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Figure 2. Indonesia Official Dietary Guidelines (2014) Pedoman Gizi Seimbang

food and beverages to less than 10% of total energy intake [20]. As described in the March/April 2016 issue of Bottled Water Reporter, beverages can contain up to 9 teaspoons of sugar and should be consumed accordingly [21,22]. The Liq.In results showed that 44.5% of adults exceeded the WHO guidelines on sugar solely by fluid intake [18,20].

Application of the Recommendation to the General Population

Kementerian Kesehatan RI | 2014 Source: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, “Recommended Nutritional Intake for Indonesian Population.”

The European Commission and the United States have both promoted initiatives to promote healthy hydration.

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of the adults drank, on average, less than 290mL/day of water. In Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and the United Kingdom, the adults drank more sweet beverages than water [18]. This observation was even more frequently made when investigating the drinking habits of children and adolescents. In some countries, up to 52% of what children and adolescent drink were sugar-sweetened beverages [15]. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) published guidelines on sugar intake for adults and children that recommended reducing the intake of free sugars from

Once the reference values are produced by the health authorities, they then need to be translated into practical, user-friendly tools and tips easily understood and put into action by the general population. Visual representations of the dietary guidelines exist in some countries. For example, the Chinese Pagoda was developed by the Chinese Nutrition Society in 2007, recommending at least 1.2 L of water per day. In 2014, Indonesia published its pyramid recommending at least 8 glasses of water per day [23]. (See Figure 2 at left.) Additional tools can be developed to promote water. For example, in 2016 the science service of the European Commission (EC) published a toolkit to successfully promote healthy hydration at school [24]. The toolkit indicated that effective interventions at school had a multi-component approach combining education, increased water availability, and/or parental involvement. Moreover, the EC highlighted the importance of engaging the right stakeholders, including the private sector (e.g., water and soft drinks suppliers) [24]. Another example of a campaign increasing the awareness of the importance of healthy hydration is the extremely popular U.S. initiative Drink Up, which launched in 2013 to increase water consumption by encouraging Americans to “drink more water more often" [25].


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