Planet Under Pressure ClimaDat

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Institut Català de Ciències del Clima

The ClimaDat project: a The ClimaDat project: a unique network of unique network of sites for sites for Climate‐‐Biosphere Research Climate Biosphere Research focused in their interactions focused in their interactions g gy g p y through the climate energy main exchange pathways X. Rodó 1, 2, J. , J.‐‐A. A. Morguí Morguí 1, 3, *, A. *, A. Àgueda Àgueda 1, O. Batet 1, R. Curcoll 1, , M. Nofuentes M. Nofuentes 1, , P P. Occhipinti 1, L. Sánchez , L. Sánchez‐‐García 1, R. Arias 1, M. Ealo 1, C. Grossi 1 1

Institut Català de Català de Ciències Ciències del del Clima Clima (IC3), Barcelona (Spain); 2ICREA Researcher, Spain; 3University of Barcelona, Spain.

(* corresponding author: (* corresponding author:

ClimaDat: A platform for studying processes from global ClimaDat: dynamics to local responses, from large large‐‐scale climate change to ecosystem feedbacks in the Mediterranean region. region. ClimaDat is a pioneer project with a network of observatories for the study and research of the interactions between natural systems metabolism and climate. Powered by "la Caixa" Foundation and the Catalan Institute of Climate Sciences (IC3), its objective is to obtain from the atmospheric compartment high-quality NRT (near real time) data with free access to them. These data, measured at different sampling sites, will allow improving the knowledge of the relationships between the different compartments of the global climate system: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, the ocean, the biosphere and the anthroposphere. In short, data obtained from ClimaDat help us to understand how the Mediterranean ecosystems are influenced by and influence the climate system where we live, through the studies from global climate to local conditions.



c d

e g



In Spanish Natural Parks, ClimaDat measures the emission or capture of greenhouse gases due to metabolic causes: carbon dioxide (CO2) removed from air by plants or released by respiration, methane (CH4) generated by anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, or nitrous oxide (N2O) released where there is an excess of nitrates (NO3-) available. ClimaDat also measures the budget between radiation income and reflected light, the temperature variations throughout the day, the soil humidity and the water component of the energy flux, along with other gases (NH3, H2S, H2) or airborne sea salts and sulfates as they are influencing the life of ecosystems. Moreover, ClimaDat looks for the pressure on natural systems from the human way of life, causing the uncoupling of processes or tightening their coupling, coupling the human action matching or distorting their natural rhythm.

a ///// Natural parks of Baixa Limia - Xurés and Serra do Invernadeiro (Ourense). The study focuses on the relationships between the precipitation and the local water evapotranspiration in a region where forest fires are usual and where rain frequency has been decreasing. b ///// Valderejo Natural Park (Álava). This region is located in a closed valley on a climatic y These geographic g g p characteristics make it very y sensitive to large g Atlantic-Mediterranean boundary. fluctuations in the regional climate through their scaling to small and local changes. c ///// Natural Park of the Ebro Delta (Tarragona). ClimaDat studies the influence of a frontier zone between sea and land on this natural system in the Ebro Basin and its impacts on the exchange of greenhouse gases. d ///// Reserve of the Biosphere of Menorca. The island of Menorca is receiving winds from all directions and acts as an early sensor for changes in the climate of the Western Mediterranean region, which integrates the influences from Europe and Africa on an undisturbed marine basin. e ///// Regional Park of Sierra de Gredos (Ávila). ClimaDat studies the variability of the precipitation received and stored in these mountains, and the distribution of the spatial sources, the temporal structure of water storage and the eventual release which feed the many watersheds located in this mountain range. f ///// Natural Park of Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz). ClimaDat measures how nature and climate interact in these unique and sensitive ecosystems, growing under a very intense radiation in a karst region (where the geology makes water passes through) that receives a very variable but heavy rainfall. g ///// Natural Park of Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y las Villas (Jaén). ClimaDat analyzes these mountain systems, essential for the distribution of water in the Southern Iberian Peninsula catchments, by looking at the sensitivity of relict species populations in forests to changes in temperature and precipitation. h ///// Reserve of the Biosphere of El Hierro (Canarias). As clouds from trade winds develop on the slopes of the island, their droplets are the main source of humidify for the laurisilva ecosystem. ClimaDat analyze possible changes in the ecosystem related to climate variations of the cloudiness l di pattern tt and dh height. i ht

Open data policy All data in ClimaDat are open and the full set of data for every query is registered by a digital query identifier number (dqi). With this dqi every query can be tracked and reproduced any time. Readers and reviewers can introduce thi specific this ifi dqi d i to t check h k the th coherence h off the th set of data used in reports and papers. In general, the use of dqis will allow Funding Organizations to obtain statistics of the scientific and social use of the data and results from their funded research.

ClimaDat sites as meeting points for Research, Development and Innovation. The ClimaDat sites were designed for being a sheltered place and for holding a variety of research instruments (greenhouse gases analysis, soil measurements, energy and carbon flux and budgets, atmospheric vertical structure by ceilometers, aircraft campaigns, etc) following the concept of Long Term Ecological Research. This full equipped observatories design also makes them a powerful place to test instruments and to compare their fitness and reliability under very extreme environmental conditions and their capacity for remote use. ClimaDat sites are offering a collaborative logistic and technical support for interested research groups, always with an open data policy, a dynamic interface and a strong involvement of local-users and society.

If you want to deploy your instruments at the sites, please contact: Xavier Rodó – Climatic processes: // Josep‐Anton Morguí – Biogeochemical processes: Roger Curcoll – Instrumentation: // Jan Polcher – Modeling and hydrology: // Rosa Arias – Operational coordination: