Page 1




22Why IGNOU?

With distance learning, the student can learn from the comfort of their homes

28 The Perfect Story

No touch of ugliness just beauty and no touch of pain and grief just the happiness.

54 In Persuit of Destiny

Lennon’s inspiring creation brings nostalgia and lands my soul to the resplendent Dubai.



Message from the Prime Minister

Message from the Education Minister

Message from the Ambassador of India

Message from the Vice Chancellor, IGNOU



Message from the Chairperson, ICA

International Center of Academics (ICA), in its 15th Year of existence, has established itself as one of the leading educational institutions in Nepal. ICA is the Pioneer Institution to introduce, in Nepal, Open and Distance Learning (ODL), which has provided educational opportunities for thousands residing in urban and Rural Nepal. In higher education, the traditional method was the only mode of education delivery system available in our country, which had not been able to cater all the higher educational needs of the learners. ICA, with an objective of education for all, has provided new and alternative learning opportunities in Nepal in affiliation with Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), the world’s largest university which provides opportunities to learn at ones own Pace, Place and Time. In this era of technology and knowledge, Open and Distance Learning is one of the most popular and recognized global education systems and has been contributing immensely to social and economic development of any nation. The ODL mode of education adopted by ICA has opened learning opportunities to many and our innovative methods of teaching-learning and the use of technology as well as our continuous efforts have enabled learners from all regions of Nepal and abroad to pursue education with us. ICA has been providing programs catering to the workforce of all the sectors of our society. We have been adding new programs every year including vocational and training programs. Besides providing education, we have been also playing a major role in advocating and creating awareness regarding ODL and providing consultancy to the government and non-government agencies in Nepal as well. “ICA Doorsiksha”, initiated by ICA, is the only radio program broadcasted in the national FM channel with an objective to create awareness and educate about the ODL system in Nepal. The Inaugural Issue of the annual magazine the “EKLAVYAN” is a continuation of such initiations. This magazine is a portrayal highlighting ICA’s contribution and achievements in the past 15 years. Finally, I would like to thank the editorial board and those who have contributed in publishing the magazine. Hope you enjoy reading it.

Biswajit Mukherjee Chairperson

Editorial Welcome to the Eklavyan! The desire to pursue higher education is there in many, but remained as dreams due to various reasons. IGNOU @ ICA has taken the task to convert these dreams

Editorial Team

into reality enabling the learners to achieve degrees. International Center of

Biswajit Mukherjee

Academics (ICA) has brought Open and Distance Learning (ODL) within the reach

Dipak Ratna Sakya

of everyone.

Amit Giri Tushar Niroula

Eklavya, a character of the Mahabharat was a ‘student who learned archery by

Shekhar Giri

watching’ from a distance. One name analysis states Eklavya as one who has sensitivity and appreciation for the finer and deeper things in life and can enjoy

Designed by

reading, study, and contemplation about many different subjects. Despite many

Suraj Ratna Shakya

bitter experiences, a peaceful and quiet environment, especially out in nature, is one of the greatest desires cherished by Eklavya. The learners at ICA, being inspired by him, formed a group calling themselves the modern day “Eklavyans” - distance learners. In this connection, “The Eklavyan” is the Inaugural Issue of the annual magazine of ICA has taken shape and is an initial effort to bring out the innate qualities of the Eklavyans. “On what topic and how many words …?” was a common question asked. The reply they got was, “… Creativity is encouraged, so the topics are neither specified nor limited. Be original and express yourself freely. The editor will take care of the rest …” This did wonders. One of the contributors wrote, “… I asked the team whether there were special themes to write on, and I came to know that we were free to write on whatever subject/topic we liked. This was the most difficult thing to decide. My mind took a world tour the moment I started thinking about the appropriate topic.” We would like to thank the Faculty, Staff and Learners equally for putting their minds and hearts together to etch and create this Inaugural Issue. We highly appreciate the dignitaries for their good wishes. We also thank all the other people involved, directly or indirectly, in bringing out “The Eklavyan”. The first arrow has been shot …

Table of Contents ICA 10

Where There Is a Will … 45


Come Let’s Decide 46

ODL: An Option 14

Decision Making 48

ODL in Nepal 16

Valentine’s Day ... 53

A Tribute to IGNOU 20

In Persuit of Destiny 54

A new magic bullet 21

Career Perspectives in Tourism 58

Why IGNOU? 22

Rabindranath Tagore 62

ICA Doorshiksha 25

Currency Exchange Strategy


ODL Radio Program 25

Schools in Dhanusha District


Education: No Age Barred 26

Teaching Trends in Nepal 68

The Perfect Story 28

Entrepreneurship 70

We All Make Mistakes 30

Ecology ... 72

One Year To Live 32

The Kisans ... 76

Unconditional Love 33

Glimpes of Activities 82

Mirage 33

Hall of Fame 84

Distance Learning MBA 34

Voices 86

The Power of Love ... 35

Recognition 87

Counting IT! 37

Nepal Bidhya Bhusan Award

Work Spiritually, Lead Spiritually 38

Faculty Members 89

Social Work in Nepal 40

Whom To Contact 90

Operational Risks 42


International Center for Academics International





has always been very high. ICA is also proud of

was established in 1997 and has been providing

its Eight University Gold Medalists in the faculty of

educational services to the nation since then. In 2002,

Management, Tourism Studies, Computer Science

it became the first Partner Institution (PI) of Indira

and Health Education, Sociology, Rural Development.

Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in Nepal. ICA was declared the Award winning center as the

The objectives of ICA are:

“Best Overseas Partner Institution 2010 for the Best Services by Indira Gandhi National Open University”.

• To impart affordable quality education. • To provide a platform to those seeking to pursue

The study center has been approved by the Ministry of Education, Government of Nepal. It is also the only educational institution from Nepal to become the member of Asian Association of Open Universities

their education at various levels. • To provide higher education to a large section of the population. • To promote Distance Education in Nepal

(AAOU). The learners enrolled in ICA are freshers or ICA presently offers 45 programs in Management,

professionals from diverse fields such as Hospitality

Humanities and Social Science, Tourism, Computer

Industry, Financial Institutions, Telecommunication,

Science, Journalism and Mass Communication,

Corporate Houses, Embassies and Diplomatic

Education, Rural Development and Health Science.

agencies, etc. The World Health Organization, Nepal has signed an agreement with ICA to provide

ICA offers a unique opportunity to study and work

scholarships to the students enrolled in Certificate in

simultaneously. More than 800 learners have

Health Care Waste Management Program.

successfully completed their graduation, undergraduation, post graduation, diploma and certificate

To assist the learner in pursuit of their learning, ICA

level programs. Due to the dedication of the faculty

has setup various infrastructure and facilities for them

members, members of the staff and the hard work

to utilize.

of the learners, the success rate of the students


Induction Meetings Induction Meetings are conducted on a regular basis for fresh learners of both July and January sessions to orient the students. A detailed presentation on the academic procedures, rules and regulation of IGNOU, modalities of Distance Learning through ICA is presented to them. An open session is held at the end of the program where learners can further clarify their doubts and queries. Library The library is equipped with reference books, audio video materials and other supporting materials. The resources are mainly confined to the programmes and courses in offer. Both print and online resources are available to help the students. These include peerreviewed academic journals.The leading Nepalese and Indian daily newspapers are also in stock in hard copy. Subsidized photocopying facilities are also available to students. Computer Facilities The computer labs are equipped with Pentium based terminals and students have free access to Internet


and e-mail facilities (academic purposes only). The Center provides hands-on training as well.

ICA has been “ON AIR” for more than a year with the program “ICA DOOR SHIKSHA” in one of the leading

Counseling Services

national FM stations called Kantipur FM 96.1 , at 7:30 am NST, every Saturday, with an objective to:

ICA provides counseling services to students through its Student Support Section. Support is give to those students who experience difficulties with their studies or other non-academic matters.

• Create awareness regarding Open Learning and Distance Education. • Awareness of IGNOU and its program offered in Nepal through the ICA. This program is the first of its kind related to Distance Education to be broadcasted in Nepal till date, the program has also been listed among one of the most popular educational awareness programs aired by FM stations in Nepal. The program is telecasted live.



a mega university

The Indira Gandhi National Open University, established by an Act of Indian Parliament in 1985, has emerged as the largest Mega University in the democratic world. It began by offering two academic programmers in 1987 i.e. Diploma in Management and Diploma in Distance Education with strength of 4528 students. Today, it serves the education aspirations of more than 3.5 million students in India and 44 other countries through the twenty-one Schools of Study and a network of 62 regional centers, with more than 3000 centers in India and 61 overseas centers. The University offers 445 Certificate, Diploma, Degree and Doctoral programmers comprising around 1500 courses, with a strength of 420 faculty members and academic staff at the headquarters and regional centers and about 36,000 counselors from conventional institutions of higher, professional from various organizations, among offers.


The mandate of the University is:

The salient features are

• to provide access to higher education to all

• Study according to your own pace and convenience

segments of society. • to offer high quality, innovative and need-based programmers at different levels, to all those who

• Study at your own chosen place

require them. • to reach out to the disadvantaged by offering

• Flexibility in choosing courses and combination

programmers in all parts of the country at

of courses from a wide range of disciplines/

affordable costs, and


• to promote, coordinate and regulate the standards of education offered through open

communication technology

and distance learning in the country. The University has, in a relatively short time, contributed




• Use of modern and appropriate educational and

International Recognition


community education and continual professional

IGNOU Degrees enjoy wide recognition all over

development. As a world leader in distance education,

the world. They are recognized, among others, by:

it was conferred the Centre of Excellence Award in Distance Education in 1993 and the Award of

• Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal.

Excellence for Distance Education Materials in 1999

• Kathmandu University, Nepal

by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), Canada.

• University Grants Commission (UGC),Nepal

The University is committed to quality in teaching,

• University Grants Commission (UGC), New

research training and extension activities, and acts as a national resource for expertise and infrastructure in the ODL system.

Delhi, India • Association of Indian Universities (AIU ), New Delhi, India • All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE),


India • Common Wealth member countries

• National & International Reach.

• American colleges and universities

• Modular program based on credit system.

• Academic and Professional institutions as well

• Use of the latest information & communication technologies.

as by the government, the industry and the business establishment

• 2300 Study Centers in India and 61 international study centers in 33 countries. • 175 Academic programs with over 1500 courses. • More than 3 million students worldwide. • Internationally acclaimed degree. • Award for excellence in the Distance Mode of Education. • Comprehensive learning material.


Open and Distance Learning: An Option Amit Giri

“Life is a journey.� My journey with International Center for Academics (ICA) began from 2007 as a Student Support Officer. I was responsible for





support. It was quite a challenging job since I and my team were dealing with mainly adult learners coming from diverse fields each having different needs and motives for pursuing programs with us. Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode in itself, being a new mode of education in Nepal, had many questions to answer. Credibility, acceptability, relevance and recognition of the programs were common queries among most of the learners that I used to encounter. The Ministry of Education and other concerned government agencies in Nepal, in those days, did not seem to have any clear policy on ODL mode of education. With all these factors amassed, it was quite a challenging task to convenience the learners to pursue programs through the ICA.

As time passed, I found the learners’ outlook towards

that regular training on academic counseling, briefing

ODL changing. The change was evident not only

on the evaluation process of the ODL system and

among the learners, but also among the education

better understanding of the learners’ psychology is

policy makers, academicians, industry people,

a must.

bureaucrats, etc. It was a positive sign for us. The ICA took a leading role in assisting policy makers in Nepal

I have also realized that in the age of Information

to formulate policies and procedures for approving

and Communication Technology (ICT), the learners

institutions offering the ODL mode of education and

around the globe are becoming smarter than the

affiliated to foreign universities. In 2005, the ICA

teachers due to easy access of technology and

arranged a visit for deans of various faculties and

information. Our Faculty also should be encouraged

representatives of the Education Ministry to tour the

to use ICT and be more updated and be more

IGNOU Headquarters at New Delhi. Interaction with

effective in academic counseling and retain learners

top officials of IGNOU and visit to several divisions

in their counseling sessions. They have to come out

of IGNOU gave opportunity to the visiting delegates

of their traditional mindset of teaching and adopt new

to witness the operations and clarify several doubts

and modern ways of teaching and have a different

and queries related to ODL. A few months later,

approach on the other academic aspects of the

the Tribhuvan University and the Education Ministry

learners. It is a fact that we all need to accept today

came up with the draft policy addressing to several

that the teaching and learning environment and

issues related to the ODL mode of education in

trends have changed.

Nepal. Finally, I saw the silver lining: the future of the ODL mode of education was taking shape in Nepal.

Now, the ODL mode of education is gaining popularity

Today I feel quite happy to state that the Tribhuvan

among the learners who are fresh high school pass-

University and the Education Ministry has policies in

outs and graduates because it provides learners an

place for the ODL mode of education in Nepal.

opportunity to learn in a modern learning environment, learn in a real life situation, and work and study at the

Despite positive changes, I sensed a different kind

same time which are lacking in the traditional mode of

of challenge at our end. Most of the learners come

education. At ICA, we have learners who are pursuing

from a traditional / conventional mode of education

academic programs in traditional universities and, at

where the academic patterns are set and defined;

the same time, pursuing other academic, vocational

learners get opportunities to attend class and meet

or a value added programs with us.

their Faculties on a regular basis. In our system, it is just the opposite. Learners get the privilege to

Lastly, I would like to state that the ODL mode of

learn at their own place, pace and time. The learners

education is no longer a second choice for a learner

decide as per their suitability and requirement of their

but it is just another option. Research shows that the

academic calendar. Contact between the learner

ODL mode of education which comes in different

and Academic Counselor (Faculty) is very limited,

flavors to the learners in the 21st century like, distance

hence, the learner needs to be more disciplined and

learning, e-learning, M-learning, Cloud learning

organized. Sometimes, I find learners taking a long

has gained massive popularity among the student

time to acclimatize in our system. Similarly, most of

community and has been surpassing the traditional

our Academic Counselors, coming from traditional

or conventional mode of education that has not

face to face teaching environment, find it quite

changed much in the past few decades. I have no

challenging to adapt to our system where we follow

hesitation to say that the modern ODL system has

counseling and not the classroom teaching. I believe

been gaining more popularity and is here to stay.


Open and Distance Learning in Nepal: Prospects and Challenges Khagendra Acharya The beginning of Open and Distance Learning

Starting with the correspondence mode, ODL is

(ODL) dates back to the 18th century, especially

now agreed to have undergone notably four other

with the phenomenal advancement and innovation

stages namely multimedia model, tele-learning

in transportation and communication heralded by

model, flexible learning model and interactive flexible

industrial revolution. In Desmond Keegan’s account,

learning model (Taylor). The proliferation suffices to

ODL as alternative model of education started when

prove why ODL has been so widely accepted in the

technology made it feasible to separate teacher and

western hemisphere and why European countries

learner from a fixed place, at a fixed time, to meet a

have established and recognized this method through

fixed person, in order to be trained. An alternative

European Distance Education Network (EDEN).

account at micro level, i.e., at the individual level, invokes the name of Isaac Pitman (in 1840 Britain)

Compared to the genesis of ODL in the west, its

as the precursor of this mode with his initiation of

official and documented history in South Asian

modern correspondence education.

Countries (SAC), however, carries a shorter history.


Though offered in the 1980s, ODL in SAC has

The proposed OUN has included the following major

been gaining an increased attention and thereby a


phenomenal growth in recent years. The change can best be described as the move of ODL from marginal to integral part of overall educational provision.

• Close


demand, combined





currently capacity open

higher unmet




education by




institutions, mechanisms.

In the Nepalese context, ODL offered by the state’s

• Take tertiary education to the rural, remote,

own establishment carries no history in the sense that

and marginalized people of Nepal, especially

the government’s plan to establish Open University

women and Dalits, who are practically confined

Nepal (OUN) has yet not been materialized. Hence,

to the villages due to family obligations,

ODL, in relation to OUN, can be discussed only at

social challenges, and financial constraints.

the level of efforts made . The government’s initial endeavour can be located in the very year when

• Provide opportunities for teachers and government

the Nepali Government became a signatory of

employees who are unable to advance their

SAARC Consortium to Open and Distance Learning

education, skills and careers while living in rural and

(SACODiL) in 1999. Wagle’s recall of the government’s

remote places, or to those who are unemployed.

effort for Open University also establishes 1990 as a starting point:

• Provide a mechanism to continue education for

The Ministry of Education (MoE) itself constituted







permanent employment in foreign countries.

an Open Learning and Distance Education (OLDE) Committee in 1999 under the chairmanship of then

• Advance rural


Secretary of Education to suggest the government


with modalities of OLDE in Nepal. The Committee


comprising OLDE experts suggested the government






productivity, and


education to


economic disciplines.

with alternatives of programs and resources. (The Himalayan Times) Nonetheless,


(Source: Rasali, Adhikari and Dhakal) report,




The outcome of the effort, however, has been only

sarcastically, must be gathering dust in some cabinet

a matter of hope for the advocates of ODL. In such

of the MoE even today. Since 1999 the agenda

a context when the plan is in incubation period,

does not seem to have occupied any importance

writing on the prospect of ODL might sound highly

for around a decade. Exactly after eleven years,

phantasmagoric. Here, I caution my readers not to

i.e., in October 2010, another notable [might be

harness total skepticism mainly for two reasons:

more optimistic effort from the government due to

first, the government of Nepal along with a promising

collaborative nature of the venture: MoE and Non-

partner has declared an Open University as a viable

Resident Nepali Association (NRNA) have signed

and appropriate means to provide mass access to

an agreement to start Open University Nepal] move

tertiary education; second, ODL has already been in

appears visible.

operation since the turn of century in Nepal through accredited universities such as Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU).



Ample Libraries

ODL by its nature carries promising features such as

Libraries in Nepal have grown phenomenally

egalitarianism, equality of educational opportunities,

especially after the restoration of Democracy in

flexible curricula (Peters). Consequently, the mode

1991. Now, we live the condition neither of a group

bears significant potential to widen access to higher

of young students in 1930 who were charged of

education which in Nepalese context has appeared

sedition as they applied for permission to start a

very tough due to various constrains. The following

public library (the Sarawasti Public Library) nor

elements appear to create noteworthy scope for

of students who suffered in 1960 when the king


dismissed Nepal’s first elected government and closed public libraries established in the fifties. As the

Availability of Learners

study of Koirala and Bird has outlined, post 1991 has provided appropriate environment for, “re-opening

The inability of the Nepali government to tackle the

of a number of rural community libraries which were

consequences of diversity, whether prevalent in the

closed during monarchy”. Similarly, a large number

form of extreme economic disparity or geographical

of INGOs such as Room to Read, and Read Nepal

inaccessibility or socio-political hierarchies, had

have been asking for the government’s permission

stood as a major barrier for a large population

to “support community libraries”. Consequently,

in appropriate access to education. Education

the number of libraries in Nepal has increased from

opportunities were inappropriately decentralized, if

about 400 in 1990 to about 800 in 2003 (Shrestha

not totally centralized, and thus any individual other

qtd in Koirala and Bird 120). The quality and quantity

than well-to-do economic status could not get

of library has further been enhanced both by INGOs

enrolled for higher qualification.

like Rural Development and Education (READ) and Room to Read, and by foreign mission libraries such

A very paradoxical situation ensnares these people

as the American Library, British Council Learning

now due to the government’s special provisions: they

Centre, and Bharat Sanskritic Kendra.

have opportunities but not the required qualifications. The situation, thereby, produces foundational reason

Though all the libraries, especially the ones located

to demand for educational qualification which

in rural areas, might not have ample and appropriate

does not look viable through traditional mode of

books, their infrastructure can be used for ODL.

education. The availability of learners, due to this necessity, is further increased at the acceleration of

Contribution from Diaspora

peace process. As a large number of cadres who had joined the Maoist revolution after 1996 leaving

One of the most optimistic aspects in ODL comes

their studies are now in need of education as they

from the promise of contribution from Nepali

have been placed back to the society.

diaspora. The diaspora, like the population of this type elsewhere, undergo ambivalent position: on

The two-fold availability, along with other elements

the one hand, they meagerly wish to return to their

such as outbound mobility of students for foreign

home country but on the other hand, they wish to

universities, would be productive factors in pulling

see the country prosper and plan to contribute

learners to the ODL mechanism.

without returning. Rasali, Adhikari and Dhakal have fairly outlined the nature of potential input from the Diaspora due to their empathy for people at home: there are a sizable number of highly qualified academics and professionals among Nepalese


Diaspora, who are eager to help their motherland.

aside the skepticism of these scholars, I concentrate



on other more important factors which make ODL

investment in public education and having had a

more challenging. One of them props up from the

first-hand experience of her needs, many of them

dialectics of autonomy and responsibility. In the

are also eager to give back to the native land.

Nepalese context, learners’ autonomy which should

Several members of this Diaspora group have

be curbed by the sense of responsibility exists in very

themselves experienced the hopelessness caused

peculiar situation. Learner’s sense of autonomy often

by poverty, have walked barefoot to attend schools

overrides their sense of responsibility. Simply stated,

in the mountains and plains, and have faced acute

many learners tend to carry no responsibility in

shortage of books and other educational facilities

pedagogic assumptions in ODL. In turn, the tendency

when they pursued their education in Nepal.

might culminate in using ODL as mere formality for






many of them have succeeded in obtaining world

awarding and getting certificate.

class education in spite of these insurmountable barriers, they understand the pain and frustrations

Lack of Electrification

of the rural poor and marginalized groups and their struggle for education, and know that success is still

ODL relies heavily on advancement and proliferated

possible. Because of these reasons, they are well

use of media and communication. More specifically,

suited to help education in Nepal through open and

educationists need to rely on novel methods of

distance learning and support the neediest groups.

imparting knowledge such as the Internet and e-mail, telephone, CDs, print materials, video cassettes


and video-conferencing. All these devices need uninterrupted supply of electricity, which, in the

Challenges in ODL are inherent to the characteristics

Nepalese context, sounds highly unlikely. Power

of this mode. Since it espouses values of flexibility

cut has been so severe that electricity avails to us in

and accessibility, it assumes learners to have sense

many months only for around 6-8 hours.

of both autonomy and responsibility for learning. Before I discuss on the problems that start due to


the collusion of two elements, I find it worthy to quote Rennie and Mason’s conclusion on the impediments

The proliferation and, thereby, acknowledgement

in distance and distributed learning in Nepal and

of ODL both in developing and developed countries


imply the mode’s significant potential. However, this does not mean that ODL will replace the traditional

Firstly, Internet access is improving rapidly, but is

mode as euphorically supposed by scholars such

still generally too weak and inconsistent to allow any

as Ramanujam, “the present dominance of campus

reliance on net-based learning solutions. Secondly,

based higher education may become a thing of the

the academic culture is resistant to the recognition of

past perhaps by the middle of the next century, if

the value of open-learning degrees, with subsequent

not earlier than that”. In the developing countries like

difficulties in re-designing course materials for a

Nepal, ODL has apparent scope due to the availability

more educationally flexible, student-centred learning

of learners, accessibility to libraries and promise from


prospective collaborators. But, we have challenges such as unconducive political environment, lack

Certainly, the ambivalent position of scholars on the

of electrification, skepticism from some scholars

degree from ODL and the problems of internet access

regarding the strength of degree making the task of

for learners account as major impediments. Leaving

tackling almost herculean.


A Tribute to IGNOU Laxmi Moktan

I was moving along with the tide of time after an

So, I decided that it was now or never and I signed

interrupted college education, a full time job, early

up for the courses. The classes at weekends suited

marriage and a growing family which is indeed quite

me just fine. This time round, my family adjusted

a serious juggling act for a woman these days. But

around my time schedule. My teenaged son was

there I was - feeling somehow incomplete - there

amused at first, but they all resigned to the cause.

was something more that I had to do with my life.

The classes began stimulating my senses once

It was my insatiable hunger for knowledge that was

again. I was coming to terms with knowledge far

driving at my very gut.

beyond my everyday life. I was, in fact, living on my own terms once again. Finally, my dedication paid

I was stuck in between what I was actually doing and

through and I managed to obtain an MA in English

what I wanted to do most in my heart – I knew I had

degree with relatively good marks for someone who

to complete my university education but I was not

was juggling with career and family at the same time.

going to let go of my career at the same time. So,

This is indeed a huge accomplishment on my part.

there I was, in complete dilemma, until I came across IGNOU which seemed like the most viable answer to

I must say that I have gained considerable knowledge

my quest. Here I could study at my own time without

through this process of learning which has definitely

disrupting my work, which also meant that I had to

taken my level of confidence to great heights. I would

forego most social obligations while preparing for

like to express my sincere gratefulness to IGNOU,

the lessons. I had to prepare myself for a great deal

ICA staff and the Counsellors for giving not only me

of sacrifice of my free time – the weekends that is

but many others like me the opportunity to grow.

earned after a gruelling five days at work – to actually work again which would be studies.


a new magic bullet

Mukesh Agarwal

Distance learning is a new term for what used to be

are very comprehensive and have important material

called correspondence course. I took a Bachelor

coverage. I realized the power of the GPH books

in Commerce correspondence course from ICA

more after appearing in the exams.

(IGNOU) in 2007. Distance learning degree programs allowed me to pursue a degree from the comfort of

I am indebted to Mr, Biswajit Mukherjee, Dr. Dina Nath

my own home and supporting my dad in his office,

Kumar, and Mr. Amit Giri for all the time and effort in

without needing to worry about moving or otherwise

allowing us to bring different activities within the ICA.

changing my own circumstances to pursue the

You understood our goals, provided priceless advice

degree. I would rather say learner’s won’t find

and enhanced us for the formation to be an Eklavyan.

themselves lamenting the fact that their own lives

Thank you for teaching us leadership, conducting

prevent them from pursuing an education, when they

meetings, maintaining minutes and imparting many

have the flexibility afforded by programs provided

values that we will need throughout life. Thank you!

by universities such as “IGNOU”, “KU” and so on. Education, of course, plays an important role in getting you the right job in your chosen field. The stepping stones for choosing your dream career are, of course, the qualifications required to achieve it. With the right qualifications, the top careers are open to you and the power of choice would be with you, for which I would say IGNOU is one of the best platforms we are provided with. In June 2007, I inquired about IGNOU and immediately signed up for the BDP course from ICA. The course material was good but the classes were not conducive to me. So, I decided to skip the classes and focused on studying on my own at home. In June and December of the successive three years of my BDP program, I took the TEE exam and managed to get my degree in 2010. Possibly because I was able to finish off the B.Com in one go and on my first attempt, many colleagues, friends, and friends of friends have been asking how I managed to achieve this. I started to research more carefully with the help books for IGNOU Term-End Examination, and I got surprised that they were actually very helpful, easily available in the library and completed the preparation in an easy way in less time. Based on my experience, you really need to understand the concepts (instead of blind memory of the mnemonics) to pass the IGNOU exam. Help books for IGNOU Term-End Examination


WHY IGNOU? Jasmine Thapa

With distance learning, the student can learn from the comfort of their homes, or even office during lunch breaks and just before closing business for the day. 22 | THE EKLAVYAN

Advancing one’s education in today’s fast pacing

learning comes into play. With distance learning, the

world is important for anyone looking for career

student can learn from the comfort of their homes,

advancement in the field they have chosen. As our

or even office during lunch breaks and just before

globalized world shrinks and technology advances,

closing business for the day. This saves time taken

one of the best ways to protect you from becoming

to travel to the college and just in case one’s work

obsolete in the work place is returning to universities

load requires them to orthodox working hours, they

for a higher degree.

can schedule time for study in accordance to their program. This allows convenience that is not found

For a person like me with busy schedules and family

with the traditional learning system.

obligations, distance learning MBA programs offer the flexibility needed to accomplish this goal. Being

The flexibility of distance learning degree programs

able to schedule classes, school work, and study

is what attracts most students. It does require a bit

time around work and family is the primary drawing

more discipline since we are responsible for ensuring

point for me to undertake an advanced online degree.

us attend all lectures and completing all course work

Online courses have allowed me to attend classes,

on our own schedule.

download/upload courses work, and have access to professors and counselors. The vast majority of online

The flexibility that I got from distance learning includes

universities is just as valuable as a degree we earned

following benefits:

attending classes at a brick and mortar college. In fact, many large colleges and universities these days are now starting to offer their own distance learning doctoral programs and competing with the online colleges. This gives anyone interested in obtaining an advanced degree a wide variety of options when choosing a program in their field of study.

• I can attend classes where I have Internet access and at anytime I wish. I can study at home, at work or anywhere else. I just take my computer and get connected to the web. • Distance learning courses are designed in such a way as to allow us centered learning. This means I can decide the best way for me to learn.

Distance learning is a system of education where the students are provided with learning materials and tutorials without necessarily being in class physically. This is mostly done through the Internet where the students log into the university website and can access the information needed. In most cases, the students have direct contact with some of the lecturers to help them in case of any trouble. Distance learning has caught on with most students. The ones that seem to benefit most, however, are students at the MBA degree of education. This is because of a number of benefits availed by distance learning. Most students, including me, get into careers after doing their graduation course. By the time they finish their Bachelors and get into their Masters degree, they are well ingrained into their career lines. They, therefore, end up having little time to manage sitting in class for the Master degree. This is where distance

• All courses and study materials are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week. This gives me the flexibility to go over any and all lectures and other materials as many times as I want. • Even though I don’t physically attend classes, I can interact with my classmates and teachers through classroom discussion and discussion groups over the Internet. • The use of new technology and interactive web resources help me sharpen skills that will be highly sought after in the workplace, including the ability to network with other users. • Integrated learning and teamwork are a valuable part of the distance learning experience. • Advancing my education is one of the best ways to further my career and earning opportunities THE EKLAVYAN | 23

Technology has changed the face of distance learning.

There are a number of advantages that come

From mailbox to the Internet, distance learning has

with distance learning MBA program. The main

gone through transformations that have made it what

advantage that comes with these types of programs

it is today. The print aspects of distance learning are

is the fact that I can be accomplished by working

still ever present because of the need to ensure that

professionals without having to take a significant

the student can read and write. Instructional media

period of time away from work related activities. This

are very important in distance learning, especially

allows me to be able to live my life and, at the same

online. Instructional media refers to the use of

time, complete my education. This means that while

selected media to teach students who are located

attempting to obtain my degree I don’t have to alter

in remote areas of the country or the world. Satellite

my schedule significantly. These are the reasons why

e-learning refers to the use of the satellite to transmit

I chose distance learning and, among others, I chose

educational information to a group of students or to


a student. Satellite e-learning dictates the student because he or she has to be present at the time the

Besides these IGNOU has a reasonable fee structure,

broadcast is made.

distance learning home at country exam provision, outstanding curriculum variety of subjects and option,

The other factor that draws me to distance learning is

desired thesis requirements, variety of specialization

the cost. At first, it may seem that distance learning

courses according to career requirement, constant

costs more than the traditional way of learning. But

support from university professors, regular counseling

once I put into account travel cost, cost of time

session on weekends, and timely examination and

and the inconveniences involved in traditional class

financial awards and scholarship for best student is

learning, distance education is far cheaper.

the best part that drags me towards this university.

I need not incur the fuel cost or hassle through traffic

And I feel very lucky and thankful to IGNOU (Indira

to get to class or even fight to sit in front to get the

Gandhi National Open University), New Delhi, India

lecture clear without disturbance. Here, I get all that at

for giving me the opportunity to be a part of distance

my comfort and at the level I want and the equipment

education from Nepal.

I purchase is, at the end of the day, an investment.


ICA DOORSHIKSHA The only radio program on Open and Distance Learning in Nepal. Bhimesh Kumar Chaudhary

As known to all of us, the Radio is one of the most powerful communication media for reaching many people in a short time. The Radio has been very effectively used for educational purposes for decades and has become one of the important delivery technologies of the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system. “ICA Doorsiksha” is the only dedicated live radio program






Academics (ICA) with an objective to educate and create awareness on Open and Distance Learning System in Nepal. The program is broadcasted every Saturday at 7:30 a.m. on Kantipur FM which is one of the most popular national FM channels. Through this program we have been able to reach listeners throughout the 75 districts of Nepal and even Nepalese residing outside the country through the Internet Radio. Through this program listeners get an opportunity to directly interact with the various officials of ICA, Academic Counselors, Academicians and policy makers of Nepal and clarify their doubts or other queries. From time to time, they also get an opportunity to share experiences with our Gold Medalists and Learners, too.

This program has been a torch bearer for thousands of learners who due to several social, economical and rigid traditional academic norms were not able or eligible for further advancement of their academic career. “ICA Doorsiksha” has undoubtedly created a massive awareness on ODL mode of education; the impact of which can be felt on a number of queries we get during and after the program. We, at ICA, are committed to continue this program not only for the Learners interested to join IGNOU programs at ICA; but, also, we feel that it is our social responsibility towards the nation and the society to educate every citizen of Nepal for better and prosperous Nepal of tomorrow.

The program is broadcasted every Saturday at 7:30 a.m. on Kantipur FM. THE EKLAVYAN | 25

EDUCATION NO AGE BARRED Mrs. Bibha Lal Education – No age barred!! And being a teacher

social order has defined what should or should not

for over 22 years could I disagree ever? There is

be done at various stages of life: get married in 20s,

nothing analogous to education, nothing equivalent

have kids in 30s and retire in 60s…..but all that is

to knowledge.

altering now. Accepted wisdom about what is apt for a particular age are now becoming far less unbending

Teaching is a profession that provides challenges,

and far more negotiable and flexible.

exhilaration, personal remuneration and an opportunity to encourage and shore up others to accomplish their

IGNOU has provided an opportune alternative to all

goals. We cannot overlook the impact of education in

the professionals who do not have the time to attend

the human society. It rationalizes us for all intents and

proper classroom classes. Personally, what I learnt

purposes. In order to cater to the educational needs

to appreciate most while teaching in IGNOU@ICA

of the working class population, IGNOU started

was to see the enthusiasm in the eyes of my ‘sunset’

offering this method of self-education. Working

students…., graying hair, they have fulfilled all but

people can easily modernize their knowledge and

one commitment in life….that of higher education. If

dexterity level through these degrees available in

there is an urge to study, then no age can kill it!

the open-university. This can help them significantly in achieving growth as professionals. For long, the


“Be a student… by staying open and willing to learn from everyone and anyone.” - Wayne Dyer b.1940

As a counselor, the experience here has enriched me

Arjuna, Drona’s much loved and most proficient

with active listening and good interpersonal skills and

scholar. And the magazine has been rightly named

built a genuine interest in providing support to all my

so, as IGNOU belongs to all those pupils who have

students - no age barred!

had the courage to shed their inhibitions and moved ahead with great gusto for the only definitive goal of

I feel proud indeed to have been associated with the

achieving advanced education.

growth and progress of ICA since its inception in Kathmandu. Needless to say, that the onward march

This magazine “Eklavyan” will record the evolution

of this institution to the present state of its glory

of ICA from the time it was a thought, to the reality

could not have been without difficulties. But with

it is today. The parameters of this institution are

strong determination and unrelenting devotion, the

boundless. This issue is the harbinger of a future,

management, staff and the students have contributed

of even better years ahead. This magazine is a true

to its becoming an institution of excellence.

indicator of literacy and creative acumen. I am sure the magazine will carry the message and spirit of

According to the Hindu epic “Mahabharata”, after

everyone belonging to IGNOU.

being rejected by Drona on account of his not being of Kshatriya lineage, Eklavya gets on upon a program

As always my best wishes to all the members of ICA,

of self-study in the presence of a clay image of Drona.

who I am sure will continue with this good work.

He accomplishes a level of skill superior to that of THE EKLAVYAN | 27

Stor y The Perf ect Archana Karki

No touch of ugliness just beauty and no touch of pain and grief just the happiness. 28 | THE EKLAVYAN

Are you a pessimist?” asked one of my readers/ well-

Though he’d everything, still something was missing

wishers at a book launch sometimes back.

in his life. A man’s life is incomplete until he has a woman, a wife by his side who is always with him

“No, certainly not!” I’d replied then.

through thick and thin. So let’s add more beauty in his life with the entry of Prapti. Prapti, whom he got

“I’ve read most of your stories, they are great! But

married to, was very beautiful girl with a golden heart.

why do they always end in death and grief?” he had

Now their life seemed perfect with happiness and

questioned me.

love all around.

May be because it’s how I perceive life. I wanted to

The perfect home, perfect couple and perfect

say but I said something else which I don’t remember

happiness. And where does the ending come in this

now. And as I sat down to start my new story today;

story? No touch of ugliness just beauty and no touch

the same question is revolving round my head. “Yes,

of pain and grief just the happiness. Can life ever go

this time I’m going to write a story where there won’t

this way? No, no, it’s not possible. It’s human nature

be any shadow of grief but just happiness round.” I

not to get satisfied with whatever they have. They

thought to myself. “Let’s see how life with absolute

are always seeking for something more. Human

happiness and without pain and suffering in it is.”

desire has no limits. Something happened here with my characters. With the passage of time, something

Amurta, a character or the protagonist of my story

went wrong and lives of Amurta and Prapti wasn’t

was born, as people say, with a silver spoon in his

same as before. Something was lacking in their lives.

mouth. It’s because he never knew poverty or what

The home where once prevailed happiness had now

it’s like to have lack of anything. Whatever he wanted

gone to silence. Only silence prevailed now. The two

or he desired was easily fulfilled by his father who was

people occupied two different corners of that house

very rich indeed. He was brought up single-handedly

and it seemed they had nothing left between them

with so much of love and care by his father that he

to talk about and to laugh. The couples had become

himself believed if he ever regretted for not having

two individual loners in that house. The silence was

his mother. About his mother, she’d left him when

growing so vast and wide that both of them were

he was still a child. And let’s not get into details of

being engulfed in it. Something was certainly not

his mother’s part as this may be somewhat sorrowful

right between them and they are either avoiding it or

and which I actually don’t want in my story. So let’s

trying to conceal it.

move on with the story of Amurta alone if it’s possible. Then there came a day when as usual Amurta and Amurta grew up to be a very attractive, emotional

Prapti entered their respective space and Amurta

and bright young fellow with happy-go- lucky nature

never came out of his. On that fateful day Amurta

in him. There were very rare or if any who disliked

seemed grimmer than usual and silence was so

him or wasn’t attracted towards him. Such was

strong to be frightened of. He entered his study

his personality and his life to be envied by any one

room and started writing something on a notepad.

so colorful and so beautiful with no touch of grey

As he finished writing tears rolled down his eyes and


everything blurred before him. After few minutes, he stooped down and slowly picked up a broken

“Oh God! What more do I need to ask for?” he said to

piece of glass of a photo frame and made a circular

himself. He worked, he studied and spent time with

movement round his left wrist. There was blood

his friends and lived his life as merrily as possible.

dripping down from the table and there he was, pen closed, story completed and pool of blood beneath the writing table. THE EKLAVYAN | 29

We all make mistakes Anju Pandey

We don’t really learn anything properly until there is a problem, until we make a mistake, until something fails to go as we had expected. 30 | THE EKLAVYAN

When everything is working well, with no problems or

paid a lot of money for the glass set and cherished

failures, what incentive do we have to try something

it. In this example, this mistake had financial and

new? We are only motivated to learn when we

emotional consequences on my mother. However,

experience difficulties. We all make mistakes. Wise

I learnt from this mistake that I should always be

people admit their mistakes easily. They know

careful in handling things that are fragile. This mistake

progress accelerates when they do. This advice

helped me a lot to be more careful while doing each

runs counter to the cultural assumption we have

and every work.

about mistakes and failures; namely that they are shameful things. We know that humans make

From the co-operative perspective, we can take

mistakes all the time. Mistakes are one essential part

the reference of 9/11 terrorists’ attack, the worse

of self improvement. Don’t be overwhelmed with guilt

attack on American Soil where mistakes with

and regret; analyze how you can learn from them.

negative consequences were made. Due to lack of

Mistakes are at the very base of human thought. If we

communication in the national security system, the

were not provided with the knack of being wrong, we

terrorists were able to infiltrate their security and

would never get anything done usefully. We think in

aviation system, taking over a few domestic flights

our way along by choosing between right and wrong

and flying those planes into America’s infrastructure

alternatives and the wrong choices have to be made

causing massive destruction.

frequently as the right one. There is a saying that a mistake is the mother of “Anyone who has never made a mistake has never

success. A man’s errors are his portrayals of his

tried anything new.” - Albert Einstein.

discovery. Could people discover or progress only through mistakes? I am afraid that I do not quite

It is necessary to make mistakes even if they have

agree with such an assertion. In my perspective,

negative consequences on other people. The only

mistakes are not necessary to make discoveries or

way mistakes are not made is to never do anything.

progress. In most circumstances, it is more efficient

It is usefully wrong to do things that have negative

to discover new things. So, mistakes are an essential

consequences on other people or oneself. The

part of self improvement. Mistakes should be made

most important reason why it is necessary to make

ladders to achieve our goals. Without mistakes the

mistakes is for learning experience. We learn more

learning process is not complete. Mistakes are a part

from our mistakes than our successes. There is a

of everyday life whether you can admit it to yourself

saying that “experience is the best teacher”. This

or not. Wise people think about the ends, not of

saying suggests that mistakes that one makes in

the means. So making mistakes is not completely a

life can also have positive impact on that person’s

negative thing. We are in the process of achieving

future life experience. Though my mistakes can have

new goals, so we don’t need to be afraid of making

a negative consequence on me or someone else,

mistakes. Success seems to be connected with

it becomes my learning experience. Mistakes also

action. Successful people keep on moving. They

present a special opportunity to be a teacher. Let us

make mistakes, but they don’t quit.

address the topic from two perspectives: personal mistakes and co-operative mistakes.

Preventing mistakes 100% of the time is, at the very least, close to impossible. However, we can prevent

I will begin with personal mistakes. For example, when

mistakes a high percentage of the time, even if it isn’t

I was a boy I broke my mother’s expensive glass set

100%. The way to do this is to simply think before

by mistakes. My mother was angry because she had

you act. That’s right, think before you act.


One year to live

Robin Thapa

Anthony Burgess was 40 when he learned that he

In that time Burgess wrote energetically, finishing five

had only one year to live. He had a brain tumor that

and a half novels before the year was through (very

would kill him within a year. He knew he had a battle

nearly the entire lifetime output of E.M. Forster, and

on his hands. He was completely broke at the time,

almost twice that of J. D. Salinger.)

and he didn’t have anything to leave behind for his wife, Lynne, soon to be a widow.

But Burgess did not die. His cancer had gone into remission and then disappeared altogether. In his

Burgess had never been a professional novelist

long and full life as a novelist (he is best known for “A

in the past, but he always knew the potential was

Clock-work Orange”), he wrote more than 70 books,

inside him to be a writer. So, for the sole purpose of

but without the death sentence from cancer, he may

leaving royalties behind for his wife, he put a piece

not have written at all.

of paper into a typewriter and began writing. He had no certainty that he would even be published, but he

Many of us are like Anthony Burgess, hiding greatness

couldn’t think of anything else to do.

inside, waiting for some external emergency to bring it out. Ask yourself what you’d do if you had Anthony

“It was January of 1960,” he said, “and according to

Burgess’s original predicament. “If I had just a year to

the prognosis, I had a winter and spring and summer

live, how differently would I live? What exactly would

to live through, and would die with the fall of the leaf.”

I do?”


Unconditional Love

Geeta Shah

Up in the Sky far and high there I see her fly. I wonder, how happy she must be I wonder, how lucky she must be. Down on Earth Up in the nest There I see her cry. I wonder, how sad she must be I wonder, how starved she must be. There comes the mother down Brings food for her child Sitting just a step ahead I see smile on their face. I wonder, how happy they must be I wonder, how lucky they must be.

MIRAGE MIRAGE Yam Gurung “Forsaken”

There is not enough reasons I should cry My soul is still alive And is hard to die My house are falling Because you are not there My feelings are dying Because it lacks your care There is not enough reasons I should let you go It’s true my will are vanishing The more i grow My lands are drowing Because the horizons blow I’m silent and helpless It’s memory i can’t throw... THE EKLAVYAN | 33

Distance Learning MBA Kishore Bhandari The invention of IT has revolutionized the way of

Many of the prevailing prejudices against Distance

learning; the online education mode of learning has

Learning MBA (DLMBA), for example, that they

turned out to be more popular due to the use of

provide an inferior learning environment and are

the Internet. The Internet has brought with it several

undervalued by employers, are now outdated. For

features such as online interaction, audio and video

one thing, DLMBA courses increasingly tend to

conferencing all across the globe. The edge has, in

involve a degree of personal contact. With institutions

fact, eradicated more or less the distinction amid

now capable of linking together globally diverse

distance education and in-campus learning. The

participants with online technologies, what was

procedure of distant education has turned out to

previously lumped under the title of distance learning

be so pioneering that no gap is there between the

is in reality a wide range of different learning models

learners and their course guide.

and modes of study. Models based entirely on selflearning are mostly being phased out, with many

MBA is becoming a very popular choice among the

programs adopting a blended style, usually involving

many specializations offered in the MBA course.

a number of face-to-face interventions and periods of

Though most MBA programmers will provide the

online study. Once the poor relation of the campus-

basic knowledge of business principles, an MBA

based equivalent, specialist online universities are

in Finance better equips one to face the cut-throat

one of the success stories of business education

competition of a dynamic business environment to

as more and more students choose to pursue a

job holder. The distance learning MBA has become

distance MBA from the comfort of their home, or the

a popular option for business professionals and job

window seat of a plane.

holders who do not have the time or desire to sit in a classroom for hours at a time.

Receiving this education can help someone’s career goals and bring them to a new level of personal and

If the point of an MBA is to improve career prospects,

professional satisfaction to job holder. A distance

there are three main areas that potential candidates

learning MBA can be a great first step in being

will focus on when choosing their distance learning

diligent in business and keeping integrity in business

MBA. The skills they will learn, the career networking

dealings or transactions.

opportunities and the qualification itself. MBA “is not just to do with getting three letters after your name, indeed these days having three letters, MBA, after your name does not open doors to an incredibly new and distinct career. Rather, it provides you with an education that enables you to become a better manager, and therefore get career progression. 34 | THE EKLAVYAN

The Power of Love & Compassion Chime Samdup

Be the change you want to see in the world - M.K Gandhi

Among the countless planetary bodies found in

the mother. In the case of humans, right from the

this expanding universe, the earth is the only planet

moment of our birth we are under immense care

that supports life. Life on earth is found in all forms,

and love from our mother and loved ones. It is said,

variations and colours. It is a meeting point of

according to some scientists and their findings, that

everything that is filled with energy. The earth acts as

if the mother does not feel close towards the child,

the basis which provides and sustains life forms of all

the milk will not flow freely. And without the child

variations from the one-celled organism such as the

knowing or recognizing the person who is feeding

Amoeba to one of the most complex animals such as

him/her, the child suckles the milk which is the

the human being. Unlike other animals, humans are

essential nourishment for the healthy development

equipped with intelligence. And, intelligence is one of

of the child. That very first act of that child’s life is

the most unique and brilliant things about humans.

suckling milk. Our mother showers us with constant

The ability to make distinction, compare, judge and

affection and love which is very important for our

act according to circumstances is one of our prime

brain development during our childhood period. The

wealth. Hence, we are called intelligent beings.

human touch is very crucial for brain development during our formative years. Ageing is a natural

Like all social animals and particularly within the

process. It is inevitable, and when we again become

animal kingdom; there is a group called the mammals.

old we need the same love and kindness we received

Mammals give birth to their young ones directly and

when we were very young, as we are unable to tend

breast feed them. Not only that, there is a tremendous

to ourselves. We lack the physical strength, vision,

biological connection between the offspring and

and the sense of balance. THE EKLAVYAN | 35

Love is the universal fabric that binds together people

two to three thousand years ago, religion played an

from diverse backgrounds, heals wounds, bridges

important role in our lives and it dictated the way we

communities, brings out the inner light, gives us a

should act in our daily lives. Religion showed us how

sense of being loved, invigorates our well-being, and

we should lead our lives and what principles should

most importantly creates an atmosphere of tranquility

we adopt to lead our lives and make it meaningful

and peace which I think everyone desires from their

and happier. Later on, the responsibility of providing

innermost core. One can become the poorest of the

that guidance on how to lead an ethical life fell on

poorest, and still be a happy person if one practices

schools and parents. However, the schools have not

love and compassion towards fellow human beings.

been able to provide education which would make a

If we look clearly and from the wider perspective,

person disciplined and lead a happier and meaningful

our whole movement of life from our birth to death

life. Modern education is more interested and close

is towards trying to find an answer for the inevitable

to fulfilling our desires to gain material wealth, and

question, ‘How am I to be happy?’ As we carry

ignoring our spiritual side. We are not machines but

out our actions in our daily lives, we can know that

we are beings with emotions, dreams and aspirations.

our very actions are towards trying to achieve that

If we were machines then material things would

happiness and, as far as possible, try to refrain from

make us absolutely happier beings, but this is not

suffering. Let us take an example of a turtle. The

the case. In the developed countries it seems that

turtle comes to the land to lay its eggs and once it

people are suffering from anxiety, disappointment,

finishes doing it then it leaves. Later, the turtle babies

frustration, depression and loneliness although their

hatch and have to look after themselves. However, in

material development is well advanced than ours. The

the case of an animal such as a parrot, it looks after

number of crime and violence is higher in developed

the chick and cares for it. When the chick becomes

countries than in the less developed ones. Spirituality

capable and able to fly, it recognizes its mother and

is of two types; one is based on religion and the other

flies with it. But in the case of the turtle, the baby

is not. Spirituality also means seeking and cultivating

turtle once it becomes a fully grown turtle doesn’t

the basic human values such as honesty, sincerity,

recognizes its own mother. The reason is that the

love, respect, kindness, discipline, and so on which is

turtle abandoned the babies and left, hence there

the basis of becoming a better person and a happier

was no connection. However, the parrot cared


and nurtured its young ones and hence due to the mother’s love and kindness the chick could later on

Peace is not only the absence of war but it is the

recognize its mother.

presence of love, kindness and respect of human rights. Peace without war is no use for a person

Also, within the human society there is a great

who is starving or the mentally depressed. If we

number of scientists pointing out that the main cause

lack basic human values such as honesty, respect,

of distress and downfall of many youths is due to the

contentment, love, kindness, trust and so on then

lack of love and compassion in our society; a lack of

there is no basis to create a happier and humane

sense of caring for one another. When the young child

society. The cultivation of love and compassion is

is not given affection from the parents or guardians

not a luxury but a necessity for our own survival. Love

then they later on become aggressive and violent

and compassion is based on reason and logic. When

children unable to express basic human emotions

we practice compassion and love towards others,

such as love, kindness and compassion towards

then the first person to benefit is ourselves. We feel

others, and it is so sad. On the other hand, when the

more relaxed, comfortable and our anxiety, distrust

children are given affection and cared, they go on

decreases which puts us at ease when we meet

to become confident and sound youth who are able

people. However, if we look others with suspicion

to express love and kindness towards others. About

and distrust then we will feel anxious, distrust and


uncomfortable. Hence, the person who practices is the first one to benefit and the receiver of our love and kindness also benefits. Then it creates a friendly, loving, pleasant atmosphere. Who wouldn’t want to be, live and work in such an atmosphere? Such atmosphere is a contributor to our good health and such people also live longer and also reach out to more people in our societies who are less fortunate and less privileged than we are since these poor or less fortunate people are also part of our society. Therefore, I hope people pay more attention towards their inner values. This century is a century filled with opportunities and challenges, as we are all young we should all stand up, be confident and do our best to make this earth a better place to live in and also, do our level best to make this earth a happier global family whereby no people have to suffer from hunger, thirst and repression. It is a great time to be born and now it is time to co-operate and bring some constructive changes in ourselves and slowly transforming each and every individual in our society into good human beings. It is not a dream but a necessity for our own survival. I want to remember a quote from the man who made non-violence (Ahimsa) not only a spiritual way of life but a political tool as well to bring conscience and truthfulness in our lives.

Small truths to make our life 100 ... If

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU VWXYZ Is equal to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 respectively, then

HARDWORK 8+1+18+4+23+15+18+11 = 98% KNOWLEDGE 11+14+15+23+12+5+4+7+5 = 96% LOVE = 12+15+22+5 = 54% LUCK = 12+21+3+11 = 47% (Don’t most of us think this is most important?) Then what makes 100% Is it MONEY? ... No!, LEADERSHIP? ... NO! Every problem has a solution, only if we, perhaps, change our attitude.

Counting IT! Karma

To go to the top, to that 100% what we really need is to go further... a bit more...

ATTITUDE 1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5 = 100% It is OUR ATTITUDE towards Life and Work that makes OUR Life 100%. Don’t you think so?!

FRIENDSHIP 6+18+9+5+14+4+19+8+9+16 = 108% See friendship is important as it’s more than 100%. THE EKLAVYAN | 37

Work Spiritually, Lead Spiritually Hira Dhan Gurung

Let me quote a famous saying of Swami Vivekananda, ’’You are what you think”. How you think, what you think is personal and is in your hands; but it makes you, shapes you and restructures you physically and psychologically. Your thought not only impacts you but also impacts all others of the same thought waves and creates reality earlier or later. So, start thinking what you want to make of yourself and how you want to reflect yourself in the future. Mechanism of thought Thought is really powerful; it has been explained by the spiritual leader, Khaptad Baba, in his book Bichar Bigyan too. It also transmits in the form of waves and can spread in speed higher than that of light. When you think, it transmits in the form of waves in the Universe and also codes in physical parts of the body or neurons. Then it starts to regulate various neurochemicals and hormones in the body. You become depressed when Seratonin level disturbs and become happy or blissful when dopamine level is elevated. So, all your psychological parameters like happiness, sadness, emotions, threats, aggression and peripheral outcomes are resulted by your thoughts. But we forget to identify what forces us to think or the science behind it? Somebody asks you, “What is your name?” You simply answer them that you are Ram, Shyam or whosoever. You never try to know who really you are. You are a very beautiful creature of Nature of God who installed software and hardware and gave you a form of human being. But the software within there is the consciousness or the form of sensitivity, that is the AATMA or the SOUL which drives you and your thoughts. Your physical body needs food for growth and development but the Soul rejuvenates with nothing. It only requires knowledge that you are a conscious Soul, which brings in you more and


more consciousness, awareness and mindfulness.

management. You already know that conscious

(Practice of being more self conscious and aware by

workforce is the supreme unit of the system that

asking question and knowing about ‘’who you are’’

gives life to the system. So, the first priority in change


management in your organization is to change your human capitals into more conscious and aware

Understanding Management Spiritually

workforce. Let them know themselves, let them win themselves, let them win over their impurities, then

It can be now proved that mind equals to physical

system will be automated and self reliant. A lot of

body. All inventions and physical things you see

discussions are there over about Quality of Work-Life

around you are the outcomes of thought in the

in modern management practices but until and unless

human mind. Management of the mind also always

spirituality is not practiced among them, parameters

exercises for bringing the best outcomes in efficient

of it will not show completeness.

ways through resource utilization. So, management is a system procession in which man, machines,

Manangement by consciousness and its

materials, money and methods are processed into


output, but the role of your conscious workforce is there behind the system. So, the more the conscious

When one knows his identification, first he wins over

and aware workforce, the more the system will be

threat, develops confidence, attains self motivation

alive and the better will be the output. Organizational

and inspiration. He finds the ways out at the time

management system has now been so diversified,

of problems and acquires great decision making

so competitive and so limited due to so many rules

skills. Your people present clarity in thoughts, ideas

and regulations that it has changed human capitals

and implementation. Their thoughts intensify and

into humanoids. A chain adds up in the life of the

converge with a high intensity, restore energy and

workforce, making the statement realistic - A child

strength and complete the mission. Spiritual practices

is born free but is bound by chains of rules in the

makes them pure like gold, dissolve all impurities

society when he grows up. Due to the limitations

like anxiety, frustration, depression, threat, anger

and boundaries of the organizational system and

and in contrary brings calmness, love and harmony,

other policies, it contributes internal forces in your

creativity, happiness and satisfaction, feeling of

workforce and bursts as anxiety, depression,

humanity and brotherhood. It transforms them into

aggression, threats, etc. But when you understand

responsible, self dependent and sincere integrals.

that your human capitals are your supreme conscious

Overall, it changes your workforce into A

unit of system and let them conquer over these internal forces, they make the system alive and it’s

Real Karmayogi

you always succeeding as smart manager. Just call a spiritual leader or qualified meditation Managing changes spiritually

trainer for a few hours of spiritual practice at the time of meeting or training. Just be together and let

“Let’s change ourselves to change the World.”

others follow it up. It will be your pious deed, done

The philosophy of this famous quote of Dr. Yogi

for your near and dear associates, a step ahead in

Vikashananda is very realistic in organizational change

management practice.


Social Work in Nepal

Kishore Risal

Social work had existed in Nepal from the very

the Ranipokhari. King Jayasthiti Malla was also

beginning in the form of charity and welfare as ‘Dan

religious-minded and a social reformer who built

and Databya’. The Nepalese type of social work had

two Kumbheshwor temples in Patan. Bhupatindra

been executed as philanthropy rather than human

Malla built the 55 window palace in Bhaktapur.

welfare. The influence of the Hindu philosophy is a

At that time, different organizations were

major determinant and several philanthropy based

established and categorized social works into

concepts of social work and social welfare are found

Panchayats, Guthis and Sebakhalak. The Mallas

in Hindu literatures. Social work is motivated from

massively mobilized social work for social welfare.

the Hindu code: If anyone provides alms to poor and weaker people he/she certainly gets a seat in heaven.

3. After the unification of Nepal, King Prithivi Narayan

By persuasion of the code, activities like construction

Shah proudly claimed Nepal to be a “Garden of

of temples, schools, roads, public water distribution,

four castes and thirty-six races”. Vimshen Thapa

free food and clothes distribution are still doing. The

constructed several temples, bridges, roads and

late Dayabir Singh Kansakar is known to be the first

taps among which the huge is the Sundhara.

social worker of Nepal. 4. In the Rana Period, various malpractices were The Nepalese history of social work can be classified

abolished: the sati system (8th July 1920

into seven periods.

by Chandra Shamsher), the slavery system (28th Nov, 1924) and Capital punishment

1. At the time of the Lichhavi rule, people believed that social work and social welfare must be done to








allowed to involve themselves in social work.

gain piety. In light to the belief, most of the Lichhavi kings like Mandev, Ansuvarma, Dhrubadev,

5. King Tribhuwan announced the end of the Rana

Shivadev and others used to provide drinking water

rule 1951 and declared Democracy. At that time,

and construct Dharmasalas, Patis and Pauwas.

people were empowered and were led towards education

2. Despite the political instability during the Dark



got The

capacity Social




Age in Nepalese history, the Malla rulers

was established. But at that period, social

preserved, maintained and continued the social

institutions were operated under the direction

work trends inaugurated by Lichhavi kings. The

of the Royal members. Kings Tribhuwan,

Malla kings had erected temples, Bihars, canals,

Mahendra and Birendra had initiated a lot of

wells, bridges, roads, etc. King Pratap Malla built

social welfare and social services. Land, money and the likewise were donated for social welfare.


6. In the 1990s, the period of establishment of




The concept of social work being a professional field


still has not been widely accepted by the people or

expanded the friendly, diplomatic relations with

even recognized by the government of Nepal. Social

neighboring countries. Foreign aid began to

workers are struggling and, in many instances, risking

enter the country in the form of reformation of

their lives to help others, but they themselves are

health, educational status, etc. Social reforms

being marginalized. There is a need for associations

were made by introducing revolutionary laws

or institutions to protect them the absence of which

and acts like the abolition of Race, Caste

forces the social workers to work in isolation.

and Gender based discrimination, and so on. There





7. After 12 years of armed conflict and pro-

organizations in existence today and most of

peoples’ movement 2006 the parliament was

which depend on foreign support and donations to

reconstituted and opened the door for building

implement various types of programs and projects.

Federal-Democratic-Republican-Nepal or New

Almost all of them employ individuals with good

Nepal. At the time of insurgency, several I/NGOs,

intentions and mobilize local volunteers. They are

individual had worked for the social awareness

the social workers of contemporary Nepal today

in spite of armed threat for the betterment of

who receive some form of basic training in this field

people. The volume of foreign aid, in the name of

after their involvement in NGOs / INGOs, and the

conflict, rehabilitation, women, child, restructure,

experience derived from their work is considered

federal system, democracy; were unknowingly

to be the most valuable asset. These people enter

increased and I/NGOs, civil society, human rights

this field from all walks of life and most of them are

activists are still acting to fulfill separate interests.

observed to be duty oriented and the work is seen

The restructuring process proves the emergence

as a means to meet their daily needs. Therefore,

of social work in Nepal vis-à-vis post-conflict

a professional attitude is yet to be developed and

situation. The increasing number of Governmental

professionalism practiced. This is our general situation

organizations, I/NGOs, service sectors, line

at the moment, but this trend is slowly changing.

agencies, and growing socio-political awareness

For the first time in Nepal, the Jesuits introduced a

of Nepalese people is the cause of demanding

full-fledged degree program in social work in 1995

role of social work at the moment for intervention.

and many government colleges offer subjects and courses in this field. Prior to this, the existing gaps

The religion, culture and the patriarchic traditions of

were being filled by Non-governmental organization

the society always dominated the values of social

that offered non-academic training and courses in

work. The birth of democracy in Nepal in 1990

the art of working with people. Their efforts have

provided a fertile opportunity for the NGO sector to

been commendable but their reach has been limited

grow. As a result, the need for trained social workers

due to lack of proper infrastructure, coordination

grew in the country. The restoration of democracy

and the small nature of their programs. The Nepali

and the recent pro-people movement 2006 further

people are facing a transition period at this time and

brought about land mark changes in the field of

the need for trained social workers has become even

social work with the emergence of large number

greater. Along with this need, we require a greater

of NGOs, Community based organizations and the

understanding of “Social Work” as a professional

strong presence of INGOs in the country contributing

field in Nepal and recognition that social work is a

to the social development. The concept of social


work in Nepal, even today, is seen as free service and voluntary work usually practiced by the affluent classes without any necessary skills and knowledge. THE EKLAVYAN | 41

Operational Risks Prakash Bhandari

The Basel Committee has defined operational risk as “… the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people, and systems or from

Operational Risk in the banking sector is somewhat a new phenomenon compared to other types of risks, i.e. credit risk, marketing risk, liquidity risk, etc. But operational risk stands for the most important risk and needs to be handled with utmost care. Before going on to the nature of operational risks in detail, we should briefly try to understand what operational risks are for the banks.

external events. It includes legal risk but excludes strategic and reputational risk.” How to Identify Operational Risks? From the definition as stated above, it is clear that operational risks are not consciously taken. But they invariably arise in the course of conducting business activities. The key challenge is to identify and anticipate the various kinds of operational risks that may arise. The Basle committee has categorically designed a framework to identify operational risks as follows: 1. Internal fraud: (Intentional misreporting of trading positions, employee theft, and insider trading on an employee’s own account, etc.)


risk is considered low frequency, high severity. 2. External fraud: (computer hacking, robbery and forgery, etc.) This risk is considered high/ medium


3. Employment safety:






severity. workplace


sexual discrimination claims, etc.)


This risk

is considered low frequency, low severity. 4. Clients, products, and business practices: (misuse of confidential customer information, improper trading activities on the Bank’s account and money laundering, etc.) This risk is considered low/medium frequency and high/medium severity. 5. Damage fires





physical floods, low

assets: etc.)

(earthquakes, This





6. Business disruption and system failures: (hardware and




problems, and utility outages, etc.)

This risk






submits a subjective evaluation of the sources of operational risk, along with expected frequency and costs. Key risk indicators: A centralized unit develops

7. Execution, delivery and process management:

subjective risk forecasts through risk indicators.

(data entry errors, collateral management failures, incomplete legal documentation, unapproved

Formal quantification: Operational risk managers

access given to clients’ accounts, etc.)

prepare an objective distribution of operational risk


risk is considered high frequency, low severity.

losses from an event database.



Some other statistical tools have also been developed


to quantify operational risks. It is much more difficult



framework, risks


we 3



to identify, quantify and manage operational risks 1. Risk by Technology (for example: system failure,

than credit or market risks. Data on operational

programming errors, communication failure, etc.)

risks is not exhaustive. Most banks are still in the

2. Risk by People (for example: incompetence of

process of collecting data. Therefore, developing statistical models for quantifying operational risks is

the staff, fraud, etc.) 3. Risk by Process (for example: data entry error,

a challenging job for the banks.

execution error, transaction error, mis-matching The Basle Framework

of trades, etc.)

To mitigate operational risk, the Basle Committee Managing Operational Risk Operational



has recommended some of the best practices to be has


increasingly important in recent years.

Many of

adopted by banks in the area of operational risk.

the big scams have been due to the failure of

• Board approval

Operational Risk Management. The Board of any

• Independent internal audit

financial institution must monitor internal controls to

• Management implementation

ensure that risks are being assessed and handled

• Risk identification and assessment

well. Meanwhile, Basle II has come up with detailed

• Risk monitoring and reporting

guidelines for identifying and measuring operational

• Contingency and continuity planning


• Disclosure

The nature of operational risk is somewhat different


to other types of risks. Operational risk is a necessary

Operational risks lie everywhere in today’s business

part of doing business. In other words, operational

scenario. The whole process of measuring, managing,

risks are “inherent”, not “chosen.” Thus, it is widely

and allocating operational risk in the banking sector

said that the only way to avoid operational risk is by

is still in its initial stage. In the coming days, more

exiting the business!

precise procedures are expected from the banks to address the growing Operational Risk Factors within

Assessing and Quantifying Operational Risk

the banking industry in Nepal.

Although Assessing and Quantifying Operational Risk is a challenging job, there are tools which can be used for this purpose and they are listed below:

Critical self-assessment: Each individual/department



I was born in Taplejung, a place gifted with a great mountain like Mt. Kanchenjunga and many natural resources. As a poor citizen of rural Nepal, my father couldn’t afford my tuition fees and I had to struggle to go to school. I learnt skills that enabled me to earn enough to buy some copies and a pen. Delicious food was not only hard to get, but almost impossible. But still I felt no difference between the others and myself because nature was a common thing among all of us. We all breathe the same air. Mountains, air, beautiful forests are all common. Mountaineering was always my passion and I had a great dream of climbing Mt. Everest and making a documentary of it, myself being a high altitude shooter.

Where There Is a Will … P.K. Sherpa

When I did scale Mt. Everest, I felt that nothing is impossible. If we have a will then we will certainly have a way. I learnt it and knowing the importance of education, I continued my education and as tourism was my field I had to learn more about it. I couldn’t find any colleges suitable for me and my field. I finally got to know about the BTS program, the best option for me; and the place to pursue it was at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). I could pursue my dream at this university through ICA which has become one of the greatest platforms in Nepal for many people like me to learn more about tourism and adventure. I believe that I am getting more than I had expected. It has always been great pleasure to be a student and part of this institution and university as it has greatly assisted me in exploring my career in the tourism field.




Silky Kedia

I am a Chartered Accountant and am very happy with

individual throughout the world these days. In a

my line of work. But, I often think how it would be if I

newspaper article a few weeks back, I read that

were an engineer with a keen interest in physics, or a

people, especially teenagers, have become so crazy

doctor like my better half. How wonderful it would be

about Facebook that they are getting their profile

if we never needed to decide on what to study like we

pictures shot by professional photographers (paying

did up to SLC. We would have knowledge in all fields:

more than Rupees fifty thousand) to create good

Commerce, Science and Arts. But, we would end up

impressions and attract more people to view their

in being a “Jack of all trades and ...” In this competitive

profiles. Now guys, tell me one thing, does it make

world, masters are welcomed everywhere, not Jacks.

any sense to have thousands of unknown people in

Then, I realized the importance of choices - making

your friend list due to the illusion you have created

an appropriate choice.

through your picture whereas your actual friend list may not even be ten.

I decided to write something about the world economic recession, but realized that it would be a

The world witnessed the greatest chapter of terrorism

very technical topic and readers expect something

called ‘BIN LADEN’ that ended last year, which is

interesting and lively in the magazine and, thus,

indeed an interesting chapter in itself. People around

dropped the idea. Now, if we talk about the power

the world are serious about global warming and the

cuts or load shedding which we are facing daily, has

rising temperature each day, while we, the people of

it done anybody any harm? Has it created hurdles or

Nepal, are tensed about the ever rising prices of fuel.

are we unhappy with it? I think it’s not just an electrical

Be it “Anna’s Revolution” against corruption or New

load shedding, but let’s look into the literal meaning

Yoga “fundas” of Baba Ramdev, our neighboring

carefully. It says ‘LOAD-SHEDDING’ which means,

country India has may interesting topics we can talk

shedding the load of the really hard working people

about. But how to decide amongst all these as each

of Nepal. We really are tired of the hard work and

topic turns out to be more interesting than the other.

to give us some rest, the government has come out

So, shall I write about all these? No, that wouldn’t be

with this never ending gift called ‘LOAD-SHEDDING’.

a very wise idea.

So, friends, do you find any harm in this? Literally, I don’t. Well, we all know the pros and cons of LOAD-

My objective behind all this preface is to let the

SHEDDING, so let’s not discuss about it anymore.

readers know the importance of being decisive in life and to make your decision. It’s not necessary

Then, what shall we talk about? Other matters

that you always make the appropriate decision; what

of interest for discussion may include the social

is necessary is that you make a decision and at the

networking sites like ‘Facebook’ and ‘Twitter’,

right time. No matter how appropriate a decision is,

which have almost changed the life style of every

it loses its value if not made at the appropriate time.


My father passed away when I was 22, and as the

on walking towards your path, and you will reach to

eldest child in the family from amongst four siblings,

the final destination. The result may be positive or

all of a sudden, my opinion and my decision, to some


extent, started being important in the family. When I used to be a small kid, I wanted to take my own

Rita Mae Brown has said, “Peacefulness follows any

decisions and I am sure the case must have been the

decision, even the wrong one.” So, once you have

same for all of you. When parents suggest otherwise

decided, you will surely be in a state of peacefulness.

and we have to follow their decisions, we usually

BHAGWAT GITA says ‘Karma kar, fal ki aasa na kar’.

feel bad, exhausted, and sometimes breathless. A

If it is a success, it is the result of the right decision

thought arises, “After all it’s my life, why can’t I take

that you had made, and, even if it is a failure, it will

my own decisions??’’ But now, when people turn

surely give you some knowledge for the future. You

their eyes on to me, waiting for the final decision,

should always remember that good decisions come

I wish dad was there to give the final decision - to

from experience, and experience comes from bad

choose the best. You will find lots of people who give

decisions. Just because you are making the right

you ideas and suggestions, but not the final decision.

decision always and achieving success doesn’t mean

Blessed are those, who have people around them

you are a successful person. You are a success

taking decisions on their behalf. Here, I would like

when you know that “success doesn’t make you and

to take an opportunity to thank my parent for their

failure doesn’t break you”.

support throughout my life, as I owe each beat of the heart to them.

Success is counted not by the position you have reached in life, but by the hurdles you have overcome

It doesn’t mean that you should stop taking decisions

to achieve that position. Will you count it as a success

if you have elders around who takes it on your behalf.

if the children of personalities like Warren Buffet, L.N.

In fact, making a right choice, or at least making a

Mittal or Oprah Winfrey become famous because

choice is in itself a very important art, which everyone

of their parents? No, I don’t think so. What they

should develop. When you start making your designs,

themselves have achieved overcoming all the hurdles

you start realizing that slowly you have to develop a

in life would make them real successes. Taking your

skill which takes you to the state of making the right

own decision doesn’t mean letting down the valuable

decision. The hardest thing to learn in life is to decide

suggestions and decisions you receive from your

which bridge to cross and which to burn. But, it’s not

parents, teachers, friends and relatives. But let us all

hard to make a decision when you know what your

develop a habit of making choices, taking decisions,

values are. Life is a sum of all your choices.

small or big. Sometimes you have to decide between saying “YES” and “NO”. Saying “YES” for everything

It is very well said that, ‘A problem well defined is half

every time is not a good decision indeed. You should

solved.’ Once you have decided on what you want

learn to say “NO” too. If you are not comfortable with

or what has to be done, there remains a very narrow

the situation or the thing, just decide and say “NO”.

gap between you and the final destination. Do not

The person at the opposite end may feel bad, or you

plant your dreams in the field of indecision, where

yourself may not feel good about it, but will it be fair

nothing ever grows except the weeds of “what-if.”

enough if you had said “YES” for what your heart

Until you know what the problem is, it is not possible

decides as a “NO”? Using the power of decision gives

to search for the remedy. Everything is something

you the capacity to get past any excuse to change

you decide to do, and there is nothing you have to

any and every part of your life in an instant. Just give

do. What is important is to make the decision and

it a thought and come, let’s decide.

once you have done it, don’t look back, just keep



Managers constantly make decisions that affect

Step 1: Define the problem. The problem solving/

the work of others. Day-to-day situations involving

decision-making process begins when the manager

managerial decisions include employee morale, the

recognizes the problem, experiences pressure to act

allocation of effort, the materials used on the job,

on it, and has the resources to do something about

and the coordination of schedules and work areas.

it. This means that the manager must correctly define

The manager must recognize problems, make a

the problem. Problem identification is not easy. The

decision, initiate an action, and evaluate the results.

problem statement can be too broad or too narrow.

In order to make decisions that are consistent with

Managers are easily swayed by a solution orientation

the overall goals of the organization, managers use

that allows them to gloss over this first and most

guidelines set by top management. Thus, it is difficult

important step. Or, what is perceived as the cause of

for managers to make good decisions without good

a problem, may actually be a symptom.

planning. The manager must solve the right problem. In order An objective becomes a criterion by which decisions

to define the problem, the manager must describe

are made. A decision is a solution chosen from

the factors that are causing the problem. These are

among alternatives. Decisions must be made when

the symptoms, visible as circumstances or conditions

the manager is faced with a problem. Decision-

that indicate the existence of the problem -- the

making is the process of selecting an alternative

difference between what is desired and what exists.

course of action that will solve a problem. The first

By not clearly defining the problem, ineffective action

decision is whether or not to take corrective action.

will be taken.

A simple solution might be to change the objective. Yet, the job of the manager is to achieve objectives. Thus, managers will attempt to solve most problems. The steps in the problem solving process are (1) define the problem, (2) identify decision criteria, (3) develop alternatives, (4) decide, (5) implement the decision, and (6) evaluate the decision. The problem solving steps which have to be taken whenever a problem has to be faced all over again, can be analyzed as such:



Key uncertainties, the variables that result from


simple chance, must be identified. Regardless of the solution chosen, key uncertainties are important because they can be plusses or minuses. What are the chance variables? Which way would these variables fall, relative to each of the workable solutions? Not all criteria have the same importance. (Criteria weights can vary among different managers as well.) Assigning weights indicates the importance a manager places on each criterion for resolving the problem and helps establish priorities. Criteria that are extremely important can be given more weight, while those that are least important can be given less

Step 2: Identify decision criteria. The manager determines what is relevant in making a decision by isolating the facts pertinent to the problem. Since there is no single best criterion for decision making where a perfect knowledge of all the facts is present, a set of criteria must be used for the problem at hand. These decision criteria identify what will guide the decision-making process. They are the important facts relevant to the problem as defined. It is important that decision criteria be established early in the problem solving process because if the criteria are developed as analysis of data taking place, the chances are good that the data will determine the criteria. Thus, setting the criteria early introduces objectivity. These facts can be tangible as well as intangible. Tangible facts might include the work assignments, the work schedules, or work orders. Intangible facts could include morale, motivation,

weight. Step 3: Develop alternatives. The manager must identify all workable alternative solutions for resolving the problem. The term workable prevents alternative solutions that are too expensive, too time-consuming, or too elaborate. The best approach in determining workable solutions is to state all possible alternatives, without evaluating any of the options. This helps to ensure that a thorough list of possibilities is created. Generating alternative solutions requires divergent thinking (deviating from traditional.) Groups can be used to generate alternative solutions. Brainstorming is the process of suggesting as many alternatives as possible without evaluation. The group is presented with a problem and asked to develop as many solutions as possible. When brainstorming, employees should

and personal feelings and perceptions.

be encouraged to make wild, extreme suggestions.

This process is somewhat subjective, because what

the alternatives are evaluated until all possibilities are

serves as important criteria for one manager may be less important for another. For instance, the decisionmaking criteria used to hire employees differs across departments; the sales department uses the number of new store openings in different geographic areas, while the manufacturing department uses how many units of the product needs to be produced and how quickly.

They build on suggestions made by others. None of exhausted. The manager must judge what would happen with each alternative and its effect on the problem. The strengths and weaknesses of each alternative are critically analyzed by comparing the weights assigned and then eliminating the alternatives that are not workable. Probability factors - such as risk, uncertainty, and ignorance - must be considered. Risk is a state of imperfect knowledge in which THE EKLAVYAN | 49

the decision-maker judges the different possible outcomes of each alternative and can determine the probabilities of success for each. Uncertainty is a state in which the decision-maker judges the different possible outcomes of each alternative but lacks any feeling for their probabilities of success. Ignorance is a state in which the decision-maker cannot judge the different possible outcomes of each alternative, let alone their probabilities. Investigating all the possible alternatives helps to prevent eliminating the most appropriate one, because a decision is only as good as the best alternative evaluated. Step 4: Decide. The manager must make a choice


among the alternatives. The alternative that rates

Group members do not give in just to reach an

the highest score should be the preferred solution.

agreement. They support only those solutions that

The decision can be assisted by the manager’s

they can truthfully accept. If people exercise this

experience, past judgment, advice from others, or

power to go against the majority, they must have

even a hunch.

listened to the collective wisdom in good conscience. A block should not be used to place an individual’s

Timing impacts the decision. The probable outcome

will above the groups.

and its advantages versus its disadvantages are affected at any given time. Which alternative is most

Consensus works in an environment of trust, where

appropriate at a given time?

everyone suffers or gains alike from the decision. Everyone must listen, participate, get informed, be

Decisions are made by consensus when solutions

rational, and be part of the process from the beginning.

are acceptable to everyone in the group, not just

Thus, consensus can be time consuming, long and

a majority. Everyone is included, and the decision

exhausting to the participants. Yet, consensus will

is a win-win situation. Consensus does not include

result in synergism. Synergy is the combined action

voting, averaging, compromising, negotiating, or

of the group, greater in total effect than the sum of

trading (win-lose situations). Every member accepts

their effects. The combined problem solving/decision

the solution, even though some members may not

making abilities of the group members produce a

be convinced that it is the best solution. The “right”

better decision than that of the individual member.

decision is the best collective judgment of the group as a whole.

Taking action requires self-confidence or courage. Only the person who is willing to take risks is able

Consensus gives every person a chance to be

to assume responsibility for a decision involving

heard and have their input weighed equally. All

action. The fact remains that the manager is held

members accept responsibility for both listening and

accountable for the outcome of the decision. Thus,

contributing. Disagreements are viewed as helpful

he or she must be confident that the right problem

rather than hindrances in reaching consensus. Each

has been defined and the most workable solution has

member monitors the decision-making process and

been chosen. Self-confidence is the best element for

initiates discussions about the process if it becomes

a manager to possess at this stage.

ineffective. The smallest minority has a chance to change the collective mind if their input is keener. 50 | THE EKLAVYAN

Step 5: Implement the decision. Once the solution

reviewed from the beginning to determine where

is chosen, the decision is shared with those whose

errors may have been made. Evaluation can take

work will be affected. Ultimately, human beings will

many forms, depending on the type of decision, the

determine whether or not a decision is effectively

environment, working conditions, needs of managers

implemented. If this fact is neglected, the solution

and employees, and technical problems. Generally,

will fail. Thus, implementation is a crucial part of

feedback and reports are necessary to learn of the

the decision-making process. Including employees

decision’s outcome. Sometimes, corrections can be

who are directly involved in the implementation of

introduced for different steps. Other times, the entire

a decision, or who are indirectly affected by that

decision-making process needs to start all over.

decision, will help foster their commitment. Without their commitment, gaining support and achieving

The main function of the follow-up is to determine

outcomes becomes increasingly difficult. With this

whether or not the problem has been resolved.

commitment, the manager has a reasonable degree

Usually, a follow-up requires a managerial visit to the

of assurance that the decision will be accepted and

work area affected by the decision. The manager

has the necessary support.

may have to repeat the entire decision process if a new problem has been generated by the solution. It

In order to implement the decision, the manager must

is better to discover this failure during the follow-up

have a plan for communicating it to those directly and

period rather than remain unaware of a new problem

indirectly affected. Employees must understand how

provoked by the implemented solution.

the decision will affect them. Communication is most effective when it precedes action and events. In this

And the same process is suggested if the same

way, events conform to plans and events happen

situation has to be faced all over again with some

when, and in the way, they should happen. Thus, the

improvement through the following decision making

manager should answer the vital questions before

strategies and tools:

they are asked. Communicating answers to these questions can overcome much of the resistance that

• Brainstorming.

otherwise might be encountered.

• Pareto Charts. • Cost-Benefit Analysis.

Step 6: Evaluate the decision. The manager must follow-up and appraise the outcomes from

EXAMPLE: Pareto Chart

the decision to determine if desired results were

• A bar graph that demonstrates the relative

achieved. If not, then the process needs to be

importance of factors affecting a system. • Used to rank order causes from most to least significant. • Based on the Pareto principle (referred to as the 80-20 Rule): 80% of the problems can be


attributed to 20% of the causes. • A graphic aid to identify the “vital few” from the “trivial many.” Solution is made through the joint effort which is also called the democratic style, where we as a leader shares the problem with the relevant team members as a group; together we generate and evaluate alternatives and attempt to reach an agreement (consensus) on a solution. THE EKLAVYAN | 51

Valentine’s Day & the Adolescents

Sita Kumari

February 14th is popularly known as ‘Valentine’s

Day’. Adolescent girls and boys express their love for each other by exchanging flowers and gifts as a token of love on this day. Most of the times, these adolescents indulge in immoral acts under the pretext of Valentine’s Day. Does real love require this superficial display and can it be confined to just one day? Valentine’s Day is responsible for the propagation of western culture and incitement of youths towards unrestrained behavior. It is the western custom to put parents in old age homes and then celebrate flashy ‘Mother’s Day’ and ‘Father’s Day’ which is put on display for just one day! Now this madness is taking root in our beloved country which has the richest and most sublime culture in the world. It’s that time of the year again; hearts and cupids in multifarious sizes and varieties seem to pop up everywhere and the ubiquity of the colours red and pink could give you a migraine. Yet, Valentine’s Day (whether you like it or not), has come to mean a lot of things for a lot of people. There are those who celebrate it in the greatest spirits, those who don’t see much sense in it, and others who are happy to be part of a universal day set apart for love. Over recent years, Valentine’s Day celebrations in Kathmandu have become more visible and the number of people who flock to gift-stores, cardshops and florists to get tokens of love for their special ‘someones’ is steadily growing. Whether you belong to the group that does not see much sense in this sudden multiplication of love and affection or to that which seems happiest on February 14th, you cannot deny that Valentine’s Day is here to stay. From being a Roman holiday that honoured a number of Saint Valentines to being associated

with Geoffrey Chaucer’s circle of Romantic Love in the High Middle ages, Valentine’s Day has come a long way to become the universal day of love and affection and greeting cards and red roses that have become today. As many expressed their opinions on and plans for this year’s Valentine’s Day, most of them, whether they be actors, singers, students or academicians, couldn’t help but see the brighter side of this day of love. Valentine’s Day, after all, is not only about romance and red roses; it’s about sharing love, and The Beatles say, “All you need is love”. Is love only limited to physical attraction? Love is present in sacred relationships such as the Guru and the disciple, brothers and sisters, mothers and fathers and even towards ones motherland. There was no connection between ‘Valentine’s Day’ and ‘Love’ until the fourteenth century. Today we are blindly following the western culture under the name of ‘Valentine’s Day’. The young students of schools and colleges are falling prey to such culture and express their love to each other by way of exchanging greeting cards. But, actually speaking, it is not love, but a mere attraction to the opposite sex at a tender and immature age. THE EKLAVYAN | 53


in pursuit of

Sony K.C.

“Imagine there’s no country, it isn’t hard to do” – Lennon’s inspiring creation brings nostalgia and lands my soul to the resplendent Dubai airport. Three years ago, I bid my farewell to the United States of America after five long years of stay – after attaining a degree and in pursuit of destiny. 54 | THE EKLAVYAN

Despite my unwillingness, for I had no other choice,

and napping; interaction became my time-pass.

I was to transit in Dubai airport for twelve extensive

While digging for information, I not only realised

hours. Like said, what happens, happens for the best.

what it meant to have an identity, but also a need

I encountered the plight of uncountable number of

for a scheme that protected it. If only Lennon’s

Nepali brothers and few sisters who were stranded in

imagination were true, the nexus between people all

the airport for a period of ten days to months. Woefully,

over the world and the issue of identity pertaining to

the majority had no money to eat. If they had some,

land would not have bothered anyone. We are far

they contacted the treacherous manpower agencies

away from that thought though the song makes us

that shoved them to such circumstances.

imagine for once. Those trapped in the airport held fake visas but were unknown about it. So, entering

Dubai Airport dazzled with intricate decorations and

Dubai was illegal. Though willing to help, there was

colourful lights as if in a carnival. People kill time

nothing I could do instantly.

reading books, surfing the net, shopping, eating THE EKLAVYAN | 55

I myself was unsure what I would be doing in Nepal

Now in Nepal, I have matured to become a research

upon my return. I had a degree, my attainment with

officer. Destiny played me well. I had begun my career

me, well sealed documents and transcripts; yet, I

from the Dubai airport interacting and researching

wondered how I would make use of it in my home

already. A year ago, I got an opportunity to experience

country. Thoughts oscillated like a pendulum and I

Lamjung for a month. It was for a movie shooting –

felt like Shakespeare’s Hamlet - in a state of to be or

my first Nepali movie - and I remembered one of the

not to be.

brothers I met in Dubai. Lamjung, like mentioned, is gorgeous. I felt sorry for him and his beautiful land.

With four twenty-dollar bills I had put in my jeans pocket, I impulsively bought packs of vegetable fried

To these days, I have been following the news and

rice and water. I warned that they had to adjust on the

headlines; Malaysia wanting 100,000 Nepali workers;

amount. Trust me; the scene tore me down. Totally

government banning women to go to Arab countries

shattered, when I saw them flocking to eat – I realised

for work; such policy made poor women enter these

the importance of food. In the States so much food

countries illegally thus putting them to vulnerable

goes wasted. The game of wilful betrayal played by

situation whilst their needs are not depraved but

manpower agencies riled me. Many swore in rage

an aftermath of rampant poverty; cases of abuses

and mumbled they would get rid of these agencies

ubiquitously written. Data reveal migrant workers

once they stepped into Nepal. The scene behind the

add billions of remittances to national economy. In

inquiry counter where their passports were seized

the year 2009 the migration rate of labours to Saudi

and kept was unjust. One in his late twenties said,

Arab rose to 123 per cent. Though remittances add

“Those rascals, they take us to their counter and hit

up to the national economy, the concern from the

us with the danda. What did we do wrong? I sold

government remains patchy.

my beautiful land in Lamjung just to see this day.” Another vehemently uttered, “Wait and see till we

There are no proper protection mechanisms of these

get to Nepal. Those scoundrels! God knows how

people who contribute to the nation. We all know they

we arranged the money to get here.” Complaints,

are not destined to be in such situation. They have

cusses, frustration and hatred filled the atmosphere.

the right to be secured and the only option for them

Myriad of secret thoughts captured me. What if the

is the government that controls over the revenue

process of extricating them was lengthy? Who are

generated from these people’s perseverance. If I

responsible for their compensation?

were to suggest I would say that the government should be more focused on generating livelihood

Restless, I filled in their hearts with hope that all will

options for the citizens. Yet I understand that policies

be well. Upon request, I took some of their family’s

undermine my obdurate logic at this point.

numbers and promised to deliver their messages which I did. I wish I had kept the numbers safe for

Lastly, it is easy to imagine there were no country

follow up; I changed my set many times. Time passed.

and the whole world being one. Whilst humans have

I bid my farewell with a heart leaping in emptiness.

already crossed the limit; it is a terrible feeling to

While travelling, I thought about life without identity.

even think about not having an identity. I hope the innocents I met have had a way out found what they

This phenomenon was not new to me. While in Oklahoma, my Mexican friends born in the US were kicked out of college. They were children to illegal immigrants who worked day and night in restaurants while my friends went to college and enjoyed every right as Americans till the dreadful fate summoned them. They underwent identity crisis. 56 | THE EKLAVYAN

were looking for in pursuit of destiny.


Career Perspectives in Tourism G.S. Oli The scope of employment in the tourism sector is

These include:

very bright and the potential is still largely untapped. Career opportunities exist both in the public and private sectors. In the public sector, there are opportunities in the Directorates and Departments of Tourism of the centre and the state as officers,

• services such as retail travel, currency exchange, tour operators and tourist boards, • passenger transport including coach, aviation, rail and waterways,

information assistants, tourist guides/ escorts,

• visitor attractions such as museums and

etc. Another good prospectus for qualified tourism

monuments, theme parks, zoos and other

professionals are in the private sector with travel

heritage sites,

agencies, tour operators, airlines, hotels, transport

• Meetings, conferences, expositions and events,

and cargo companies, etc. The opening up of the

• Accommodation and catering services, including

skies to private airlines and their emerging tie-ups

hotels, restaurants and holiday parks.

with foreign airlines has removed bottlenecks in the transport and communication network resulting

There are many different kinds of jobs in the tourism

in easy flow of domestic and foreign tourists in the

industry. Some positions, such as a front desk

country. Since this is a new area of employment, not

agent, involve out front contact and interaction with

many qualified and experienced people are available

clients/ customers/ guests. Most jobs in the travel

and the promotion prospectuses are also very bright

and hospitality industry are challenging, exciting,

and rapid. After a few years of experience, one can

and satisfying. Because of the 24-hour nature of the

also start their own business by handling all travel

business, positions can also be exhausting, stressful,

requirements of the clients and gradually building

and intense. Travel careers are for individuals who

up business, taking on additional employees. Travel

enjoy working with people and welcome daily

and tourism comprises many different industries and

challenges. The industry is also an avenue for people


who love the excitement of travel.



to customers, and each one will perceive that experience in a different and personal way, day

Travel and Tourism one of the world’s largest

after day, and year after year, on the same piece


of ground.





provides employment directly to millions of people

• Working with remarkable people: Besides the

worldwide and indirectly through many associated

opportunity to work with people who share the

service industries. A very wide industry, it includes

same mania for a place that you do, tourism

government tourism departments, immigration and

allows operators to meet others from all walks of

customs services, travel agencies, airlines, tour

life. It’s a mutually increase experience.

operators, hotels etc and many associated service

• Tourism can be sustainable: It is believed that

industries such as airline catering or laundry services,

tourism elements perhaps more than any other

guides, interpreters, tourism promotion and sales,

sector of economy which has the opportunity

etc. Travel and tourism enterprises include major

to achieve economic, social, cultural and

internationals with a workforce of thousands, to the

environmental sustainability.

small private travel agent with a handful of employees.

• Transferable skills: Skills used in the tourism trade can be used in almost every part of the world.

Most people in tourism do not usually receive

Many tour and travel operators and tour guides

free travel as an employment benefit. While some

operate throughout the year, travelling the world

careers may involve travel (e.g. flight attendants

and following the seasons as part of their line of

and travel counselors), employees usually travel on

work. In addition, practices used in the tourism

business and work hard during these trips. Although

sector can be used in other businesses.

some employers offer discounts on airfare or accommodation, this is not the norm.

• Diversity of career opportunities: From highend glamour to rugged outdoor adventure and ancient practices to state-of-the-art technology,

The reasons for choosing tourism jobs are highlighted

the field of tourism encompasses thousands of


possibilities. • It is better than the alternative: There are many

• Changes in lifestyle: Persons have the incredible

people who work at jobs they hate. There is an

and humbling opportunity to join people from

attractive powerful incentive in various areas of

around the world in situations where they

tourism industry.

experience something that they have never experienced before to the point where they can

Most entry-level positions in the tourism industry do

and do change their lives.

not require a university degree although other forms

• Sharing an interest and a place: Tourism provides

of education and training are usually necessary.

opportunities to show some of the unique and

Many occupations require skills that must be learned

special features of a locality and authority of

and practiced. There are many routes to learning

destination, which can aid in preservation and

and, depending on the occupation one choose, one

conservation efforts.

may achieve a management position through on-the-

• Tackling challenges: Tourism activities always

job training, a college or university diploma and/or

have a new set of problems to solve and it will

through an apprenticeship program. Once employed,

continue to be. The ability to find solutions in an

tourism professionals have the opportunity to achieve

ever-changing environment can be as exciting as

nationally recognized professional certification for

any outdoor adventure.

many tourism occupations.

• Renewable resource in experience: In tourism, if one does it right, she/he can provide experiences THE EKLAVYAN | 59


stations but others are for unusual activities like river rafting, hang gliding, rock climbing and camping. Tour

Tourism Department and Tourism Associations

operators need people for selling the concept and

In the Tourism Department, there are jobs as

then to accompany the groups to the destinations.

reservation and counter staff, sales and marketing

For foreign groups, the agencies prefer girls, who are

staff, tour planners and tour guides. Officers in the

friendly and helpful. For domestic groups, males are

Directorate and Departments of Tourism are recruited

preferred. Again, the qualities required are a pleasing

from among the candidates who have done civil

and outgoing personality, knowledge of the activities

service, drawn from the civil/administrative services

and often participating in them with the tourists. A

of governments. They are involved in the planning and

person hoping to work with a tour operator must be

promotion of tourism activities. A degree in travel and

able to travel with the groups and know people at the

tourism is required for operational jobs in government

destinations to make the tours pleasant for the client.

organizations. Information assistants at the office

Though one may do a course of tourist guide for

of the Tourism departments are selected through

this purpose, people with knowledge of the activities

competitive examinations held by the Staff Selection

can easily join as tour operators. The jobs could be

Commission. These vacancies are advertised through

seasonal in some cases.

the employment news. Information assistants give out information regarding tourist spots and services

Tour and Travel Related Agencies

available and help to plan the itinerary of the tourists.

Travel agents assess the needs of tourists and

The Ministry of Tourism recognizes two types of

businesspersons and help them make the best

guides, international and domestic.

possible travel arrangements from the many travel options available. Many resorts, travel groups use

Transportation Sectors

travel agents to promote their tour packages to travelers. They deal with almost everything connected


with travel including the shortest route to the

Whether on the ground or in flight, there is an exciting

destination, travel mode, the important documents

job option for many people; one can work as traffic

that will be required (visa, passport, vaccination

assistance, reservation and counter staff, airhostess

certificates, etc.), suitable places to stay, current

and flight pursers, sales and marketing staff and

exchange rates, tourist attractions to visit, climate

customer services. Similarly, job opportunities may

and so on. They will plan the trip keeping in mind the

be available in overseas countries on the condition of

clients’ preferences, budgets and special needs.

required skill and formal education. A course in travel and tourism or a qualification on hotel management

In travel agencies, there are openings for reservation

helps to get in. The jobs in airlines though challenging

and counter staff, sales and marketing staff, tour

are glamorous and afford the possibility of traveling

escorts and tour operators, cargo and courier

to exciting destinations. Free tickets for the family

agencies etc. A short term course or a diploma in

offered by some airlines are an added advantage.

travel and ticketing of 3-6 months duration will help gain entry into an agency. Several large travel

Tour Operators

agencies also offer short-term training programs,

Tour operators organize conducted tours to the

and tend to absorb most of the candidates. Some

various tourist spots and manage the travel and stay

agencies take in fresh graduates and train them on

of the tourists. There are many companies operating

the job. Knowledge of destinations and procedures

tours for the domestic as well as the international

help a great deal.

tourist. Some may be to the usual destinations like hill


Accommodation Industries

and marketing personnel, technical staff, service

Accommodation industries include hotels, resorts,

staff, etc. and

motels, guesthouses, lodges, rest houses, etc.

from seasonal / part-time to permanent / full time

The hotel industry is basically a service industry


employment opportunities ranging

providing accommodation, food and beverages to the guests. It is one which requires a large amount

Moreover, travel and tourism related industries will:

of manpower, with a wide variety of skills. A hotel offers career opportunities in its various departments

• give

some specific information about the

such as operations, front office, housekeeping,

different areas of tourism and the wide range of

food and beverages, accounting, engineering/

jobs available,

maintenance, sales, public relations and security etc. One can enter this field through direct entry in some departments or through hotel management institutes. Many institutes offer hotel management courses. Many hotels also offer overseas training opportunities, which allow young people to gain

• tell about what it is really like to work in the tourism industry, • encourage the people to think about what area of tourism suits them better, and • give an important and practical advice on how to get a job in travel and tourism.

promotions rapidly. Freestanding catering industries, such caterings are restaurants, bar, pubs, outdoor

However, work in the travel and tourism industry

caterings, mobile caterings, etc. which can offer job

is essentially concerned with providing services

in various positions like cooks, waiters, bartenders,

for people who are away from home, on business

receptionists, porters, account staff, etc.

or holiday. Tourism can be leisure travel involving package tours, so that travel company personnel

Recreation and Entertainment

must be up-to-date on current rules and regulations

Recreation and entertainment industries have large

and documentation required, in areas like cargo,

numbers of activities that range from bird watching

ticketing and passports, visas etc. so as to correctly

to salmon fishing, horse/pony riding to white water

advise their clients, and to take care of the paperwork

rafting, golfing to wilderness trekking, and educational

when necessary. Besides this, all tourism staff in

visit to entertaining stops. Others are casinos, dance

marketing, counter sales, or guide services, should

bars, theme parks, shopping malls and gift shops,

be knowledgeable about the places their clients visit,

etc. These venues need people as a workforce in

in terms of general background, how to get there

various positions like guest relation executives, sales

connections by air, rail and road and the facilities available. THE EKLAVYAN | 61

Rabindranath Tagore a multi - dimen s i o n a l p e r s on a l i t y Bipin Deo 62 | THE EKLAVYAN

Nurtured and nourished in the climate of Indian

At the same time, he never withdrew his stand

renaissance Tagore maintained a sense of his

that the West’s creativity has been misguided and

individuality right from his childhood days. He was

perverted which led it to go on the path of colonialism,

tremendously influenced by Gandhi with reservation.

imperialism, fascism, Nazism and dehumanization in

He opposed the “Charka Movement” of Gandhi in his

all its form and manifestations. He had regard for the

characteristic style of expression in his essay “The

people of the West, not for the government of the

Cult of the Charka”. Rabindranath Tagore (1861-

West. He stood for synthesis of the East and the

1941) was a leading spokesman for compassionate

West and interpenetration of the opposites.

humanism and culture in India and the world. He was proud of the age of science as we also are. But we

As has been mentioned above, he had differences

can’t say our lives are universally secure or healthy

with Gandhi on many issues of life. Tagore, unlike

in these times of advanced science and technology

Gandhi, preferred open trade policies. For example,

than that of our ancestors in the preceding age.

he opposed boycotts of foreign clothes. He was

This leads us to ask why this insecurity, why all this

an early environmentalist with a strong sense of

terror, why has our so-called modern society led to

aesthetics, who adored wide-open spaces and

progressively less harmony between individual and

riverine areas of Bengal. Similarly, he was a passionate

the society.

champion of women’s rights and empowerment. The first story he ever wrote was all about the misfortunes

Similarly, Tagore was an internationalist who

and abuses that a mother and her daughter had

critiqued the narrowly defined concept of nationalism

to suffer. At that time, he was only 17. His famous

and patriotism. He wanted all human beings to be

dramas, “Chandalika” and “Malini”, have female

treated equally regardless of the nation to which they

heroines. Not only this, in those days, he challenged

belonged. He didn’t want barriers of cast, race and

male-domination structure of society by establishing

religion between people. His age was the age of revolt,

his “Santiniketan School”. It was a co-educational

revival and reformation. Tagore understood the pulse

school, in one way a great challenge to the society.

of the age and pleaded in favour of liberal humanistic and its hope and optimism. His formative influences

It is interesting to note that his instinct was dead

were from confluence of three movements which

against dictatorship. In the mid 1920s, many

were making mark in the Indian history: the protestant

distinguished people admired Mussolini and the

religious movement of Rammohan Roy (1772-1833),

Italian fascism. They included writers such as T.S.

the literary movement of Bankim Chandra (1838-94)

Eliot, Ezra Pound, George Bernard Shaw and W.B.

and the national movement. Though he was a vocal

Yeasts. But Tagore didn’t agree with them. In an

critique of Western imperialism and colonialism, he

essay published in July, he remarked interalia that

had a good taste of Western literature. . The first

fascism was the ‘exact counterpart’ of extreme Hindu

forty years of his life were conspicuous by his fond

orthodoxy. He compared the callous treatment of the

attraction for the Romantic and Victorian poets and

untouchables by the Brahmins to “lynching, fascism,

Shakespeare, matched equally by his passionate love

Ku Klux Kalanism and the like”.

for Sanskrit literature, in general, and for the classical Sanskrit writer, in particular. Tagore was obliged to

His multifarious and multi-dimensional personality

address the question of the relation between India

can be better appreciated through his dramas, short

and the West. He began by believing in an essential

stories, novels, poetry, music and works of art.

dichotomy between the two cultures. He talked about

His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic,

the fusion between the spiritual East and materialistic

optimistic and lyrical nature.

West. With the passage of time, he noticed spirituality in West’s dynamism and experimentation. THE EKLAVYAN | 63

Currency Exchange Strategy An Idea

Samir Shakya

Let us envisage two entrepreneurs one in China and

Now the American entrepreneur makes can cola and

other in the USA. The entrepreneur in China makes

wants to sell in China. If the demand of cola is 50

dolls and wants to export them to the USA. Again, let

cans @ $1 (10 Yuan), he can get 500 Yuan by selling

us assume that his selling price is 10 Yuan (US$ 1) in

them, which can be converted into $50.

the USA and 100 units of dolls are demanded at the current exchange rate of $1 = 10 Yuan. Now, if he

Here, the demand for Yuan is 1000 Yuan and

sells 100 unit dolls he will have $100, and that can be

Chinese entrepreneur has $100 with him. While the

converted into 1000 Yuan.

demand of dollar is 50 dollars only and the American entrepreneur has 500 Yuan on his hand, since the demand of Yuan is higher than the dollar.

Let’s see what happens

American Entrepreneur knows

Chine Entrepreneur has

the demand of Yuan is high

expectation of 1000 Y for

and expects to earn more





500 At current exchange rate the




100 10



American sells

American entrepreneur now offers

100 Yuan for

100 Y @ 10 Yuan for $1 which


eventually is accepted by the Chinese entrepreneur The clever American entrepreneur





American sells

now offers $20 at the rate of 9 Yuan

180 Yuan for

for $1 since the Yuan is on high


demand. The Chinese entrepreneur has to accept that and gives $20 for 180 Yuan and new exchange rate of $1=9 Yuan is formed. Again the American entrepreneur





American sells

offers $27.5 at the rate of 8 Yuan

220 Yuan for

for $1 because the Yuan is on high


demand. The Chinese entrepreneur has to accept 220 Yuan for $27.5 and the new exchange rate of $1=9 Yuan is formed. 0 Yuan Remaining amount




500 Yuan

American makes $57.5 from

Chine Entrepreneur has

500 Yuan

$42.5 and 500 Yuan


Now the new exchange rate has become $1=8 Yuan.

By printing the Yuan and undervaluing, China tries

Previously, $1 could buy 10 Yuan and now $1 can buy

to collect billions/ trillions of dollars. This is called

only 8 Yuan so the Yuan has appreciated and dollar

“Sucking UP”. By doing this, China appreciates the

has been depreciated. When the Yuan appreciates

dollar more. This will decrease import while increases

the China export reduces and import increases.

the exports highly. The question arises as to what

Similarly, when the dollar depreciates the US can

should be done with that collected and hording

export more and will import less. Let’s see how this

dollars. The Chinese government now buys the safest

can happen and without government intervention

assets AAA rated US treasuries bill (T-Bills) which are

how this imbalanced trade can be balanced.

the loans to the Federal Government of USA. The Chinese Government can buy T-Bills either by bidding

Now the Chinese entrepreneur can sell the same

the lowest interest rate to FED, or by bidding the

doll for 10 Yuan which is now 10 Y x $1.25 and so

higher rate to the T-bill acquired by other institutional

demand reduces to 60 units. Thus, he expects to

or investors who previously acquired T-Bills from FED.

make 60 units x $1.25 each= $75 and expects to

By buying the T-Bills with the accumulated dollars in

receive 600 Yuan. On other side of the Pacific, the

return the Chinese Government gets IOU.

American entrepreneur can sell same cola for $1 that is now $1 x 8/$1 = 8 Yuan instead of 10 Yuan. The

The US Government now has lower borrowing cost

demand then increases into 75 cans of cola. He then

which makes them to finance the deficits either

expects to make 75 units x 8 Yuan each = 600 Yuan

by spending more or by lowering the taxes. The

and then expects to receive 600/8 = $75.

American public, thus, can have more jobs because of government spending more, or can have more dollars

In this scenario, there is a demand of 600 Yuan for

to spend because of lower tax and can get the debt at

$75 from the Chinese entrepreneur and demand of

lower interest rate. The Americans are happy because

$75 from 600 Yuan from the American entrepreneur.

they can purchase more; debts have lower interest

The demand meets the supply on each side. Thus,

rate. The American economy has more transactions

the trade imbalance can be balanced by free floating

within themselves too.

money. In summary, the Americans have more money to spend, which in fact has been financed by debts. They can eventually buy more Chinese goods which are cheaper. Again, the Chinese exports more goods and imports more dollars and buys surplus dollars by printing the Yuan. This doesn’t stop at all. Eventually, it depreciates the value of the dollar accumulated by the Chinese Government and if the dollar devaluates, it will increase the long term interest rate in the USA, too. By artificially suppressing the Yuan, the Chinese Government increases the export, develops more factories, develops more jobs and capital, and expands their economy and standard of living. This eventually leads the US to achieve debts at cheaper rate, low long term interest rate motivation to invest more into knowledge based factories than manufacturing, more money in the hands of the Americans and more government spending and low tax. THE EKLAVYAN | 65

An Extract


Santosh Kumar Sah

A study was made to investigate the achievement

Based on the analysis and interpretation of data the

in mathematics of the secondary school students

findings were as follows:

of public schools and private schools of Dhanusha district. An achievements test was taken from the mathematics curriculum prescribed for grade nine.

1. Achievement level of secondary school students was satisfactory.

It contained multiple choice items from the area of the topic statistics concerning knowledge, skill, comprehension and application of the cognitive level.

2. Achievement level of private school students was higher than that of public school students.

The time allocated to the students for the test was forty minutes. The schools were divided into two areas, i.e., rural area schools and urban area schools. Four

3. Achievement level of girls of private schools was higher than that of public schools.

schools from urban areas and three schools from rural areas were chosen. Private and Public schools were selected. The number of students from urban

4. Achievement level of boys of private schools was higher than that of public schools.

and rural areas was 39 and 28 respectively. The achievement level of students was compared with

So, we derive that the achievement level in mathematics

different types of schools, location wise and gender

of public school students was comparatively lower

wise. In order to test the statistical difference of the

than that of private school students. It was seen that

mean scores between any two groups of students,

the teaching learning methods in the public schools

the t-test was used.

needed to be made advanced and strict and the guardians of the rural area should be made aware of the importance of the education so that they could provide their children sufficient time for study.


Achievement is one of the essential components to

domain. This test was administered on 67 students

measure the extent of the goals of the curriculum.

of seven schools. The schools of Dhanusha were

Considering this fact, the government has made

classified in two categories, i.e. urban schools within

many efforts to improve the curriculum, text books,

accessible area and rural schools within remote area

examination system and other aspects of education.

of Dhanusha district. They were also classified in two

Individuals in the existing social context of the world

categories: public and private boarding schools. The

as well as our country are seeking better achievement

mean and standard deviation of the scores obtained

in school mathematics education program. The role

by boys and girls were calculated and were compared

of mathematics in individual professional orientation

with schools type, location wise and gender wise.

as well as in their further career development in an

Altogether eight t-tests were applied for this study. Based on the analysis and interpretation of the data the findings were: 1. The mean achievement of students of urban schools was not significantly different to that of the students of rural schools. 2. The mean difference of the achievements of urban public schools and rural public schools were significantly different.

industrial society is found better than in an agrarian society. Even so, opportunities of higher education options are being accessible to those students who have performed better in mathematics in our context. Therefore, to satisfy parents’ demands, schools want to improve the achievement level in mathematics and on the same ground governing institutions also want to improve the achievement level offering and implementing this and that method and or policies. In this context, various researchers have tried to find out the variables responsible for influencing achievement in mathematics. Among the many variables, the participation of students in private and public schools were found important. Mathematics experts and teachers were consulted to elicit suggestions in order to make the test as comprehensive and valid as possible .A pilot test was conducted in Puspa Sadan English Boarding School at Kirtipur. The final achievement test contained 27 items on four levels of the cognitive

3. The mean difference of the achievement of the boys and girls was significantly insignificant. 4. The mean difference of the achievement of the boys and the girls of public schools were statistically insignificant. 5. The mean difference of the achievement of the boys and the girls of private boarding schools was statistically insignificant. 6. The mean achievement of the students of private schools was found significantly different than that of the students of public schools The conclusion was there were significant differences between the achievement of the students due to the types (public and private) and location (rural and urban) of schools but there were insignificant differences in the mean achievement of the students in term of gender and rural public and urban public schools in the unit of statistics.


Teaching Trends in Nepal

Raj Kishor Singh

To be honest, most of the teachers in Nepal are

as a teaching approach and parroting as a learning

still not from the “education” background. Shyam

approach. Luckily (ironically), these approaches are

Yadav studied law but, instead of being a lawyer, he

confined to schools. A school student can memorise

is a teacher. Naresh Shrestha studied management

a whole chapter, even a whole book, and reads out

to be a managing staff in a bank or elsewhere.

“… milk girl’s dream collapsed … full stop”.

Unfortunately, he is teaching in a college. Those who studied physics, chemistry, or biology are not

Most of the college teachers are translators. Every

physicists, chemists, or biologists. Most of them

word is translated in the mother tongue. Students

are teachers. I am also not exception to this fact.

learn every subject by translation. They appear in

The truth is that, traditionally, teachers need not

the examination but having preparation mentally by

be trained. Those who have the knowledge can be

translation, they write every word by translation. Some

teachers. Even an entrepreneur can appear in the

teachers paraphrase the texts. Paraphrasing a text

classroom as a teacher. This traditional trend is a

means simplifying it. This approach is, I think, better

worldwide fact.

than translation. There are many other approaches critical thinking, literary analysis, commentary, textual

I think something is going wrong in my country.



Most of the students are getting admission in the

approach, moral-philosophical approach, language-

Education Faculty to get education and training for


teachers. The Faculty of Humanities and Arts is losing

and, presently, some of these are being applied in

students. I am not sure whether the faculty members

teaching language and literature.




stylistics approach,

are conscious, but I am sure many of them will not have students in their classrooms in the near future.

Textual analysis and information-based approach

For the last many years, history, political science and

are much better, in the sense that the concept of a

many other subjects are facing this situation – no

text can be presented to the students and concept


teaching is supposed to be a good skill in a teacher. It has a long time effect and students can apply their

It is always a subject of debate whether a teacher

knowledge practically in real life situation. However,

should be trained; whether the training should be

all these approaches are teacher-centered.

concerned with teaching or content of teaching; how to teach or what to teach. A teacher can certainly

A modern trend in teaching and learning activities

teach what he knows but he has a problem - how


to teach. Here, I wish to share something about

Interactional approach is also a modern trend. Yet,

teaching approaches. The teacher-centered teaching

these two are nominally found in colleges. We just

approach is classical: that was before Chanakya, at

see slogans displayed on banners during admission

the time of Chanakya, and even after Chanakya - drill

campaigns. Students can activate teachers by their









enter the classroom. Once he is inside, he cannot

presentations, cross-questions, etc. A topic can

teach properly because of lack of good teaching

be selected from the text. Students are asked to

environment. Good relationship between teacher

prepare on the topic and present it in the classroom.

and students is a fundamental requirement, but that

A certain time is allocated to each student to discuss

is not possible or obstructed by such processes of

on the paper presented by the previous student.


Students become active. Teachers give feedbacks. This process is similar to the presentation in seminars

At present, in colleges, teachers complain that they

and conferences. Students can make their concepts

have the burden of completing the course on time.

clear; they can interact and remove any kind of

They do not like to waste time. For them, completing

doubts. Interactional approach should be applied in

the course is more important than teaching the course

the classroom for better activation and performance

in real sense. Besides, only those teachers who work

from the students.

hard for the students are deemed excellent. They do everything. They teach, simplify and interpret a text,

Any kind of domination, either from teachers or

discuss questions and answers, and provide notes.

students, will be merely an injury in their relation.

In some colleges, teachers provide notes; students

In some colleges, they conduct elections - and

copy them in their notebooks; teachers receive them

evaluation of teachers from students. The Higher

back and make corrections. The students write the

Secondary students evaluate teachers who have

same thing in the answer-sheets in exams. Isn’t it

Masters, M. Phils., or Ph. Ds. Even the best teachers

amusing? Really, we are in the wrong process. Let

get poor marks. If teachers are strict in the academic

the students do everything: they will study; they will

activities and discipline, they will get the poorest

prepare notes; they will answer questions. They

marks. Likewise, teachers are also instructed to

can consult their teachers whenever they have any

evaluate the students in the same way. Those

problems. Student-centered interactional teaching

who receive the poorest marks normally avoid that

approach should be encouraged in the classrooms

teacher. The teacher does not feel comfortable to

in schools and colleges.


Entrepreneurship Pratap Rawal

An entrepreneur plays an important role in the

Ask a child in Nepal, what would one want be when

economic development of a nation and the enterprise

s/he grows up; in the early stages of life, invariably the

is an effective means to combat unemployment.

answer is to become a doctor or an engineer, a pilot

Additionally, entrepreneurship of the people in the

or even a teacher. However, as one grows up with

nation enhances productivity by increasing and

the difficulties associated in attaining this ambition, it

maintaining competitive pressure in the market

gets modified to work as a bureaucrat or, say, in the

which in turn forces the market players to increase

defense services; but never does it turns out to be an

their respective efficiencies. Therefore, it could then,

entrepreneur or to establish and own a business or

perhaps, be said to be a driving force behind the

even work for a business.

growth of smaller economies. The atmosphere provided by our parents, neighbors, Entrepreneurship is a mindset that covers an

schools and colleges, and even the friends’ circle is

individual’s motivation and capability, independently

the same and as the child grows to adulthood the

or within the context of an organization, to spot the

mindset develops to serve what exists, not to create

opportunities and to pursue it in order to create wealth

a new one. This is where one finds security, seeks

or economic success. It is not about the business

and finds the opportunities, and prides in recognition

itself, but about the people, their choices and actions

of being there. Even while working in an organization,

in starting, running and growing a business or their

there is inertia to change and a liking to live with the

involvement in a firm’s strategic decision making.


(EU-2003) While most people do not even consider business In 1700, Richard Cantillon, a French economist, used

to be a respectable occupation in our societies,

the term “entrepreneur” to refer to a person who

many who would want to be an entrepreneur lack

took an active risk; while Coutler, in 2003, referred

the confidence and skills to turn their dream come

to entrepreneurship as creative destruction, meaning

true. It is, therefore, important to create a culture

a process in which existing products, processes,

conducive to the entrepreneurial development, in

business ideas and methodologies are replaced

which people can have a positive attitude towards

by the new and better ones; while Peter Drucker

entrepreneurship and, while celebrating the success,

proposed that an entrepreneur was someone who

can gracefully accept failures as part of the game.

recognized and acted upon the opportunities.

In order to address the challenges in promoting an


entrepreneurial culture, it is imperative to know and understand the impediments, and as is well said by

• Political calculated

instability: risk

inhibits taking

rational process.

Soren Kierkgaard, “the direction of life is forward but the understanding of life comes from looking back”.

• Short term thinking over longer range: is result of mindset formed due to political

Looking back, we can innumerate the following as

instability, people want quick results for they

the impediments in developing entrepreneurship in

do not trust the environment and remain


as conducive over longer range of time.

• Financial security and access to finance: poor


faster pace than the inflation itself, then the chances

need to fulfill the basic needs, access of

are that they will soon become unprofitable.


financial few

capacities to






• High inflation rate: if the start-ups do not grow at a

institutions. • Social Norms: most people do not even consider

• Lack of exposure and basic skills due to an

business to be a respectful occupation.

education system that does not promote entrepreneurship: having trained manpower and

Entrepreneurship development is more than having a

large knowledge base of workers is essential

support system in place; it is strategic transformation

for growth of any economy. As is, we have a

of societies and about changing the mindset of

very small and poor quality work force. Since

people. It is a culture that promotes and recognizes

entrepreneurship is an activity characterized

those who consistently seeks opportunities and acts

by the originality of thoughts, innovation and

on them, maintains a positive outlook even in the

risk taking, creating a new business or even

face of adversity, promotes calculated risk taking and

growing an existing one; education, training

celebrates the success while accepts failures as part

and exposure to skills could provide an answer.

of the game. Therefore, education with training and exposure to various skills from the very beginning of

• Access to information and markets: ventures

the middle school education spanning up to even

can not work to its full potential. Some who

post graduation is perhaps the most important of

recognize the rewards and challenges of involving

all and is perhaps an answer to the challenge of

in starting and running a business remain unsure

developing entrepreneurship in Nepal.

of their abilities to execute plans successfully.


Ecology, Livelihood and Diversification Ramhari Dhakal

A system is an aggregation or assemblage of

Ecology and a socio cultural system must maintain a

objects united by some form of regular interaction

minimum level of integration and inner consistency.

or interdependence. Bio-cultural environment is an

They two are interdependent on each other, but

ecosystem in totality. The health problem related

culture is more dependent on ecology.

to it is described by Bates as ‘ecological point of view’. This view is nothing more than the extension

Every creature must adjust in certain geographical

to all environments and their biotic communities

and climatic condition that prevail in the place they



live and they must learn to exploit the resources

anthropology, the socio-cultural system must be

available to meet their needs. There are mainly two

linked with the ecosystem, that is, an interacting

parts of environment, natural and socio-cultural.

group of plants and animals, along with their non

Culture is a part of human environment. So, social,

living environment. The ecosystem is set up from a

cultural and psychological factors play important

single drop of pond water with its micro organism to

roles in triggering the cultural diversities.




the entire earth with all its plant and animal life. 72 | THE EKLAVYAN

Culture and Ecology

and Neolithic cultures. The people of this period used

fishhooks, pottery, etc. They used dogs for hunting. All the people of every ecological zone have been

They buried their dead along with their weapons.

struggling to adjust in the environment since the

Animal husbandry was prevalent. Later, agriculture

Paleolithic period. Livelihood, culture and social

was started. Thus, a settled life emerged. The life

patterns are determined by ecology .For example,

style was a little developed. They used ornaments,

the daily activities of Hill people, Mountain people

painted caves, made clay pots and wooden stuffs.

and Terai people seem to be different. It is due to

They were the Neanderthal people.

the ecological differences. Historical development of human beings from the remote past to the present

The Neolithic period began after the Mesolithic

modern world is also guided by the ecological setting.

period. It is in between 6,000 and 4,000 B.C. The

It is observed that the ancient civilization took place in

Cro-Magnon men were there. They developed tools

particular limited fertile and appropriate geographical

which were lights, sharp and portable. Though it


was also the Stone Age, it was technically a well

The Paleolithic period is the ancient period of human civilization and culture. It is the pre-historic period. There is a lack of actual evidence as to when it started. Uniformity among experts can hardly be seen regarding the time division of this period. A majority of the scientists believe that it is the period in between 1,000,000 to 10,000 B.C. It is the longest and the most ancient period. The Paleolithic period covered about one million years which included the Ice Age too. The then people were nomads. Some 35 thousand to 40 thousand years back, people developed the sense of society and started to seek caves for settlement. Later, the Paleolithic age was more advance due to the invention of fire. It brought a drastic change in their life style. The people became hunters. They had a simple life style. They used simple natural tools. This culture emerged along with emergence of ancient human beings, the Australopithecus. The cultures of this age are called Cromerian, Chellean, Acheullean, etc. They used stone-made hand axe, spears, needles, harpoons, hammers, etc. Later the weapons were gradually developed. But the development of that weapon

advanced age. The population became dense and they started to use nature rapidly along with the population growth. They were involved in big hunting using moderate and sharp tools like harpoons, blades, hooks, etc. According to Keesing, the Paleolithic hunters not only developed a mosaic regional culture across the Europe but also in Asia and Africa. They were the first settlers in the new regions who had never before seen human occupation. During the glacial period in America, Australia and other islands, people used to dwell and survive by staying in the caves and inside big tree holes of different places but not permanently. Martin says that the hunters resided in large group in North America, Alaska, New Mexico and South Mexico, some 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. Through this way people started to settle in geographically better and appropriate places for millions of years and later they started permanent settlement. The faith of the primitive people had focused that woman cannot control the natural balance.

culture was also based on nature. In other words, the

They believed in supernatural power and mystical

livelihood of ancient man was fully based on nature.

animatisms. Animals and birds were taken as nature related divine forces. The African pygmies

After the Paleolithic culture, the Mesolithic culture

and hunters of inure forest seem to have practiced

was developed. This period is simply the Middle

animatisms, when shoulders cracked or any accident

Stone Age. It is estimated that it is the period

occurred. They changed directions to find and

between 10,000 and 6,000 B.C. The society and

explore new territories for hunting. Until 6,000 B.C.,

culture of this period is the bridge between Paleolithic

they developed new technology of farming, irrigation,


cooking, and pottery and trained animals like sheep,

According to Rappaport, Stemberg tribal people

goats, dogs, etc. In this way, the people’s livelihood

lived in a large river valley of Samba and Jimmy

gradually changed with the natural resources. It also

Mountain highlands of New Guinea. They cultivated

proves that people’s thoughts, religions, rituals, etc.

at a height of 7200 ft. in sloped areas to produce

also are influenced by nature.

potato, sugarcane and banana in the tropical rain forest. They also ate wild pigs, reptiles and grubs

Cultural Ecology

from the surrounding forests. Later they started animal husbandry. Earlier, they moved place to place

Cultural ecology, as an anthropological theory, came

in search of better resources of subsistence. They

to exist in the mid 20th century. It was developed by

migrated seasonally to fit in the ecological cycle

Julian Steward.

where life would be easy.

According to Steward, archer cultures specialized

In this way, human beings changed their livelihood

and developed small tools to use for vegetarian and

according to nature to adjust in new environment.

digging wild roots and for marine resources. In the

Nowadays, people have tried to change the natural

western Great Basin basketry, the mobile family used

environment according to their wants but couldn’t

bows and arrows. The Shoshone people were greatly

succeed perfectly. It seems that nature is always full

influenced by ecology. They had ecological possibility

and perfect. Human beings have to follow nature.

of agriculture. Polygamous family was in practice which moved in pursuit of collecting seasonal food.

At the adoption mechanism continued, population increased rapidly. Due to the rapid population growth,

Steward has shown detailed analysis about ecological

they felt the scarcity of food and traveled from place

impact on Socio-cultural change. He analyzed how

to place in search of food and better life. When they

social system adjust to the ecological condition and

got to a better place, they started to live permanently.

how does the development of cultural life go on. He

The place where people settled permanently in

has taken physical environment as the base of socio

the ancient time is called civilization. Such as Nile,

cultural creation. According to him, the interaction

Indus, Hwang Ho, Greek Roman, Mesopotamian

and relation between population and ecology creates

civilization, etc. They all are in the banks of rivers.

culture. For the adjustment with new environment,

When they settled there, they developed various

human creates and develops new organizations,

types of cultures. Those cultures were also based on

working systems, procedures, ways of life, etc.

nature. Thus we can say that culture cannot develop

Cultural ecology is the study of adoptive process of

absolutely; rather, it is relative to nature.

which the nature of society and features of culture are differentiated by the basic adjustment through

Livelihood and Diversification in Nepal

which man utilizes on given environment. In this way, he used the ecological glass to analyze the culture of

Nepal is a mountainous country having three land

a particular place.

forms: the Himalayas, the Hills and the Terai. The Himalayan region lies in the northern part of Nepal.

Quoting Ember and Ember, “Cultural Ecology is

It covers about 15% of the total land. The climate is

the analysis of relationship between culture and

cold throughout the year. The land is very sloped and

environment.” This means ecology emphasizes to

the soil is not fertile. It receives light rainfall. Mustang,

the study of the impact of ecology to any society and

Dolpa, Mugu, Jumla, Humla lie in this region. The

culture as in the form of the interaction. It is taken as

major occupation of this region is animal husbandry.

an adaptive mechanism by some of the ecological

Some limited agro productions are limited t0 potato,


apple, buck wheat, millet, etc.


Below the Himalayan region, is the Hilly region. It

people living near the river practice fishing and

covers about 68% of the total land. It lies between

swimming. Mountaineering is possible in Nepal

the Mahabharata and the Chure ranges. The climate

being a mountainous country. Rafting in Trisuli and

is moderate. The valleys and low level basin in the

Bhotekoshi is practiced due to fast flowing rivers.

river bank are fertile. Thus the population density is

Nepalese rituals are also geographically influenced.

higher there. The Inner Terai also lies here. It is also

Festivals are also linked with seasons: what we do in

fertile. Rice, maize, potato, tea, coffee, cardamom,

winter festivals, may not be possible in the summer.

etc. are produced here. This region is suitable for

In this way the Nepalese life style is guided by the

horticulture and many people of this area are involve

natural environment.

in it too. Conclusion The lower plain land in the south is called the Terai region. It covers about 17% of the total area of Nepal.

Man is a part of culture but man creates the things.

Being a plain land, transportation is possible. Most of

It is called culture. There are two types of cultures,

the area is developed and there is a high population

material and non material. Both the cultures are

density. It is very fertile area. It is also called the

created according to the needs of the people. Culture

granary of Nepal. It produces rice, tea, tobacco, jute,

is directly influenced by nature, i.e. culture is created

oil seeds, sugarcane, fruits, potato, etc.

on the basis of natural environment.

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of

Culture shapes the livelihood of the people. It is made

all the areas. Different geographical situations have

to adjust in the environment. Various scholars have

created different modes of life. By the adaptation

approved that the foundation of every culture is the

mechanism people are possible to exist. This process

local environment. Evolutionary process also goes

is also called evolutionism. The Terai people and hill

on along with the adjustment process. The socio-

people have different cultures. Though they both

cultural structure and its development have direct

practice agriculture, the way of doing it is different.

impact of ecology.

Animal husbandry in Nepal is common in every

There are various types of culture. The production

part, but the types of animals, way of keeping them

system, social system, norms, values, customs, ways

and other procedures are totally different. Some

of interacting, etc. are also different. The cause of this

examples of the way of adaptation which create

diversification in culture is because of the diversity in

different cultures are as follows: cheese production

ecology. So, the study and research of society and

in possible in the place where animal husbandry

culture ecological science has been developed as a

is practiced. The people of Terai wear thin clothes

theory, model, approach, perspective and paradigm

and it is vice versa with the mountain people. The

in anthropology.


The Kisans in the Threshold of Change: A Sociological Study of an Indigenous Community of Eastern Tarai Sambhu Kattel

The Kisans are an ethnic group of Eastern Tarai with

scholars argue that some of the Nagasia labourers

less than one thousand people. According to the

were brought by British rulers for Tea Estates of West

Indigenous Nationality Act 2002, the group is one

Bengal during 18th century who settled down in the

of the 59 ethnic groups of Nepal which is classified

surrounding areas as farmers and known as Kisans

as an endangered group by the Nepal Federation of

(Lakada 2007).

Indigenous Nationality (NEFIN). According to CBS (2008), the Kisan population was 2876 which included

None of the Kisans know exactly how and when

all the so-called low caste groups of the Baglung

they arrived in Nepal, but most of them responded

and Myagdi districts especially the Sarki who are

that they have spent more than seven generations

also identified as the Kisans. The Kisan community

in Nepal as farmers. There is a strong relationship

with distinct cultural identity is concentrated in Jhapa

between the Kisans and the Nagasia people of West

district only.

Bengal in India. The Kisan community head (hereafter, the Mahato) still accepts the power of the community









head of West Bengal and exchanges Dhoti (loin

Madhyapradesh of India where they were renowned

cloth) and Pheta (white turban) with the Mahatos of

rulers. They were known as Nagbanshi Rajas among

Nagasia once a year. The Kisans in Jhapa district

the Uraun and Mundas until 16th century (Vidyarthi

prefer to live in the forest sides and river banks and

and Rai 1986). After the invasion of the Muslims, the

are used to fishing and small game hunting in off farm

Kisans lost their territory and migrated to surrounding

seasons. The community members do not want to

areas and identified themselves as Nagasias for

intermingle with the non-Kisans. Their houses are

hiding their original identity. According to key

turned opposite to the roadside, speak their own

informants, one group of Nagasias arrived in Nepal

language and practice traditional culture.

during that time and settled down as farmers. Some 76 | THE EKLAVYAN

Theoretical Perspectives

territories during the 1960s but the Kisan settlements were located farther away, and remained insulated.

Change is a common and a universal phenomenon of

As the non-Kisan hill migrants encroached further into

a society. All aspects of society such as population,

their areas, some Kisans lost their productive lands in

their relations and cultural practices and the entire

interactions with the newcomers, attributing to their

socio-cultural environment are changing constantly

illiteracy. Some Kisans realized the need of education

(Kattel 2000). Some causes of change are internally

and admitted their children to school. According to

developed within a society/community while the

the teachers, attendance of Kisan children is good

others are external. However, the external causes

with the attendance of girls being higher than that

of change are seen stronger in the present world

of boys. However, the dropout rate is higher for girls

(Appadurai 1998).

after completion of primary school. Only three SLCpassed Kisans were produced by the end of 2008.

In the view of Gisberg (cf Agrawal 1985), changes

Out of the three SLC-passed individuals, one is

in a community or society appeared in its size and

doing Masters Degree in Linguistics at the Tribhuvan

compositions. A sociologist has to describe the


changes realised in social organizations and its structures. The Kisan community organization and

Older Kisans (above 50) believe that literate or

structure have been changing due to affiliation of

educated people are lazy and do not work at home,

its members into different political parties, interest

but become thieves and highway bandits. Despite

groups and external facilities.

this perception, the Kisans have begun to send their children to school, partly as a result of the

The Kisan Community in the Doorstep of

efforts of the Club over the last decade, and the


perceptions of younger Kisans about education and educated individuals have been changed now. They

The Kisan community remained detached until the

feel that the Kisans remained landless, poor and

last few decades. However, beginning in the 1970s

marginal because of the bias of older Kisans against

they were exposed to the state political system, the

education. A poor family may not be able to save

modern market economy, the non-Kisan hill migrants,

property for their children, but they can send them

state-sponsored education, and so on. As a result,

to school, since the school education is free for all.

the community assembly of 1996 and 2002 and the

The government provides a stipend for the Kisan

community court (Kachchheri in Kisan language)

students, and their Club offers bags, books and

have adapted, post-facto, validating changing norms

stationary. Ultimately, they say, education is better

and practices within the Kisan cultural and legal

than property for maintaining a livelihood. It has also

paradigm. For example, the Kachchheri has started

become understood as a way to better employment

arranging marriage purification rituals in the case of

opportunities, and a sign of status.

inter-caste marriage. Similarly, the 1996 assembly had mandated that community members go to local

Influence of Market and Modern Facilities

government bodies for vital registrations and to the

The Kisan community was closed not only in socio-

District Administration Office for citizenship papers.

political relations, but economically also. The arrival of the non-Kisan hill migrants, the establishment of

Influence of Modern Education

multiparty democracy, and development activities

The Kisan community was exposed to formal

helped modernize the region. Regular and weekly

education when the non-Kisan hill migrants arrived,

markets, and other business centres, schools,

bringing with them the demand for government

police offices and other governmental and non-

schools. Government schools opened in their

governmental offices have been established in the THE EKLAVYAN | 77

region. In addition, tea shops, grocery and grain

their productive land in nominal price. Hence, in the

collection centres were established in each Kisan

process of modernization in the region, many Kisans

village. As a result, the Kisans have been exposed

have changed into wage labourers by being displaced

to modern markets, market products, and other

from their land and traditional occupations. Over 200

government and non-governmental offices.

Kisans, between the ages of 10 and 80, were found to be wage labourers in agriculture, on tea estates, or

In the beginning, the Kisans came to the market to

in construction work. Money, rather than agricultural

sell their products such as grain, fowl, and vegetables

output, is considered essential, because it gives

to buy salt, spices, clothes and stationery for school

access to food, clothes and medicines.

children. With the introduction of chemical fertilizers, hybrid seeds, pesticides and modern agricultural


equipment, surplus agricultural production available

development, it is good to have access to modern

for sale increased, allowing for larger purchases such

goods and services. However, in the case of the

as bicycles, fast foods, radio, television, modern

Kisans, attraction of the community members to

clothes, tea, and so on. The Kisans above the age

modern facilities may impact their traditional way of

of 30 were the first to be introduced to these goods.

life, including their political organizations. Since the

Those above 50 had no access to modern clothes

Kisan government services are voluntary, young

and processed foods in their childhood.

people are attracted to non-voluntary work.

The availability of market facilities in the regions,

Development Activities and Change

the closed agricultural community was not in the

A number of key development initiatives have been

position to fulfil the demand of market products of

implemented in Nepal since the 1960s, of which

the young generations. As a result, some Kisans lost

land reform, infrastructure development, national







education programs, health, communication and

homes to work in India and the Middle East which

agricultural development programs are the most

has only occurred since 2005 . Eleven Kisans (seven

significant ones (Mishra 1997). While the Kisan

males and four females) were in Saudi Arabia and four

settlements were not an exception to this, their

(all males) were in Malaysia. Similarly, two migrants

experiences with these programs have not been

returned home after spending two years in Qatar.

positive. One senior Kisan felt that all development activities carried out in the region were for others

According to the migrants, they have seen the

(non-Kisan), and this only create hardship for the

advancement of Arabian countries and realized the

Kisans. As a result of the development initiatives in

value of education and technology, and also become

the district, many hill migrants arrived and settled

familiar with mobile phones, television, computers,

there. Most of the migrants were educated Hindus

and other technology. They have sent some modern

with access to politicians and government officials.

clothes, wrist watchs, televisions, cameras, mobiles

The Kisans understood the migrants as high

and so on to their family members and relatives. Living

caste, advanced and powerful people. After their

styles and dressing patterns of the family members

settlement, the new migrants played crucial roles in

of migrants were marked better in comparison to

enhancing other development facilities in the region

non-migrants. They owned televisions, visible by

such as roads, schools, health posts, and centres for

white antenna either on the top of the roof or nearby

agricultural equipment, and so on.

bamboo pole. Patterns of dress, cleanliness of houses, and differences in hospitality practices have

The available modern facilities further increased

also distinguished the families of migrants. The family

the number of migrants to the region, increasing

members of the migrants were familiar with new

competition with the Kisans for available resources

foods like noodles, peanut butter, and hot and cold

such as forests, water, and land. As the Kisans’

drinks. Being aware of the consequences of liquor,

traditional niche became insufficient for managing

they have stopped drinking and preparing it. They

their livelihood, alternative and subsidiary occupations

drink tea and also offer it to guests.

were introduced, including wage labour where the Kisans interacted with non-Kisans. Due to their

The children of migrants attended private English

interaction with the non-Kisans, gradually they also

schools, as opposed to public schools. One migrant

became familiar with modern medicines, fast foods,

said that “a labourer who speaks English earns

and other market items.

more than an illiterate individual in the Middle East. Therefore, I have enrolled my children in a private

All these changes have impacted the traditional


political organization; the government and community court. They have begun to invite their non-Kisan

Family members of migrants also tended to save for

neighbours to the Gram-Pooja, family gatherings, and

the future. None of the community members except

public rituals and have even made accommodations

migrants’ families had bank accounts. Sending one’s

for inter-caste marriage. According to a senior lawyer,

wife abroad is a new phenomenon among the Kisans.

“it is essential to modify some of the cultural practices

Some additional changes also marked the families

without destroying their uniqueness. We are serious

of migrants. All adult female members of migrant

about preserving our political organizations without

households were literate, having participated in

distorting their originality.”

adult literacy programs. Villagers used to gather in the houses of migrants to watch television in the

Migration Abroad and Change

evening and discuss things like fast food and new

Migration is another new phenomenon in the Kisan

dresses. The children of migrants were accustomed

community. Some younger Kisans have left their

to modern clothing, fast food, and movies. THE EKLAVYAN | 79

Concluding Remarks

by establishing the National Planning Commission in 1956. The process was accelerated after the political

Change is a regular process occurs everywhere

change of the 1990s because the state allowed

and anytime in society. There are various theories in

individual involvement in the development process.

sociology describe change as a growth or progress

As a result, various Non-Government Organizations

and structural transformation. The recognized factors

were formed and involved in the process of socio-

of change in the present society are modernization,

cultural and economic change in the Nepali society.

westernization, urbanization, industrialization and so on. However, change brings both positive and

Whatever the processes and whoever the actors

negative impacts in society. The positive and negative

of the socio-cultural change and development

impacts of change vary from society to society. In

of Nepal were, the reality is that certain groups of

general, the positive impacts or results of change

people benefitted from the changes but a majority

are understood as economic progress, status of

of other groups became its victims. Hence, simple,

equality, inclusion, justice, access to modern facilities

marginalized and indigenous groups and communities

and physical infrastructures, and so on. The negative

have not benefitted from the change because of their

impacts of change are displacement or economic

inability to grasp the new situation.

digress, inequality, exclusion, scarcity, conflict or competition, and so on.

As a result of the change, the Kisan community in Jhapa has been introduced to modern markets and

Nepal and Nepali societies have experienced

market products, education, multiparty politics, non-

both positive and negative impacts of change and

Kisan cultures and formal political system. These

development after it was opened to the outside world

are positive impacts of modernization. However,

in 1950. The first democratic government of Nepal was

the self-sufficient community being dependent

formed in 1950 and, since then, the political system

on the modern world is losing traditional land,

of the country has been an admirer of development

occupations and cultural practices. Hence, change

and change. Hence, the state has taken the initiatives

towards modernization is not always beneficial to

of socio-cultural and economic development formally

simple, indigenous communities as stated by the dependency theory.


With Best Compliments from

DI SKIN HOSPITAL AND RESEARCH CENTER P. Ltd. (DISHARC) Maharajgunj, Kathmandu Ph. No. 4721500, 4721900, 9813616169 THE EKLAVYAN | 81

Glimpes of activities



Hall of Fame

Mr.Amar Mani Adhikari receiving Gold Medal for

Mr.Noor Dhoj Joshi receiving Gold Medal for

his Outstanding Performance in Master In Tourism

his Outstanding Performance in Post Graduate

Management Program at the 18th Convocation of

Diploma in Marketing Management Program at the

Indira Gandhi National Open University from the chief

18th Convocation of Indira Gandhi National Open

justice of India Hon Shri Justice K.G Balakrishnan.

University from the chief justice of India Hon Shri Justice K.G Balakrishnan.

Ms. Dhundup Dolma receiving Gold Medal for her

Mr. Naresh Yadav receiving Gold Medal for his

Outstanding Performance in Master In Sociology

Outstanding Performance in Master In Computer

Program at the 21st Convocation of Indira Gandhi

Application Program at the 20th Convocation of

National Open University from the chief guest Prof

Indira Gandhi National Open University from Prof.

S.K. Joshi former CSIR Director General & Vice

R. Natarajan, Former Chairman, AICTE , Former

– Chancellor Prof. V.N.Rajasekharan Pillai. Ms.

Director , IIT Madras & Vice – Chancellor Prof.

Dhundup Dolma is also an recipient of Prof. G.

V.N.Rajasekharan Pillai.

Ram Reddy Memorial Gold Medal for being the highest scorer in Social Science subjects at the 21st Convocation of IGNOU.


Mr. Bishwa Raj Bajracharya, Post Graduate

Ms. Paridhi Acharya received Gold Medal in the

Diploma in Financial Management, has been awarded

24th Convocation of Indira Gandhi National Open

with University Gold Medal for standing First in the

University held on September 5, 2011 at University

Examination Held in December 2009 / June 2010

main campus, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi for obtaining

at the 22nd Convocation of the University held on

the first position in the PGDRD (Post Graduate

2nd April 2011 at the IGNOU Headquarters, New

Diploma in Rural Development) Program. Ms.

Delhi, India. Mr.Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Human

Acharya is the Eight Gold Medalist of IGNOU from

Resource and Development, was the chief guest

ICA till date. Ms. Acharya received the Gold Medal

during the ceremony. He delivered his convocation

form chief guest Shri E.Ahamed, Honorable Min. of

address in a teleconference mode.Guest of Honour

State for HRD and External Affairs, Government of

Prof. P.T. Manoharan, eminent scientist, former Vice-


Chancellor and Raja Ramanna Fellow handed over the Gold Medal to Mr. Bishwa Raj Bajracharya. Mr. Bajracharya is the Seventh Learner of ICA to have achieved such a rare distinction.








Singh for




Diploma in Nutrition and Health Education Convocation

Program at the 18th of



National Open University from the chief justice of

Mr. Gagan Gurung receiving Gold Medal for

India Hon Shri Justice K.G Balakrishnan.

his Outstanding Performance in Master In Rural Development Program at the 21st Convocation of Indira Gandhi National Open University from the chief guest Prof S.K. Joshi former CSIR Director General & Vice – Chancellor Prof. V.N.Rajasekharan Pillai.


Voices Gagan Gurung Gold Medalist-IGNOU | Nepal Bidhya Bhusan Award There are a number of reasons why I choose IGNOU. Degree offered , sound curriculum, well written and selfexplanatory text books, flexibility, scientific and strict evaluation criteria are a few reasons why I preferred IGNOU. Similarly, I found ICA as a bridge between students like me and IGNOU. Provision of well furnished library, counseling classes and other supports provided by ICA were quite satisfactory. Without such support, it wouldn’t have been possible for me to achieve success in MARD. Due to the flexible, affordable but quality education, I think distance mode of education offered by IGNOU is a good alternative for many Nepalese who are geographically unreached and can’t continue higher education due to their occupations. The knowledge gained through the IGNOU degree is quite helpful for me to excel in my career.

Paridhi Acharya | Gold Medalist-IGNOU I am currently working in Underprivileged Girls’ Education Support Program in Nepal of Little Sisters Fund (LSF). I did my Bachelors Degree in Management from Bangalore University. After coming back to Nepal, I wanted to pursue Development Studies and at the same time work in the development area. I found my solution in the form of Diploma Course in Rural Development offered by IGNOU. While pursuing my Diploma I got a tremendous support and guidance from ICA center in Kathmandu. The curriculum of IGNOU was very interesting. Inclusion of assignments, project work and examinations made the course very effective. The supervision I received from the supervisor, support from the staff of ICA and the library of ICA were helpful for my study. It helped me to get such good results. So, I would like to suggest and encourage everyone who is interested in getting knowledge while working or studying full time somewhere else to enroll at ICA, IGNOU. ICA is indeed an institution which will make your study as smooth as possible. I am thankful to the family of Underprivileged Girls’ Education Support Program (UGESP) for their generous help during my Project work “Girls’ Education in Nepal”, which I submitted for my PGDRD course. I didn’t work towards getting a gold medal but I worked hard and at IGNOU your hard work gets appreciated. I am really happy to receive the gold medal from IGNOU. I would like to thank IGNOU, my supervisor, Mr. Mahendra Singh, staff of ICA, UGESP Nepal, my family and friends. 86 | THE EKLAVYAN

Recognition IGNOU awards ICA as the “Best Overseas Partner Institution 2010 for the Best Services�

ICA the First Partner Institution of IGNOU in Nepal has been conferred with the Best Overseas Partner Institution 2010 for the Best Services by Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, India among the 67 (Sixty Seven) Overseas Partner Institutions present in 40 (Forty) countries. Gold Medal and Citation was provided to ICA on the 22nd Convocation of the University held on 2nd April 2011 at the University Headquarters, New Delhi, India. Mr.Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Human Resource and Development, was the chief guest during the ceremony. He delivered his convocation address in a teleconference mode. Guest of Honour Prof. P.T. Manoharan, eminent scientist, former Vice-Chancellor and Raja Ramanna Fellow handed over the Gold Medal and Citation to Mr. Biswajit Mukherjee , Managing Director of ICA.

Pan-Commonwealth Forum (PCF-6) Open Distance Learning Achiever

Mr. Noor Dhoj Joshi recipient of gold medal in Post Graduate Diploma in Marketing Management Program at the 18th convocation of IGNOU has once again been facilitated as an ODL Achiever by Pan Commonwealth Forum. He was invited to participate at the Sixth PanCommonwealth Forum(PCF-6) on Open Learning which was jointly organized by Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU) and the Commonwealth of Learning(COL), Vancouver, Canada at Le Meridien, Kochi from 24-28 November, 2010. Noor Dhoj Joshi being ICA Learner, it is our proud moment and privilege to be a part of this International Event.


Nepal Bidhya Bhusan Award

Mr.Gagan Gurung, Recipient of IGNOU Gold Medal in Master In Rural Development Program at the 21st Convocation of Indira Gandhi National Open University received Nepal Bidhya Bhusan award from Honorable President of Nepal Dr. Ram Baran Yadav on Sept 8, 2011 for his outstanding performance , at a function organized in the office of the President on the occasion of the National Education day , amid the presence of distinguished personalities like Vice President, Speaker- Constitution Assembly , Chief Jusitice and other Ministers.


Faculty Members Computer Science Mr. Bimal Prasad Joshi Mr. Deepak Dhami Mr. Prabin Adhikari Mr. Ramesh Kunwar Mr. Santosh Kumar Sah Mr. Anand Kumar Mr. Dipak Pudasaini (Visiting) Mr. Ramesh Joshi Mr. Ankur Sharma Mr. Shiba Ratna Tamrakar Mr. Dipak Adhikari Tourism Studies Ms. Shahina Hussain Mr. Yugal Raj Aryal Mr. Raju Ghimire Mr. Raman Joshy Mr. Sanjay Kumar Jha Mr. Gopal Singh Oli Mr. B.B Chettri Social Work Mr. Sanjeev Dahal Mr. Swagat Raj Pandey Ms. Rekha Khatri Ms. Smriti Karanjit Ms. Urmila Rayamajhi Ms. Kabita Singh Rana

Humanities and Development Studies Prof.Dr. Mahendra Singh Dr. Shambhu Pd. Kattel Mr. Gajendra Raj Sharma Mr. Kiron Shankar Mukherjee Mr. Pradip Tiwari Mr. Ram Chandra Lamichhane Mr. Ram Hari Dhakal Mr. Siddharta Ojha Mr. Bipin Deo Mr. Dipak Ratna Sakya Mr. Sushil Bista Mr. Tika Ram Poudel Mr. Udbodh Bhandari Ms. Reeta Sharma Ms. Sikshya Adhikari Ms. Bibha Lal Ms. Kunga Dolma Mr. Hemanta Thakur

Health Science Mr. Anil Shankar Giri Mr. Gyanendra Kumar Mishra Education Ms. Bishwa Bala Thapa (Visiting) Mr. Y.D. Tripathi

Management Prof. Dr. Purushotam Singh Assoc Prof. Dr. Satish Kumar Ojha Dr. Shankar Prasad Acharya Dr. Durga Lal Shrestha Mr. Arhan Sthapit Mr. Aayush Rai Mr. Deepak Wagle Mr. Manjil Bista Mr. Pushpa Bdr. K.C Mr. Sunetra Pradhananga Ms. Chetna Thapa Ms. Rohini Pradhan Mr. Anand Tuladhar Mr. Basudev Giri Mr. Kumar Bhattarai Mr. Pramod Raj Sharma Mr. Rakesh Kumar Sanghai Mr. Subash Thapa Mr. Sudip Raj Pandey Ms. Bhawani Ghimire Mr. Roshan Gyawali Mr. Shankar Adhikari Mr. Jayakar Vaidya Mr. Kapil Khanal Mr. Ramesh Khanal Mr. Raju Duwadi Mr. Sujan Raja Shrestha Mr. Shekhar Chettri Ms. Trishula Tiwari Mr. Sujan Acharya


Whom to contact


Tel: 4445540, 2042289 (UTL) | Center Coordinator

Officer Registration Skype ID: icasupport1, Ext: 119

Assistant Center Coordinator

Officer Support

Skype ID: icaaccor, Ext: 107 Skype ID: grievance.ica, Ext: 120

Academic Coordinator

Officer Information

Skype ID: Academic Coordinator, Ext: 121 Skype ID: info.ica

SRSD Coordinator

Account Section

Skype ID: srsd.coordinator, Ext: 105 Ext: 104/108

Management Program Coordinator

Library Section

Skype ID: managementprogramcoordinator

Contact: 4430126

Skype ID: library255, Ext: 106

Social Work Program Coordinator

Computer Lab In-charge

Contact: 4445540

Ext: 122



Khadka, Aaesha Adhikari, Deepa Waiju, Teena Rai, Suja Dulal, Archana Karki, Mandira Joshi, Kusum Luitel, Manish Dhakal, Ek Raj Thapa, Sagar Shrestha

SITTING Left to Right: Trishula Tiwari, Geeta Shah, Biswajit Mukherjee, Amit Giri, Bhimesh Chaudhary STANDING Left to Right: Bikash Shrestha, Pralhad



Magazine Eklavyan  

ICA - Inaugural issue - Magazine - Eklavyan

Magazine Eklavyan  

ICA - Inaugural issue - Magazine - Eklavyan