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Department Of Pharmacognosy Research On Presented By: Pharmacological Drugs Containing Alkaloids and / or Glycosides

Abanoub Hanna Abanoub Nagy Ibraam Saad Andrew Youssef

Under Supervision Of

Ehab Eshak Peter Eissa Bishoy Salib

Ph.D. Rabab Mohamed

Kiroles Atef Michael Nabil Mena Toni Mena sobhy Mena Emad Wagdy Abdo

1 2 6 67 82 86 87 170 177 228 229 230 253


Lanoxin (digoxin) Tablets, USP 125 mcg (0.125 mg) Scored I.D. Imprint Y3B (yellow) 250 mcg (0.25 mg) Scored I.D. Imprint X3A (white)

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Lanoxin (digoxin) is one of the cardiac (or digitalis) glycosides, a closely related group of drugs having in common specific effects on myocardium. Digoxin is extracted from the leaves of Digitalis lanata. The term “digitalis� is used to designate the whole group of glycosides.

USES

Heart Failure: (digoxin tablets) is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate heart failure. Digoxin increases left ventricular ejection fraction and improves heart failure symptoms as evidenced by exercise capacity and heart failure-related hospitalizations and emergency care, while having no effect on mortality. Where possible, digoxin should be used with a diuretic and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, but an optimal order for star ting these three drugs cannot be specified.

Atrial Fibrillation: DIGITEK (digoxin tablets) is indicated for the control of ventricular response rate in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.

SIDE EFFECTS

I. II. III. IV.

fast, slow, or uneven heart rate bloody or black, tarry stools blurred vision, yellowed vision confusion, hallucinations, unusual thoughts or behavior

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NovothyroxÂŽ (levothyroxine sodium) Tablets, USP

DRUG DESCRIPTION

NOVOTHYROX (levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP) contains synthetic crystalline L-3, 3', 5, 5'-tetraiodothyronine sodium salt [levothyroxine (T4) sodium]. Synthetic T4 is identical to that produced in the human thyroid gland. Levothyroxine (T4) sodium has an empirical formula of C15H10I4NNaO4•H2O, molecular weight of 798.86 g/mol (anhydrous), and structural formula as shown

USES

Hypothyroidism As replacement or supplemental therapy in congenital or acquired hypothyroidism of any etiology, except transient hypothyroidism during the recovery phase of subacutethyroiditis.

Pituitary TSH Suppression In the treatment or prevention of various types of euthyroid goiters , including thyroid nodules thyroiditis), multinodular goiteR and, as an adjunct to surgery andradioiodine therapy in the management of thyrotropin-dependent well-differentiatedthyroid cancer.

SIDE EFFECTS

I.

Central nervous system: headache, hyperactivity, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, emotional lability, insomnia

II.

Respiratory: dyspnea;

III.

Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and elevations in liver function tests;

IV.

Dermatologic: hair loss, flushing;

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Avinza DRUG DESCRIPTION

morphine sulfate is 7,8-didehydro-4,5 alpha-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan3,6 alpha-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt) pentahydrate with a molecular weight of 758. Morphine sulfate occurs as white, feathery, silky crystals; cubical masses of crystal; or white crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol, but is practically insoluble in chloroform or ether. The octane water partition coefficient of morphine is 1.42 at physiologic pH and the pKa is 7.9 for the tertiary nitrogen (the majority is ionized at pH 7.4).

USES

I.

AVINZA (morphine sulfate) uses the proprietary SODAS速 (Spheroidal Oral Drug Absorption System) technology to produce the extended release component of AVINZA (morphine sulfate) , which combined with an immediate release component achieves the desired release profile characteristics of AVINZA (morphine sulfate) capsules.

II.

Within the gastrointestinal tract, due to the permeability of the ammoni-omethacrylate copolymers of the beads, fluid enters the beads and solubilizes the drug. This is mediated by fumaric acid, which acts as an osmotic agent and a local pH modifier. The resultant solution then diffuses out in a predetermined manner which prolongs the in vivo dissolution and absorption phases

SIDE EFFECTS

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

shallow breathing, slow heartbeat seizure (convulsions) cold, clammy skin confusion severe weakness or dizziness feeling light-headed, fainting

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Donnatal Extentabs® (belladonna alkaoids, phenobarbital)

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Each Donnatal Extentabs® (belladonna alkaloids, phenobarbital) tablet contains: Phenobarbital, USP (3/4 gr.) ....................................48.6 mg Hyoscyamine Sulfate, USP .................................... 0.3111 mg Atropine Sulfate, USP ............................................ 0.0582 mg Scopolamine Hydrobromide, USP ......................... 0.0195 mg Each Donnatal Extentabs® (belladonna alkaloids, phenobarbital) tablet contains the equivalent of three Donnatal® tablets. Extentabs® are designed to release the ingredients gradually to provide effects for up to twelve (12) hours.

SIDE EFFECTS

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: I. II. III. IV. V.

diarrhea painful or difficult urination fast or pounding heartbeats blurred vision with eye pain, or seeing halos around lights feeling like you might pass out

PRECATUIONS

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, or phenobarbital; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: glaucoma, enlarged prostate, problems with urination due to a blocked urinary tract, other stomach/intestinal problems.

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Navelbine DRUG DESCRIPTION

NAVELBINE (vinorelbine tartrate) Injection is for intravenous administration. Each vial contains vinorelbine tartrate equivalent to 10 mg (1-mL vial) or 50 mg (5-mL vial) vinorelbine in Water for Injection. No preservatives or other additives are present. The aqueous solution is sterile and nonpyrogenic. Vinorelbine tartrate is a semi-syntheticvinca alkaloid with antitumor activity. The chemical name is 3',4'-didehydro-4'-deoxy-C'-norvincaleukoblastine [R-(R*,R*)-2, 3-dihydroxybutanedioate (1:2)(salt)]. Vinorelbine tartrate has the following structure

SIDE EFFECTS

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as: I.

II. III.

signs of infection such as fever, chills, flu symptoms, mouth and throat ulcers, rapid heart rate, rapid and shallow breathing, fainting cough, bronchospasm (wheezing, chest tightness, trouble breathing) severe constipation, stomach pain, bloody or black stools

PRECATUIONS

Before using vinorelbine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: decreased bone marrow function/blood cell disorders (e.g., anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia). Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, numbness/tingling of the hands or feet, blockage of the stomach/intestines

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Sansert® DRUG DESCRIPTION

Sansert® (methysergide maleate) is a partially synthetic compound structurally related to lysergic acid butanolamide, well-known as methylergonovine in obstetrical practice as an oxytocic agent. Chemically, methysergide maleate is designated as ergoline-8carboxamidedidehydro-N-[1-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]-1,6-dimethyl-, (8ß)-, (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) (salt). Methylation in the number 1 position of the ring structure enormously enhances the antagonism to serotonin which is present to a much lesser degree in the partially methylated compound (methylergonovine maleate) as well as profoundly altering other pharmacologic properties. Active Ingredient: methysergide maleate, USP. Inactive Ingredients: acacia, carnauba wax, colloidal silicon dioxide, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Yellow #5, gelatin, lactose, malic acid, povidone, sodium benzoate, starch (corn), stearic acid, sucrose, synthetic black iron oxide, talc, and titanium dioxide.

SIDE EFFECTS

Stop taking methysergide and seek emergency medical attention if you experience an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of your throat; swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; or hives). Notify your doctor immediately if you experience leg cramps when walking; hip, side, or chest pain; painful urination; shortness of breath; or coldness, numbness, or pain in your hands, feet, arms, or legs.

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Entex Pse DRUG DESCRIPTION

Each Entex PSE (pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin) yellow coated, scored, long-acting tablet for oral administration contains This product contains ingredients of the following therapeutic classes: decongestantand expectorant. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride is a decongestant having the chemical name, benzenemethanol,(alpha)-[1-(methylamino)ethyl]-[ S -( R*, R* ) ]-, hydrochloride. Guaifenesin is an expectorant having the chemical name, 1,2propanediol, 3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)

SIDE EFFECTS

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop taking this medication and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: I. II. III. IV.

fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeat severe dizziness, anxiety, restless feeling, or nervousness easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness, fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms increased blood pressure

PRECATUIONS

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to pseudoephedrine or guaifenesin; or if you have any other allergies. Also tell your doctor if you have had a bad reaction to similar drugs (sympathomimetics such as ephedrine, phenylephrine). This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: breathing problems (such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, smoker's cough), cough with blood or large amounts of mucus, high blood pressure, heart disease

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Vfend DRUG DESCRIPTION

VFEND速 (voriconazole), a triazole antifungal agent is available as a lyophilized powder for solution for intravenous infusion, film-coated tablets for oral administration, and as a powder for oral suspension. Voriconazole is designated chemically as (2R,3S)-2-(2, 4-difluorophenyl)3-(5-fluoro-4-pyrimidinyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4triazol-1-yl)-2-butanol with an empirical formula of C16H14F3N5O and a molecular weight of 349.3. Voriconazole drug substance is a white to light-colored powder. VFEND I.V. is intended for administration by intravenous infusion. It is a single-dose, unpreserved product. Vials containing 200 mg lyophilized voriconazole are intended for reconstitution with Water for Injection to produce a solution containing 10 mg/mL VFEND and 160 mg/mL of sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin sodium. The resultant solution is further diluted prior to administration as an intravenous infusion

SIDE EFFECTS

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: I. II. III. IV.

sudden behavior changes, problems with thinking or speech stomach pain, loss of appetite, dark urine, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes) urinating less than usual or not at all fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling

PRECATUIONS

Before taking voriconazole, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other azole antifungals (e.g., itraconazole, ketoconazole); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, recent chemotherapy, certain hereditary problems with digesting/absorbing the sugar galactose.

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CORZIDE (nadolol and bendroflumethiazide) Tablet

DRUG DESCRIPTION

Nadolol is a white crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in ethanol, soluble in hydrochloric acid, slightly soluble in water and in chloroform, and very slightly soluble in sodium hydroxide. Nadolol is designated chemically as 1-(tert-butylamino)-3-{ (5,6,7,8tetrahydro-cis-6,7-dihydroxy-1-naphthyl)oxy} -2-propanol.

Nadolol

Bendroflumethiazide is a white crystalline powder. It is soluble in alcohol and in sodium hydroxide, and insoluble in hydrochloric acid, water, and chloroform. Bendroflumethiazide is designated chemically as 3-benzyl-3,4-dihydro-6(trifluoromethyl)-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide.

PRECATUIONS

Before taking this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to nadolol or bendroflumethiazide; or to other thiazides (such as hydrochlorothiazide); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: certain types of heart rhythm problems (such as a slow heartbeat, secondor third-degree atrioventricular block, sick sinus syndrome), an inability to make urine (anuria), breathing problems (such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema).

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Bendroflumethiazide


PRIMACOR速 (milrinone lactate) Injection 200 MCG/ML IN 5% Dextrose Injection

DRUG DESCRIPTION

PRIMACOR, brand of milrinone lactate injection, is a member of a class of bipyridine inotropic/vasodilator agents with phosphodiesterase inhibitor activity, distinct from digitalis glycosides or catecholamines. PRIMACOR (milrinone lactate) is designated chemically as 1,6-dihydro-2-methyl-6oxo-[3,4'-bipyridine]-5-carbonitrile lactate Milrinone is an off-white to tan crystalline compound with a molecular weight of 211.2 and an empirical formula of C12 H9 N3 O. It is slightly soluble in methanol, and very slightly soluble in chloroform and in water. As the lactate salt, it is stable and colorless to pale yellow in solution. PRIMACOR is available as sterile aqueous solutions of the lactate salt of milrinone for infusion intravenously. Pre-Mix Flexible Containers: The Flexible Containers provide two readyto-use dilutions of milrinone in volumes of 100 mL and 200 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection. Each mL contains milrinone lactate equivalent to 200 mcg milrinone. The nominal concentration of lactic acid is 0.282 mg/mL. Each mL also contains 49.4 mg dextrose, anhydrous, USP. The pH is adjusted to between 3.2 and 4.0 with lactic acid orsodium hydroxide. The flexible plastic container is comprised of polyvinyl chloride with a foil overwrap. Water can permeate the plastic into the overwrap, but the amount is insufficient to significantly affect the pre-mix solution.

SIDE EFFECTS

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Tell your caregivers at once if you have a serious side effect such as: I. II. III. IV.

chest pain feeling like you might pass out bronchospasm (wheezing, chest tightness, trouble breathing) low potassium (confusion, uneven heart rate, extreme thirst, increased urination, leg discomfort, muscle weakness or limp feeling).

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ALPHAGAN速 P (brimonidine tartrate) Ophthalmic Solution 0.1% and 0.15%

DRUG DESCRIPTION

ALPHAGAN速 P (brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution) 0.1% or 0.15%, sterile, is a relatively selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist (topical intraocular pressure lowering agent).

SIDE EFFECTS

Stop using brimonidine and get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: I. II. III. IV. V.

slow or uneven heart rate; pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest shallow breathing, feeling like you might pass out severe swelling, redness, or discomfort in or around your eye eye pain

PRECATUIONS

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to apraclonidine; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: blood vessel diseases (thromboangiitis obliterans), blood circulation disorders (cerebral or coronary insufficiency), depression, severe heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, Raynaud's disease, low blood pressure upon standing (orthostatic hypotension). This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy or cause blurred vision. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness.

Reference:

www.rxlist.com Page | 12

Research on Pharmacological Drugs containing Alkaloids and/or Glycosides  

it is a research on Pharmacological Drugs containing Alkaloids and/or Glycosides

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