INAUGURAL ISSUE 2012
With distance learning, the student can learn from the comfort of their homes
28 The Perfect Story
No touch of ugliness just beauty and no touch of pain and grief just the happiness.
54 In Persuit of Destiny
Lennonâ€™s inspiring creation brings nostalgia and lands my soul to the resplendent Dubai.
2 | THE EKLAVYAN
Message from the Prime Minister
Message from the Education Minister
Message from the Ambassador of India
Message from the Vice Chancellor, IGNOU
THE EKLAVYAN | 11
12 | THE EKLAVYAN
Message from the Chairperson, ICA
International Center of Academics (ICA), in its 15th Year of existence, has established itself as one of the leading educational institutions in Nepal. ICA is the Pioneer Institution to introduce, in Nepal, Open and Distance Learning (ODL), which has provided educational opportunities for thousands residing in urban and Rural Nepal. In higher education, the traditional method was the only mode of education delivery system available in our country, which had not been able to cater all the higher educational needs of the learners. ICA, with an objective of education for all, has provided new and alternative learning opportunities in Nepal in affiliation with Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), the world’s largest university which provides opportunities to learn at ones own Pace, Place and Time. In this era of technology and knowledge, Open and Distance Learning is one of the most popular and recognized global education systems and has been contributing immensely to social and economic development of any nation. The ODL mode of education adopted by ICA has opened learning opportunities to many and our innovative methods of teaching-learning and the use of technology as well as our continuous efforts have enabled learners from all regions of Nepal and abroad to pursue education with us. ICA has been providing programs catering to the workforce of all the sectors of our society. We have been adding new programs every year including vocational and training programs. Besides providing education, we have been also playing a major role in advocating and creating awareness regarding ODL and providing consultancy to the government and non-government agencies in Nepal as well. “ICA Doorsiksha”, initiated by ICA, is the only radio program broadcasted in the national FM channel with an objective to create awareness and educate about the ODL system in Nepal. The Inaugural Issue of the annual magazine the “EKLAVYAN” is a continuation of such initiations. This magazine is a portrayal highlighting ICA’s contribution and achievements in the past 15 years. Finally, I would like to thank the editorial board and those who have contributed in publishing the magazine. Hope you enjoy reading it.
Biswajit Mukherjee Chairperson
Editorial Welcome to the Eklavyan! The desire to pursue higher education is there in many, but remained as dreams due to various reasons. IGNOU @ ICA has taken the task to convert these dreams
into reality enabling the learners to achieve degrees. International Center of
Academics (ICA) has brought Open and Distance Learning (ODL) within the reach
Dipak Ratna Sakya
Amit Giri Tushar Niroula
Eklavya, a character of the Mahabharat was a ‘student who learned archery by
watching’ from a distance. One name analysis states Eklavya as one who has sensitivity and appreciation for the finer and deeper things in life and can enjoy
reading, study, and contemplation about many different subjects. Despite many
Suraj Ratna Shakya
bitter experiences, a peaceful and quiet environment, especially out in nature, is one of the greatest desires cherished by Eklavya. The learners at ICA, being inspired by him, formed a group calling themselves the modern day “Eklavyans” - distance learners. In this connection, “The Eklavyan” is the Inaugural Issue of the annual magazine of ICA has taken shape and is an initial effort to bring out the innate qualities of the Eklavyans. “On what topic and how many words …?” was a common question asked. The reply they got was, “… Creativity is encouraged, so the topics are neither specified nor limited. Be original and express yourself freely. The editor will take care of the rest …” This did wonders. One of the contributors wrote, “… I asked the team whether there were special themes to write on, and I came to know that we were free to write on whatever subject/topic we liked. This was the most difficult thing to decide. My mind took a world tour the moment I started thinking about the appropriate topic.” We would like to thank the Faculty, Staff and Learners equally for putting their minds and hearts together to etch and create this Inaugural Issue. We highly appreciate the dignitaries for their good wishes. We also thank all the other people involved, directly or indirectly, in bringing out “The Eklavyan”. The first arrow has been shot …
Table of Contents ICA 10
Where There Is a Will … 45
Come Let’s Decide 46
ODL: An Option 14
Decision Making 48
ODL in Nepal 16
Valentine’s Day ... 53
A Tribute to IGNOU 20
In Persuit of Destiny 54
A new magic bullet 21
Career Perspectives in Tourism 58
Why IGNOU? 22
Rabindranath Tagore 62
ICA Doorshiksha 25
Currency Exchange Strategy
ODL Radio Program 25
Schools in Dhanusha District
Education: No Age Barred 26
Teaching Trends in Nepal 68
The Perfect Story 28
We All Make Mistakes 30
Ecology ... 72
One Year To Live 32
The Kisans ... 76
Unconditional Love 33
Glimpes of Activities 82
Hall of Fame 84
Distance Learning MBA 34
The Power of Love ... 35
Counting IT! 37
Nepal Bidhya Bhusan Award
Work Spiritually, Lead Spiritually 38
Faculty Members 89
Social Work in Nepal 40
Whom To Contact 90
Operational Risks 42
International Center for Academics International
has always been very high. ICA is also proud of
was established in 1997 and has been providing
its Eight University Gold Medalists in the faculty of
educational services to the nation since then. In 2002,
Management, Tourism Studies, Computer Science
it became the first Partner Institution (PI) of Indira
and Health Education, Sociology, Rural Development.
Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in Nepal. ICA was declared the Award winning center as the
The objectives of ICA are:
“Best Overseas Partner Institution 2010 for the Best Services by Indira Gandhi National Open University”.
• To impart affordable quality education. • To provide a platform to those seeking to pursue
The study center has been approved by the Ministry of Education, Government of Nepal. It is also the only educational institution from Nepal to become the member of Asian Association of Open Universities
their education at various levels. • To provide higher education to a large section of the population. • To promote Distance Education in Nepal
(AAOU). The learners enrolled in ICA are freshers or ICA presently offers 45 programs in Management,
professionals from diverse fields such as Hospitality
Humanities and Social Science, Tourism, Computer
Industry, Financial Institutions, Telecommunication,
Science, Journalism and Mass Communication,
Corporate Houses, Embassies and Diplomatic
Education, Rural Development and Health Science.
agencies, etc. The World Health Organization, Nepal has signed an agreement with ICA to provide
ICA offers a unique opportunity to study and work
scholarships to the students enrolled in Certificate in
simultaneously. More than 800 learners have
Health Care Waste Management Program.
successfully completed their graduation, undergraduation, post graduation, diploma and certificate
To assist the learner in pursuit of their learning, ICA
level programs. Due to the dedication of the faculty
has setup various infrastructure and facilities for them
members, members of the staff and the hard work
of the learners, the success rate of the students
10 | THE EKLAVYAN
Induction Meetings Induction Meetings are conducted on a regular basis for fresh learners of both July and January sessions to orient the students. A detailed presentation on the academic procedures, rules and regulation of IGNOU, modalities of Distance Learning through ICA is presented to them. An open session is held at the end of the program where learners can further clarify their doubts and queries. Library The library is equipped with reference books, audio video materials and other supporting materials. The resources are mainly confined to the programmes and courses in offer. Both print and online resources are available to help the students. These include peerreviewed academic journals.The leading Nepalese and Indian daily newspapers are also in stock in hard copy. Subsidized photocopying facilities are also available to students. Computer Facilities The computer labs are equipped with Pentium based terminals and students have free access to Internet
ICA DOOR SHIKSHA Program
and e-mail facilities (academic purposes only). The Center provides hands-on training as well.
ICA has been “ON AIR” for more than a year with the program “ICA DOOR SHIKSHA” in one of the leading
national FM stations called Kantipur FM 96.1 , at 7:30 am NST, every Saturday, with an objective to:
ICA provides counseling services to students through its Student Support Section. Support is give to those students who experience difficulties with their studies or other non-academic matters.
• Create awareness regarding Open Learning and Distance Education. • Awareness of IGNOU and its program offered in Nepal through the ICA. This program is the first of its kind related to Distance Education to be broadcasted in Nepal till date, the program has also been listed among one of the most popular educational awareness programs aired by FM stations in Nepal. The program is telecasted live.
THE EKLAVYAN | 11
a mega university
The Indira Gandhi National Open University, established by an Act of Indian Parliament in 1985, has emerged as the largest Mega University in the democratic world. It began by offering two academic programmers in 1987 i.e. Diploma in Management and Diploma in Distance Education with strength of 4528 students. Today, it serves the education aspirations of more than 3.5 million students in India and 44 other countries through the twenty-one Schools of Study and a network of 62 regional centers, with more than 3000 centers in India and 61 overseas centers. The University offers 445 Certificate, Diploma, Degree and Doctoral programmers comprising around 1500 courses, with a strength of 420 faculty members and academic staff at the headquarters and regional centers and about 36,000 counselors from conventional institutions of higher, professional from various organizations, among offers.
12 | THE EKLAVYAN
The mandate of the University is:
The salient features are
• to provide access to higher education to all
• Study according to your own pace and convenience
segments of society. • to offer high quality, innovative and need-based programmers at different levels, to all those who
• Study at your own chosen place
require them. • to reach out to the disadvantaged by offering
• Flexibility in choosing courses and combination
programmers in all parts of the country at
of courses from a wide range of disciplines/
affordable costs, and
• to promote, coordinate and regulate the standards of education offered through open
and distance learning in the country. The University has, in a relatively short time, contributed
• Use of modern and appropriate educational and
community education and continual professional
IGNOU Degrees enjoy wide recognition all over
development. As a world leader in distance education,
the world. They are recognized, among others, by:
it was conferred the Centre of Excellence Award in Distance Education in 1993 and the Award of
• Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal.
Excellence for Distance Education Materials in 1999
• Kathmandu University, Nepal
by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), Canada.
• University Grants Commission (UGC),Nepal
The University is committed to quality in teaching,
• University Grants Commission (UGC), New
research training and extension activities, and acts as a national resource for expertise and infrastructure in the ODL system.
Delhi, India • Association of Indian Universities (AIU ), New Delhi, India • All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE),
India • Common Wealth member countries
• National & International Reach.
• American colleges and universities
• Modular program based on credit system.
• Academic and Professional institutions as well
• Use of the latest information & communication technologies.
as by the government, the industry and the business establishment
• 2300 Study Centers in India and 61 international study centers in 33 countries. • 175 Academic programs with over 1500 courses. • More than 3 million students worldwide. • Internationally acclaimed degree. • Award for excellence in the Distance Mode of Education. • Comprehensive learning material.
THE EKLAVYAN | 13
Open and Distance Learning: An Option Amit Giri
â€œLife is a journey.â€? My journey with International Center for Academics (ICA) began from 2007 as a Student Support Officer. I was responsible for
support. It was quite a challenging job since I and my team were dealing with mainly adult learners coming from diverse fields each having different needs and motives for pursuing programs with us. Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode in itself, being a new mode of education in Nepal, had many questions to answer. Credibility, acceptability, relevance and recognition of the programs were common queries among most of the learners that I used to encounter. The Ministry of Education and other concerned government agencies in Nepal, in those days, did not seem to have any clear policy on ODL mode of education. With all these factors amassed, it was quite a challenging task to convenience the learners to pursue programs through the ICA.
As time passed, I found the learnersâ€™ outlook towards
that regular training on academic counseling, briefing
ODL changing. The change was evident not only
on the evaluation process of the ODL system and
among the learners, but also among the education
better understanding of the learnersâ€™ psychology is
policy makers, academicians, industry people,
bureaucrats, etc. It was a positive sign for us. The ICA took a leading role in assisting policy makers in Nepal
I have also realized that in the age of Information
to formulate policies and procedures for approving
and Communication Technology (ICT), the learners
institutions offering the ODL mode of education and
around the globe are becoming smarter than the
affiliated to foreign universities. In 2005, the ICA
teachers due to easy access of technology and
arranged a visit for deans of various faculties and
information. Our Faculty also should be encouraged
representatives of the Education Ministry to tour the
to use ICT and be more updated and be more
IGNOU Headquarters at New Delhi. Interaction with
effective in academic counseling and retain learners
top officials of IGNOU and visit to several divisions
in their counseling sessions. They have to come out
of IGNOU gave opportunity to the visiting delegates
of their traditional mindset of teaching and adopt new
to witness the operations and clarify several doubts
and modern ways of teaching and have a different
and queries related to ODL. A few months later,
approach on the other academic aspects of the
the Tribhuvan University and the Education Ministry
learners. It is a fact that we all need to accept today
came up with the draft policy addressing to several
that the teaching and learning environment and
issues related to the ODL mode of education in
trends have changed.
Nepal. Finally, I saw the silver lining: the future of the ODL mode of education was taking shape in Nepal.
Now, the ODL mode of education is gaining popularity
Today I feel quite happy to state that the Tribhuvan
among the learners who are fresh high school pass-
University and the Education Ministry has policies in
outs and graduates because it provides learners an
place for the ODL mode of education in Nepal.
opportunity to learn in a modern learning environment, learn in a real life situation, and work and study at the
Despite positive changes, I sensed a different kind
same time which are lacking in the traditional mode of
of challenge at our end. Most of the learners come
education. At ICA, we have learners who are pursuing
from a traditional / conventional mode of education
academic programs in traditional universities and, at
where the academic patterns are set and defined;
the same time, pursuing other academic, vocational
learners get opportunities to attend class and meet
or a value added programs with us.
their Faculties on a regular basis. In our system, it is just the opposite. Learners get the privilege to
Lastly, I would like to state that the ODL mode of
learn at their own place, pace and time. The learners
education is no longer a second choice for a learner
decide as per their suitability and requirement of their
but it is just another option. Research shows that the
academic calendar. Contact between the learner
ODL mode of education which comes in different
and Academic Counselor (Faculty) is very limited,
flavors to the learners in the 21st century like, distance
hence, the learner needs to be more disciplined and
learning, e-learning, M-learning, Cloud learning
organized. Sometimes, I find learners taking a long
has gained massive popularity among the student
time to acclimatize in our system. Similarly, most of
community and has been surpassing the traditional
our Academic Counselors, coming from traditional
or conventional mode of education that has not
face to face teaching environment, find it quite
changed much in the past few decades. I have no
challenging to adapt to our system where we follow
hesitation to say that the modern ODL system has
counseling and not the classroom teaching. I believe
been gaining more popularity and is here to stay.
THE EKLAVYAN | 15
Open and Distance Learning in Nepal: Prospects and Challenges Khagendra Acharya The beginning of Open and Distance Learning
Starting with the correspondence mode, ODL is
(ODL) dates back to the 18th century, especially
now agreed to have undergone notably four other
with the phenomenal advancement and innovation
stages namely multimedia model, tele-learning
in transportation and communication heralded by
model, flexible learning model and interactive flexible
industrial revolution. In Desmond Keeganâ€™s account,
learning model (Taylor). The proliferation suffices to
ODL as alternative model of education started when
prove why ODL has been so widely accepted in the
technology made it feasible to separate teacher and
western hemisphere and why European countries
learner from a fixed place, at a fixed time, to meet a
have established and recognized this method through
fixed person, in order to be trained. An alternative
European Distance Education Network (EDEN).
account at micro level, i.e., at the individual level, invokes the name of Isaac Pitman (in 1840 Britain)
Compared to the genesis of ODL in the west, its
as the precursor of this mode with his initiation of
official and documented history in South Asian
modern correspondence education.
Countries (SAC), however, carries a shorter history.
16 | THE EKLAVYAN
Though offered in the 1980s, ODL in SAC has
The proposed OUN has included the following major
been gaining an increased attention and thereby a
phenomenal growth in recent years. The change can best be described as the move of ODL from marginal to integral part of overall educational provision.
currently capacity open
In the Nepalese context, ODL offered by the state’s
• Take tertiary education to the rural, remote,
own establishment carries no history in the sense that
and marginalized people of Nepal, especially
the government’s plan to establish Open University
women and Dalits, who are practically confined
Nepal (OUN) has yet not been materialized. Hence,
to the villages due to family obligations,
ODL, in relation to OUN, can be discussed only at
social challenges, and financial constraints.
the level of efforts made . The government’s initial endeavour can be located in the very year when
• Provide opportunities for teachers and government
the Nepali Government became a signatory of
employees who are unable to advance their
SAARC Consortium to Open and Distance Learning
education, skills and careers while living in rural and
(SACODiL) in 1999. Wagle’s recall of the government’s
remote places, or to those who are unemployed.
effort for Open University also establishes 1990 as a starting point:
• Provide a mechanism to continue education for
The Ministry of Education (MoE) itself constituted
permanent employment in foreign countries.
an Open Learning and Distance Education (OLDE) Committee in 1999 under the chairmanship of then
• Advance rural
Secretary of Education to suggest the government
with modalities of OLDE in Nepal. The Committee
comprising OLDE experts suggested the government
with alternatives of programs and resources. (The Himalayan Times) Nonetheless,
(Source: Rasali, Adhikari and Dhakal) report,
The outcome of the effort, however, has been only
sarcastically, must be gathering dust in some cabinet
a matter of hope for the advocates of ODL. In such
of the MoE even today. Since 1999 the agenda
a context when the plan is in incubation period,
does not seem to have occupied any importance
writing on the prospect of ODL might sound highly
for around a decade. Exactly after eleven years,
phantasmagoric. Here, I caution my readers not to
i.e., in October 2010, another notable [might be
harness total skepticism mainly for two reasons:
more optimistic effort from the government due to
first, the government of Nepal along with a promising
collaborative nature of the venture: MoE and Non-
partner has declared an Open University as a viable
Resident Nepali Association (NRNA) have signed
and appropriate means to provide mass access to
an agreement to start Open University Nepal] move
tertiary education; second, ODL has already been in
operation since the turn of century in Nepal through accredited universities such as Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU).
THE EKLAVYAN | 17
ODL by its nature carries promising features such as
Libraries in Nepal have grown phenomenally
egalitarianism, equality of educational opportunities,
especially after the restoration of Democracy in
flexible curricula (Peters). Consequently, the mode
1991. Now, we live the condition neither of a group
bears significant potential to widen access to higher
of young students in 1930 who were charged of
education which in Nepalese context has appeared
sedition as they applied for permission to start a
very tough due to various constrains. The following
public library (the Sarawasti Public Library) nor
elements appear to create noteworthy scope for
of students who suffered in 1960 when the king
dismissed Nepal’s first elected government and closed public libraries established in the fifties. As the
Availability of Learners
study of Koirala and Bird has outlined, post 1991 has provided appropriate environment for, “re-opening
The inability of the Nepali government to tackle the
of a number of rural community libraries which were
consequences of diversity, whether prevalent in the
closed during monarchy”. Similarly, a large number
form of extreme economic disparity or geographical
of INGOs such as Room to Read, and Read Nepal
inaccessibility or socio-political hierarchies, had
have been asking for the government’s permission
stood as a major barrier for a large population
to “support community libraries”. Consequently,
in appropriate access to education. Education
the number of libraries in Nepal has increased from
opportunities were inappropriately decentralized, if
about 400 in 1990 to about 800 in 2003 (Shrestha
not totally centralized, and thus any individual other
qtd in Koirala and Bird 120). The quality and quantity
than well-to-do economic status could not get
of library has further been enhanced both by INGOs
enrolled for higher qualification.
like Rural Development and Education (READ) and Room to Read, and by foreign mission libraries such
A very paradoxical situation ensnares these people
as the American Library, British Council Learning
now due to the government’s special provisions: they
Centre, and Bharat Sanskritic Kendra.
have opportunities but not the required qualifications. The situation, thereby, produces foundational reason
Though all the libraries, especially the ones located
to demand for educational qualification which
in rural areas, might not have ample and appropriate
does not look viable through traditional mode of
books, their infrastructure can be used for ODL.
education. The availability of learners, due to this necessity, is further increased at the acceleration of
Contribution from Diaspora
peace process. As a large number of cadres who had joined the Maoist revolution after 1996 leaving
One of the most optimistic aspects in ODL comes
their studies are now in need of education as they
from the promise of contribution from Nepali
have been placed back to the society.
diaspora. The diaspora, like the population of this type elsewhere, undergo ambivalent position: on
The two-fold availability, along with other elements
the one hand, they meagerly wish to return to their
such as outbound mobility of students for foreign
home country but on the other hand, they wish to
universities, would be productive factors in pulling
see the country prosper and plan to contribute
learners to the ODL mechanism.
without returning. Rasali, Adhikari and Dhakal have fairly outlined the nature of potential input from the Diaspora due to their empathy for people at home: there are a sizable number of highly qualified academics and professionals among Nepalese
18 | THE EKLAVYAN
Diaspora, who are eager to help their motherland.
aside the skepticism of these scholars, I concentrate
on other more important factors which make ODL
investment in public education and having had a
more challenging. One of them props up from the
first-hand experience of her needs, many of them
dialectics of autonomy and responsibility. In the
are also eager to give back to the native land.
Nepalese context, learners’ autonomy which should
Several members of this Diaspora group have
be curbed by the sense of responsibility exists in very
themselves experienced the hopelessness caused
peculiar situation. Learner’s sense of autonomy often
by poverty, have walked barefoot to attend schools
overrides their sense of responsibility. Simply stated,
in the mountains and plains, and have faced acute
many learners tend to carry no responsibility in
shortage of books and other educational facilities
pedagogic assumptions in ODL. In turn, the tendency
when they pursued their education in Nepal.
might culminate in using ODL as mere formality for
many of them have succeeded in obtaining world
awarding and getting certificate.
class education in spite of these insurmountable barriers, they understand the pain and frustrations
Lack of Electrification
of the rural poor and marginalized groups and their struggle for education, and know that success is still
ODL relies heavily on advancement and proliferated
possible. Because of these reasons, they are well
use of media and communication. More specifically,
suited to help education in Nepal through open and
educationists need to rely on novel methods of
distance learning and support the neediest groups.
imparting knowledge such as the Internet and e-mail, telephone, CDs, print materials, video cassettes
and video-conferencing. All these devices need uninterrupted supply of electricity, which, in the
Challenges in ODL are inherent to the characteristics
Nepalese context, sounds highly unlikely. Power
of this mode. Since it espouses values of flexibility
cut has been so severe that electricity avails to us in
and accessibility, it assumes learners to have sense
many months only for around 6-8 hours.
of both autonomy and responsibility for learning. Before I discuss on the problems that start due to
the collusion of two elements, I find it worthy to quote Rennie and Mason’s conclusion on the impediments
The proliferation and, thereby, acknowledgement
in distance and distributed learning in Nepal and
of ODL both in developing and developed countries
imply the mode’s significant potential. However, this does not mean that ODL will replace the traditional
Firstly, Internet access is improving rapidly, but is
mode as euphorically supposed by scholars such
still generally too weak and inconsistent to allow any
as Ramanujam, “the present dominance of campus
reliance on net-based learning solutions. Secondly,
based higher education may become a thing of the
the academic culture is resistant to the recognition of
past perhaps by the middle of the next century, if
the value of open-learning degrees, with subsequent
not earlier than that”. In the developing countries like
difficulties in re-designing course materials for a
Nepal, ODL has apparent scope due to the availability
more educationally flexible, student-centred learning
of learners, accessibility to libraries and promise from
prospective collaborators. But, we have challenges such as unconducive political environment, lack
Certainly, the ambivalent position of scholars on the
of electrification, skepticism from some scholars
degree from ODL and the problems of internet access
regarding the strength of degree making the task of
for learners account as major impediments. Leaving
tackling almost herculean.
THE EKLAVYAN | 19
A Tribute to IGNOU Laxmi Moktan
I was moving along with the tide of time after an
So, I decided that it was now or never and I signed
interrupted college education, a full time job, early
up for the courses. The classes at weekends suited
marriage and a growing family which is indeed quite
me just fine. This time round, my family adjusted
a serious juggling act for a woman these days. But
around my time schedule. My teenaged son was
there I was - feeling somehow incomplete - there
amused at first, but they all resigned to the cause.
was something more that I had to do with my life.
The classes began stimulating my senses once
It was my insatiable hunger for knowledge that was
again. I was coming to terms with knowledge far
driving at my very gut.
beyond my everyday life. I was, in fact, living on my own terms once again. Finally, my dedication paid
I was stuck in between what I was actually doing and
through and I managed to obtain an MA in English
what I wanted to do most in my heart – I knew I had
degree with relatively good marks for someone who
to complete my university education but I was not
was juggling with career and family at the same time.
going to let go of my career at the same time. So,
This is indeed a huge accomplishment on my part.
there I was, in complete dilemma, until I came across IGNOU which seemed like the most viable answer to
I must say that I have gained considerable knowledge
my quest. Here I could study at my own time without
through this process of learning which has definitely
disrupting my work, which also meant that I had to
taken my level of confidence to great heights. I would
forego most social obligations while preparing for
like to express my sincere gratefulness to IGNOU,
the lessons. I had to prepare myself for a great deal
ICA staff and the Counsellors for giving not only me
of sacrifice of my free time – the weekends that is
but many others like me the opportunity to grow.
earned after a gruelling five days at work – to actually work again which would be studies.
20 | THE EKLAVYAN
a new magic bullet
Distance learning is a new term for what used to be
are very comprehensive and have important material
called correspondence course. I took a Bachelor
coverage. I realized the power of the GPH books
in Commerce correspondence course from ICA
more after appearing in the exams.
(IGNOU) in 2007. Distance learning degree programs allowed me to pursue a degree from the comfort of
I am indebted to Mr, Biswajit Mukherjee, Dr. Dina Nath
my own home and supporting my dad in his office,
Kumar, and Mr. Amit Giri for all the time and effort in
without needing to worry about moving or otherwise
allowing us to bring different activities within the ICA.
changing my own circumstances to pursue the
You understood our goals, provided priceless advice
degree. I would rather say learner’s won’t find
and enhanced us for the formation to be an Eklavyan.
themselves lamenting the fact that their own lives
Thank you for teaching us leadership, conducting
prevent them from pursuing an education, when they
meetings, maintaining minutes and imparting many
have the flexibility afforded by programs provided
values that we will need throughout life. Thank you!
by universities such as “IGNOU”, “KU” and so on. Education, of course, plays an important role in getting you the right job in your chosen field. The stepping stones for choosing your dream career are, of course, the qualifications required to achieve it. With the right qualifications, the top careers are open to you and the power of choice would be with you, for which I would say IGNOU is one of the best platforms we are provided with. In June 2007, I inquired about IGNOU and immediately signed up for the BDP course from ICA. The course material was good but the classes were not conducive to me. So, I decided to skip the classes and focused on studying on my own at home. In June and December of the successive three years of my BDP program, I took the TEE exam and managed to get my degree in 2010. Possibly because I was able to finish off the B.Com in one go and on my first attempt, many colleagues, friends, and friends of friends have been asking how I managed to achieve this. I started to research more carefully with the help books for IGNOU Term-End Examination, and I got surprised that they were actually very helpful, easily available in the library and completed the preparation in an easy way in less time. Based on my experience, you really need to understand the concepts (instead of blind memory of the mnemonics) to pass the IGNOU exam. Help books for IGNOU Term-End Examination
THE EKLAVYAN | 21
WHY IGNOU? Jasmine Thapa
With distance learning, the student can learn from the comfort of their homes, or even office during lunch breaks and just before closing business for the day. 22 | THE EKLAVYAN
Advancing one’s education in today’s fast pacing
learning comes into play. With distance learning, the
world is important for anyone looking for career
student can learn from the comfort of their homes,
advancement in the field they have chosen. As our
or even office during lunch breaks and just before
globalized world shrinks and technology advances,
closing business for the day. This saves time taken
one of the best ways to protect you from becoming
to travel to the college and just in case one’s work
obsolete in the work place is returning to universities
load requires them to orthodox working hours, they
for a higher degree.
can schedule time for study in accordance to their program. This allows convenience that is not found
For a person like me with busy schedules and family
with the traditional learning system.
obligations, distance learning MBA programs offer the flexibility needed to accomplish this goal. Being
The flexibility of distance learning degree programs
able to schedule classes, school work, and study
is what attracts most students. It does require a bit
time around work and family is the primary drawing
more discipline since we are responsible for ensuring
point for me to undertake an advanced online degree.
us attend all lectures and completing all course work
Online courses have allowed me to attend classes,
on our own schedule.
download/upload courses work, and have access to professors and counselors. The vast majority of online
The flexibility that I got from distance learning includes
universities is just as valuable as a degree we earned
attending classes at a brick and mortar college. In fact, many large colleges and universities these days are now starting to offer their own distance learning doctoral programs and competing with the online colleges. This gives anyone interested in obtaining an advanced degree a wide variety of options when choosing a program in their field of study.
• I can attend classes where I have Internet access and at anytime I wish. I can study at home, at work or anywhere else. I just take my computer and get connected to the web. • Distance learning courses are designed in such a way as to allow us centered learning. This means I can decide the best way for me to learn.
Distance learning is a system of education where the students are provided with learning materials and tutorials without necessarily being in class physically. This is mostly done through the Internet where the students log into the university website and can access the information needed. In most cases, the students have direct contact with some of the lecturers to help them in case of any trouble. Distance learning has caught on with most students. The ones that seem to benefit most, however, are students at the MBA degree of education. This is because of a number of benefits availed by distance learning. Most students, including me, get into careers after doing their graduation course. By the time they finish their Bachelors and get into their Masters degree, they are well ingrained into their career lines. They, therefore, end up having little time to manage sitting in class for the Master degree. This is where distance
• All courses and study materials are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week. This gives me the flexibility to go over any and all lectures and other materials as many times as I want. • Even though I don’t physically attend classes, I can interact with my classmates and teachers through classroom discussion and discussion groups over the Internet. • The use of new technology and interactive web resources help me sharpen skills that will be highly sought after in the workplace, including the ability to network with other users. • Integrated learning and teamwork are a valuable part of the distance learning experience. • Advancing my education is one of the best ways to further my career and earning opportunities THE EKLAVYAN | 23
Technology has changed the face of distance learning.
There are a number of advantages that come
From mailbox to the Internet, distance learning has
with distance learning MBA program. The main
gone through transformations that have made it what
advantage that comes with these types of programs
it is today. The print aspects of distance learning are
is the fact that I can be accomplished by working
still ever present because of the need to ensure that
professionals without having to take a significant
the student can read and write. Instructional media
period of time away from work related activities. This
are very important in distance learning, especially
allows me to be able to live my life and, at the same
online. Instructional media refers to the use of
time, complete my education. This means that while
selected media to teach students who are located
attempting to obtain my degree I donâ€™t have to alter
in remote areas of the country or the world. Satellite
my schedule significantly. These are the reasons why
e-learning refers to the use of the satellite to transmit
I chose distance learning and, among others, I chose
educational information to a group of students or to
a student. Satellite e-learning dictates the student because he or she has to be present at the time the
Besides these IGNOU has a reasonable fee structure,
broadcast is made.
distance learning home at country exam provision, outstanding curriculum variety of subjects and option,
The other factor that draws me to distance learning is
desired thesis requirements, variety of specialization
the cost. At first, it may seem that distance learning
courses according to career requirement, constant
costs more than the traditional way of learning. But
support from university professors, regular counseling
once I put into account travel cost, cost of time
session on weekends, and timely examination and
and the inconveniences involved in traditional class
financial awards and scholarship for best student is
learning, distance education is far cheaper.
the best part that drags me towards this university.
I need not incur the fuel cost or hassle through traffic
And I feel very lucky and thankful to IGNOU (Indira
to get to class or even fight to sit in front to get the
Gandhi National Open University), New Delhi, India
lecture clear without disturbance. Here, I get all that at
for giving me the opportunity to be a part of distance
my comfort and at the level I want and the equipment
education from Nepal.
I purchase is, at the end of the day, an investment.
24 | THE EKLAVYAN
ICA DOORSHIKSHA The only radio program on Open and Distance Learning in Nepal. Bhimesh Kumar Chaudhary
As known to all of us, the Radio is one of the most powerful communication media for reaching many people in a short time. The Radio has been very effectively used for educational purposes for decades and has become one of the important delivery technologies of the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system. “ICA Doorsiksha” is the only dedicated live radio program
Academics (ICA) with an objective to educate and create awareness on Open and Distance Learning System in Nepal. The program is broadcasted every Saturday at 7:30 a.m. on Kantipur FM which is one of the most popular national FM channels. Through this program we have been able to reach listeners throughout the 75 districts of Nepal and even Nepalese residing outside the country through the Internet Radio. Through this program listeners get an opportunity to directly interact with the various officials of ICA, Academic Counselors, Academicians and policy makers of Nepal and clarify their doubts or other queries. From time to time, they also get an opportunity to share experiences with our Gold Medalists and Learners, too.
This program has been a torch bearer for thousands of learners who due to several social, economical and rigid traditional academic norms were not able or eligible for further advancement of their academic career. “ICA Doorsiksha” has undoubtedly created a massive awareness on ODL mode of education; the impact of which can be felt on a number of queries we get during and after the program. We, at ICA, are committed to continue this program not only for the Learners interested to join IGNOU programs at ICA; but, also, we feel that it is our social responsibility towards the nation and the society to educate every citizen of Nepal for better and prosperous Nepal of tomorrow.
The program is broadcasted every Saturday at 7:30 a.m. on Kantipur FM. THE EKLAVYAN | 25
EDUCATION NO AGE BARRED Mrs. Bibha Lal Education – No age barred!! And being a teacher
social order has defined what should or should not
for over 22 years could I disagree ever? There is
be done at various stages of life: get married in 20s,
nothing analogous to education, nothing equivalent
have kids in 30s and retire in 60s…..but all that is
altering now. Accepted wisdom about what is apt for a particular age are now becoming far less unbending
Teaching is a profession that provides challenges,
and far more negotiable and flexible.
exhilaration, personal remuneration and an opportunity to encourage and shore up others to accomplish their
IGNOU has provided an opportune alternative to all
goals. We cannot overlook the impact of education in
the professionals who do not have the time to attend
the human society. It rationalizes us for all intents and
proper classroom classes. Personally, what I learnt
purposes. In order to cater to the educational needs
to appreciate most while teaching in IGNOU@ICA
of the working class population, IGNOU started
was to see the enthusiasm in the eyes of my ‘sunset’
offering this method of self-education. Working
students…., graying hair, they have fulfilled all but
people can easily modernize their knowledge and
one commitment in life….that of higher education. If
dexterity level through these degrees available in
there is an urge to study, then no age can kill it!
the open-university. This can help them significantly in achieving growth as professionals. For long, the
26 | THE EKLAVYAN
“Be a student… by staying open and willing to learn from everyone and anyone.” - Wayne Dyer b.1940
As a counselor, the experience here has enriched me
Arjuna, Drona’s much loved and most proficient
with active listening and good interpersonal skills and
scholar. And the magazine has been rightly named
built a genuine interest in providing support to all my
so, as IGNOU belongs to all those pupils who have
students - no age barred!
had the courage to shed their inhibitions and moved ahead with great gusto for the only definitive goal of
I feel proud indeed to have been associated with the
achieving advanced education.
growth and progress of ICA since its inception in Kathmandu. Needless to say, that the onward march
This magazine “Eklavyan” will record the evolution
of this institution to the present state of its glory
of ICA from the time it was a thought, to the reality
could not have been without difficulties. But with
it is today. The parameters of this institution are
strong determination and unrelenting devotion, the
boundless. This issue is the harbinger of a future,
management, staff and the students have contributed
of even better years ahead. This magazine is a true
to its becoming an institution of excellence.
indicator of literacy and creative acumen. I am sure the magazine will carry the message and spirit of
According to the Hindu epic “Mahabharata”, after
everyone belonging to IGNOU.
being rejected by Drona on account of his not being of Kshatriya lineage, Eklavya gets on upon a program
As always my best wishes to all the members of ICA,
of self-study in the presence of a clay image of Drona.
who I am sure will continue with this good work.
He accomplishes a level of skill superior to that of THE EKLAVYAN | 27
Stor y The Perf ect Archana Karki
No touch of ugliness just beauty and no touch of pain and grief just the happiness. 28 | THE EKLAVYAN
Are you a pessimist?” asked one of my readers/ well-
Though he’d everything, still something was missing
wishers at a book launch sometimes back.
in his life. A man’s life is incomplete until he has a woman, a wife by his side who is always with him
“No, certainly not!” I’d replied then.
through thick and thin. So let’s add more beauty in his life with the entry of Prapti. Prapti, whom he got
“I’ve read most of your stories, they are great! But
married to, was very beautiful girl with a golden heart.
why do they always end in death and grief?” he had
Now their life seemed perfect with happiness and
love all around.
May be because it’s how I perceive life. I wanted to
The perfect home, perfect couple and perfect
say but I said something else which I don’t remember
happiness. And where does the ending come in this
now. And as I sat down to start my new story today;
story? No touch of ugliness just beauty and no touch
the same question is revolving round my head. “Yes,
of pain and grief just the happiness. Can life ever go
this time I’m going to write a story where there won’t
this way? No, no, it’s not possible. It’s human nature
be any shadow of grief but just happiness round.” I
not to get satisfied with whatever they have. They
thought to myself. “Let’s see how life with absolute
are always seeking for something more. Human
happiness and without pain and suffering in it is.”
desire has no limits. Something happened here with my characters. With the passage of time, something
Amurta, a character or the protagonist of my story
went wrong and lives of Amurta and Prapti wasn’t
was born, as people say, with a silver spoon in his
same as before. Something was lacking in their lives.
mouth. It’s because he never knew poverty or what
The home where once prevailed happiness had now
it’s like to have lack of anything. Whatever he wanted
gone to silence. Only silence prevailed now. The two
or he desired was easily fulfilled by his father who was
people occupied two different corners of that house
very rich indeed. He was brought up single-handedly
and it seemed they had nothing left between them
with so much of love and care by his father that he
to talk about and to laugh. The couples had become
himself believed if he ever regretted for not having
two individual loners in that house. The silence was
his mother. About his mother, she’d left him when
growing so vast and wide that both of them were
he was still a child. And let’s not get into details of
being engulfed in it. Something was certainly not
his mother’s part as this may be somewhat sorrowful
right between them and they are either avoiding it or
and which I actually don’t want in my story. So let’s
trying to conceal it.
move on with the story of Amurta alone if it’s possible. Then there came a day when as usual Amurta and Amurta grew up to be a very attractive, emotional
Prapti entered their respective space and Amurta
and bright young fellow with happy-go- lucky nature
never came out of his. On that fateful day Amurta
in him. There were very rare or if any who disliked
seemed grimmer than usual and silence was so
him or wasn’t attracted towards him. Such was
strong to be frightened of. He entered his study
his personality and his life to be envied by any one
room and started writing something on a notepad.
so colorful and so beautiful with no touch of grey
As he finished writing tears rolled down his eyes and
everything blurred before him. After few minutes, he stooped down and slowly picked up a broken
“Oh God! What more do I need to ask for?” he said to
piece of glass of a photo frame and made a circular
himself. He worked, he studied and spent time with
movement round his left wrist. There was blood
his friends and lived his life as merrily as possible.
dripping down from the table and there he was, pen closed, story completed and pool of blood beneath the writing table. THE EKLAVYAN | 29
We all make mistakes Anju Pandey
We donâ€™t really learn anything properly until there is a problem, until we make a mistake, until something fails to go as we had expected. 30 | THE EKLAVYAN
When everything is working well, with no problems or
paid a lot of money for the glass set and cherished
failures, what incentive do we have to try something
it. In this example, this mistake had financial and
new? We are only motivated to learn when we
emotional consequences on my mother. However,
experience difficulties. We all make mistakes. Wise
I learnt from this mistake that I should always be
people admit their mistakes easily. They know
careful in handling things that are fragile. This mistake
progress accelerates when they do. This advice
helped me a lot to be more careful while doing each
runs counter to the cultural assumption we have
and every work.
about mistakes and failures; namely that they are shameful things. We know that humans make
From the co-operative perspective, we can take
mistakes all the time. Mistakes are one essential part
the reference of 9/11 terrorists’ attack, the worse
of self improvement. Don’t be overwhelmed with guilt
attack on American Soil where mistakes with
and regret; analyze how you can learn from them.
negative consequences were made. Due to lack of
Mistakes are at the very base of human thought. If we
communication in the national security system, the
were not provided with the knack of being wrong, we
terrorists were able to infiltrate their security and
would never get anything done usefully. We think in
aviation system, taking over a few domestic flights
our way along by choosing between right and wrong
and flying those planes into America’s infrastructure
alternatives and the wrong choices have to be made
causing massive destruction.
frequently as the right one. There is a saying that a mistake is the mother of “Anyone who has never made a mistake has never
success. A man’s errors are his portrayals of his
tried anything new.” - Albert Einstein.
discovery. Could people discover or progress only through mistakes? I am afraid that I do not quite
It is necessary to make mistakes even if they have
agree with such an assertion. In my perspective,
negative consequences on other people. The only
mistakes are not necessary to make discoveries or
way mistakes are not made is to never do anything.
progress. In most circumstances, it is more efficient
It is usefully wrong to do things that have negative
to discover new things. So, mistakes are an essential
consequences on other people or oneself. The
part of self improvement. Mistakes should be made
most important reason why it is necessary to make
ladders to achieve our goals. Without mistakes the
mistakes is for learning experience. We learn more
learning process is not complete. Mistakes are a part
from our mistakes than our successes. There is a
of everyday life whether you can admit it to yourself
saying that “experience is the best teacher”. This
or not. Wise people think about the ends, not of
saying suggests that mistakes that one makes in
the means. So making mistakes is not completely a
life can also have positive impact on that person’s
negative thing. We are in the process of achieving
future life experience. Though my mistakes can have
new goals, so we don’t need to be afraid of making
a negative consequence on me or someone else,
mistakes. Success seems to be connected with
it becomes my learning experience. Mistakes also
action. Successful people keep on moving. They
present a special opportunity to be a teacher. Let us
make mistakes, but they don’t quit.
address the topic from two perspectives: personal mistakes and co-operative mistakes.
Preventing mistakes 100% of the time is, at the very least, close to impossible. However, we can prevent
I will begin with personal mistakes. For example, when
mistakes a high percentage of the time, even if it isn’t
I was a boy I broke my mother’s expensive glass set
100%. The way to do this is to simply think before
by mistakes. My mother was angry because she had
you act. That’s right, think before you act.
THE EKLAVYAN | 31
One year to live
Anthony Burgess was 40 when he learned that he
In that time Burgess wrote energetically, finishing five
had only one year to live. He had a brain tumor that
and a half novels before the year was through (very
would kill him within a year. He knew he had a battle
nearly the entire lifetime output of E.M. Forster, and
on his hands. He was completely broke at the time,
almost twice that of J. D. Salinger.)
and he didn’t have anything to leave behind for his wife, Lynne, soon to be a widow.
But Burgess did not die. His cancer had gone into remission and then disappeared altogether. In his
Burgess had never been a professional novelist
long and full life as a novelist (he is best known for “A
in the past, but he always knew the potential was
Clock-work Orange”), he wrote more than 70 books,
inside him to be a writer. So, for the sole purpose of
but without the death sentence from cancer, he may
leaving royalties behind for his wife, he put a piece
not have written at all.
of paper into a typewriter and began writing. He had no certainty that he would even be published, but he
Many of us are like Anthony Burgess, hiding greatness
couldn’t think of anything else to do.
inside, waiting for some external emergency to bring it out. Ask yourself what you’d do if you had Anthony
“It was January of 1960,” he said, “and according to
Burgess’s original predicament. “If I had just a year to
the prognosis, I had a winter and spring and summer
live, how differently would I live? What exactly would
to live through, and would die with the fall of the leaf.”
32 | THE EKLAVYAN
Up in the Sky far and high there I see her fly. I wonder, how happy she must be I wonder, how lucky she must be. Down on Earth Up in the nest There I see her cry. I wonder, how sad she must be I wonder, how starved she must be. There comes the mother down Brings food for her child Sitting just a step ahead I see smile on their face. I wonder, how happy they must be I wonder, how lucky they must be.
MIRAGE MIRAGE Yam Gurung “Forsaken”
There is not enough reasons I should cry My soul is still alive And is hard to die My house are falling Because you are not there My feelings are dying Because it lacks your care There is not enough reasons I should let you go It’s true my will are vanishing The more i grow My lands are drowing Because the horizons blow I’m silent and helpless It’s memory i can’t throw... THE EKLAVYAN | 33
Distance Learning MBA Kishore Bhandari The invention of IT has revolutionized the way of
Many of the prevailing prejudices against Distance
learning; the online education mode of learning has
Learning MBA (DLMBA), for example, that they
turned out to be more popular due to the use of
provide an inferior learning environment and are
the Internet. The Internet has brought with it several
undervalued by employers, are now outdated. For
features such as online interaction, audio and video
one thing, DLMBA courses increasingly tend to
conferencing all across the globe. The edge has, in
involve a degree of personal contact. With institutions
fact, eradicated more or less the distinction amid
now capable of linking together globally diverse
distance education and in-campus learning. The
participants with online technologies, what was
procedure of distant education has turned out to
previously lumped under the title of distance learning
be so pioneering that no gap is there between the
is in reality a wide range of different learning models
learners and their course guide.
and modes of study. Models based entirely on selflearning are mostly being phased out, with many
MBA is becoming a very popular choice among the
programs adopting a blended style, usually involving
many specializations offered in the MBA course.
a number of face-to-face interventions and periods of
Though most MBA programmers will provide the
online study. Once the poor relation of the campus-
basic knowledge of business principles, an MBA
based equivalent, specialist online universities are
in Finance better equips one to face the cut-throat
one of the success stories of business education
competition of a dynamic business environment to
as more and more students choose to pursue a
job holder. The distance learning MBA has become
distance MBA from the comfort of their home, or the
a popular option for business professionals and job
window seat of a plane.
holders who do not have the time or desire to sit in a classroom for hours at a time.
Receiving this education can help someoneâ€™s career goals and bring them to a new level of personal and
If the point of an MBA is to improve career prospects,
professional satisfaction to job holder. A distance
there are three main areas that potential candidates
learning MBA can be a great first step in being
will focus on when choosing their distance learning
diligent in business and keeping integrity in business
MBA. The skills they will learn, the career networking
dealings or transactions.
opportunities and the qualification itself. MBA â€œis not just to do with getting three letters after your name, indeed these days having three letters, MBA, after your name does not open doors to an incredibly new and distinct career. Rather, it provides you with an education that enables you to become a better manager, and therefore get career progression. 34 | THE EKLAVYAN
The Power of Love & Compassion Chime Samdup
Be the change you want to see in the world - M.K Gandhi
Among the countless planetary bodies found in
the mother. In the case of humans, right from the
this expanding universe, the earth is the only planet
moment of our birth we are under immense care
that supports life. Life on earth is found in all forms,
and love from our mother and loved ones. It is said,
variations and colours. It is a meeting point of
according to some scientists and their findings, that
everything that is filled with energy. The earth acts as
if the mother does not feel close towards the child,
the basis which provides and sustains life forms of all
the milk will not flow freely. And without the child
variations from the one-celled organism such as the
knowing or recognizing the person who is feeding
Amoeba to one of the most complex animals such as
him/her, the child suckles the milk which is the
the human being. Unlike other animals, humans are
essential nourishment for the healthy development
equipped with intelligence. And, intelligence is one of
of the child. That very first act of that childâ€™s life is
the most unique and brilliant things about humans.
suckling milk. Our mother showers us with constant
The ability to make distinction, compare, judge and
affection and love which is very important for our
act according to circumstances is one of our prime
brain development during our childhood period. The
wealth. Hence, we are called intelligent beings.
human touch is very crucial for brain development during our formative years. Ageing is a natural
Like all social animals and particularly within the
process. It is inevitable, and when we again become
animal kingdom; there is a group called the mammals.
old we need the same love and kindness we received
Mammals give birth to their young ones directly and
when we were very young, as we are unable to tend
breast feed them. Not only that, there is a tremendous
to ourselves. We lack the physical strength, vision,
biological connection between the offspring and
and the sense of balance. THE EKLAVYAN | 35
Love is the universal fabric that binds together people
two to three thousand years ago, religion played an
from diverse backgrounds, heals wounds, bridges
important role in our lives and it dictated the way we
communities, brings out the inner light, gives us a
should act in our daily lives. Religion showed us how
sense of being loved, invigorates our well-being, and
we should lead our lives and what principles should
most importantly creates an atmosphere of tranquility
we adopt to lead our lives and make it meaningful
and peace which I think everyone desires from their
and happier. Later on, the responsibility of providing
innermost core. One can become the poorest of the
that guidance on how to lead an ethical life fell on
poorest, and still be a happy person if one practices
schools and parents. However, the schools have not
love and compassion towards fellow human beings.
been able to provide education which would make a
If we look clearly and from the wider perspective,
person disciplined and lead a happier and meaningful
our whole movement of life from our birth to death
life. Modern education is more interested and close
is towards trying to find an answer for the inevitable
to fulfilling our desires to gain material wealth, and
question, ‘How am I to be happy?’ As we carry
ignoring our spiritual side. We are not machines but
out our actions in our daily lives, we can know that
we are beings with emotions, dreams and aspirations.
our very actions are towards trying to achieve that
If we were machines then material things would
happiness and, as far as possible, try to refrain from
make us absolutely happier beings, but this is not
suffering. Let us take an example of a turtle. The
the case. In the developed countries it seems that
turtle comes to the land to lay its eggs and once it
people are suffering from anxiety, disappointment,
finishes doing it then it leaves. Later, the turtle babies
frustration, depression and loneliness although their
hatch and have to look after themselves. However, in
material development is well advanced than ours. The
the case of an animal such as a parrot, it looks after
number of crime and violence is higher in developed
the chick and cares for it. When the chick becomes
countries than in the less developed ones. Spirituality
capable and able to fly, it recognizes its mother and
is of two types; one is based on religion and the other
flies with it. But in the case of the turtle, the baby
is not. Spirituality also means seeking and cultivating
turtle once it becomes a fully grown turtle doesn’t
the basic human values such as honesty, sincerity,
recognizes its own mother. The reason is that the
love, respect, kindness, discipline, and so on which is
turtle abandoned the babies and left, hence there
the basis of becoming a better person and a happier
was no connection. However, the parrot cared
and nurtured its young ones and hence due to the mother’s love and kindness the chick could later on
Peace is not only the absence of war but it is the
recognize its mother.
presence of love, kindness and respect of human rights. Peace without war is no use for a person
Also, within the human society there is a great
who is starving or the mentally depressed. If we
number of scientists pointing out that the main cause
lack basic human values such as honesty, respect,
of distress and downfall of many youths is due to the
contentment, love, kindness, trust and so on then
lack of love and compassion in our society; a lack of
there is no basis to create a happier and humane
sense of caring for one another. When the young child
society. The cultivation of love and compassion is
is not given affection from the parents or guardians
not a luxury but a necessity for our own survival. Love
then they later on become aggressive and violent
and compassion is based on reason and logic. When
children unable to express basic human emotions
we practice compassion and love towards others,
such as love, kindness and compassion towards
then the first person to benefit is ourselves. We feel
others, and it is so sad. On the other hand, when the
more relaxed, comfortable and our anxiety, distrust
children are given affection and cared, they go on
decreases which puts us at ease when we meet
to become confident and sound youth who are able
people. However, if we look others with suspicion
to express love and kindness towards others. About
and distrust then we will feel anxious, distrust and
36 | THE EKLAVYAN
uncomfortable. Hence, the person who practices is the first one to benefit and the receiver of our love and kindness also benefits. Then it creates a friendly, loving, pleasant atmosphere. Who wouldn’t want to be, live and work in such an atmosphere? Such atmosphere is a contributor to our good health and such people also live longer and also reach out to more people in our societies who are less fortunate and less privileged than we are since these poor or less fortunate people are also part of our society. Therefore, I hope people pay more attention towards their inner values. This century is a century filled with opportunities and challenges, as we are all young we should all stand up, be confident and do our best to make this earth a better place to live in and also, do our level best to make this earth a happier global family whereby no people have to suffer from hunger, thirst and repression. It is a great time to be born and now it is time to co-operate and bring some constructive changes in ourselves and slowly transforming each and every individual in our society into good human beings. It is not a dream but a necessity for our own survival. I want to remember a quote from the man who made non-violence (Ahimsa) not only a spiritual way of life but a political tool as well to bring conscience and truthfulness in our lives.
Small truths to make our life 100 ... If
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU VWXYZ Is equal to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 respectively, then
HARDWORK 8+1+18+4+23+15+18+11 = 98% KNOWLEDGE 11+14+15+23+12+5+4+7+5 = 96% LOVE = 12+15+22+5 = 54% LUCK = 12+21+3+11 = 47% (Don’t most of us think this is most important?) Then what makes 100% Is it MONEY? ... No!, LEADERSHIP? ... NO! Every problem has a solution, only if we, perhaps, change our attitude.
Counting IT! Karma
To go to the top, to that 100% what we really need is to go further... a bit more...
ATTITUDE 1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5 = 100% It is OUR ATTITUDE towards Life and Work that makes OUR Life 100%. Don’t you think so?!
FRIENDSHIP 6+18+9+5+14+4+19+8+9+16 = 108% See friendship is important as it’s more than 100%. THE EKLAVYAN | 37
Work Spiritually, Lead Spiritually Hira Dhan Gurung
Let me quote a famous saying of Swami Vivekananda, ’’You are what you think”. How you think, what you think is personal and is in your hands; but it makes you, shapes you and restructures you physically and psychologically. Your thought not only impacts you but also impacts all others of the same thought waves and creates reality earlier or later. So, start thinking what you want to make of yourself and how you want to reflect yourself in the future. Mechanism of thought Thought is really powerful; it has been explained by the spiritual leader, Khaptad Baba, in his book Bichar Bigyan too. It also transmits in the form of waves and can spread in speed higher than that of light. When you think, it transmits in the form of waves in the Universe and also codes in physical parts of the body or neurons. Then it starts to regulate various neurochemicals and hormones in the body. You become depressed when Seratonin level disturbs and become happy or blissful when dopamine level is elevated. So, all your psychological parameters like happiness, sadness, emotions, threats, aggression and peripheral outcomes are resulted by your thoughts. But we forget to identify what forces us to think or the science behind it? Somebody asks you, “What is your name?” You simply answer them that you are Ram, Shyam or whosoever. You never try to know who really you are. You are a very beautiful creature of Nature of God who installed software and hardware and gave you a form of human being. But the software within there is the consciousness or the form of sensitivity, that is the AATMA or the SOUL which drives you and your thoughts. Your physical body needs food for growth and development but the Soul rejuvenates with nothing. It only requires knowledge that you are a conscious Soul, which brings in you more and
38 | THE EKLAVYAN
more consciousness, awareness and mindfulness.
management. You already know that conscious
(Practice of being more self conscious and aware by
workforce is the supreme unit of the system that
asking question and knowing about ‘’who you are’’
gives life to the system. So, the first priority in change
management in your organization is to change your human capitals into more conscious and aware
Understanding Management Spiritually
workforce. Let them know themselves, let them win themselves, let them win over their impurities, then
It can be now proved that mind equals to physical
system will be automated and self reliant. A lot of
body. All inventions and physical things you see
discussions are there over about Quality of Work-Life
around you are the outcomes of thought in the
in modern management practices but until and unless
human mind. Management of the mind also always
spirituality is not practiced among them, parameters
exercises for bringing the best outcomes in efficient
of it will not show completeness.
ways through resource utilization. So, management is a system procession in which man, machines,
Manangement by consciousness and its
materials, money and methods are processed into
output, but the role of your conscious workforce is there behind the system. So, the more the conscious
When one knows his identification, first he wins over
and aware workforce, the more the system will be
threat, develops confidence, attains self motivation
alive and the better will be the output. Organizational
and inspiration. He finds the ways out at the time
management system has now been so diversified,
of problems and acquires great decision making
so competitive and so limited due to so many rules
skills. Your people present clarity in thoughts, ideas
and regulations that it has changed human capitals
and implementation. Their thoughts intensify and
into humanoids. A chain adds up in the life of the
converge with a high intensity, restore energy and
workforce, making the statement realistic - A child
strength and complete the mission. Spiritual practices
is born free but is bound by chains of rules in the
makes them pure like gold, dissolve all impurities
society when he grows up. Due to the limitations
like anxiety, frustration, depression, threat, anger
and boundaries of the organizational system and
and in contrary brings calmness, love and harmony,
other policies, it contributes internal forces in your
creativity, happiness and satisfaction, feeling of
workforce and bursts as anxiety, depression,
humanity and brotherhood. It transforms them into
aggression, threats, etc. But when you understand
responsible, self dependent and sincere integrals.
that your human capitals are your supreme conscious
Overall, it changes your workforce into A
unit of system and let them conquer over these internal forces, they make the system alive and it’s
you always succeeding as smart manager. Just call a spiritual leader or qualified meditation Managing changes spiritually
trainer for a few hours of spiritual practice at the time of meeting or training. Just be together and let
“Let’s change ourselves to change the World.”
others follow it up. It will be your pious deed, done
The philosophy of this famous quote of Dr. Yogi
for your near and dear associates, a step ahead in
Vikashananda is very realistic in organizational change
THE EKLAVYAN | 39
Social Work in Nepal
Social work had existed in Nepal from the very
the Ranipokhari. King Jayasthiti Malla was also
beginning in the form of charity and welfare as ‘Dan
religious-minded and a social reformer who built
and Databya’. The Nepalese type of social work had
two Kumbheshwor temples in Patan. Bhupatindra
been executed as philanthropy rather than human
Malla built the 55 window palace in Bhaktapur.
welfare. The influence of the Hindu philosophy is a
At that time, different organizations were
major determinant and several philanthropy based
established and categorized social works into
concepts of social work and social welfare are found
Panchayats, Guthis and Sebakhalak. The Mallas
in Hindu literatures. Social work is motivated from
massively mobilized social work for social welfare.
the Hindu code: If anyone provides alms to poor and weaker people he/she certainly gets a seat in heaven.
3. After the unification of Nepal, King Prithivi Narayan
By persuasion of the code, activities like construction
Shah proudly claimed Nepal to be a “Garden of
of temples, schools, roads, public water distribution,
four castes and thirty-six races”. Vimshen Thapa
free food and clothes distribution are still doing. The
constructed several temples, bridges, roads and
late Dayabir Singh Kansakar is known to be the first
taps among which the huge is the Sundhara.
social worker of Nepal. 4. In the Rana Period, various malpractices were The Nepalese history of social work can be classified
abolished: the sati system (8th July 1920
into seven periods.
by Chandra Shamsher), the slavery system (28th Nov, 1924) and Capital punishment
1. At the time of the Lichhavi rule, people believed that social work and social welfare must be done to
allowed to involve themselves in social work.
gain piety. In light to the belief, most of the Lichhavi kings like Mandev, Ansuvarma, Dhrubadev,
5. King Tribhuwan announced the end of the Rana
Shivadev and others used to provide drinking water
rule 1951 and declared Democracy. At that time,
and construct Dharmasalas, Patis and Pauwas.
people were empowered and were led towards education
2. Despite the political instability during the Dark
Age in Nepalese history, the Malla rulers
was established. But at that period, social
preserved, maintained and continued the social
institutions were operated under the direction
work trends inaugurated by Lichhavi kings. The
of the Royal members. Kings Tribhuwan,
Malla kings had erected temples, Bihars, canals,
Mahendra and Birendra had initiated a lot of
wells, bridges, roads, etc. King Pratap Malla built
social welfare and social services. Land, money and the likewise were donated for social welfare.
40 | THE EKLAVYAN
6. In the 1990s, the period of establishment of
The concept of social work being a professional field
still has not been widely accepted by the people or
expanded the friendly, diplomatic relations with
even recognized by the government of Nepal. Social
neighboring countries. Foreign aid began to
workers are struggling and, in many instances, risking
enter the country in the form of reformation of
their lives to help others, but they themselves are
health, educational status, etc. Social reforms
being marginalized. There is a need for associations
were made by introducing revolutionary laws
or institutions to protect them the absence of which
and acts like the abolition of Race, Caste
forces the social workers to work in isolation.
and Gender based discrimination, and so on. There
7. After 12 years of armed conflict and pro-
organizations in existence today and most of
peoples’ movement 2006 the parliament was
which depend on foreign support and donations to
reconstituted and opened the door for building
implement various types of programs and projects.
Federal-Democratic-Republican-Nepal or New
Almost all of them employ individuals with good
Nepal. At the time of insurgency, several I/NGOs,
intentions and mobilize local volunteers. They are
individual had worked for the social awareness
the social workers of contemporary Nepal today
in spite of armed threat for the betterment of
who receive some form of basic training in this field
people. The volume of foreign aid, in the name of
after their involvement in NGOs / INGOs, and the
conflict, rehabilitation, women, child, restructure,
experience derived from their work is considered
federal system, democracy; were unknowingly
to be the most valuable asset. These people enter
increased and I/NGOs, civil society, human rights
this field from all walks of life and most of them are
activists are still acting to fulfill separate interests.
observed to be duty oriented and the work is seen
The restructuring process proves the emergence
as a means to meet their daily needs. Therefore,
of social work in Nepal vis-à-vis post-conflict
a professional attitude is yet to be developed and
situation. The increasing number of Governmental
professionalism practiced. This is our general situation
organizations, I/NGOs, service sectors, line
at the moment, but this trend is slowly changing.
agencies, and growing socio-political awareness
For the first time in Nepal, the Jesuits introduced a
of Nepalese people is the cause of demanding
full-fledged degree program in social work in 1995
role of social work at the moment for intervention.
and many government colleges offer subjects and courses in this field. Prior to this, the existing gaps
The religion, culture and the patriarchic traditions of
were being filled by Non-governmental organization
the society always dominated the values of social
that offered non-academic training and courses in
work. The birth of democracy in Nepal in 1990
the art of working with people. Their efforts have
provided a fertile opportunity for the NGO sector to
been commendable but their reach has been limited
grow. As a result, the need for trained social workers
due to lack of proper infrastructure, coordination
grew in the country. The restoration of democracy
and the small nature of their programs. The Nepali
and the recent pro-people movement 2006 further
people are facing a transition period at this time and
brought about land mark changes in the field of
the need for trained social workers has become even
social work with the emergence of large number
greater. Along with this need, we require a greater
of NGOs, Community based organizations and the
understanding of “Social Work” as a professional
strong presence of INGOs in the country contributing
field in Nepal and recognition that social work is a
to the social development. The concept of social
work in Nepal, even today, is seen as free service and voluntary work usually practiced by the affluent classes without any necessary skills and knowledge. THE EKLAVYAN | 41
Operational Risks Prakash Bhandari
The Basel Committee has defined operational risk as “… the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people, and systems or from
Operational Risk in the banking sector is somewhat a new phenomenon compared to other types of risks, i.e. credit risk, marketing risk, liquidity risk, etc. But operational risk stands for the most important risk and needs to be handled with utmost care. Before going on to the nature of operational risks in detail, we should briefly try to understand what operational risks are for the banks.
external events. It includes legal risk but excludes strategic and reputational risk.” How to Identify Operational Risks? From the definition as stated above, it is clear that operational risks are not consciously taken. But they invariably arise in the course of conducting business activities. The key challenge is to identify and anticipate the various kinds of operational risks that may arise. The Basle committee has categorically designed a framework to identify operational risks as follows: 1. Internal fraud: (Intentional misreporting of trading positions, employee theft, and insider trading on an employee’s own account, etc.)
risk is considered low frequency, high severity. 2. External fraud: (computer hacking, robbery and forgery, etc.) This risk is considered high/ medium
3. Employment safety:
sexual discrimination claims, etc.)
is considered low frequency, low severity. 4. Clients, products, and business practices: (misuse of confidential customer information, improper trading activities on the Bank’s account and money laundering, etc.) This risk is considered low/medium frequency and high/medium severity. 5. Damage fires
42 | THE EKLAVYAN
physical floods, low
6. Business disruption and system failures: (hardware and
problems, and utility outages, etc.)
submits a subjective evaluation of the sources of operational risk, along with expected frequency and costs. Key risk indicators: A centralized unit develops
7. Execution, delivery and process management:
subjective risk forecasts through risk indicators.
(data entry errors, collateral management failures, incomplete legal documentation, unapproved
Formal quantification: Operational risk managers
access given to clients’ accounts, etc.)
prepare an objective distribution of operational risk
risk is considered high frequency, low severity.
losses from an event database.
Some other statistical tools have also been developed
to quantify operational risks. It is much more difficult
to identify, quantify and manage operational risks 1. Risk by Technology (for example: system failure,
than credit or market risks. Data on operational
programming errors, communication failure, etc.)
risks is not exhaustive. Most banks are still in the
2. Risk by People (for example: incompetence of
process of collecting data. Therefore, developing statistical models for quantifying operational risks is
the staff, fraud, etc.) 3. Risk by Process (for example: data entry error,
a challenging job for the banks.
execution error, transaction error, mis-matching The Basle Framework
of trades, etc.)
To mitigate operational risk, the Basle Committee Managing Operational Risk Operational
has recommended some of the best practices to be has
increasingly important in recent years.
adopted by banks in the area of operational risk.
the big scams have been due to the failure of
• Board approval
Operational Risk Management. The Board of any
• Independent internal audit
financial institution must monitor internal controls to
• Management implementation
ensure that risks are being assessed and handled
• Risk identification and assessment
well. Meanwhile, Basle II has come up with detailed
• Risk monitoring and reporting
guidelines for identifying and measuring operational
• Contingency and continuity planning
The nature of operational risk is somewhat different
to other types of risks. Operational risk is a necessary
Operational risks lie everywhere in today’s business
part of doing business. In other words, operational
scenario. The whole process of measuring, managing,
risks are “inherent”, not “chosen.” Thus, it is widely
and allocating operational risk in the banking sector
said that the only way to avoid operational risk is by
is still in its initial stage. In the coming days, more
exiting the business!
precise procedures are expected from the banks to address the growing Operational Risk Factors within
Assessing and Quantifying Operational Risk
the banking industry in Nepal.
Although Assessing and Quantifying Operational Risk is a challenging job, there are tools which can be used for this purpose and they are listed below:
Critical self-assessment: Each individual/department
THE EKLAVYAN | 43
44 | THE EKLAVYAN
I was born in Taplejung, a place gifted with a great mountain like Mt. Kanchenjunga and many natural resources. As a poor citizen of rural Nepal, my father couldn’t afford my tuition fees and I had to struggle to go to school. I learnt skills that enabled me to earn enough to buy some copies and a pen. Delicious food was not only hard to get, but almost impossible. But still I felt no difference between the others and myself because nature was a common thing among all of us. We all breathe the same air. Mountains, air, beautiful forests are all common. Mountaineering was always my passion and I had a great dream of climbing Mt. Everest and making a documentary of it, myself being a high altitude shooter.
Where There Is a Will … P.K. Sherpa
When I did scale Mt. Everest, I felt that nothing is impossible. If we have a will then we will certainly have a way. I learnt it and knowing the importance of education, I continued my education and as tourism was my field I had to learn more about it. I couldn’t find any colleges suitable for me and my field. I finally got to know about the BTS program, the best option for me; and the place to pursue it was at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). I could pursue my dream at this university through ICA which has become one of the greatest platforms in Nepal for many people like me to learn more about tourism and adventure. I believe that I am getting more than I had expected. It has always been great pleasure to be a student and part of this institution and university as it has greatly assisted me in exploring my career in the tourism field.
THE EKLAVYAN | 45
S ’ T E L E COM E D I DEC
I am a Chartered Accountant and am very happy with
individual throughout the world these days. In a
my line of work. But, I often think how it would be if I
newspaper article a few weeks back, I read that
were an engineer with a keen interest in physics, or a
people, especially teenagers, have become so crazy
doctor like my better half. How wonderful it would be
about Facebook that they are getting their profile
if we never needed to decide on what to study like we
pictures shot by professional photographers (paying
did up to SLC. We would have knowledge in all fields:
more than Rupees fifty thousand) to create good
Commerce, Science and Arts. But, we would end up
impressions and attract more people to view their
in being a “Jack of all trades and ...” In this competitive
profiles. Now guys, tell me one thing, does it make
world, masters are welcomed everywhere, not Jacks.
any sense to have thousands of unknown people in
Then, I realized the importance of choices - making
your friend list due to the illusion you have created
an appropriate choice.
through your picture whereas your actual friend list may not even be ten.
I decided to write something about the world economic recession, but realized that it would be a
The world witnessed the greatest chapter of terrorism
very technical topic and readers expect something
called ‘BIN LADEN’ that ended last year, which is
interesting and lively in the magazine and, thus,
indeed an interesting chapter in itself. People around
dropped the idea. Now, if we talk about the power
the world are serious about global warming and the
cuts or load shedding which we are facing daily, has
rising temperature each day, while we, the people of
it done anybody any harm? Has it created hurdles or
Nepal, are tensed about the ever rising prices of fuel.
are we unhappy with it? I think it’s not just an electrical
Be it “Anna’s Revolution” against corruption or New
load shedding, but let’s look into the literal meaning
Yoga “fundas” of Baba Ramdev, our neighboring
carefully. It says ‘LOAD-SHEDDING’ which means,
country India has may interesting topics we can talk
shedding the load of the really hard working people
about. But how to decide amongst all these as each
of Nepal. We really are tired of the hard work and
topic turns out to be more interesting than the other.
to give us some rest, the government has come out
So, shall I write about all these? No, that wouldn’t be
with this never ending gift called ‘LOAD-SHEDDING’.
a very wise idea.
So, friends, do you find any harm in this? Literally, I don’t. Well, we all know the pros and cons of LOAD-
My objective behind all this preface is to let the
SHEDDING, so let’s not discuss about it anymore.
readers know the importance of being decisive in life and to make your decision. It’s not necessary
Then, what shall we talk about? Other matters
that you always make the appropriate decision; what
of interest for discussion may include the social
is necessary is that you make a decision and at the
networking sites like ‘Facebook’ and ‘Twitter’,
right time. No matter how appropriate a decision is,
which have almost changed the life style of every
it loses its value if not made at the appropriate time.
46 | THE EKLAVYAN
My father passed away when I was 22, and as the
on walking towards your path, and you will reach to
eldest child in the family from amongst four siblings,
the final destination. The result may be positive or
all of a sudden, my opinion and my decision, to some
extent, started being important in the family. When I used to be a small kid, I wanted to take my own
Rita Mae Brown has said, “Peacefulness follows any
decisions and I am sure the case must have been the
decision, even the wrong one.” So, once you have
same for all of you. When parents suggest otherwise
decided, you will surely be in a state of peacefulness.
and we have to follow their decisions, we usually
BHAGWAT GITA says ‘Karma kar, fal ki aasa na kar’.
feel bad, exhausted, and sometimes breathless. A
If it is a success, it is the result of the right decision
thought arises, “After all it’s my life, why can’t I take
that you had made, and, even if it is a failure, it will
my own decisions??’’ But now, when people turn
surely give you some knowledge for the future. You
their eyes on to me, waiting for the final decision,
should always remember that good decisions come
I wish dad was there to give the final decision - to
from experience, and experience comes from bad
choose the best. You will find lots of people who give
decisions. Just because you are making the right
you ideas and suggestions, but not the final decision.
decision always and achieving success doesn’t mean
Blessed are those, who have people around them
you are a successful person. You are a success
taking decisions on their behalf. Here, I would like
when you know that “success doesn’t make you and
to take an opportunity to thank my parent for their
failure doesn’t break you”.
support throughout my life, as I owe each beat of the heart to them.
Success is counted not by the position you have reached in life, but by the hurdles you have overcome
It doesn’t mean that you should stop taking decisions
to achieve that position. Will you count it as a success
if you have elders around who takes it on your behalf.
if the children of personalities like Warren Buffet, L.N.
In fact, making a right choice, or at least making a
Mittal or Oprah Winfrey become famous because
choice is in itself a very important art, which everyone
of their parents? No, I don’t think so. What they
should develop. When you start making your designs,
themselves have achieved overcoming all the hurdles
you start realizing that slowly you have to develop a
in life would make them real successes. Taking your
skill which takes you to the state of making the right
own decision doesn’t mean letting down the valuable
decision. The hardest thing to learn in life is to decide
suggestions and decisions you receive from your
which bridge to cross and which to burn. But, it’s not
parents, teachers, friends and relatives. But let us all
hard to make a decision when you know what your
develop a habit of making choices, taking decisions,
values are. Life is a sum of all your choices.
small or big. Sometimes you have to decide between saying “YES” and “NO”. Saying “YES” for everything
It is very well said that, ‘A problem well defined is half
every time is not a good decision indeed. You should
solved.’ Once you have decided on what you want
learn to say “NO” too. If you are not comfortable with
or what has to be done, there remains a very narrow
the situation or the thing, just decide and say “NO”.
gap between you and the final destination. Do not
The person at the opposite end may feel bad, or you
plant your dreams in the field of indecision, where
yourself may not feel good about it, but will it be fair
nothing ever grows except the weeds of “what-if.”
enough if you had said “YES” for what your heart
Until you know what the problem is, it is not possible
decides as a “NO”? Using the power of decision gives
to search for the remedy. Everything is something
you the capacity to get past any excuse to change
you decide to do, and there is nothing you have to
any and every part of your life in an instant. Just give
do. What is important is to make the decision and
it a thought and come, let’s decide.
once you have done it, don’t look back, just keep
THE EKLAVYAN | 47
DECISION MAKING A RIGHT MOVE AT THE RIGHT TIME Pushpa Bahadur K.C.
Managers constantly make decisions that affect
Step 1: Define the problem. The problem solving/
the work of others. Day-to-day situations involving
decision-making process begins when the manager
managerial decisions include employee morale, the
recognizes the problem, experiences pressure to act
allocation of effort, the materials used on the job,
on it, and has the resources to do something about
and the coordination of schedules and work areas.
it. This means that the manager must correctly define
The manager must recognize problems, make a
the problem. Problem identification is not easy. The
decision, initiate an action, and evaluate the results.
problem statement can be too broad or too narrow.
In order to make decisions that are consistent with
Managers are easily swayed by a solution orientation
the overall goals of the organization, managers use
that allows them to gloss over this first and most
guidelines set by top management. Thus, it is difficult
important step. Or, what is perceived as the cause of
for managers to make good decisions without good
a problem, may actually be a symptom.
planning. The manager must solve the right problem. In order An objective becomes a criterion by which decisions
to define the problem, the manager must describe
are made. A decision is a solution chosen from
the factors that are causing the problem. These are
among alternatives. Decisions must be made when
the symptoms, visible as circumstances or conditions
the manager is faced with a problem. Decision-
that indicate the existence of the problem -- the
making is the process of selecting an alternative
difference between what is desired and what exists.
course of action that will solve a problem. The first
By not clearly defining the problem, ineffective action
decision is whether or not to take corrective action.
will be taken.
A simple solution might be to change the objective. Yet, the job of the manager is to achieve objectives. Thus, managers will attempt to solve most problems. The steps in the problem solving process are (1) define the problem, (2) identify decision criteria, (3) develop alternatives, (4) decide, (5) implement the decision, and (6) evaluate the decision. The problem solving steps which have to be taken whenever a problem has to be faced all over again, can be analyzed as such:
48 | THE EKLAVYAN
Key uncertainties, the variables that result from
simple chance, must be identified. Regardless of the solution chosen, key uncertainties are important because they can be plusses or minuses. What are the chance variables? Which way would these variables fall, relative to each of the workable solutions? Not all criteria have the same importance. (Criteria weights can vary among different managers as well.) Assigning weights indicates the importance a manager places on each criterion for resolving the problem and helps establish priorities. Criteria that are extremely important can be given more weight, while those that are least important can be given less
Step 2: Identify decision criteria. The manager determines what is relevant in making a decision by isolating the facts pertinent to the problem. Since there is no single best criterion for decision making where a perfect knowledge of all the facts is present, a set of criteria must be used for the problem at hand. These decision criteria identify what will guide the decision-making process. They are the important facts relevant to the problem as defined. It is important that decision criteria be established early in the problem solving process because if the criteria are developed as analysis of data taking place, the chances are good that the data will determine the criteria. Thus, setting the criteria early introduces objectivity. These facts can be tangible as well as intangible. Tangible facts might include the work assignments, the work schedules, or work orders. Intangible facts could include morale, motivation,
weight. Step 3: Develop alternatives. The manager must identify all workable alternative solutions for resolving the problem. The term workable prevents alternative solutions that are too expensive, too time-consuming, or too elaborate. The best approach in determining workable solutions is to state all possible alternatives, without evaluating any of the options. This helps to ensure that a thorough list of possibilities is created. Generating alternative solutions requires divergent thinking (deviating from traditional.) Groups can be used to generate alternative solutions. Brainstorming is the process of suggesting as many alternatives as possible without evaluation. The group is presented with a problem and asked to develop as many solutions as possible. When brainstorming, employees should
and personal feelings and perceptions.
be encouraged to make wild, extreme suggestions.
This process is somewhat subjective, because what
the alternatives are evaluated until all possibilities are
serves as important criteria for one manager may be less important for another. For instance, the decisionmaking criteria used to hire employees differs across departments; the sales department uses the number of new store openings in different geographic areas, while the manufacturing department uses how many units of the product needs to be produced and how quickly.
They build on suggestions made by others. None of exhausted. The manager must judge what would happen with each alternative and its effect on the problem. The strengths and weaknesses of each alternative are critically analyzed by comparing the weights assigned and then eliminating the alternatives that are not workable. Probability factors - such as risk, uncertainty, and ignorance - must be considered. Risk is a state of imperfect knowledge in which THE EKLAVYAN | 49
the decision-maker judges the different possible outcomes of each alternative and can determine the probabilities of success for each. Uncertainty is a state in which the decision-maker judges the different possible outcomes of each alternative but lacks any feeling for their probabilities of success. Ignorance is a state in which the decision-maker cannot judge the different possible outcomes of each alternative, let alone their probabilities. Investigating all the possible alternatives helps to prevent eliminating the most appropriate one, because a decision is only as good as the best alternative evaluated. Step 4: Decide. The manager must make a choice
among the alternatives. The alternative that rates
Group members do not give in just to reach an
the highest score should be the preferred solution.
agreement. They support only those solutions that
The decision can be assisted by the manager’s
they can truthfully accept. If people exercise this
experience, past judgment, advice from others, or
power to go against the majority, they must have
even a hunch.
listened to the collective wisdom in good conscience. A block should not be used to place an individual’s
Timing impacts the decision. The probable outcome
will above the groups.
and its advantages versus its disadvantages are affected at any given time. Which alternative is most
Consensus works in an environment of trust, where
appropriate at a given time?
everyone suffers or gains alike from the decision. Everyone must listen, participate, get informed, be
Decisions are made by consensus when solutions
rational, and be part of the process from the beginning.
are acceptable to everyone in the group, not just
Thus, consensus can be time consuming, long and
a majority. Everyone is included, and the decision
exhausting to the participants. Yet, consensus will
is a win-win situation. Consensus does not include
result in synergism. Synergy is the combined action
voting, averaging, compromising, negotiating, or
of the group, greater in total effect than the sum of
trading (win-lose situations). Every member accepts
their effects. The combined problem solving/decision
the solution, even though some members may not
making abilities of the group members produce a
be convinced that it is the best solution. The “right”
better decision than that of the individual member.
decision is the best collective judgment of the group as a whole.
Taking action requires self-confidence or courage. Only the person who is willing to take risks is able
Consensus gives every person a chance to be
to assume responsibility for a decision involving
heard and have their input weighed equally. All
action. The fact remains that the manager is held
members accept responsibility for both listening and
accountable for the outcome of the decision. Thus,
contributing. Disagreements are viewed as helpful
he or she must be confident that the right problem
rather than hindrances in reaching consensus. Each
has been defined and the most workable solution has
member monitors the decision-making process and
been chosen. Self-confidence is the best element for
initiates discussions about the process if it becomes
a manager to possess at this stage.
ineffective. The smallest minority has a chance to change the collective mind if their input is keener. 50 | THE EKLAVYAN
Step 5: Implement the decision. Once the solution
reviewed from the beginning to determine where
is chosen, the decision is shared with those whose
errors may have been made. Evaluation can take
work will be affected. Ultimately, human beings will
many forms, depending on the type of decision, the
determine whether or not a decision is effectively
environment, working conditions, needs of managers
implemented. If this fact is neglected, the solution
and employees, and technical problems. Generally,
will fail. Thus, implementation is a crucial part of
feedback and reports are necessary to learn of the
the decision-making process. Including employees
decision’s outcome. Sometimes, corrections can be
who are directly involved in the implementation of
introduced for different steps. Other times, the entire
a decision, or who are indirectly affected by that
decision-making process needs to start all over.
decision, will help foster their commitment. Without their commitment, gaining support and achieving
The main function of the follow-up is to determine
outcomes becomes increasingly difficult. With this
whether or not the problem has been resolved.
commitment, the manager has a reasonable degree
Usually, a follow-up requires a managerial visit to the
of assurance that the decision will be accepted and
work area affected by the decision. The manager
has the necessary support.
may have to repeat the entire decision process if a new problem has been generated by the solution. It
In order to implement the decision, the manager must
is better to discover this failure during the follow-up
have a plan for communicating it to those directly and
period rather than remain unaware of a new problem
indirectly affected. Employees must understand how
provoked by the implemented solution.
the decision will affect them. Communication is most effective when it precedes action and events. In this
And the same process is suggested if the same
way, events conform to plans and events happen
situation has to be faced all over again with some
when, and in the way, they should happen. Thus, the
improvement through the following decision making
manager should answer the vital questions before
strategies and tools:
they are asked. Communicating answers to these questions can overcome much of the resistance that
otherwise might be encountered.
• Pareto Charts. • Cost-Benefit Analysis.
Step 6: Evaluate the decision. The manager must follow-up and appraise the outcomes from
EXAMPLE: Pareto Chart
the decision to determine if desired results were
• A bar graph that demonstrates the relative
achieved. If not, then the process needs to be
importance of factors affecting a system. • Used to rank order causes from most to least significant. • Based on the Pareto principle (referred to as the 80-20 Rule): 80% of the problems can be
attributed to 20% of the causes. • A graphic aid to identify the “vital few” from the “trivial many.” Solution is made through the joint effort which is also called the democratic style, where we as a leader shares the problem with the relevant team members as a group; together we generate and evaluate alternatives and attempt to reach an agreement (consensus) on a solution. THE EKLAVYAN | 51
Valentine’s Day & the Adolescents
February 14th is popularly known as ‘Valentine’s
Day’. Adolescent girls and boys express their love for each other by exchanging flowers and gifts as a token of love on this day. Most of the times, these adolescents indulge in immoral acts under the pretext of Valentine’s Day. Does real love require this superficial display and can it be confined to just one day? Valentine’s Day is responsible for the propagation of western culture and incitement of youths towards unrestrained behavior. It is the western custom to put parents in old age homes and then celebrate flashy ‘Mother’s Day’ and ‘Father’s Day’ which is put on display for just one day! Now this madness is taking root in our beloved country which has the richest and most sublime culture in the world. It’s that time of the year again; hearts and cupids in multifarious sizes and varieties seem to pop up everywhere and the ubiquity of the colours red and pink could give you a migraine. Yet, Valentine’s Day (whether you like it or not), has come to mean a lot of things for a lot of people. There are those who celebrate it in the greatest spirits, those who don’t see much sense in it, and others who are happy to be part of a universal day set apart for love. Over recent years, Valentine’s Day celebrations in Kathmandu have become more visible and the number of people who flock to gift-stores, cardshops and florists to get tokens of love for their special ‘someones’ is steadily growing. Whether you belong to the group that does not see much sense in this sudden multiplication of love and affection or to that which seems happiest on February 14th, you cannot deny that Valentine’s Day is here to stay. From being a Roman holiday that honoured a number of Saint Valentines to being associated
with Geoffrey Chaucer’s circle of Romantic Love in the High Middle ages, Valentine’s Day has come a long way to become the universal day of love and affection and greeting cards and red roses that have become today. As many expressed their opinions on and plans for this year’s Valentine’s Day, most of them, whether they be actors, singers, students or academicians, couldn’t help but see the brighter side of this day of love. Valentine’s Day, after all, is not only about romance and red roses; it’s about sharing love, and The Beatles say, “All you need is love”. Is love only limited to physical attraction? Love is present in sacred relationships such as the Guru and the disciple, brothers and sisters, mothers and fathers and even towards ones motherland. There was no connection between ‘Valentine’s Day’ and ‘Love’ until the fourteenth century. Today we are blindly following the western culture under the name of ‘Valentine’s Day’. The young students of schools and colleges are falling prey to such culture and express their love to each other by way of exchanging greeting cards. But, actually speaking, it is not love, but a mere attraction to the opposite sex at a tender and immature age. THE EKLAVYAN | 53
in pursuit of
“Imagine there’s no country, it isn’t hard to do” – Lennon’s inspiring creation brings nostalgia and lands my soul to the resplendent Dubai airport. Three years ago, I bid my farewell to the United States of America after five long years of stay – after attaining a degree and in pursuit of destiny. 54 | THE EKLAVYAN
Despite my unwillingness, for I had no other choice,
and napping; interaction became my time-pass.
I was to transit in Dubai airport for twelve extensive
While digging for information, I not only realised
hours. Like said, what happens, happens for the best.
what it meant to have an identity, but also a need
I encountered the plight of uncountable number of
for a scheme that protected it. If only Lennonâ€™s
Nepali brothers and few sisters who were stranded in
imagination were true, the nexus between people all
the airport for a period of ten days to months. Woefully,
over the world and the issue of identity pertaining to
the majority had no money to eat. If they had some,
land would not have bothered anyone. We are far
they contacted the treacherous manpower agencies
away from that thought though the song makes us
that shoved them to such circumstances.
imagine for once. Those trapped in the airport held fake visas but were unknown about it. So, entering
Dubai Airport dazzled with intricate decorations and
Dubai was illegal. Though willing to help, there was
colourful lights as if in a carnival. People kill time
nothing I could do instantly.
reading books, surfing the net, shopping, eating THE EKLAVYAN | 55
I myself was unsure what I would be doing in Nepal
Now in Nepal, I have matured to become a research
upon my return. I had a degree, my attainment with
officer. Destiny played me well. I had begun my career
me, well sealed documents and transcripts; yet, I
from the Dubai airport interacting and researching
wondered how I would make use of it in my home
already. A year ago, I got an opportunity to experience
country. Thoughts oscillated like a pendulum and I
Lamjung for a month. It was for a movie shooting –
felt like Shakespeare’s Hamlet - in a state of to be or
my first Nepali movie - and I remembered one of the
not to be.
brothers I met in Dubai. Lamjung, like mentioned, is gorgeous. I felt sorry for him and his beautiful land.
With four twenty-dollar bills I had put in my jeans pocket, I impulsively bought packs of vegetable fried
To these days, I have been following the news and
rice and water. I warned that they had to adjust on the
headlines; Malaysia wanting 100,000 Nepali workers;
amount. Trust me; the scene tore me down. Totally
government banning women to go to Arab countries
shattered, when I saw them flocking to eat – I realised
for work; such policy made poor women enter these
the importance of food. In the States so much food
countries illegally thus putting them to vulnerable
goes wasted. The game of wilful betrayal played by
situation whilst their needs are not depraved but
manpower agencies riled me. Many swore in rage
an aftermath of rampant poverty; cases of abuses
and mumbled they would get rid of these agencies
ubiquitously written. Data reveal migrant workers
once they stepped into Nepal. The scene behind the
add billions of remittances to national economy. In
inquiry counter where their passports were seized
the year 2009 the migration rate of labours to Saudi
and kept was unjust. One in his late twenties said,
Arab rose to 123 per cent. Though remittances add
“Those rascals, they take us to their counter and hit
up to the national economy, the concern from the
us with the danda. What did we do wrong? I sold
government remains patchy.
my beautiful land in Lamjung just to see this day.” Another vehemently uttered, “Wait and see till we
There are no proper protection mechanisms of these
get to Nepal. Those scoundrels! God knows how
people who contribute to the nation. We all know they
we arranged the money to get here.” Complaints,
are not destined to be in such situation. They have
cusses, frustration and hatred filled the atmosphere.
the right to be secured and the only option for them
Myriad of secret thoughts captured me. What if the
is the government that controls over the revenue
process of extricating them was lengthy? Who are
generated from these people’s perseverance. If I
responsible for their compensation?
were to suggest I would say that the government should be more focused on generating livelihood
Restless, I filled in their hearts with hope that all will
options for the citizens. Yet I understand that policies
be well. Upon request, I took some of their family’s
undermine my obdurate logic at this point.
numbers and promised to deliver their messages which I did. I wish I had kept the numbers safe for
Lastly, it is easy to imagine there were no country
follow up; I changed my set many times. Time passed.
and the whole world being one. Whilst humans have
I bid my farewell with a heart leaping in emptiness.
already crossed the limit; it is a terrible feeling to
While travelling, I thought about life without identity.
even think about not having an identity. I hope the innocents I met have had a way out found what they
This phenomenon was not new to me. While in Oklahoma, my Mexican friends born in the US were kicked out of college. They were children to illegal immigrants who worked day and night in restaurants while my friends went to college and enjoyed every right as Americans till the dreadful fate summoned them. They underwent identity crisis. 56 | THE EKLAVYAN
were looking for in pursuit of destiny.
THE EKLAVYAN | 57
Career Perspectives in Tourism G.S. Oli The scope of employment in the tourism sector is
very bright and the potential is still largely untapped. Career opportunities exist both in the public and private sectors. In the public sector, there are opportunities in the Directorates and Departments of Tourism of the centre and the state as officers,
• services such as retail travel, currency exchange, tour operators and tourist boards, • passenger transport including coach, aviation, rail and waterways,
information assistants, tourist guides/ escorts,
• visitor attractions such as museums and
etc. Another good prospectus for qualified tourism
monuments, theme parks, zoos and other
professionals are in the private sector with travel
agencies, tour operators, airlines, hotels, transport
• Meetings, conferences, expositions and events,
and cargo companies, etc. The opening up of the
• Accommodation and catering services, including
skies to private airlines and their emerging tie-ups
hotels, restaurants and holiday parks.
with foreign airlines has removed bottlenecks in the transport and communication network resulting
There are many different kinds of jobs in the tourism
in easy flow of domestic and foreign tourists in the
industry. Some positions, such as a front desk
country. Since this is a new area of employment, not
agent, involve out front contact and interaction with
many qualified and experienced people are available
clients/ customers/ guests. Most jobs in the travel
and the promotion prospectuses are also very bright
and hospitality industry are challenging, exciting,
and rapid. After a few years of experience, one can
and satisfying. Because of the 24-hour nature of the
also start their own business by handling all travel
business, positions can also be exhausting, stressful,
requirements of the clients and gradually building
and intense. Travel careers are for individuals who
up business, taking on additional employees. Travel
enjoy working with people and welcome daily
and tourism comprises many different industries and
challenges. The industry is also an avenue for people
who love the excitement of travel.
58 | THE EKLAVYAN
WHY CHOOSE TOURISM JOB?
to customers, and each one will perceive that experience in a different and personal way, day
Travel and Tourism one of the world’s largest
after day, and year after year, on the same piece
provides employment directly to millions of people
• Working with remarkable people: Besides the
worldwide and indirectly through many associated
opportunity to work with people who share the
service industries. A very wide industry, it includes
same mania for a place that you do, tourism
government tourism departments, immigration and
allows operators to meet others from all walks of
customs services, travel agencies, airlines, tour
life. It’s a mutually increase experience.
operators, hotels etc and many associated service
• Tourism can be sustainable: It is believed that
industries such as airline catering or laundry services,
tourism elements perhaps more than any other
guides, interpreters, tourism promotion and sales,
sector of economy which has the opportunity
etc. Travel and tourism enterprises include major
to achieve economic, social, cultural and
internationals with a workforce of thousands, to the
small private travel agent with a handful of employees.
• Transferable skills: Skills used in the tourism trade can be used in almost every part of the world.
Most people in tourism do not usually receive
Many tour and travel operators and tour guides
free travel as an employment benefit. While some
operate throughout the year, travelling the world
careers may involve travel (e.g. flight attendants
and following the seasons as part of their line of
and travel counselors), employees usually travel on
work. In addition, practices used in the tourism
business and work hard during these trips. Although
sector can be used in other businesses.
some employers offer discounts on airfare or accommodation, this is not the norm.
• Diversity of career opportunities: From highend glamour to rugged outdoor adventure and ancient practices to state-of-the-art technology,
The reasons for choosing tourism jobs are highlighted
the field of tourism encompasses thousands of
possibilities. • It is better than the alternative: There are many
• Changes in lifestyle: Persons have the incredible
people who work at jobs they hate. There is an
and humbling opportunity to join people from
attractive powerful incentive in various areas of
around the world in situations where they
experience something that they have never experienced before to the point where they can
Most entry-level positions in the tourism industry do
and do change their lives.
not require a university degree although other forms
• Sharing an interest and a place: Tourism provides
of education and training are usually necessary.
opportunities to show some of the unique and
Many occupations require skills that must be learned
special features of a locality and authority of
and practiced. There are many routes to learning
destination, which can aid in preservation and
and, depending on the occupation one choose, one
may achieve a management position through on-the-
• Tackling challenges: Tourism activities always
job training, a college or university diploma and/or
have a new set of problems to solve and it will
through an apprenticeship program. Once employed,
continue to be. The ability to find solutions in an
tourism professionals have the opportunity to achieve
ever-changing environment can be as exciting as
nationally recognized professional certification for
any outdoor adventure.
many tourism occupations.
• Renewable resource in experience: In tourism, if one does it right, she/he can provide experiences THE EKLAVYAN | 59
JOB PROSPECTS & CAREER OPTIONS
stations but others are for unusual activities like river rafting, hang gliding, rock climbing and camping. Tour
Tourism Department and Tourism Associations
operators need people for selling the concept and
In the Tourism Department, there are jobs as
then to accompany the groups to the destinations.
reservation and counter staff, sales and marketing
For foreign groups, the agencies prefer girls, who are
staff, tour planners and tour guides. Officers in the
friendly and helpful. For domestic groups, males are
Directorate and Departments of Tourism are recruited
preferred. Again, the qualities required are a pleasing
from among the candidates who have done civil
and outgoing personality, knowledge of the activities
service, drawn from the civil/administrative services
and often participating in them with the tourists. A
of governments. They are involved in the planning and
person hoping to work with a tour operator must be
promotion of tourism activities. A degree in travel and
able to travel with the groups and know people at the
tourism is required for operational jobs in government
destinations to make the tours pleasant for the client.
organizations. Information assistants at the office
Though one may do a course of tourist guide for
of the Tourism departments are selected through
this purpose, people with knowledge of the activities
competitive examinations held by the Staff Selection
can easily join as tour operators. The jobs could be
Commission. These vacancies are advertised through
seasonal in some cases.
the employment news. Information assistants give out information regarding tourist spots and services
Tour and Travel Related Agencies
available and help to plan the itinerary of the tourists.
Travel agents assess the needs of tourists and
The Ministry of Tourism recognizes two types of
businesspersons and help them make the best
guides, international and domestic.
possible travel arrangements from the many travel options available. Many resorts, travel groups use
travel agents to promote their tour packages to travelers. They deal with almost everything connected
with travel including the shortest route to the
Whether on the ground or in flight, there is an exciting
destination, travel mode, the important documents
job option for many people; one can work as traffic
that will be required (visa, passport, vaccination
assistance, reservation and counter staff, airhostess
certificates, etc.), suitable places to stay, current
and flight pursers, sales and marketing staff and
exchange rates, tourist attractions to visit, climate
customer services. Similarly, job opportunities may
and so on. They will plan the trip keeping in mind the
be available in overseas countries on the condition of
clientsâ€™ preferences, budgets and special needs.
required skill and formal education. A course in travel and tourism or a qualification on hotel management
In travel agencies, there are openings for reservation
helps to get in. The jobs in airlines though challenging
and counter staff, sales and marketing staff, tour
are glamorous and afford the possibility of traveling
escorts and tour operators, cargo and courier
to exciting destinations. Free tickets for the family
agencies etc. A short term course or a diploma in
offered by some airlines are an added advantage.
travel and ticketing of 3-6 months duration will help gain entry into an agency. Several large travel
agencies also offer short-term training programs,
Tour operators organize conducted tours to the
and tend to absorb most of the candidates. Some
various tourist spots and manage the travel and stay
agencies take in fresh graduates and train them on
of the tourists. There are many companies operating
the job. Knowledge of destinations and procedures
tours for the domestic as well as the international
help a great deal.
tourist. Some may be to the usual destinations like hill
60 | THE EKLAVYAN
and marketing personnel, technical staff, service
Accommodation industries include hotels, resorts,
staff, etc. and
motels, guesthouses, lodges, rest houses, etc.
from seasonal / part-time to permanent / full time
The hotel industry is basically a service industry
employment opportunities ranging
providing accommodation, food and beverages to the guests. It is one which requires a large amount
Moreover, travel and tourism related industries will:
of manpower, with a wide variety of skills. A hotel offers career opportunities in its various departments
some specific information about the
such as operations, front office, housekeeping,
different areas of tourism and the wide range of
food and beverages, accounting, engineering/
maintenance, sales, public relations and security etc. One can enter this field through direct entry in some departments or through hotel management institutes. Many institutes offer hotel management courses. Many hotels also offer overseas training opportunities, which allow young people to gain
• tell about what it is really like to work in the tourism industry, • encourage the people to think about what area of tourism suits them better, and • give an important and practical advice on how to get a job in travel and tourism.
promotions rapidly. Freestanding catering industries, such caterings are restaurants, bar, pubs, outdoor
However, work in the travel and tourism industry
caterings, mobile caterings, etc. which can offer job
is essentially concerned with providing services
in various positions like cooks, waiters, bartenders,
for people who are away from home, on business
receptionists, porters, account staff, etc.
or holiday. Tourism can be leisure travel involving package tours, so that travel company personnel
Recreation and Entertainment
must be up-to-date on current rules and regulations
Recreation and entertainment industries have large
and documentation required, in areas like cargo,
numbers of activities that range from bird watching
ticketing and passports, visas etc. so as to correctly
to salmon fishing, horse/pony riding to white water
advise their clients, and to take care of the paperwork
rafting, golfing to wilderness trekking, and educational
when necessary. Besides this, all tourism staff in
visit to entertaining stops. Others are casinos, dance
marketing, counter sales, or guide services, should
bars, theme parks, shopping malls and gift shops,
be knowledgeable about the places their clients visit,
etc. These venues need people as a workforce in
in terms of general background, how to get there
various positions like guest relation executives, sales
connections by air, rail and road and the facilities available. THE EKLAVYAN | 61
Rabindranath Tagore a multi - dimen s i o n a l p e r s on a l i t y Bipin Deo 62 | THE EKLAVYAN
Nurtured and nourished in the climate of Indian
At the same time, he never withdrew his stand
renaissance Tagore maintained a sense of his
that the West’s creativity has been misguided and
individuality right from his childhood days. He was
perverted which led it to go on the path of colonialism,
tremendously influenced by Gandhi with reservation.
imperialism, fascism, Nazism and dehumanization in
He opposed the “Charka Movement” of Gandhi in his
all its form and manifestations. He had regard for the
characteristic style of expression in his essay “The
people of the West, not for the government of the
Cult of the Charka”. Rabindranath Tagore (1861-
West. He stood for synthesis of the East and the
1941) was a leading spokesman for compassionate
West and interpenetration of the opposites.
humanism and culture in India and the world. He was proud of the age of science as we also are. But we
As has been mentioned above, he had differences
can’t say our lives are universally secure or healthy
with Gandhi on many issues of life. Tagore, unlike
in these times of advanced science and technology
Gandhi, preferred open trade policies. For example,
than that of our ancestors in the preceding age.
he opposed boycotts of foreign clothes. He was
This leads us to ask why this insecurity, why all this
an early environmentalist with a strong sense of
terror, why has our so-called modern society led to
aesthetics, who adored wide-open spaces and
progressively less harmony between individual and
riverine areas of Bengal. Similarly, he was a passionate
champion of women’s rights and empowerment. The first story he ever wrote was all about the misfortunes
Similarly, Tagore was an internationalist who
and abuses that a mother and her daughter had
critiqued the narrowly defined concept of nationalism
to suffer. At that time, he was only 17. His famous
and patriotism. He wanted all human beings to be
dramas, “Chandalika” and “Malini”, have female
treated equally regardless of the nation to which they
heroines. Not only this, in those days, he challenged
belonged. He didn’t want barriers of cast, race and
male-domination structure of society by establishing
religion between people. His age was the age of revolt,
his “Santiniketan School”. It was a co-educational
revival and reformation. Tagore understood the pulse
school, in one way a great challenge to the society.
of the age and pleaded in favour of liberal humanistic and its hope and optimism. His formative influences
It is interesting to note that his instinct was dead
were from confluence of three movements which
against dictatorship. In the mid 1920s, many
were making mark in the Indian history: the protestant
distinguished people admired Mussolini and the
religious movement of Rammohan Roy (1772-1833),
Italian fascism. They included writers such as T.S.
the literary movement of Bankim Chandra (1838-94)
Eliot, Ezra Pound, George Bernard Shaw and W.B.
and the national movement. Though he was a vocal
Yeasts. But Tagore didn’t agree with them. In an
critique of Western imperialism and colonialism, he
essay published in July, he remarked interalia that
had a good taste of Western literature. . The first
fascism was the ‘exact counterpart’ of extreme Hindu
forty years of his life were conspicuous by his fond
orthodoxy. He compared the callous treatment of the
attraction for the Romantic and Victorian poets and
untouchables by the Brahmins to “lynching, fascism,
Shakespeare, matched equally by his passionate love
Ku Klux Kalanism and the like”.
for Sanskrit literature, in general, and for the classical Sanskrit writer, in particular. Tagore was obliged to
His multifarious and multi-dimensional personality
address the question of the relation between India
can be better appreciated through his dramas, short
and the West. He began by believing in an essential
stories, novels, poetry, music and works of art.
dichotomy between the two cultures. He talked about
His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic,
the fusion between the spiritual East and materialistic
optimistic and lyrical nature.
West. With the passage of time, he noticed spirituality in West’s dynamism and experimentation. THE EKLAVYAN | 63
Currency Exchange Strategy An Idea
Let us envisage two entrepreneurs one in China and
Now the American entrepreneur makes can cola and
other in the USA. The entrepreneur in China makes
wants to sell in China. If the demand of cola is 50
dolls and wants to export them to the USA. Again, let
cans @ $1 (10 Yuan), he can get 500 Yuan by selling
us assume that his selling price is 10 Yuan (US$ 1) in
them, which can be converted into $50.
the USA and 100 units of dolls are demanded at the current exchange rate of $1 = 10 Yuan. Now, if he
Here, the demand for Yuan is 1000 Yuan and
sells 100 unit dolls he will have $100, and that can be
Chinese entrepreneur has $100 with him. While the
converted into 1000 Yuan.
demand of dollar is 50 dollars only and the American entrepreneur has 500 Yuan on his hand, since the demand of Yuan is higher than the dollar.
Letâ€™s see what happens
American Entrepreneur knows
Chine Entrepreneur has
the demand of Yuan is high
expectation of 1000 Y for
and expects to earn more
500 At current exchange rate the
American entrepreneur now offers
100 Yuan for
100 Y @ 10 Yuan for $1 which
eventually is accepted by the Chinese entrepreneur The clever American entrepreneur
now offers $20 at the rate of 9 Yuan
180 Yuan for
for $1 since the Yuan is on high
demand. The Chinese entrepreneur has to accept that and gives $20 for 180 Yuan and new exchange rate of $1=9 Yuan is formed. Again the American entrepreneur
offers $27.5 at the rate of 8 Yuan
220 Yuan for
for $1 because the Yuan is on high
demand. The Chinese entrepreneur has to accept 220 Yuan for $27.5 and the new exchange rate of $1=9 Yuan is formed. 0 Yuan Remaining amount
64 | THE EKLAVYAN
American makes $57.5 from
Chine Entrepreneur has
$42.5 and 500 Yuan
Now the new exchange rate has become $1=8 Yuan.
By printing the Yuan and undervaluing, China tries
Previously, $1 could buy 10 Yuan and now $1 can buy
to collect billions/ trillions of dollars. This is called
only 8 Yuan so the Yuan has appreciated and dollar
“Sucking UP”. By doing this, China appreciates the
has been depreciated. When the Yuan appreciates
dollar more. This will decrease import while increases
the China export reduces and import increases.
the exports highly. The question arises as to what
Similarly, when the dollar depreciates the US can
should be done with that collected and hording
export more and will import less. Let’s see how this
dollars. The Chinese government now buys the safest
can happen and without government intervention
assets AAA rated US treasuries bill (T-Bills) which are
how this imbalanced trade can be balanced.
the loans to the Federal Government of USA. The Chinese Government can buy T-Bills either by bidding
Now the Chinese entrepreneur can sell the same
the lowest interest rate to FED, or by bidding the
doll for 10 Yuan which is now 10 Y x $1.25 and so
higher rate to the T-bill acquired by other institutional
demand reduces to 60 units. Thus, he expects to
or investors who previously acquired T-Bills from FED.
make 60 units x $1.25 each= $75 and expects to
By buying the T-Bills with the accumulated dollars in
receive 600 Yuan. On other side of the Pacific, the
return the Chinese Government gets IOU.
American entrepreneur can sell same cola for $1 that is now $1 x 8/$1 = 8 Yuan instead of 10 Yuan. The
The US Government now has lower borrowing cost
demand then increases into 75 cans of cola. He then
which makes them to finance the deficits either
expects to make 75 units x 8 Yuan each = 600 Yuan
by spending more or by lowering the taxes. The
and then expects to receive 600/8 = $75.
American public, thus, can have more jobs because of government spending more, or can have more dollars
In this scenario, there is a demand of 600 Yuan for
to spend because of lower tax and can get the debt at
$75 from the Chinese entrepreneur and demand of
lower interest rate. The Americans are happy because
$75 from 600 Yuan from the American entrepreneur.
they can purchase more; debts have lower interest
The demand meets the supply on each side. Thus,
rate. The American economy has more transactions
the trade imbalance can be balanced by free floating
within themselves too.
money. In summary, the Americans have more money to spend, which in fact has been financed by debts. They can eventually buy more Chinese goods which are cheaper. Again, the Chinese exports more goods and imports more dollars and buys surplus dollars by printing the Yuan. This doesn’t stop at all. Eventually, it depreciates the value of the dollar accumulated by the Chinese Government and if the dollar devaluates, it will increase the long term interest rate in the USA, too. By artificially suppressing the Yuan, the Chinese Government increases the export, develops more factories, develops more jobs and capital, and expands their economy and standard of living. This eventually leads the US to achieve debts at cheaper rate, low long term interest rate motivation to invest more into knowledge based factories than manufacturing, more money in the hands of the Americans and more government spending and low tax. THE EKLAVYAN | 65
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DHANUSHA DISTRICT
Santosh Kumar Sah
A study was made to investigate the achievement
Based on the analysis and interpretation of data the
in mathematics of the secondary school students
findings were as follows:
of public schools and private schools of Dhanusha district. An achievements test was taken from the mathematics curriculum prescribed for grade nine.
1. Achievement level of secondary school students was satisfactory.
It contained multiple choice items from the area of the topic statistics concerning knowledge, skill, comprehension and application of the cognitive level.
2. Achievement level of private school students was higher than that of public school students.
The time allocated to the students for the test was forty minutes. The schools were divided into two areas, i.e., rural area schools and urban area schools. Four
3. Achievement level of girls of private schools was higher than that of public schools.
schools from urban areas and three schools from rural areas were chosen. Private and Public schools were selected. The number of students from urban
4. Achievement level of boys of private schools was higher than that of public schools.
and rural areas was 39 and 28 respectively. The achievement level of students was compared with
So, we derive that the achievement level in mathematics
different types of schools, location wise and gender
of public school students was comparatively lower
wise. In order to test the statistical difference of the
than that of private school students. It was seen that
mean scores between any two groups of students,
the teaching learning methods in the public schools
the t-test was used.
needed to be made advanced and strict and the guardians of the rural area should be made aware of the importance of the education so that they could provide their children sufficient time for study.
66 | THE EKLAVYAN
Achievement is one of the essential components to
domain. This test was administered on 67 students
measure the extent of the goals of the curriculum.
of seven schools. The schools of Dhanusha were
Considering this fact, the government has made
classified in two categories, i.e. urban schools within
many efforts to improve the curriculum, text books,
accessible area and rural schools within remote area
examination system and other aspects of education.
of Dhanusha district. They were also classified in two
Individuals in the existing social context of the world
categories: public and private boarding schools. The
as well as our country are seeking better achievement
mean and standard deviation of the scores obtained
in school mathematics education program. The role
by boys and girls were calculated and were compared
of mathematics in individual professional orientation
with schools type, location wise and gender wise.
as well as in their further career development in an
Altogether eight t-tests were applied for this study. Based on the analysis and interpretation of the data the findings were: 1. The mean achievement of students of urban schools was not significantly different to that of the students of rural schools. 2. The mean difference of the achievements of urban public schools and rural public schools were significantly different.
industrial society is found better than in an agrarian society. Even so, opportunities of higher education options are being accessible to those students who have performed better in mathematics in our context. Therefore, to satisfy parentsâ€™ demands, schools want to improve the achievement level in mathematics and on the same ground governing institutions also want to improve the achievement level offering and implementing this and that method and or policies. In this context, various researchers have tried to find out the variables responsible for influencing achievement in mathematics. Among the many variables, the participation of students in private and public schools were found important. Mathematics experts and teachers were consulted to elicit suggestions in order to make the test as comprehensive and valid as possible .A pilot test was conducted in Puspa Sadan English Boarding School at Kirtipur. The final achievement test contained 27 items on four levels of the cognitive
3. The mean difference of the achievement of the boys and girls was significantly insignificant. 4. The mean difference of the achievement of the boys and the girls of public schools were statistically insignificant. 5. The mean difference of the achievement of the boys and the girls of private boarding schools was statistically insignificant. 6. The mean achievement of the students of private schools was found significantly different than that of the students of public schools The conclusion was there were significant differences between the achievement of the students due to the types (public and private) and location (rural and urban) of schools but there were insignificant differences in the mean achievement of the students in term of gender and rural public and urban public schools in the unit of statistics.
THE EKLAVYAN | 67
Teaching Trends in Nepal
Raj Kishor Singh
To be honest, most of the teachers in Nepal are
as a teaching approach and parroting as a learning
still not from the “education” background. Shyam
approach. Luckily (ironically), these approaches are
Yadav studied law but, instead of being a lawyer, he
confined to schools. A school student can memorise
is a teacher. Naresh Shrestha studied management
a whole chapter, even a whole book, and reads out
to be a managing staff in a bank or elsewhere.
“… milk girl’s dream collapsed … full stop”.
Unfortunately, he is teaching in a college. Those who studied physics, chemistry, or biology are not
Most of the college teachers are translators. Every
physicists, chemists, or biologists. Most of them
word is translated in the mother tongue. Students
are teachers. I am also not exception to this fact.
learn every subject by translation. They appear in
The truth is that, traditionally, teachers need not
the examination but having preparation mentally by
be trained. Those who have the knowledge can be
translation, they write every word by translation. Some
teachers. Even an entrepreneur can appear in the
teachers paraphrase the texts. Paraphrasing a text
classroom as a teacher. This traditional trend is a
means simplifying it. This approach is, I think, better
than translation. There are many other approaches critical thinking, literary analysis, commentary, textual
I think something is going wrong in my country.
Most of the students are getting admission in the
approach, moral-philosophical approach, language-
Education Faculty to get education and training for
teachers. The Faculty of Humanities and Arts is losing
and, presently, some of these are being applied in
students. I am not sure whether the faculty members
teaching language and literature.
are conscious, but I am sure many of them will not have students in their classrooms in the near future.
Textual analysis and information-based approach
For the last many years, history, political science and
are much better, in the sense that the concept of a
many other subjects are facing this situation – no
text can be presented to the students and concept
teaching is supposed to be a good skill in a teacher. It has a long time effect and students can apply their
It is always a subject of debate whether a teacher
knowledge practically in real life situation. However,
should be trained; whether the training should be
all these approaches are teacher-centered.
concerned with teaching or content of teaching; how to teach or what to teach. A teacher can certainly
A modern trend in teaching and learning activities
teach what he knows but he has a problem - how
to teach. Here, I wish to share something about
Interactional approach is also a modern trend. Yet,
teaching approaches. The teacher-centered teaching
these two are nominally found in colleges. We just
approach is classical: that was before Chanakya, at
see slogans displayed on banners during admission
the time of Chanakya, and even after Chanakya - drill
campaigns. Students can activate teachers by their
68 | THE EKLAVYAN
enter the classroom. Once he is inside, he cannot
presentations, cross-questions, etc. A topic can
teach properly because of lack of good teaching
be selected from the text. Students are asked to
environment. Good relationship between teacher
prepare on the topic and present it in the classroom.
and students is a fundamental requirement, but that
A certain time is allocated to each student to discuss
is not possible or obstructed by such processes of
on the paper presented by the previous student.
Students become active. Teachers give feedbacks. This process is similar to the presentation in seminars
At present, in colleges, teachers complain that they
and conferences. Students can make their concepts
have the burden of completing the course on time.
clear; they can interact and remove any kind of
They do not like to waste time. For them, completing
doubts. Interactional approach should be applied in
the course is more important than teaching the course
the classroom for better activation and performance
in real sense. Besides, only those teachers who work
from the students.
hard for the students are deemed excellent. They do everything. They teach, simplify and interpret a text,
Any kind of domination, either from teachers or
discuss questions and answers, and provide notes.
students, will be merely an injury in their relation.
In some colleges, teachers provide notes; students
In some colleges, they conduct elections - and
copy them in their notebooks; teachers receive them
evaluation of teachers from students. The Higher
back and make corrections. The students write the
Secondary students evaluate teachers who have
same thing in the answer-sheets in exams. Isnâ€™t it
Masters, M. Phils., or Ph. Ds. Even the best teachers
amusing? Really, we are in the wrong process. Let
get poor marks. If teachers are strict in the academic
the students do everything: they will study; they will
activities and discipline, they will get the poorest
prepare notes; they will answer questions. They
marks. Likewise, teachers are also instructed to
can consult their teachers whenever they have any
evaluate the students in the same way. Those
problems. Student-centered interactional teaching
who receive the poorest marks normally avoid that
approach should be encouraged in the classrooms
teacher. The teacher does not feel comfortable to
in schools and colleges.
THE EKLAVYAN | 69
Entrepreneurship Pratap Rawal
An entrepreneur plays an important role in the
Ask a child in Nepal, what would one want be when
economic development of a nation and the enterprise
s/he grows up; in the early stages of life, invariably the
is an effective means to combat unemployment.
answer is to become a doctor or an engineer, a pilot
Additionally, entrepreneurship of the people in the
or even a teacher. However, as one grows up with
nation enhances productivity by increasing and
the difficulties associated in attaining this ambition, it
maintaining competitive pressure in the market
gets modified to work as a bureaucrat or, say, in the
which in turn forces the market players to increase
defense services; but never does it turns out to be an
their respective efficiencies. Therefore, it could then,
entrepreneur or to establish and own a business or
perhaps, be said to be a driving force behind the
even work for a business.
growth of smaller economies. The atmosphere provided by our parents, neighbors, Entrepreneurship is a mindset that covers an
schools and colleges, and even the friends’ circle is
individual’s motivation and capability, independently
the same and as the child grows to adulthood the
or within the context of an organization, to spot the
mindset develops to serve what exists, not to create
opportunities and to pursue it in order to create wealth
a new one. This is where one finds security, seeks
or economic success. It is not about the business
and finds the opportunities, and prides in recognition
itself, but about the people, their choices and actions
of being there. Even while working in an organization,
in starting, running and growing a business or their
there is inertia to change and a liking to live with the
involvement in a firm’s strategic decision making.
(EU-2003) While most people do not even consider business In 1700, Richard Cantillon, a French economist, used
to be a respectable occupation in our societies,
the term “entrepreneur” to refer to a person who
many who would want to be an entrepreneur lack
took an active risk; while Coutler, in 2003, referred
the confidence and skills to turn their dream come
to entrepreneurship as creative destruction, meaning
true. It is, therefore, important to create a culture
a process in which existing products, processes,
conducive to the entrepreneurial development, in
business ideas and methodologies are replaced
which people can have a positive attitude towards
by the new and better ones; while Peter Drucker
entrepreneurship and, while celebrating the success,
proposed that an entrepreneur was someone who
can gracefully accept failures as part of the game.
recognized and acted upon the opportunities.
In order to address the challenges in promoting an
70 | THE EKLAVYAN
entrepreneurial culture, it is imperative to know and understand the impediments, and as is well said by
• Political calculated
Soren Kierkgaard, “the direction of life is forward but the understanding of life comes from looking back”.
• Short term thinking over longer range: is result of mindset formed due to political
Looking back, we can innumerate the following as
instability, people want quick results for they
the impediments in developing entrepreneurship in
do not trust the environment and remain
as conducive over longer range of time.
• Financial security and access to finance: poor
faster pace than the inflation itself, then the chances
need to fulfill the basic needs, access of
are that they will soon become unprofitable.
• High inflation rate: if the start-ups do not grow at a
institutions. • Social Norms: most people do not even consider
• Lack of exposure and basic skills due to an
business to be a respectful occupation.
education system that does not promote entrepreneurship: having trained manpower and
Entrepreneurship development is more than having a
large knowledge base of workers is essential
support system in place; it is strategic transformation
for growth of any economy. As is, we have a
of societies and about changing the mindset of
very small and poor quality work force. Since
people. It is a culture that promotes and recognizes
entrepreneurship is an activity characterized
those who consistently seeks opportunities and acts
by the originality of thoughts, innovation and
on them, maintains a positive outlook even in the
risk taking, creating a new business or even
face of adversity, promotes calculated risk taking and
growing an existing one; education, training
celebrates the success while accepts failures as part
and exposure to skills could provide an answer.
of the game. Therefore, education with training and exposure to various skills from the very beginning of
• Access to information and markets: ventures
the middle school education spanning up to even
can not work to its full potential. Some who
post graduation is perhaps the most important of
recognize the rewards and challenges of involving
all and is perhaps an answer to the challenge of
in starting and running a business remain unsure
developing entrepreneurship in Nepal.
of their abilities to execute plans successfully.
THE EKLAVYAN | 71
Ecology, Livelihood and Diversification Ramhari Dhakal
A system is an aggregation or assemblage of
Ecology and a socio cultural system must maintain a
objects united by some form of regular interaction
minimum level of integration and inner consistency.
or interdependence. Bio-cultural environment is an
They two are interdependent on each other, but
ecosystem in totality. The health problem related
culture is more dependent on ecology.
to it is described by Bates as â€˜ecological point of viewâ€™. This view is nothing more than the extension
Every creature must adjust in certain geographical
to all environments and their biotic communities
and climatic condition that prevail in the place they
live and they must learn to exploit the resources
anthropology, the socio-cultural system must be
available to meet their needs. There are mainly two
linked with the ecosystem, that is, an interacting
parts of environment, natural and socio-cultural.
group of plants and animals, along with their non
Culture is a part of human environment. So, social,
living environment. The ecosystem is set up from a
cultural and psychological factors play important
single drop of pond water with its micro organism to
roles in triggering the cultural diversities.
the entire earth with all its plant and animal life. 72 | THE EKLAVYAN
Culture and Ecology
and Neolithic cultures. The people of this period used
fishhooks, pottery, etc. They used dogs for hunting. All the people of every ecological zone have been
They buried their dead along with their weapons.
struggling to adjust in the environment since the
Animal husbandry was prevalent. Later, agriculture
Paleolithic period. Livelihood, culture and social
was started. Thus, a settled life emerged. The life
patterns are determined by ecology .For example,
style was a little developed. They used ornaments,
the daily activities of Hill people, Mountain people
painted caves, made clay pots and wooden stuffs.
and Terai people seem to be different. It is due to
They were the Neanderthal people.
the ecological differences. Historical development of human beings from the remote past to the present
The Neolithic period began after the Mesolithic
modern world is also guided by the ecological setting.
period. It is in between 6,000 and 4,000 B.C. The
It is observed that the ancient civilization took place in
Cro-Magnon men were there. They developed tools
particular limited fertile and appropriate geographical
which were lights, sharp and portable. Though it
was also the Stone Age, it was technically a well
The Paleolithic period is the ancient period of human civilization and culture. It is the pre-historic period. There is a lack of actual evidence as to when it started. Uniformity among experts can hardly be seen regarding the time division of this period. A majority of the scientists believe that it is the period in between 1,000,000 to 10,000 B.C. It is the longest and the most ancient period. The Paleolithic period covered about one million years which included the Ice Age too. The then people were nomads. Some 35 thousand to 40 thousand years back, people developed the sense of society and started to seek caves for settlement. Later, the Paleolithic age was more advance due to the invention of fire. It brought a drastic change in their life style. The people became hunters. They had a simple life style. They used simple natural tools. This culture emerged along with emergence of ancient human beings, the Australopithecus. The cultures of this age are called Cromerian, Chellean, Acheullean, etc. They used stone-made hand axe, spears, needles, harpoons, hammers, etc. Later the weapons were gradually developed. But the development of that weapon
advanced age. The population became dense and they started to use nature rapidly along with the population growth. They were involved in big hunting using moderate and sharp tools like harpoons, blades, hooks, etc. According to Keesing, the Paleolithic hunters not only developed a mosaic regional culture across the Europe but also in Asia and Africa. They were the first settlers in the new regions who had never before seen human occupation. During the glacial period in America, Australia and other islands, people used to dwell and survive by staying in the caves and inside big tree holes of different places but not permanently. Martin says that the hunters resided in large group in North America, Alaska, New Mexico and South Mexico, some 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. Through this way people started to settle in geographically better and appropriate places for millions of years and later they started permanent settlement. The faith of the primitive people had focused that woman cannot control the natural balance.
culture was also based on nature. In other words, the
They believed in supernatural power and mystical
livelihood of ancient man was fully based on nature.
animatisms. Animals and birds were taken as nature related divine forces. The African pygmies
After the Paleolithic culture, the Mesolithic culture
and hunters of inure forest seem to have practiced
was developed. This period is simply the Middle
animatisms, when shoulders cracked or any accident
Stone Age. It is estimated that it is the period
occurred. They changed directions to find and
between 10,000 and 6,000 B.C. The society and
explore new territories for hunting. Until 6,000 B.C.,
culture of this period is the bridge between Paleolithic
they developed new technology of farming, irrigation,
THE EKLAVYAN | 73
cooking, and pottery and trained animals like sheep,
According to Rappaport, Stemberg tribal people
goats, dogs, etc. In this way, the people’s livelihood
lived in a large river valley of Samba and Jimmy
gradually changed with the natural resources. It also
Mountain highlands of New Guinea. They cultivated
proves that people’s thoughts, religions, rituals, etc.
at a height of 7200 ft. in sloped areas to produce
also are influenced by nature.
potato, sugarcane and banana in the tropical rain forest. They also ate wild pigs, reptiles and grubs
from the surrounding forests. Later they started animal husbandry. Earlier, they moved place to place
Cultural ecology, as an anthropological theory, came
in search of better resources of subsistence. They
to exist in the mid 20th century. It was developed by
migrated seasonally to fit in the ecological cycle
where life would be easy.
According to Steward, archer cultures specialized
In this way, human beings changed their livelihood
and developed small tools to use for vegetarian and
according to nature to adjust in new environment.
digging wild roots and for marine resources. In the
Nowadays, people have tried to change the natural
western Great Basin basketry, the mobile family used
environment according to their wants but couldn’t
bows and arrows. The Shoshone people were greatly
succeed perfectly. It seems that nature is always full
influenced by ecology. They had ecological possibility
and perfect. Human beings have to follow nature.
of agriculture. Polygamous family was in practice which moved in pursuit of collecting seasonal food.
At the adoption mechanism continued, population increased rapidly. Due to the rapid population growth,
Steward has shown detailed analysis about ecological
they felt the scarcity of food and traveled from place
impact on Socio-cultural change. He analyzed how
to place in search of food and better life. When they
social system adjust to the ecological condition and
got to a better place, they started to live permanently.
how does the development of cultural life go on. He
The place where people settled permanently in
has taken physical environment as the base of socio
the ancient time is called civilization. Such as Nile,
cultural creation. According to him, the interaction
Indus, Hwang Ho, Greek Roman, Mesopotamian
and relation between population and ecology creates
civilization, etc. They all are in the banks of rivers.
culture. For the adjustment with new environment,
When they settled there, they developed various
human creates and develops new organizations,
types of cultures. Those cultures were also based on
working systems, procedures, ways of life, etc.
nature. Thus we can say that culture cannot develop
Cultural ecology is the study of adoptive process of
absolutely; rather, it is relative to nature.
which the nature of society and features of culture are differentiated by the basic adjustment through
Livelihood and Diversification in Nepal
which man utilizes on given environment. In this way, he used the ecological glass to analyze the culture of
Nepal is a mountainous country having three land
a particular place.
forms: the Himalayas, the Hills and the Terai. The Himalayan region lies in the northern part of Nepal.
Quoting Ember and Ember, “Cultural Ecology is
It covers about 15% of the total land. The climate is
the analysis of relationship between culture and
cold throughout the year. The land is very sloped and
environment.” This means ecology emphasizes to
the soil is not fertile. It receives light rainfall. Mustang,
the study of the impact of ecology to any society and
Dolpa, Mugu, Jumla, Humla lie in this region. The
culture as in the form of the interaction. It is taken as
major occupation of this region is animal husbandry.
an adaptive mechanism by some of the ecological
Some limited agro productions are limited t0 potato,
apple, buck wheat, millet, etc.
74 | THE EKLAVYAN
Below the Himalayan region, is the Hilly region. It
people living near the river practice fishing and
covers about 68% of the total land. It lies between
swimming. Mountaineering is possible in Nepal
the Mahabharata and the Chure ranges. The climate
being a mountainous country. Rafting in Trisuli and
is moderate. The valleys and low level basin in the
Bhotekoshi is practiced due to fast flowing rivers.
river bank are fertile. Thus the population density is
Nepalese rituals are also geographically influenced.
higher there. The Inner Terai also lies here. It is also
Festivals are also linked with seasons: what we do in
fertile. Rice, maize, potato, tea, coffee, cardamom,
winter festivals, may not be possible in the summer.
etc. are produced here. This region is suitable for
In this way the Nepalese life style is guided by the
horticulture and many people of this area are involve
in it too. Conclusion The lower plain land in the south is called the Terai region. It covers about 17% of the total area of Nepal.
Man is a part of culture but man creates the things.
Being a plain land, transportation is possible. Most of
It is called culture. There are two types of cultures,
the area is developed and there is a high population
material and non material. Both the cultures are
density. It is very fertile area. It is also called the
created according to the needs of the people. Culture
granary of Nepal. It produces rice, tea, tobacco, jute,
is directly influenced by nature, i.e. culture is created
oil seeds, sugarcane, fruits, potato, etc.
on the basis of natural environment.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of
Culture shapes the livelihood of the people. It is made
all the areas. Different geographical situations have
to adjust in the environment. Various scholars have
created different modes of life. By the adaptation
approved that the foundation of every culture is the
mechanism people are possible to exist. This process
local environment. Evolutionary process also goes
is also called evolutionism. The Terai people and hill
on along with the adjustment process. The socio-
people have different cultures. Though they both
cultural structure and its development have direct
practice agriculture, the way of doing it is different.
impact of ecology.
Animal husbandry in Nepal is common in every
There are various types of culture. The production
part, but the types of animals, way of keeping them
system, social system, norms, values, customs, ways
and other procedures are totally different. Some
of interacting, etc. are also different. The cause of this
examples of the way of adaptation which create
diversification in culture is because of the diversity in
different cultures are as follows: cheese production
ecology. So, the study and research of society and
in possible in the place where animal husbandry
culture ecological science has been developed as a
is practiced. The people of Terai wear thin clothes
theory, model, approach, perspective and paradigm
and it is vice versa with the mountain people. The
THE EKLAVYAN | 75
The Kisans in the Threshold of Change: A Sociological Study of an Indigenous Community of Eastern Tarai Sambhu Kattel
The Kisans are an ethnic group of Eastern Tarai with
scholars argue that some of the Nagasia labourers
less than one thousand people. According to the
were brought by British rulers for Tea Estates of West
Indigenous Nationality Act 2002, the group is one
Bengal during 18th century who settled down in the
of the 59 ethnic groups of Nepal which is classified
surrounding areas as farmers and known as Kisans
as an endangered group by the Nepal Federation of
Indigenous Nationality (NEFIN). According to CBS (2008), the Kisan population was 2876 which included
None of the Kisans know exactly how and when
all the so-called low caste groups of the Baglung
they arrived in Nepal, but most of them responded
and Myagdi districts especially the Sarki who are
that they have spent more than seven generations
also identified as the Kisans. The Kisan community
in Nepal as farmers. There is a strong relationship
with distinct cultural identity is concentrated in Jhapa
between the Kisans and the Nagasia people of West
Bengal in India. The Kisan community head (hereafter, the Mahato) still accepts the power of the community
head of West Bengal and exchanges Dhoti (loin
Madhyapradesh of India where they were renowned
cloth) and Pheta (white turban) with the Mahatos of
rulers. They were known as Nagbanshi Rajas among
Nagasia once a year. The Kisans in Jhapa district
the Uraun and Mundas until 16th century (Vidyarthi
prefer to live in the forest sides and river banks and
and Rai 1986). After the invasion of the Muslims, the
are used to fishing and small game hunting in off farm
Kisans lost their territory and migrated to surrounding
seasons. The community members do not want to
areas and identified themselves as Nagasias for
intermingle with the non-Kisans. Their houses are
hiding their original identity. According to key
turned opposite to the roadside, speak their own
informants, one group of Nagasias arrived in Nepal
language and practice traditional culture.
during that time and settled down as farmers. Some 76 | THE EKLAVYAN
territories during the 1960s but the Kisan settlements were located farther away, and remained insulated.
Change is a common and a universal phenomenon of
As the non-Kisan hill migrants encroached further into
a society. All aspects of society such as population,
their areas, some Kisans lost their productive lands in
their relations and cultural practices and the entire
interactions with the newcomers, attributing to their
socio-cultural environment are changing constantly
illiteracy. Some Kisans realized the need of education
(Kattel 2000). Some causes of change are internally
and admitted their children to school. According to
developed within a society/community while the
the teachers, attendance of Kisan children is good
others are external. However, the external causes
with the attendance of girls being higher than that
of change are seen stronger in the present world
of boys. However, the dropout rate is higher for girls
after completion of primary school. Only three SLCpassed Kisans were produced by the end of 2008.
In the view of Gisberg (cf Agrawal 1985), changes
Out of the three SLC-passed individuals, one is
in a community or society appeared in its size and
doing Masters Degree in Linguistics at the Tribhuvan
compositions. A sociologist has to describe the
changes realised in social organizations and its structures. The Kisan community organization and
Older Kisans (above 50) believe that literate or
structure have been changing due to affiliation of
educated people are lazy and do not work at home,
its members into different political parties, interest
but become thieves and highway bandits. Despite
groups and external facilities.
this perception, the Kisans have begun to send their children to school, partly as a result of the
The Kisan Community in the Doorstep of
efforts of the Club over the last decade, and the
perceptions of younger Kisans about education and educated individuals have been changed now. They
The Kisan community remained detached until the
feel that the Kisans remained landless, poor and
last few decades. However, beginning in the 1970s
marginal because of the bias of older Kisans against
they were exposed to the state political system, the
education. A poor family may not be able to save
modern market economy, the non-Kisan hill migrants,
property for their children, but they can send them
state-sponsored education, and so on. As a result,
to school, since the school education is free for all.
the community assembly of 1996 and 2002 and the
The government provides a stipend for the Kisan
community court (Kachchheri in Kisan language)
students, and their Club offers bags, books and
have adapted, post-facto, validating changing norms
stationary. Ultimately, they say, education is better
and practices within the Kisan cultural and legal
than property for maintaining a livelihood. It has also
paradigm. For example, the Kachchheri has started
become understood as a way to better employment
arranging marriage purification rituals in the case of
opportunities, and a sign of status.
inter-caste marriage. Similarly, the 1996 assembly had mandated that community members go to local
Influence of Market and Modern Facilities
government bodies for vital registrations and to the
The Kisan community was closed not only in socio-
District Administration Office for citizenship papers.
political relations, but economically also. The arrival of the non-Kisan hill migrants, the establishment of
Influence of Modern Education
multiparty democracy, and development activities
The Kisan community was exposed to formal
helped modernize the region. Regular and weekly
education when the non-Kisan hill migrants arrived,
markets, and other business centres, schools,
bringing with them the demand for government
police offices and other governmental and non-
schools. Government schools opened in their
governmental offices have been established in the THE EKLAVYAN | 77
region. In addition, tea shops, grocery and grain
their productive land in nominal price. Hence, in the
collection centres were established in each Kisan
process of modernization in the region, many Kisans
village. As a result, the Kisans have been exposed
have changed into wage labourers by being displaced
to modern markets, market products, and other
from their land and traditional occupations. Over 200
government and non-governmental offices.
Kisans, between the ages of 10 and 80, were found to be wage labourers in agriculture, on tea estates, or
In the beginning, the Kisans came to the market to
in construction work. Money, rather than agricultural
sell their products such as grain, fowl, and vegetables
output, is considered essential, because it gives
to buy salt, spices, clothes and stationery for school
access to food, clothes and medicines.
children. With the introduction of chemical fertilizers, hybrid seeds, pesticides and modern agricultural
equipment, surplus agricultural production available
development, it is good to have access to modern
for sale increased, allowing for larger purchases such
goods and services. However, in the case of the
as bicycles, fast foods, radio, television, modern
Kisans, attraction of the community members to
clothes, tea, and so on. The Kisans above the age
modern facilities may impact their traditional way of
of 30 were the first to be introduced to these goods.
life, including their political organizations. Since the
Those above 50 had no access to modern clothes
Kisan government services are voluntary, young
and processed foods in their childhood.
people are attracted to non-voluntary work.
The availability of market facilities in the regions,
Development Activities and Change
the closed agricultural community was not in the
A number of key development initiatives have been
position to fulfil the demand of market products of
implemented in Nepal since the 1960s, of which
the young generations. As a result, some Kisans lost
land reform, infrastructure development, national
78 | THE EKLAVYAN
education programs, health, communication and
homes to work in India and the Middle East which
agricultural development programs are the most
has only occurred since 2005 . Eleven Kisans (seven
significant ones (Mishra 1997). While the Kisan
males and four females) were in Saudi Arabia and four
settlements were not an exception to this, their
(all males) were in Malaysia. Similarly, two migrants
experiences with these programs have not been
returned home after spending two years in Qatar.
positive. One senior Kisan felt that all development activities carried out in the region were for others
According to the migrants, they have seen the
(non-Kisan), and this only create hardship for the
advancement of Arabian countries and realized the
Kisans. As a result of the development initiatives in
value of education and technology, and also become
the district, many hill migrants arrived and settled
familiar with mobile phones, television, computers,
there. Most of the migrants were educated Hindus
and other technology. They have sent some modern
with access to politicians and government officials.
clothes, wrist watchs, televisions, cameras, mobiles
The Kisans understood the migrants as high
and so on to their family members and relatives. Living
caste, advanced and powerful people. After their
styles and dressing patterns of the family members
settlement, the new migrants played crucial roles in
of migrants were marked better in comparison to
enhancing other development facilities in the region
non-migrants. They owned televisions, visible by
such as roads, schools, health posts, and centres for
white antenna either on the top of the roof or nearby
agricultural equipment, and so on.
bamboo pole. Patterns of dress, cleanliness of houses, and differences in hospitality practices have
The available modern facilities further increased
also distinguished the families of migrants. The family
the number of migrants to the region, increasing
members of the migrants were familiar with new
competition with the Kisans for available resources
foods like noodles, peanut butter, and hot and cold
such as forests, water, and land. As the Kisans’
drinks. Being aware of the consequences of liquor,
traditional niche became insufficient for managing
they have stopped drinking and preparing it. They
their livelihood, alternative and subsidiary occupations
drink tea and also offer it to guests.
were introduced, including wage labour where the Kisans interacted with non-Kisans. Due to their
The children of migrants attended private English
interaction with the non-Kisans, gradually they also
schools, as opposed to public schools. One migrant
became familiar with modern medicines, fast foods,
said that “a labourer who speaks English earns
and other market items.
more than an illiterate individual in the Middle East. Therefore, I have enrolled my children in a private
All these changes have impacted the traditional
political organization; the government and community court. They have begun to invite their non-Kisan
Family members of migrants also tended to save for
neighbours to the Gram-Pooja, family gatherings, and
the future. None of the community members except
public rituals and have even made accommodations
migrants’ families had bank accounts. Sending one’s
for inter-caste marriage. According to a senior lawyer,
wife abroad is a new phenomenon among the Kisans.
“it is essential to modify some of the cultural practices
Some additional changes also marked the families
without destroying their uniqueness. We are serious
of migrants. All adult female members of migrant
about preserving our political organizations without
households were literate, having participated in
distorting their originality.”
adult literacy programs. Villagers used to gather in the houses of migrants to watch television in the
Migration Abroad and Change
evening and discuss things like fast food and new
Migration is another new phenomenon in the Kisan
dresses. The children of migrants were accustomed
community. Some younger Kisans have left their
to modern clothing, fast food, and movies. THE EKLAVYAN | 79
by establishing the National Planning Commission in 1956. The process was accelerated after the political
Change is a regular process occurs everywhere
change of the 1990s because the state allowed
and anytime in society. There are various theories in
individual involvement in the development process.
sociology describe change as a growth or progress
As a result, various Non-Government Organizations
and structural transformation. The recognized factors
were formed and involved in the process of socio-
of change in the present society are modernization,
cultural and economic change in the Nepali society.
westernization, urbanization, industrialization and so on. However, change brings both positive and
Whatever the processes and whoever the actors
negative impacts in society. The positive and negative
of the socio-cultural change and development
impacts of change vary from society to society. In
of Nepal were, the reality is that certain groups of
general, the positive impacts or results of change
people benefitted from the changes but a majority
are understood as economic progress, status of
of other groups became its victims. Hence, simple,
equality, inclusion, justice, access to modern facilities
marginalized and indigenous groups and communities
and physical infrastructures, and so on. The negative
have not benefitted from the change because of their
impacts of change are displacement or economic
inability to grasp the new situation.
digress, inequality, exclusion, scarcity, conflict or competition, and so on.
As a result of the change, the Kisan community in Jhapa has been introduced to modern markets and
Nepal and Nepali societies have experienced
market products, education, multiparty politics, non-
both positive and negative impacts of change and
Kisan cultures and formal political system. These
development after it was opened to the outside world
are positive impacts of modernization. However,
in 1950. The first democratic government of Nepal was
the self-sufficient community being dependent
formed in 1950 and, since then, the political system
on the modern world is losing traditional land,
of the country has been an admirer of development
occupations and cultural practices. Hence, change
and change. Hence, the state has taken the initiatives
towards modernization is not always beneficial to
of socio-cultural and economic development formally
simple, indigenous communities as stated by the dependency theory.
80 | THE EKLAVYAN
With Best Compliments from
DI SKIN HOSPITAL AND RESEARCH CENTER P. Ltd. (DISHARC) Maharajgunj, Kathmandu Ph. No. 4721500, 4721900, 9813616169 Website:www.disharc.org THE EKLAVYAN | 81
Glimpes of activities
82 | THE EKLAVYAN
THE EKLAVYAN | 83
Hall of Fame
Mr.Amar Mani Adhikari receiving Gold Medal for
Mr.Noor Dhoj Joshi receiving Gold Medal for
his Outstanding Performance in Master In Tourism
his Outstanding Performance in Post Graduate
Management Program at the 18th Convocation of
Diploma in Marketing Management Program at the
Indira Gandhi National Open University from the chief
18th Convocation of Indira Gandhi National Open
justice of India Hon Shri Justice K.G Balakrishnan.
University from the chief justice of India Hon Shri Justice K.G Balakrishnan.
Ms. Dhundup Dolma receiving Gold Medal for her
Mr. Naresh Yadav receiving Gold Medal for his
Outstanding Performance in Master In Sociology
Outstanding Performance in Master In Computer
Program at the 21st Convocation of Indira Gandhi
Application Program at the 20th Convocation of
National Open University from the chief guest Prof
Indira Gandhi National Open University from Prof.
S.K. Joshi former CSIR Director General & Vice
R. Natarajan, Former Chairman, AICTE , Former
â€“ Chancellor Prof. V.N.Rajasekharan Pillai. Ms.
Director , IIT Madras & Vice â€“ Chancellor Prof.
Dhundup Dolma is also an recipient of Prof. G.
Ram Reddy Memorial Gold Medal for being the highest scorer in Social Science subjects at the 21st Convocation of IGNOU.
84 | THE EKLAVYAN
Mr. Bishwa Raj Bajracharya, Post Graduate
Ms. Paridhi Acharya received Gold Medal in the
Diploma in Financial Management, has been awarded
24th Convocation of Indira Gandhi National Open
with University Gold Medal for standing First in the
University held on September 5, 2011 at University
Examination Held in December 2009 / June 2010
main campus, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi for obtaining
at the 22nd Convocation of the University held on
the first position in the PGDRD (Post Graduate
2nd April 2011 at the IGNOU Headquarters, New
Diploma in Rural Development) Program. Ms.
Delhi, India. Mr.Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Human
Acharya is the Eight Gold Medalist of IGNOU from
Resource and Development, was the chief guest
ICA till date. Ms. Acharya received the Gold Medal
during the ceremony. He delivered his convocation
form chief guest Shri E.Ahamed, Honorable Min. of
address in a teleconference mode.Guest of Honour
State for HRD and External Affairs, Government of
Prof. P.T. Manoharan, eminent scientist, former Vice-
Chancellor and Raja Ramanna Fellow handed over the Gold Medal to Mr. Bishwa Raj Bajracharya. Mr. Bajracharya is the Seventh Learner of ICA to have achieved such a rare distinction.
Diploma in Nutrition and Health Education Convocation
Program at the 18th of
National Open University from the chief justice of
Mr. Gagan Gurung receiving Gold Medal for
India Hon Shri Justice K.G Balakrishnan.
his Outstanding Performance in Master In Rural Development Program at the 21st Convocation of Indira Gandhi National Open University from the chief guest Prof S.K. Joshi former CSIR Director General & Vice â€“ Chancellor Prof. V.N.Rajasekharan Pillai.
THE EKLAVYAN | 85
Voices Gagan Gurung Gold Medalist-IGNOU | Nepal Bidhya Bhusan Award There are a number of reasons why I choose IGNOU. Degree offered , sound curriculum, well written and selfexplanatory text books, flexibility, scientific and strict evaluation criteria are a few reasons why I preferred IGNOU. Similarly, I found ICA as a bridge between students like me and IGNOU. Provision of well furnished library, counseling classes and other supports provided by ICA were quite satisfactory. Without such support, it wouldn’t have been possible for me to achieve success in MARD. Due to the flexible, affordable but quality education, I think distance mode of education offered by IGNOU is a good alternative for many Nepalese who are geographically unreached and can’t continue higher education due to their occupations. The knowledge gained through the IGNOU degree is quite helpful for me to excel in my career.
Paridhi Acharya | Gold Medalist-IGNOU I am currently working in Underprivileged Girls’ Education Support Program in Nepal of Little Sisters Fund (LSF). I did my Bachelors Degree in Management from Bangalore University. After coming back to Nepal, I wanted to pursue Development Studies and at the same time work in the development area. I found my solution in the form of Diploma Course in Rural Development offered by IGNOU. While pursuing my Diploma I got a tremendous support and guidance from ICA center in Kathmandu. The curriculum of IGNOU was very interesting. Inclusion of assignments, project work and examinations made the course very effective. The supervision I received from the supervisor, support from the staff of ICA and the library of ICA were helpful for my study. It helped me to get such good results. So, I would like to suggest and encourage everyone who is interested in getting knowledge while working or studying full time somewhere else to enroll at ICA, IGNOU. ICA is indeed an institution which will make your study as smooth as possible. I am thankful to the family of Underprivileged Girls’ Education Support Program (UGESP) for their generous help during my Project work “Girls’ Education in Nepal”, which I submitted for my PGDRD course. I didn’t work towards getting a gold medal but I worked hard and at IGNOU your hard work gets appreciated. I am really happy to receive the gold medal from IGNOU. I would like to thank IGNOU, my supervisor, Mr. Mahendra Singh, staff of ICA, UGESP Nepal, my family and friends. 86 | THE EKLAVYAN
Recognition IGNOU awards ICA as the â€œBest Overseas Partner Institution 2010 for the Best Servicesâ€?
ICA the First Partner Institution of IGNOU in Nepal has been conferred with the Best Overseas Partner Institution 2010 for the Best Services by Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, India among the 67 (Sixty Seven) Overseas Partner Institutions present in 40 (Forty) countries. Gold Medal and Citation was provided to ICA on the 22nd Convocation of the University held on 2nd April 2011 at the University Headquarters, New Delhi, India. Mr.Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Human Resource and Development, was the chief guest during the ceremony. He delivered his convocation address in a teleconference mode. Guest of Honour Prof. P.T. Manoharan, eminent scientist, former Vice-Chancellor and Raja Ramanna Fellow handed over the Gold Medal and Citation to Mr. Biswajit Mukherjee , Managing Director of ICA.
Pan-Commonwealth Forum (PCF-6) Open Distance Learning Achiever
Mr. Noor Dhoj Joshi recipient of gold medal in Post Graduate Diploma in Marketing Management Program at the 18th convocation of IGNOU has once again been facilitated as an ODL Achiever by Pan Commonwealth Forum. He was invited to participate at the Sixth PanCommonwealth Forum(PCF-6) on Open Learning which was jointly organized by Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU) and the Commonwealth of Learning(COL), Vancouver, Canada at Le Meridien, Kochi from 24-28 November, 2010. Noor Dhoj Joshi being ICA Learner, it is our proud moment and privilege to be a part of this International Event.
THE EKLAVYAN | 87
Nepal Bidhya Bhusan Award
Mr.Gagan Gurung, Recipient of IGNOU Gold Medal in Master In Rural Development Program at the 21st Convocation of Indira Gandhi National Open University received Nepal Bidhya Bhusan award from Honorable President of Nepal Dr. Ram Baran Yadav on Sept 8, 2011 for his outstanding performance , at a function organized in the office of the President on the occasion of the National Education day , amid the presence of distinguished personalities like Vice President, Speaker- Constitution Assembly , Chief Jusitice and other Ministers.
88 | THE EKLAVYAN
Faculty Members Computer Science Mr. Bimal Prasad Joshi Mr. Deepak Dhami Mr. Prabin Adhikari Mr. Ramesh Kunwar Mr. Santosh Kumar Sah Mr. Anand Kumar Mr. Dipak Pudasaini (Visiting) Mr. Ramesh Joshi Mr. Ankur Sharma Mr. Shiba Ratna Tamrakar Mr. Dipak Adhikari Tourism Studies Ms. Shahina Hussain Mr. Yugal Raj Aryal Mr. Raju Ghimire Mr. Raman Joshy Mr. Sanjay Kumar Jha Mr. Gopal Singh Oli Mr. B.B Chettri Social Work Mr. Sanjeev Dahal Mr. Swagat Raj Pandey Ms. Rekha Khatri Ms. Smriti Karanjit Ms. Urmila Rayamajhi Ms. Kabita Singh Rana
Humanities and Development Studies Prof.Dr. Mahendra Singh Dr. Shambhu Pd. Kattel Mr. Gajendra Raj Sharma Mr. Kiron Shankar Mukherjee Mr. Pradip Tiwari Mr. Ram Chandra Lamichhane Mr. Ram Hari Dhakal Mr. Siddharta Ojha Mr. Bipin Deo Mr. Dipak Ratna Sakya Mr. Sushil Bista Mr. Tika Ram Poudel Mr. Udbodh Bhandari Ms. Reeta Sharma Ms. Sikshya Adhikari Ms. Bibha Lal Ms. Kunga Dolma Mr. Hemanta Thakur
Health Science Mr. Anil Shankar Giri Mr. Gyanendra Kumar Mishra Education Ms. Bishwa Bala Thapa (Visiting) Mr. Y.D. Tripathi
Management Prof. Dr. Purushotam Singh Assoc Prof. Dr. Satish Kumar Ojha Dr. Shankar Prasad Acharya Dr. Durga Lal Shrestha Mr. Arhan Sthapit Mr. Aayush Rai Mr. Deepak Wagle Mr. Manjil Bista Mr. Pushpa Bdr. K.C Mr. Sunetra Pradhananga Ms. Chetna Thapa Ms. Rohini Pradhan Mr. Anand Tuladhar Mr. Basudev Giri Mr. Kumar Bhattarai Mr. Pramod Raj Sharma Mr. Rakesh Kumar Sanghai Mr. Subash Thapa Mr. Sudip Raj Pandey Ms. Bhawani Ghimire Mr. Roshan Gyawali Mr. Shankar Adhikari Mr. Jayakar Vaidya Mr. Kapil Khanal Mr. Ramesh Khanal Mr. Raju Duwadi Mr. Sujan Raja Shrestha Mr. Shekhar Chettri Ms. Trishula Tiwari Mr. Sujan Acharya
THE EKLAVYAN | 89
Whom to contact
Tel: 4445540, 2042289 (UTL) | http://www.ica.edu.np Center Coordinator
email@example.com Skype ID: icasupport1, Ext: 119
Assistant Center Coordinator firstname.lastname@example.org
Skype ID: icaaccor, Ext: 107
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Academic Coordinator firstname.lastname@example.org
Skype ID: Academic Coordinator, Ext: 121
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SRSD Coordinator firstname.lastname@example.org
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Skype ID: managementprogramcoordinator
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Social Work Program Coordinator
Computer Lab In-charge
90 | THE EKLAVYAN
THE EKLAVYAN | 91
Khadka, Aaesha Adhikari, Deepa Waiju, Teena Rai, Suja Dulal, Archana Karki, Mandira Joshi, Kusum Luitel, Manish Dhakal, Ek Raj Thapa, Sagar Shrestha
SITTING Left to Right: Trishula Tiwari, Geeta Shah, Biswajit Mukherjee, Amit Giri, Bhimesh Chaudhary STANDING Left to Right: Bikash Shrestha, Pralhad
THE MANAGEMENT TEAM
92 | THE EKLAVYAN
ICA - Inaugural issue - Magazine - Eklavyan