 299.0%

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy.

Figure 5.3. 5 2006 - 2008 2 Median n Owner Co ost (2009 doollars). $1,800 0

Bento on

Johnsson

Jones

Linn

Washin ngton

Sttate

$1,600 0

Median Owner Cost

$1,400 0 $1,200 0 $1,000 0 $800 0 $600 0 $400 0 $200 0 $0 0

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy. 28  

U.S.


Home H ownerss in the Corrridor pay abo out the samee percentage of their incoome to housiing costs as do d those in th he rest of thee state, around 22% (tabble 5.3). Durring the receent housing bboom, the perceentages increeased slightly y, but not neearly as muchh as they didd elsewhere.. Iowans stilll pay less of th heir income toward t housing than the national aveerage in 20000, before thhe housing buubble. Table 5.3 3. Owner Costs C as a Peercentage of Income, m median value. 19 990 200 00 2006-2 2008 Benton 16.2 19..6 22 Cedar 17.1 19..4 N/A N Iowa 16.5 19 N/A N Johnson n 19 20..3 22.4 2 Jones 14.6 20 2 22.6 2 Linn 16.5 19..3 21.4 2 Washing gton 16.8 19..4 21.4 2 STATE E 17.3 1 19..1 21.4 2 U.S. 21 21..7 25 Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy.

Figure 5.3. 5 Owner Costs as Percentage off Income, meedian valuee, 2006 – 20008. 30% %

Bento on

Johnsson

Jones

Linn

% of Income

20% %

10% %

0% %

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Ameerican Commu unity Survey, 2008

29  

Washin ngton

Sttate

U.S.


Renters R in thee corridor haave tended to o spend a sm maller percenntage of theirr income on rent than the state s averagee (table 5.4).. The exception is Johnsson County, where the m median percentag ge of incomee spent on reent has been significantlyy higher thann the State oor National medians. While John nson County y does have the t highest rrents in the rregion, the hiigh rent as a percentag ge of incomee is also a prroduct the large student ppopulation, w who work annd earn less but can someetimes pay reent from oth her sources. Table 5.4 4. Rent as % of Incomee, median value. Benton Cedar Iowa Johnson Jones Linn Washing gton

1990 0 2000  22.7  2 20  2 21.4  2 19  1 19.2  1 19..9  28.3  2 30..5  18.5  1 20..2  23.2  2 22..4  20.5  2 20..5 

2006‐20 008 25 5.7 N/A N N/A N 33 3.0 24 4.5 25 5.9 27 7.9

STATE 24.1 2 23..2 27 7.0 U.S.  26.4 2 25..5 29 9.8 Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy.

Figure 5.4. 5 Rent as % of Incom me, median value, v 2006 – 2008. 40% %

Bento on

Johnsson

Jones

Linn

% of Income

30% %

20% %

10% %

0% %

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Amerrican Commu unity Survey, 2008

30  

Washin ngton

Sttate

U.S.


6. Building Permits The U.S. Census Bureau conducts monthly surveys of agencies responsible for issuing building permits. They report the number of residential permits issued, the number of housing units contained by the permits, and the value associated with the construction. The figures refer only to the construction that is authorized to take place, and permit remains in the statistics whether or not it was ever started or completed. Not every agency makes a report every period. If an agency fails to report, the Census Bureau counts the permits, units, and value as zero. However, in another series, they estimate figures for non-reporting agencies based on previous reports and broader trends. The figures reported here list the number of housing units listed in the permits, and include the estimates of missing values. There were permits issued for 1,985 units in the corridor in 2009 (table 6.1). This is up from 2008, but well below the peak of 3,495 in 2004. Over half of these were issued in Linn County, and another 700 were in Johnson County. The remaining 5 counties accounted for 6.6% of units.

Table 6.1. Units in Residential Building Permits, 2000 – 2009.     Benton  Cedar  Iowa  Johnson  Jones  Linn  Washington  REGION 

2000 2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008  2009  95  97  91 79 105 94 70 48  27  22 76  81  80 100 87 87 73 52  48  41 37  20  25 25 29 22 14 17  18  15 1,151  1,199  1,283 1,517 1,323 1,244 1,027 782  794  697 35  16  24 27 46 40 45 22  18  22 1,679  1,561  1,661 1,709 1,905 1,598 1,085 1,117  931  1,156 54  47  48 38 39 44 63 37  40  32 3,127  3,021  3,212 3,495 3,534 3,129 2,377 2,075  1,876  1,985

STATE

12,582 13,161  14,893  16,082  16,345  16,766  13,357  11,171 

8,412

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Building Permit Estimates - U.S., State, and Metropolitan Areas.

31  

7,729


Figure 6.1. 6 Units in n Residentia al Building Permits, P 20009. 1,400 0 1,300 0 1,200 0

Be enton

Ce edar

Iow wa

Johnso on

Joness

Linn

Washingto on

1,100 0 1,000 0 900 0 Units

800 0 700 0 600 0 500 0 400 0 300 0 200 0 100 0 0

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Build ding Permit Esstimates - U.S S., State, and Metropolitann Areas.

Most M of the permits p issueed in the smaaller five werre for single family hom mes (table 6.22). The smalller five coun nties accoun nt for 8% of single familyy home perm mits, and 3.55% of the muultifamily un nits authorizzed in 2009 (table ( 6.3). Table 6.2 2. Units in Single Fam mily Residenttial Buildin ng Permits, 22000 – 20099.     2000  2001  2002  2 2003 3  2004  2005  20006  2007  2008  2 2009  Benton  85  74  77 79 99 94 70 48  27 22 Cedar  66  67  57 87 62 69 71 52  42 41 Iowa  25  18  23 25 27 22 14 17  14 13 Johnson  529  622  745 959 9 927 889 693 621  601 599 Jones  29  12  16 21 42 40 45 22  14 16 Linn  850  860  931 1,0 013 1,045 964 820 770  698 661 Washinggton  54  36  40 36 21 42 29 26  20 18 REGION  1,638  1,689  1,889 2,2 220 2,223 2,120 11,742 1,556  1,416 1,370 STATE  8,552  8,877  10,108 1 11,8 841 12,374 12,812 11,250 8,674 4  6,285 5,705 Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Build ding Permit Esstimates - U.S S., State, and Metropolitann Areas.

32  


Figure 6.2. 6 Units in n Single Fam mily Residen ntial Buildin ng Permits, 2009. 800 0

Be enton

Ce edar

Iow wa

Johnso on

Joness

Linn

Washingto on

700 0 600 0

Units

500 0 400 0 300 0 200 0 100 0 0

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Build ding Permit Esstimates - U.S S., State, and Metropolitann Areas.

3. Units in Multi-Famiily Residenttial Buildingg Permits, 22000 – 2009. Table 6.3     2000  2001  2002  2 2003 3  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008  200 09  Benton  10  23  14 0 6 0 0 0  0  0 Cedar  10  14  23 13 1 25 18 2 0  6  0 Iowa  12  2  2 0 2 0 0 0  4  2 Johnson  622  577  538 55 58 396 355 334 161  193  98 Jones  6  4  8 6 4 0 0 0  4  6 Linn  829  701  730 69 96 860 634 265 347  233  4 495 Washinggton  0  11  8 2 18 2 34 11  20  14 REGION  1,489  1,332  1,323 1,27 75 1,311 1,009 635 519  460  6 615 STATE  4,030  4,284  4,785 4,24 41 3,971 3,954 3,107 2,497  2,127  2,0 024 Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Build ding Permit Esstimates - U.S S., State, and Metropolitann Areas.

33  


Figure 6.3. 6 Units in n Multi-Fam mily Residen ntial Buildin ng Permits, 2009. 600 0

Be enton

Ce edar

Iow wa

Johnso on

Joness

Linn

Washingto on

500 0

Units

400 0

300 0

200 0

100 0

0

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Build ding Permit Esstimates - U.S S., State, and Metropolitann Areas.

The T Corridor is more urban than the state s as a whhole, and hass a larger shaare of its houusing in multi-ffamily build dings (table 6.4). 6 Howev ver, that gap has been shhrinking this past decade, and in 2008 the t region haad a lower peercentage off unit-permitts issued for multi-familyy housing thhan the remaiinder of the state. Table 6.4 4. Percent of o Units in Multi-Fami M ily Permits, 200 - 2009.     2000  2001  2002  2 2003 3  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008  200 09  REGION  47.6% %  44.1%  41.2% 4 36.5% 37.1% 32.2% 26.77% 25.0%  24.5%  31.0% STATE  32.0% %  32.6%  32.1% 3 26.4 4% 24.3% 23.6% 23.33% 22.4%  25.3%  26.2% Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Build ding Permit Esstimates - U.S S., State, and Metropolitann Areas.

34  


6 Percentt of Units in Multi-Fam mily Permits , 200 - 20099. Figure 6.4. 50% %

Region

State

% Multi Family

40% %

30% %

20% %

10% %

0% % 2000

2001

2002 2

2003

2004

20005

2006

2007

20 008

2009

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B Build ding Permit Esstimates - U.S S., State, and Metropolitann Areas.

The T trend in Corridor C buiilding permitts have closeely followedd state-wide ttrends (figurre 6.5). Sin nce 1990, alm most every year y that perm mits increaseed in the Staate, they alsoo increased inn the Corridor. The two ex xceptions weere the housing boom inn the late 90ss, which peakked a year laater in the reg gion, and thee current dow wnturn. Perm mits in the C Corridor began falling inn 2005, a yeaar earlier th han they did statewide. And A while in n 2009 units fell statewidde for the fouurth consecuutive year, unitts in the Corrridor increased after fou ur years of declines.

35  


Figure 6.5. Units in Residential Building Permits, 1990 - 2009. 18,000

5,000

16,000 14,000 12,000 3,000 10,000 8,000 2,000 6,000

REGION 4,000

1,000

STATE

0 1990

1995

2000

2,000

2005

0 2010

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Building Permit Estimates - U.S., State, and Metropolitan Areas.

36  

Building Permits:  STATE

Building Permits :  REGION

4,000


7. Business Starts

Data on business starts comes from the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database, compiled by Walls and Associates and Dunn and Bradstreet. While the source data is proprietary and quite expensive, the Edward Lowe Foundation has made limited data available online through their website YourEconomy.org. The series tracks establishments as they open, expand, relocate, and close. An establishment is a single physical location. Between 2001 and 2004, around 6,500 new establishments sprung up in the Corridor (table 7.1). This means that of all the establishments in operation in 2004, 6,500 of them were not in existence in 2001. Another 311 of the establishments existed in both years, but in different counties. Some may have moved with the region, and some may have come from outside (table 7.2). 229 of the Corridor establishment existing in 2001 had moved counties by 2004, so the period saw more establishment move into the Corridor than out. The region saw 6,700 business starts between 2004 and 2007, 200 more than during the previous 3 years. The Nation and the State of Iowa saw relatively larger increases in business starts during that period.

Table 7.1. Business Starts.   

2001‐2004

2004‐2007

Benton Cedar  Iowa  Johnson  Jones  Linn  Washington  REGION  STATE  U.S. 

328 239  236  1,863  279  3,255  347  6,547  50,278  5,422,697 

353 263 296 1,973 249 3,189 378 6,701 64,957 7,343,426

Source: Walls and Associates, National Establishment Time Series.

37  


Table 7.2 2. Businesss Relocation n.      Benton  Cedar  Iowa  Johnson  Jones  Linn  Washinggton  REGION  STATE 

2001‐2004 IN  OUT 23  27 16  16 17  13 87  53 20  22 126  79 22  19 311*  3 229* 635  937

2004 ‐ 20007  IN  OUT  17 22 9 11 17 10 80 48 6 9 93 79 10 17 232* 196* 564 632

*changed countty, possibly withhin region 

Source: Walls W and Asssociates, Natiional Establishment Time S Series.

Linn L and Johnsson Counties accounted fo or the vast maj ajority (76.4% %) of businesss starts betweeen 2001 and 2004. They accounted a forr only 70.1% between 200 4 – 2007.

Figure 7.1. 7 Businesss Starts, 2004 – 2007. 4,00 00

Bentton

Cedaar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Business Starts

3,00 00

2,00 00

1,00 00

0

Source: Walls W and Asssociates, Natiional Establishment Time S Series. 38  

Linn

W Washington


The T new estab blishments in i 2007 employed 25,000 workers. T The methoddology and coveragee of this seriees differs fro om the Coun nty Business Patterns andd Quarterly C Census of W Wages and Emp ployment, bu ut these new jobs j probablly account fo for at least 100% of the labbor market.

Figure 7.2. 7 Jobs at New Establlishments, 2004 2 – 2007.. 16,000

Benton B

C Cedar

Iow wa

Johnsson

Jonees

Linn

Washington

Jobs in New Establishments

14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0

Source: Walls W and Asssociates, Natiional Establishment Time S Series.

There T is also some detail about the sizze of new esstablishmentts. As is the case in the rrest of the cou untry, the vaast majority of Corridor business staarts are estabblishments w with less thann ten employeees (figure 7.3 3). Nearly half h are estab blishments w with one empployee, a sinngle person ggoing into busin ness alone. The T Corridorr, however, had h a greateer percentagee than usual of its busineess starts com me in larger operations. 3.2% of thee Corridor’s new establisshments empployed 10 orr more peo ople, comparred to 1.9% of o those in th he State of IIowa and 1.88% of those iin the U.S.

39  


Figure 7.3. Business Starts by Establishment Size, 2004 -2007. 60%

51.2% 50%

% of Business Starts

45.0%

45.4%

52.8%

51.8%

46.8%

40%

Region

State

U.S.

30%

20%

10%

3.2% 1.9% 1.8% 0% 1(self employed)

2 ‐ 9

Size of Establishment (employees) Source: Walls and Associates, National Establishment Time Series.

40  

10 +


8. Patents

The U.S. Patent and Trademark office released a report in 2000 detailing the number of utility patents (patents for invention, as opposed to design) in each county in the United States from 1990 to 1999. Each patent was assigned the residing county of the first inventor listed. This may not always be the county in which the inventor worked. In nine of the ten years reported, Linn County had the most patents issued, followed by Johnson County. The exception was 1994, when Iowa County had 18 patents to Johnson County’s 16 (table 8.1).

Table 8.1. Utility Patents by Year.    

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

Benton 1  1  0 Cedar  0  0  0 Iowa  2  5  2 Johnson  21  15  29 Jones  2  0  0 Linn  67  60  59 Washington  1  1  2 REGION  94  82  92 STATE  349  378  369 U.S.  47,497  51,308  52,376

0 2 0 25 0 72 1 100 371 53,340

1 1 18 16 2 74 0 112 395 56,160

1 0 5 33 2 56 0 97 425 55,836

1996

1997

1998

1999

3 0 2  1 5  4 28  24 1  1 73  70 0  1 112  101 435  401 61,200  61,813

2 2 8 47 2 92 2 155 653 80,417

0 3 8 51 5 141 9 217 752 84,029

Source: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent Grants by State, County, and Metropolitan Area. 2000.

41  


Figure 8.1. 8 Total Utility U Patentts 1990 -199 99. 900 0 800 0

Benton B

C Cedar

Iow wa

Johnsoon

Joness

Linn

Washington n

700 0

Total Patents

600 0 500 0 400 0 300 0 200 0 100 0 0

Source: U.S. U Patent an nd Trademark k Office, Unitted States Pateent Grants byy State, Countty, and Metropoliitan Area. 20 000.

During D the 90 0s, the Corrid dor accounteed for more than 1 in every 4 patents issued in thhe state of Iowa (table 8.2, 8 figure 8.2). While Io owa County was a distannt third in tootal patents isssued, c second d to Linn Cou unty in paten nts per 100,0000 people ((table 8.3). ((The per 1000,000 it was a close figures were w arrived at using the average of each e county’’s 1990 and 2000 populaation.)

42  


Table 8.2 2. Total Utility Patentss, 1990 – 1999.    

Benton Cedar  Iowa  Johnson n  Jones  Linn  Washinggton  REGION N  STATE  U.S. 

Paten nts

9 11  57  289  15  764  17  1,162  4,528  603,976 

Per Ye ear Per 100,00 00 

3..77 6..17 37..62 27..91 7..56 42..39 8..44 30..53 15..96 22..79

Source: U.S. U Patent an nd Trademark k Office, Unitted States Pateent Grants byy State, Countty, and Metropoliitan Area. 20 000.

Figure 8.2. 8 Total Utility U Patentts, 1990 – 19 999.

Source: U.S. U Patent an nd Trademark k Office, Unitted States Pateent Grants byy State, Countty, and Metropoliitan Area. 20 000.

43  


Table 8.3 3. Utility Patents per Year Y per Ca apita, 1990 --1999.     1990 0  1991  1992 1 1993 3 1994 1995 19966 1997  1998  Benton  4.19 9  4.19  0.00 0.00 0 4.19 4.19 12.577 0.00  8.38  Cedar  0.00 0  0.00  0.00 11.23 5.61 0.00 11.233 5.61  1 11.23  Iowa  13.20 0  33.00  13.20 0.00 0 118.81 333.00 33.000 26.40  5 52.80  Johnson  20.28 8  14.48  28.00 24.14 4 15.45 331.86 27.044 23.17  4 45.38  Jones  10.08 8  0.00  0.00 0.00 0 10.08 110.08 5.044 5.04  1 10.08  Linn  37.17 7  33.29  32.74 39.95 41.06 331.07 40.500 38.84  5 51.04  Washinggton  4.96 6  4.96  9.93 4.96 6 0.00 0.00 0.000 4.96  9.93  Region T Total  24.70 0  21.54  24.17 26.27 7 29.43 225.49 29.433 26.54  4 40.72  State Total  12.30 0  13.32  13.01 13.08 8 13.92 114.98 15.333 14.13  2 23.02  U.S. Tota al  17.92 2  19.36  19.76 20.12 2 21.19 221.06 23.099 23.32  3 30.34  Source: U.S. U Patent an nd Trademark k Office, Unitted States Pateent Grants byy State, Countty, and Metropoliitan Area. 20 000.

1999 9 Average 0.00 0 3.77 16.84 4 6.17 52.80 0 37.62 49.25 5 27.91 25.21 1 7.56 78.23 3 42.39 44.68 8 8.44 57.01 1 30.53 26.50 0 15.96 31.70 0 22.79

Figure 8.3. 8 Patents per Year per 100,000, 1990 – 19999. 50 0 Benton B

C Cedar

Iow wa

Johnsoon

Joness

Linn

Washington n

Patents per 100,000

40 0

30 0

20 0

10 0

0

Source: U.S. U Patent an nd Trademark k Office, Unitted States Pateent Grants byy State, Countty, and Metropoliitan Area. 20 000.

44  


In each year, the Corridor was above the national average in patents per capita, and significantly above the state average (figure 8.4). Over the decade, the Corridor averaged 30.5 patents per year per 100,000, nearly twice the state average of 16. The national average was 22.8 (table 8.2). Most of the innovation took place in Johnson and Linn Counties.

Figure 8.4. Patents per Year per 100,000, 1990 - 1999 60

Region

Patents per 100,000

50

State

U.S.

40

30

20

10

0 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Source: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent Grants by State, County, and Metropolitan Area. 2000.        

45  

1999


9. Capittal Investmeent

Although A dataa on capital investment by b the privatte sector is nnot availablee at the countty level, thee Census of Government G ts, conducted d every five years, reporrts the revenuues and expenditu ures for everry governmeent body in th he nation. F For the data ccollected in 1997 and 20002 they havee been aggreegated by county. The 2007 2 Census of Governm ments has beeen released bbut has not yet y been aggrregated. Governments G s report capittal expenditu ures in over 80 categoriees divided beetween the bbroad headings of ‘construcction’ and ‘o other capital outlays’. Inncluded are iinvestments made by governm ments within the t county. Investmentss funded by ggrants from the State or Federal governm ment would be included, but b not invesstments madde directly byy such bodiees. The figurres listed hav ve not been adjusted a for inflation.

Figure 9.1. 9 Public Capital C Inveestment by County, 19997 and 20022. (2009 Doollars) $200,000,,000 Benton B

C Cedar

Iow wa

Johnsoon

Joness

Linn

Washington n

$150,000,,000

$100,000,,000

$50,000,,000

$0 1997

2002

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, Goverrnments Divission. 1997 Ceensus of Goveernments, 20002 Census off Governmeents.

46  


Linn and d Johnson, th he two most populous p co ounties, acco unted for thee majority (oover 80%) oof investmeent in both yeears (figure 9.1). 9 Thoug gh they also m made the larrgest investm ments per cappita (figure 9.2), Linn Co ounty was no ot significanttly higher thaan Cedar annd Iowa counnties in 19977.

9 Public Capital C Inveestment Perr Capita, 19997 and 20022. (2009 doollars) Figure 9.2. $1,00 00 $90 00

Benton

Ced dar

Iowaa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington n

Investment per Capita

$80 00 $70 00 $60 00 $50 00 $40 00 $30 00 $20 00 $10 00 $0 $ 19 997

2002

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, Goverrnments Divission. 1997 Ceensus of Goveernments, 20002 Census off Governmeents.

n both years,, the governm ments of thee corridor reggion investedd more per ccapita than thheir In counterparts in the reest of the statte (figure 9.3 3). The gap was much m more pronouunced in 20002, ng to around d $100 per peerson. Much h of the increease came inn Linn Counnty construction, amountin which neearly tripled from 42 million to 117 million. m Johhnson Countyy spent 17 m million more on constructtion (tables 9.1 9 and 9.2).

47  


Table 9.1. Public Capital Investment, 1997. (2009 dollars) County

Benton Cedar  Iowa  Johnson  Jones  Linn  Washington  Region Total  State Total 

Construction

Other Capital  Outlays

Total Capitial  Investment 

5,675,540 4,404,358  5,302,606  74,142,918  5,854,655  56,865,003  4,929,673  157,174,752  1,054,939,248 

2,212,204 4,342,870 2,242,948 11,421,923 2,589,147 41,398,289 2,348,545 66,555,927 449,856,687

7,887,744 8,747,228  7,545,554  85,564,841  8,443,802  98,263,293  7,278,218  223,730,679  1,504,795,935 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division. 1997 Census of Governments.

Table 9.2. Public Capital Investment, 2002. (2009 dollars) Other Capital Total Capitial County Construction Outlays Investment Benton 9,562,936  2,853,736 12,416,672  Cedar  5,566,752  2,992,070 8,558,822  Iowa  7,548,745  1,912,826 9,461,571  Johnson  86,464,731  12,172,202 98,636,934  Jones  7,097,967  3,172,142 10,270,109  Linn  139,949,915  28,212,987 168,162,902  Washington  7,094,389  2,424,423 9,518,812  Region Total  263,285,435  53,740,386 317,025,821  State Total  1,519,505,109  422,433,967 1,941,939,076  Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division. 2002 Census of Governments.

The size of these increases illustrates just how variable these figures are. Major projects could fall in a Census of Government year or they could fall in between years. These public investments may bring benefits to the region for a long period of time. Large projects are almost always paid for over a long period, while the expenditures are limited to one or two years.

48  


Table 9.3. Public Capital Investment Per Capita, 1997 vs. 2002. (2009 dollars)    

1997

2002

Benton   Cedar   Iowa   Johnson   Jones   Linn   Washington   REGION  STATE 

$311   $481   $481   $771   $417   $512   $352   $556   $517  

$490 $471  $603  $888  $508  $878  $460  $787  $667 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division. 1997 Census of Governments, 2002 Census of Governments.

Figure 9.3. Public Capital Investment Per Capita, 1997 and 2002. (2009 dollars) $800

Region

State

Public Capital Investment

$700 $600 $500 $400 $300 $200 $100 $0 1997

2002

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division. 1997 Census of Governments, 2002 Census of Governments.

49  


10. Crime

Each year the Iowa Department of Public Safety asks law enforcement units across the state for a record of every crime that was reported to them, broken down into standard categories. The reports they release details crimes in each jurisdiction, and aggregated by county. Crime rates are reported as the number of crimes in an agency’s jurisdiction divided by the population served by the agency. County crime rates are the number of crimes reported by all agencies serving the county, divided by the total population served by the agencies reporting. Not every agency makes a report each year, and while their population is dropped from the denominator, this can still skew county crime rates. For example, the Cedar Rapids Police Department did not file a report in 1998, making Linn County’s crime rate about 40% lower than any subsequent year. In 1999 and 2000, the Washington Police Department did not make a report. The Corridor has had crime rates below the state average in 9 of the past 10 years, and the 10 year average crime rate is 5,960 crimes per 100,000 residents, compared to 6,304 for the entire state. Linn County had an average of 7,914, and Johnson County 6,096, but the smaller five counties had much smaller rates. Iowa County was the lowest with 1,405.

Table 10.1. Total Crimes per 100,000. 1998 – 2008.     1998  1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008 

Wash‐ Benton Cedar  Iowa  Johnson Jones  Linn  ington  Region  State  1,826  3,300  792 7,168 2,034 4,759 2,872 4,758  6,242 1,121  2,530  436 6,657 3,083 8,878 29 6,466  6,032 1,091  2,927  789 6,379 2,472 7,836 14 5,861  6,219 752  3,072  1,035 5,550 2,639 8,500 3,240 6,046  6,374 1,878  2,986  1,291 6,576 2,853 8,555 3,105 6,456  6,766 1,353  2,239  1,344 6,597 2,941 7,874 2,354 6,045  6,460 1,791  2,235  1,659 5,987 2,778 8,057 2,324 6,051  6,423 1,679  1,784  1,957 5,512 2,214 7,548 1,842 5,576  6,425 1,966  2,087  1,896 5,944 2,517 7,680 1,403 5,864  6,570 2,125  809  1,643 6,073 2,259 7,378 2,130 5,761  6,060 1,814  1,728  2,004 5,680 2,482 6,839 1,984 5,475  5,715

Average (1999 ‐  2008)  1,557  2,240  1,405 6,096 2,624 7,914 1,842 Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, Uniform Crime Reports, 1998 – 2008. 50   

5,960

6,304


Figure 10.1. Crimes per 100,000 persons, 1998 – 2008. 8,000

Region

7,000

State

Crimes per 100,000

6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, Uniform Crime Reports, 1998 – 2008.

Figure 10.2. Total Crimes per Year per 100,000, 1999 – 2008. 9,000

Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington

Crimes per 100,000 population

8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0

Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, Uniform Crime Reports, 1999 – 2008. 51   


The region was also below the state average in the rate of crimes against persons (assault, murder, etc.), and crimes against property (theft, fraud, etc.), but was above the average in crimes against society (gambling, narcotics, etc.) (tables 10.2, 10.3, 10.4). Certain crimes, such as possession of alcohol under the legal age, are not counted in reports, or Johnson County may have fared worse. Figure 10.3. Crimes per 100,000 by Victim, 1999 – 2008. 6,000

Region

State

5,000

Crimes per 100,000 population

4541 4312 4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

1000

1154 648

610

0

Against Persons

Against Property

Against Society

Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, Uniform Crime Reports, 1999 – 2008.

In 2008 in total crime and in each of the three sub-categories, Linn County had the highest rate, followed by Johnson County, followed at a safe distance by the other five (figures 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7).

52  


Table 10.2. Crimes Against Persons per 100,000. 1998 – 2008.     1998  1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008 

Wash‐ Benton Cedar  Iowa  Johnson Jones  Linn  ington  Region  State  131  521  122 1,036 447 856 516 739  1,097 138  311  45 979 461 1,499 0 1,038  1,104 118  288  125 964 493 1,410 0 989  1,124 44  391  153 816 550 1,482 596 1,004  1,123 295  466  197 930 537 1,406 598 1,024  1,157 256  342  208 962 537 1,321 482 980  1,104 286  303  325 941 594 1,302 435 981  1,169 281  333  249 944 569 1,313 430 977  1,184 335  456  384 

430 118  347 

223 167 250

1,128 1,207 1,119

514 423 318

1,287 1,266 1,092

279 299 295

Average (1999 ‐  2008)  259  333  194 999 500 1,338 341 Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, Uniform Crime Reports, 1998 – 2008.

1,027 1,037  939 

1,217 1,196 1,158

1,000

1,154

Table 10.3. Crimes Against Property per 100,000. 1998 – 2008.     1998  1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008 

Wash‐ Benton Cedar  Iowa  Johnson Jones  Linn  ington  Region  State  1,555  2,473  580 5,575 1,533 3,403 2,160 3,624  4,637 881  1,842  366 5,071 2,510 6,653 0 4,880  4,439 867  2,096  588 4,731 1,905 5,767 0 4,330  4,577 645  2,219  760 4,231 2,000 6,163 2,242 4,447  4,675 1,319  883  1,122  1,007  1,202  1,410  1,241 

1,967 1,369  1,417  1,119  1,286  427  1,141 

865 984 1,202 1,230 1,177 1,025 1,334

5,052 5,069 4,421 3,912 3,960 4,099 3,725

2,158 1,969 1,816 1,380 1,601 1,519 1,779

6,257 5,837 5,877 5,430 5,578 5,218 4,867

2,126 1,489 1,463 1,160 733 1,371 1,132

Average (1999 ‐  2008)  1,058  1,488  953 4,427 1,864 5,765 1,172 Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, Uniform Crime Reports, 1998 – 2008.

53  

4,769 4,486  4,387  3,950  4,101  3,992  3,782 

4,976 4,720 4,596 4,566 4,691 4,221 3,948

4,312

4,541


Table 10.4. Crimes Against Society per 100,000. 1998 – 2008. Wash‐ Benton Cedar  Iowa  Johnson Jones  Linn  ington  Region  State  140  305  90 557 54 500 196 395  508 102  377  26 607 113 726 29 548  489 106  543  75 684 73 659 14 543  518 63  462  121 503 89 855 402 595  576 264  553  229 594 158 892 381 663  633 214  527  151 566 435 715 383 579  636 384  514  131 625 368 878 425 683  659 390  333  478 656 265 806 253 648  675 430  371  496 856 403 815 391 735  662 259  263  451 767 316 894 459 733  642 188  240  420 837 386 880 556 754  609

    1998  1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008 

Average (1999 ‐  2008)  240  418  258 670 261 812 329 Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, Uniform Crime Reports, 1998 – 2008.

648

610

Figure 10.4. Total crimes per 100,000. 2008. 8,000

Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington

Crimes per 100,000 population

7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0

Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, 2008 Uniform Crime Report. 54  


Figure 10.5. Crimes against Persons per 100,000. 2008. 1,400

Crimes per 100,000 population

Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington

1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0

Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, 2008 Uniform Crime Report.

Figure 10.6. Crimes Against Property per 100,000. 2008. 6,000

Crimes per 100,000 population

Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, 2008 Uniform Crime Report. 55   


Figure 10.7. Crimes Against Society per 100,000. 2008. 1,000

Crimes per 100,000 population

Benton

Cedar

Iowa

Johnson

Jones

Linn

Washington

750

500

250

0

Source: Iowa Department of Public Safety, 2008 Uniform Crime Report.

56  


11. Scho ool Enrollm ment

School District boundariees do not folllow those off the Countiees. This section and the next will take the school districts d of th he Grant Wo ood Area Eduucation Assoociation to bbe the schoolls of the region (figure 11.1).

Figure 11.1. Grant Wood AEA A and the Co orridor Stu udy Region.

Source: Iowa I Departm ment of Educaation.

Since the 96/9 97 school yeear, enrollmeent in the Grrant Wood A AEA has riseen from 61,580 to 67,395 (ttable 11.1, 11.2). This iss not dramattic growth ovver 13 years, but over thhis same periiod, statewidee enrollmentt has declined slightly (fi figure 11.2).

57  


Table 11.1. Total Enrollment by District 96/97 – 02/03. District 96/97  97/98  98/99  99/00  00/01  01/02  02/03  Alburnett  616  616 600 635 620  636  641 Anamosa  1,310  1,285 1,270 1,270 1,294  1,251  1,249 Belle Plaine  796  789 793 742 765  718  701 Benton  1,609  1,603 1,642 1,652 1,667  1,650  1,590 Cedar Rapids  17,918  17,890 17,903 17,893 17,696  17,606  17,528 Center Point‐Urbana  999  1,008 1,046 1,086 1,123  1,163  1,183 Central City  525  499 525 509 495  462  475 Clear Creek‐Amana  1,125  1,161 1,162 1,246 1,228  1,249  1,290 College  3,046  3,089 3,248 3,332 3,469  3,491  3,624 Deep River‐Millersburg  122  117 128 131 130  125  126 English Valleys  511  522 547 532 557  528  537 H‐L‐V  489  467 488 452 477  463  458 Highland  581  571 593 600 609  583  593 Iowa City  10,320  10,388 10,399 10,717 10,446  10,531  10,740 Iowa Valley  707  706 695 674 668  671  666 North Cedar  953  967 932 949 954  962  965 Linn‐Mar  4,164  4,310 4,305 4,590 4,664  4,616  4,716 Lisbon  560  561 585 595 601  578  626 Lone Tree  442  450 448 440 467  443  446 Marion Independent  1,706  1,712 1,689 1,725 1,847  1,880  1,929 Midland  761  774 756 760 742  680  657 Mid‐Prairie  1,225  1,242 1,242 1,242 1,201  1,206  1,206 Monticello  1,114  1,096 1,103 1,099 1,100  1,077  1,062 Mount Vernon  1,100  1,127 1,124 1,137 1,154  1,153  1,134 North Linn  696  718 741 766 769  762  737 Olin Consolidated  338  332 317 299 320  269  278 Solon  946  1,039 1,021 1,040 1,044  1,075  1,099 Springville  497  496 475 469 491  451  444 Tipton  933  939 936 913 881  849  829 Vinton‐Shellsburg  1,879  1,894 1,897 1,845 1,841  1,823  1,796 Washington  1,739  1,764 1,699 1,708 1,707  1,729  1,730 West Branch  904  875 837 878 902  882  796 Williamsburg  949  1,002 1,039 1,081 1,075  1,129  1,138 Grant Wood AEA Total  61,580  62,009 62,185 63,007 63,004  62,691  62,989 State Total  500,782  498,900 496,214 494,962 492,022  485,932  482,210 Source: Iowa Department of Education, Iowa Public School District PreK-12 Enrollments by School, Grade, Race and Gender, 2010.

58  


Table 11.2. Total Enrollment by District, 02/03 – 09/10. District 03/04  04/05  05/06  06/07  07/08  08/09  09/10  Alburnett  631  605 608 627 627  629  613 Anamosa  1,268  1,273 1,308 1,330 1,391  1,363  1,385 Belle Plaine  672  658 636 627 612  613  578 Benton  1,561  1,577 1,614 1,588 1,657  1,682  1,728 Cedar Rapids  17,324  17,307 17,234 17,263 16,838  16,875  17,177 Center Point‐Urbana  1,207  1,232 1,269 1,388 1,473  1,548  1,510 Central City  467  459 454 441 480  453  474 Clear Creek‐Amana  1,320  1,361 1,393 1,419 1,438  1,510  1,572 College  3,697  3,857 3,978 4,083 4,199  4,328  4,729 Deep River‐Millersburg  119  99 121 110 85  57  N/A English Valleys  525  487 512 509 529  508  566 H‐L‐V  442  450 384 409 374  357  358 Highland  603  655 678 696 738  745  772 Iowa City  10,620  10,637 10,822 11,180 11,615  11,449  11,815 Iowa Valley  656  644 632 639 635  641  618 North Cedar  993  936 922 904 935  923  880 Linn‐Mar  4,902  5,079 5,277 5,639 5,894  6,121  6,346 Lisbon  608  603 567 596 607  631  631 Lone Tree  447  457 465 497 504  506  530 Marion Independent  1,959  1,945 2,024 2,041 2,062  2,048  2,072 Midland  601  560 545 532 509  510  456 Mid‐Prairie  1,224  1,223 1,247 1,228 1,305  1,291  1,315 Monticello  1,058  1,055 1,092 1,073 1,095  1,067  1,057 Mount Vernon  1,184  1,190 1,198 1,225 1,275  1,250  1,236 North Linn  749  726 733 736 778  767  757 Olin Consolidated  290  254 243 229 224  209  199 Solon  1,158  1,179 1,218 1,252 1,244  1,270  1,291 Springville  440  448 456 453 434  408  438 Tipton  826  852 875 903 874  888  869 Vinton‐Shellsburg  1,822  1,828 1,799 1,773 1,755  1,680  1,734 Washington  1,721  1,664 1,781 1,726 1,721  1,766  1,734 West Branch  790  768 769 762 763  772  799 Williamsburg  1,151  1,111 1,152 1,159 1,093  1,126  1,156 Grant Wood AEA Total  63,035  63,179 64,006 65,037 65,763  65,991  67,395 State Total  481,226  478,319 483,482 483,122 485,115  487,559  490,417 Source: Iowa Department of Education, Iowa Public School District PreK-12 Enrollments by School, Grade, Race and Gender, 2010.

59  


80,000

800,000

70,000

700,000

60,000

600,000

50,000

500,000 400,000

40,000

Grant Wood AEA 300,000

30,000

State Total 20,000

200,000

10,000

100,000

0

Total Enrollment (State)

Total Enrollment (Grant Wood)

Figure 11.2. Total Enrollment 96/97 – 09/10, State and Grant Wood AEA.

0

Source: Iowa Department of Education, Iowa Public School District PreK-12 Enrollments by School, Grade, Race and Gender, 2010.

The modest growth of the Grant Wood AEA as a whole masked some dramatic growth and decline in individual districts. The College Community, Linn-Mar, and Center-Point Urbana districts have all grown by more than 50% since 1996 (table 11.3). Midland and Olin Consolidated have contracted by more than 40%, and Deep River Millersburg had gone from 122 students to 57 by 08/09.

60  


Table 11.3. Change in Total Enrollment by District. 96/97 – 09/10. District Change 1996 ‐ 2010  College  55.25% Linn‐Mar  52.40% Center Point‐Urbana  51.15% Clear Creek‐Amana  39.73% Solon  36.47% Highland  32.87% Williamsburg  21.81% Marion Independent  21.45% Lone Tree  19.91% Iowa City  14.49% Lisbon  12.68% Mount Vernon  12.36% English Valleys  10.76% North Linn  8.76% Benton  7.40% Mid‐Prairie  7.35% Anamosa  5.73% Washington  ‐0.29% Alburnett  ‐0.49% Cedar Rapids  ‐4.14% Monticello  ‐5.12% Tipton  ‐6.86% North Cedar  ‐7.66% Vinton‐Shellsburg  ‐7.72% Central City  ‐9.71% West Branch  ‐11.62% Springville  ‐11.87% Iowa Valley  ‐12.59% H‐L‐V  ‐26.79% Belle Plaine  ‐27.39% Midland  ‐40.08% Olin Consolidated  ‐41.12% Deep River‐Millersburg                       N/A  Grant Wood AEA Total  9.44% State Total  ‐2.07% Source: Iowa Department of Education, Iowa Public School District PreK-12 Enrollments by School, Grade, Race and Gender, 2010

61  


Table 11.4 shows the changes in enrollment by grade level in the Grant Wood AEA. Figure 11.3 shows the enrollment by grade during the 09/10 school year. While the sight of 5,461 kindergarteners may be alarming, kindergarten enrollment has increased by roughly the same percentage as total enrollment since 96/97. Kindergarten is almost always the largest class, likely because it is the grade most often repeated.

Table 11.4. Total Enrollment by Grade Level, Grant Wood AEA, 96/97 – 09/10. k 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11 

96/97

97/98

98/99

99/00

00/01

01/02

02/03

03/04

04/05

05/06

06/07

07/08

08/09

09/10

   5,089       4,710       4,529       4,364       4,335       4,471       4,547       4,503       4,490       4,766       4,627       4,498       4,097  

     4,739         4,825         4,683         4,535         4,392         4,323         4,500         4,584         4,591         4,717         4,575         4,505         4,396  

     4,853         4,683         4,788         4,684         4,542         4,374         4,347         4,518         4,628         4,852         4,598         4,521         4,403  

     4,591         4,743         4,699         4,823         4,678         4,607         4,436         4,391         4,552         4,928         4,718         4,348         4,433  

     4,609        4,527        4,687        4,675        4,859        4,730        4,593        4,460        4,433        4,907        4,815        4,547        4,309 

     4,548        4,529        4,537        4,782        4,813        4,932        4,861        4,812        4,673        4,833        4,894        4,751        4,437 

     4,584        4,330        4,436        4,391        4,615        4,698        4,668        4,565        4,570        4,808        4,771        4,786        4,611 

     4,919        4,602        4,435        4,625        4,583        4,808        4,931        5,054        4,976        5,175        4,812        4,681        4,643 

     5,071        4,626        4,646        4,499        4,682        4,697        4,853        4,995        5,113        5,260        5,043        4,644        4,609 

     5,207        4,699        4,618        4,638        4,512        4,709        4,703        4,949        5,002        5,376        5,225        5,030        4,701 

     5,275         4,877         4,764         4,671         4,726         4,545         4,784         4,799         4,960         5,279         5,313         5,100         5,069  

     5,209         4,926         4,894         4,808         4,663         4,814         4,645         4,866         4,864         5,321         5,271         5,181         5,114  

     5,368        4,798        4,944        4,931        4,837        4,683        4,789        4,663        4,838        5,106        5,171        5,083        5,029 

     5,461        5,010        4,855        4,954        5,000        4,853        4,732        4,882        4,708        5,158        5,056        5,030        5,076 

12 Source: Iowa Department of Education, Iowa Public School District PreK-12 Enrollments by School, Grade, Race and Gender, 2010.

62  


Figure 11 1.3. 09/10 Enrollment E by b Grade, Grrant Wood A AEA. 12

5,076

11

5,030

10

5,056

9

5,158

Grade

8

4,708

7

4,,882

6

4,73 32

5

4,8 853

4

4,8 853

3

4 4,954

2

4,8 855

1

5,010

k

5,461 0

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,00 00

6,,000

Enrollment

Source: Io owa Department of Educattion, Iowa Public School D District PreK--12 Enrollmennts by Schooll, Grade, Raace and Gender, 2010.

.

63  


12. Graduation Rates

The Iowa Department of Education calculates graduation rates by dividing the number of graduating seniors in a school or district by the number of 9th graders four years earlier. When students transfer during their high school careers, they boost the graduation rates of the schools they transfer to, and deflate the rates of the schools they leave. When students take longer than four years to graduate, they will hurt the graduation rate one year, but inflate it in some later year. For these and other reasons, comparisons from year to year between schools and districts may be misleading. The graduation rates of districts in the Grant Wood AEA, however, were 2.5 to 4.5 percentage points higher than the statewide average for each graduating class between 1998 and 2007 (table 12.1, figure 12.1).

64  


Table 12.1. Graduation Rates by District, 1998 – 2007. District\School Year  1998  1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  Alburnett  100.0  96.2 100.0 97.8 96.0 100.0 100.0  Anamosa  88.2  86.7 90.9 94.3 94.9 95.7 96.9  Belle Plaine  96.4  83.3 84.9 84.5 94.7 96.6 93.6  Benton  87.6  83.9 88.6 93.9 97.8 95.9 98.5  Cedar Rapids  92.3  91.8 88.2 88.4 85.6 89.0 92.4  Center Point‐Urbana  96.4  97.5 95.9 100.0 100.0 97.5 94.3  Central City  92.9  97.6 100.0 91.8 100.0 100.0 100.0  Clear Creek Amana  98.4  100.0 100.0 100.0 97.8 98.7 100.0  College  94.8  96.8 97.0 93.9 95.8 96.2 92.0  English Valleys  89.2  96.3 96.4 89.5 86.8 93.2 97.8  Highland  97.1  94.9 94.7 94.7 97.2 95.0 97.6  H‐L‐V  92.9  97.1 97.3 97.6 97.3 100.0 100.0  Iowa City  91.2  93.9 92.2 93.3 92.4 91.9 91.7  Iowa Valley  98.4  96.6 100.0 98.1 100.0 N/A  100.0  Linn‐Mar  98.1  97.8 98.7 98.9 98.6 97.2 95.8  Lisbon  82.7  86.0 97.6 95.7 89.2 97.9 92.3  Lone Tree  97.4  96.3 93.1 92.3 100.0 94.7 97.3  Marion Independent  94.1  96.2 96.3 92.7 95.9 97.8 97.8  Midland  86.7  86.8 84.1 82.6 90.7 92.1 90.3  Mid‐Prairie  97.9  95.2 94.4 98.8 98.7 98.6 100.0  Monticello  89.2  90.4 94.0 89.1 90.6 94.6 96.9  Mount Vernon  89.0  91.1 92.9 95.4 95.7 96.4 96.7  North Cedar  97.1  93.7 97.3 97.4 91.8 96.3 96.4  North Linn  82.1  91.3 94.7 80.4 96.4 96.6 98.2  Olin Consolidated  93.8  88.6 94.1 77.8 85.0 93.3 92.3  Solon  97.7  100.0 98.7 93.4 97.6 100.0 100.0  Springville  94.4  90.9 91.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  Tipton  87.2  88.7 93.5 86.4 97.1 97.4 95.2  Vinton‐Shellsburg  88.6  93.6 94.6 97.1 98.4 96.0 97.5  Washington  75.6  81.9 89.2 93.0 83.3 86.5 93.4  West Branch  96.7  94.4 92.2 95.2 87.5 100.0 93.3  Williamsburg  98.6  97.2 98.8 96.2 97.5 98.7 95.6  Grantwood AEA  92.0  92.6 92.5 92.4 92.0 93.3 94.4  State Total  88.1  88.2 88.7 89.2 89.4 90.4 89.8  Source: Iowa Department of Education, School Profiles, 2010, https://www.edinfo.state.ia.us/data/profiles.asp  65   

2005 97.5  95.9  94.4  95.4  93.9  97.4  100.0  92.5  93.4  100.0  95.9  96.8  91.2  100.0  96.9  97.6  100.0  95.2  93.6  100.0  96.4  100.0  100.0  94.4  100.0  97.5  100.0  97.6  91.7  92.9  98.5  96.7  94.7  90.7 

2006 2007  100.0 100.0 96.0 98.1 96.0 95.3 94.2 98.6 87.2 87.1 99.0 97.5 94.4 92.9 96.6 99.2 95.6 97.1 100.0 94.6 95.4 96.4 96.2 94.3 92.8 91.9 100.0 98.2 98.2 95.5 90.4 97.5 100.0 100.0 98.6 100.0 97.4 98.1 100.0 100.0 95.6 94.6 97.6 100.0 95.0 94.8 97.8 94.6 100.0 100.0 97.0 97.9 100.0 96.7 98.6 93.2 90.0 88.5 95.6 97.2 96.4 100.0 100.0 94.8 93.4 93.1 90.8 90.5


Figure 12.1. Graduation Rates, 1998 – 2007. 100%

Grant Wood AEA

State Total

Graduation Rate

95%

90%

85%

80% 1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Source: Iowa Department of Education, School Profiles, 2010, https://www.edinfo.state.ia.us/data/profiles.asp

The district graduation rates for the class of 2007 show considerable variation with the AEA. Seven districts graduated 100%, and two graduated below 90% (figure 12.2). Figure 12.3 shows the 10 year average graduation rates of each district. There is still considerable variation (89.6% to 99.0%). The Washington, Midland, and Cedar Rapids districts are the only three below 92%, and all are right around the state average. 11 of the AEA’s 33 districts have 10 year graduation rates above 97%.

66  


Figure 12.2. Gradu uation Ratess, 2006 – 200 07 School Y Year. Williamsburg West Bran nch Washingtton urg Vinton‐Shellsb V Tiptton Springvville Solon Olin Consolidat O ted North LLinn North Ced dar Mount Vern non ello Montice Mid‐Prairie Midlaand ent Marion Independe Lone Tree Lisb bon Linn‐M Mar Iowa Vallley City Iowa C H‐L‐V Highlaand English Valleys Colle ege Clear Creek Amaana Central C City Cen nter Point‐Urbaana Cedar Rap pids Bentton Belle Plaine Anamo osa Alburn nett

94.8% 100.0% 97.2 2% % 88.5% 93.22% 96.7% % 97.9% 100.0% 94.6% 94.8% 100.0% 94.6% 100.0% 9 98.1% 100.0% 100.0% 97.5% 95.5% 9 98.2% 91.9% 94.3% 96.4% 94.6% 97.1 1% 99.2% 92.9% % 97.5% 87.1% 98.6% 95.3% 9 98.1% 100.0% 80%

85%

90% %

Source: Iowa I Departm ment of Educaation, School Profiles, 20100, https://ww ww.edinfo.staate.ia.us/data/p profiles.asp

67  

995%

100%


Figure 12.3. Gradu uation Ratess, 1998 – 200 07, ten-yearr average. Williamsburg West Bran nch Washingtton urg Vinton‐Shellsb V Tiptton Springvville Solon Olin Consolidat O ted North LLinn North Ced dar Mount Vern non ello Montice Mid‐Prairie Midlaand ent Marion Independe Lone Tree Lisb bon Linn‐M Mar Iowa Vallley City Iowa C H‐L‐V Highlaand English Valleys Colle ege Clear Creek Amaana Central C City Cen nter Point‐Urbaana Cedar Rap pids Bentton Belle Plaine Anamo osa Alburn nett

97..4% 95.4% 88.9% % 933.6% 93 .5% 97.3% 9 98.0% 92.5% % 92.7% % 96.0% 95.5% 93.11% 98.4% 90.2% 96.5% 97.1 1% % 92.7% 97 7.6% 99.0% 92.3% 96.9% % 95.9% 94.4% 95.3% 98.3% 97.0% 97 7.6% 899.6% 93.4% 92.0% 933.8% 98.7% 80%

85%

90% %

Source: Iowa I Departm ment of Educaation, School Profiles, 20100, https://ww ww.edinfo.staate.ia.us/data/p profiles.asp

68  

995%

100%


13. Education

By any measure of educational attainment, the corridor ranks above the U.S. and the State of Iowa (Figure 13.1). Table 13.1 shows the percentage of the population 25 and older that has achieved at least a ninth grade education, a high school diploma, and so forth. The difference between the corridor and the state is greatest in the percentage of residents with at least some college and with at least an Associate’s degree. This is partly a reflection of the presence of Kirkwood and the University of Iowa, but only to the extent that enrollment is of older “non-traditional” students, since this statistic does not include those under 25.

Table 13.1. Educational Attainment, Percentage Achieving Given Level or Higher.    

9th Grade 

12th grade 

Some College 

95.0% 87.8% 95.3%  87.7% Cedar 93.9%  87.0% Iowa 97.2%  93.7% Johnson 94.0%  85.3% Jones 97.2%  90.6% Linn 91.0%  82.5% Washington 96.3%  90.1% Region 94.4%  86.1% State 92.5%  80.4% U.S. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census.   Benton

44.5% 45.8% 44.9% 73.9% 43.0% 60.2% 43.4% 59.0% 50.0% 51.8%

Associates’ Bachelor's  Higher  Degree  Degree  Degree  22.9% 24.0% 23.1% 55.0% 20.3% 36.9% 23.9% 37.3% 28.6% 30.7%

13.9% 16.3% 15.8% 47.6% 12.7% 27.7% 16.4% 28.9% 21.2% 24.4%

3.7% 3.6%  4.3%  21.4%  3.3%  7.2%  4.8%  9.7%  6.5%  8.9% 

In each measure, Johnson County has the highest percentage, followed by Linn County (Figure 13.2). Compared to the U.S., Johnson County has about twice the percentage with at least a Bachelor’s Degree and about twice the percentage with an advanced degree. The remaining 5 counties are near the state and above the national rate for the percent achieving at least a high school diploma. At higher levels, these five counties are below both Iowa and the U.S. Washington County has the lowest percentage of 9 and 12 grade completion, while Jones County is the lowest at higher levels of attainment.

69  


Figure 13.1. Educational Attaiinment, Perrcentage Ach hieving Givven Level orr Higher. 100% 90%

Region n

Statte

U.SS.

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 9th Grade

12th gradee

Some College

Accociaates' Degrree

Bach helor's Deegree

High her Degree

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 2000 Census

Figure 13.2. Educational Attaiinment, Perrcentage Ach hieving Givven Level orr Higher. 100% Benton

90%

Ced dar

80%

Iow wa 70% Joh hnson 60% Jon nes 50% Linn 40% Waashington 30% 20% 10% 0% 9th Grade e

12th grad de

Some Co ollege

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 2000 Census 70   

Accocciates' Deggree

Bacchelor's Deegree

High her Degree


All counties in the region have shown improvement since 1990, as have the U.S and State of Iowa (table 13.2). Figures for 1990 and 2000 are sampled data from the U.S. Census. The figures for 2006 – 2008 are three year averages based on the American Community Survey (ACS) sample, which does not cover Benton or Cedar County. Washington and Iowa counties in particular have become significantly better educated over the past 18 years. Their percentages of High School graduates have both caught up with the state average. While still lagging behind the state, the percentage with Bachelor’s degrees in these counties jumped from around 11% to 19% (table 13.3). Table 13.2. Percent with at least High School Diploma.    

2006‐2008 N/A 78.2%  87.8% Benton N/A 79.3%  87.7% Cedar 90.7% 76.4%  87.0% Iowa 95.6% 90.6%  93.7% Johnson 89.5% 78.7%  85.3% Jones 92.9% 84.9%  90.6% Linn 88.7% 76.9%  82.5% Washington         N/A 84.3%  90.1% Region 89.6% 80.1%  86.1% State 84.5% 75.2%  80.4% U.S. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 Census, 2000 Census, American Community Survey.

71  

1990

2000


Figure 13.3. Percen nt with at least a High School S Diplooma.

% with at least HS Diploma

100% %

1990

2000

2006 ‐ 2008 8

80% %

60% %

40% %

20% %

0% %

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy.

Without W estim mates for Ben nton and Cedar Countiess, we cannott make regioonal estimatees more currrent than thee 2000 censu us. Between n 1990 and 22000, howevver, the two ssmallest counnties saw educcational gain ns well in lin ne with the fiive largest, aand there is eevery reasonn to suspect tthat the corrid dor remains significantly y above averrage in educaation level.

72  


Table 13 3.3. Percentt with at lea ast Bachelorr’s Degree.    

1990

2000

2006‐2008

9.6% 13.9% 1 N/A 12.8%  16.3% 1 N/A Cedar 11.1%  15.8% 1 19.1% Iowa 44.0%  47.6% 4 51.9% Johnson n 10.6%  12.7% 1 14.3% Jones 21.5%  27.7% 2 29.0% Linn 11.7%  16.4% 1 18.6% Washing gton 24.0%  28.9% 2 N/A Region 16.9%  21.2% 2 24.2% State 20.3%  24.4% 2 27.4% U.S. Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy. Benton

Figure 13.4. Percen nt with at least a Bacheelor’s Degreee 60% %

1990

2000

2006 ‐ 2008 8

% with at least Bachlor's

50% %

40% %

30% %

20% %

10% %

0% %

Source: U.S. U Census Bureau, B 1990 Census, 2000 0 Census, Am merican Comm munity Surveyy.

73  

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