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Dedicated to Science and Engineering Education For over 45 years PASCO has been guided by just one mission: to provide educators worldwide with innovative solutions for teaching science and engineering. Our team of almost 200 people includes former teachers, educational researchers, and engineers who are dedicated to improving student success. At the forefront of our contact with you is our excellent Teacher and Technical Support staff. Free technical support is available by phone during business hours. After hours, please leave a voice mail, email or fax and we will respond as soon as possible. (For questions about billing, orders and accounts, contact Customer & Order Support.)

Meet our knowledgeable and friendly Teacher and Technical Support staff: Melissa Tomney

Steven Meschia

Melissa has been fascinated with science since a young age. She earned a B.S. in Biology from State University of New York Geneseo, and an M.S. in Plant Biology from University of California Davis where she discovered her passion for teaching. Her specialties include biology with a focus on genetics, molecular biology and botany.

Steven brings a wealth of experience in university level physics, with a BS from University of Chicago and Ph.D. from Montana State University. Among other responsibilities, he is our NI/Virtual Instrument developer. He is an avid recumbent bicycle commuter.

Scott Sukrapanna

Mike Paskowitz

Scott is the most experienced member of our Teacher Support team. He earned a BS in Physics and an MS in Plant Biology from University of California Davis. His specialty is physics and plant physiology. He is also an automotive aficionado.

Mike fell in love with science as a child by watching metal workers at a craft fair. He earned his BS in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science from UC Davis, as well as his MS in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. He also earned a CA teaching credential, and has spent 8 years in the classroom teaching physics, chemistry, and math to high school students in Sacramento and in Davis. Mike’s specialties include materials science and engineering. Mike enjoys spending time swimming and bicycling with his family.

Amanda Falls

Danny Hur

Amanda’s fascination with science started at a young age while watching Mr. Wizard. She earned a B.S. in Chemistry and Mathematics from Kansas State University in 2000. She is a veteran of the United States Navy having spent four years training future nuclear operators at the Navy Nuclear Power School. Her specialties are chemistry and nuclear physics. Amanda enjoys travelling and is learning to play the bagpipes.

Danny’s love and intrigue for mathematics started early in his life and lead him to study Physics. He earned his B.S. in Physics from California State University, Sacramento. Prior to joining PASCO Danny worked as an international procurement agent, a land development planner, and as a sushi chef. Danny enjoys his free time reading and learning to play electric guitar.

Live Contact Hours: M-Th: 7:00 am - 4:30 pm PST F: 7:00 am - 2:00 pm PST email: support@pasco.com

Phone: 916-786-3800 (outside US) 800-772-8700 (inside US) Fax: 916-786-7565

Mail: PASCO scientific 10101 Foothills Blvd. Roseville, California 95747-7100 USA ISO 9001:2000 Certified

Please see the inside back cover to find your education consultant.


Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Large Structures Set

Page

ME-7003 Page 176

New Products___________________________ 2-5 Data Acquisition Systems_________________ 6-7 PASPORT Interface/Sensors_____________ 8-67 ScienceWorkshop Interface/Sensors_____68-84 Analog and Digital Adapters_______________ 85 DataStudio Software___________________86-89 Probeware Bundles___________________90-102 Software/Teaching Resources_________ 103-107 Mechanics__________________________ 108-211 Lab Supplies________________________212-225 Tower Crane 2.3 m tall

Thermodynamics___________________ 226-247 Electrostatics & Electromagnetism____ 248-277 Power Supplies & Instrumentation____ 278-285 Waves & Sound____________________ 286-303

Adjustable Focal Length Lens OS-8494 Page 313

Light & Optics______________________ 304-339 Fundamental Constants_ ____________ 340-347 Atomic & Nuclear___________________ 348-353 Experiments_ ______________________ 354-397 Professional Development___________ 398-399 Numeric Index_ _____________________400-401 Spares Index_______________________ 402-403 Product & Topic Index________________404-414 Order Information____________________415-416 PASCO Education Consultants and Contact Information_______ Inside back cover

1


New Products

Photogate-Ready Dynamics System ME-9494 This system includes our highest quality metal carts and track at an incredibly low price! See page 109

PASCO carts and tracks: Still the best, and the least expensive! See pages 108-113

Bicycle Gyroscope

Super Pulley Combination

ME-6837

ME-9433

Precision Ball Bearings result in extremely low-friction for both the Bicycle Gyroscope and the Rotating Chair. See page 199

This combination includes parts to assemble either a Super Pulley with a rod or a Super Pulley with a clamp. See page 216

Bicycle Gyroscope Mass Set

CI Load Cell and Amplifier Set

ME-6972 Add the masses to the wheel to increase its rotational inertia by over 60%. See page 199

CI-6465 Use Structures System Load Cells with ScienceWorkshop 500 and 750 Interfaces. See page 167

Mass securely clamps to the wheel rim using included screws.

Rotating Chair ME-6856 Rugged design and incredibly low-friction make this far superior to any office chair. See page 199

CI-6464 Load Cell Amplifier

Rotating platform can be used with or without included chair.

2

www.pasco.com


New Products

PASCO Structures System A More Sets A More Components A More Instrumentation See pages 166-178

Large Structures Set

Build this bridge and 15 other HUGE structures with this one comprehensive set! See page 176

Add sensors to Hydraulic Structures to measure force, pressure and piston position. See page 171

Student uses a syringe (see p. 171) to raise the drawbridge.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Structures

Destructible Bridge Members

ME-6984

ME-7004

Add a hydraulic/pneumatic ram to make your structures  move and do work. See page 171

See page 171

Metal Plate

Breakable Link

Investigate structural failure by inserting a breakable link into the structure.

Structures #6 I-Beam ME-7008

Longer beam to supplement any structure set. See page 177

Cast Beam Structures Set ME-7009 Rebar

Make your own pre-stressed cast beams. See page 172 Cast Beam

Mold

3


New Products

Electrostatic Charge

Experiment

MR 200 Digital/Analog Breadboard

EX-9978

SE-9982

Includes all the components necessary for a quantitative investigation into the basics of electrostatic charge. See page 381

Magnetic breadboard that eliminates the need to solder or strip wires when constructing an electronic circuit. See page 256

Components are securely mounted to the special magnetic holder.

Experiment

MR 100 Analog Breadboard

Reflection and Refraction

SE-9981 Magnetic breadboard that eliminates the need to solder or strip wires when constructing an electronic circuit. See page 256

EX-9987 Includes all the components necessary for a quantitative investigation into the basics of Reflection and Refraction. See page 393

See list of eight more NEW experiments on page 354

Density Circulation Model ME-6816

Atmospheric Properties Chamber ME-6813  ecreate the conditions that lead to cloud formation. R See page 207 Built-in Fast Response Temperature Probe.

Quick decompression, as stopper blows, causes cloud to form in chamber.

4

Allows students to model, measure and understand the complex density driven circulation associated with heat transfer through convection. See page 208

Measure changing temperature and pressure. Minimal mixing occurs and clearly defined layers of liquid based on density result.

www.pasco.com


New Products

Adjustable Focal Length Lens

Water Quality Field Guide

OS-8494 Use with the OS-8515C Basic Optics System, and the OS-8477 Human Eye Model. See pages 310 and 313

PS-2829A This handy guide was prepared for teachers and students alike, with both a good science process and effective science learning in mind. See page 66

Use the syringe to adjust the amount of water in the lens. Changing the curvature of the clear flexible membranes changes the focal length of the lens.

Reinventing Edison: Build Your Own Light Bulb

Dual Humidity/Temp/Dew Point

SE-7145

Measure humidity at two locations at the same time such as in the EcoZone™ System. See page 63

Students experiment just the way Edison did. See page 258

Students explore how a vacuum affects the life of a light bulb they constructed from a plastic cylinder and various filaments.

Reinventing Morse: Build Your Own Telegraph SE-7146 Includes everything needed to build a working telegraph. See page 258

PS-2156

PASPORT AirLink 2 PS-2010

Allows any single PASPORT sensor to be connected via Bluetooth to a Bluetooth enabled device running DataStudio, SPARKvue or SPARKvue for iPhone. See page 23

Current Probe PS-2184

Students wind their own coils to construct a telegraph. They also learn Morse Code and how to connect simple circuits.

Attaches to a PASCO voltage sensor to allow the measurement of current between -4 A and +4 A. The probe contains a precision 0.10 ohm resistor. See page 48

5


Computer Interfaces

Data Acquisition and Analysis PASCO offers a variety of interfaces to meet your data acquisition needs.

ScienceWorkshop® Systems A T  hese sensors have analog outputs.

ScienceWorkshop® USB 750 Interface CI-7650

A A A A A A

A P  erfect for teaching about sensors. A U  se for sense and control. See pages 68-84.

Our most powerful interface Seven sensor ports Built-in Function Generator Built-in DC Power Supply (300 mA, ±5 V) Accessory Power Amplifier increases power to 1 A, ±10 V Signal Generator and Oscilloscope in one device

ScienceWorkshop® 500 Interface CI-6400

A A A A

Use as a computer interface Use as a datalogger away from the computer Five sensor ports Serial connector can be adapted to USB using optional converter

Xplorer GLX® PS-2002

PASPORT™ Systems A T  hese sensors have digital outputs. A S  ingle sensors capable of multiple measurement types. A S  ophisticated sampling methods reduce noise. A A  ll PASPORT Interfaces can be used together. See pages 8-67.

A A A A A

 se with or without a computer (USB) U Remote datalogger Built-in voltage sensor, temperature sensor, dual function generator, speaker and sound sensor Accessory Power Amplifier increases power to 1 A, ±10 V Four sensor ports

Xplorer Datalogger PS-2000

A A A

 se with or without a computer (USB) U Remote datalogger Single sensor port

USB Link PS-2100A

A A

 irectly link one PASPORT sensor D to a USB port Use multiple links for more sensors

SPARKlink PS-2009

A A

 ink two PASPORT sensors to one USB port L Built-in temperature and voltage ports

PowerLink PS-2001

A A

6

 ink three PASPORT sensors to one USB port L Operates on batteries for portability

www.pasco.com


Sensors and Software

A Multitude of Sensors

DataStudio® Software

Both the ScienceWorkshop and PASPORT systems have a variety of sensors available. For details see: www.pasco.com/engineering

ScienceWorkshop®

Over 40 ScienceWorkshop Sensors ScienceWorkshop sensors are analog and thus are perfect for teaching about sensing elements. Since they output a voltage, students can use them in their own circuits. NI Elvis® adapters are available. Force CI-6537

Economy Force CI-6746

Rotary Motion CI-6538

Motion Sensor II CI-6742A

One program controls all ScienceWorkshop and PASPORT systems.

PASCO’s DataStudio program is much more than a data collection program. Getting the data into the computer from the interfaces is only the first step. DataStudio has a variety of ways to display data and it has powerful analysis tools to process the data. A A

 ontrols data collection from all ScienceWorkshop C and PASPORT interfaces Displays data in many ways • Graph • Oscilloscope • FFT • Table • Digital readout • Analog meter readout

PASPORT™

Over 70 PASPORT Sensors PASPORT sensors have digital outputs that allow multiple measurements per channel and reduced noise. Motion PS-2103A

Force PS-2104

Multiple sensors in one package­— Make multiple types of measurements using a single sensor port on a PASPORT interface. Voltage/Current PS-2115

Absolute Pressure/Temperature PS-2146

DataStudio has the ability to find the peaks of this damped oscillation. An exponential fit is performed on the peak points to determine the damping coefficient.

A

 xtensive data analysis E • Curve-fitting • Integration under curves • Perform calculations on data • Statistics

See pages 86-89.

Quad Pressure PS-2164 Temperature (Type K 4-Port) PS-2127

System Requirements Windows: Windows 2000 or higher, Pentium or equivalent processor, 50 MB hard drive space, 16 MB RAM Macintosh: MAC X OS 10.4 or higher (Universal Binary), 50 MB hard drive space, 16 MB RAM Order Information:

Weather/Anemometer PS-2174

DataStudio Software Single User. ...................................................................................................................CI-6870G Site License...................................................................................................................CI-6871G

7


PASPORT – Introduction

Probeware: Designed for Science Education The PASPORT System was designed to meet the needs of the science classroom and lab. Below are a few of the reasons PASPORT is a leading probeware system used throughout the world:

1

Five Interfaces to Fit Your Needs A A  void the “one size fits all” mentality of other probeware systems. A U  SB Link is the most economical interface available. A Use  multiple interfaces together in any combination.

3

Built to Last A S  ensor cables are designed with appropriate strain relief in the connections to prevent wire breakage.

USB Link PS-2100A

A P  ASPORT sensors can only be plugged into interfaces in the correct orientation, preventing damage to the sensor pins and the interfaces.

Xplorer Datalogger PS-2000

A S  ensor and interface cases are designed to withstand student use. Most use impact-resistant poly-carbonate, while PASCO’s Drop Counter uses the chemicallyresistant polypropylene.

A A  ll interfaces compatible with both Windows and Macintosh computers.

PowerLink PS-2001

4

Xplorer GLX PS-2002

A Collect data and save files. A View graphs, tables or other displays.

Superior Sensors A S  ensors are automatically identified by the computer or datalogger when plugged in. A MultiMeasure  sensors combine complimentary measurements into one sensor for convenience, superior performance and cost savings. A U  se any combination of sensors together, even with different data collection rates. A D  ynamic variable over-sampling greatly reduces noise level at low sample rates.

Computer, graphing calculator or PDA not required A X  plorer GLX includes all the tools to complete most physics experiments.

SPARKlink PS-2009

2

Xplorer GLX is Fully Self-contained

A A  pply analysis tools such as derivatives, integration, linear fit and statistics.

Motion Sensor PS-2103A

A P  rint data tables and graphs directly from the Xplorer GLX.

Force Sensor PS-2104

Voltage/Current Sensor PS-2115

Absolute Pressure/ Temperature Sensor PS-2146

5

ScienceWorkshop Sensors can be used with PASPORT Interfaces A A  nalog and Digital Adapters (page 85), enable students to use ScienceWorkshop Sensors with the USB Link, PowerLink, Xplorer, Xplorer GLX and SPARKlink.

8

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Interfaces

Interface Comparison Use the following table to compare the features and capabilities of PASPORT Interfaces:

Features Collects Data with a Computer

Data Logging

USB Link

Xplorer

PowerLink

SPARKlink

Xplorer GLX

PS-2100A

PS-2000

PS-2001

PS-2009

PS-2002

See p. 18

See p. 18

See p. 19

See p. 22

See p. 10

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

-

yes

-

-

yes

Print Graphs and Tables Directly from Interface

-

-

-

-

Using a USB Printer

Operate with USB Keyboard and Mouse

-

-

-

-

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

USB "On the Go" Ports

-

-

-

-

Use mouse, keyboard, printer

Graphical Display

-

-

-

-

320 x 240 pixels

Display Size

-

1.3" x 0.3"

-

-

3" x 2.2"

Display Color Mode

-

Black and White

-

-

Grayscale

Character Display

-

2 lines x 16 characters

-

-

-

Icon-Based Operating System

-

-

-

-

yes

Maximum Sample Rate

1000 Hz

1000 Hz

1000 Hz

1000 Hz

50,000 Hz

Number of Sensor Ports

1

1

3

4*

8**

Works in the field with a Laptop

Built-in Sensors

-

-

-

Voltage, Temp

Voltage, Sound, Temperature (2)

Built-in Function Generator

-

-

-

-

Dual, Independent

Built-in Speaker for Sound Output

-

-

-

-

yes

Data Storage Memory

-

0.1 MB

-

-

12 MB

Built-in Data Analysis Tools

-

-

-

-

yes

Built-in Graphing Calculator with Expression Editor

-

-

-

-

yes

Built-in USB Hub (to add additional PASPORT Interfaces)

-

-

yes

-

-

Pre-loaded Experiment Files

-

-

-

-

yes

Built-in File Management System

-

-

-

-

yes

Annotations for Data Points and Runs

-

-

-

-

Voice and Text

Battery Power

-

2 "AA"

2 "C"

-

Built-in Rechargeable (NiMH)

Free DataStudioÂŽ Lite Software Included

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Compatible with DataStudio Software

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Powered by Computer's USB Port

yes

yes

-

yes

-

Compatible with ScienceWorkshop Sensors

yes***

yes***

yes***

Upgradable Operating System

yes

yes

yes

yes***

yes***

yes

yes

* Includes two built-in sensors ** Includes four built-in sensors *** Using either Analog or Digital Adapters (see page 85)

9


PASPORT – Xplorer GLX

Xplorer GLX® Handheld Computer/ Datalogger

Four Universal Ports

Connect up to four PASPORT sensors in any combination– including MultiMeasure™ Sensors.

Xplorer GLX Experiment Bundles: See pages 96-101

A Collect and analyze data away from the computer A Print directly from the Xplorer GLX A Also functions as a computer interface

Shown Actual Size with Actual Screen Resolution

File Management System

Create and save experiment templates and student files right on the Xplorer GLX. Up to 100 files.

Up to 50,000 Hz Max Sampling Rate

Two Built-in Temperature Ports

Two USB Ports

Includes two Fast Response Temperature Probes.

A Print directly to an HP printer A Use a mouse and/or keyboard A Save data to a flash drive A Connect to a computer using the included USB cable.

Built-in Voltage Port

Includes one Voltage Probe.

Sound Output

 se with optional external speakers to U study the properties of sound waves.

Dual Function Generator

Produce multiple waveforms and frequencies.

Intuitive Icon-Based Navigation

50 MHz Floating Point Processor (FPU) A C runches numbers faster than any other handheld device A Faster graphing, faster analysis

Scientific symbol fonts mean pi looks like π. Supports 15 languages.

High-Resolution Screen

A C risp, clear output allows for easier data analysis A 320 x 240 grayscale A Transflective technology for optimal visibility in all lighting conditions—even sunlight! A Backlit for use in darkened optics lab

Built to Last

A R echargeable 1700mAH NiMH battery and charger included A Tough polycarbonate case A Firmware updates available at www.pasco.com

Built-in Graphing Calculator with Expression Editor

Sized for the Lab A S mall enough to hold in your hand A Requires minimal desk space A Screen large enough to see data in fine detail and conduct analysis

12MB of Data Storage

12 MB of user-available memory allows a full day of experiments.

Flash Memory

Data retained even if batteries discharge.

Microphone/Sound Sensor A D  isplay sound waveforms A Measure sound level (dB) A Voice annotate an experiment

Speaker

For sound output.

10

A C reate/edit/graph mathematical models A Perform real-time calculations A Use calculator functions with Relay (CI-6462) to do sense and control experiments

Calculator and Manual Data Entry Keys A A A A

E nter alphanumeric data Annotate graphs Creates experiment notes pages Perform calculations

Includes:

A Two fast response, low thermal mass temperature probes A Voltage probe A Built-in sound sensor A Built-in speaker A Power adapter and battery charger A USB “A” to USB “B” cable A DataStudio Lite for use as a PASPORT interface to computer A Users guide and tutorial CD See pages 12-14 for accessories.

Order Information: Xplorer GLX...................................................PS-2002

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Xplorer GLX The Xplorer GLX currently supports the following languages:

Use the Xplorer GLX 3 ways:

A Arabic

The Xplorer GLX includes the most important functions from other computing devices for effective physics teaching. Collect and analyze data, even print directly from the Xplorer GLX. Plus, never worry about operating system or computer network problems.

A Chinese A Chinese A Danish A English A French A German

A Japanese

(Traditional) (Simplified)

A Norwegian A Portuguese A Russian A Spanish A Swedish A Turkish

A Italian

Display/Analyze Data Two Graphs

Display two different graphs to compare and analyze data.

1

2

Use your GLX as an oscilloscope. Set trigger criteria and go. Display two measurements simultaneously.

Linear Fit

As a real-time interface

Connect the Xplorer GLX directly to a computer via the USB connection. When connected, the Xplorer GLX acts as a typical PASPORT interface controlled by the computer, presenting real-time data collected by the sensors. As with all PASPORT interfaces, DataStudio® software is launched when a PASPORT® sensor is connected. Sensors are automatically identified and displays set up.

3 Scope Mode

Instead of a computer, PDA or graphing calculator

As a remote datalogger

Take data anywhere, anytime with the Xplorer GLX. (And with 12 MB of memory, that’s a lot of data). Display and even analyze data on the Xplorer GLX screen. Later, simply connect the Xplorer GLX to the USB port on your computer and all stored data is downloaded, ready for writing reports or further analysis. Xplorer GLX lets you take data anywhere, any time and still have the data available for use on your computer. Data can also be stored on a USB flash drive.

Measure resonances or the speed of sound Choose the Linear Fit Tool, then select the appropriate region of data. Slope and Intercept are at bottom of screen.

The Xplorer GLX, with its built-in microphone and 50 Khz sample rate, lets you look at waves produced by musical instruments. Students perform many acoustic experiments. The GLX can even create its own sound waves, using its dual channel sine wave generator and built-in speaker.

Calculator

Perform any single calculation or create a calculated data set based on measurements from a sensor. Any function can be graphed directly from the calculator window. Students see both equation and graph.

Two tuning forks of slightly different frequencies are sounded together. Now your students can hear and SEE the waveforms, and understand the concept of beats. Order Information: Resonance Box Set......... SE-7345 p. 302

11


PASPORT – Xplorer GLX Accessories

Xplorer GLX Portable Lab Kit

Xplorer GLX 20-Unit Charging Station

PS-2688

PS-2557

Easy to store, quick to set-up. Turn any available surface into a science lab.

Conveniently store and charge your set of Xplorer GLX graphing dataloggers with this 20-unit charging station. This compact-sized and light-weight charging station simplifies storage—fits nicely on most shelves or table tops—yet stores and charges up to 20 Xplorer GLXs. Just one outlet required to charge all 20 units. With this new charging station, your Xplorer GLXs are always ready to go. Dimensions: 12” x 24” x 5.25” Weight: 10 lbs Designed and manufactured for PASCO by TriBeam Technologies.

Order Information: Xplorer GLX 20-Unit Charging Station.....................................PS-2557

Kit Includes: Xplorer GLX

Xplorer GLX Mobile Cart PS-2558

Deluxe Storage Case Mobile USB keyboard USB Mouse Xplorer GLX peripheral cable (not shown) Two Stainless Steel Temperature Probes Order Information: Xplorer GLX Portable Lab Kit................................................................PS-2688 Deluxe Storage Case (only)......................................................................PS-2542

USB Flash Drive 512 MB PS-2551 Use this 512 MB storage device with your Xplorer GLX to transfer files to your computer or another GLX.

Get the convenience of a lockable rolling cart with your Xplorer GLX charging solution. This Xplorer GLX Mobile Cart has the Xplorer GLX 20-Unit Charging Station built right into it. Provides added security and easy transport from classroom to classroom or supply room to lab. Easy View locking cover accepts any standard padlock. Desktop height and top-loading design means easy access. The wire mesh design provides security but keeps weight down for easier maneuvering. Just one outlet required to charge up to 20 units. Use bottom shelf for storing sensor boxes or printer. Dimensions: 34” x 19” x 34” Weight: 57 lbs Designed and manufactured for PASCO by TriBeam Technologies.

Order Information:

Order Information:

USB Flash Drive............................................................................................................. PS-2551

Xplorer GLX Mobile Cart.............................................................................PS-2558

12

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Xplorer GLX Accessories

Tripod Stand (5-pack)

USB Mouse

Xplorer GLX Pack

PS-2539

PS-2549

SE-7397A

Directly manipulate data on graphs and tables using common mouse functions such as drag and drop.

Carry your GLX and sensors safely when data collection takes you out of the classroom. Includes detachable strap.

Order Information: USB Mouse.....................................................PS-2539

USB Connection Cable Use this portable tripod to support the Xplorer GLX or just about any PASCO sensor. The lightweight tripod (0.18 kg) stands 17 cm high with a 25 cm footprint. The adjustable tripod head provides support for the Xplorer GLX or sensor in many orientations. Order Information: Tripod Stand (5-pack). .......................SE-7397A

PS-2528

Order Information: Xplorer GLX Pack....................................PS-2549

To connect an Xplorer GLX or a SPARK SLS to a computer to use as an interface, use this USB A-to-mini B cable (1.8 m long) to connect the USB mini B port on the Xplorer GLX or the SPARK SLS to the USB port on a computer. Order Information:

Lab Stand PS-2526

USB Connection Cable....................PS-2528

Peripheral Cable PS-2536

Xplorer Vest PS-2517

Xplorer GLX not included Keeps the Xplorer or Xplorer GLX secure during outdoor activities. Includes extra pockets for safely storing sensors.

Plug this USB cable into the Xplorer GLX USB B port to convert it to a USB A port. Then use this port and the Xplorer GLX’s other USB A port to attach two peripheral devices simultaneously, such as a mouse and a printer. Order Information: Peripheral Cable........................................PS-2536

Xplorer GLX Replacement Parts (not shown) Slide the Xplorer GLX into the cradle of this sturdy metal stand to position the screen at the ideal angle for desktop experiments.

Order Information: Power Adapter............................................PS-2529 Voltage Probe

. .........................................

PS-2165

Order Information:

Fast Response Temperature Probes (3)...................PS-2135

Lab Stand..........................................................PS-2526

Rechargeable Battery........................PS-2527

Order Information: Xplorer Vest....................................................PS-2517

13


PASPORT – Xplorer GLX Accessories

Xplorer GLX Power Amplifier PS-2006 A Amplifies the signal output from the Xplorer GLX® A DC, Sine, Square, Triangle, Ramp A Built-in Current Sensor The GLX Power Amplifier amplifies the signal generated by the Xplorer GLX. Output current is measured directly by the Power Amplifier.

Typical Applications A A A A

Power AC or DC Circuits and Measure Power Input Power Motors Vary Driving Frequency of a String Vibrator Power a Speaker for a Resonance Tube

In the experiment shown below, the Xplorer GLX and the GLX Power Amplifier are used as a variable frequency sine wave power supply for the String Vibrator (WA-9857). The Force Sensor (PS-2104) is used to measure the tension in the string. All parameters can be varied, including tension, amplitude, frequency, and the number of vibrating segments.

For the Ohm’s Law Experiment shown below, the GLX Power Amplifier provides a 20 second long voltage ramp, and a Voltage vs Current graph is generated for a resistor and a light bulb. The CI-6512 RLC Circuit board also includes two capacitors and an induction coil for performing low frequency RC and RLC circuit experiments.

Graph shows V vs I data for a 33 Ω resistor and a light bulb. The slope of the linear graph gives the resistance of the resistor. Note the non-linear graph for the bulb, due to its large change in temperature.

Digits Display (top screen) shows the tension in string when not vibrating. The bottom screen shows a graph of frequency vs. number of vibrating segments. The slope of this line, along with the tension and length of the string, allows calculation of the wave speed and density of the string.

Specifications Output Power: ± 1A @ ± 10 V DC Offset: ± 10 V Waveform Maximum Frequency: 5000 Hz Waveform Maximum Period: 1 Hour

14

Waveforms:

DC

Sine

Square

Triangle

Ramp

Includes: GLX Power Amplifier Power Adapter

Order Information: GLX Power Amplifier. .................................................................. PS-2006 Required: Xplorer GLX............................................................................................. PS-2002 p. 10 Recommended: RLC Circuit................................................................................................. CI-6512 p. 254 String Vibrator....................................................................................... WA-9857 p. 288

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – 1 MHz Voltage Sensor

1 MHz 2-channel Voltage Sensor PS-2190 A Turn your Xplorer GLX into a 2-channel oscilloscope A Measure two channels at sample rates up to 1 MHz Use the Xplorer GLX and the PS-2190 1 MHz Voltage Sensor to measure the phase shift between the driving voltage and the resulting current in an RLC Circuit. Compare the voltage drop across the resistor to the voltages across the inductor and capacitor. All measurements can be made directly using the displays and tools included with the Xplorer GLX.

Control the output signal from the GLX Power Amplifier and monitor all measurements directly from the Xplorer GLX.

The GLX Power Amplifier generates an AC signal to power the RLC circuit.

The PS-2190 measures two channels simultaneously at up to 1 MHz sampling rate. It has three gain settings with full-scale input ranges of ±10 V, ±1 V, and ±0.1 V.

The CI-6512 RLC Circuit Board is perfect for studying introductory AC circuit theory. Vary all parameters, including resistance, capacitance, and even the inductance of the coil by using the included iron core.

Specifications Two differential channels 1 MHz max sample rate ± 10 V max input Three gain settings Overvoltage protection

Order Information:

Graph shows driving voltage and voltage drop across the resistor.

1 MHz 2-channel Voltage Sensor. ....................................PS-2190 Required for this experiment: Xplorer GLX.................................................................................................PS-2002 p. Shown in use with: GLX Power Amplifier. ......................................................................PS-2006 p. RLC Circuit.....................................................................................................CI-6512 p. Short Patch Cords.................................................................................SE-7123 p.

10 14 254 261

15


Xplorer GLX – Spectrometer Systems

Display Full-scan Spectrum with Ocean Optics Red Tide Spectrometer Emission Spectrometer System for Xplorer GLX PS-2635 A Uses Ocean Optics Red Tide Spectrometer A Full-scan spectroscopy without a computer! The Xplorer GLX controls the Ocean Optics Red Tide Spectrometer which detects the spectrum using a 2048 pixel CCD linear array. The Xplorer GLX does a full sweep in less than one second.

Light from a Hydrogen tube is sampled using the fiber optics cable connected to the Ocean Optics Spectrometer. The Spectrometer is plugged into the USB port on the Xplorer GLX. (Light Source sold separately.

Specifications Range: VIS-NIR, 350-1000 nm Optical Resolution: 2 nm

Includes: Ocean Optics Red Tide Spectrometer Fiber Optics Cable USB Cable License key for Ocean Optics GLX feature set

Light from a Hydrogen tube is sampled using the fiber optics cable connected to the Ocean Optics Spectrometer. The Spectrometer is plugged into the USB port on the Xplorer GLX.

Order Information: Emission Spectrometer System for Xplorer GLX.............................................................................................................. PS-2635 Required: Xplorer GLX........................................................................................................................ PS-2002 Shown in use with:: Spectral Tube Power Supply.......................................................................... SE-9460 Hydrogen Tube................................................................................................................. SE-9461

Absorption Spectrometer System for Xplorer GLX Spectrometer PS-2642

Graph shows two absorption bands due to the two colors of food dye added to the water in the cuvette.

Light Source

Investigate full scan absorption data real-time with the Spectrometer System’s integrated light source and cuvette holder. You can also choose single wavelengths for Beers Law studies or scan a single wavelength versus time for kinetic studies. Optional Fiber Cuvette Optics Cable (SE-7194) can be used with the PS-2642 System to perform all experiments shown with the (PS-2635) Emission Spectrometer System.

Specifications Range: VIS-NIR, 370-980 nm Optical Resolution: 2 nm Order Information:

Includes Ocean Optics Red Tide Spectrometer Light Source and Cuvette holder, 10 Plastic Cuvettes USB Cable License key for Xplorer GLX Spectrometer

16

Absorption Spectrometer System for Xplorer GLX. ..............................................................................PS-2642 Required: Xplorer GLX..................................................................................................................PS-2002 Recommended: Fiber Optics Cable.................................................................................................SE-7194

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – GPS

Record Latitude and Longitude of Sensor Measurements GPS Position Sensor PS-2175 The GPS Position sensor utilizes satellite triangulation to determine the sensor’s position and velocity in outdoor environments. Obtain sensor data simultaneously linked to your latitude, longitude, altitude, and velocity.

Two Modes Absolute Position Mode: Pinpoints your location in the world and reports the latitude and longitude with a resolution of two meters. This data can be imported into My World GIS™ software to overlay sensor data on maps or aerial photos.

Car acceleration was measured with an Acceleration Sensor, and position and velocity were measured with the GPS Position sensor, then plotted on an aerial photo in My World software. The size of the plotted data point indicates the speed of the car, and the data is color coded to indicate the car’s centripetal acceleration.

Relative Position Mode: This mode enables a higher resolution (0.2 meters), suitable for experiments involving bicycles or people running or walking, in which the position in the world is not required.

Order Information: GPS Position Sensor............................................................................................... PS-2175 Recommended: 3-Axis Acceleration Altimeter....................................................................... PS-2136 My World GIS 5.0 Student License. ...................................................... SE-7363 (For volume licensing, see www.pasco.com/myworld/)

Like online mapping? You’ll love My World GIS! My World GIS™5.0

Link graphics, videos, or documents to features on maps. Click flag to open picture.

SE-7363 A PC and MAC compatible A Simple to use interface A Import and export industry standard data

Directly access and retrieve topographic maps and aerial photographs from TerraServer and other Web Map Servers.

A One disk installation A S  tudent projects are saved in one compressed data file – including project data and analysis A Activities and projects

Developed by the GEODE Initiative at Northwestern University

Quickly switch between all the available measurements using layer data menu.

Order Information: My World GIS 5.0 Student License....................................................... SE-7363 (For volume licensing, see www.pasco.com/myworld/) Required: GPS Position Sensor................................................................................................ PS-2175

800-772-8700

Track showing the change in temperature during descent into the American River Canyon. The temperature was recorded with the Xplorer GLX and the Weather Sensor, and position data with a GPS unit. This track was recorded late in the afternoon as cold air collected in the bottom of the canyon, creating a temperature inversion.

17


PASPORT – Xplorer and USB Link Interface

Xplorer: Interface and Datalogger

Power Button Recessed to avoid accidentally turning off the Xplorer.

PS-2000

Affordable, Portable Data Collection A Datalogger with 2-Line Display LCD Display Clearly displays measurement name, value and units.

Check Button Allows students to save changes to measurements, units or sampling rate.

Universal Sensor Port Compatible with all PASPORT Sensors. PASPORT MultiMeasure™ Sensors record multiple measurements through a single port.

Start/Stop Button Start and stop data collection “Sticky Start/Stop” option prevents accidental starts and stops of data runs.

Edit Buttons

1000 Hz Maximum Sampling Rate with PASPORT Sensors

Change measurements, units, or sampling rate.

Desktop or Field Use Xplorer functions as a computer-based interface when connected to a USB port. Collect data in the field without any computer setup, then easily download the data to a computer back in the lab.

Built to Last Polycarbonate case will withstand the rigors of student use. PASPORT Sensors can only be plugged in the correct orientation. Preventing damage to the sensor pins and interface.

Compatible with ScienceWorkshop Sensors Requires Analog or Digital Adapter. Order Information: Xplorer

USB Connection

Connects Xplorer to the computer for downloading data. Provides power to the Xplorer, so no external power cable is needed. Power Adapter (not included) is available separately below.

Menu Button

Long Battery Life

Cycles through the various menu options.

Two “AA” batteries (included) will provide several days of use in the field.

Power Adapter PS-2530 The Xplorer is powered through the USB cable when connected to the computer and its own batteries when out in the field. The Xplorer can also be powered from a wall outlet using the Xplorer Power Adapter, when not connected to the computer. Order Information:

...............................................................................................................................

PS-2000

Power Adapter............................................................................................ PS-2530

USB Link: Connects Sensors to a Computer PS-2100A A D  irectly Link One PASPORT Sensor to a USB Port A Use Multiple Links for More Sensors A 1  000 Hz Maximum Sampling Rate with PASPORT Sensors

USB Connection Connects USB Link to the computer for downloading data Provides power to the USB Link, so no external power cable is needed

Built to Last Polycarbonate case withstands rigors of student use. PASPORT Sensors can only be plugged in the correct orientation. Preventing damage to the sensor pins and interface.

Compatible with ScienceWorkshop Sensors Requires Analog or Digital Adapter.

18

Desktop Use Connects to the USB port of a computer.

Universal Sensor Port Compatible with all PASPORT Sensors PASPORT MultiMeasure Sensors record multiple measurements through a single port.

Order Information: USB Link

. .........................................................................................................

PS-2100A

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – PowerLink PASPORT Interfaces Work Together Use any combination of PASPORT Interfaces together. Simply plug interfaces into multiple USB ports or a USB hub.

PowerLink: Connect Three Sensors to a Computer PS-2001 A Ideal for Experiments Using Multiple Sensors A Three Sensor Ports in one USB Connection A 1000 Hz Maximum Sampling Rate with PASPORT Sensors Compatible with ScienceWorkshop Sensors Requires Analog or Digital Adapter

or

or

New to Probeware?

Desktop or Field Use PowerLink functions as a computerbased interface when connected to a USB port, and can also collect data in the field using a laptop computer

Sensor Extension Cable Power Adapter Built-in USB Hub

Long Battery Life

Three Universal Sensor Ports

PS-2794

Ideal for experiments using multiple sensors. Compatible with all PASPORT Sensors. PASPORT MultiMeasure Sensors record multiple measurements through a single port

All PASPORT sensors include DataStudio® Lite software, which allows for basic data collection and analysis. A full version of DataStudio can also be purchased to access the full suite of data collection and analysis tools (see pages 86-89).

USB Connection Connects PowerLink to the computer for data download

Includes:

Motion Lab

The Motion Lab is a great way to get started using probeware in your physics classroom or lab. The Motion Sensor is the most versatile and valuable sensor for physics, since it can be used for experiments throughout the entire mechanics curriculum.

Power Adapter Included

Two “C” batteries (not included) will provide several days of use in the field Order Information: PowerLink.................................................... PS-2001

PS-2009 A A A A

Two PASPORT sensor ports Built-in Temperature and Voltage Sensors with Probes Simple USB connectivity to computer Rugged Polycarbonate Case

The SPARKlink is a two-port computer interface with a USB-to-computer connection, providing you an easy way to use multiple sensors simultaneously. Plus, the built-in temperature and voltage sensors enable you to take measurements right out of the box with no additional sensors.

Includes: USB Link Motion Sensor DataStudio Lite Software Order Information:

Specifications

Motion Lab...................................... PS-2794

Power: Powered through the USB port

Order Information: SPARKlink.................................................. PS-2009

19


Xplorer GLX/SPARK SLS Comparison

Which is better for your purposes: Xplorer GLXŽ or SPARK™ SLS? Xplorer GLX

SPARK SLS

The Xplorer GLX is a powerful instrument used for datalogging in the field or as a computer interface. It can be used as a stand-alone hand-held computer which can collect data from sensors, analyze data, and print directly to select HP printers. The Xplorer GLX has a dual function generator for studying circuits and outputting sound. It also has a built-in sound sensor and an oscilloscope mode for displaying waveforms.

The SPARK SLS has a large color touch screen with a simple user interface. The SPARK SLS can display workbooks with step-by-step instructions: Workbook pages have live graphs, tables, and other data displays. Students do not have to leave the instruction pages to take data.

Xplorer GLX is ideal for Physics and Engineering classes. It is an excellent tool for student projects.

Features Compatible with PASPORT Sensors Works as an interface with a computer

The SPARK SLS can be used as a stand-alone device as well as an interface to the computer.

Xplorer GLX

SPARK SLS

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Desktop Software

DataStudio (Lite included); GLX emulator; GLX projector

SPARKvue, DataStudio

Desktop Platforms

Windows, MAC

Windows, Mac

Stand-alone Datalogger Prints directly without computer Graphical Display Resolution Display Size Display Color Mode

Yes

Yes

With select HP printers

With select HP printers

320 x 240

640 x 480

7.8 x 5.9 cm

11.6 x 8.8 cm

Greyscale

Color

Touch Screen

No

Yes

Keyboard

Yes

Touch

50 kHz* **

1 kHz*

Maximum Sample Rate Oscilloscope Mode

Yes

No

Built-in Function Generators

Two

None

External Power Amplifier Available

Yes

No

Number of PASPORT sensor ports

Four

Two

Voltage, Sound, Temperature(2)

Voltage, Temperature

Built-in Speaker for sound output

Included sensors

Yes

No

Voice Notes

Yes

No

Compatible with ScienceWorkshop sensors using Analog Adapter

Yes

Yes

Use photogates with Digital Adapter

Yes

Yes

Data Analysis Tools

Yes

Yes

External USB mouse/keyboard support

Yes

No

Displays pictures

No

Yes

Can run workbooks

No

Yes

0

61

12 MB

2 GB

Pre-loaded workbooks User Storage USB-to-USB file transfer between devices

Yes

Yes

Supports Ocean Optics Spectrometers

Yes

Spring 2011

Rechargeable Batteries

NiMH

Lithium Polymer

Battery Life (1 sensor @ 10 Hz, continuous use)

4-8 hrs

2.5-4.5 hrs

*Sensor dependent **1 MHz when using PS-2190 1MHz 2-channel Voltage Sensor

20

www.pasco.com


SPARK™ Science Learning System

More than just hardware and software, it’s an integrated science solution! SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008A A F  ull-color touch screen display with large screen. 5.7” (14.5 cm) diagonal display, 640 x 480 resolution.

USB Port

PASPORT Sensor Ports

Print or share data and images using a flash drive.

Two sensor ports provide connection to the PASPORT line of over 60 sensors.

A Temperature and voltage sensors included. Tactile Data Control:

A Two ports for additional PASPORT sensors.

Control Data Collection with dedicated buttons.

A M  ore than 60 SPARKlabs™ pre-loaded.

Large Display Full-color 5.7 “ (14.5 cm) display.

Touch-screen

Handles

Just use a finger, no stylus to lose!

Rubberized handles built into the body make the system rugged, easy to pick up, move around, and share with other students.

See Physics Manuals on page 102

Includes Temperature and Voltage Sensors The Spark Science Learning System combines powerful measurement with portable visualization. Make measurements wherever the science leads you. The core of the SPARK Science Learning System is the all-new touch screen user interface. For computer desktop software, see SPARKvue on page 22.

Make measurements right out of the box with no additional sensors.

Includes: Voltage sensor

Specifications

Temperature sensor

Weight: 21 oz. (595 grams) Hand Straps: 6.7” x 5.5” x 1.7” (17 cm x 14 cm x 4.5 cm) Resolution: 640 x 480 Power Supply: AC/Rechargeable battery

AC power supply Pre-installed experiment activities with teacher background material Order Information: SPARK Science Learning System. ....................................................PS-2008A

SPARK Charging Station PS-2570 A Charges up to 10 SPARK Science Learning Systems simultaneously with a single power source. Conveniently store and charge your SPARK Science Learning Systems with the SPARK Charging Station. Compact design takes very little counter space and offers storage drawers below for sensors and supplies.

Charge up to 10 SPARK Science Learning Systems.

Extra storage compartments.

Order Information: SPARK Charging Station..............................................................................PS-2570

21


SPARKvue/SPARKlink

vue™

Integrated Science Learning Environment

PS-2400 A Desktop software reflects the SPARK SLS operating system A Works with PASPORT sensors for real time analysis A Compatible with SPARK SLS and all PASPORT interfaces SPARKvue was designed to be a solution for science students of all levels -- simple enough for elementary-level learners but with the features to suit the needs of secondary school physics, chemistry, biology or environmental science students. The key is that SPARKvue has a layered interface which doesn’t overburden the user with tools, but reveals powerful capabilities when needed. And the bold, full-color interface allows you to use media-rich content to grab students’ attention and keep them engaged. You can create your own labs with any graphics or text that you wish, or use the set of over 60 included SPARKlabs we have created for every subject area.

Minimum System Requirements for SPARKvue Windows: XP or higher Processor: 300 MHz RAM: 128 MB Resolution: Super VGA (800 x 600) Disk Space: 100 MB available USB: At least one free port

Browse installed activities by subject

Instantly view live measurements

Features A Designed to enable simpler, smoother, and faster interactions between your students and the science you’re teaching. A Intuitive icon-based navigation keeps the focus on the learning, not the tool A Provides real-time, quantitative measurement and analysis with the PASPORT line of sensors. A Includes 61 complete SPARKlabs free. A Energize student reflection and discussion with built-in predictions, annotation tools, snapshot capability, and an electronic journal. A Display data in multiple simultaneous representations, including graphs, tables, digital displays, and analog meters. A Easily export data in a range of formats: text, gps formats A Create interactive SPARKlabs for use on your computer or on the SPARK Science Learning System. A Transfer files between the SPARK Science Learning System and SPARKvue via USB flash drive. A Enables multiple modes of discovery -- from guided inquiry to open-ended exploration.

SPARKlabs integrate data, text and images, plus capture student responses.

Use analysis tools to explore data

Quickly view large displays of data

Create custom pages visually

Order Information: SPARKvue Single User License .........................................................PS-2401 This license authorizes the installation on a single computer. SPARKvue Site License ..............................................................................PS-2400 This license authorizes the installation on all computers on a K-12 school campus or in a college/university department.

22

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – AirLink 2

SPARK Physics Sensor Starter Kit

PASPORT AirLink 2

PS-2923

PS-2010

Add this Starter Kit to conduct Physics experiments immediately with the pre-installed student labs on your SPARK SLS.

A W  ireless Data Collection A M  ake Any PASPORT Sensor Wireless The AirLink 2 allows any single PASPORT sensor to be connected via Bluetooth to a Bluetooth enabled device running DataStudio, SPARKvue or SPARKvue for iPhone. The AirLink 2 conforms to Bluetooth connection protocols and has a maximum range of 10m. Newly designed internal antenna decreases overall size of the unit and increases signal integrity.

SPARK Science Learning System sold separately. See below for list of parts included in kit.

This wireless solution allows data to be taken for experiments such as throwing a football or riding a rollercoaster. Data rates will vary depending on the sensor selected. With manual on/off switch, connectivity and low battery indicator and charge through USB connection this is a good wireless data acquisition solution for any classroom. Only one AirLink can be used at one time on a computer or iPhone.

Pre-installed Experiments: 1. Speed and Velocity 2. Acceleration 3. Newton’s 1st Law 4. Newton’s 2nd Law 5. Conservation of Energy 6. Ohm’s Law 7. Magnetism 8. Archimedes’ Principle 9. Voltage – Fruit Battery 10. Electromagnetic Induction

Specifications Includes: Motion Sensor Force Sensor Voltage/Current Sensor Magnetic Field Sensor

Case Dimensions 2.5cm x 4.0cm x 10.5cm Power: Rechargeable Li ion battery; Charge via USB Data Rate: Maximum 1,000 Hz, Sensor Dependent On/Off Switch Connectivity Indicator Maximum Transmission Distance: 10 m Order Information: PASPORT AirLink 2. .............................................................................................PS-2010

Order Information: SPARK Physics Sensor Starter Kit...................................................PS-2923 Required: SPARK Science Learning System (includes built-in Temperature and Voltage Sensors)........................................................................................PS-2008

SPARKvue for iPhone

Student experiments are pre-installed on the SPARK and supplemental teacher instructions, tips, questions and answers are included. Other labware may be required.

Bluetooth USB Adapter PS-2553 A For use with AirLink The Bluetooth USB Adapter allows any computer with USB connections to become a Bluetooth-Enabled computer, and communicate with other Bluetooth-Enabled computers and devices without cable connections. The Bluetooth USB adapter supports Bluetooth Class I, enabling a range of to 100 meters with other Class I devices, or up to 10 meters with Class 2 devices (e.g., PASPORT AirLink SI). The Bluetooth USB adapter works with Microsoft XP – SP2 and Mac OS X with no drivers required. Order Information:

Available from the Apple iPhone Apps store for free. This App turns your iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch into a data-logging device. Using either the iPhone’s built in accelerometers or a sensor connected via the AirLink 2 shown above, this App allows you to choose the display (digits, meter or graph) and, within limits of the sensor, the data rate. Download for free from the iPhone Apps Store.

Bluetooth USB Adapter.................................................................................PS-2553

23


PASPORT – Sensor Index

Sensor Index Sensor Description

Prod. #

Pg. #

Sensor Description

Prod. #

Pg. #

Analog Adapter

PS-2158

85

Load Cell & Amplifier Set

PS-2199

32

Barometer/Low Pressure

PS-2113A

63

Load Cell, 5N

PS-2201

33

Blood Pressure

PS-2207

53

Load Cell, 100N

PS-2200

33

PASPORT Sensor Extension Cable

Breath Rate

PS-2187

54

Magnetic Field

PS-2112

50

PS-2500

3-Axis Acceleration/Altimeter

PS-2136

35

Magnetic Field (2-axis)

PS-2162

50

3-Axis Acceleration

PS-2119

35

Motion

PS-2103A

25

Now you can conduct in-classroom experiments further away from a computer. Our PASPORT Extension Cable extends the distance a sensor can reach from a computer. The two-meter cable works with any PASPORT sensor. Two cables CANNOT be connected together. Order Information: PASPORT Sensor Extension Cable.................................................PS-2500

Sensor Handles (4 pack) CI-9874

These convenient handles screw into virtually any ScienceWorkshop or PASPORT sensor and can be used with any standard lab clamp.

The Sensor Handle is hollow and fits onto the shaft of the Rotary Motion Sensor. Order Information: Sensor Handles (4 pack).........................CI-9874

24

2-Axis Acceleration

PS-2118

34

Oxygen Gas

PS-2126A

60

Accelerometer - Visual

PS-2128

34

pH

PS-2102

56

pH/ORP/ISE

PS-2147

57

Carbon Dioxide Gas

PS-2110

60

Chemistry

PS-2170

57

Accessory Photogate

ME-9204B

37

Charge

PS-2132

49

Photogate Head

ME-9498A

37

Colorimeter

PS-2121

56

Pressure - Absolute

PS-2107

41

Conductivity

PS-2116A

56

Pressure - Dual

PS-2181

40

Current, High

PS-2193

49

Pressure - Quad

PS-2164

42

Current Probe NEW

PS-2184

48

Pressure - Relative

PS-2114

41

Digital Adapter

PS-2159

36

Pressure/Temperature

PS-2146

42

Displacement Sensor

PS-2204

33

Relay

CI-6462

36

Dissolved Oxygen

PS-2108

59

Respiration Rate

PS-2133

54

Rotary Motion

PS-2120

26

Drop Counter

PS-2117

58

Dual Load Cell Amplifier

PS-2205

33

Salinity Sensor

PS-2195

64

Dual Load Cell Amplifier Set

PS-2206

33

Soil Moisture Sensor

PS-2163

64

EKG

PS-2111

53

Sound Level

PS-2109

55

Ethanol

PS-2194

58

Spirometer

PS-2152

54

Exercise Heart Rate

PS-2129

52

Temperature

PS-2125

43

Flow Rate/Temperature

PS-2130

65

Temperature - Fast Response

PS-2135

44

Force

PS-2104

28

Temperature - Skin/Surface

PS-2131

44

Force, High Resolution

PS-2189

28

Temperature - Stainless Steel

PS-2153

44

Force Platform

PS-2141

31

Temperature - Quad

PS-2143

43

Temperature - Array

PS-2157

44

Force Platform (2-axis)

PS-2142

31

Galvanometer

PS-2160

48

Temperature - Non-contact

PS-2197

45

Geiger-Muller

SN-7927A

39

Temperature - Type K

PS-2134

45

General Science

PS-2168

55

Temperature - Type K 4-Port

PS-2127

45

Goniometer

PS-2137

51

Temp/Sound Level/Light

PS-2140

55

GPS Position

PS-2175

67

Thermocline

PS-2151

65

Hand Grip Heart Rate

PS-2186

52

Time-of-Flight Accessory

ME-6810

39

Human Arm Model

PS-2611

51

Turbidity

PS-2122

65

Humidity/Temp/Dew Point

PS-2124A

63

Humidity/Temp/Dew Point – Dual NEW

PS-2156

63

Infrared

PS-2148

47

Laser Switch

ME-9259A

37

Light

PS-2106A

46

Light, Broad Spectrum

PS-2150

47

Light/High Sensitivity

PS-2176

46

Light Level

PS-2177

46

UVA

PS-2149

47

Voltage/Current

PS-2115

48

Voltage-1MHz 2-channel

PS-2190

15

Water Quality

PS-2169

66

Water Quality Colorimeter

PS-2179

66

Weather

PS-2154A

62

Weather/Anemometer Sensor

PS-2174

62

Wind Velocity Accessory

ME-6812

62

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Motion Sensor

Motion PS-2103A

Motion Sensor Accessories Bracket

Elastic Bumper

Motion Sensor

ME-8998

PASCO’s Motion Sensor is used to measure position, velocity and acceleration. Ultrasonic pulse-ranging technology has a switch-selectable Standard Beam or Narrow Beam to reject false signals and produce cleaner data. The Motion Sensor sits firmly on a desktop or easily mounts to a rod stand or PASCO Dynamics Track.

The Elastic Bumper protects the Motion Sensor from the carts, but doesn’t interfere with the ultrasonic pulse.

Elastic Bumper

Typical Applications A Study conservation of energy and

Shown with PAStrack (see page 113)

momentum during collisions

A Monitor the sinusoidal motion of a

mass on a spring A Measure the motion of large objects, such as students

Specifications Minimum Range: 0.15 meters Maximum Range: 8 meters Resolution: 1 mm Transducer Rotation: 180° Cable Length: 1.8 meters

Order Information:

Includes Two pairs of brackets 10 meters of elastic material

Elastic Bumper...........................................ME-8998

Motion Sensor Guard SE-7256

Magnetic Motion Sensor Bracket PS-2546

Use this wire guard to protect the Motion Sensor when dropping objects from above.

This magnetic bracket allows a Motion Sensor to be easily hung from a drop ceiling. Simply screw the bracket into the 1/4”-20 threads on the sensor and use the included adjustment nut to hold the sensor in the desired orientation. The bracket can also be used to hold the Motion Sensor on vertical surfaces such as filing cabinets and magnetic whiteboards.

Order Information: Motion Sensor Guard.......................SE-7256

Coffee Filters (500 pack)

Order Information: Magnetic Motion Sensor Bracket...........................................PS-2546

Cart Adapter Accessory ME-6743

SE-7252

Students can compare impulse and change in momentum for a cart involved in elastic collision. Order Information: Motion Sensor........................................ PS-2103A Recommended: Motion Sensor Guard.................... SE-7256 Coffee Filters............................................. SE-7252 Magnetic Motion Sensor Bracket.............................................................. PS-2546 Cart Adapter Accessory............... ME-6743

These extra-large coffee filters are ideal for freefall and terminal velocity experiments with the Motion Sensor. Each filter has a 34 cm diameter with a height of 13 cm.

A Motion Sensor can be directly mounted to Dynamics Carts, PAScars or GOcars using the Cart Adapter Accessory. Mounting a Motion Sensor on a cart is ideal for the study of relative motion. The adjustment knob on the bracket allows the Motion Sensor to face any direction.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Coffee Filters (500 pack). ...............SE-7252

Cart Adapter Accessory...................ME-6743

25


PASPORT – Rotary Motion

Equipment used with a Rotary Motion Sensor

Rotary Motion PS-2120 Rod Stand Clamp

Three-step Pulley

Rod Clamp

ME-8997 A replacement kit for items commonly misplaced.

Clamp can also be mounted on the right or left side of the sensor.

Slot for Linear Motion Accessory

Rotary Motion Spares Kit

Thumb Screw

Three-step Pulley “O” Ring

Platform for Mounting PASCO Super Pulley

The Rotary Motion Sensor is the most versatile position and motion-measuring device available for the physics lab. It measures angles to a resolution of 0.09°. This sensor is also bi-directional, indicating the direction of motion. The maximum spin rate of the sensor is 30 revs/second. The 6.35 mm diameter, dual ball bearing shaft extends from both sides of the unit and provides an excellent platform for rotational experiments. The rod clamp (which can be attached on three sides of the sensor) allows the unit to be mounted in almost any orientation. A three-step pulley and a mount for the PASCO Super Pulley make it easy to perform torque experiments.

Includes: Three-step Pulley (2) Pulley Thumb Screw (4)

Pulley “O”- Ring (2) Rod Clamp (2)

Order Information: Rotary Motion Spares Kit...........................................................................ME-8997

Mini Rotational Accessory

Damped Pendulum CI-6689A

CI-6691 See page 195.

Specifications Three-step Pulley: 10 mm, 29 mm and 48 mm diameter Resolution: 0.09° Maximum Speeds: 30 revs/sec Optical Encoder: bidirectional, indicates direction of motion; 4000 divisions/rev Sensor Dimensions: 10 cm x 5 cm x 3.75 cm, 6.35 mm diameter shaft

Conservation of Angular Momentum

The angular speed of the disk decreases when the ring is dropped onto the disk.

Use the Mini Rotational Accessory to study rotational inertia, pendulum oscillations, and conservation of angular momentum.

Magnetically damped pendulum disk for studying exponential damping, driven harmonic motion, and chaos. See page 197.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Mini Rotational Accessory..........................................................CI-6691

Chaos/Driven Harmonic Accessory............................CI-6689A

Linear Motion Accessory

Centripetal Force

CI-6688

ME-9821

Measuring magnetic field from a coil.

See page 50. Includes rack and rod clamp.

The Force Sensor mounts onto the Rotary Motion Sensor to directly measure Centripetal Force. See page 193.

Order Information: Rotary Motion Sensor......................PS-2120 Recommended: Linear Motion Accessory..............CI-6688 Three-step Pulley....................................CI-6693

26

Order Information:

Order Information:

Linear Motion Accessory...................... CI-6688

Centripetal Force.....................................ME-9821

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Rotary Motion

Equipment used with a Rotary Motion Sensor Ballistic Pendulum Accessories

Spectrophotometer

Materials Stress/Strain Apparatus AP-8213

OS-8539

Ballistic Pendulum Accessory ME-9892 Mini Launcher Ballistic Pendulum Accessory ME-6829 See page 156. 60:1 gear ratio of rotating disk and pin gives the rotary motion sensor a higher resolution for spectrophotometry. See pages 328-329. Order Information: Educational Spectrophotometer System............................................................ OS-8539

Turn you PASCO Launcher into a Ballistic Pendulum using your Rotary Motion Sensor. Order Information: Ballistic Pendulum Accessory..........................................................ME-9892 Mini Launcher Ballistic Pendulum Accessory..........................ME-6829

Track String Adapter ME-6569

Plot Stress vs. Strain in real-time for several different materials. See pages 202-203. Order Information: Materials Stress/Strain Apparatus (PASPORT).......................AP-8213

Linear Translator

Computer-Based Thermal Expansion

OS-8535

TD-8579A

See page 314. The Rotary Motion Sensor’s built-in gear system accepts the geared rack to create a high-resolution linear translator for optics. Order Information: Linear Translator.......................................OS-8535

Polarization Analyzer OS-8533A

Rotary Motion Sensor measures the expansion of the tube. See page 227. Order Information:

Dynamics Track Mount

See page 311.

CI-6692 The drive belt allows the Rotary Motion Sensor to measure the rotation of the polarizer. Use a Rotary Motion Sensor to measure position of a cart on a Dynamics Track.

Order Information: Polarization Analyzer. ........................OS-8533A

Gyroscope ME-8960

See page 132. Order Information: Track String Adapter. ..........................ME-6569 Dynamics Track Mount.....................CI-6692

Use two Rotary Motion Sensors to measure both the nutation and precession of this demonstration gyroscope.

Computer-based Thermal Expansion...............................TD-8579A

Heat Engine TD-8572

Use a Rotary Motion Sensor with PASCO’s Heat Engine Apparatus to graph a real Heat Engine Cycle. See pages 240-241.

See pages 200-201. Order Information:

Order Information:

Gyroscope........................................................ME-8960

Heat Engine....................................................TD-8572

27


PASPORT – Force

Force

High Resolution Force

PS-2104

PS-2189

A B  inocular force beam minimizes side force measurements

A 0.002 N Resolution A Dynamic Over-sampling

The Force Sensor is ideal for the student lab. Finger holes are provided for hand-held use. It will mount directly to a PASCO Dynamics Cart or 1.2 cm rod.

Typical Applications A Measure force exerted by an oscillating mass A Measure force during elastic and inelastic collisions A Measure force of a swinging pendulum Specifications Range: ± 50 N Resolution: 0.03 N or 3.1 grams Zero (Tare) Function: push-button Max Sample Rate: 1000 Hz Force Overload Protection

Although this Force Sensor has the same case as the PS-2104, and can perform all of the same experiments, it has much better resolution and the dynamic variable over-sampling greatly reduces the measurement noise at low sample rates.

Specifications Range: ± 50 N Measurement Resolution: 0.002 N or 0.2 g Zero (Tare) Function: push-button Max Sample Rate: 1000 Hz Force Overload Protection The digital design of the PS-2189 results in very little drift, ensuring that the tare will hold for hours. You can use this force sensor as a pan balance for long term experiments, like investigating the evaporation of liquids such as alcohol or liquid nitrogen, and the sublimation of dry ice! The High Resolution Force Sensor has 10 times the resolution of the PS-2104, and can measure changes in force of less than 0.01 N.

This graph displays Newton’s 3rd Law during a “Tug of War” experiment. Order Information: Force Sensor........................................................................................................PS-2104 Recommended: p. 126 Force Accessory Bracket.......................................................................CI-6545 Rocket Engine Test Bracket.................................................................ME-6617 p. 30 p. 30 Force Sensor Balance Stand...........................................................CI-6460

Graph shows force data for the oscillation of a mass and spring system.

Force Sensor Spares Kit CI-6463

Order Information:

Includes:

High Resolution Force Sensor......................................................PS-2189 Shown in use with: Mass and Hanger Set .............................................................................ME-8979 p. 223 Spring Set................................................................................................................ME-8999 p. 116 Force Sensor Balance Stand...........................................................CI-6460 p. 30

Hook, rubber bumper and screw to attach to a cart. Order Information: Force Sensor Spares Kit. ......................................................................CI-6463

28

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop and PASPORT – Force Sensor Accessories

Force Sensor Accessories Force Accessory Bracket

Bumper Accessory Set

CI-6545

ME-9884

The Force Accessory Bracket with Bumpers mounts the CI-6746 Economy Force Sensor or CI-6537 Force Sensor directly to a dynamics track. Includes five collision attachments for the Force Sensor and conveniently stores each attachment on the bracket itself.

Note the bumper springs and various mounting options.

Using any of these attachments, the bracket serves as an excellent support or target for collision studies using the Force Sensor.

Force time data for a clay collision.

Includes: Spring Bumpers (2) (different spring constants)

Includes:

Magnetic Bumper (1)

Light Spring

Rubber Bumper (1)

Empty Cup (2)

Clay Cup for Inelastic Collisions (1) (clay included)

Modeling Clay

#0 Phillips Head Screwdriver (to attach to Force Sensor)

Order Information:

This set of bumpers can be used with any PASCO Force Sensor to perform both elastic and inelastic collisions. The standard hook for each Force Sensor can be easily removed and replaced with any of these bumpers. Use a spring and a cup for elastic collisions. Combine two cups with clay to explore inelastic collisions.

Stiff Spring

Order Information: Bumper Accessory Set.....................ME-9884

Force Accessory Bracket................CI-6545

Discover Collision Bracket

ME-8973

The Collision Bracket fastens to the T-slot of a dynamics track, securely holding the Force Sensor for measuring collisions with a Cart. Includes two different springs.

Includes: Bracket

ME-9885A

This set of magnetic bumpers can be used with any PASCO Force Sensor to perform elastic collisions without any contact. The bumpers screw directly into the beam of the sensor. They can also be used with the Force Accessory Bracket (CI-6545A).

Shown with PAStrack (see page 113)

Two Springs

Magnetic Bumper Set

The cart collides with the force sensor at the same initial speed for both of the springs. The area under the Force vs. time graph is the change in momentum (impulse) of the cart, and is the same for both collisions.

Includes: Magnetic Bumper (2)

Order Information:

Order Information:

Force Accessory Bracket...............................................................................ME-8973

Magnetic Bumper Set. .....................ME-9885A

29


ScienceWorkshop and PASPORT – Force Sensor Accessories

Rocket Engine Test Bracket

Force Sensor Balance Stand

ME-6617

CI-6460

With the Rocket Engine Test Bracket attached to a Force Sensor, students can measure and graphically display the impulse of Estes™ and other model rocket engines.

A Use any PASCO Force Sensor as a pan balance A Investigate buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle Connect any PASCO Force Sensor to this convenient stand and students have an electronic balance for a wide variety of physics experiments. Connect an Acceleration Sensor for studies of angle vs. normal force. The mounting screws and balance pan can be stored on the stand when not in use.

The Xplorer GLX is shown with the Rocket Engine Test Bracket attached to a Force Sensor. Students can measure and graphically display the impulse of Estes™ and other model rocket engines.

Test Bracket

Force Sensor CI-6537

As the cylinder is lowered into the water, the Apparent Weight measured by the top Force Sensor decreases, while the Buoyant Force measured by the bottom Force Sensor increases. The addition of the two (actual mg) stays constant.

Typical Applications

Includes:

A Pan Balance

Force Sensor Stand

A Measure Buoyant Force

Balance Pan

A Demonstrate the change in

normal force as the angle of support changes

Order Information:

Order Information:

Rocket Engine Test Bracket.......................................................................ME-6617

Force Sensor Balance Stand...................................................................CI-6460

Force Platform Handle Set PS-2548 Confirm Newton’s Third Law by pushing on a Force Platform using two sets of handles (available separately). Handles bolt onto the Force Platform (see page 31) and can be mounted on either side or both sides.

30

By standing on a 2-Axis Force Platform while pushing against the wall with a 1-Axis Force Platform, a reallife statics problem can be analyzed.

Includes: Set of sturdy metal handles (2)

Order Information: Force Platform Handle Set..............................................PS-2548

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Force Platform

Force Platform PS-2141

2-Axis Force Platform

A Large jumping and landing surface

PS-2142

A Rugged design

The 2-axis Force Platform has a second plate which rides on rollers on the base force platform to measure the force parallel to the platform. There are a total of five force beams: four corner beams to measure the normal force and a fifth beam to measure the parallel (sideways) force.

The sturdy glass-filled nylon platform is supported by four force beams which combine to measure the total force on the platform. The Force Platform has two loops on the side to hang it on a wall.

Typical Applications A Determine “hang time” by jumping up from the platform, then landing on it A Measure impulse and maximum force when jumping A Use two Force Platforms to investigate Newton’s 3rd Law as two students

Typical Applications

A Measure the normal force on a person riding in an elevator A Use a Motion Sensor and a bouncing ball to compare the impulse

A Measure the normal and parallel forces on a

A Measure the sideways force during a broad

push against each other

jump

wall as a ladder leans against the wall

and change in momentum as the ball collides with the platform

A Measure the normal and parallel forces as a person walks or runs across the platform

Specifications

A Pull an object across the platform and mea-

Range: - 1100 N to + 4400 N Platform Size: 35cm x 35cm Zero (tare) Function: Push Button Force Overload Protection Max Sample Rate: 1000 Hz (2000 Hz with the Xplorer GLX) Resolution: 0.1 N Mass: 4kg (without handles) Order Information: Force Platform........................................................................................................ PS-2141 Recommended: Handle Set................................................................................................................... PS-2548

sure the normal and frictional forces

Impulse data for a bouncing playground ball.

Measure support forces with a Force Platform Measure the support forces of a crane by connecting it to a Force Platform (PS-2141) using the special Force Platform Structures Bracket (ME-6988A). The Force Platform is supported by four individual load cells which combine to measure the total vertical force on the platform. These four readings can also be viewed separately, to measure the unequal forces on the crane supports.

The normal and parallel forces are recorded as the girl jumps off the platform.

Specifications Range: -1100 N to +4400 N (in normal direction) -1100 N to +1100 N (in parallel direction)

Force Platform (PS-2141)

ME-6988A Includes: Brackets (2) Screws (4)

Crane built using the Large Structures Set shown on page 176.

Platform Size: 35cm x 35cm Platform Mass: 6.4kg (without handles) Zero (tare) Function: Push Button Force Overload Protection Max Sample Rate: 1000 Hz (2000 Hz with the Xplorer GLX) Resolution: 0.1 N Developed in cooperation with Nancy Beverly, Assistant Professor of Physics at Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Force Platform Structures Bracket...................................................ME-6988A

2-Axis Force Platform.................... PS-2142 Recommended: Handle Set.................................................... PS-2548

Force Platform...............................................................PS-2141

31


PASPORT – Force

Load Cell & Amplifier Set PS-2199 A A A A

For use with PASCO’s Structures Systems (See pages 166-176) Insert Load Cells Into Structures by substituting beams Amplifier accepts up to six Load Cells Use more than six Load Cells by connecting multiple amplifiers to one computer

A load cell can be inserted into the design by replacing one beam with a load cell connected to two shorter beams. There is no need to completely disassemble the structure to add instrumentation. The Load Cell Amplifier connects to a USB port through a PASCO PASPORT interface: The USB Link accepts one Amplifier per USB port; the PowerLink accepts up to three Amplifiers per USB port; and the Xplorer GLX™ (which is also a datalogger) accepts up to four Amplifiers per USB port. PS-2199 includes four 100 N Load Cells and additional load cells can be purchased separately. The PS-2200 Load Cell measures forces ranging from -100 N to 100 N and is wired with a male 6-pin mini-DIN connector for plugging into the PS-2198 Load Cell Amplifier. The load cells have a semi-transparent case so students can see the load cell design.

2 1/4”

The Load Cell Amplifier accepts up to six load cells and connects to a computer through a PASPORT interface. I-beams key into the load cell and are fastened with thumb screws

Shown in use with Structures Systems Truss Set (ME-6990). See page 168.

DataStudio® software is used to display the forces measured using the four load cells shown above. The top two numbers are the left and right diagonals and the bottom two numbers are the left and right horizontal forces.

For more information on PASCO’s Structures Systems, see pages 166-176. Order Information:

Includes: Load Cell Amplifier 100 N Load Cell (4)

32

Load Cell & Amplifier Set* (includes four 100N load cells) ..................................................................... PS-2199 Load Cell Amplifier* (alone) ............................................................................ PS-2198 Required: PASPORT Interface to USB Computer, such as USB Link...................................................................................................................................... PS-2100A PowerLink.................................................................................................................................. PS-2001 Xplorer GLX............................................................................................................................ PS-2002 Recommended: Additional 100 N Load Cell*.............................................................................. PS-2200 5 N Load Cell*...................................................................................................................... PS-2201 *Patents pending

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Force/Displacement

Two ranges of Load Cells: Load cells are available in two different ranges: ±100 N and ± 5 N. These load cells are designed to be inserted into structures without changing the length of the member. A load cell attached to two shorter beams is equal in length to a longer beam. Both types of load cells can be used with the same amplifier in any combination. The semi-transparent case lets students see the strain gauge and beam inside.

Load Cell 100N

Load Cell 5N

PS-2200

PS-2201

Specifications

Specifications

Range: -100 N to +100 N Accuracy: ±1% (± 1 N) Resolution: 0.02 N

Range: -5 N to +5 N Accuracy: ±1% (±0.05 N) Resolution: 0.001 N

Safe Overload: -150 N to +150 N

Safe Overload: -7.5 N to +7.5 N

Order Information:

Order Information:

100 N Load Cell*................ PS-2200

5 N Load Cell*....................... PS-2201

Dual Load Cell Amplifier PS-2205

Load Cell 5N (PS-2201)

2 1/4”

Load Cell 100N (PS-2200) Mix 5N and 100N load cells on the same amplifier.

Measure bridge deflection with a Displacement Sensor Displacement Sensor PS-2204

This new Load Cell Amplifier is for applications where only one or two load cells are needed, such as measuring the force on the track at the top and bottom of a roller coaster loop. If you only want to examine the forces in a bridge one at a time, you can move a single load cell around in the bridge. The Amplifier accepts either the 100N load cell or the 5N load cell or a combination of both. The maximum data sample rate is 1000 Hz for each port. It is also an inexpensive way to add sensors to your structures. Later, if you want to expand the number of load cells you are using, you can add another Dual Load Cell Amplifier or a 6-port Load Cell Amplifier (PS-2198). All PASCO load cell amplifiers can work simultaneously on one computer. A PASCO PASPORT USB interface is required: Use a USBLink (PS-2100A) for just one Load Cell Amplifier or use an Xplorer GLX (PS-2002) or PowerLink (PS-2001) for multiple Load Cell Amplifiers.

The PS-2204 Displacement Sensor measures the travel of a spring-loaded indicator pressed against a bridge as the bridge is loaded. It consists of a PASPORT sensor which plugs into the included Digital Indicator, a digital travel indicator which has its own digital LED readout and can be used as a stand-alone device. When the PASPORT sensor is plugged into a PASPORT interface, the reading can be recorded. See pages 171-172 for more uses.

Specifications Maximum Travel: 10 mm N to +100 N Maximum Sample Rate: 5 Hz Resolution: 0.013 mm (0.0005 in)

Order Information: Dual Load Cell Amplifier*..................................................................PS-2205 Required for Use: PASPORT Interface......................................................................................p. 8-9 Load Cell 100N.................................................................................................PS-2200 Load Cell 5N........................................................................................................PS-2201 Also available at a discount: Load Cell and Dual Amplifier Set*............... PS-2206

Set Includes: Dual Load Cell Amplifier (PS-2205) Load Cell 100N (PS-2200) Required for use: PASPORT Interface (p. 8-9)

PS-2204 Includes: Sensor Bracket Dial Gauge

Order Information: Displacement Sensor................................................................ PS-2204 Shown in use with: p. 223 Hooked Mass Set............................................................................ SE-8759 p. 212 Small “A” Base. .................................................................................. ME-8976 p. 212 60 cm long Steel Rod (threaded)................................ ME-8977 Required for use: PASPORT Interface (p. 8-9)

33


PASPORT – Acceleration

Visual Accelerometer

2-Axis Acceleration

PS-2128

PS-2118

A L  EDs indicate direction and magnitude of acceleration

A S  imultaneously measure x and y acceleration through one port

A 1-Axis Acceleration Sensor The Visual Accelerometer provides acceleration data and visual clues that allow students to better understand the concept of acceleration. The sensor features 10 high output, wide-angle LEDs that indicate the magnitude and direction of acceleration. The case of the sensor fits directly into a dynamics cart, and features ties for pendulum motion and a pass-through so the sensor can be thrown vertically along a rope. The Visual Accelerometer features three fixed ranges, an auto-scale and a peak-hold option. The peak-hold mode stores the maximum acceleration experienced by the sensor after a countdown appears on the LEDs. The zero button on the sensor negates the effect of changing the orientation of the sensor. The Visual Accelerometer can also be used in stand-alone mode. While away from the computer, the LEDs give students a meaningful, visual measurement of acceleration.

Typical Applications A Real-time measurement of acceleration during simple harmonic motion A Measure acceleration due to gravity A Measure acceleration of a cart on an inclined plane A Discover the acceleration of an elevator See page 128 for more applications.

Ranges: ±1.0 m/s2, ±5.0 m/s2, ±20 m/s2 Accuracy: 0.2 m/s2 Resolution: 0.01 m/s2 Max Sample Rate: 100 Hz Includes sensor extension cable Requires three AA batteries (included)

of Newton’s Laws

Order Information: Visual Accelerometer.........................PS-2128

Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit PS-2516 A Pendulum Mount A Rod Stand Mount

Typical Applications A Attach to a dynamics cart for the study A Investigate centripetal acceleration on a

For freefall studies, the bottom of the Visual Accelerometer has a channel that accepts a cord or small rope.

Specifications

High sensitivity for small accelerations and fast response for collisions — only PASCO offers students both capabilities with just one push of a button. PASCO Accelerometers offer a wider range, making them perfect for use with a greater variety of acceleration experiments in or out of the classroom. Students no longer have to use multiple acceleration sensors or worry about separate sensor orientation. PASCO sensors are permanently mounted in the correct orientation.

rotating platform (see page 188)

A Acceleration of the hand while tossing a ball

Specifications and Special Features Acceleration for each axis: ±10g with 0.01 g resolution Response rate button allows smoother data at lower data rate Max Sample Rate: 100 Hz The sensor includes Dynamics Cart mounting bracket and sensor extension cable

The four string pendulum plate from the Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit keeps the unit level as it oscillates, showing its horizontal acceleration.

The Accessory Kit allows the Visual Accelerometer to be mounted in various ways, including as a pendulum. It can also be attached to PASCO’s Rotating Platform (ME-8951) for studies in rotation.

Includes Four String Pendulum Plate Plastic Rod Clamps (2) M-5, 4 cm long mounting thumbscrews (2) 1/4-20, 5 cm long thumbscrews with nuts (4) The Visual Accelerometer can be mounted to a rod stand using the Accessory Kit, for measurements inside a moving reference such as a car or an elevator. Shown here with the Xplorer GLX (PS-2002).

34

Roll of thread Order Information: Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit................................................PS-2516

The cart acceleration parallel to the track is measured as the cart is pushed up the incline and allowed to go up and back down the track. Order Information: Acceleration Sensor (2-Axis). ................................................................PS-2118

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Acceleration

3-Axis Acceleration

3-Axis Acceleration Altimeter

PS-2119

PS-2136

A 100 Hz Sample Rate

A 0.01 g Resolution

A S  imultaneously measure x, y and z acceleration through one port

A 30 cm Altitude Resolution

High sensitivity for small accelerations and fast response for collisions — only PASCO offers students both capabilities with just one push of a button. PASCO Accelerometers offer a wider range, making them perfect for use with a greater variety of acceleration experiments in or out of the classroom. Students no longer have to use multiple acceleration sensors or worry about separate sensor orientation. PASCO sensors are permanently mounted in the correct orientation.

Typical Applications A Attach to a dynamics cart for the study of Newton’s Laws A Investigate centripetal acceleration on a rotating platform A Acceleration of the hand while tossing a ball Specifications and Special Features

PASCO’s 3-Axis Acceleration Altimeter allows students to measure acceleration in all three dimensions along with changes in altitude. Students can easily read changes in altitude with 0.30 m resolution. In addition, all three dimensions of acceleration are automatically combined by the sensor, making resultant acceleration an available measurement. Acceleration and altitude can be displayed on the same DataStudio graph, leading students to a better understanding of the physics of rides and other outdoor activities. The Outdoor Physics Xplorer Bundle is also available and includes the 3-Axis Acceleration Altimeter, Xplorer Vest and Xplorer datalogger.

Typical Applications A Roller Coaster Amusement Park Physics A Hiking, mountain biking, skiing A Starting, stopping, turning of an automobile

Acceleration for each axis: ±10g with 0.01 g resolution

Specifications and Special Features

Response rate button allows smoother data at lower data rate Max Sample Rate: 100 Hz

Acceleration for each axis and resultant: ±10g with 0.01 g resolution

The sensor includes Dynamics Cart mounting bracket and sensor extension cable

Altitude: Any place on Earth to 7 km above sea level with 30 cm resolution Accelerations can be measured in g or m/s/s.

During a bench press, the weight lifter accelerates and then decelerates the weights. The acceleration is zero at the top of the lift where the weights are held at rest. This graph shows the resultant acceleration calculated from all three axes, so the orientation of the sensor does not affect the measurement. The acceleration due to gravity has been subtracted out.

Maximum sampling rate of 20 Hz will allow approximately nine minutes of ride data to be stored in the Xplorer

Xplorer Vest secures the Xplorer or Xplorer GLX and sensor during aggressive activities Five simultaneous measurements: acceleration in x, y and z axes, resultant acceleration and altitude (in meters).

Acceleration and altitude data from a roller coaster. Order Information:

Order Information: 3-Axis Acceleration..............................................................................................PS-2119

3-Axis Acceleration/Altimeter...............................................................PS-2136 Recommended: Xplorer Datalogger..............................................................................................PS-2000 Xplorer Vest...................................................................................................................PS-2517

35


PASPORT – Digital Adapter

Digital Adapter

Relay

PS-2159

CI-6462

A Required for counting and timing sensors A Allows Digital ScienceWorkshop Sensors to be used with PASPORT Interfaces The Digital Adapter is required when photogates, timing and counting sensors are used with any PASPORT interface*. Each Digital Adapter accommodates two sensors at once. Each port on the Digital Adapter automatically “senses” a connection and initiates a selection of pre-configured or user-defined options. Several Digital Adapters can be used simultaneously when required. See next page for a list of counting/timing sensors which require a Digital Adapter. DataStudio 1.9.5 or later is required to use the Digital Adapter. *Xplorer must be connected to a computer to measure calibrated values.

Specifications and Special Features

A S  ingle-Pole Double-Throw Switch A Activated by DataStudio or Xplorer GLX A For Sense and Control Projects This relay is a single-pole double-throw switch that is controlled by DataStudio or an Xplorer GLX. It acts as a switch to turn equipment on or off in sense and control experiments. Some applications include: Turning off a fan cart when it reaches a certain speed, turning on a lamp when the chicken’s cage gets too cold, or turning on a motor when a condition is met. The relay plugs into a PASPORT interface with a Digital Adapter using a ¼” stereo phone plug. The device to be controlled is connected to two of three banana jacks on the front of the relay: One jack is the common, one jack is for a normally open connection, and the third jack is for a normally closed connection. There is a push-button for manually activating the relay to test your connection. An LED indicates when the relay is activated.

2 µs resolution for counting and timing 1 µs resolution for motion sensing Two 1/4” stereo phone jacks

The Xplorer GLX controls the Relay to turn a light on when the temperature sensor above the bulb reads less than 25 °C. Shown in use with EM-8678 Charge/Discharge Circuit.

The Digital Adapter and an Xplorer are used here with the Photogate and Tape Set to investigate the throwing of a tennis ball.

The above calculation means the relay which is plugged into the first jack on the Digital Adapter that is plugged into Port #1 on the GLX will be activated when the condition of temperature less than 25 °C has been met.

The calculator on the GLX is used to define the conditions which activate the Relay.

Specifications 30V, 5A maximum Order Information: Digital Adapter.................................................................... PS-2159 Also shown: Xplorer........................................................................................... PS-2000 p. 18 Photogate Head.................................................................. ME-9498A p. 37 Photogate Tape Set. ....................................................... ME-6664 p. 38

36

1.7 m long cord 10 cm x 7 cm x 3 cm Order Information: Relay.......................................................................................................................................CI-6462 Required: Digital Adapter...........................................................................................................PS-2159

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop and PASPORT – Photogates and Switches

Photogate Head

Photogate/Pulley System

ME-9498A

ME-6838A

Specifications

Photogate Head

Photogate Width: 7.5 cm Fall Time: < 50 ns Spatial Resolution: < 1 mm Timing Resolution: 0.1 millisecond Connector: Stereo phone plug

Super Pulley with Rod

Includes:

Order Information: Photogate Head.......................................................................................................ME-9498A Recommended: Photogate Stand. ....................................................................................................ME-9805

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Specifications Pulley: Rotational inertia: 1.8 x 10-6 kg m2 Coefficient of friction: < 7 x 10-3 Diameter: 5 cm, Mass: 5.5 g Photogate: Width: 7.5 cm, Fall time: < 50 ns Spatial resolution: < 1 mm Timing Resolution: 0.1 millisecond Connector: Stereo phone plug Order Information: Photogate/Pulley System...........................................................................ME-6838A

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Accessory Photogate ME-9204B Includes both a Photogate Head and a Photogate Stand for flexible experiment design. The Photogate Stand is also sold separately.

Order Information: Accessory Photogate........................................................................................ME-9204B Photogate Stand.....................................................................................................ME-9805 Required: Digital Adapter...........................................................................................................PS-2159 p. 85

Photogate Pendulum Set ME-8752 The Photogate Pendulum Set is a unique set of pendula that have exactly the same shape and size, but different masses. These pendula are ideal for use with photogates due to their cylindrical shape. One pendulum each of brass, plastic, wood and aluminum is included. See page 185 for more information. Order Information: Photogate Pendulum Set............................................................................ME-8752

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Laser Switch ME-9259A

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Photogate Brackets ME-9806

This Laser Switch acts as a large photogate so you can time objects too large to pass through a standard Photogate. Use the Red Laser Pointer below or other laser as your light source.

Laser

Laser Switch

Rod and Clamp

A Attaches photogates to PASCO dynamics tracks A Easily adjust photogate height

The Photogate Bracket allows the Photogate Head to be attached (Photogate not included.) directly to PASCO dynamics tracks. This eliminates the need for separate photogate stands and allows the photogate height to be easily adjusted relative to the track. Includes two Photogate Brackets. Order Information: Photogate Brackets (2). ..................................................................................ME- 9806

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Order Information: Laser Switch. ...............................................................................................................ME-9259A Required: Laser such as X-Y Adjustable Diode Laser....................................................................................................................OS-8526A

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Timer Switch ME-9819 This push-button switch has a 1.7 m cable ending in a “Y” with two stereo phone plugs. When the button is pressed, the Timer Switch sends a start signal to both devices to which it is connected. Order Information: Timer Switch...............................................................................................................ME-9819

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

37


Mechanics – Photogates and Fences

Photogates and Fences

Large Picket Fence

ME-9471A

ME-9377A

When used with the computer for data recording, display and analysis, the photogate/pulley timing system can provide a wide range of time, speed and velocity measurements. The photogates mount to the dynamics track using the provided brackets. The “picket fences” provided mount directly to the dynamics carts.

Conduct free fall experiments by dropping this Picket Fence through the PASCO Photogate. The distance from the leading edge of each black bar to the leading edge of the next black bar is 5.0 cm. The Picket Fence has eight black bars and is 40 cm long. Order Information: Large Picket Fence..................................................... ME-9377A

Photogate Tape Set ME-6664 Position and velocity graphs are obtained using a Picket Fence and Photogate.

Flexible Mylar picket fence tape can be cut to needed length. Tape guide slides onto the arm of PASCO photogates to more accurately measure the motion of a cart.

Photogate tape can be used as a picket fence “string” to continuously measure the acceleration of the cart.

Order Information: Photogates and Fences..........................................................................ME-9471A Includes: Photogate Head................................................................................................ME-9498A p. 37 Photogate Brackets (2)............................................................................ME-9806 p. 37 Cart Picket Fences (2)................................................................................ME-9804 Super Pulley with Screw......................................................................ME-9450A p. 164

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Cart Picket Fences (set of 2) ME-9804 Order Information: Cart Picket Fences (set of 2)............................................................ME-9804

Smart Timer Picket Fences (set of 2) ME-8933

See Smart Timer on pages 146-147.

Order Information: Smart Timer Picket Fences (set of 2)....................................ME-8933

38

Slide the included bracket onto the arm of a PASCO photogate (ME-9498A or ME-9204B) and slide the photogate tape through the slot to measure position, velocity, and acceleration. The band spacing on the tape is 5 cm from edge to edge, which is identical to the Large Picket Fence (ME-9377A). The High Resolution Photogate Tape, available separately, has a distance of 1 cm between edges for more data points during high velocity or acceleration phenomena. Two Tape Guides included Includes: Photogate Tape (30 m) Photogate Tape Guide (2) Double-Adhesive Tape (not shown) Velcro Strips (not shown) Order Information: Photogate Tape Set......................................................................................ME-6664 High Resolution Photogate Tape................................................ME-6666 Required: Photogate Head................................................................................................ME-9498A p. 37 or Accessory Photogate.........................................................................ME-9204B p. 37

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – Digital Sensors

Photogate Mounting Bracket

Time-of-Flight Accessory

ME-6821A

ME-6810 The Time-of-Flight Accessory is designed primarily for freefall or projectile experiments. When an object hits the plate, a signal is sent to the interface. Note: When used with the projectile launcher, a photogate is used to start the timer and the 20’ extension cable is recommended.

Typical Applications A Find Time-of-Flight for a ball shot from a Projectile Launcher A Conduct freefall experiments

Photogate

WE SA AR GL FE WH AS TY EN SE IN S – US

E.

ME

-68

00

DODO CA WN NO UT T ION

BA LO ! PR RR OK EL! O JE SH CT OR IL T RA E LA NG UNE CH ER

Mount one or two photogates on any Projectile Launcher. Compatible with ME-9498A and ME-9204B Photogate Heads. Order Information: Photogate Mounting Bracket........................... ME-6821A Shown in use with: Photogate Head.................................................................. ME-9498A Accessory Photogate. ................................................. ME-9204B

p. 37 p. 37

Phone Jack Extender Cable PI-8117 This 6 meter phone jack-to-phone jack extension cord can be used with any Photogate/Timing accessory.

Time t = 1.39 s

Time of Flight Pad

Order Information: Time-of-Flight Accessory.............................................................................ME-6810

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Order Information:

Freefall Adapter

Phone Jack Extender Cord (20’ cable)........................................PI-8117

ME-9207B

G-M Tube/Power Supply SN-7927A A Ideal general purpose nuclear sensor The G-M Tube/Power Supply senses alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Power for the tube is supplied through the connection to an interface that supplies an operating voltage of +5 V.

Specifications Sensitivity: Beta, Gamma, Alpha Count Detection: Audio signal Window Thickness: 1.5 to 2 mg/cm2, mica Gas Filling: Neon, Argon and Halogen Starting/Operating Voltage for tube: 450 VDC/500 VDC Dead Time: 90 µs

When the steel ball is dropped from the release mechanism, the computer automatically starts timing. When the ball hits the receptor pad, timing stops. Timer measurements of “g” are accurate and repeatable.

Order Information:

Order Information:

G-M Tube/Power Supply...............................................................................SN-7927A

Freefall Adapter. .......................................................................................................ME-9207B

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

39


PASPORT – Pressure

Pressure (Dual)

Diffusion/Osmosis Apparatus

PS-2181

ME-6940

The Dual Pressure sensor is capable of reading two absolute pressures, one gauge pressure, or one differential pressure. Dynamic variable over-sampling automatically reduces the measurement noise at low sampling rates. Sample rates up to 1000 Hz make studies of both transient and steady-state pressure possible. Includes quick-connect tubing.

Typical Application A Measure pressure in Heat Engine (TD-8572) See pages 379-380

Patent Pending

Diffusion/Osmosis Apparatus shown in use with Dual Pressure Sensor PS-2181.

for complete experiments.

Specifications Absolute Pressure: 0 to 200 kPa, 0.01 kPa resolution at 10 Hz and 1 kPa repeatability (Displays pressure in kPa, N/m2, and psi) Differential Pressure: ±100 kPa, 0.01 kPa resolution at 10 Hz and 1 kPa repeatability (Displays pressure in kPa, N/m2, and psi) Maximum Sample Rate: 1000 Hz

The piston oscillations are started by plucking it by hand and the gauge pressure is measured by the Dual Pressure Sensor.

Open any biology textbook to the osmosis section and you will find the image of a U-shaped tube composed of two clear columns separated by a semi-permeable membrane. This classic figure is the most commonly used model to visualize the osmotic movement of water due to a concentration gradient. PASCO’s Diffusion/Osmosis Apparatus is a U-shaped apparatus consisting of two cylinders separated by a semi-permeable membrane. The transparent, graduated cylinders allow students to observe and measure volume changes due to osmosis. In conjunction with PASCO’s Dual Pressure Sensor, the apparatus allows students to measure the changes in pressure and volume caused by the osmotic movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane.

In this experiment, cylinder #1 was filled with 40 of 1.0 M sucrose solution. Cylinder #2 was filled with 40 mL of distilled water. The two cylinders were separated by a semi-permeable membrane and the pressure within the cylinders was monitored using the Dual Pressure Sensor.

Graph shows resulting gauge pressure.

Order Information: Diffusion/Osmosis Apparatus (includes 20 membranes)............................................................................ME-6940

Order Information: Dual Pressure Sensor................................................................................. PS-2181

40

Diffusion/Osmosis Kit (includes Diffusion/Osmosis Apparatus and Dual Pressure Sensor) ...................................................................................ME-6942 Replacement Membranes (20 membranes)........................ME-6941 Dual Pressure Sensor

.....................................................................................

PS-2181

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Pressure

Pressure (Absolute)

Pressure (Relative)

PS-2107

PS-2114

The Absolute Pressure Sensor measures the gas pressure in a container or the surroundings. Includes a 20cc syringe and quick connect tubing for investigating the Gas Laws. The sensor’s wide range make it an excellent general purpose pressure device.

Typical Applications A Measure chemical reaction rates A Verify Gas Laws (Ideal, Charles’, Boyle’s) A Study Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature Specifications Range: 0 – 700 kPa Accuracy: ±2 kPa Resolution: 0.01 kPa Maximum Sample Rate: 200 Hz Repeatability: 1 kPa

The Relative Pressure Sensor measures gas pressure compared to atmospheric pressure, which is commonly known as gauge pressure. Includes quick connect tubing for a variety of pressure activities. The limited pressure range of the sensor provides excellent accuracy and resolution for measuring small pressure changes.

Typical Applications A Heat Engine Cycles A Measure pressure changes in a Venturi Tube A Conduct air foil studies Specifications Range: 0 – 10 kPa Accuracy: ±0.1 kPa Maximum Sample Rate: 20 Hz Resolution: 0.001 kPa Repeatability: 0.01 kPa

Water Reservoir (ME-8594) is sold separately on page 221.

Pressure is measured for various water column heights.

Water pressure (relative) versus depth

The Absolute Pressure Sensor is used in a Boyle’s Law experiment in which a syringe is compressed.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Absolute Pressure Sensor.................................................................... PS-2107

Relative Pressure Sensor............................................................... PS-2114

41


PASPORT – Pressure

Quad Pressure

Absolute Pressure/Temperature

PS-2164

PS-2146

The 4-port Quad Pressure sensor is capable of reading up to four absolute pressures, or two gauge pressures, or two differential pressures. Dynamic variable over-sampling automatically reduces the measurement noise at low sampling rates. Sample rates up to 1000 Hz make studies of both transient and steady-state pressure possible. Includes quick-connect tubing.

This combination sensor is specifically designed for use in studying gas laws. The included thermistor temperature probe has both a fast response and very low thermal mass.

Typical Application A Study pressure through a fluid circuit Specifications Absolute Pressure: 0 to 200 kPa, 0.01 kPa resolution at 10 Hz and 1 kPa repeatability (Displays pressure in kPa, N/m2, and psi) Differential Pressure: ±100 kPa, 0.01 kPa resolution at 10 Hz and 1 kPa repeatability (Displays pressure in kPa, N/m2, and psi) Maximum Sample Rate: 1000 Hz

Typical Applications A Extrapolate absolute zero A Explore Gas Laws (Ideal, Charles’, Boyle’s) Specifications Pressure: 0 to 700 kPa with ±2 kPa accuracy, 0.1 kPa resolution and 1 kPa repeatability (Displays pressure in kPa, N/m2, and psi) Maximum Sample Rate: 100 Hz Temperature with included Fast Response Probe: -10 to 70 °C with ±0.5 °C accuracy (Displays Temperature in °C, K and °F) Sensor Extension Cable: Included

Extrapolating Absolute Zero

Blue dye added to the water for clarity.

See page 44 for more probes for this sensor

Shown with the ME-8598 Venturi Apparatus. The pressure at various points in the Venturi tube decreases as the water flow is turned on. Pressure variability due to cross-sectional area and fluid friction are readily seen in the data. Order Information: Quad Pressure Sensor.............................................................................PS-2164 Recommended: Venturi Apparatus..........................................................................................ME-8598 p. 205

42

Measure pressure and temperature of air in the sphere. Order Information: Absolute Pressure/Temp Sensor.................................... PS-2146 Recommended: Absolute Zero Sphere................................................................... TD-8595 p. 236 Ideal Gas Law Syringe................................................................. TD-8596A p. 237

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Temperature

Temperature

Temperature, Quad

PS-2125

PS-2143

PASCO’s Stainless Steel Temperature Sensor offers fast response and superior range, resolution and accuracy. It reports temperature (in °C, °F, or K) whether it is immersed in liquids, held in the air or touching a solid surface. Teflon® covers, for use in harsh liquids or strong chemical solutions, are available as an accessory.

Connect up to four Temperature Probes for an experiment. Use with any combination of Stainless Steel, Fast Response or Skin/Surface Temperature probes for a wider variety of temperature measurements in the classroom or in the field. Sensor includes two Stainless Steel Temperature Probes (PS-2153) and one Fast Response Probe.

Typical Applications A Conduct general temperature experiments A Measure rapid temperature changes found in endothermic-exothermic reactions

A Conduct environmental studies Specifications Range: -35 °C to +135 °C Accuracy: ±0.5 °C Resolution: 0.0025 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 10 Hz

Typical Applications A Thermal heat flow (one or two dimension) A Comparative body temperatures A Side-by-side chemical reactions A Solar radiation A Properties of insulation

See page 44 for more probes for this sensor

Specifications Accuracy: -35 to +135 °C at ±0.5 °C Displays: °C, K and °F

Displays: °C, K and °F Repeatability: 0.1 °C Teflon® covers available as an accessory

Resolution: .0025 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 100 Hz Teflon® covers available as an accessory

See page 44 for more probes for this sensor

Four Fast Response Temperature Probes were used to study the temperature in a glass of water at four different levels as the water was cooled.

Graph showing the immediate temperature change when the PS-2125 Temperature Sensor is placed in a hot water bath and then plunged into a cold bath. Order Information:

Order Information:

Temperature Sensor...........................................................................................PS-2125 Recommended: Teflon Sensor Covers (10-pack). ..........................................................CI-6549

Quad Temperature Sensor..........................................................................PS-2143 Recommended: Teflon Sensor Covers (10-pack). ..........................................................CI-6549

43


PASPORT – Temperature

Temperature Array

Temperature Probes*

PS-2157

Skin/Surface Temperature* PS-2131

A Flat sensing element ideal for surfaces

A Quickly reaches equilibrium temperature with surface

Range: -10 to +70 °C

This array has eight 3.5 mm stereo jacks to plug in temperature probes. Only one PASPORT Channel is required to measure eight temperatures at once! Applications include measuring temperatures along the length of a metal rod as one end is heated or measuring surface temperature at eight different points on a body. The Temperature Array also has a “multiport” for plugging in a special cable (included) with eight color-coded thermistor sensors connected to a single 8-pin mini-DIN plug. The Temperature Array accepts PASPORT temperature probes: Stainless Steel, Fast Response and Skin/Surface.

Make a temperature profile of the human hand. Order Information: Skin/Surface Temperature Probe.......................................................PS-2131

Fast Response Temperature Probe* (3 pack) PS-2135 A Accurately

measures temperature changes in real time

A Ideal for small or Shown in use with: TD-8513 Heat Conduction Apparatus (see page 231) and PI-9877 DC Power Supply (see page 278).

hard-to-reach spaces

A Includes 10 Adhesive Patches

Adhesive patches hold the Temperature Probe in place.

Specifications Range: -35 °C to 135 °C* Accuracy: ±0.5 °C Resolution: 0.0025 °C Repeatability: 0.01 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 100 Hz per Temperature Sensor Displays: °C, K and °F * Sensor Dependent

Includes Temperature Array Cable Assembly Fast Response Temperature Probe (3) Adhesive Patches (10)

Range: -30 to +105 °C Order Information: Fast Response Temperature Probe (3 pack)................................... PS-2135 Recommended: Replacement Adhesive Patches (100 pack)..................................... PS-2525

Stainless Steel Temperature Probe* PS-2153 Range: -35 to +135 °C

Order Information:

Order Information:

Temperature Array....................................................................................................... PS-2157 Recommended: Stainless Steel Temperature Probe . ..................................................... PS-2153 Fast Response Temperature Probe. ........................................................ PS-2135 Skin/Surface Temperature Probe............................................................... PS-2131 Replacement Temperature Array Cable. ......................................... PS-2552 Replacement Adhesive Patches (100 Pack).................................. PS-2525

Stainless Steel Temperature Probe............................. PS-2153 Recommended: Teflon® Sensor Covers (10 Pack)................................... CI-6549

44

*All of the Probes above require one of the following temperature sensors: Temperature Sensor. .................................................................. PS-2125 p. 43 p. 43 Quad Temperature Sensor. ................................................. PS-2143 Temperature Array........................................................................ PS-2157

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Temperature

Temperature (Type K 4-Port)

Non-contact Temperature

PS-2127

PS-2197

The PS-2127 measures up to four temperatures using Type K thermocouple probes (two included). It utilizes dynamic variable oversampling to greatly reduce noise at lower sampling rates. Type K thermocouples are useful for measuring both low and high temperatures under rugged conditions. The two dissimilar metals that form the thermocouple (for Type K, the alloys chromel and alumel) generate a predictable voltage at a given temperature, thereby ensuring measurement accuracy. The low thermal mass of this sensor results in a fast response time. The long probe length permits measurements in hard-to-reach places.

A Non-contact A -70° C to 380° C

Typical Applications A Accurately measure surface temperatures: for example, across the surface of an iron

A Map the temperature of a candle flame A Measure temperatures down to -200 °C (liquid nitrogen)

The Non-contact Temperature Sensor measures surface temperature by detecting the emitted infrared light. Record the temperature of objects without touching them!

Typical Applications A Compare temperature of hands, skin, face and clothes A Measure the temperature of different outdoor ground surfaces A Map the temperature profile of an exterior wall Specifications Range: -70 °C to 380 °C Accuracy: ±0.5 °C Response Time: Less than 0.1s Maximum Sample Rate: 200 Hz Field of view: ±35°

Specifications Temperature Range: -200 °C to +1000 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 250 Hz Accuracy: ±3 ºC or 3%, whichever is greater Resolution: 0.01 °C Displays: °C, K and °F The Type K Temperature Sensor can be used to measure the temperature of a flame. Works with any industry standard Type K thermocouple.

Includes: 4-Port Sensor Type K Thermocouples (2) Order Information: Temperature (Type K 4-Port) Sensor.............................................PS-2127 Replacement Supply: Type K Thermocouple.......................................................................................PS-2155

Temperature (Type K) PS-2134 The PS-2134 is a single channel sensor that uses the same Type K thermocouple probe as the PS-2127 shown above. Includes one Type K Thermocouple.

The student measures the ground temperature (late morning) over four distinct surfaces: Starting in the shade under the distant tree, she then crosses bare dirt (in sun), a rock border, pavement and lawn.

Specifications Temperature Range: -200 °C to +1000 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 10 Hz Accuracy: ±3 ºC or 3%, whichever is greater Order Information: Temperature Type K Sensor....................................................................... PS-2134 Replacement Supply: Type K Thermocouple........................................................................................ PS-2155

Graph created in PASCO’s DataStudio® Software. Order Information: Non-contact Temperature Sensor....................................PS-2197 Shown in use with: Xplorer GLX.................................................................................................PS-2002 p. 10 DataStudio Software. ........................................................................................................... p. 86-89

45


PASPORT – Light Level, Light and High Sensitivity Light

Light Level

Light

High Sensitivity Light

PS-2177

PS-2106A

PS-2176

The Light Level Sensor measures illuminance in lux. The readings of this sensor mimic the wavelength sensitivity of the human eye, which is most sensitive in the green part of the spectrum. This is achieved with a green filter in the light sensor. Some typical readings are shown in the table: Condition

Illuminance (lux)

Sunlight

100,000

Full Daylight

10,000

Overcast Day

1,000

Very Dark Day

100

Twilight

10

Deep Twilight Full Moon

1 0.1

Quarter Moon

0.01

Starlight

0.001

Warehouses

150

Offices, Laboratories

500

Supermarkets

750

Normal Drawing Work, Operation Rooms

1,000

Detailed Drawing Work

1500-2000

The Light Sensor is ideal for indoor and outdoor relative light intensity experiments. Data is displayed in lux, a unit of illuminance, which is a measure of luminous flux per unit of area. The Light Sensor can be used in three different ranges depending on the intensity level of the light source.

Typical Applications A Compare light intensity vs. distance A Study interference/diffraction/polarization A Measure relative light intensities in daylight

A Monitor a solar eclipse Specifications Range: 0 to 2.6 lux (candle); 0 to 260 lux (bulb); 0 to 26,000 lux (sun) Accuracy: > ±1 db of max value of selected range Resolution: 1/10,000 of max value of selected range Maximum Sample Rate: 1000 Hz

The High Sensitivity Light Sensor is designed to perform visible light studies from low intensity spectral studies to daylight. Built-in automatic variable oversampling reduces noise.

Typical Applications A Spectrophotometry A Interference and Diffraction patterns A Measure light intensity vs. distance Specifications Sensing Element: Si PIN photodiode Spectral Response: 320 nm to 1100 nm Gain Levels: 10,000x, 100x, 1x, switch selectable Approximate Lux Ranges: 0 to 1, 0 to 100, 0 to 10,000 Maximum Sample Rate: 1000 Hz Resolution: ± 0.01 Lux at 1000 Hz on 0 to 100 scale ± 0.0005 Lux at 5 Hz on 0 to 100 scale

Specifications Maximum Sample Accuracy: ±10% Three Ranges: Candle: 0 to 1,500 lux Light Bulb: 0 to 15,000 lux Sun: 0 to 150,000 lux

Rate: 100Hz

Resolution 0.5 lux Resolution 5 lux Resolution 50 lux

The graph above shows that light intensity varies as the inverse square of the distance from the light source.

All five lines of the Balmer Series of Hydrogen can be detected using the PASPORT High Sensitivity Light Sensor on its most sensitive setting, a PASPORT Rotary Motion Sensor, and the Educational Spectrophotometer (see page 328). The graph is zoomed in on the dimmer blue-green and violet lines so the peak of the bright red line is not shown.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Order Information:

Light Level Sensor............................ PS-2177

Light Sensor...........................................PS-2106A

High Sensitivity Light................... PS-2176

46

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – IR, UV Light, Broad Spectrum

Infrared Light

Ultraviolet Light

Broad Spectrum Light

PS-2148

PS-2149

PS-2150

The Infrared sensor uses a Nitrogen filled Thermopile with a Tallium Bromide-Iodide (KRS-5) window to sense wavelengths from 580 to 40,000 nm. This allows students to measure a variety of phenomena including the infrared radiation emitted from their own hand.

Typical Applications A Measure black body radiance A Perform Leslie’s Cube experiments A Measure Solar radiance A Evaluate heat flow into or out of the sensor

A Simulate a non-contact temperature sensor

Collimator

The Ultraviolet Light Sensor employs a filter to measure the UVA band (315 nm 400 nm). With the UVA filter removed, the sensor detects the visible as well as the UVA. The sensor includes the UVA filter, a collimator, and a sensor handle.

Typical Applications A Conduct a sky survey of UV light A Investigate effectiveness of UV protection from sunglasses, windows or sunscreen lotions.

Specifications

Specifications

Spectral response of 315 nm to 400 nm (with filter)

Measure intensity in Watts/Meter

Photodiode sensing element

Maximum Sample Rate: 100 Hz

Maximum Sample Rate: 1000 Hz

Built-in thermistor to measure temperature of the “cold” side of the thermopile in °C, °F or K

A For use with Spectrophotometer A Ideal for Black Body Spectrum

The Broad Spectrum Light Sensor is designed specifically for use with our OS-8539 Educational Spectrophotometer System and OS-8543 Prism Spectrophotometer Accessory for Black Body experiments. The Broad Spectrum Light Sensor uses a thermopile and window combination that respond to both the near infrared and visible light necessary for the Black Body experiment.

Typical Applications A Black Body Experiment Specifications Sensing Element: BaF2 window, xenon gas-filled thermopile Spectral Response: 300 to 10,000 nm Maximum Sample Rate: 100 Hz

Scanning the matte surface and cavity of a Leslie’s Cube.

The classic textbook diagram of the intensity versus wavelength blackbody curves can be produced with real data. In this graph, the peak wavelength in the blackbody curve shifts as the source temperature is lowered. See page 330. Student checks the effectiveness of different brands of sunglasses. Order Information:

Order Information:

Light Sensor (Infrared).....................PS-2148

Light Sensor (UVA). .............................PS-2149

Order Information: Broad Spectrum Light Sensor ................................................PS-2150

47


PASPORT – Voltage and Current

Voltage/Current

Current Probe

Galvanometer

PS-2115

PS-2184

PS-2160

The Voltage/Current Sensor combines both sensors in one case. This multi-measure probe uses only one connection so a single USB link can be used. With overload protection, audible overload notification and automatic reset this sensor provides an ideal student measurement tool.

The PS-2184 attaches to a PASCO voltage sensor to allow the measurement of current between -4 A and +4 A. The probe contains a precision 0.10 ohm resistor and allows the precise measurement of the voltage drop across the resistor. The current is measured by creating a DataStudio calculation: I=V/R.

The Galvanometer Sensor is designed to measure small voltages with high resolution. Dynamic variable over-sampling greatly reduces the measurement noise at low sampling rates. Shunt resistors are included to allow measurement of current.

Typical Applications A Study circuit properties for both series

Voltage Range: ±2000 mV, resolution of 0.1 mV

and parallel electrical circuits

A Study the relationship of voltage and cur-

rent in series-parallel circuits (Ohm’s Law)

Current

A Measure power used by an electrical A Measure resistance of any circuit element (R = V / I)

Voltage Range: ±10 volts, resolution of 0.005 volts Current Range: ±1 amp, resolution of 500 microamps Current channel series resistance: 0.6 ohms, < 0.9 ohms at room temperature Maximum common mode voltage: 10 volts

Current Voltage Sensor (not included)

device (P = I * V)

Specifications

Specifications

Maximum Sample Rate: 5000 Hz with Xplorer GLX 1000 Hz with other interfaces Input Impedance: 1 MΩ

Specifications Resistor: 0.10 Ohm, 3.0W, 1.0% Maximum Current: 4A Maximum Voltage: 10V Maximum Voltage Without Damage: 30V Terminals: 4mm Banana Jacks

Maximum Sample Rate: 1000 samples/sec Voltage Input Impedance: 2 MΩ

Galvanometer Sensor can measure the voltage drop across a short piece of wire. A linear fit of voltage versus current yields the resistance of 0.0093 Ω for the wire.

By using a shunt resistor, the Galvanometer Sensor can be used to measure current. The current is calculated from the voltage across the precision 0.10 ohm resistor.

Includes: BNC-to-banana plug cable BNC-to-banana jack adapter 0.1 Ω and 10 Ω resistors

Capacitor charge and discharge across an RC circuit and resulting voltage change. Order Information:

Order Information:

Voltage/Current Sensor. ........................ PS-2115 Recommended: Alligator Clip Leads (set of 10)......... EM-8634

Galvanometer Sensor............................... PS-2160 Recommended: Alligator Clip Leads (set of 10)......... EM-8634

48

Order Information: Current Probe....................................................... PS-2184

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Current and Charge

High Current

Charge

PS-2193

PS-2132

A 10 Amp A Over-Current LED The High Current Sensor has a low (0.01 Ω) resistance sensing element, can measure up to 10 A, and has an LED over-current indicator. Dynamic variable over-sampling greatly reduces the measurement noise at low sample rates.

The Charge Sensor is designed for experiments in electrostatics such as inductive charging, charge production/distribution and charge on a capacitor. The sensor features automatic scaling, thus eliminating the need for a gain switch. Designed with highly efficient input over- voltage protection, the Charge Sensor is virtually “blow-out” proof and will provide many years of use in the student lab.

Specifications

When used with the Faraday Ice Pail, the Charge Sensor can measure the total charge on an object by the induction method.

Current Range: ± 10 A, resolution of 0.5 mA Sensing Element Series Resistance: 0.01 Ω Maximum Common Mode voltage: 10 volts Maximum Continuous Current Without Damage: 12 A Maximum Continuous Overvoltage Without Damage: ±40 volts Maximum Sample Rate: 1000 samples/second

The Charge Sensor can also be used as a high impedance voltmeter (1012 Ω). It includes a 0.9m shielded cable with alligator clips to eliminate stray fields.

Typical Applications A Measure charge by induction A Quantify the charge on a capacitor plate A Discover the charge distribution on a conducting sphere Specifications Charge Range: ±0.1 μC Voltage Range: ±10 V Input Resistance: 1012 Ω Maximum Input Voltage: 150 V Maximum Sample Rate: 100 Hz Input Connector: BNC Input Cable: 0.9 m length; shielded with alligator termination

The capacitor is charged with a power supply to 10 volts, and then discharged through the Air Core Solenoid. The graph of the data shows the effect of the coils inductance on the rise time of the current.

The Charge Sensor measures equal, yet opposite charge on two objects.

Order Information: High Current Sensor..................................................................................PS-2193 Shown in use with: Capacitor (0.025 F) 2 pack...................................................................EM-8632 p. 261 Switch (SPSP) 6 pack . .............................................................................EM-8815 p. 260 Air Core Solenoid..........................................................................................SE-7585 p. 272

Order Information: Charge Sensor...................................................................................................PS-2132 Recommended: Faraday Ice Pail.................................................................................................ES-9042A p. 251

49


PASPORT – Magnetic Field

Magnetic Field

2-Axis Magnetic Field

PS-2112

PS-2162

The Magnetic Field Sensor provides magnetic field measurement in a compact package. The sensor at the tip of the probe measures magnetic field strength along the axis of the probe.

Typical Applications A Study the field strength of bar magnets and electromagnets A Understand the field strength of a solenoid A Measure the field strength of a Helmholtz coil

A T  are button A 1000 Hz sample rate Measure Radial and Axial Fields simultaneously. Dynamic variable over-sampling greatly reduces noise at low sample rates.

Typical Applications A Measure the earth’s magnetic field. A Measure magnetic field (magnitude and direction from a coil or a bar magnet).

Specifications Range: ±1000 Gauss Accuracy: ±3 Gauss or 5% of reading, whichever is greater @ 25 °C (after four minute warm-up) Resolution: 0.1 Gauss (0.01% full-scale) Maximum Sample Rate: 20 Hz Repeatability: 0.05%

As the magnet is removed from the coil, a voltage is induced in the coil. The graph shows both the sudden decrease in magnetic field, as well as the voltage curve using a PS-2115 Voltage/Current Sensor.

A Study AC fields Specifications Range: ±1000 Gauss Accuracy: 5% of reading @ 25 °C (after four minute warm-up and Tare using Zero Gauss Chamber) Resolution: 0.01 Gauss @ 10 Hz Maximum Sample Rate: 1000 Hz Repeatability: 0.05% Includes sensor handle and sensor extension cable.

Shown with: Rotary Motion Sensor (PS-2120), Linear Motion Accessory (CI-6688), Field Coil (EM-6711). Shown with: 3200 turn Coil (SF-8613), Magnet (EM-8620), and Voltage/Current Sensor (PS-2115).

Magnetic field is measured from the center out to twice the radius of the coil. The angle of the resultant field is calculated in DataStudio. Order Information: Magnetic Field Sensor............................................................................PS-2112

Zero Gauss Chamber EM-8652 This double-walled, high permeability metal chamber produces a zero Gauss field within the chamber. By placing the Magnetic Field Sensor probe into the chamber and pushing the “Tare” button, the sensor may be zeroed. Highly recommended for measurement of the earth’s magnetic field. Order Information: Zero Gauss Chamber........................................................................... EM-8652

50

Order Information: 2-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor........................................................PS-2162 Recommended: Zero Gauss Chamber................................................................................EM-8652 Linear Motion Accessory.....................................................................CI-6688 p. 26

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Biomechanics

Goniometer

Human Arm Model

PS-2137

PS-2611

A Accurately Measures Joint Movements A Flexible Mounting Options PASCO’s Goniometer helps students better understand physics because they use their bodies as the experimental apparatus. The Goniometer can be connected to the knee, hip or elbow joints to measure angle changes during a variety of movements. Measure the angular position, velocity and acceleration for the arm or leg. Use with the Xplorer datalogger for a compact, easy-to-use human motion lab. The PS-2137 includes one Angle Sensor (PS-2139) and one Goniometer Probe with Velcro connection kit. To measure the motion of two joints simultaneously, simply purchase another Goniometer Probe separately.

Specifications Range: 0 to 120º Accuracy: 2% of measurement Resolution: 0.25º Maximum Sample Rate: 500 Hz

Position and velocity of knee joint while running.

The Human Arm Model simulates the muscles and motion of an actual human arm. To activate the arm motion, students pull on the cord with a Force Sensor. Changes in position are measured at the shoulder and elbow using the two built-in potentiometers plugged into one Angle Sensor (PS-2139), included with PS-2611. The Arm can perform many types of motion such as extending and lifting an object, curling, or throwing a ball overhand. Different arm muscles are activated depending on which pulleys are selected. Static force measurements can also be made to see how the muscle tension changes at various arm positions. Angles and Forces During Extension: The upper graph shows the angles of the elbow (violet trace) and the shoulder (blue) as the arm is extended as shown in the picture below. Shown in the lower graph, the bicep tension (red) has little change at first and then rises sharply as the arm reaches out, while the tricep tension (green) rises steadily. See page 179 for more information.

See page 180 for more information. Developed in cooperation with Nancy Beverly, Assistant Professor of Physics at Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York. Order Information: Goniometer Sensor....................................................................................PS-2137 Recommended: Additional Goniometer Probe. ......................................................PS-2138 PASPORT Xplorer . .......................................................................................PS-2000

Angle Sensor

Includes:

PS-2139

Human Arm Model ME-6807 Angle Sensor PS-2139

The Angle Sensor measures angle by measuring resistance. It has two ports to accept two Goniometers (PS-2137) or the two probes in the joints of the Human Arm (ME-6807). Order Information: Angle Sensor.......................................................................................................PS-2139

Order Information: Human Arm Model.......................................................................................PS-2611 Required for sensor measurement: PASPORT Force Sensor (2)................................................................PS-2104 p. 28 PASPORT Interface...........................................................................................................................p. 10-23

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PASPORT – Physiology

Exercise Heart Rate

Hand Grip Heart Rate

PS-2129A

PS-2186

The Exercise Heart Rate Sensor measures a student’s heart rate before, during and after physical activity based on electrical signals generated by the cardiac muscle. A belt worn around the ribcage houses a wireless transmitter. The voltage output from the receiver allows DataStudio software to produce the heart rate graph.

Typical Applications A Compare a student’s heart rate before, during and after exercise A Calculate recovery rate after physical activity A Determine the effects of mild stimulants (i.e. caffeine) A Investigate how heart rate changes when a student sits, reclines, stands or moves suddenly

Specifications Digitally analyzes cardiac signal and determines heart rate Measures in beats per minute

The Hand Grip Heart Rate Sensor is the easiest way to measure resting and exercise heart rate. Our new design allows students to measure heart rate without the restriction and inconvenience of belts or clips. Extra long cords allow students to freely increase their physical activity in order to determine exercise heart rate. Simply grip the handles while the sensor measures cardiac muscle contraction in beats per minute.

Typical Applications: A AP Biology Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System A Measure and compare resting, exercise and recovery heart rate to determine physical fitness levels

Specifications Measurement Range: 40-240 beats per minute Time to acquire heart beat: 8-10 seconds Typical LED Indicators: Standby: handgrips not held Acquire: acquiring heart beat Beat: flashes with each beat

Graph shows the heart rate as a student alternates between exercise and resting.

Order Information: Exercise Heart Rate Sensor................................................................ PS-2129A Replacement Transmitter Belt....................................................... PS-2518

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Order Information: Heart Rate Sensor. ......................................................................................... PS-2186

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Physiology

Blood Pressure PS-2207 With PASCO’s Blood Pressure Sensor students easily measure heart rate (bpm), systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure (mmHg). Students gain a greater understanding of the physiology of the circulatory system when they also learn about the physiology of blood pressure. The systolic and diastolic pressure provided in the digits display can be used by the student to verify their own determination of blood pressure from the graph.

Experiment ideas: A Determine the effects of exercise on blood pressure

and heart rate A Explore the effects of body position on blood pressure and heart rate A Compare the blood pressure and heart rate of students in the class

EKG PS-2111

The EKG Sensor measures electrical signals produced by the heart. As cardiac muscle depolarization and repolarization occurs, the EKG trace graphically illustrates the beating of the heart. The sensor comes with 100 self-adhesive conductive patches that are easily removed from the skin after use.

Typical Applications A Generate a personal EKG graph A Compare EKG graphs before and after mild exercise Specifications EKG Waveform: Voltage: 0 to 4.5 mV Resolution: 4.5 µV Sample Rate: 50 to 200 samples per second (sps) Default Sample Rate: 200 samples per second (sps) Heart Rate (Beats): Range: 47 to 250 beats per minute (bpm) Resolution: 1 beat per minute (bpm)

A student “patient” remains still while another student uses the pump to increase the pressure in the cuff. The students observe the graph as the pressure in the cuff slowly decreases. On the digits display, students observe the patient’s heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Includes: Blood Pressure Sensor, standard arm cuff*, bladder and pressure release valve. *small and large cuffs are also available Order Information: Blood Pressure Sensor............................................................................. PS-2207 Recommended: Small Cuff.................................................................................................................. PS-2531 Medium Cuff.......................................................................................................... PS-2532 Large Cuff. ................................................................................................................. PS-2533

NOTE: The EKG Sensor has been designed for educational purposes only and is not suitable for medical diagnoses.

Additional EKG Electrode Patches (CI-6620) may be ordered separately.

Order Information: EKG Sensor..................................................................................................................PS-2111 EKG Patches (100 each)................................................................................CI-6620

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PASPORT – Physiology

Spirometer

Breath Rate

Respiration Rate

PS-2152

PS-2187

PS-2133

A W  orks while exercising

With our Spirometer Sensor students can measure airflow, duration and lung volume. Disposable mouth pieces available for student safety.

Typical Applications: A Compare a student’s airflow before and after exercise

A Investigate the lung volume of athletes vs. non-athletes

A Compare smokers versus non-smokers A Conduct respiratory experiments A Determine total lung capacity

The Breath Rate Sensor uses standard disposable dust masks and gives stable output even when exercising. Breath rate is measured by sensing the pressure changes inside the mask. Tubing from the sensor connects to the disposable pressure clips which fasten on the side of the mask.

Two Modes: A One reading every breath A Running average over last four breaths

The Respiration Rate Sensor uses PASCO’s Relative Pressure Sensor, along with a Respiration Belt, to measure the change in pressure that occurs as the chest cavity expands and contracts during breathing. The Respiration Belt is wrapped around the lower part of the ribcage at the sternum, and the rubber bladder inside the belt is inflated using the attached squeeze bulb. A second tube connected to the rubber bladder attaches to the Pressure Sensor so that a graph of breath rate can be generated.

Typical Applications A Conduct comparisons before and after exercise

Specifications

A Calculate possible correlations between respiration rate and heart rate

Displays volume in liters

A Determine the effects of altitude

Minimal resistance to air flow

variation on respiration

Bi-directional air flow Sample Rate Range: 50 to 100 Hz

Maximum Sample Rate: 20 Hz Data collected with Xplorer GLX while exercising.

Measuring lung capacity.

Includes: Sensor with Tubing Pressure Clips (10) Masks (10)

Replaceable mouthpiece clips in. Order Information:

Order Information:

Spirometer Sensor............................... PS-2152 Spirometer Mouth Pieces (10-pack). ........................................................... PS-2522

Breath Rate Sensor...............................PS-2187 Replacement Clips (10).....................PS-2568 Replacement Masks (10)................PS-2567

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Order Information: Respiration Rate........................................PS-2133 Respiration Belt.........................................CI-9842

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – MultiMeasure Sensors

Sound Level PS-2109

Temperature/Sound Level/Light

General Science Sensor PS-2168

PS-2140

The Sound Level Sensor is designed to measure the intensity level of sound sources within proximity to the sensor. The sensor features three range switches to match the intensity range of the measured phenomena. The sensor measures sound level in both the dBA and dBC scales. The dBC scale includes all frequencies incident on the Sound Level Sensor, whereas the dBA scale filters out some frequencies to more closely match the frequency response of the human ear. The sensor also reports a measurement of sound intensity in μW/m2, which is calculated from the dBC measurement of the sound level.

Launch students into an instant exploration of their environment! The Temperature/ Sound Level/Light Sensor allows students to conduct all three measurements simultaneously and continuously. Students can instantly display measurements on an Xplorer or take readings over time, anywhere, and display the data on a computer. Add an optional Stainless Steel Temperature Probe (PS-2153) to conduct water studies.

Typical Applications A Measure the temperature difference between the floor and ceiling

Simultaneously measure temperature, light, sound level and voltage. Great for a variety of general science explorations.

Specifications Temperature*: –35 °C to +135 °C; ±0.5 °C *Range is probe dependent. Light: 3 user selectable light ranges: 0 to 100; 0 to 10,000; 0 to 150,000 Lux Sound Level: 50 to 100 dbA Voltage: ±24 V Voltage Protection: up to 240 V Maximum Sample Rate: 200 Hz

A Determine the light level on a sunny versus cloudy day

A Compare sound levels of students whispering, singing loudly or applauding

Specifications Temperature (internal) Range: -10 to +50 °C Sound Level Range: 40 to 90 dBA Light Range: 0 to 5000 lux Maximum Sample Rate: 5 Hz

Shown using the EM-8678 Charge/Discharge Circuit. The capacitor is charged (using the AA batteries) and then discharged through the light bulb. The General Science Sensor measures the changing voltage across the bulb as well as the output light intensity.

Graph shows sound level from a loud whistle in both intensity (µWatts/m2) and in decibels. Notice the difference in scales.

Typical Applications A Explore sound levels outside the classroom A Discover the logarithmic relationship

The graph shows light intensity vs. voltage for the light bulb. The parabolic curve fit proves that light intensity is proportional to the square of the applied voltage.

between sound level and sound intensity

Specifications Range: Sound Level Intensity 30 dB to 70 dB; 10-3 μW/m2 to 10 μW/m2 50 dB to 90 dB; 1 μW/m2 to 1000 μW/m2 70 dB to 110 dB; 10 μW/m2 to 10,000 μW/m2 Max sample rate: 20 Hz Accuracy: ±2 dB at 94 dB (1000 Hz) Resolution: 0.1 dB Order Information: Sound Level Sensor............................PS-2109

The temperature, light intensity, and sound level are simultaneously measured inside a refrigerator. Note the changes in measurements as the compressor starts and as the door is opened.

Includes Stainless Steel Temperature Probe Voltage Probe

Order Information:

Order Information:

Temperature/Sound Level/Light Sensor. ......................... PS-2140

General Science Sensor............................................ PS-2168

Recommended: Stainless Steel Temperature Probe.......................... PS-2153

Recommended: Charge/Discharge Circuit.............................................. EM-8678 p. 253

55


PASPORT – Chemistry

pH

Colorimeter

Conductivity

PS-2102

PS-2121

PS-2116A

PASCO’s pH Sensor measures the hydronium ion concentration in a solution and reports it as a pH value. This sensor is wellsuited for a variety of activities where testing or monitoring of acidity is important.

Typical Applications A Titrate an acid into a base A Investigate the chemistry of buffers A Monitor water quality Specifications Range: 0 to 14 (Probe dependent) Accuracy: ±0.1* Resolution: 0.01 Repeatability: 0.02 Electrode: gel-filled Ag-AgCl combination electrode Maximum Sample Rate: 50 Hz *After calibration

The Colorimeter Sensor allows a solution’s concentration to be determined based on the ability of the solution to transmit or absorb colored light. PASCO’s Colorimeter is the perfect tool for analyzing reactions indicated by color changes, or reactions where concentration changes over time. The sensor’s black, opaque housing assures accuracy of data. The Colorimeter is packaged in a sturdy plastic case with five empty glass cuvettes so students can begin experimenting immediately.

Typical Applications A Study absorbance vs. concentration (Beer’s Law experiments)

A Determine the concentration of an unknown solution

A Measure reaction rates A Measure four wavelengths simultaneously

Specifications Range: 0 to 100% transmittance Accuracy: ±0.5% transmittance Resolution: 0.1% transmittance Operating Temperature: 0 °C to 40 °C

Most Conductivity Sensors use graphite probes, but our Conductivity Sensor uses platinum for greater range and improved accuracy at high and low concentrations. The result is better measurements that lead to better labs. Three ranges, pushbutton selectable on the sensor, allows it to be used for a wider variety of experiments without requiring recalibration. A Electrode houses rugged, research-grade conductors that provide superior accuracy over the entire range. A 0-100,000 µS/cm ranges allows salinity measurement from “fresh” water to sea water. A Replaceable probe reduces maintenance costs.

Typical Applications A Accurately compare conductivity of different water samples

A Study the effects of chemical flocculants on conductivity

A Conduct environmental studies A Investigate drinking water purity Specifications Range: 0 to 1,000, 0 to 10,000, 0 to 100,000 µS/cm Accuracy: ±10% of full scale without calibration Accuracy: ±0.1% after calibration Resolution: Better than 0.05% of full scale Repeatability: Better than 0.01% of full scale Maximum Sample Rate: 20 Hz

Checking water quality of collected rain water.

pH vs. volume graph Order Information:

Order Information: Conductivity Sensor...........................PS-2116A

pH Sensor.........................................................PS-2102

pH Replacement Electrode PS-2573

(Previously part number 699-195) Order Information: pH Replacement Electrode............................................................PS-2573

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Typical Beer’s Law Standardization curve showing absorbance vs. concentration. Order Information: Colorimeter.....................................................PS-2121 Replacement Cuvettes/Caps (6 each)...................PS-2509

Conductivity Replacement Probe PS-2571

(Previously part number 699-06621) Order Information: Conductivity Replacement Probe..............................PS-2571

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Chemistry

Chemistry PS-2170

ISE – Precision pH/ORP/ISE Amplifier with Temperature PS-2147

Gas laws, acid/base, thermochemistry and redox all with one sensor! Measure temperature, pH, gas pressure and voltage. Easy to store. Easy to use. All measurements can be made simultaneously.

Specifications Temperature*: –35 °C to +135 °C, ±0.5 °C pH*: 0 to 14, ±0.1 (with calibration) Absolute Pressure: 0 to 700 KPa Voltage: ±10 V Maximum Sample Rate: 20 Hz *Ranges are probe dependent.

Includes Stainless Steel Temperature Probe pH Probe Voltage Probe Gas Law Syringe with Tubing Order Information:

This high-precision sensor is ideal for Chemistry. Right out of the box students will be able to measure pH and temperature with the same sensor because the PS-2147 comes with a pH probe and a Fast Response Temperature Probe. The new ORP probe (CI-6716) can be purchased separately to measure the Oxidation Reduction Potential of a sample. With the addition of Ion Selective Probes (not included) students will be able to measure ion concentration in upper division Chemistry classes or samples brought back from the field. Because all Ion-Selective Electrodes use the same amplifier box, each lab group requires one amplifier box plus the desired electrodes. For a complete list of available Ion-Selective Electrodes, see page 82.

Specifications  lectrode Connector: Standard BNC E Input Impedance: 1012 ohms (preserves output voltage of the electrode) Range: -2000 mV to 2000 mV 0.1 mV resolution Range: 0 to 14 pH 0.001 pH resolution (Probe dependent) Temperature Range: -10 °C to +70 °C* Temperature Resolution: .0025 °C Temperature Accuracy: 0.5 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 50 Hz *Range is probe dependent.

Special Features The PS-2147 functions with PASCO IonSelective Electrodes, PASCO pH Electrode, and most 3rd-party ion-selective electrodes.

Typical Applications A Determine the concentration of a specific ion in a solution

A Conduct water quality studies Order Information: Precision pH/ORP/ISE Temperature Sensor................................................................... PS-2147

Chemistry Sensor. .................................PS-2170

Micro Stir Bar PS-2565 The Micro Stir Bar maintains a constant flow of solution over the end of the electrode, such as in the pH and conductivity probes. For use with a standard stir plate and cylindrical probes of about 13 mm diameter. Magnet is completely sealed to prevent damage from the chemicals.

ORP Probe CI-6716 can be used with the PS-2170 Chemistry Sensor and the PS-2147 ISE/ORP Amplifier. ORP Probe......................................................................................................................................................................... CI-6716

Ion-Selective Electrodes can be used with the PS-2170 Chemistry Sensor and the PS-2147 ISE/ORP Amplifier. Electrode

Molar Range

pH Range

Interfering Ions

Part #

Ammonium (NH4+) 1.0 to 5x10-6 4-10

Cs+, K+, T1+, H+, Ag+, +Tris+, Li+, Na+

CI-6717

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

1x10-2 to 1x10-4

4.8-5.2

Volatile weak acids

CI-6726

Calcium (Ca+2)

1.0 to 5x10-6

3-10

Pb+2, Hg+2, Cu+2, Ni+2

CI-6727

Chloride (Cl-)

1.0 - 5x10-5

2-12

S-2, I-, CN-, Br-

CI-6732

Lead (Pb+2)

1x10-1 to 1x10-6

3-8

Ag+, Hg+2, Cu+2, CD+2, Fe+2

CI-6736

Fluoride (F-)

Saturated to 1x10-6

5-8

OH-

CI-6728

Nitrate (NO3-)

1.0 to 7x10-6

2.5-11

CIO4-, I-, CN-, BF4-

CI-6735

Potassium (K+)

1.0 to 7x10-6

2-12

Cs+, NH4+

CI-6733

Sodium (Na+)

Saturated to 1x10-6

5-12

H+, K+, Li+, Ag+, Cs+, Tl+

CI-6734

Order Information:

* Prices do not include the amplifier box.

Micro Stir Bar (set of 5)................ PS-2565

Required: At least one CI-6738 Ion-selective Electrode Amplifier Box.

57


PASPORT – Chemistry/Biology

Drop Counter (High-Accuracy)

Explore Fermentation with the EcoChamber and Ethanol Sensor

PS-2117

PASCO’s acrylic EcoChamber is specially designed to accommodate up to three PASCO sensors. The EcoChamber can be used as a fermentation chamber in yeast fermentation experiments, a model ecosystem in photosynthesis and respiration experiments and a temperature regulation chamber when exploring the differences between endothermic and ectothermic animals. Its sturdy design and custom molding makes PASCO’s EcoChamber a versatile science learning tool that is easy to use and easy to clean.

At last, a professional Drop Counter can become part of the student lab. PASCO’s Drop Counter has a wider (18 x 13mm) drop window for better drop detection and easier alignment with burettes. Works equally well with large or small, fast or slow drops. Easy calibration requires entering just one number into the computer. Includes a Micro Stir Bar for use with our pH and conductivity probes (see page 57).

Typical Applications A Determine the equivalence point

Ethanol Sensor PS-2194

The PASPORT Ethanol Sensor measures the concentration of gaseous ethanol up to 3%. In biology and environmental science labs, students can learn about anaerobic respiration by measuring the production of ethanol by bacterial or yeast fermentation. Physics and chemistry students can begin to explore combustion and thermodynamics. Connect your students to the study of respiration and alternative energy sources with the PASPORT Ethanol Sensor.

Specifications

A Simple count activities

Accuracy: 20% of reading Range: 0% to 3% gaseous ethanol

Special Features Measures up to 40 drops per second with drops as small as 0.5 mm. Silicone rubber-sealed polypropylene is fluid resistant and protects sensor from mild acids and bases. Automatically recalibrates for maximum sensitivity each time the unit is turned on. Holds up to three sensors in a 150 mL beaker LED drop indicator UV filter rejects all visible light - not susceptible to variations in room lighting

In this experiment, PASCO’s EcoChamber is filled with approximately 500 ml of 0.5 M sucrose solution and 1000 mL of yeast solution. The PASPORT Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Ethanol Gas sensors are inserted into the lid of the EcoChamber and all other holes are filled with stoppers to create an airtight environment. Students will observe the fermentation of sucrose as ethanol concentration increases in the chamber, and the simultaneous production of CO2 and consumption of O2.

Includes: Acrylic chamber and rubber stoppers

O2 (ppm), CO2 (ppm), and Ethanol (%) Concentration vs. Time (hours)

Order Information:

Order Information: High-Accuracy Drop Counter............................................... PS-2117

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EcoChamber............................................................................................................................................................................................. ME-6667 Shown in use with: Ethanol Sensor..................................................................................................................................................................................... PS-2194 Oxygen Gas Sensor........................................................................................................................................................................ PS-2126A Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor................................................................................................................................................. PS-2110 Magnetic Stirrer. ................................................................................................................................................................................. SE-7700

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Biology

Dissolved Oxygen

Aquatic Productivity Bottles

PS-2108

ME-6937

Dissolved Oxygen measurements are essential to water quality, Biology, Earth Science and Chemistry investigations. PASCO’s DO Sensor accommodates more applications, allowing students to explore these subjects more thoroughly. Wider range (0 to 20 mg/L) ensures the sensor does not top out before the experiment is over.

Patent Pending

The Aquatic Productivity Bottles rest in a rack that provides consistent and reliable light control for quantitative aquatic productivity studies. The identical transparent bottles nest in each of five rack positions. The custom design of the rack shields the bottles from light by blocking a fixed percentage of light in 25% increments from zero to 100%.

Photosynthesis Tank PS-2521A

A Measure O2 production directly

Typical Applications A Measure oxygen consumption by yeast

A C  ontrol the environment of the aquatic plant

A Investigate how the presence of organic

A S  tudy changes in photosynthesis/ respiration rates

during respiration

matter affects DO levels

A Study biological oxygen demand (B.O.D.) Specifications  Excellent resolution (0.01 mg/L) allows students to see small changes Temperature compensated - essential for consistent measurements. 0 to 20 mg/L at ±10% of full scale without calibration ±0.2 mg/L accuracy after calibration 0 to 50 °C operating range Easily replaced membrane cartridges maintain sensor performance Maximum Sample Rate: 20 Hz Includes one replacement membrane

The Aquatic Productivity Bottles were completely filled with algae solution, and the initial dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations of the solutions were determined with a DO sensor. The bottles were then placed into the rack and the specially molded, light-varying lid was locked into place over the bottles. After 24 hours of incubation in fluorescent light, the bottles were removed from the rack and the DO concentration was again determined with a DO sensor. Using the initial and final (DO) , students calculate Net Primary Productivity and Gross Primary Productivity.

Typical experiments involving photosynthesis require students to infer photosynthetic rate changes by using chloroplasts and dye. Help students understand this concept more completely by directly measuring the production of oxygen.

Water in the outer tank is used to control large fluctuations in temperature when the light is used. Students can further their understanding of photosynthetic rates by adding dyes as colored filters.

Includes: Acrylic chamber and rubber stoppers As the yeast in the flask respire, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the sugar water solution decreases. Order Information: Dissolved Oxygen Sensor............PS-2108 Membrane Replacement Kit....CI-6541 Photosynthesis Tank. ..........................PS-2521A

Net Primary Productivity (mg/L) vs. Light Intensity (%): Notice that for the bottle in the dark, the Net Productivity is negative.

Includes: Plastic bottles w/lids (5) and case with slotted lid

Dissolved Oxygen Replacement Probe

Order Information:

PS-2572

(Previously part number 699-063230) Order Information: Dissolved Oxygen Replacement Probe..............................PS-2572

Order Information: Aquatic Productivity Bottles...... ME-6937 Shown in use with: Dissolved Oxygen Sensor.............. PS-2108

Photosynthesis Tank. ......................... PS-2521A Shown in use with: SPARK Science Learning System..................................... PS-2008A Dissolved Oxygen Sensor........... PS-2108 Magnetic Stirrer. ..................................... SE-7700

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Biology

Explore Cellular Respiration with the Metabolism Chamber

O2 Gas

ME-6936

PASCO’s Oxygen Gas Sensor accurately measures oxygen concentration in the atmosphere or in enclosed spaces, such as terrariums. The sensor’s wide range (0-100%) means students can use it with any experiment or investigation. Use in combination with the CO2 Gas Sensor to perform an even wider variety of environmental and physiology activities in the classroom or in the field.

The Metabolism Chamber is a 250 mL sample bottle that allows simultaneous measurements of carbon dioxide gas and oxygen gas. One of the most popular methods to explore cellular respiration in the biology lab is to measure the production of carbon dioxide by germinating seeds using a carbon dioxide sensor. The study of cellular respiration becomes richer when students simultaneously obtain carbon dioxide gas data and oxygen gas data.

PS-2126A

Typical Applications A Measure the respiration of animals, insects or germinating seeds

Place 25 germinating Alaska peas in the Metabolism Chamber at room temperature. Measure CO2 gas and O2 gas in the chamber with the Carbon Dioxide Gas sensor and the Oxygen Gas sensor. Collect and analyze the data for oxygen gas consumption and carbon dioxide gas production by the germinating pea seeds.

Includes: Plastic Bottle Stoppers (2)

A Study the catalase breakdown of hydrogen peroxide

A Monitor O2 level changes during photosynthesis in a terrarium

A Study cellular respiration of yeast Specifications Flow Range: 0 to 100% Accuracy: ±1% (at constant temperature) Resolution: 0.025% Maximum Sample Rate: 100 Hz Probe Shelf-life: 3 years

Special Features Single point calibration requires just the touch of a button Automatic temperature compensation ensures consistent measurements Usable in any orientation

CO2 Gas PS-2110

The CO2 Gas Sensor measures carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere or in an enclosed volume, such as a terrarium. Using the included 250-ml sample bottle, students can even measure the exhalation of small organisms such as crickets. PASCO’s proprietary design uses infrared detection to measure the energy absorbed by carbon dioxide molecules.

Typical Applications A Measure CO2 uptake during

photosynthesis in a terrarium

A Compare indoor vs. outdoor CO2 levels A Study cellular respiration of yeast Specifications O2 and CO2 Concentration (ppm) vs. Time (hours) Order Information: Metabolism Chamber.................................................................................................................................................................. ME-6936 Shown in use with: Oxygen Gas Sensor........................................................................................................................................................................ PS-2126A Replacement Oxygen Electrode..................................................................................................................................... PS-6524 Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor................................................................................................................................................. PS-2110 PASPORT Extension Cable. ................................................................................................................................................... PS-2500

60

Range: 0 ppm to 300,000 ppm Accuracy: For range of 0 to 10,000 ppm: 100 ppm or 10% of value, whichever is greater Calibration: User presses one button while sampling outside air Default Sample Rate: CO2 concentration updates once each second Operating Temperature: 20 °C to 30 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 10 Hz

www.pasco.com


Environmental

EcoZone™ System ME-6668 A T  hree EcoChambers, interconnected or standalone

Keep the system closed during chemical testing – use the included syringe to extract water. Or “inject” pollutants into the system and see how the ecosystem responds.

A D  esigned for sensor-based measurements PASCO’s EcoZone System is designed to help students model and understand the complex interactions within, and among, different ecosystems. The three clear acrylic EcoChambers are specially designed to accommodate PASCO sensors, making qualitative and quantitative measurements as easy as observing.

Opening connects the chambers and allows the interaction between the living and non-living components of each unique ecosystem.

With three interconnected chambers, students can model the interaction between three different ecosystems. Choose the traditional terrestrial, aquatic, and decomposition arrangement or create unique biomes to model and measure. Decouple the system for isolated investigations how does the availability of light affect the ecosystem? Students can create two identical ecosystems and monitor one in light conditions and one in dark. The included cord efficiently ‘wicks’ water between the chambers.

Clean up is easy, and the chambers are durable enough to use again and again. The unique design of the PASCO EcoZone System allows you to use your environmental science probes* to actively measure a model ecosystem.

Monitor the physical environment!

Decomposition Chamber Terrestrial Chamber

Aquatic Chamber

This graph shows the relationship between the relative humidity and temperature within the terrestrial chamber over a 24 hour period.

Includes: Three individual EcoChambers including lids Custom tray for holding EcoChambers in a connected ecosystem Stoppers and connectors Cotton wick Syringe and plastic tubing

*For more information on sensors and probes available for use with the EcoZone System, see www.pasco.com/ecozone select Order Information tab.

Order Information: EcoZone System............................................................................... ME-6668

61


PASPORT – Weather

Weather/Anemometer

Weather

PS-2174

PS-2154A

Wind Velocity Accessory ME-6812

The Weather/Anemometer Sensor measures wind speed and wind chill in addition to temperature, barometric pressure, relative and absolute humidity, and dew point.

Typical Applications A Measure wind speed in direction of running on a track

A Study wind and pressure changes as a storm approaches

A Collect weather data for weeks inside or outside the classroom

PASCO’s Weather Sensor allows students to measure temperature, barometric pressure, relative and absolute humidity, and dew point. Whether you’re comparing outdoor measurements to indoor, or monitoring an approaching storm, this powerful MultiMeasure Sensor™ does it all.

Typical Applications A Conduct weather station experiments A Take one-time readings or collect data over days or weeks, in the classroom or anywhere

A Collect readings at various locations around school

A Study weather phenomena such as thunderstorms, cloud cover, etc...

Specifications Barometer: 800 to 1090 hecto Pascals (hPa), 800 to 1090 milli Bars (mBar) and 24 to 34 inches Mercury (in Hg) Humidity: 0 to 100% RH ± 2%, 0g/m3 to 50 g/m3 ± 10% AH Temperature: -20 °C to 55 °C ±0.5 °C Dew Point: -50 °C to 55 °C ±2% Maximum Sample Rate: 5 Hz

See page 26 for more information on the Rotary Motion Sensor. The Wind Velocity Accessory has anemometer cups to measure wind speed and a wind vane to measure the wind direction. The anemometer cups and the wind vane each mount on a Rotary Motion Sensor (PS-2120 or CI-6538). Instructions are included for using the DataStudio or Xplorer GLX calculator to calibrate the wind speed. The wind vane must be aligned with North to specify alignment with zero degrees on the Rotary Motion Sensor and then wind direction is read as an angle between zero and 360 degrees. When used with an Xplorer GLX, the system is portable and can be used for measuring wind or can be mounted on a bicycle or car to measure wind velocity relative to the vehicle. This is not intended as a weather-proof unit for permanent outdoor use.

Specifications Wind Speed: 1 to 65 miles per hour Barometer: 800 to 1090 hecto Pascals (hPa), 800 to 1090 milli Bars (mBar) and 24 to 34 inches Mercury (in Hg) Humidity: 0 to 100% RH ± 2%, 0g/m3 to 50 g/m3 ± 10% AH Temperature: -20 °C to 55 °C ±0.5 °C Dew Point: -50 °C to 55 °C ±2% Maximum Sample Rate: 5 Hz

Includes: Anemometer cups Wind vane Order Information: Wind Velocity Accessory................ME-6812

Order Information: Weather/Anemometer Sensor...................................................................PS-2174

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Order Information: Weather Sensor................................... PS-2154A

Required: Two PASPORT Rotary Motion Sensors.........................................PS-2120 or Two ScienceWorkshop Rotary Motion Sensors. ..... CI-6538 p. 74

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Weather

Dual Humidity/Temp/Dew Point

Barometer/Low Pressure

Humidity/Temp/Dew Point

PS-2113A

PS-2124A

PASCO’s Barometer Sensor measures changes in atmospheric pressure over long and short periods of time. The sensor reports measurements in units of in Hg, hPa, or mBar. It can also be used as a Low Pressure Sensor.

This PASPORT multisensor is designed for single readings or continuous monitoring of relative and absolute humidity. The sensor also reports temperature, allowing a measurement of dew point, calculated from the humidity measurements and temperature measurements.

PS-2156

The Dual Humidity/Temperature/Dew Point Sensor measures relative humidity (in units of percent (%) RH) and air temperature (in °C and °F). From these measurements, it calculates absolute humidity (in units of g/cm3) and dew point (in °C and °F). The sensor comes with two probes, to measure humidity and temperature in two locations at the same time.

Typical Applications A Measure humidity at two locations at

the same time such as in the EcoZone™ System A Compare humidity, dew point and temperature as they change over time A Compare indoor and outdoor environments

Specifications Range: 3 0% to 100% (RH), 0 g/m3 to 50 g/m3 (AH) Accuracy: from 10% to 95%, ±3% to ±5% (RH), 10% of reading (AH) Resolution: 1% or better (RH), 0.1 g/m3 or better (AH) Temperature: -20°C to 55°C ±0.5°C Dew Point: -50°C to 55°C ±2°C Cable Length: 1m

Typical Applications A Conduct weather station experiments A Measure changes in elevation A Compare classroom data to local weather

Typical Applications A Conduct weather station experiments A Check humidity in a terrarium, green-

Specifications

Specifications

Range: 4.4 in Hg to 34 in Hg Accuracy: ±0.03 in Hg Resolution: 0.001 in Hg Maximum Sample Rate: 20 Hz Operating Temperature: 0 °C to +40 °C

Humidity:  to 100% RH; 0g/m3 to Range: 0 50 g/m3 AH Accuracy: ±2% RH; 10% of reading AH

reports to predict weather

house or other enclosure

A Measure dew point

Temperature: Range: -20 °C to +55 °C Accuracy: ±0.5 °C Dew Point: Range: -50 °C to +55 °C Accuracy: ±2 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 10 Hz

Graph shows pressure changes as a storm moves through over a three day period.

PS-2156 shown in use measuring the difference in relative humidity between foliage and open area in EcoZone™ System ME-6668 (page 61). Order Information: Dual Humidity/Temp/ Dew Point Sensor..........................PS-2156

Dual Humidity/Temp/Dew Point Replacement Sensor PS-2161 Order Information: Dual Humidity/Temp/Dew Point Replacement Sensor..................PS-2161

Graph shows data for a 200-foot decrease in elevation during a car drive. Order Information: Barometer Sensor...........................PS-2113A

Graph shows the humidity in a terrarium, both covered and uncovered. Order Information: Humidity/Temp/ Dew Point Sensor..........................PS-2124A

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PASPORT – Environmental

Soil Moisture

Salinity

PS-2163

PS-2195

The Soil Moisture Sensor measures the water content of soil and reports it in percent. It can be used to conduct experiments in environmental science, agricultural science, horticulture and biology.

The PASPORT Salinity Sensor works with the 10X Salinity Sensor Probe to measure salinity, conductivity, and temperature. The sensor determines salinity based on electrical conductivity. The sensor has a built in calculation to compensate for the change in conductivity due to temperature change based on the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS).

Typical Applications: A Measure the loss of soil moisture over time due to evaporation and plant uptake.

A Evaluate optimum soil moisture contents for various species of plants.

A Monitor soil moisture content to control irrigation in greenhouses.

Specifications Sensor Range: 0 to 45% volumetric water content in soil Sensor Probe Length: 5.5 cm Sensor Probe Cable Length: 5 m Accuracy: ± 4% Resolution: 0.1% Power: 3 mA at 5 V DC Operating Temperature: -40 to 60 °C Default Sample Rate: 10 samples per second Order Information: Soil Moisture Sensor.............................................................................................. PS-2163 Recommended: Soil Water Potential Probe................................................................................ PS-2513

Soil Water Potential Probe PS-2513 A F  or use with Soil Moisture Sensor Water potential is often preferred over water content because it shows how water will move in soil or from the soil to the plant. The Soil Water Potential Probe measures the dielectric permittivity of its ceramic disk to determine its water potential.

The Salinity Sensor measures the electric current through a solution between the two platinized platinum electrodes in the Salinity Sensor Probe. The current through the solution is due to the movement of ions, so the higher the concentration of ions in the solution, the higher its conductivity. A voltage (AC) is applied across the two electrodes in the tip of the probe and the measured current is proportional to the conductivity of the solution.

Typical Applications: A Explore the salinity of local water sources. A Explore the interrelationship of salinity, temperature, and conductivity.

A Measure the change in the salinity of saltwater as the water evaporates.

Examples of Water Salinity Fresh water: <0.5 ppt Brackish water: 0.5 to 30 ppt Saline water: 30 to 50 ppt Ocean Water: 35 ppt Brine: >50 ppt

Specifications Measurement Ranges: Conductivity: 1,000 to 100,000 μS Temperature: 0 to 50 degrees C Salinity: 1 to 55 ppt ±1% (with calibration) Sample rate (maximum): 50 Hz Temperature compensation: ±0.5 ppt from 0 to 45 °C at 33 ppt Cell constant: 10X

Order Information:

Order Information:

Soil Water Potential Probe............................................................................... PS-2513 Required: Soil Moisture Sensor. ............................................................................................. PS-2163

Salinity Sensor. ........................................................................................................PS-2195 Recommended: PASPORT Extension Cable.........................................................................PS-2500

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www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Environmental

Thermocline PS-2151 At last, students can measure temperature as a function of depth in local streams and lakes. PASCO’s Thermocline measures depth automatically — no need to read markings on a cable and enter data manually. Weighted housing provides depth measurement stability in fast-flowing streams.

Typical Applications A Study thermoclines in fresh and salt water environments

A Create depth profiles for streams, small rivers, shorelines, and swimming pools

A Study ocean tides Specifications Depth (pressure) -sensing element: Range: 0m to 10.5 m Accuracy: 0.15 m (in fresh water after barometric pressure compensation) Resolution: 0.03 m Temperature-sensing element: Range: 0 °C to 100 °C Accuracy: ± 1.5 °C Maximum Sample Rate: 10 Hz

Drag the Thermocline along the bottom of a pool or stream to create a temperature vs. depth profile.

Flow Rate/ Temperature

Turbidity PS-2122

PS-2130

PASCO’s Flow Rate Sensor allows students to measure the rate of movement and temperature of streams, rivers and other flowing systems. The propeller is a rugged, single-piece unit encased by protective material — no more losing pieces to the bottom of the stream.

Typical Applications A Determine sediment transport rate for a stream or other body of water

A Measure and compare flow rate at

The Turbidity Sensor measures the cloudiness of liquid samples by quantifying the degree to which light passing through the solution is scattered by suspended particles. Calibration is done with the touch of a button in less than a minute. The sensor’s black opaque housing assures accuracy of data. The Turbidity Sensor is packaged along with 5 empty glass cuvettes and a Hach StablCal 100NTU standard in a sturdy plastic case.

Typical Applications A Compare the turbidity of water samples from various field locations

A Determine the rate of settling of a sample

A Conduct water quality studies A Measure the formation of a precipitate

various locations in a stream

A Compare the characteristics of one stream to another

Specifications Flow Range: 0 m/s to 3.5 m/s Temperature Range: -10 °C to 50 °C Maximum Length: 1.8 m (6 feet) Telescoping handle to reach deep levels Maximum Sample Rate: 20 Hz

Specifications Range: 0 NTU to 400 NTU Accuracy: 0 to 20 NTU: ±0.2 NTU 20 to 100 NTU: ±0.5 NTU 100 to 400 NTU: ±1.0 NTU Temperature Range: 5 °C to 40 °C (recommended) Maximum Sample Rate: 5 Hz

Special Features: Revolutions of a magnet on the submersible propeller are counted and converted to linear flow rate measurements in ft/sec or m/s. Students can use DataStudio software to calculate volume discharge rates Exclusive built-in temperature sensor conveniently measures temperature at the same point as flow rate.

Graph shows the flow rates at the top (green), middle (orange), and bottom (brown) of a stream.

Over time, turbidity increases in a solution of suspended E. Coli. Order Information:

The temperature of the water in a swimming pool is measured as a function of depth. Order Information: Thermocline Sensor............................PS-2151

Turbidity Sensor.......................................PS-2122 Order Information:

Replacement Cuvettes/Caps (6 each)...................PS-2509

Flow Rate/Temperature Sensor...................................................................PS-2130

Silicone Oil (15 mL)..............................PS-2510

100 NTU Cal Standard......................PS-2511

65


PASPORT – Environmental

Water Quality

Water Quality Colorimeter

PS-2169

PS-2179

Conduct a wide range of water studies with this single sensor: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity. All measurements can be made simultaneously.

This PASPORT Water Quality Colorimeter is designed specifically to support chemical analysis of water samples using PASCO’s ezSample Snap Vial water quality test kits.

Specifications Temperature*: –35 °C to +135 °C, ±0.5 °C pH*: 0–14, ±0.1 (with calibration) Dissolved Oxygen: 0 to 20 mg/l, ±0.2 (with calibration) Conductivity: user selectable, 0 to 1,000; 0 to 10,000; 0 to 100,000 µS/cm; ±0.1% (with calibration) Update Rate: Every 1.3 seconds *Ranges are probe dependent.

1. S  nap tip of ampoule and sample instantly flows into tube.

2. R  ead concentration using Xplorer GLX.

Specifications:

Includes

Measurable Ranges:

Stainless Steel Temperature Probe pH Probe Dissolved Oxygen Probe Conductivity Probe. Also supports ISE and ORP Electrodes (optional).

ezSample Snap Vials (Colorimetric) Iron 0 to 7 mg/l Nitrate 0 to 2 mg/l Ammonia 0 to 3 mg/l Phosphate 0 to 8 mg/l Chlorine 0 to 6 mg/l ezSample Field Titrators Total Hardness 20 to 200 mg/l CO2 10 to 100 mg/l Alkalinity 10 to 100 mg/l

Operating Temperature:

0° to 40° C

Water Quality Colorimeter

pH and conductivity in a lake are measured simultaneously as simulated acid rain falls into the lake.

Available Test Kits*: (30 tests per kit) ezSample Snap Vials (Colorimetric) Iron Nitrate Ammonium Phosphate Chlorine ezSample Field Titrators Total Hardness CO2 Alkalinity

Order Information: Water Quality Sensor................................................................................. PS-2169

Water Quality Field Guide PS-2829A

A E  ducator-designed, Student-tested A Combination ‘how-to’ and ‘why?’ reference

Good water-quality studies need to overcome several challenges: Knowing what to measure, knowing how to measure, and knowing what the measurements mean. The Water Quality Field Guide not only prepares you for taking the measurements but also for their interpretation.

66

PS-2179

EZ-2331 EZ-2333A EZ-2334 EZ-2337 EZ-2339 EZ-2338 EZ-2341 EZ-2340

*Special shipping restrictions may apply. Please contact PASCO for more information.

16 Water Quality Parameters: A Ammonia A Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) A Chlorine A Conductivity A Dissolved Carbon Dioxide A Dissolved Oxygen A Iron A Nitrate

This handy guide was prepared for teachers and students alike, with both a good science process and effective science learning in mind.

This Water Quality Colorimeter is complete with built-in calibration curves to determine the concentration of ions in the solution for the ions listed on this page. Simple to use in the field and students avoid direct contact with chemicals!

A A A A A A A A

pH Phosphate Salinity Stream Flow Rate Temperature Turbidity Total Alkalinity Total Hardness

Includes: Spiral-bound Field Guide Electronic version of editable MS Word files on a USB flash drive

Order Information: Water Quality Field Guide....................PS-2829A

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – GPS

GPS Position Sensor

On a warm day, temperature and GPS position data were collected with an Xplorer GLX, as a teacher walked around and through PASCO’s building. The data was then imported into My World GIS where positions were color coded by temperature.

PS-2175 Use PASCO’s GPS Position Sensor to collect GPS data simultaneously with other sensor measurements, automatically synching the data to your latitude, longitude, altitude, and velocity. Students use the Xplorer GLX, GPS Position Sensor and the Weather Anemometer to make environmental measurements around the perimeter of a park.

Aerial photograph in My World GIS™ showing humidity index and wind chill from PASCO’s Weather/Anemometer Sensor. The size of the block indicates the humidity index and the color indicates the wind chill.

The GPS Position sensor utilizes satellite triangulation to determine the sensor’s position and velocity in outdoor environments. The highly-sensitive receiver is able to track satellites even under tree canopies often found along rivers. The sensor provides latitude, longitude, horizontal speed, course over ground, altitude and the number of tracked satellites. LED indicators let the user know if the GPS Position sensor is currently computing position reports. Overlay sensor data on aerial photos and maps using My World GIS software (see page 17 for more information).

Aerial Photo and GPS position data, color-coded by number of satellites in fix, from hike in Costa Rica. Notice, even in thick jungle canopy, there is continuous satellite reception.

Specifications Measures: Latitude, longitude, elevation, velocity (speed and bearing), number of satellites Position Accuracy: 10 meters, 2D RMS; 5 meters, 2D RMS, WAAS enabled Position Resolution: 2 meters, full Latitude/Longitude mode; 0.2 meters relative position mode Velocity Resolution: 0.1 m/s Time to First Fix (average): 42 sec, cold start; 38 sec, warm start; 1 sec, hot start Channels: 20 Refresh Rate: Once per second

Includes GPS Position Sensor Order Information:

Display digital readings of position data with your other measurements on the Xplorer GLX, or graph latitude and longitude to track your movement.

GPS Position Sensor.................................................................................PS-2175 Recommended: Weather Sensor................................................................................................PS-2154A p. 62 My World GIS 5.0 Student License. ........................................SE-7363 p. 17 PASPORT Sensor Extension Cable..........................................PS-2500 p. 24

See

www.pasco.com/myworld for more

information on My World GIS Mapping software.

67


ScienceWorkshop – 750 Interface

750 Interface CI-7650 A A A A

ScienceWorkshop 750 Experiment Bundles: See pages 90-95

Fast: 250,000 Hz Built-in Function Generator Built-in DC Power Supply (300 mA, ±5 V) Accessory Power Amplifier Increases Power to 1 A, ±10 V (See Page 56)

A Simple USB Connection to Computer

The 750 eliminates the need for a separate signal generator. In this LRC experiment, the 750 powers the circuit with a sinusoidal function and using 3 voltage sensors, measures the voltages across the inductor, capacitor, and resistor simultaneously. In addition, it also records the output voltage and current. DataStudio can display all 5 traces on its oscilloscope so the phase shifts can be measured.

A New Sense and Control Feature The 750 output voltage can now be controlled using the calculator in DataStudio. For example, use the 750 output voltage to turn on a DC motor at a voltage proportional to the light intensity reading on a Light Sensor. New calculator functions included in DataStudio are: Outputswitch (A) Controls the ON/OFF state of the Signal Generator window when using a ScienceWorkshop 750 interface. If the result of the sub-expression A is nonzero, then the Signal Generator is turned ON. Otherwise, the Signal Generator is turned off. The waveform, amplitude or voltage settings of the Signal Generator are unaffected by this command. Outputvoltage (A) Controls the voltage (DC) or amplitude (waveform) of the Signal Generator window when using a ScienceWorkshop 750 interface. The result of the sub-expression A is used to set the output voltage or amplitude. Note: The parameter to output voltage will be limited to the range of +/-5V (without a power amplifier), or +/-10V (with a power amplifier). The 750 uses ScienceWorkshop sensors and cannot use PASPORT sensors.

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www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – 750 Interface

Our Most Powerful Interface 750 Interface Features Built-in Function Generator

State-of-the-Art Circuitry

Contains: Flash EPROMs and Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) for easy field upgrades Dual Port RAM that allows direct memory access (DMA) for fast data transfer Semi-RISC 32 MHz microprocessor 8x Oversampling Surface Mount, Multilayer Circuit Board

1.5 Watt function generator is ideal for basic circuit experiments and low power uses of speakers, wave drivers and sonometers.

sine wave square triangle ramp up ramp down positive square positive ramp up positive ramp down DC

Seven Input Channels

With the 750, all seven channels may be used simultaneously. There are no limitations on what combinations of sensors can be used. Analog and digital inputs may be mixed in any combination.

Features 250,000 Hz Sampling Rate: Sample at 250,000 samples per second on a single analog channel. Students will see a true, real-time oscilloscope and incredibly responsive sound sensor data. Built-in 1.5 W Function Generator: Any experiment requiring a frequency up to 50 kHz and 1.5 watt (300 mA) output can be run without additional power amplification. Output current and voltage can be monitored internally by the 750 Interface. 20 kHz Oscilloscope: With the 750’s increased sampling rate, the oscilloscope becomes a real-time scope with refresh rates up to 40 frames per second. Reduced Noise, More Accurate Data: When sampling at rates less than 100 samples per second, the 750 Interface provides 8X oversampling to reduce noise and provide smoother data curves.

Unique Characteristics Ports: Four Digital, Three Analog, One Output Connection: USB Data Sampling: Simultaneous Analog and Digital Recording Analog Rates: Up to 250,000 samples/ sec (20 KHz Oscilloscope) Digital Rates: 0.1 msec digital timing accuracy (1 mm resolution for Motion Sensor)

Four Digital Channels

Three Analog Channels

 se up to four Photogates or two U Rotary Motion Sensors, a photogate and Motion Sensor II, or any other combination.

Max sample rate of 250,000 Hz when using a single channel.

Function Generator: 0 to 50 KHz, 1.5 W (300 mA) output Power Amp Compatible

Specifications Power: 12 VDC to 20 VDC at 2 A, 2.1 mm jack (AC adapter included) Digital Channels: Four identical channels, TTL compatible (8 mA max. drive current) Maximum input logic transition time: 500 ns Edge sensitive-sampled at 10 KHz. (1 μs res. for Motion Sensor) Analog Input Channels: Three identical channels with differential inputs and 1 MΩ impedance ±10 V maximum usable input voltage range (±12 V absolute input voltage range) Three voltage gain settings on each analog channel: 1, 10, and 100 Small signal bandwidth up to the ADC: 1 MHz for a gain of 1, 800 KHz for a gain of 10, and 120 KHz for a gain of 100; input amplifier slew rate: 1.2 V/μs Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protected Both digital and analog inputs have ESD protection. 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Conversion: Five inputs: channels A–C, analog output voltage and current. Voltage resolution at ADC input: 4.88 mV (.488 mV at a gain of 10, 0.049 mV at a gain of 100) Current measurement resolution: 244 μA, (1 V = 50mA) mA

Offset voltage accuracy < ±3 mV. (For measuring full-scale voltages the total error is less than ±15 mV, accounting for the gain error in the input amplifier.) Sample rate range: once every 3,600 seconds (250 KHz) (Conversion time for consecutive channels in a burst is 2.9 μs.) 8X oversampling for better accuracy at sample rates ≤ 100 Hz. Analog Output: DC value ranges: -4.9976 V to +5.0000 V in steps of 2.44 mV Accuracy at the DIN connector: (±3.6 mV ±0.1% full scale) Peak-to-peak amplitude adjustment ranges for AC wave form: 0 V to ±5 V in steps of 2.44 mV AC waveform frequency ranges: 0.001 Hz to 50 KHz, ±0.01% Maximum amplified output at the banana jacks: about 300 mA at ±5 V, current limited at 300 mA ±12 mA

Order Information: 750 Interface - USB...............................CI-7650 (USB-compatible computers)

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ScienceWorkshop – 750 Interface Accessories

Power Amplifier II

Amplifier Accessories

CI-6552A A For the ScienceWorkshop 750 and 700 Interfaces A Provides up to ±10 V at 1 A

The following accessories are designed for use with the CI-6552A Power Amplifier and 750 ScienceWorkshop Interface.

AC/DC Electronics Laboratory

Digital Frequency Generator: Drive speakers, coils, resonant circuits, vibrating wires, etc. Variable DC Power Supply: Drive electrical circuits, motors, lights, etc. Controlled Energy Source: For a variety of simple and effective experiments in energy transformation and conservation. Note: The ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface has a built-in function generator output of ±5 VDC at up to 300 mA. For higher output voltages and currents, the Power Amplifier II must be used.

Specifications Output: - Variable Voltage: ±10 V - Current: up to 1 Amp - Frequency: from DC to 50 kHz - Resolution: 0.01 Hz - Low Output Impedance: <1 Ω - Line and Load Regulated Overload Indicator: LED Connector: 8-pin DIN for ScienceWorkshop 750 and 700 Interfaces Interface Capability: for ScienceWorkshop 750 and 700 Interfaces only Order Information: Power Amplifier II...................................CI-6552A

8-pin DIN Extender Cable CI-6516 This six meter DINto-DIN extension cord can be used with any analog sensor.

Use this kit with a PASCO computer interface and Power Amplifier or as a stand-alone unit. Two D-cells required (not included). Storage tray holds all components. Components include all standard electronic parts — resistors, capacitors, an inductor coil, a diode, an iron core, a potentiometer and a transistor socket. Order Information: AC/DC Electronics Lab................... EM-8656 p. 256

RLC Circuit

The 750 Interface and LabVIEW software are used to control the Fan Accessory based on measurements from the Motion Sensor. PASCO’s 750 Interface includes seven input channels with a 250,000 Hz maximum sampling rate. - Four digital channels - Three analog channels Any combination of digital and analog sensors can be used simultaneously. Over 40 sensors are available.

CI-6512

Students can use the 750 interface’s builtin 1.5 Watt Function Generator to power circuits or other electrical devices. This board offers a unique set of com­po­nents for demonstrating:

A Voltage/Current Phase Relationships A RLC Resonance A Non-ohmic Characteristics. Component values include resistors, capacitors and an inductor coil.

Order Information: RLC Circuit............................... CI-6512

p. 254

Once data has been collected, students can use the power and flexibility of LabVIEW software to display and condition the data as needed. This system provides the perfect opportunity for students to learn about digital and analog data processing techniques. Go to www.pasco.com/labview to download files needed to use the 750 Interface with LabVIEW.

Motor/Generator Kit

Order Information:

CI-6513

750 Interface – USB..............................CI-7650

Investigate the efficiency of electrical to mech­anical energy conversion as the motor lifts a hanging mass. The precision DC motor is coupled to a ball-bearing windlass by a 10:1 mechanical advantage belt drive. It will lift masses up to 1.5 kg.

Order Information:

Order Information:

8-pin DIN Extender Cable............................................CI-6516

Motor/Generator Kit........................................................ CI-6513

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CI-7650 A Use National Instruments™ LabVIEW™ software with PASCO’s 750 Interface on Windows™ Computers

EM-8656

The optional Power Amplifier connects to both the ScienceWorkshop 700 and 750 (USB and SCSI) Interfaces. It allows students to drive and monitor experiments at the same time. By using the Power Amplifier II, the computer becomes a:

750 Interface and NI LabVIEW

Thermodynamics Kit CI-6514A Measure the electrical equivalent of heat and investigate thermal absorption and radiation. The kit includes a 10 Ω/10 W heating resistor and black, white and polished metal containers. Order Information:

p. 270

Thermodynamics Kit........................................................ CI-6514A p. 243

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – Interface Adapters

Ni ELVIS LabView Adapters

USB/Serial Converter

CI-6718 Analog CI-6719 Digital

CI-6759A

A Use ScienceWorkshop Sensors with NI ELVIS™ and LabVIEW™

A Connects Interface’s Serial Port to USB Port A Use with ScienceWorkshop 300, 500 and 750 A All Drivers Included in DataStudio (1.7 or higher)

Now you can use both digital and analog ScienceWorkshop sensors with National Instruments’ Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS) interface.

Serial Plug

USB Plug

The USB/Serial Converter is used to connect the serial port of ScienceWorkshop Interfaces to the USB port of the computer. The NI ELVIS and LabVIEW software are used to control the Fan Accessory based on measurements from the Force Sensor.

500 Interface CI-6400

Analog NI ELVIS Adapter CI-6718 Digital NI ELVIS Adapter CI-6719

Obtain Higher Sustained Sampling Rates: Increase the maximum continuous data sampling rate by a factor of eight.* Use a Real-time Oscilloscope Display: Increase the oscilloscope frame rate from two frames per second to approximately 10 frames per second, providing a real-time oscilloscope for examining electrical circuits, sound waves and more. Perform Fast, Reliable Data Downloads: A buffer of logged data (up to 17,000 data points) can be downloaded in a few seconds. The same download would take several minutes using a serial port.

NI ELVIS combines instrumentation, data acquisition and a prototyping board in one unit. For more information on NI LabVIEW™ and NI ELVIS, visit www.ni.com. To collect data, plug an Analog or Digital Adapter into the prototyping board and insert a sensor. Connect the adapter to the appropriate I/O ports on ELVIS and the system is ready to use. Once data has been collected, students can use the power and flexibility of LabVIEW software to display and condition the data as needed. This system provides the perfect opportunity for students to learn about digital and analog data processing techniques. Virtual instruments for using PASCO sensors are available FREE at www.pasco.com/labview. Use these VIs to get started or modify them to fit the needs of your laboratory.

Order Information: Analog NI ELVIS Adapter.............................................................................CI-6718 Digital NI ELVIS Adapter...............................................................................CI-6719

*Maximum sample rate of the 500 Interface in burst mode remains at 20,000 Hz

750 SCSI Interface CI-6450

Plug and Play: Connect and disconnect the interface without shutting down the computer. Maximize Your Technology Investment: Allows 750 SCSI Interfaces to be used with the USB port for a modest investment. Use a Real-time Oscilloscope Display: Oscilloscope refresh rate of approximately 10 frames per second, providing a real-time oscilloscope for examining electrical circuits, sound waves and more. Maximum sample rate of the 750 Interface remains at 250,000 Hz in burst mode Order Information: USB/Serial Converter.......................................................................................CI-6759A

71


ScienceWorkshop – 500 Interface

ScienceWorkshop® 500 Interface

Simultaneous Analog and Digital Recording

CI-6400

Collect up to three analog and two digital signals at the same time.

A Use as a computer interface A Use as a datalogger away from the computer A Five sensor ports A Serial connector can be adapted to USB using optional converter

The 500 Interface is battery powered and can record data away from the computer.

A versatile solution for all sciences. Combines good desktop performance with datalogging capability. Compatible with over 40 ScienceWorkshop sensors for use in Chemistry, Biology, Earth Science, Physics and Engineering.

Features Datalogging: The ScienceWorkshop 500 Interface collects data directly to a computer, or students can collect data with just the interface and a sensor. Students can set up an experiment using the 500, disconnect from the computer to collect data outside the classroom and then reconnect for data analysis. Portability: With a built-in battery compartment for 4 “AA” batteries (not included) the ScienceWorkshop 500 Interface can go just about anywhere and still collect data. 50 KB Storage Buffer: Stores data runs and experiment setup information. Cross-Platform Data: Logged data will open on either a Macintosh or a Windowscompatible computer. The interface stores the sensor and data display information so it knows what experiment setup to open.

Unique Characteristics Ports: Two Digital, three Analog Connection: Serial (also USB compatible with USB/Serial Converter) Datalogging: Collect up to 17,000 Analog (force, voltage, etc.) data points or 7,000 Motion Sensor data points Portable: Built-in battery compartment Designed for: Starter, Biology, Chemistry, General Science, Earth Science, Physics, Math Order Information: ScienceWorkshop 500 Interface..................................................CI-6400

72

Datalogging Button

Press this button to record and store data in the interface’s data storage buffer.

Specifications Ports: Two Digital, three Analog Connection: Serial (also USB compatible with USB/Serial Converter) Communication Speed: 19.2 kbaud. Crystal-controlled timebase: ±0.01% accuracy Analog Inputs: three analog channels A: Differential Input— 2 MΩ impedance; gain = 1 or 10 B: Single Ended Input— 200 kΩ impedance; gain = 1 or 10 C: Single Ended Input— 200 kΩ impedance; gain = 1 ±10 V range (±0.02 V + 0.1% of reading); 5 mV resolution 12-bit ADC converts samples Digital Inputs: two digital I/O channels 5 μs timing resolution Datalogging mode without a Computer: Disconnect from your computer and take remote measurements. Low power consumption mode prolongs battery life. 50 KB Storage Buffer: Collect 17,000 Analog (force, voltage, etc.) data points or 7,000 Motion Sensor data points. 50 KB data storage buffer (2N+1 bytes/ sample period, N=# chs, eg: 2 chs @ 10Hz for 1,000 seconds) Multiple data runs are appended to the buffer. Cross-platform Data: Logged data will open on either a Macintosh or Windowscompatible computer. The interface stores the sensor and data display information so it knows what experiment setup to open. Power Supply: 9 V@500mA DC supply or a battery pack (4 AA). All inputs and the serial interface have ESD (electrostatic discharge) protection circuitry that works with power on or off.

Built-in Battery Compartment

Holds four AA batteries for field work (also runs on 9 VAC adapter included).

Make the 500 Interface more Powerful with the USB/Serial Converter CI-6759A

The USB/Serial Converter is the ideal solution for connecting the 500 Interface to the USB port of a computer. USB to serial adapters produced by other companies rely on constantly changing drivers that may or may not work well with a computer. PASCO’s USB/Serial Converter is specifically designed for use with the 300, 500 and 750 Interfaces. Simply install the included version of DataStudio and begin collecting data. Not only is the USB/Serial Converter easy to use, it boosts the performance of the 500 Interface significantly. A Increases continuous data sample rate by a factor of 8. A Increases the oscilloscope display refresh rate by 5 times, providing a near real-time oscilloscope for examining electrical circuits, sound waves and more. A E  nables students to download a buffer of logged data (up to 17,000 data points!) in seconds (versus minutes using the serial connection). The maximum sample rate for the 500 interface remains 20,000 Hz. Order Information: USB/Serial Converter........................CI-6759A

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – Voltage Monitor and Sensor Index

Use PASCO sensors in your own circuits without a computer interface CI Sensor Voltage Monitor CI-6611 A Take advantage of PASCO’s numerous fine quality sensors already mounted in a case and ready to use Plug up to five ScienceWorkshop sensors at a time into the front of the CI Sensor Voltage Monitor. The sensors’ output voltages are accessed at the buss on the back of the CI Sensor Voltage Monitor.

Back

Front Force Sensor Voltage reading is proportional to the force applied

Sensor plugs into CI Sensor Voltage Monitor

1 kg mass

CI Sensor Voltage Monitor Output voltage from sensor

The CI Sensor Voltage Monitor accepts any ScienceWorkshop CI sensor, supplies power to the sensor, and gives access to the output voltage of the sensor through the terminal strip on the back of the box. Monitor the output voltage using a voltmeter or an oscilloscope or wire the sensor output directly into your own circuit. The instruction sheet includes calibration data for relating the output voltage to the sensor reading (for example, 8 V = 50 Newtons for a Force Sensor).

Includes

Specifications

CI Sensor Voltage Monitor

Accepts all ScienceWorkshop Sensors 5 Voltage Outputs Power adapter: 9 VDC, 500 mA

Power Adapter: 9 VDC @ 500 mA Calibration Data in Manual

Not compatible with PASPORT sensors. Order Information: CI Sensor Voltage Monitor..................................................................... CI-6611 Recommended: Any ScienceWorkshop Sensor.......................................................... See pages 74-84 Basic Digital Multimeter. .......................................................................... SE-9786A

ScienceWorkshop Sensor Index The chart below lists the sensors available for use with ScienceWorkshop Interfaces. Sensor Description Acceleration Barometer Carbon Dioxide Charge

Part No. Page No. CI-6558 76 CI-6531A 83 CI-6561 81 CI-6555 79

CI Load Cell Amplifier NEW CI-6464 CI Load Cell and Amplifier Set NEW CI-6465 Colorimeter CI-6747 Conductivity CI-6729 Current CI-6556 Current, High CI-6740 Dissolved Oxygen CI-6542 Drop Counter CI-6499 EKG CI-6539A Flow Rate CI-6730A Force CI-6537 Force, Economy CI-6746 Force Platform CI-6461 Free Fall Adapter ME-9207B G-M Tube SN-7927A Heart Rate CI-6543B Humidity, Relative CI-6559 Ion Probes Ion-Selective Electrode Amplifier Box CI-6738 Laser Switch ME-9259A Light CI-6504A Light, Broad Spectrum CI-6630 Light, High-Sensitivity CI-6604 Light, Infrared CI-6628 Light, UVA CI-9784 Magnetic Field CI-6520A Motion Sensor II CI-6742A Oxygen Gas CI-6562 pH CI-6507A Photogate, Accessory ME-9204B Photogate Head ME-9498A Photogate/Pulley System ME-6838 Pressure Sensor— Absolute CI-6532A Pressure Sensor—Low CI-6534A Respiration Rate CI-6535 Rotary Motion CI-6538 Sound CI-6506B Temperature CI-6605A Temperature, High Accuracy CI-6525 Temperature with Type K Probe CI-6526 Thermistor Temperature CI-6527A Thermocline CI-6731 Time-of-Flight Accessory ME-6810 Voltage CI-6503

76 167 81 80 79 79 82 81 84 83 74 74 76 75 80 84 83 82 82 75 78 78 78 78 78 80 74 80 81 37 75 75 76 76 84 74 84 77 77 77 77 83 75 79

73


ScienceWorkshop – Force and Motion

Force

Economy Force

CI-6537

CI-6746

A ±50 N range A Built-in Accessory Tray PASCO’s durable, reliable Force Sensor was designed specifically for the student physics lab. Wide-range, high-frequency response and a low noise transducer help generate excellent impulse graphs, smooth harmonic motion data and more. The sensor’s special strain gauge consistently generates the same output for the same force and is designed to minimize side loads. Damping materials reduce vibrations caused by collisions without affecting results. Any dynamics cart accessories can be mounted on top of the Force Sensor.

Specifications Force Range: -50 to +50 N Resolution: 0.03 N or 3.1 grams Zero (Tare) Function: Push button Force-overload Protection: Mechanical stop prevents forces of more than 50 N from damaging the sensor Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug Mounts on standard 12.7 mm support rods Order Information: Force Sensor................................................................................................................CI-6537

A ±50 N range A Convenient Finger Grip The Economy Force Sensor is an excellent, low-cost, general-purpose force sensor for the student lab. The finger holes make it ideal for hand-held use. The Economy Force Sensor can mount on a PASCO Dynamics Cart. Ideal for measuring force in one-axis experiments.

Specifications Force Range: -50 to +50 N Resolution: 0.03 N or 3.1 grams Zero (Tare) Function: Push button Force-overload Protection: Mechanical stop prevents forces of more than 50 N from damaging the sensor Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug Mounts on standard 12.7 mm support rods Order Information: Economy Force Sensor. .................................................................................CI-6746

Force Sensor Spares Kit CI-6463 Includes: Hook, rubber bumper and screw to attach to a cart.

Rotary Motion CI-6538 The Rotary Motion Sensor is one of the most versatile position/motion measuring devices in the student physics lab. It is equally adept at measuring linear position with a resolution of 0.055 mm or rotary motion with a resolution of 0.25°. This sensor is also bi-directional, indicating the direction of motion. The 6.35 mm diameter dual ball-bearing shaft extends from both sides of the unit and provides an excellent platform for rotational experiments. The rod clamp (which can be attached on three sides of the sensor) allows the unit to be mounted in almost any orientation. A three-step pulley and a mount for the PASCO Super Pulley make it easy to perform torque experiments.

Specifications Three-step Pulley: 10 mm, 29 mm and 48 mm diameter Resolution: 1° and 0.25° (software selectable) Maximum Speeds: 13 rev/sec at 1° resolution (360 data points/revolution) 3.25 rev/sec at 0.25° resolution (1440 data points/revolution) Optical Encoder: Bidirectional, indicates direction of motion Sensor Dimensions: 10 cm x 5 cm x 3.75 cm, 6.35 mm diameter shaft Connector: Dual stereo phone plug for ScienceWorkshop Interfaces Order Information: Rotary Motion Sensor ...................................................................................CI-6538 Recommended: Extra Three-step Pulley...................................................................................CI-6693 Rotary Motion Sensor for Vernier Interfaces......................CI-6625

74

Order Information: Force Sensor Spares Kit. ......................................................................CI-6463

Motion Sensor II CI-6742A The CI-6742A Motion Sensor II uses ultrasonic pulse technology to measure object position.

Features Shorter Dead Zone: Detects targets as close as 15 cm from the sensor increasing the effective length of a dynamics track (other motion sensors have a dead zone of 42 cm, see below). False Target Rejection Circuit: Reduces false signals from objects near the target’s path of motion, giving cleaner data.

Specifications Minimum Range: 15 cm (short dead zone) Maximum Range: 8 m Transducer Rotation: 360° Near/Far Switch Settings: Narrow: For distances up to 2 m to reject false target signals or ignore air track noise. Standard: For longer distances up to 8 meters. Mounting Options: - 12.7 mm diameter rod or smaller - Directly to the PASCO Dynamics Track - Non-skid rubber feet for table mount Connector: Dual stereo phone plug for ScienceWorkshop Interfaces. Order Information: Motion Sensor II ...................................................................................................CI-6742A Recommended: Accessory Cable ....................................................................................................CI-6748 Allows CI-6742A to be used with CBL/EA100.

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – Photogates

Photogate Head

Time-of-Flight Accessory

ME-9498A

ME-6810

Specifications

The Time-of-Flight Accessory is designed primarily for freefall or projectile experiments. When an object hits the plate, a signal is sent to the interface. Note: When used with the projectile launcher, a photogate is used to start the timer and the 20’ extension cable is recommended.

Photogate Width: 7.5 cm Fall Time: < 50 ns Spatial Resolution: < 1 mm Timing Resolution: 0.1 millisecond Connector: Stereo phone plug Order Information:

Typical Applications

Photogate Head.......................................................................................................ME-9498A Recommended: Photogate Stand. ....................................................................................................ME-9805

A Find Time-of-flight for a ball shot from a Projectile Launcher A Conduct freefall experiments

Photogate/Pulley System Photogate

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ME-6838A Includes: Photogate Head Super Pulley with Rod

Time t = 1.39 s

Time of Flight Pad

Specifications Pulley: Rotational inertia: 1.8 x 10-6 kg m2 Coefficient of friction: < 7 x 10-3 Diameter: 5 cm, Mass: 5.5 g Photogate: Width: 7.5 cm, Fall time: < 50 ns Spatial resolution: < 1 mm Timing Resolution: 0.1 millisecond Connector: Stereo phone plug

Order Information: Time-of-Flight Accessory.............................................................................ME-6810

Freefall Adapter ME-9207B

Order Information: Photogate/Pulley System...........................................................................ME-6838A

Laser Switch ME-9259A

This Laser Switch acts as a large photogate so you can time objects too large to pass through a standard Photogate. Use the Red Laser Pointer below or other laser as your light source.

Laser

Laser Switch

Rod and Clamp

When the steel ball is dropped from the release mechanism, the computer automatically starts timing. When the ball hits the receptor pad, timing stops. Timer measurements of “g” are accurate and repeatable.

Order Information: Laser Switch. ...............................................................................................................ME-9259A Required: Laser such as X-Y Adjustable Diode Laser....................................................................................................................OS-8526A

Order Information: Freefall Adapter. .......................................................................................................ME-9207B

75


ScienceWorkshop – Force/Acceleration/Pressure

CI Load Cell Amplifier

Acceleration

CI-6464

CI-6558

This amplifier allows users of the ScienceWorkshop 500 and 750 interfaces to collect data using the Structures System 100N and 5N Load Cells. This system has been successfully used at sample rates up to 10,000 Hz. The sample rate limit is determined by the interface and computer used. The amplifier accepts either a 100N Load Cell or 5N Load Cell.

A ±5 g range

Shown in use with ME-6990 Truss Set. See page 168.

100 N Load Cell

Order Information: CI Load Cell Amplifier. ................................................ CI-6464 Required For Use: Load Cell 5N............................................................................ PS-2201 p. 167 Or p. 167 Load Cell 100N..................................................................... PS-2200 Also Required: Structures System............................................................................................................. p. 166-178

Force Platform CI-6461 A Large jumping/landing surface A Rugged design The Force Platform is an excellent tool for exploring forces on the human body. The platform measures the force exerted on any object in contact with it. The sturdy glass-filled nylon platform is supported by four force beams which combine to measure the total force on the platform. The optional Handle Set (PS-2548) allows students to push and pull on the Force Platform while holding it vertically.

Typical Applications A Students determine their “hang time” by jumping off the platform, then landing on it

A Use two Force Platforms to investigate Newton’s 3rd Law as two students push against one another

A Measure the normal force on a person riding in an elevator Specifications Range: -1000 N to +4000 N Maximum Update Rate: 200 Hz Platform Size: 35cm x 35cm Zero (tare) Function: Push Button Force Overload Protection Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug

A 0.01 g resolution The Acceleration Sensor can be used to record acceleration data for almost any application. Plug the sensor directly into the ScienceWorkshop 500 Interface to produce a portable acceleration monitoring device.

Includes Acceleration Sensor with two meter detachable cable Bracket and hardware for attaching to a dynamics cart

Specifications Range: ±5 g range Resolution: 0.01 g range Zero Function: Push button, nulls out gravity Sensor Response Settings: Switch-selectable Slow: Reduces high frequency vibrations and noise in experiments measuring acceleration of elevators, roller coasters and automobiles, etc. Fast: Use for short duration events such as cart collisions Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case Order Information: Acceleration Sensor...........................................................................................CI-6558

Low Pressure CI-6534A A Gauge Pressure A Ideal for Small Pressure Changes The Low Pressure Sensor measures gas pressure compared to atmospheric pressure, which is commonly known as gauge pressure. Includes quick connect tubing for a variety of pressure activities. The limited pressure range of the sensor provides excellent accuracy and resolution for measuring small pressure changes.

Specifications Pressure Range: 0 to 10 kPa above atmospheric Number of Pressure Ports: One Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case Order Information: Low Pressure Gauge Sensor...................................................................CI-6534A

Absolute Pressure CI-6532A A Measure Absolute Pressure up to Seven Atmospheres A Includes Syringe for Gas Laws The Absolute Pressure Sensor measures the pressure relative to an internal reference vacuum. Includes a syringe and quick connect tubing for investigating Gas Laws.

Specifications

Pressure Range: 0 to 700 kPa Reference Vacuum Pressure: 40 mTorr Number of Pressure Ports: One Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case

Order Information:

Order Information:

Force Platform............................................................................................................CI-6461

Absolute Pressure Sensor..........................................................................CI-6532A

76

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – Temperature

High-Accuracy Temperature

CI-6527A

CI-6525

A Convert Resistance to Temperature

A Wide Temperature Range A Measures Temperature of Liquid Nitrogen PASCO’s resistance temperature device is a highly accurate Temperature Sensor made from platinum wire.

Specifications Temperature Range: -200 °C to + 200 °C Accuracy: Less than 0.5 °C full scale Resolution: 0.2 °C Output Voltage/Temperature ratio: 10 mV/ °C, linear Temperature Sensing Junction: Platinum wire Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug Order Information:

Thermistor Temperature

The Thermistor Sensor is designed to read the resistance from a thermistor (100 kΩ or 10 kΩ at 25 °C) and convert it to temperature. The computer displays the temperature in real-time in °C, eliminating the need for an ohmmeter and the use of a conversion lookup table. The sensor also reads in ohms so it can be used to read any resistance between 3 kΩ and 360 kΩ. The Thermistor Sensor reads the type of thermistors (100 kΩ or 10 kΩ at 25 °C) featured in PASCO equipment, such as: Thermal Radiation Cube (TD-8554A) Mechanical Equivalent of Heat (TD-8551A)  Thermal Efficiency Apparatus (TD-8564) Thermal Expansion (TD-8558A) Compact Thermal Expansion (TD-8578 and TD-8579A)  Thermal Cavity (TD-8580)

Specifications:

Temperature

Resistance Range: 3.0 kΩ to 360.0 kΩ± 0.2 kΩ Temperature Range: 0 °C to 120 °C Resolution: 0.05 °C at 25 °C Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case

CI-6605A

Includes:

A Quick Response

BNC-to-2 Banana Cable Two Alligator Clips – Banana

High-Accuracy Temperature Sensor...............................................CI-6525

A Rugged Sensor This low thermal mass Temperature Sensor ensures a quick response and negligible impact on measured temperatures. Teflon® covers, for use in harsh liquids or chemical solutions, are available as an accessory.

Specifications Temperature Range: -35 °C to + 135 °C Accuracy: ±0.5 °C Resolution: 0.05 °C Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug Order Information: Temperature Sensor...................................................................................CI-6605A

Type K Temperature CI-6526 A Extra Long Probe The CI-6526 Type K Thermocouple is useful for both low and high temperature applications. Its long probe length (95 cm) makes it ideal for measuring temperature in hard-to-reach places.

Specifications Range: -200 °C to +400 °C Accuracy: Linear from 0 °C to +400 °C (3 °C± 3% of reading) Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug Order Information: Type K Temperature Sensor..............................................................................CI-6526 Replacement Supply: Type K Thermocouple...............................................................................................PS-2155

One Sample 10kΩ Thermistor One Sample 100kΩ Thermistor

Order Information: Thermistor Temperature Sensor................................................................ CI-6527A Replacement Thermistor Cable. ................................................................. PS-2515 (Includes: 3.5 mm Stereo Phone-to-2 Banana Cable)

Thermistor Probes (The probes below must be used with CI-6527A)

Skin/Surface

PS-2131

Our Skin/Surface Temperature Sensor has a wider range to allow students to measure a wider variety of surfaces.

Specifications Range: -10 to +70 °C Order Information: Skin/Surface.................................................................................................................PS-2131

Fast Response

PS-2135 (3 pack)

Our Fast-Response Temperature Sensor’s low thermal mass and small size allows students to see changes in temperature they could never see before. Momentarily dip the sensor in water and then watch as it cools from evaporation and returns to ambient.

Specifications Range: -30 to +105 °C Order Information: Fast Response (3 pack). .................................................................................PS-2135

77


ScienceWorkshop – Light

Light

Light High-Sensitivity

CI-6504A

CI-6604 A Ideal for low light experiments

A General Purpose Light Sensor PASCO’s Light Sensor is ideal for indoor and outdoor relative light intensity experiments. It can be used in a lighted room for most experiments.

The High-Sensitivity Light Sensor is designed for experiments involving low light level conditions.

Specifications

A Compare light intensity vs. distance A Study interference/diffraction/polarization

Sensing Element: Si PIN photodiode Spectral Response: 320 nm to 1100 nm Gain Levels: 100x, 10x, 1x, switch-selectable Output Voltage: 0V to 5V Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case Maximum Light Intensity Levels (lux): Gain Setting: 1x 10x Approximate Lux: 5 0.5

Specifications

Order Information:

Typical Applications A Measure relative light intensities in daylight (even monitor a solar eclipse)

Sensing Element: Si PIN photodiode Spectral Response: 320 nm to 1100 nm Gain Levels: 100x, 10x, 1x, switch-selectable Output Voltage: 0V to 5V Pin Configuration: 5-pin DIN plug on case Maximum Light Intensity Levels (lux): Gain Setting: 1x 10x Approximate Lux: 500 50

Light High-Sensitivity Sensor...............................................................CI-6604

Light Infrared CI-6628 A For heat studies 100x 5

Order Information: Light Sensor.................................................................................................................CI-6504A

The Infrared Sensor is sensitive in the infrared portion (up to 40,000 nm) of the spectrum, but also detects the visible spectrum. It will detect the radiation from a person’s hand. The response is linear over its entire frequency range.

Specifications Sensing Element: 48 junction, KRS-5 window, argon gas-filled thermopile Spectral Response: Up to 40,000 nm (linear) Gain Levels: 100x, 10x, 1x, switch-selectable Output Voltage: 0V to 5V Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case

Light Broad Spectrum CI-6630 A For use with Spectrophotometer

Order Information:

A Ideal for Black Body Spectrum

Light UVA

Infrared Sensor.........................................................................................................CI-6628

The Broad Spectrum Light Sensor is designed specifically for use with our OS-8539 Educational Spectrophotometer System and OS-8543 Prism Spectrophotometer Accessory for Black Body experiments. The Broad Spectrum Light Sensor uses a thermopile and window combination that respond to both the near infrared and visible light necessary for the Black Body experiment.

Typical Applications A Black Body Experiment

Sensing Element: BaF2 window, xenon gas-filled thermopile Output Voltage: 0V to 10V Spectral Response: 300 to 10,000 nm. Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN on case Order Information:

78

CI-9784 A Directly measure UV radiation The Ultraviolet Light Sensor detects the UVA band (315 nm - 400 nm) with the UVA filter installed. With the UVA filter removed, the sensor detects the visible as well as the UVA. The sensor includes the UVA filter, a collimator and a diffuser.

Specifications

Specifications

Light Broad Spectrum Sensor

100x 0.05

Sensing Element: Photodiode Spectral Response: With included UVA filter– 315 nm to 400 nm Gain Levels: 100x, 10x, 1x, switch-selectable Output Voltage: 0V to 5 V Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case

Order Information: . ...........................................................

CI-6630

UVA Light Sensor..........................................................................................CI-9784

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – Voltage/Current/Charge

Voltage

Current

CI-6503

CI-6556

A Standard banana plugs and alligator clips The Voltage Sensor provides a simple connection between a ScienceWorkshop interface and an electronic circuit.

Typical Applications A Study resistance, voltage and capacitance in circuits A Electroplating A Conduct power amplifier experiments Specifications Voltage Range: ±10 V AC/DC Pin Configuration: 5-pin DIN plug Probe ends are standard banana plugs. Two alligator clip adapters included. Order Information: Voltage Sensor..........................................................................................................CI-6503

High Current CI-6740

A 1 Ω sensing resistor The Current Sensor determines the current through it by measuring the voltage across the internal 1.00 Ω resistor. Up to 1.5 A can be measured.

Typical Applications A Study resistance, voltage and capacitance in circuits Specifications Maximum Current Input: 1.5 A* Maximum Differential Voltage: 1.5 V* Maximum Common Mode Voltage: 10 V Resolution: 5 mA (1X gain), 0.5 mA (10X gain) Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN on case (*DC or AC RMS (root mean square)) Order Information: Current Sensor..........................................................................................................CI-6556

Current Probe

PS-2184

The PS-2184 and a PASCO voltage sensor allow the measurement of current Current between -4 A and +4 A. The probe contains a precision 0.10 ohm resistor and the current is measured by creating a DataStudio calculation: I=V/R.

Current Voltage Sensor (not included)

Specifications A Measures up to 10 Amps A Isolated Circuit Measure the transient or steady state current at any point in a circuit. The High Current Sensor is ideal for circuits in which the current exceeds 1 Amp. Instead of a sensing resistor, the High Current Sensor features a Hall Effect chip. Therefore, the sensor has a negligible internal resistance and will not influence the current measurements from the circuit. The sensor includes a 10 Amp fuse which can be easily replaced.

Resistor: 0.10 Ohm, 3.0W, 1.0% Maximum Current: 4A Maximum Voltage: 10V Maximum Voltage Without Damage: 30V Terminals: 4mm Banana Jacks Order Information: Current Probe.............................................................................................................PS-2184

Charge

CI-6555 A Ideal for electrostatics

Typical Applications: A Measure the current through PASCO coils A Determine the output from the Hand Crank Generator

PASCO’s Charge Sensor is designed for experiments in electrostatics such as inductive charging, charge production and distribution, charge on a capacitor, etc.

Specifications:

Typical Applications A Connect to a Faraday Ice Pail to measure the total charge on an

Maximum Current Input: +/- 10 Amps Maximum Voltage Input: +/- 30 Volts Frequency Response: DC – 10 KHz Fuse: 10 Amps, Fast Acting (Replaceable) Pin Configuration: 8-Pin DIN plug Order Information: High Current Sensor..........................................................................................CI-6740

BNC Adapter CI-6685 This adapter allows BNC-terminated cables (such as oscilloscope probes) to be connected to a ScienceWorkshop Interface. Order Information: BNC Adapter.................................................................................................................CI-6685

object by the induction method

A Use as a high-input impedance voltmeter (1012Ω) Specifications Input Capacitance: 0.01µF ±5% Input Resistance: 1012 ohms (1000 gigaohms) Maximum Input Voltage: 150 V Input Connector: BNC Input Cable: Shielded, 0.9m, alligator clip termination Pin Configuration: 8-Pin DIN plug on case Sensor Gain: 1x 5x 20x Voltage Range: ±10 V ±2 V ±0.5 V Charge Range: ±0.1µC ±0.02µC ±0.005µC Order Information: Charge Sensor........................................................................................... CI-6555 Recommended: p. 251 Faraday Ice Pail......................................................................................... ES-9042A

79


ScienceWorkshop – Magnetic Field, Nuclear and Chemistry

Magnetic Field

Conductivity

CI-6520A

CI-6729

A Measures radial or axial fields A Tare button PASCO’s Magnetic Field Sensor is sensitive enough to detect the earth’s magnetic field. Its application in the physics lab includes measuring and plotting fields in single or Helmholtz coils, solenoids, electromagnets and magnets.

Features Measures radial or axial fields: Two switch-selectable Hall Effect

sensors measure either radial or axial fields. Tare button: Zeroing or nulling out existing fields is accomplished by pushing the Tare button. Three switchable ranges of sensitivity: Full scale ranges of 10, 100 and 1,000 Gauss. Measurements from earth’s magnetic field to strong magnets. 7.5 cm probe: Sensors are mounted at the end of a fully encapsulated 7.5 cm long probe.

Specifications Sensitivity: ± 10 Gauss, 50 mG resolution ± 100 Gauss, 50 mG resolution ± 1000 Gauss, 500 mG resolution Measurement modes: Axial and Radial Probe Length: 7.5 cm Pin Configuration: 8-Pin DIN plug on case Order Information: Magnetic Field Sensor............................................................................CI-6520A Recommended: Zero Gauss Chamber................................................................................EM-8652 p. 50

The CI-6729 Conductivity Sensor, including amplifier box and 1x electrode, is designed for monitoring conductivity (µS/cm) in aqueous solutions. DataStudio can convert data to total dissolved solids (mg/L).

Typical Applications A Compare conductivity of different water samples A Study the effects of chemical flocculants on conductivity Specifications Sensitivity Ranges: 0 to 200 µS/cm, 0 to 2000 µS/cm, 0 to 20,000 µS/cm; switch-selectable on amplifier box Electrode: Platinized, reduces the effects of cell polarization Cell Constant: 1x Connector: 8-pin DIN plug on case Order Information: 1x Model Conductivity Sensor. ...........................................................CI-6729 10x Conductivity Electrode.......................................................................CI-6739A

Conductivity Replacement Probe PS-2571 (Previously part number 699-06621) Order Information: Conductivity Replacement Probe................................................. PS-2571

O2 Gas G-M Tube/Power Supply

CI-6562

SN-7927A A Ideal general purpose nuclear sensor

The G-M Tube/Power Supply senses alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Power for the tube is supplied through the connection to an interface that supplies an operating voltage of +5 V.

Specifications Sensitivity: Beta, Gamma, Alpha Count Detection: Audio signal Window Thickness: 1.5 to 2 mg/cm2, mica Gas Filling: Neon, Argon and Halogen Starting/Operating Voltage for tube: 450 VDC/500 VDC Dead Time: 90 µs Order Information: G-M Tube/Power Supply...............................................................................SN-7927A

80

The Oxygen Gas Sensor accurately measures oxygen concentration in the atmosphere or enclosed spaces, such as terrariums. The sensor’s wide range (0-100%) means students can use it with any experiment or investigation. Use in combination with the CO2 Gas Sensor to perform an even wider variety of environmental and physiology activities in the classroom or in the field.

Specifications Range: 0 to 100% Accuracy: ±1% (from 0 to 40%) Resolution: 0.024% Order Information: O2 Gas Sensor...........................................................................................................CI-6562 Replacement Supplies: Replacement Electrode...................................................................................PS-6524

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – Chemistry

pH

Drop Counter (High Accuracy)

CI-6507A

CI-6499

The pH Sensor is a fundamental sensor for studying a wide range of topics that involve acid-base interactions.

A Study water quality

At last, a professional Drop Counter can become part of your student lab. Our Drop Counter has a wider (18 x 13 mm) drop window for better drop detection and easier alignment with burettes. Works equally well with large or small, fast or slow drops. Easy calibration requires entering just one number into the computer. Includes a Micro Stir Bar for use with our pH and Conductivity Probes.

Specifications

A Measures up to 40 drops per second with drops as small as

Typical Applications A Monitor acid-base titrations A Understand the role of buffers

pH Range: 0 to 14 Electrode: Gel-filled (nonrefillable) Ag-AgCl combination electrode with a membrane resistance of 50 MΩ at 25° C pH-to-voltage Ratio: 5 pH = 0.1 V Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case Order Information: pH Sensor........................................................................................................................CI-6507A

.64 mm.

A Silicone rubber-sealed polypropylene is fluid resistant and protects sensor from mild acids and bases.

A Automatically recalibrates for maximum sensitivity each time the unit is turned on.

Typical Applications A Determine the equivalence point

pH Replacement Electrode

Specifications

PS-2573

Holds up to three sensors in a 150 mL beaker LED drop indicator UV filter rejects all visible light - not susceptible to variations in room lighting Stereo phone plug connector

(Previously part number 699-195) Order Information: pH Replacement Electrode........................................................................... PS-2573

Colorimeter CI-6747 PASCO’s Colorimeter shines a light through a solution and measures the percent transmittance. Connect to an interface or operate portably in a stand-alone mode. A two-line LCD display prompts you through the measurement process. Automatic calibration saves time and improves accuracy. Water resistant cuvette holder reduces exposure of optics and electronics to sample spills.

Typical Applications A Verify Beer’s Law A Monitor reaction rates for reactions that involve color changes, water clarity, etc.

Specifications Transmittance Range: 0 to 100% Transmittance with 0.1% resolution Wavelengths: 470 nm (blue), 565 nm (green), 635 nm (orange) and 697 nm (red) LCD Display: Updates every 0.5 seconds Pin Configuration: 6-pin mini-DIN socket Includes 15 cuvettes and a 6 foot cable (6-pin mini-DIN to 8-pin DIN) for connection to ScienceWorkshop Interfaces. Batteries (four “AA” cells) not included. Order Information: Colorimeter Sensor.............................................................................................CI-6747 Replacement Supplies: Cuvettes and Caps................................................................................................SE-8739 (includes 100 cuvettes and 20 caps)

Order Information: High-Accuracy Drop Counter..................................................................CI-6499

CO2 CI-6561 The CO2 Sensor measures carbon dioxide gas concentration, in either an open or closed system. Sensor uses NDIR (non-dispersive infrared) detection technology to sense the CO2 level. On-board microprocessor supports user calibration and DSP (digital signal processing) to reduce environmental noise and improve accuracy and resolution. The CO2 concentration level updates once each second. Suitable for use in classroom biological and environmental experiments.

Typical Applications A CO2 vs. Oxygen cycles in a terrarium A Compare indoor vs. outdoor CO2 levels A Terrarium studies of cellular respiration A Chemical reaction studies Specifications Range: 0 to 10,000 ppm or 0 to 100,000 ppm Resolution: 0 to 10,000 (5 ppm); 0 to 10,000 (50 ppm) Accuracy: 0 to 10,000: ±100 ppm or 10% of value, whichever is greater. 10,000 to 50,000: 20% of value. Over 50,000: qualitative only. Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case Order Information: CO2 Sensor....................................................................................................................CI-6561

81


ScienceWorkshop – Chemistry

Ion-Selective Electrodes

Dissolved Oxygen

CI-6738

CI-6542

PASCO’s family of Ion-Selective Electrodes provides either point readings or continuous monitoring of specific ion concentrations in water. PASCO recommends buying one amplifier box and desired electrodes for each student, group or class that will use the sensors. Each Ion-Selective Electrode will work with the CI-6738 Amplifier Box. Two-meter cable included. See chart below for specifications.

Typical Applications A Determine the concentration of a specific ion in a solution A Water quality studies

The Dissolved Oxygen (DO2) Sensor provides real-time, aqueous oxygen concentration measurements. Maintenance is simple due to an easy-to-replace electrode tip. Just pop the membrane cartridge out with a special plunger and insert a new cartridge (one replacement electrode kit is included).

Typical Applications A Water quality studies A Monitor the effect of yeast respiration on O2 concentration

Specifications Input Impedance: >200MΩ Voltage Gain: 1x

Specifications

Electrode Connector: BNC Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case Functions with PASCO Ion-selective Probes, 699-085 pH Electrode and most third-party ion-selective electrodes.

Oxygen Concentration Range: 0 to 13.5 mg/l (the maximum in saturated water at 3 °C and 760 torr) Sensor Response Time: ≈1 second Pin Configuration: 5-pin DIN plug on case

PASCO Ion-Selective Electrode Prerequisite PASCO Ion-Selective Electrodes are industrial-quality probes that give excellent results when properly used. Operation of PASCO’s electrodes assumes training in the safe handling of flammable, caustic and corrosive chemicals and a working knowledge of serial dilution and calibration procedures.

Order Information: Dissolved Oxygen Sensor...........................................................................CI-6542

Dissolved Oxygen Replacement Probe PS-2572 (Previously part number 699-063230)

Order Information: Ion-selective Electrode Amplifier Box

. ..................................

CI-6738

Order Information: Dissolved Oxygen Replacement Probe...................................... PS-2572

Electrode

Molar Range

pH Range

Interfering Ions

Ammonium (NH4+)

1.0 to 5x10-6

4-10

Cs+, K+, T1+, H+, Ag+, +Tris+, Li+, Na+

Part # CI-6717

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

1x10-2 to 1x10-4

4.8-5.2

Volatile weak acids

CI-6726

Calcium (Ca+2)

1.0 to 5x10-6

3-10

Pb+2, Hg+2, Cu+2, Ni+2

CI-6727

Chloride (Cl-)

1.0 to 5x10-5

2-12

S-2, I-, CN-, Br-

CI-6732

Lead (Pb+2)

1x10-1 to 1x10-6

3-8

Ag+, Hg+2, Cu+2, CD+2, Fe+2

CI-6736

Fluoride (F-)

Saturated to 1x10-6

5-8

OH-

CI-6728

Nitrate (NO3-)

1.0 to 7x10-6

2.5-11

CIO4-, I-, CN-, BF4-

CI-6735

Potassium (K+)

1.0 to 7x10-6

2-12

Cs+, NH4+

CI-6733

Sodium (Na+)

Saturated to 1x10-6

5-12

H+, K+, Li+, Ag+, Cs+, Tl+

CI-6734

* Prices do not include the amplifier box.

Required: At least one CI-6738 Ion-selective Electrode Amplifier Box.

82

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop – Environmental

Barometer

Thermocline

CI-6531A

CI-6731

PASCO’s Barometer Sensor will measure changes in atmospheric pressure over long and short periods of time.

Typical Applications A Weather station experiments A Detect the regular barometric pressure changes associated with tidal flow

A Measure changes in elevation by measuring the pressure at known minimum and maximum elevations and creating a standard elevation curve

Specifications Range: 813 to 1084 mbars (24-32 inches Hg) Resolution: 0.17 mbars (0.005 inches Hg) Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case

The Thermocline Sensor allows students to perform water studies in Ecology, Earth Science, Biology and Marine Science. It can be used to study thermoclines in ponds and small lakes, and for profiling the depth of streams, small rivers and shorelines. It can also be anchored to study ocean tides.

Features Automatic Water Depth Measurement: No need to read markings on the cable and manually enter depth. Weighted Housing: Provides depth measurement stability in fast flow stream measurements. Sturdy 10 m Cable: Plenty of depth to study pond and small lake thermoclines.

Specifications Temperature: 5 °C to 105 °C, ±1 °C Depth: Down to 10 m with resolution of 0.03 m Connectors: Uses two (one for temperature, one for depth) 8-pin DIN plugs Order Information: Thermocline Sensor...........................................................................................CI-6731

Order Information: Barometer........................................................................................................................CI-6531A

Flow Rate CI-6730A

Relative Humidity CI-6559

The Flow Rate Sensor is designed specifically to measure flow rate of streams, rivers and other flowing systems.

The Relative Humidity Sensor is designed for single readings or continuous monitoring of relative humidity (RH).

Typical Applications A Weather station experiments A Checking humidity in a terrarium, greenhouse or other enclosure Specifications Humidity Ranges: 5-95% relative humidity (non-condensing) Accuracy: ±5% RH Response Rate: ≈15 seconds in slow moving air at 25 °C Repeatability: ±0.5% RH Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case

Typical Application A Study the relationship between flow rate and depth in a stream. Specifications Flow Range: 0 m/s to 3.5 m/s Maximum Length: 1.8 m Telescoping Handle Flow Rate Measurement: DataStudio monitors the revolutions made by a small magnet on a submersible propeller and converts the revolutions to feet per second of flow. Students can easily convert the linear flow rate to volume discharge rates in real time using DataStudio.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Relative Humidity Sensor...........................................................................CI-6559

Flow Rate Sensor..................................................................................................CI-6730A

83


ScienceWorkshop â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Sound and Physiological

Sound

Heart Rate

CI-6506B

CI-6543B

A Measures sound waveform

The Sound Sensor houses a sensitive microphone designed to display audio waveforms of sound levels between 45 and 100 dB.

Typical Applications A Measure basic sound intensity A Measure speed of sound measurement A Measure beats A Study the doppler effect A Conduct voice studies A Learn musical instrument overtones Specifications Frequency Response: 20 to 7,200 Hz Decibel Range: 45 to >100 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio: < 60 dB Amplification: Two stages condition low-level signals Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case

The Heart Rate Sensor shines light through the ear lobe and measures transmittance. As the heart forces blood through the vessels in the lobe, the light transmittance of the lobe changes. The signal can be graphed by DataStudio and the heart rate calculated.

Typical Applications A Measure heart rate A Conduct health studies Specifications Pin Configuration: 5-pin DIN plug on case

Order Information:

Order Information:

Sound Sensor.............................................................................................................CI-6506B

Heart Rate Sensor. ...............................................................................................CI-6543B

EKG CI-6539A

The EKG Sensor measures the electrical signals produced by the heart. Students will learn to understand the relationship between muscle depolarization and repolarization and the contraction of the chambers of the heart.

Typical Applications A Generate an EKG graph A Conduct health/exercise studies Specifications Pin Configuration: 5-pin DIN plug on case A package of 100 disposable silver/silver chloride electrodes is included.

Respiration Rate CI-6535

With the respiration belt wrapped around their chest, students can measure their respiration rate. The Respiration Rate Sensor includes the CI-6534A Low Pressure Sensor.

Typical Applications A Measure respiration rate A Conduct health/exercise studies Specifications Pin Configuration: 8-pin DIN plug on case

Order Information:

Order Information:

EKG Sensor...................................................................................................................CI-6539A Replacement Supplies: EKG Electrode Patches (100 pack)....................................................CI-6620

Respiration Rate Sensor...............................................................................CI-6535 Replacement Supplies: Replacement Belt...................................................................................................CI-9842

84

www.pasco.com


PASPORT – Analog and Digital Adapters

Use your Black ScienceWorkshop Sensors with Blue PASPORT Interfaces! A No Need to Buy New Sensors

Analog Adapter PS-2158 Use an Analog Adapter to connect any black ScienceWorkshop sensor having an 8-pin or 5-pin DIN connector to a PASPORT interface.

Digital Adapter PS-2159 Use a Digital Adapter to connect any black sensor having one or two 1/4” stereo phone plugs to a PASPORT interface. The Digital Adapter is always needed to connect photogates to PASPORT interfaces.

Plug into PASPORT Interface

Plug in one or two black digital ScienceWorkshop Sensors

Plug in black analog ScienceWorkshop Sensor

Plug into PASPORT Interface

Black ScienceWorkshop sensors which connect with an Analog Adapter: Sensor Description Part No. Acceleration CI-6558 Barometer CI-6531A BNC Adapter CI-6685 Charge CI-6555 Colorimeter CI-6747 Conductivity CI-6729 Current CI-6556 Current, High CI-6740 Dissolved Oxygen CI-6542 EKG CI-6539A Force CI-6537 Force, Economy CI-6746 Force Platform CI-6461 Heart Rate CI-6543B Humidity, Relative CI-6559 Infrared CI-6628 Ion Probes Ion-Selective Electrode Amplifier Box CI-6738 Light CI-6504A Light, Broad Spectrum CI-6630 Light, High-Sensitivity CI-6604 Light, UVA CI-9784 Magnetic Field CI-6520A pH CI-6507A Pressure Sensor— Absolute CI-6532A Pressure Sensor—Low CI-6534A Respiration Rate CI-6535 Sound CI-6506B Temperature CI-6605A Temperature, High Accuracy CI-6525 Temperature with Type K Probe CI-6526 Thermistor Temperature CI-6527A Thermocline CI-6731 Voltage CI-6503

Page No. 76 83 79 79 81 80 79 79 82 84 74 74 76 84 83 78 82 82 78 78 78 78 80 81 76 76 84 84 77 77 77 77 83 79

Black ScienceWorkshop sensors which connect with a Digital Adapter: Sensor Description

Part No.

Page No.

Drop Counter

CI-6499

81

Flow Rate

CI-6730A

83

Free Fall Adapter

ME-9207B

75

G-M Tube

SN-7927A

80

Laser Switch

ME-9259A

75

Motion Sensor II

CI-6742A

74

Photogate, Accessory

ME-9204B

37

Photogate Head

ME-9498A

75

Photogate/Pulley System

ME-6838

75

Rotary Motion

CI-6538

74

Time-of-Flight Accessory

ME-6810

75

Note: For the Xplorer, Analog and Digital Adapters can only be used when the Xplorer is plugged into a computer. The Xplorer GLX can be used stand-alone with the adapters.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Analog Adapter.........................................................................................................PS-2158

Digital Adapter..........................................................................................................PS-2159

85


DataStudio

DataStudio® Data Acquisition Software A Controls All PASCO Interfaces A Record and Analyze Data A Windows and MAC Compatible

DataStudio is the software program that controls all of PASCO’s interfaces. No matter which interface you own, or whether you use a PC or a MAC, DataStudio is the only program you need to record and analyze data.

A Also Works with MAC Universal Binary

PASPORT Interfaces USB Link

Xplorer

ScienceWorkshop Interfaces 500 PowerLink

Xplorer GLX

750

Works with all ScienceWorkshop and PASPORT Interfaces

AirLink 2

SPARKlink

DataStudio Lite Included with all Interfaces

Works with Any Type of Computer

PASCO provides DataStudio Lite software with each PASPORT purchase, or download for free. With the free version of DataStudio, students can:

A

Windows

A

MAC

A

Intel-based MAC

A

Power PC-based MAC

A

 se EZscreens for simple science activities U (for use with PASPORT only)

A

Conduct eLabs using existing Electronic Workbooks

A

Display data in graph, table or digits formats

Multi Language Support

A

Graph a single variable vs. time

Arabic, Chinese (simplified), Chinese (traditional), Danish, English, French Canadian, German, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish.

86

(Windows version)

www.pasco.com


DataStudio

Powerful DataStudio Analysis Tools Graphs

Experiment Calculator

DataStudio graphs are an extremely powerful way to analyze data. The multifaceted tools allow students to reveal and understand science in a way not easily accomplished otherwise.

A

 alculated quantiC ties, such as kinetic energy or inverse volume, can be graphed in realtime or displayed in a table.

A

 ata modeling – To D examine the shape of a function, type the equation into the calculator, provide a variable range, and Data Studio will graph it. Change parameters and see how the shape changes.

Editable Data: A

 anually input or import M data from other sources.

A

 elete or hide extraneD ous data points so they do not affect your statistics or graph results.

A

Create theoretical data sets with ease.

Basic Meter Displays: A

 eter displays can be enlarged to M fill your entire monitor – great for large classroom or lecture hall demonstrations.

A

 ultiple meters can be displayed in M one window.

A

 ur analog meter can be formatted in O five different styles – Small Sweep, Semicircle, Large Sweep, Full Circle and Custom Sweep.

Histogram

Oscilloscope

 tack bins S Compare bins (side by side) A Overlay bins

A

A

Displays multiple traces (up to five)

A

Reasons to Upgrade to the Full Version of DataStudio All interface and sensor purchases come with a complimentary copy of DataStudio Lite. DataStudio Lite is sufficient to use pre-configured DataStudio files, such as those found in PASCO Physics Experiments (see page 95). However, if you want to change the preconfigured files to fit your labs, create setup files of your own, and/or do more intense data analysis, you need the full version of DataStudio.

DataStudio Lite is limited to:

The full version of DataStudio allows: A

Creating DataStudio experiment files

A

Authoring electronic workbooks

A

Additional displays: meter, FFT, oscilloscope, histogram

A

 ultiple instances of each type of display and more than one M run on each display

A

Start and stop conditions Manual sampling

A

 iewing and taking data using pre-configured files and electronic V workbooks made with the full version

A A

Calculator

A

 aking data and displaying it on a graph, table, or digits display T (only one run on each)

A

Curve-fitting

A

Graph annotations

A

 utoscale, Smart Tool, Statistics, and Data Run Selection A on the graph

A

Data Editing

A

Synchronizing QuickTime videos and data

A

 sing WAVEPORT, our sound plug-in software U (purchased separately, see page 88)

System Requirements Windows: Windows 2000 or higher, Pentium or equivalent processor, 50 MB hard drive space, 16 MB RAM Macintosh: MAC OS X v. 10.4 or higher (Universal Binary), 50 MB hard drive space, 16 MB RAM

Order Information: DataStudio Software Single User. ...................................................................................................................CI-6870G Site License...................................................................................................................CI-6871G

87


DataStudio – Waveport

Software Single User Classroom License Site License

CI-6872D CI-6858B CI-6874D

A No sensors required A Uses computer sound card to generate and record sound A Intuitive, yet powerful analysis tools

In the Sound Analyzer mode, the computer listens to sound through a microphone. The waveform and the FFT of the frequencies comprising the sound are displayed. In this case, a student was singing a note centered on 280 Hz.

Using the hand icons, students can change the frequency, wavelength, and phase of sound waves. In this case, the sum of the waves is shown and beats can be seen and heard. Never before have students had the opportunity to learn about waves and sound in such an interactive manner. WAVEPORT engages students’ senses, allowing them to see, hear and feel sound waves. WAVEPORT software uses only the internal sound capability of the computer, so no additional equipment is necessary. WAVEPORT also enables students to collect and analyze sound waves. Using an external sound source or a favorite music CD, students can see the changes in the sound waves as they change the input sound. Students can whistle into the computer microphone and observe the waveform on the screen. Next, they can change the pitch of their whistle and see the changes in the waveform. WAVEPORT allows students to directly manipulate a waveform to see, feel and hear the effects of their manipulations. Students can change the frequency of the waveform by dragging an intuitive icon across the screen. As the students change the frequency on the screen, they can hear the changing sound waves from the computer’s speakers! All data created in WAVEPORT can easily be exported into DataStudio for more detailed analysis.

WAVEPORT Computer Requirements Windows™: 2000 or higher Free RAM: 8 MB (16 MB preferred), CD-ROM drive, hard disk (20 MB free)

MAC

Macintosh®: MAC OS X v. 10.4 or higher (Universal Binary), Free RAM: 8 MB (16 MB preferred), CD-ROM drive, hard disk (20 MB free)

88

Windows

In the Piano mode, students can relate pressing piano keys to the notes they hear and the waveform they see.

Each WAVEPORT CD includes: WAVEPORT Software Six DataStudio Workbooks: - Sound Creator Tutorial - Creating Sound - Constructive/Destructive Interference

- Sound Analyzer Tutorial - Beat Frequency - Capturing Sound

DataStudio Lite WAVEPORT may be purchased as a single copy for use with one computer, or as a Classroom License for use in a single K-12 classroom, or as a Site License for use on all computers in a high school or college/university department. Order Information: WAVEPORT Software (Single User)..............................................CI-6872D WAVEPORT Software (Site License).............................................CI-6874D

www.pasco.com


DataStudio – Workbooks

Physics Electronic Workbooks:

Students can collect and analyze data on live pages which have instructions, real-time graphs, analysis tools, and student response sections.

PASPORT Workbooks Volume 1

PS-2505

Volume 2

PS-2508

750-based Workbooks Volume 1 Volume 2

CI-6876 CI-6882

A Workbook pages with live displays A Step-by-step illustrated instructions A Designed by physics teachers

The opening pages challenge students with thought-provoking questions.

This page of the Conservation of Angular Momentum workbook instructs the student how to set-up the experiment using photographs and diagrams.

During the analysis part of the lab the graphs are live and the students can use the analysis tools, such as the cursor tool, to measure on the graph. Students can also type numerical results into tables and type answers to the questions.

Students can utilize DataStudio’s powerful analysis tools to construct ideas.

PASPORT-based Workbooks Volume 1 (Mechanics):

750-based Workbooks Volume 1 (Mechanics):

A PASPORT workbooks for high school level A 750-based workbooks for college level A Sample data and lab tips in teacher version DataStudio is used to run these electronic workbooks. Teachers designed and wrote the electronic instructions to be used as an electronic lab book: Page by page, students follow the instructions to set up the equipment, take data in real-time graphs and tables, analyze the data, record the results by typing in the numerical results, and answer the questions, all without leaving the electronic workbook environment.

DataStudio Lite and PASCO equipment are required to use Physics Electronic Workbooks. Download a free copy of DataStudio Lite at www.pasco.com

Each Physics Electronic Workbook CD includes a site license to use throughout a university department or high school!

Order Information: PASPORT Physics Electronic Workbooks Volume 1.....................................................PS-2505 Volume 2.....................................................PS-2508 750-based Physics Electronic Workbooks Volume 1.....................................................CI-6876 Volume 2.....................................................CI-6882

Scientific Method Velocity Acceleration Forces (2) Newton’s Laws (2) Conservation of Momentum Conservation of Energy Impulse-Momentum

Volume 2 (Waves/Electricity/Magnetism): Mechanical Wave Properties Harmonics and Musical Instruments Shadows and Colors Light Intensity Reflection/Refraction Mirrors/Lenses Kirchhoff’s Laws Capacitance Inductance Nature of Magnetism

Constant Velocity/Acceleration Atwood’s Machine Friction Newton’s 3rd Law Impulse Momentum Energy Rotational Inertia Torsion Pendulum Angular Momentum Damped Pendulum

Volume 2 (Light/Electricity/Magnetism): Speed of Sound Thermal Expansion Electric Equivalent of Heat Gas Laws Ohm’s Law RC Circuits Induction Light Intensity Polarization Diffraction Spectrophotometer Atomic Spectra

89


Comprehensive Physics Systems

Comprehensive Physics System Experiments

Comprehensive Physics System Overview A C  omplete Experiments with Instructions A PASCO Equipment and Probeware Designed to Work Together A Comprehensive Coverage of Major Physics Topics

CA-6787

Because PASCO designs and manufactures the physics apparatus and the interfacing systems, we can offer a high quality fully-integrated system for conducting physics experiments. PASCO has evaluated physics standards across the country, analyzed key physics textbooks and polled teachers to determine the concepts taught in typical introductory physics courses across the country. The result is the experiment manual (CA-6787) shown at right.

There are two ways to order the Comprehensive Physics Systems: 1. Order the Complete System CA-7601C which includes everything. 2. Order the Starter System CA-7600C only, and then add either of the Options (CA-6782B, CA-6783B) as you like.

1. Complete System CA-7601C Includes:

Starter System

Thermo/ Waves Option

CA-7600C

(see page 91)

Electricity Magnetism Option

CA-6782B

CA-6783B

(see page 92)

2. Starter System

Add Option

CA-7600C

(see page 91)

Add Option

(see page 92)

Thermo/Waves Option CA-6782B (see page 92)

Electricity/Magnetism Option CA-6783B (see page 92)

A Included with the Comprehensive Physics Starter System (CA-7600C) Lab Manual and CD The Comprehensive Physics Systems include this manual with 80 experiments in mechanics, thermodynamics, waves, optics, electricity and magnetism. See pages 91-92 for lists of experiments. The CD that comes with the manual contains the following: AA  dobe® PDF files for each activity (including Teacher Notes) AM  icrosoft Word® files1 for each activity (including Teacher Notes) AD  ataStudio® configuration files1 and sample data files for each activity that uses DataStudio (1Teachers are encouraged to edit the files as needed for their classes.) The CD has installer files that put the DataStudio configuration files in the ‘eLabs’ directory for the DataStudio program. Copy the other files from the CD to your computer’s hard drive and then use the CD as a backup in case any of the files need to be re-installed.

Options You can copy the pages from the manual ‘as they are’, or edit the included Word files and then print your own version of the activity. Add or delete, change format, trim the activity, or include extensions – the choice is yours.

Notes About Interfaces and Sensors

Complete Comprehensive Physics System CA-7601C Includes: Comprehensive Physics Starter System CA-7600C Comprehensive Physics Thermodynamics Waves Option CA-6782B Comprehensive Physics Electricity/Magnetism Option CA-6783B

Experiments The Comprehensive Physics Starter System includes two types of experiments:

A Comprehensive Physics Systems Experiments, CA-6787 (at right) and, A Physics Electronic Workbooks for the 750, CI-6876 and CI-6882, (page 89). The DataStudio Workbooks are electronic files that guide students through the experimental process. Each Workbook is designed for student input as well as data collection, display, and analysis. These Comprehensive Physics bundles consist of sensors, the 750 Interface, and physics equipment. Additional physics equipment is required to perform each experiment in the Comprehensive Physics Manual, some or all of which you may already own. To view the equipment list for each experiment, go to www.pasco.com/equip. Order Information: Comprehensive Physics Complete System............................................................................................ CA-7601C

90

The activities in the manual are written for the ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface and ScienceWorkshop® (“CI-“) sensors that are included in the Comprehensive Physics Systems. However, for almost all of the activities, a PASPORT™ Interface (see pages 10-23) can be substituted for the ScienceWorkshop Interface, and a PASPORT sensor (see pages 25-67) can be used instead of the ScienceWorkshop sensor. In addition, PASCO now offers an Analog Adapter (PS-2158, see page 85) that allows you to connect analog ScienceWorkshop sensors (such as the CI-6746 Economy Force Sensor) to a PASPORT Interface. The Digital Adapter (PS-2159, see page 85) allows you to connect a digital ScienceWorkshop sensor (such as the CI-6742 Motion Sensor) to a PASPORT Interface. (NOTE: PASPORT sensors cannot be connected to ScienceWorkshop interfaces.) Order Information: Comprehensive Physics System Experiments Manual..........................CA-6787

www.pasco.com


Comprehensive Physics Systems

Starter Comprehensive Physics System CA-7600C

The CA-6787 manual includes these experiments for the Starter Comprehensive Physics System: Period of a Pendulum Circumference versus Diameter Relative Motion: Frame of Reference Position and Time – Match Graph Velocity and Time – Match Graph Instantaneous Speed versus Average Speed Velocity of a Motorized Cart Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration Constant Acceleration: Graph P, V, A for a Fan Cart Constant Acceleration: Graph P, V, A for a Cart Up and Down an Incline Does Acceleration = g sin θ? Acceleration of a Freely Falling Ball Acceleration of a Freely Falling Picket Fence Projectile Motion – Change Initial Speed Projectile Motion – Change Initial Speed

CA-7600C Includes: CI-7650 CI-6552A CI-6746 CI-6742A CI-6538 ME-9471A CI-6558 ME-6825A ME-6821A ME-8979 CI-6545 ME-9491 ME-9376B CI-6876-82 ME-9429B ME-9781 SE-8050 SE-8702B SE-9443 SE-9750-51 ME-8574 ME-8752 PM-8761 CI-6870G SE-8749 CA-6787 SE-9756 CI-6691 CI-6692 ME-8735 ME-8736 ME-8738 ME-9377A ME-9821 ME-9873 SE-7347 ME-6743 ME-6569 ME-6810 ME-8569 ME-9496

750 Interface - USB Power Amplifier II Economy Force Sensor (2) Motion Sensor II (2) Rotary Motion Sensor (2) Photogates and Fences Acceleration Sensor Tabletop Projectile Launcher Launcher Photogate Bracket Mass and Hanger Set Force Accessory Bracket Fan Accessory Universal Table Clamp 750-based DataStudio Workbooks 1.2 m Classic Dynamics System Variable Speed Motorized Cart Physics String Digital Stopwatch Pendulum Clamp Patch Cords Discover Friction Accessory (not shown) Photogate Pendulum Set (not shown) 1.5 m Measuring Tape (one) DataStudio Single User License Hooke’s Law Spring Set Comprehensive Physics System Experiments Manual Alligator Clip Leads Mini Rotational Accessory Dynamics Track Mount (2) (not shown) Large Rod Base 45 cm Steel Rod 90 cm Steel Rod (2) Large Picket Fence Centripetal Force Pendulum Double Rod Clamp (3 Pack) No Bounce Pad Cart Adapter Accessory (not shown) Track String Adapter (2) (not shown) Time-of-Flight Accessory (not shown) Density Set (not shown) Time Pulse Accessory (2) (not shown)

p. 68-69 p. 70 p. 74 p. 74 p. 74 p. 131 p. 76 p. 151 p. 157 p. 223 p. 126 p. 120 p. 215 p. 89 p. 111 p. 118 p. 220 p. 224 p. 214 p. 261 p. 124 p. 37 p. 218 p. 87 p. 184 p. 90 p. 261 p. 195 p. 132 p. 212 p. 212 p. 212 p. 38 p. 193 p. 214 p. 220 p. 127 p. 132 p. 75 p. 209 p. 120

Order Information:

Newton’s First Law – No Net Force Newton’s Second Law - Constant Mass, Changing Force Newton’s Second Law – Changing Mass, Constant Force Newton’s Second Law – Push-Pull a Cart Newton’s Third Law – Tug-of-War Newton’s Second Law – Atwood’s Machine Archimedes’ Principle - Buoyant Force Coefficients of Static and Sliding Friction Factors that Determine Sliding (Kinetic) Friction Terminal Velocity for Different Surface Area / Same Mass Terminal Velocity Same Surface Area / Different Mass Conservation of Momentum in an Inelastic Collision Conservation of Momentum in an Elastic Collision Impulse and Change in Momentum Conservation of Energy for a Falling Ball Discover Gravitational Potential Energy Hooke’s Law – Stretch a Spring Measure the Elastic Potential Energy of a Spring Transform Gravitational Potential to Kinetic Energy Transform Gravitational Potential to Electric Energy Conservation of Energy for a Simple Pendulum Work-Energy Theorem: Compare W to ΔE Conservation of Momentum and KE in Collisions Simple Harmonic Motion – Mass on a Spring Driven Harmonic Motion – Mass on a Spring Simple Harmonic Oscillation Period of a Large Amplitude Pendulum Centripetal Force on a Pendulum Rotational Motion: Plot θ and ω Rotational Inertia of Different Objects Heat and Temperature Transfer of Energy by Radiation Specific Heat Electrical Equivalent of Heat Boyle’s Law: P and V of a Gas at Constant T Pressure and Temperature of a Gas Behavior and Characteristics of Sound Waves Demonstration of Transverse and Longitudinal Waves General Properties of Waves

Comprehensive Physics Starter System. .................................CA-7600C

91


Comprehensive Physics Systems

Comprehensive Physics Thermodynamics/Waves Option

Comprehensive Physics Electricity/Magnetism Option

CA-6782B

CA-6783B

This option is intended as an addition to the Starter System (CA-7600C) to allow students to do the additional experiments in Thermodynamics/Waves listed below.

This option is intended as an addition to the Starter System (CA-7600C) to allow students to do the additional experiments in Electricity/Magnetism listed below.

The CA-6787 manual includes these experiments for Thermodynamics/Waves:

The CA-6787 manual includes these experiments for Electricity/Magnetism:

Standing Waves on a String Resonant Modes of Sound in a Tube Speed of Sound in Air Superposition of Sound Waves Interference of Sound Waves Shadow and Color in Light Object and Image Distances for a Thin Lens Reflection and Refraction Focal Length of a Concave Mirror Optical Instruments: Telescope and Microscope Variation of Light Intensity Light Intensity versus Distance Polarization: Verify Malus’ Law Diffraction of Light

Electrostatic Charging Electrostatic Charge Distribution Electric Field Around a Conductor Ohm’s Law Voltage and Current in Simple Circuits Resistors in Series and Parallel Circuits Kirchhoff’s Laws: Voltage and Current in Circuits Charging and Discharging the RC Circuit Resonant Frequencies of the LRC Circuit General Properties of Diodes Build a Rectifier Transistor 1 – The NPN Transistor as a Digital Switch Transistor 2 – Measure the Current Gain Earth’s Magnetic Field Magnetic Field of a Permanent Magnet Induction – Magnet Through a Coil Magnetic Field in a Current-Carrying Coil

CA-6782B Includes: CI-6504A CI-6506B CI-6514A CI-6532A CI-6605A CI-6872D ET-8771A OS-8470 OS-8516A OS-8508 OS-8460 OS-8456 OS-8519 OS-8531 OS-8524 OS-8532

Light Sensor Sound Sensor Thermodynamics Kit Absolute Pressure Sensor Temperature Sensor WAVEPORT Single License Energy Transfer Generator Basic Optics Light Source Basic Optics Ray Optics Kit Basic Optics Bench (1.2 m) Basic Optics Screen Geometric Lens Set Accessory Lens Set Diffraction Optics Kit Basic Optics Aperture Accessories Concave Mirror Accessory

CA-6783B Includes: OS-8533A OS-8535 OS-8465 SE-7342 SE-8760 SE-9081 TD-8557 WA-7334 WA-9495 WA-9857 WA-9900

Polarization Analyzer Linear Translator Basic Optics Ray Table Tuning Fork Set Double Length Slinky 3-Chime Sound Generator Basic Calorimetry Set Demo Wave Spring Economy Resonance Tube String Vibrator Open Speaker

CI-6503 CI-6555 CI-6556 CI-6520 EM-8656 ES-9042A ES-9057C ES-9059C ES-9077 PK-9023 EM-8620 SF-8619

Voltage Sensor (2) Charge Sensor Current Sensor Magnetic Field Sensor AC/DC Electronics Lab Faraday Ice Pail and Shield Charge Producers/Proof Plane Conductive Spheres Electrostatics Voltage Source Field Mapper Kit Bar Magnets (2 pack) Dip Needle

p. 79 p. 79 p. 79 p. 80 p. 256 p. 251 p. 251 p. 251 p. 251 p. 252 p. 277 p. 276

Order Information:

Order Information:

Comprehensive Physics Thermodynamics/Waves Option.......................................................CA-6782B Required: Comprehensive Physics Starter System..................................CA-7600C

Comprehensive Physics Electricity/Magnetism Option. .............................................................CA-6783B Required: Comprehensive Physics Starter System...................................CA-7600C

92

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop 750 Mechanics Systems

Mechanics Systems with ScienceWorkshop® Probeware A Integrates Probeware and Physics Equipment A Perform a Wide Variety of Mechanics Experiments

Updated Manual

Mechanics 750 System CA-7602A When used together, PASCO’s probeware and physics apparatus can help students learn the major concepts of mechanics more effectively. The Mechanics 750 System includes the key equipment to perform a wide variety of mechanics experiments. The new manual has 10 complete experiments which take full advantage of the components of this system, making it the ideal way to do the essential labs which are standard in all mechanics courses.

Impulse Experiment:

Measure the force as a function of time as the cart hits the spring and also measure the change in momentum using the photogate.

10 Experiments Included:

1.

Title

Purpose

Sensors Used

Acceleration Down an Incline

Discover how the acceleration of an object down an incline depends on the angle of incline. Measure the acceleration to obtain the acceleration due to gravity.

Photogate with picket fence

Newton’s Second Law

Verify Newton’s Second Law by varying the applied force and the mass.

Motion Sensor

Kinetic Friction I

Measure the kinetic coefficient of friction.

Motion Sensor

Kinetic Friction II

Study how the coefficient of kinetic friction depends on the velocity, acceleration, surface area, and weight of the object.

Photogate with pulley

Impulse and Momentum

Measure the impact force of a cart and compare the impulse to its change in momentum.

Force Sensor/ Photogate

Conservation of Momentum in Explosions

Verify that momentum is conserved for two carts pushing off from each other.

Two photogates with picket fences

Conservation of Momentum in Inelastic Collisions

Verify that momentum is conserved in inelastic collisions and that kinetic energy is not conserved.

Two photogates with picket fences

Conservation of Momentum in Elastic Collisions

Verify that momentum is conserved in elastic collisions.

Two photogates with picket fences

Conservation of Energy

Show spring potential change into kinetic energy.

Motion Sensor/ Photogate with picket fence

Simple Harmonic Motion

Measure the period of oscillation of a spring and mass system and compare it to the theoretical value. Evaluate the effect of changing the mass and spring constants.

Photogate and flag

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

8.

7.

9.

CA-7602A Includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

CI-7650 CI-6537 CI-6742A ME-9471A ME-8574 ME-9429B CI-6545 ME-8979 ME-9491

750 Interface - USB Force Sensor Motion Sensor Photogates and Fences Discover Friction Accessory 1.2 m Classic Dynamics System Force Accessory Bracket Mass and Hanger Set Fan Accessory Lab Manual (not shown)

p. 68-69 p. 74 p. 74 p. 131 p. 124 p. 111 p. 29 p. 223 p. 120

Order Information: Mechanics 750 System, USB..................................................................CA-7602A

93


ScienceWorkshop® — 750 Probeware Bundles

ScienceWorkshop 750 Physics Probeware Bundles These bundles include the ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface and the sensors needed to perform the experiments contained in the Physics 750 Lab Manuals (Volumes 1 and 2). See the facing page for a list of the experiments covered by each bundle. Part #

Entry Intermediate Physics 750 Bundle Physics 750 Bundle CI-7603 CI-7604

Standard Physics 750 Bundle CI-7605

1. 750 Interface

CI-7650

1

1

1

2. Force Sensor (±50N)

CI-6537

1

1

1

3. Photogate/Pulley System

ME-6838

1

1

1

4. Voltage Sensor

CI-6503

1

2

2

5. Temperature Sensor

CI-6605

1

2

2

6. Motion Sensor II

CI-6742A

1

2

2

7. Cart Picket Fence (2 pack)

ME-9804

1

1

1

8. Elastic Bumpers

ME-8998

1

1

1

9. Picket Fence

ME-9377A

1

1

1

10. Light Sensor

CI-6504A

1

1

11. Sound Sensor

CI-6506B

1

1

12. Rotary Motion Sensor

CI-6538

1

1

13. Acceleration Sensor

CI-6558

1

1

14. Accessory Photogate

ME-9204B

1

1

15. Charge Sensor

CI-6555

1

1

16. Magnetic Field Sensor

CI-6520A

1

17. Pressure Sensor (Absolute)

CI-6532A

1

18. Power Amplifier II

CI-6552A

1

(Each system includes a Quick Installation Guide and Storage Containers)

Entry Physics 750 Bundle............................................................................CI-7603 Intermediate Physics 750 Bundle......................................................CI-7604 Standard Physics 750 Bundle................................................................CI-7605

6.

4.

1.

16. 3.

5. 6.

Entry Physics 750 Bundle

7. (2)

5.

10.

14. 11.

17.

18.

Standard Physics 750 Bundle

4.

Intermediate Physics 750 Bundle

2.

12. 8.

9. 15. 13.

94

www.pasco.com


ScienceWorkshop® — 750 Probeware Bundles

Experiment Guides for ScienceWorkshop 750 Physics Probeware Bundles on page 94: Entry Physics 750 Bundle, Volume 1 Intermediate Physics 750 Bundle, Volume 1 Standard Physics 750 Bundle, Volume 1

Entry Physics 750 Bundle, Volume 2 Intermediate Physics 750 Bundle, Volume 2 Standard Physics 750 Bundle, Volume 2

Position and Time

X

X

X

Driven Harmonic Motion

X

X

X

Velocity and Time

X

X

X

Waves on a String

X

X

X X

Position, Velocity and Acceleration

X

X

X

Resonant Modes – Sonometer

X

X

Acceleration Due to Gravity

X

X

X

Resonant Modes – Tube

X

X

X

Acceleration of a Cart

X

X

X

Resonant Modes and Speed of Sound

X

X

X

Newton’s Second Law – Constant Force

X

X

X

Transformer

X

X

X

Newton’s Second Law – Push/Pull a Cart

X

X

X

RC Circuit

X

X

X

Collision – Impulse & Momentum

X

X

X

LR Circuit

X

X

X

Buoyant Force

X

X

X

LRC Circuit

X

X

X

Simple Harmonic Motion

X

X

X

Transistors 1: NPN as Digital Switch

X

X

X

Interference of Sound Waves – Beats

X

X

X

Transistors 3: Common Emitter Amplifier

X

X

X

Acceleration on an Incline

X

X

X

Heat Transfer

X

X

Acceleration – FreeFall Picket Fence

X

X

X

Ohm’s Law (V=IR)

X

X X

Heat vs. Temperature

X

X

X

Diodes 1: Properties & LEDs

X

Atwood’s Machine

X

X

X

Diodes 2: Rectifier & Power Supply

X

X

Simple Harmonic Oscillation

X

X

X

Transistors 2: Current Gain, Emitter-Follower

X

X

Work-Energy Theorem: W = ∆ E

X

X

X

Instantaneous Speed vs. Average Speed

X

X

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

X

X

X

Conservation of Linear Momentum

X

X

Kinetic Friction

X

X

X

Sound Waves

X

Centripetal Force on a Pendulum

X

X

X

Electrical Equivalent of Heat

Induction – Magnet Through a Coil

X

Conservation of Linear and Angular Momentum

X X

X

X

Motor Efficiency

X

X

X

Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

X X

Speed of Sound in Air

X

X

Magnetic Field of Helmholtz Coils

Rotational Inertia

X

X

Inverse Square Law – Nuclear (requires SN-7927A Nuclear Sensor) Time of Flight vs. Initial Speed (requires ME-6810 Time of Flight)

X

X

Variation of Light Intensity

Transforming GPE to KE

X

X

Light Intensity vs. Position

X

X

Polarization – Verify Malus’ Law

X

X

Diffraction Patterns

X

X

Electrostatic Charge

X

X

Boyle’s Law

X

X

Magnetic Field of a Permanent Magnet

X

X

Pressure vs. Temperature

X

Newton’s Third Law – Collisions

X

Purchase the Teacher’s Guide and Student Manual ScienceWorkshop®

Physics Labs with Computer

Teacher’s Guide

Physics 750 Teacher’s Guide (Vol. 1: CI-7013; Vol. 2: CI-7015) with 60 documented experiments and a 240+ experiment library on CD (recommended one per classroom). Physics 750 Student Manual (Vol. 1: CI-7014; Vol. 2: CI-7016) with 60 tear-out experiments (recommended one per student or lab group).

Check the Equipment List at www.pasco.com/equip Physics 750 bundles consist of sensors and the 750 Interface. Additional physics equipment is required to perform each experiment in the Physics 750 Manuals, some or all of which you may already own. To view the equipment list for each experiment, go to www.pasco.com/equip.

Order Information: Entry Physics 750 Bundle ..........................................................................CI-7603 Intermediate Physics 750 Bundle......................................................CI-7604 Standard Physics 750 Bundle................................................................CI-7605 Recommended: DataStudio Software Single Copy. ..................................................CI-6870G DataStudio Site License................................................................................CI-6871G Physics Teacher’s Guide, Vol. 1. ............................................................CI-7013 Physics Student Manual, Vol. 1............................................................CI-7014 Physics Teacher’s Guide, Vol. 2. ............................................................CI-7015 Physics Student Manual, Vol. 2............................................................CI-7016 Physics Electronic Workbook CD, Vol. 1 (750). ..................CI-6876 Physics Electronic Workbook CD, Vol. 2 (750). ..................CI-6882

95


Xplorer GLX速 Probeware Bundles

Physics Probeware Bundles with the Xplorer GLX A Appropriate for the first two years of college A Bundles match requirements of lab manual PS-2817A

Entry Xplorer GLX Physics Bundle PS-2680

Part #

Entry Xplorer GLX Physics Bundle Includes Six Sensors! 1. Xplorer GLX

PS-2002

a. Voltage Sensor

Intermediate Xplorer GLX Physics Bundle PS-2681

Standard Xplorer GLX Physics Bundle PS-2682

1

1

1

1

1

1

b. Built-in Sound Sensor

1

1

1

c. Temperature Sensor

2

2

2

2. Motion Sensor

PS-2103A

1

2

2

3. Force Sensor

PS-2104

1

1

2

4. Digital Adapter

PS-2159

1

1

5. Voltage/Current Sensor

PS-2115

1

1

6. Accessory Photogate

ME-9204B

2

2

7. Super Pulley

ME-9450

1

1

8. Pulley Mounting Rod

SA-9242

1

1

9. Elastic Bumpers

ME-8998

2

2

10. Large Picket Fence

ME-9377A

1

1

11. Cart Picket Fences (2 pack)

ME-9804

1

1

12. Light Sensor

PS-2106

1

13. Magnetic Field Sensor

PS-2112

1

14. Pressure/Temperature Sensor

PS-2146

1

15. Charge Sensor

PS-2132

1

16. Visual Accelerometer

PS-2128

1

17. Rotary Motion Sensor

PS-2120

1

18. Stainless Steel Temp Probe

PS-2153

2

Entry Xplorer GLX Bundle

PS-2680

Intermediate Xplorer GLX Bundle PS-2681 Standard Xplorer GLX Bundle PS-2682

4.

1, 1b.

16.

17. 2.

2.

1a.

96

1c.

6.

7. 9.

10.

13. 3. 14.

18.

8.

Standard Xplorer GLX Bundle

Entry Xplorer GLX Bundle

3.

Intermediate Xplorer GLX Bundle

5.

12. 11.

15.

www.pasco.com


Xplorer GLX® Probeware Bundles

Xplorer GLX Probeware Bundles Ordering Information

1

2

Select an Xplorer GLX Bundle  hoose from the Entry, Intermediate or Standard C Bundles on the previous page. Or, use the bundles as a template to construct your own bundle. Purchase one bundle per lab group.

3

Every PASPORT purchase includes a free copy of DataStudio Lite. This limited version of DataStudio allows data to be collected and downloaded to a computer. It also includes basic analysis tools. In addition, any pre-configured DataStudio file can be used with DataStudio Lite.

Add Experiments

To utilize the full analysis capabilities of DataStudio and author your own physics experiments, purchase either a single user license or site license.

Advanced Physics with the Xplorer GLX. ..............................PS-2817A

A collection of college physics experiments for mechanics, thermodynamics, waves, sound, light, electricity and magnetism. Each experiment is written to utilize the “stand-alone” capabilities of the Xplorer GLX. Includes experiment instructions, GLX experiment setup files and sample data.

Mechanics Entry Intermediate Standard Falling Objects X X Projectile Motion Acceleration and Force

X

Newton’s Third Law

X

Situation #1

X

X

X

Situation #2

X

Rockets

X

X

Conservation of Momentum

X

X

Conservation of Energy

X

Oscillations

X

Rotational Inertia

X

Conservation of Angular Momentum

X

Properties of Matter/Thermodynamics

Freezing Water

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Greenhouse Effect

X X

To view the equipment list for each experiment, go to www.pasco.com/equip.

Order Information: Bundles Entry Xplorer GLX Physics Bundle.................................................PS-2680 Intermediate Xplorer GLX Physics Bundle...........................PS-2681 Standard Xplorer GLX Physics Bundle......................................PS-2682 Experiments Advanced Physics with Xplorer GLX Manual...................PS-2817A Software DataStudio Software (Single User). ..............................................CI-6870G DataStudio Software (Site License)..............................................CI-6871G

X

Thermal Expansion Ideal Gas Law

These Xplorer GLX bundles consist of sensors. Additional physics equipment is required to perform each experiment, some or all of which you may already own.

X

Radiation: Temperature of Sun Absolute Zero

Check the Equipment List at www.pasco.com/equip

X

Tension

Buoyancy and Density

4

X

Electrical Equivalent of Heat

Add DataStudio® Software (Single User or Site License)

X

X

Electricity and Magnetism Ohm’s Law

X

X

RC Circuit

X

X

Induction

X

X

Magnetic Field of a Coil

X X

Light/Radiation Light Intensity vs. Distance

X

Polarization: Malus’ Law

X

Diffraction and Interference

X

Nuclear Radiation

X

X

97


A Introductory level A Designed for labs with computers

1

Start with the lab manual Explorations in Physics Educator designed, this 600-page Lab Manual contains 25 core standards-based labs in Physics. Order Information: Explorations in Physics................................................. PS-2810A

2

Select a probeware bundle that’s right for you We recommend one bundle for every 2-4 student lab group. Each bundle equips a lab group with the probeware needed to perform the indicated experiments - plus many more beyond the lab manual.

3

25 Entry

A Integrate probeware into the Physics you already teach!

Intermediate

Physics Probeware Bundles

Standard

Physics Probeware Bundles

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Core Physics Experiments from Explorations in Physics Relative Motion: Frame of Reference Position vs. Time Velocity – Motorized Cart Acceleration – Cart on an Inclined Track Newton’s First Law – No Net Force Newton’s Second Law – Acceleration Friction Forces Conservation of Energy Impulse and Change in Momentum Conservation of Momentum Projectile Motion Circular Motion What is Voltage? What is Current? Ohm’s Law Electric Fields Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction Newton’s Third Law – Equal and Opposite Magnetic Fields Sound Wave Properties Superposition and Interference Archimedes’ Principle Transfer of Energy Inverse Square Law Polarization

Add DataStudio Software

Standard............................................................................................................................PS-2666

Start with our FREE DataStudio Lite software. Or give your department the full-featured DataStudio with a Site License.

Motion (Qty 2) Force (Qty 2) Digital Adapter Time of Flight Pad Voltage/Current

Order Information: DataStudio Software (Single User). ....................... CI-6870G DataStudio Software (Site License)....................... CI-6871G

Photogate Head (Qty 2) ME-9498A Light PS-2106 Magnetic Field PS-2112 WAVEPORT Single Lic. CI-6872D Temperature (Qty 2) PS-2125 Perform 25 Lab Manual experiments. Includes Xplorer GLX PS-2002 PS-2103A PS-2104 PS-2159 ME-6810 PS-2115

12 sensors , WAVEPORT, and the Xplorer GLX.

Intermediate.................... PS-2665

4

Check the Equipment List at www.pasco.com/equip These Xplorer GLX bundles consist of sensors. Additional physics equipment is required to perform each experiment, some or all of which you may already own. To view the equipment list for each experiment, go to www.pasco.com/equip.

98

Entry.......................................... PS-2664

Motion (Qty 2) PS-2103A Force PS-2104 Force PS-2104 Motion PS-2103A Digital Adapter PS-2159 PowerLink PS-2001 Time of Flight Pad ME-6810 Perform nine of 25 Lab Manual experiVoltage/Current PS-2115 ments. Includes two sensors and the Photogate Head (Qty 2) ME-9498A PowerLink to connect to your computer. Xplorer GLX PS-2002 Each bundle includes a stacking Perform 17 of 25 Lab Manual experiments. Includes eight sensors and the Xplorer GLX.

plastic box for easy storage.

www.pasco.com


Xplorer GLX Lab Bundle

Physics Economy Bundle with the Xplorer GLX

Perform These Experiments with the included Physics with Xplorer GLX Manual

CA-6788A A

These bundles are specifically designed to enable you to do the experiments in the “Physics with Xplorer GLX” manual (PS-2826). However, we do assume that your lab has some basic equipment such as rods and stands. For a complete list of equipment required but not supplied in this bundle, please visit www.pasco.com/equip.

 Appropriate for conceptual and general Physics labs

The Economy bundle provides tremendous value to the physics teacher. This investment will enable you to do 25 labs covering topics from the first day of school through Spring. Mechanics, sound, electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics and optics, it’s all here. Physics with the Xplorer GLX lab manual is at the core of this bundle. You are ready to go without the worry of needing computers. 1.

3.

Physics Economy Bundle CA-6788A

(See p. 100)

4.

2. 5.

7.

6.

8.

9.

12.

10.

13.

11.

14.

15.

Includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

ME-6951 GOcar ME-6960 PAStrack OS-8470 Basic Optics Light Source OS-8465 Ray Table SE-7581 Lens set OS-8516A Ray Optics Kit PS-2002 Xplorer GLX PS-2103A PASPORT Motion Sensor PS-2104 PASPORT Force Sensor SE-8028 Constant Speed Buggy SE-7343 Adjustable Tuning Fork ME-8970 Equal Length Springs ME-9837 Discover Centripetal Force TD-8557A Basic Calorimetry Set EM-8624A CASTLE Kit

p. 108 p. 113 p. 306 p. 307 p. 308 p. 307 p. 10 p. 25 p. 28 p. 120 p. 302 p. 182 p. 193 p. 232 p. 258

Free. Lab Manual ICS

PHYS

with

LAB

Physics Lab Bundle CA-6789

the

UAL

MAN 2826 PS-

Physics with the Xplorer GLX Lab Manual

X

X

Position–Match Graph

X

Relative Motion–Frames of Reference

X

X

Velocity of a Motorized Cart

X

X

Acceleration on an Inclined Track

X

X

Acceleration Due to Gravity

X

Newton’s First Law–No Net Force

X

X

Newton’s Second Law–Constant Force

X

X

Newton’s Second Law–Constant Mass

X

X

Newton’s Third Law–Tug-of-War

X

Forces in Equilibrium–A Lab Practical

X

Static and Kinetic Friction

X

X

Hooke’s Law of Elasticity

X

X

Simple Harmonic Motion–Mass on a Spring

X

X

Simple Harmonic Motion–Pendulum

X

Momentum in Collisions

X

X

Impulse and Change in Momentum

X

Safety Bumper Design Competition

X

X

Explore Gravitational Potential Energy

X

X

Conserve Energy

X

X

Work and Energy

X

Projectile Motion–Initial Speed and Time of Flight

X

X

Centripetal Force, Constant Radius and Mass

X

X

Centripetal Force, Constant Radius and Force

X

X

Centripetal Force, Constant Mass and Force

X

Ohm’s Law: Current, Voltage, Resistance

X

X

Voltage in a Series Circuit

X

X

Voltage in a Parallel Circuit

X

Current in a Series Circuit

X

Current in a Parallel Circuit

X

X

Time Constant of a Resistor-Capacitor Circuit

X

Electromagnetic Induction–Magnet and Coil

X

X

Sound Wave Properties

X

X

Interference–Beat Frequency

X

X

Archimedes’ Principle–Buoyant Force

(PS-2826)

X

X

Transfer of Energy

Order this bundle — we send a free lab manual with your shipment!

X

X

Specific Heat of an Unknown Metal

X

X

Latent Heat of Vaporization

X

X

Latent Heat of Fusion

X

Inverse Square Law–Light Intensity versus Distance

X

Polarization

Order Information: Physics Economy Bundle. with the Xplorer GLX.......................................................................................CA-6788A

99


Xplorer GLX Lab Bundle

Physics Lab Bundle with the Xplorer GLX CA-6789A A

Includes Comprehensive Lab Manual

A

Appropriate for conceptual and general Physics labs

The Standard bundle provides complete coverage for the 35 labs in Physics with the Xplorer GLX lab manual. This bundle allows students to probe deeper into topic areas. Additional equipment and probes allow more advanced students to quantitatively study projectile motion, thermal radiation, impulse/momentum and light. Computers are not required for students to collect, analyze and even print their data.

4. 1.

5.

6.

2. 3.

10. 9.

7.

11.

8.

13.

15.

16.

14.

12.

19.

18. 17.

25.

21.

20.

23.

22.

24.

32.

31. 27.

26.

29.

28.

30.

33. 34.

40.

35.

36.

37.

38.

42.

39.

41. 43.

100

44.

www.pasco.com


Xplorer GLX Physics Lab Manual View and download experiments at http://www.pasco.com/resources/labdownloads/ Lab Manual for the bundles shown on pages 99-100:

Physics with the Xplorer GLX Lab Manual PS-2826 The Xplorer GLX is a powerful tool for science—giving you the option of performing probeware-based experiments even when you don’t have computers available. This lab manual provides experiments written for using the Xplorer GLX as a stand-alone science computer. Measure, analyze, print or save to a USB flash drive (included) for further analysis or reports—all with the Xplorer GLX and the appropriate equipment included in both Physics Lab Bundles.

CA-6789 Includes:

1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

PS-2002 PS-2103A PS-2104 ME-9472 SE-8028A ME-8970 ME-9837 SE-7343 TD-8557A EM-8624A CI-6545 EM-8620 ME-6743 ME-6800 ME-6810 ME-6821A ME-6955 ME-8574 ME-9448A ME-9491 ME-9495A ME-9498A OS-8471A OS-9477 PI-6602 PI-8117 PS-2106A PS-2115 PS-2159 PS-2500 SA-9242 SE-7347 SE-8568 SE-8759 SE-9443 SE-9445 SE-9756 SF-8609 SF-8610 TD-8570A ME-9355 ME-8741 SE-9442 ME-8998

Xplorer GLX PASPORT Motion Sensor (2) PASPORT Force Sensor (2) Large Table Clamp Constant Speed Buggy Equal Length Springs Discover Centripetal Force Adjustable Tuning Fork Basic Calorimetry Set CASTLE Kit Accessory Bracket w/ Bumpers Bar Magnets Alnico Cart Adapter Accessory Projectile Launcher (Short Range) Time-Of-Flight Accessory Photogate Mounting Bracket PASCAR Dynamics System 1.2m Discover Friction Accessory Super Pulley With Clamp Fan Accessory Angle Indicator Photogate Head (2) Dynamics Track Optics Kit Polarizing Sheets (2) Four “D” Batteries Phone Jack Extender Cable Light Sensor Voltage/Current Sensor Digital Adapter PASPORT Extension Cable Pulley Mounting Rod No-Bounce Pad Overflow Can Hooked Mass Set Pendulum Clamp Three Finger Clamp Alligator Clip Adapters 200 Turn Coil 400 Turn Coil Radiation Cans Large Base and Support Rod Stainless Steel Rod (120 cm long) Multi Clamp Elastic Bumpers

p. 10 p. 25 p. 28 p. 215 p. 120 p. 182 p. 193 p. 302 p. 232 p. 258 p. 126 p. 277 p. 25 p. 150 p. 157 p. 157 p. 110 p. 124 p. 164 p. 120 p. 116 p. 75 p. 319 p. 325 p. 261 p. 39 p. 46 p. 48 p. 36 p. 24 p. 164 p. 220 p. 209 p. 223 p. 214 p. 214 p. 261 p. 273 p. 273 p. 243 p. 213 p. 212 p. 214 p. 25

Perform These Experiments with the included Physics with Xplorer GLX Manual This bundle is specifically designed to enable you to do the experiments in the “Physics with Xplorer GLX” manual (PS-2826). However, we do assume that your lab has some basic equipment such as rods and stands. For a complete list of equipment required but not supplied in this bundle, please visit www.pasco.com/equip.

Position–Match Graph Relative Motion–Frames of Reference Velocity of a Motorized Cart Acceleration on an Inclined Track Acceleration Due to Gravity

Free Lab Manual ICS

PHYS

Newton’s First Law–No Net Force

with

the

Newton’s Second Law–Constant Force Newton’s Second Law–Constant Mass

LAB

UAL

MAN 2826 PS-

Newton’s Third Law–Tug-of-War Forces in Equilibrium–A Lab Practical

Physics with the Xplorer GLX Lab Manual

Static and Kinetic Friction

(PS-2826)

Hooke’s Law of Elasticity

Order this bundle — we send a free lab manual with your shipment!

Simple Harmonic Motion–Mass on a Spring Simple Harmonic Motion–Pendulum Momentum in Collisions Impulse and Change in Momentum Safety Bumper Design Competition Explore Gravitational Potential Energy Conserve Energy Work and Energy Projectile Motion–Initial Speed and Time of Flight Centripetal Force, Constant Radius and Mass Centripetal Force, Constant Radius and Force Centripetal Force, Constant Mass and Force Ohm’s Law: Current, Voltage, Resistance Voltage in a Series Circuit Voltage in a Parallel Circuit Current in a Series Circuit Current in a Parallel Circuit Time Constant of a Resistor-Capacitor Circuit Electromagnetic Induction–Magnet and Coil Sound Wave Properties Interference–Beat Frequency Archimedes’ Principle–Buoyant Force Transfer of Energy Specific Heat of an Unknown Metal Latent Heat of Vaporization Latent Heat of Fusion Inverse Square Law–Light Intensity versus Distance Polarization

Order Information:

Order Information:

Physics with the Xplorer GLX Lab Manual....................................................................................................................PS-2826

Physics Lab Bundle with the Xplorer GLX (Includes PS-2826)................................................................................................CA-6789A

101


High School Probeware Bundles

Advanced AP® Physics Lab Manual for High School

Physics Through Inquiry Manual for High School

PS-2879A

PS-2873A

Advanced

A Includes 31 Advanced Physics labs inspired by AP®* Physics exam content.

Physics

Experiments for AP*, IB, and Honors Physics

A Includes 37 standards-based Physics lab activities.

Physics through Inquiry High School

A C  ore topic areas include: mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics and thermodynamics.

A E  ach lab is available in three levels of inquiry based delivery.

Teacher Guide

21st Century Science

PS-2879

A E  ach lab activity includes analysis, synthesis, and multiple choice question forms, emulating those standardized assessments often seen on AP® Physics exams.

A C  hallenging concepts such as the Inverse Square Law.

Teacher Guide

21st Century Science

PS-2873

*AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

Advanced Physics Standard Sensor Bundle PS-2932 Freefall Adapter (ME-9207B) Photogate Head (ME-9498A) Motion Sensor (PS-2103A) Magnetic Field Sensor (PS-2112)

See www.pasco.com/products/curriculum for a list of experiments.

Physics Starter Sensor Bundle Starter Bundle

See www.pasco.com/products/curriculum for a list of experiments.

PS-2923 Motion (PS-2103A) Force (PS-2104) Voltage Current (PS-2115) Magnetic Field (PS-2112) Perform 23 of 37 Lab Activities

Barometer/Low Pressure Sensor (PS-2113A) Voltage-Current Sensor (PS-2115)

Physics Standard Sensor Bundle

Rotary Motion Sensor (PS-2120)

PS-2931

Absolute Pressure/Temp Sensor (PS-2146) Stainless Steel Temperature Probe (PS-2153) High Sensitivity Light Sensor (PS-2176) High Resolution Force Sensor (PS-2189) Extension Cable (PS-2500) Perform All 31 Lab Activities

Required Equipment (additional)

Standard Bundle

Digital Adapter (PS-2159)

Motion (Qty 2) (PS-2103A) Force (Qty 2) (PS-2104) Voltage Current (PS-2115) Magnetic Field (PS-2112) Absolute Pressure Temperature (PS-2146) Stainless Steel Temperature (PS-2153) Light (PS-2106A) Sound Level (PS-2109) Charge (PS-2132) Perform All 37 Lab Activities

Many of the Advanced Physics lab activities require the combination of PASPORT sensors (listed above) with PASCO’s signature Physics apparatus and equipment. For a full list of required equipment and a breakdown of specific lab activity requirements see www.pasco.com/equip. Order Information: Advanced Physics Teacher Guide............................................................. PS-2879A Order one guide per classroom Advanced Physics Student Handouts................................................ PS-2899 Advanced Physics Standard Sensor Bundle. ............................ PS-2932 Order one bundle per lab group (3-4 students) *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

102

Order Information: Physics through Inquiry Teacher Guide............................................ PS-2873A Order one guide per classroom Physics through Inquiry Student Handouts.............................. PS-2893 Physics Starter Sensor Bundle .................................................................. PS-2923 Physics Standard Sensor Bundle ........................................................... PS-2931 Order one bundle per lab group (3-4 students)

www.pasco.com


Software – Video Analysis/Simulations

“Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics” by Yaakov Kraftmakher SE-7567 A A

A

 8 Computer-assisted 8 Physics Experiments Clever Applications for ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface Student Projects

This 533-page book contains 88 computer-assisted experiments and demonstrations which are directed toward physics teachers. Most of the experiments use PASCO’s ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface and DataStudio software. Eight Nobel Prize experiments are presented. There is also a chapter devoted to descriptions of projects for undergraduate physics students.

VideoPoint Physics Fundamentals 1.0 A Video-based Motion Analysis Software Physics Fundamentals is a new version of the VideoPoint software, tailored primarily to high school and introductory college physics students and teachers. It features a simplified interface and only the most commonly used analysis options taken from the original VideoPoint. Its main goal is to demonstrate the basic concepts in Physics using video analysis and to introduce teachers and students to VideoPoint and video-based motion analysis.

Important Features: Integrated with VideoPoint Capture 2.1 Instantly graph position, velocity and acceleration data Equation modeling or automatic curve fitting Intuitive interface Movies, analyses and sample activities included Extensive user support Student home-use disks available with site licenses

Topics include: Mechanics Electricity and Magnetism Optics Atomic Physics Molecular Physics Condensed Matter Physics

VideoPoint Physics Fundamentals 1.0

Partial List of Experiments: Lissajous Patterns Helmholtz Coils Faraday’s Law of Induction Malus’ Law Doppler Effect Nonlinear Dynamics Pulse Calorimetry Rotating Magnetic Field Eddy Currents Thermal Noise Lock-in Detection Ampere’s Circuital Law Interference of Light Faraday Effect Photoluminescence Hydrogen Atom Equilibrium Point Defects in Metals The Hall Effect Photovoltaic Effect Curie Point Photoelectric Effect Franck-Hertz Superconductivity Hot-wire Anemometry Optical Communication Two-stage Peltier Cooler Poisson Spot Order Information: Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics. ........................................................................................................................SE-7567

System Requirements: Windows:  M  icrosoft Windows 98SE, 2000, XP 500 MB disk space 64 MB of RAM 600x800 minimum screen resolution Macintosh: M  ac OS X 10.2 or higher 500 MB disk space 64 MB of RAM 600x800 minimum screen resolution

MAC

Windows

Includes: VideoPoint Capture 2.1 for creating your own movies Free access to on-line Resource Library with additional movies, analyses and activities Email newsletter Online discussion group Site License: Unlimited use on site

Order Information: VideoPoint Physics Fundamentals 1.0 Single User (Mac)........................................................................... SE-7531 1.0 Site License (Mac)......................................................................... SE-7537 1.0 Single User (Windows)........................................................... SE-7533 1.0 Site License (Windows).......................................................... SE-7535

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Software â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Simulations/Experiments

Interactive Physicsâ&#x201E;˘ Version 9.0 A Powerful physics simulation software A E  xpanded curriculum workbook correlated with National and State Standards and Objectives A F  ull-color teacher edition and black-line master student edition A N  ew interactive experiments explore speed, distance, time, acceleration, force, weight, mass, gravity and air resistance Create your own experiments or interact with pre-designed Physics exercises for discovery learning A Simulate contact, gravity, air resistance, electrical charge, roller coasters...

A Build with ropes, springs, dampers, pulleys, slots, actuators...

A Measure velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and energy as numbers, graphs, and animated vectors

A Hear and measure sound volumes, sound frequencies, and Doppler effects

A Create visually appealing presentations by attaching graphics to objects

The Soccer Player Demonstration: Determine the initial speed that is required to make the ball travel 3.0 meters in the air.

Acceleration and Friction: Vary the friction on an inclined plane experiment.

System Requirements Windows: Windows 95/98/Me/2000/XP/Vista/Windows 7, 1 GB RAM minimum, 200 MB disk space, CD-ROM Drive, Sound card for sound experiments.

Includes: Windows CD 150+ pre-made physics experiments Printable user manual in pdf format Curriculum workbook with 60 experiments

Windows

Black-line master student edition (for 10+ users) Order Information: Interactive Physics Version 9.0 (Single User). ...................SE-7443E Interactive Physics Version 9.0 (10 Pack).................................SE-7445E

104

www.pasco.com


Teaching Resources â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Workshop Physics

PASCO Apparatus Designed for Workshop Physics Workshop Physics courses, developed by Priscilla Laws at Dickinson College, are designed to replace traditional calculus-based lecture and laboratory sessions. Students use computer tools for data acquisition, visualization, analysis and modeling. Modules include Classical Mechanics, Heat, Temperature and Nuclear Physics, and Electricity & Magnetism (Available from John Wiley & Sons). PASCO has developed equipment specifically designed to work with the Workshop Physics curriculum.

Kinesthetic Cart (SE-8747) See page 137

Activity Based Physics High School CD SE-6651

Fan Cart (ME-6977) See page 119

A Curricular Materials A DataStudio Experiment Files A Q  uickTime Movies w/VideoPoint Liteâ&#x201E;˘ A Instructor Materials

Equal Arm Balance (ME-8949) See page 158

Rotary Motion Sensors (CI-6538, PS-2120) See pages 74 and 26

Select portions of RealTime Physics1, Workshop Physics2 and Tools for Scientific Thinking3 curricula have been adapted for high school use. These student-centered materials have been compiled as part of the Activity Based Physics, NSF-sponsored, High School Institute program (Grant No. ESI-9819626). 1. R  ealTime Physics by David Sokoloff (University of Oregon), Ron Thornton (Tufts University), and Priscilla Laws (Dickinson College)

Mechanical Oscillator Driver (ME-8750)

2. W  orkshop Physics by Priscilla Laws (Dickinson College)

See page 132

3. T  ools for Scientific Thinking by Ron Thornton (Tufts University) and David Sokoloff (University of Oregon) Visit www.pasco.com for ordering information.

Chaos Accessory (CI-6689A) See page 197

Heat Engine/ Gas Laws Apparatus (TD-8572) See page 240

Coils, Detector and Field, LED Indicator (EM-6712, EM-6713, EM-6711, EM-6714) See page 273

Download Experiment Files for Activity Based Physics Experiment files using PASCO sensors in Interactive Lecture Demonstrations, RealTime Physics modules, and Workshop Physics are available for download at www.pasco.com/activityPhysics Interactive Lecture Demonstrations by David Sokoloff (University of Oregon) and Ron Thornton (Tufts University) RealTime Physics by David Sokoloff (University of Oregon), Ron Thornton (Tufts University), and Priscilla Laws (Dickinson College) Workshop Physics by Priscilla Laws (Dickinson College)

105


Teaching Resources – Conceptual Physics/Physics Videos

Mechanical Universe Series SE-8700

Physics Cinema Classics DVD Set

Conceptual Physics DVD SE-9769A

SE-7526A A Six DVDs A 2  45 Classics Experiments

This series presents college-level physics using real-world examples. Video field trips to hot-air balloon events, symphony concerts, bicycle shops and other locales make complex concepts more accessible. Animation, experiments, demonstrations and historical reenactments demystify physics. This video series can also be used as a professional development tool for physics teachers. Each segment starts out with a brief lecture/demonstration from the classroom of David Goodstein at California Institute of Technology. Each segment also contains information about the scientists and their work to uncover the mysteries of the universe. Computer generated simulations and illustrations further help students grasp difficult physics concepts.

Includes:

Produced by the American Association of Physics Teachers, these DVDs contain material from the PSSC 16 mm films, Interactive Media Project for Secondary Physical Science Courses, and Ealing 8 mm Film Loops.

The Best from Conceptual Physics Alive DVDs include four hours of clips from Addison-Wesley’s videotape series, Conceptual Physics Alive! These two to three minute demonstrations, presented by master teacher Paul Hewitt, cover the key concepts of introductory physics. Hewitt’s conceptual teaching style and demonstrations bring new excitement and dimension to the physics classroom. These DVDs are best suited to Physical Science and Conceptual Physics classes.

Instructor’s hints and two separate audio channels accompany the videos and still images: an inquiry track and an explanation track. The inquiry track poses questions about the video and still images, while the explanation track relates the video and still images to the appropriate physics concepts.

Includes: Mechanics and Heat DVDs (2) Waves, Electricity and Magnetism DVDs (2) Conservation Laws DVD Angular Momentum and Modern Physics DVD Teacher’s Guide

Paul Hewitt demonstrates the effect of buoyancy on the weight of an object .

52 Segments on 14 DVDs Order Information: Physics Cinema Classics. ................................................... SE-7526A Only available in the US and Canada

Practical applications of theoretical physics are examined. Order Information: Mechanical Universe (DVD)........................................................... SE-8700 Only available in the US

106

This clip shows Paul Hewitt demonstrating the relationship between his angular velocity and the distance of the masses from his central axis of rotation. Order Information: Best From Conceptual Physics Alive DVD.............................................. SE-9769A

www.pasco.com


Teaching Resources – Physics Demonstrations

Demonstrations in Physics SE-8840 Part I SE-8841 Part II Have you ever wished for a quick five-minute video demonstration to put the finishing touch on a great lecture? Here, on two DVD ROMs, is a collection of 200 physics concepts demonstrated in about 160 QuickTime™ movies. If you remember the film loops of the seventies, you will find these movies even more helpful. One of the goals for producing these movies was that faculty could watch them and then reconstruct their own live demonstrations. The required equipment and supplies, in most cases, are likely available in any physics department. The approximately 200 movies are each about five minutes long and encompass almost all topics which are covered in the standard lower division physics courses. In the movies, the narrative description and explanations of the principles are purposefully kept brief to allow for the faculty to provide their own complete explanations. As each of the demonstrations was produced, care was taken to ensure high quality movie and accuracy of the physical principles being portrayed. Each movie has a complete list of the equipment used. Also, a brief written explanation of each movie is included. The movies are compressed in QuickTime™ format. Students or faculty can use these movies without the need for any additional software or hardware.

Part I (SE-8840) (71 movies) A Newton’s Laws A Free Fall and Projectile Motion A Gravity, Circular Motion, and Satellites A Linear Momentum A Work and Energy A Torque, Center of Mass, and Rotational Inertia A Angular Momentum A Pressure and Density A Waves and Sound A Thermal Physics

Demonstrations in Physics was developed by Dr. Ron Galli and Dr. Farhang Amiri of the Weber State University Physics Department.

Part II (SE-8841) (91 movies) A Electrostatics A Electric Circuits A Capacitance A Magnetism A Faraday’s Law A Inductance

See a sample movie at www.pasco.com/videos

A Reflection A Refraction A Lens Defects A Interference and Diffraction

Order Information:

A Polarization of Light

Demonstrations in Physics

A Electromagnetic Waves

Part I DVD ROM. ..................................... SE-8840

A Modern Physics

Part II DVD ROM..................................... SE-8841

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Mechanics – Dynamics Carts

PASCO Dynamics Carts

Classic Carts

PAScar (set of 2)

1. Plunger Cart

2. Collision Cart

ME-6950

ME-9430

ME-9454

Because the PAScar’s body and plunger are made of polycarbonate plastic, these carts have a mass of just 250 grams. Each cart includes both a spring plunger, magnets and Velcro tabs for collision studies. The PAScars come in sets of two, red and blue, and are compatible with all PASCO Dynamics Tracks and accessories.

These are the standard carts in thousands of physics labs around the world. With an aluminum body, high-impact ABS plastic end caps, and a 500 g mass, they make dynamics experiments quick to set up and very quantitative. The Classic Carts are compatible with all PASCO Dynamics tracks and accessories.

Polycarbonate Body

Two Mounting Holes

Total mass: 250 g

Three Mounting Holes For accessories.

Mass Tray

Add mass to easily double or triple car mass.

Velcro Tabs

For inelastic collisions. (on both PAScars)

Add mass bars to double or triple the mass of the cart.

For accessories.

2.

1.

Mass

One 500g mass included with Collision Cart.

Magnets

Installed on one end for elastic collisions. (on both PAScars)

Low-friction Retractable, Ball Bearing Wheels

Three-position Plunger

Provides reproducible impulses and explosions.

Mass Tray

Magnets

Installed for elastic collisions (both carts).

Velcro Tabs For inelastic collisions.

Low-friction Retractable, Ball Bearing Wheels

Provides reproducible impulses and explosions.

Mass Mass

250 g mass (Two) included with set of PAScars.

Three-position Plunger

Two 250 g mass included with plunger cart.

Order Information: Order Information:

Plunger Cart..........................................................................................................ME-9430 Collision Cart.......................................................................................................ME-9454

PAScar (set of 2)............................................... ME-6950 Replacement Supplies: Replacement Axles (4 pack)............... ME-6957 p.116

Replacement Supplies: Replacement Axles (4 pack)..............................................................ME-6957

GOcar

p. 116

PASCO Carts share two important features:

ME-6951

The GOcar is the low-cost alternative to the PAScar. It’s the same molded, plastic body without the plunger, magnets or Velcro tabs. A low-friction car with spring-loaded wheels to prevent damage from drops. Mass is approximately 220 g.

Low Friction:

Spring-Loaded Suspension:

Ball bearing, knife-edge wheels mean student data more closely matches theory.

 heels retract into the body, so they are W protected from drops or “skateboarding.”

Students can even step on a PASCO Dynamics Cart without damaging it.

Order Information: GOcar..................................................................................... ME-6951 Recommended: Force and Motion Track. .................................. ME-6958 p. PAScar, GOcar Accessories........................ ME-6952 p. Spring Cart Launcher......................................... ME-6843 p. PAScar Mass.................................................................. ME-6756 p.

108

112 123 122 109

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Carts

Photogate-Ready Dynamics System

*Photogate

ME-9494 A  Add Two Photogates for Electronic Measurement A  Manual with Six Experiments Included A  Sturdy Aluminum Carts and Tracks

*Photogate

8.

5.

7.

3. 9. 2. 6. 1. 4.

This system includes our highest quality metal carts and track. The system includes everything except two photogates to do photogate-timing labs.

Use the photogates in two ways: A Mount the photogates on the photogate bracket as shown below:

Motion is recorded as the picket fences on the carts pass frictionlessly through the photogates.

A Reverse the bracket so

the photogate angles out over the clamp-on pulley and can be used to record the cartâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s motion as the spokes of the pulley break the photogate infrared beam.

Photogate Bracket

10.

Designed to hold the photogate over the pulley.

Experiments Included: 1. Acceleration down an Incline 2. Conservation of Momentum in Explosions 3. Conservation of Momentum in Inelastic Collisions 4. Conservation of Momentum in Elastic Collisions 5. Conservation of Energy* 6. Simple Harmonic Oscillation* *Experiments 5 and 6 require a spring set (ME-8999).

Photogate-Ready Dynamics System Components 1. 1.2 m Aluminum Dynamics Track (ME-9493) 2. Aluminum Collision Cart with 500 g mass bar (ME-9454) 3. Aluminum Plunger Cart with two 250 g mass bars (ME-9430) 4. Track End Stops (2) (ME-8971) 5. Track Leveling Feet (2) (ME-8972) 6. Track Rod Clamp (ME-9836) 7. Photogate Brackets (2) (ME-9806) 8.  Cart Picket Fences (2) (ME-9804) 9. Super Pulley with Clamp (ME-9448A) 10. Experiment Manual (below left) * Photogates not included

Order Information: Photogate-Ready Dynamics System. ...............................................................................ME-9494 Required: Photogate Head.......................................................................................ME-9498A (not included, order two) Required to use photogates with ScienceWorkshop: ScienceWorkshop 750 or 500 Interface....................Pages 68-72 Required to use photogates with PASPORT: PASPORT Interface..............................................................................Pages 8-19 Digital Adapter ........................................................................................PS-2159 Recommended: Dynamics Track Spring Set . ....................................................ME-8999

Compact Cart Mass

PAScar Mass

Classic Cart Mass

ME-6755

ME-6756

ME-6757

This 250g mass allows students to change the mass of the Classic Cart, PAScar, or GOcar when a Force Sensor is mounted on the car. It also fits on the Fan Cart (ME-9485).

This 250 gram mass fits in any Dynamics Cart, the Motorized Cart (ME-9781), or the Discover Friction Accessory (ME-8574).

This 500 gram mass fits in any Dynamics Cart, the Motorized Cart (ME-9781), or the Discover Friction Accessory (ME-8574).

Order Information:

Order Information:

Order Information:

Compact Cart Mass.............................ME-6755

PAScar Mass..................................................ME-6756

Classic Cart Mass. ..................................ME-6757

109


Mechanics – Dynamics Systems

PAScar Dynamics Systems 1.2 m Track 2.2 m Track ME-6955

3. 1.

2.

ME-6956

6.

5. 4. PAScar System Components 1. PAScar (2) ME-6950 2. Track 3. Adjustable Endstop (2) ME-8971

A High Quality Aluminum Track A PAScars: Colorful, durable, same features as Classic Cart

4. Rod Clamp ME-9836 5. 250 gram Mass (2) ME-6756 6. Adjustable Feet (2) ME-8972

Order Information: 1.2 m PAScar Dynamics System........................................................ME-6955 2.2 m PAScar Dynamics System........................................................ME-6956

The PAScar 1.2 m Dynamics System is the most economical way to equip your lab with carts and tracks for Newton’s Laws, collisions, velocity and acceleration experiments. With the accessories on pages 111-120, you can expand your system to do additional experiments such as constant force with a fan cart, friction, and oscillations.

Dynamics Track Optics Turn your Dynamics Track into an Optics bench with the Dynamics Track Optics Kit (See page 319). Compatible with all tracks shown on these two pages.

Also, all PASCO Dynamics Systems are specifically designed to accommodate sensors for computer data acquisition.

Order Information:

PAScar Expanded Dynamics Systems 1.2 m Track 2.2 m Track ME-9431

ME-9432

Dynamics Track Optics Kit.................................. OS-8471A 3. 1. 2.

10.

9. 7.

4.

6. 11.

5. 10.

8. PAScar Expanded Dynamics System Components 1. PAScar (set of 2) ME-6950 2. Track 3. Adjustable Endstop (2) ME-8971 4. Super Pulley with Clamp ME-9448A 5. Spring Set ME-8999 6. Friction Block ME-9807 7. Rod Clamp ME-9836 8. Spring Cart Launcher ME-6843 9. Adjustable Feet (2) ME-8972 10. 250 gram Mass (2) ME-6756 11. Angle Indicator ME-9495

A High Quality Aluminum Track A Colorful PAScars A Springs, Friction Block, Pulley, Angle Indicator These systems include extra equipment for doing additional experiments such as oscillations, friction, Hooke’s Law, spring potential energy, and conservation of energy. The new Spring Cart Launcher provides an economical way to launch carts in a repeatable fashion and do energy experiments. To launch the cart, the plunger is pulled through the hole in the new endstop, compressing the spring, and then released. To add repeatability, a second endstop can be used with the supplied pin to hold the plunger at a specified compression position. Three different strength springs are provided with the Spring Cart Launcher.

110

The Spring Cart Launcher rides in the cart so nearly all the energy from the spring is transferred to the cart. See page 122 for more details.

Included Experiment Manual (not shown)

Order Information: 1.2 m PAScar Expanded Dynamics System.........................ME-9431 2.2 m PAScar Expanded Dynamics System........................ME-9432

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Systems

Classic Dynamics Systems 1.2 m Track 2.2 m Track ME-9429B

ME-9452A

4. 3.

1.

11.

2.

8.

10. 5.

7. 12.

13.

9.

6.

Classic Dynamics System Components

A High Quality Aluminum Track A Classic Metal Carts A Springs, Friction Block, Pulley, Angle Indicator These systems include extra equipment for doing additional experiments such as oscillations, friction, Hookeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law, spring potential energy, and conservation of energy. The new Spring Cart Launcher provides an economical way to launch carts in a repeatable fashion and do energy experiments. To launch the cart, the plunger is pulled through the hole in the new endstop, compressing the spring, and then released. To add repeatability, a second endstop can be used with the supplied pin to hold the plunger at a specified compression position. Three different strength springs are provided with the Spring Cart Launcher.

Super Dynamics System (2.2 m Aluminum Track)

11.

The Spring Cart Launcher rides in the cart so nearly all the energy from the spring is transferred to the cart. See page 122 for more details.

Included Experiment Manual (not shown)

Order Information: 1.2 m Classic Dynamics System.........................................................ME-9429B 2.2 m Classic Dynamics System........................................................ME-9452A 1.

4.

3.

2.

ME-9490

10. 5. 8.

12.

1. Plunger Cart ME-9430 2. Collision Cart ME-9454 3. Track 4. Adjustable Endstop (2) ME-8971 5. Super Pulley with Clamp ME-9448A 6. Spring Set ME-8999 7. Friction Block ME-9807 8. Rod Clamp ME-9836 9. Spring Cart Launcher ME-6843 10. Adjustable Feet (2) ME-8972 11. 500 gram Mass ME-6757 12. Angle Indicator ME-9495 13. 250 gram Mass (2) ME-6755

13.

6.

15.

7.

14.

16.

The Super Dynamics System provides an even wider range of accessories for a more advanced study of linear dynamics. Including a Fan Cart, Friction Accessory, and a Mechanical Oscillator Driver for harmonic motion and resonance studies (Note: DC power supply is necessary for operation of the driver). Super Dynamics System Components 1. Plunger Cart ME-9430 2. Collision Cart ME-9454 3. Track ME-9779 4. Adjustable Endstop (2) ME-8971 5. Super Pulley with Clamp ME-9448A 6. Spring Set ME-8999 7. Friction Block ME-9807 8. Rod Clamp ME-9836 Included Experiment Manual (not shown)

9. Cart Launcher (2) ME-9488 10. Adjustable Feet (2) ME-8972 11. 500 gram Mass ME-6757 12. Angle Indicator ME-9495 13. 250 gram Mass (2) ME-6755 14. Fan Cart ME-6977 15. Friction Accessory ME-9457 16. Mechanical Oscillator Driver ME-8750

9.

Order Information: 2.2 m Super Dynamics System...................................... ME-9490 Recommended: Base and Support Rod............................................................... ME-9355 p. 213 Mass and Hanger Set.................................................................. ME-8979 p. 223 DC Power Supply.............................................................................. SE-9720A p. 279

111


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Systems

Dynamics Systems without Carts PAScar Systems without Carts

Classic Dynamics Systems without Carts

Includes:

Includes: End Stops (2) Track Feet (2)

Aluminum Track Pivot Clamp

Manual

Order Information:

Aluminum Track Pivot Clamp Friction Block

Spring Set End Stops (2) Track Feet (2)

Super Pulley with Clamp Angle Indicator Manual

Order Information:

PAScar System 1.2 m (without carts).................................. ME-6953

Dynamics System 1.2 m (without carts).......................... ME-9435A

PAScar System 2.2 m (without carts).................................. ME-6954

Dynamics System 2.2 m (without carts). ........................ ME-9458

Starter Aluminum Tracks Have 1.2 m length tracks and want to change to 2.2 m? These aluminum tracks are available in 1.2 m and 2.2 m lengths.

Force and Motion Track ME-6958 A Inexpensive Alternative A Conduct a Wide Variety of Force and Motion Investigations Track Length = 1.2 m PAScar shown on track, not included.

Photogates require their own stand when used with the Force and Motion Track.

The Motion Sensor clips onto the track for measurement of position, velocity and acceleration.

1.2 and 2.2 meter Aluminum Tracks

This extruded plastic track forms the base for motion experiments with Dynamics Carts. No height adjustment mechanism is included, but grooves keep carts moving in one dimension and allow students to investigate conservation of momentum and the impulse-momentum equation. Order Information:

Order Information: 1.2 m Aluminum Starter Track........................................................ ME-9493 2.2 m Aluminum Starter Track........................................................ ME-9779

112

Force and Motion Track..........................................................................ME-6958 Recommended: PAScars (set of 2)...........................................................................................ME-6950 p. GOcar............................................................................................................................ME-6951 p. Accessory Photogate. ...............................................................................ME-9204B p. Cart Picket Fences (2 Pack).................................................................ME-9804 p.

108 108 37 117

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – PAStrack Systems

PAStrack ME-6960 A 1  m length Dynamics Track A Two-piece molded construction A Accepts Dynamics Track accessories

Motion Sensor or clamp-on pulley fits both ends

Built-in scale

Track just snaps together

T-slot Six leveling feet

Accepts Dynamics Track accessories.

Includes

Two piece track construction for easy storage. Snap-on connector clip holds sections straight and rigid. Use the second clip (included) to connect multiple tracks! The track ends are designed to accept the Motion Sensor and Clamp-on Pulley, and the side T-slots accept Dynamic Track accessories, such as photogate brackets and end stops. Track includes six built-in leveling feet.

Two Piece Track Connector Clip (2) Leveling Feet (6)

Order Information: PAStrack.....................................................................................................................ME-6960

PAStrack Dynamics System

PAStrack Basic System

ME-6961

ME-6962

A Multiple uses

A Most economical system

A 2-piece PAStrack for easy storage

A 2-piece PAStrack for easy storage

With this one system, study collisions, Newton’s Laws, oscillations, Hooke’s Law, velocity, and acceleration. Hang weights over the included clamp-on pulley to accelerate carts or stretch the springs attached to the cart. Additional 3. PAStracks can be purchased to extend the length of this track. 2.

A PAStrack T-slot accepts Photogate Brackets In this system, the 1-m long plastic PAStrack has built-in adjustable feet and can accept all dynamics track accessories, such as photogate brackets, clamp-on pulleys, and Motion Sensors. This system includes two end stops and two PAScars for conducting collision experiments and Newton’s Laws. Additional PAStracks can be purchased to extend the length of this track.

1. 3.

2. 6.

1.

4. 3.

5.

PAStrack Dynamics System Components 1. PAStrack ME-6960 2. PAScar (set of 2) ME-6950 3. Adjustable End Stops (2) ME-8971 4. Pivot Clamp ME-9836 5. Super Pulley with Clamp ME-9448A 6. Dynamics Track Spring Set (12) ME-8999

PAStrack Basic System Components 1. PAStrack ME-6960 2. PAScar (set of 2) ME-6950 3. Adjustable End Stops (2) ME-8971

Order Information:

Order Information:

PAStrack Dynamics System.............................................................ME-6961 Recommended: PAStrack.....................................................................................................................ME-6960

PAStrack Basic System. .........................................................................ME-6962 Recommended: PAStrack.....................................................................................................................ME-6960

113


Mechanics – Inclined Plane

Inclined Plane Dynamics Set ME-6966 A One set of equipment yields multiple experiments A Use as an inclined plane or as a straight track A Designed to allow sensors to be added At the heart of this Dynamics Set is the Inclined Plane Accessory (ME-6965), a plastic hinge (with a angle scale) which enables the two halves of a PAStrack (ME-6960) to be configured as an inclined plane. There is even a rubber band bumper at the lower end of the incline to keep things from sliding off the bottom of the incline. The advantage of using a PAStrack is that it accepts all the accessories that fit a regular dynamics track, such as photogate brackets and Motion Sensors. It has the added advantage that the PAStrack can be used on its own as a one-meter straight dynamics track.

The Inclined Plane Dynamics Set can be used in a variety of ways: – If you want a nearly frictionless experiment, use the included GOcar. – To explore friction, use the four friction trays which have different surfaces and can change mass by putting masses in the trays. – Accelerate the car by hanging a weight over the clamp-on pulley and attach a photogate using the photogate bracket so the pulley blocks the photogate. – Use Hooke’s Law to determine the spring constants of the 12 springs. – Connect the springs to the cart and make the cart oscillate on the incline, finding the period of oscillation for different springs and different masses.

The included manual includes five complete experiments: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Oscillations on an Inclined Plane Acceleration Down an Incline Springs in Series and Parallel Friction and the Inclined Plane Newton’s Second Law on an Inclined Plane

B. A.

F. E.

C.

ME-6966 Included Equipment A. PAStrack Inclined Plane Accessory B. Rubber Cord, 1.5 mm square, 30 m C. PAStrack, 1 meter D. PAStrack Connectors (2) E. GOcar F. Super Pulley with Clamp G. Discover Friction Accessory H. Photogate Brackets (2) I. PAScar Masses (2) J. Picket Fence - Smart Timer (2) K. Dynamics Track Spring Set L. Nylon Thread Experiment Manual

G.

ME-6965 ME-8986 ME-6960

D.

ME-6951 ME-9448A ME-8574 ME-9806 ME-6956 ME-8933 ME-8999

PAStrack Inclined Plane ME-6967 The PAStrack Inclined Plane includes the Inclined Plane Accessory (ME-6965) and the PAStrack (ME-6960).

I. L.

J.

H.

K.

Order Information: Inclined Plane Dynamics Set.......................................ME-6966 Recommended: p. 223 Mass and Hanger Set ..........................................................ME-8979 p. 31 Photogate Head ...........................................................................ME-9498A Motion Sensor ..............................................................................PS-2103A or CI-6742A p. 224 Stopwatch ...........................................................................................ME-1234 Force Sensor ...................................................................................PS-2104 or CI-6746

Inclined Plane Accessory ME-6965 The Inclined Plane Accessory includes the hinge with angle scale and the rubber cord for the rubber bumper. A PAStrack is required to make a complete inclined plane.

Order Information: Order Information: PAStrack Inclined Plane................................... ME-6967

114

Inclined Plane Accessory..........................ME-6965 Required: PAStrack.........................................................................ME-6960

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; PAStrack Accessories

Curved PAStrack ME-6841 Create hills, valleys and inclines. Molded PAStrack system has straight and curved sections that just snap together! Connect multiple sets to make a track as long as you want. A cart is released from rest and rolls down a hill. Using Conservation of Energy, Students calculate the speed of the cart at the bottom of the hill, and compare to the measured value.

Really Cool! Really Big!

Includes: Concave-up Curved Piece Concave-down Curved Piece Connector Clip (2)

Combine your PAStrack with PASCOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Structures System to make really BIG bridges!  See page 175.

Order Information: Curved PAStrack. .............................................................................. ME-6841 Shown in use with: PAStrack Basic System. ............................................................ ME-6962 p. p. Xplorer GLX............................................................................................ PS-2002 Digital Adapter..................................................................................... PS-2159 p. p. Photogate Head.................................................................................. ME-9498A Cart Picket Fences (2-pack). ................................................. ME-9804 p. Photogate Bracket (2-pack).................................................. ME-9806 p. See page 212-213 for Base and Support Rods.

113 10 85 37 38 37

PAStrack Wheel Set ME-6964 A Add wheels to your PAStrack! A Demonstrate Center of Mass and Relative Motion

As the PAScar rolls back and forth, the curved track moves in the opposite direction.

Relative Motion As the Motorized Cart moves forward, the track with wheels moves backwards. Perfect for studying relative motion and center of mass. Shown in use with the ME-9781 Motorized Cart and additional sections of the ME-6960 PAStrack.

Spring loaded wheels Order Information:

Fastens securely to PAStrack

Includes: Wheel set (2)

PAStrack Wheel Set . ................................................................... ME-6964 Shown in use with: PAStrack Basic System. ............................................................ ME-6962 p. 113 Curved PAStrack................................................................................ ME-6841 PAStrack....................................................................................................... ME-6960 p. 113 Motorized Cart..................................................................................... ME-9781 p. 118

115


Mechanics – Dynamics Systems Accessories

Elastic Bumper

Bracket

ME-8998

Motion Sensor

Pivot Clamp ME-9836

The Elastic Bumper protects the Motion Sensor from the carts, but doesn’t interfere with the ultrasonic pulse.

Pivot Clamp

Includes: Two pairs of brackets 10 meters of elastic material

Elastic Bumper Shown with PAStrack

Shown with New PAStrack Pivot Clamp fastens to the T-slot of a Dynamics Track and accepts 1/2” rod.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Elastic Bumper...........................................ME-8998

Pivot Clamp....................................................ME-9836

ME-8986

Dynamics Track Spring Set

For Elastic Bumper (ME-8998)

ME-8999

Rubber Cord (30 meters) Also fits Air Track Bumpers Order Information: Rubber Cord (Spool of 30 m)..........................................ME-8986

Angle Indicator ME-9495A The Angle Indicator fastens to the T-slot of a dynamics track. Hanging plumb-bob indicates angle to 1/2°. Order Information: Angle Indicator..........................................ME-9495A

Includes 12 springs (1.6 cm diameter) with approximate spring constants of: 3.4 N/m (3 short and 3 long springs) 6.8 N/m (3 short and 3 long springs)

Dynamics Systems Spares Kit ME-9823 The Spares Kit contains many of the small parts which are sometimes lost after classroom use. All parts are organized in a convenient case for easy storage.

Order Information: Dynamics Track Spring Set (12)...........................................ME-8999

Adjustable Feet (2) ME-8972

End Stops (2) ME-8971 Order Information: Adjustable Feet (2)................................ME-8972 Order Information: End Stops (2)................................................ME-8971

Super Pulley with Clamp ME-9448B

Shown with PAStrack

Pulley clamps on the end of any Dynamics Track. Its height is fully adjustable to match height of string attached to a dynamics cart.

Cart Replacement Axles (4 pack) ME-6957 Although the ball bearings are designed for many years of use, on occasion the bearings become damaged from dirt and other contaminants. The wheels and axles of the PAScar can be easily replaced by removing the lower section of the car and placing the new wheels in the chassis. A perfect tuneup for a PAScar or GOcar! The wheels of the Classic Carts can also be replaced with the same set of wheels. Contact PASCO’s technical support for further assistance.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Super Pulley with Clamp..............ME-9448B

Replacement Axles (4 pack)........... ME-6957

116

Includes: Cart Bumper Magnets (2) Velcro Hoop and Loop Bumpers (4) Dynamics Track Feet Screws (4) 1/4”-20 x 9/16” Tee Thumb Screws (4) 1/4”-20 x 9/16” Round Thumb Screws (6) 1/4”-20 x 3/8” Round Thumb Screws (6) 1/4”-20 x 7/32” Square Nuts (20) 1/4”-20 Nylon Thumb Nuts (6) 6-32 x 3/8” Nylon Thumb Screw (6) M5 x 0.8 x 20 mm Nylon Thumb Screw (4) 1/4”-20 x 3/8” Set Screws (4) Bumper Squares (8) Round Rubber Bumpers (4) Harmonics Springs (2) Order Information: Dynamics Systems Spares Kit. ........................................................ME-9823

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Mechanics – Photogate Timing

Photogates and Fences

Photogate Brackets

ME-9471A

ME-9806

When used with the computer for data recording, display and analysis, the photogate/pulley timing system can provide a wide range of time, speed and velocity measurements. The photogates mount to the dynamics track using the provided brackets. The “picket fences” provided mount directly to the dynamics carts.

A Attaches photogates to PASCO dynamics tracks A Easily adjust photogate height The Photogate Bracket allows the Photogate Head to be attached directly to PASCO dynamics tracks. This eliminates the need for separate photogate stands and allows the (Photogate not included.) photogate height to be easily adjusted relative to the track. Includes two Photogate Brackets. Order Information: Photogate Brackets (2). ..................................................................................ME- 9806

Photogate Tape Set ME-6664 Position and velocity graphs are obtained using a Picket Fence and Photogate.

Flexible Mylar picket fence tape can be cut to needed length. Tape guide slides onto the arm of PASCO photogates to more accurately measure the motion of a cart.

Photogate tape can be used as a picket fence “string” to continuously measure the acceleration of the cart.

Order Information: Photogates and Fences..........................................................................ME-9471A Includes: Photogate Head................................................................................................ME-9498A p. 37 Photogate Brackets (2)............................................................................ME-9806 p. 37 Cart Picket Fences (2)................................................................................ME-9804 Super Pulley with Screw......................................................................ME-9450 p. 164

Requires Digital Adapter PS-2159 to use with PASPORT Interfaces.

Cart Picket Fences (set of 2) Order Information: Cart Picket Fences (set of 2)............................................................ME-9804

Smart Timer Picket Fences ME-8933

The High Resolution Photogate Tape, available separately, has a distance of 1 cm between edges for more data points during high velocity or acceleration phenomena. Two Tape Guides included

Includes:

ME-9804

(set of 2)

Slide the included bracket onto the arm of a PASCO photogate (ME-9498A or ME-9204B) and slide the photogate tape through the slot to measure position, velocity, and acceleration. The band spacing on the tape is 5 cm from edge to edge, which is identical to the Large Picket Fence (ME-9377A).

See Smart Timer on pages 146-147.

Order Information: Smart Timer Picket Fences (set of 2)....................................ME-8933

Photogate Tape (30 m) Photogate Tape Guide (2) Double-Adhesive Tape (not shown) Velcro Strips (not shown) Order Information: Photogate Tape Set......................................................................................ME-6664 High Resolution Photogate Tape................................................ME-6666 Required: Photogate Head................................................................................................ME-9498A p. 37 or Accessory Photogate.........................................................................ME-9204B p. 37

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Mechanics – Powered Carts

Motorized Cart ME-9781

Screw Holes

For mounting accessories

A Battery powered/adjustable speeds A External power jack A Climbs a 30° slope A Durable construction The tank-like molded casing and a rugged internal gear mechanism are built for the harshest student environment. Runs on four “C” batteries and has variable speed adjustment knob. External power input accepts phone plug cable (included) to power the car using a DC power supply, or a programmable power supply such as the GLX Power Amplifier (shown in use below).

Speed Adjustment

External Power Jack Strong Traction

Rear rubber wheels

On/Off Switch

Four “C” Batteries (not included)

Tow Hook

Front and back

Front Wheels

Compatible with Dynamics Tracks

Curved PAStrack

Motorized Cart

External Power Cable Xplorer GLX®

The above graph shows effect of increasing motor voltage on the efficiency, the ratio of the work done lifting the load divided by the electrical energy used.

PAStrack

GLX Power Amplifier The motor voltage is controlled using the Xplorer GLX output which is amplified by the GLX Power Amplifier.

Includes: Motorized cart Cable for connecting to external power supply

Specifications Adjustable Speed: ≈ 8-25 cm/s Battery Power: Four “C” (not included) External Power Input Jack Battery Life (Alkaline): Six hours

118

Equipment Shown: Motorized Cart. ..............................................................................ME-9781 PAStrack..................................................................................................ME-6960 p. Curved PAStrack...........................................................................ME-6841 p. Xplorer GLX.......................................................................................PS-2002 p. GLX Power Amplifier. ............................................................PS-2006 p. 250g Mass............................................................................................ME-6756 p. Base and Support Rods..................................................................................................p. “C” Batteries (4 pack)............................................................PI-6603 p.

113 115 10 14 109 212 261

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Mechanics – Powered Carts

Super Fan Cart ME-6977 A C  onstant Force A Rechargeable A Programmable Teach every aspect of Newton’s Second Law with PASCO’s Super Fan Cart.

Adjust thrust angle to teach about vector forces Fan turns through 180°

Pulse Duration

Program fan to be pulsed on for specific time to demonstrate acceleration only occurs when a force is applied. Includes time delay and auto-repeat option.

Vary the Mass without changing the Force Accessory Mass Tray for ME-6755 Compact Masses

Adjustable Fan Speed

Apply different forces using three standard settings or the continuously variable setting. Regulated power supply gives constant thrust even as the battery discharges.

String Attachment Connect two fan carts together to add or subtract forces.

Specifications

Retractable Wheels with low friction ball bearings

Rechargeable Battery

Lithium-Polymer battery runs fan continuously on medium thrust for about 1.5 hour. Recharges in about 1 hour.

The Net Force is Zero

Removable sail can be used two ways: When positioned as shown, the sail cancels the forward air flow and there is no thrust. If the sail is reversed, its curved shape reflects the air backwards, causing the cart to move in the opposite direction.

Fan Cart Mass: Approximately 0.3 kg Sail Mass: Approximately 0.1 kg Regulated Power Supply: Lithiumpolymer battery (7.2 volts, 1.25 amp-hour) Run-time: Runs approximately 1.5 hr on medium thrust Recharge Time: One hour typical Thrust Settings: Approximately 0.04 N on Low, 0.15 N on Medium, and 0.22 N on High Thrust, Variable: Approximately 0.01 N to 0.23 N Order Information: Super Fan Cart. ................................... ME-6977 Includes: Fan cart, sail and charger Recommended: PAStrack....................................................... ME-6960 p. p. Compact Cart Mass....................... ME-6755 p. Motion Sensor..................................... PS-2103A p. USB Link...................................................... PS-2100A

113 109 25 18

119


Mechanics – Powered Carts

Fan Accessory ME-9491

Time Pulse Accessory

Developed for Workshop Physics® and RealTime Physics® activities.

The Fan Accessory gives any PASCO cart self-propulsion capability and includes a safety guard to protect student fingers. Simply snap the accessory onto the top of a cart, flip the switch, and observe the constant acceleration motion. The speed can be varied by removing one or more batteries and replacing with included slugs.

ME-9496

Cart not included

Time Pulse Accessory mounted on Fan Accessory The position versus time graph is linear for the Motorized Cart and curved for the accelerating Fan Cart.

The Cart Race! Starting at the same point and time, the Motorized Cart, traveling at a constant speed, initially takes the lead but is caught and passed by the Fan Cart traveling at a constant acceleration. Order Information: Fan Accessory.....................................................................................................ME-9491 Recommended: Four “AA” Cell Alkaline Batteries...............................................PI-6601 p. 261 Dynamics Carts.................................................................................................p. 108-109 Dynamics Track (1.2 or 2.2 m).........................................................p. 110-111 Time Pulse Accessory..............................................................................ME-9496

Multi Fan Bracket ME-6616

The Multi Fan Bracket fastens to any PASCO cart, and holds up to three of the ME-9491 Fan Accessories. The fans can be clipped on in either direction.

Includes: Bracket Mounting Screws

The ME-9496 Time Pulse Accessory, when plugged into the ME-9491 Fan Accessory or the ME-9781 Variable-speed Motorized Cart, allows students to apply a repeatable impulse for constant acceleration and constant velocity experiments. The Start button, with a 2-second delay feature, engages the motor of the Fan Accessory or the Variable-speed Cart for 1, 2 or 4 seconds, or for an adjustable pulse of 1-7 seconds. The ME-9496 Time Pulse Accessory includes two replaceable lithium batteries that last up to five years. Order Information: Time Pulse Accessory. .....................................................................................ME-9496

Fan Accessory Guard (5 pack) ME-9869

The Fan Accessory Guards protect students’ fingers from the propeller of the Fan Accessory. Installation takes minutes and requires only a Phillips screwdriver. Kit includes guards and hardware to upgrade five Fan Accessory units. This guard fits Fan Accessory ME-9491 only. Not required for Fan Accessories that already include the guard. Order Information: Fan Accessory Guard (5 pack)...............................................................ME-9869

Constant Speed Buggy SE-8028A Turn on the Constant Speed Buggy and watch it go. When it reaches a wall, it flips over and changes directions. This low-cost solution features flashing lights and a sporty appearance. Requires two “C” batteries that are not included. Actual product may vary from picture.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Multi Fan Bracket...................................................................................................ME-6616

Constant Speed Buggy..................................................................................SE-8028A

120

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Mechanics – Cart Accessories

Ballistic Cart Accessory

Drop Rod Accessory

ME-9486

Can be aimed for perfectly vertical shots every time.

Works Every Time Non-Contact Release Adjustable Barrel

How it Works Drop Rod Jack

Add the Drop Rod (not included) to perform “bombing” runs.

Photogate Release No friction means no introduced errors.

Trigger Bracket

Mounts quickly and easily to the PASCO Dynamics Track.

Easy Mounting Attaches to the PASCO Cart in seconds.

Colorful Projectiles

2.5 cm plastic balls are easy to see.

How It Works

Compatible with PASCO Classic Carts, PAScars and GOcars.

Photogate Ball Release: PASCO’s optical release does not affect cart motion or ball flight path, no matter what the speed of the cart. Alignable Barrel: The barrel has X and Y adjustments so perfect vertical projections can be produced every time, even on nonlevel surfaces. Constant Velocity: Mounts on the low-friction PASCO Dynamics Cart so horizontal velocity remains constant. Strong Compression Spring: Fires a colored nylon ball 0.5 meters or higher—impressive for demonstration purposes.

ME-9486 Ballistic Cart Accessory: attaches to a dynamics cart and projects a ball as it travels along a track.

Ballistic Launcher Trigger Bracket Plastic Balls (2) 9V Battery

Drop Rod Accessory

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

x=?

Shoot and Catch Tunnel Accelerating Cart* Inclined Plane* Drop Ball** Bombing Run**

*Can be performed with or without the Drop Rod. **Must use Drop Rod.

Check out the experiments on the web at www.pasco.com Includes: Ball and Rod

Cart Launcher....................... ME-9488 p. 122

Dynamics Cart

Typical Experiments

Required:

Variable Speed Motorized Cart.................... ME-9781 p. 118

Ballistic Cart Accessory

Dropping the ball to the floor offers several challenging quantitative experiments.

Ballistic Cart Accessory.................................. ME-9486

Recommended:

At slow or fast speeds, the results are the same.

All these experiments are possible with the Ballistic Cart and the Drop Rod Accessories.

Order Information:

Dynamics System........................................... p. 110-112

Cart

2. Constant acceleration

Features

Includes:

0.5 Meters

1. Constant velocity

Mounted on a dynamics cart or motorized cart moving at constant velocity, the Ballistic Cart Accessory launches a ball vertically, continues down the track and then catches the ball as it falls— every time. Offers an exciting introductory demonstration to projectile motion.

The Drop Rod mounts on the side of the Ballistic Cart Accessory. A magnetic nylon ball attaches to the top of the rod and is released when the photogate on the cart is triggered. The rod can be mounted to drop the ball into the cart or rotated 180° so the ball will drop to the floor. Students can calculate where the ball will hit the floor under the following conditions:

3. On an inclined track 

PASCO’s Ballistic Cart Accessory helps beginning physics students grasp the independence of vertical and horizontal motion.

Ballistic Cart Accessory

ME-9487

A A A

Adjustable Barrel

Order Information: Drop Rod Accessory............................ME-9487 Required: Ballistic Cart Accessory....................ME-9486

121


Mechanics – Dynamics Systems Accessories

Spring Cart Launcher ME-6843 A

Affordable Cart Launcher

A

Hooke’s Law

A

Spring Potential Energy The spring potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. The Spring Cart Launcher rides in the cart, so nearly all the energy from the spring is transferred to the cart. The position of the cart (top) and the velocity of the cart (bottom) are measured using the Motion Sensor.

To perform the Hooke’s Law experiment, the Spring Cart Launcher plunger is pulled with a Force Sensor (PS-2104), compressing the spring, while the displacement of the cart is measured with a Motion Sensor (PS-2103A). The slopes of the graphs of Force versus Position give the spring constants for the three different springs.

The Spring Cart Launcher provides an economical way to launch carts in a repeatable fashion. It can be used for Hooke’s Law, collisions, and for Conservation of Energy. The Spring Cart Launcher fits into the bed of a Dynamics Cart, PAScar, or GOcar. To launch the cart, the plunger is pulled through the hole in the new endstop, compressing the spring, and then released. To add repeatability, a second endstop can be used with the supplied pin to hold the plunger at a specified compression position. Three different strength springs are provided with the Spring Cart Launcher. Use with or without probeware.

Includes: Spring Cart Launcher Trigger Pin Three Different Strength Springs Order Information: Spring Cart Launcher...................................ME-6843 Required: Dynamics Track System.............................See pages 110-111 Recommended: End Stops (2)..........................................................ME-8971

p. 116

Replacement Springs (Three different strength springs, two each)............................................ME-6847 Compact Cart Mass........................................ME-6755

Cart Launcher ME-9488

p. 109

Features Repeatability: Launch carts with the same force each time. Data will be consistent and accurate. Variable Launch Speed: Vary spring compression to vary the speed. Compatible with Dynamics Cart Accessories: Use with the Ballistic Cart or Fan Cart.

The Cart Launcher launches PASCO Dynamics Carts with repeatability impossible to achieve by hand. The force of the launcher is fully adjustable, and the built-in scale permits force calibration. Mounts to PASCO Dynamics Tracks.

Calibration—

Mount the launcher vertically and hang masses from the hook to calibrate the spring. Use the built-in scale as a reference. At maximum spring compression, the launcher produces a 30 N force.

Includes: Cart Launcher with trigger release

Order Information:

Dynamics Track Mount

Cart Launcher.............................................................................................................ME-9488

122

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Systems Accessories

Magnetic Damping Accessory

PAScar/GOcar Accessories

ME-6828 The spring-and-car oscillation experiment shown here uses a Motion Sensor to measure the position and velocity of the cart. The Magnetic Damping Accessory induces eddy currents in the aluminum track, causing friction which is proportional to the velocity of the cart. Students can vary all of the parameters, including the amount of damping, track angle, cart mass, and spring constant.

ME-6952

Motion Sensor measures position and velocity of cart.

Extend the utility of the PAScar and GOcar. Each set includes: Friction Pad Magnetic Bumper Magnetic Damping The steel bracket of the Magnetic Damping Accessory slides up and down to adjust the amount of damping.

Over-damped, Under-damped, Critically-damped

The cart is displaced from equilibrium and then released from rest. The green line shows a system that is under-damped, with the magnets far from the track. The cart is over-damped (blue line) when the magnets are very close to the track, and it takes over four seconds for the cart to reach its equilibrium position. When the cart is critically damped (red line) it reaches its equilibrium position in the minimum amount of time, which for this system is just over two seconds. Order Information:

Includes: Bracket Magnets Keeper

Magnetic Damping Accessory. ...................................ME-6828 Equipment shown: PAScar Dynamics System (1.2 m).........................ME-6955 Dynamics Track Spring Set. .............................................ME-8999 Motion Sensor.................................................................................PS-2103A

Cart Damping Accessory ME-9497

The aluminum Cart Damping Accessory fits in the slot in the Dynamics Cart mass tray. The magnetic bracket that mounts in the T-slot of the Dynamics Track causes magnetic damping as the aluminum passes through the magnetic field. The gap between the 1.9 cm neodymium magnets can be varied to change the strength of the magnetic field.

The Magnetic Bumper attaches to the Velcro end of the PAScar for a chain of elastic collisions. The bumper can also be attached to the GOcar so it can undergo elastic collisions with a PAScar.

Adjustment Screw

Compatible with PASCO Classic Carts, PAScars and GOcars.

The Cart accelerates as the aluminum passes through the magnetic field. Order Information: Cart Damping Accessory...............ME-9497 Required: PAScar or Dynamics Cart. p. 108-109 PASCO Dynamics Track p. 110-111

The Friction Pad is installed through a threaded hole in the middle of the cart. Students can rotate the pad to either increase or decrease the induced friction. Order Information: PAScar/GOcar Accessories.....................................................ME-6952

123


Mechanics – Dynamics Systems Accessories

Discover Friction Accessory

Friction Cart Accessory

ME-8574

ME-9457 The ME-9457 Friction Cart Accessory mounts to either a Plunger (ME-9430) or Collision Cart (ME-9454) by replacing the cart’s end cap. All parts and mounting hardware are included.

Friction Adjustment Screw PASCO’s Discover Friction Accessory is unlike any other friction set. The trays are designed to work effectively with PASCO carts and sensors. Using the four trays, students can discover such concepts as coefficient of friction, static friction, kinetic friction and the sliding friction equations. The two trays with identical plastic surfaces can be hooked together to explore the relationship between surface area and sliding frictional forces.

Friction Accessory installed on a Dynamics Cart. The Friction Cart Accessory allows the friction of either a Plunger or a Collision Cart to be varied over a wide range of values.

Friction Pad

Motorized Cart can also be used to pull the loaded friction tray from rest to a constant velocity.

Graph shows velocity of a cart on an incline both with and without friction.

Features Easy Storage: Friction trays are stackable Versatile: Students discover key friction concepts Compatible: Can be used with PASCO carts, masses and Force Sensors

Includes: Friction Adjustment Screw Friction Pad Mounting hardware Replacement end cap Order Information: Friction Cart Accessory...........................................................................ME-9457

Friction Block ME-9807

The peak of the graph represents the maximum static frictional force. Once the friction tray begins to move, the kinetic frictional force is evident on the graph.

A

Two types of material

A

Vary surface area by using it flat or up on its side

A

Hook for attaching a string to pull it

A

Slot for a picket fence or flag for photogate timing

The wooden Friction Block has felt on two sides so the frictional coefficients for felt or wood can be measured. It also fits into the dynamics cart tray so the cart can run on its wheels or it can be turned upside down to run on the Friction Block, without changing the mass.

Includes: Friction Tray - Felt Friction Tray - Cork Friction Tray - Plastic (2) Order Information: Discover Friction Accessory. ............................................... ME-8574 Recommended: PAScar Mass............................................................................................ ME-6756 p. 109 p. 108 PAScars (set of 2).............................................................................. ME-6950 p. 108 GOcar............................................................................................................... ME-6951 p. 118 Variable Speed Motorized Cart. ...................................... ME-9781 Force Sensor........................................................................................... See pages 28 and 74 Dynamics System............................................................................. See pages 110-111

124

Features Dimensions: 13 cm x 5 cm x 1.7 cm Approximate Mass: 110 g Order Information: Friction Block.......................................................................................................ME-9807

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Mechanics – Dynamics Systems Accessories

Bernoulli Cart Accessory

Car Sail

ME-9481

ME-9595

This 5 cm diameter cylinder with precision ball bearings, easily set spinning by pulling a string, provides an excellent demonstration of the Bernoulli Principle. Requires a fan to provide airflow across the rotating cylinder.

A

Introduce Air Resistance into Motion Experiments

A

 asily Achieve E Terminal Velocity

A

 hree Different T Sail Sizes

Compatible with PASCO Classic Carts, PAScars and GOcars.

Bracket securely holds the sail.

The Car Sail allows students to study the effects of air resistance on PASCO carts. Simply attach the bracket to the mass tray of the cart and attach any of the sails. Using the various sails, the relationship between surface area and terminal velocity can be studied. Students can also create their own sails and attach them to the bracket. Terminal velocity is related to both the surface area and the mass of an object in motion. Students should compare the motion of the cart without a sail to its motion with the sails. As the surface area of the sail increases, the cart will more closely approach a terminal velocity.

Using the Fan Cart to create wind, the Bernoulli Cart Accessory accelerates down the dynamics track.

Track

Front of Cart

Cart moves in this direction.

Higher Air Speed— Lower Pressure

Fan

Lower Air Speed–– Higher Pressure

Top view of the rotating cylinder on the Bernoulli Cart Accessory. Order Information: Bernoulli Cart Accessory. ........................................................ ME-9481 Required: 1.2 m Classic Dynamics System.................................... ME-9429B p. 111 2.2 m Classic Dynamics System. .................................. ME-9452A p. 111 Super Fan Cart...................................................................................... ME-6977 p. 119 or any highly focused fan

Comparison of cart velocity as it moves down the track with various sails attached.

Includes: Sail Bracket Screws for Cart and Sail Mounting 3600 cm2, 1800 cm2, and 900 cm2 Sail Order Information: Car Sail................................................................................................................................ME-9595

125


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Systems Accessories

Force Accessory Bracket

Bumper Accessory Set

CI-6545

ME-9884

The Force Accessory Bracket with Bumpers mounts the CI-6746 Economy Force Sensor or CI-6537 Force Sensor directly to a dynamics track. Includes 5 collision attachments for the Force Sensor and conveniently stores each attachment on the bracket itself. Using any of these attachments, the bracket serves as an excellent support or target for collision studies using the Force Sensor.

Includes: Spring Bumpers (2) (different spring constants) Magnetic Bumper (1) Rubber Bumper (1) Clay Cup for Inelastic Collisions (1) (clay included)

#0 Phillips Head Screwdriver (to attach to Force Sensor)

Note the bumper springs and various mounting options. Force time data for a clay, spring and magnet.

This set of bumpers can be used with any PASCO Force Sensor to perform both elastic and inelastic collisions. The standard hook for each Force Sensor can be easily removed and replaced with any of these bumpers. Use a spring and a cup for elastic collisions. Combine two cups with clay to explore inelastic collisions.

Includes: Stiff Spring Light Spring Empty Cup (2) Modeling Clay

Order Information:

Order Information:

Force Accessory Bracket................CI-6545

Bumper Accessory Kit......................ME-9884

Discover Collision Bracket

Magnetic Bumper Set

ME-8973

ME-9885A

The Collision Bracket fastens to the T-slot of a dynamics track, and securely holds the Force Sensor for measuring collisions with a Cart. Includes two different springs.

This set of magnetic bumpers can be used with any PASCO Force Sensor to perform elastic collisions without any contact. The bumpers screw directly into the beam of the sensor. They can also be used with the Force Accessory Bracket (CI-6545A).

Shown with PAStrack (see page 113) Includes: Two Springs

Includes:

Bracket

Order Information: Discover Collision Bracket. .........ME-8973

126

The cart collides with the force sensor at the same initial speed for both of the springs. The area under the Force vs. time graph is the change in momentum (impulse) of the cart, and is the same for both collisions.

Magnetic Bumper (2) Order Information: Magnetic Bumper Set. .....................ME-9885A

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Mechanics – Dynamics Systems Accessories

Motion Sensors

Cart Adapter Accessory

PS-2103A CI-6742A

ME-6743

PASPORT ScienceWorkshop

A 3  60º Rotating Head A False Target Rejection Circuitry A Bi-directional Measurements of Position, Velocity and Acceleration

PASCO’s ultrasonic Motion Sensors clip directly to Dynamics Tracks and their unique “Narrow Beam” technology provides cleaner data.

The Cart Adapter Accessory allows the Motion Sensor II and many other sensors to be mounted to a Dynamics Cart or a PAScar.

The Motion Sensor can be mounted directly to the Dynamics Carts or PAScars for relative motion studies.

Useful length of track with typical sonic ranging devices. 42 cm

15 cm

Useful length of track with PASCO Motion Sensors.

Mounting a Motion Sensor on a cart is ideal for the study of relative motion. The adjustment knob on the bracket allows the Motion Sensor to face any direction.

Motion Sensor clips to Dynamics Track.

Includes: Two M5 thumb screws to attach to cart Order Information: ScienceWorkshop Motion Sensor II......................................CI-6742A p. 74 PASPORT Motion Sensor....................................................................PS-2103A p. 25 Required to mount on PASCO Carts: Cart Adapter Accessory..........................................................................ME-6743

1/4”-20 screw at center Order Information: Cart Adapter Accessory...................ME-6743

Projectile Catcher Accessory ME-6815

For use with short and long range launchers, the ME-6815 catcher attaches directly to Dynamics Carts. See page 155 for more information.

Includes: Projectile Catcher (170 g) String holder plate and clamp 2.5 cm steel balls (2) (67 g each)

Photogate (not included) can be used to measure the speed of the cart after catching the fired ball.

Spool of string Velcro strips (not shown) Instruction manual and experiment guide

Order Information: Projectile Catcher Accessory..........................................................ME-6815

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Systems Accessories

PASPORT Visual Accelerometer PS-2128 AC  learly Demonstrates the Difference Between Velocity and Acceleration AS  hows Both Direction and Magnitude of Acceleration A Acts as a PASPORT Sensor when Connected to a Computer (See page 34) Scale Switch

How It Works

Super Bright LEDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

The Visual Accelerometer shows the magnitude and direction of acceleration in one dimension. Five green LEDs light in proportion to the acceleration to the right and five red LEDs light in proportion to the acceleration to the left. Because the Visual Accelerometer is mounted on the accelerating object, students see the acceleration without having to look away at a computer.

Mode of Operation Switch

When connected to a computer, the Visual Accelerometer measures the acceleration as the cart is pushed by hand. The direction and magnitude of the acceleration is constant as the cart goes up and then goes down incline. Push a cart up the incline and let it go back down. Students will expect the direction of the acceleration to change, depending on whether the cart is going up or down the incline. They are surprised that the red lights stay lit in the same direction.

Specifications: Three Manual Scales: 1 m/s2, 5 m/s2, 20 m/s2 full scale Requires three AA batteries for stand-alone operation (included) Auto-off after three hours

Features

Includes:

Super Bright LEDs: Strong visual clues to both the magnitude and direction of the acceleration.

Visual Accelerometer

Portable: Clearly shows magnitude and direction of acceleration with no cord attached. Auto-Scale: The auto-scale feature makes any acceleration between 0.2 and 20 m/s2 a full-scale reading. Peak-Hold Mode: Freezes the lighted LEDs at the maximum acceleration so it can be viewed after the object stops.

Plastic M5 screws for attachment to a dynamics cart (2) PASPORT Sensor Cable

Order Information: PASPORT Visual Accelerometer. .................................................PS-2128 Recommended: Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit......................................PS-2516 p. 34

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Systems Measurement

Visual Accelerometer Applications The Visual Accelerometer can be mounted on a rod stand for vertical direction use in an elevator. A slot for a rope allows the Visual Accelerometer to slide up a rope to show the acceleration of gravity. It can also be hung by strings as a pendulum. It fastens to both Dynamic Carts and PAScars. The top of the Visual Accelerometer is a mass tray that accepts the IDS accessories. The Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit (PS-2516) allows the Visual Accelerometer to be mounted in other configurations.

The Visual Accelerometer can be used with the ME-9491 Fan Accessory for constant acceleration experiments. The ME-9496 Time Pulse Accessory allows the fan to turn on and off hands-free.

When studying Newtonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Laws with a Force Sensor on a cart, add the Visual Accelerometer to the top of the sensor. It fastens to the mass tray of the Force Sensor the same as it does with a cart.

The Visual Accelerometer can be used with the ME-9798 Motorized Cart for constant velocity experiments. The ME-9496 Time Pulse Accessory allows the car to turn on and off hands-free.

To use the Visual Accelerometer inside a moving reference frame such as a car or an elevator, best results are obtained if the unit is mounted to a rod stand using the Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit (PS-2516).

Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit PS-2516 Includes: Four-String Pendulum Plate Plastic Rod Clamps (2) M-5 Mounting Thumbscrews (2) 1/4-20 Thumbscrews with Nuts (4) Roll of Thread For freefall studies, the bottom of the Visual Accelerometer has a channel that accepts a cord or small rope.

The four string pendulum plate from the Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit (PS-2516) keeps the unit level as it oscillates, showing its horizontal acceleration.

Order Information: Visual Accelerometer Accessory Kit................................................ PS-2516

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Mechanics – Dynamics Systems Measurement

Measurement Devices for Dynamics Systems Tape Timer

Smart Timer

ME-9283

ME-8930

This traditional paper tape method clearly illustrates the relationship between displacement and time. The tape produces many data points so students can plot displacement, velocity and acceleration graphs. See page 145 for additional details.

With the use of the picket fence or photogate/pulley, the Smart Timer measures time, speed and acceleration. A single Smart Timer with two photogates (as shown below) can measure initial and final speeds of two carts in a conservation of momentum experiment. See pages 146-147 for additional details.

Photogate

Photogate

Smart Timer Speed before and after collision— In Speed: Collision mode, use two carts and two photogates with a single Smart Timer to measure initial and final speeds of both carts. Use a Tape Timer, Dynamics Cart and Track to calculate acceleration down an inclined plane. Order Information: Tape Timer...............................................................................................................ME-9283 Includes one roll of paper, 10 carbon paper discs, battery and manual. Replacement Supplies: Tape Timer Supplies...................................................................................ME-9284 p. 145 Includes five rolls of paper (each 150 m) and 10 carbon paper discs.

Order Information: Smart Timer................................................................................................. ME-8930 Includes two fences, 9 VAC adapter and manual. Additional Equipment: Accessory Photogate. ...................................................................... ME-9204B p. 37 Photogate & Fences-IDS ............................................................ ME-9471A p. 131

Photogate Timer ME-9215B

PASCO Stopwatch

Ideal for quick setup and accurate measurements of velocity. Two “Memory Timers” (ME-9215B) make all the velocity measurements necessary for a conservation of momentum experiment. See page 148 for additional details.

ME-1234 A Durable A Simple to use A No alarm A Uses one AA battery (included) A M  emory: Stores up to nine event times See page 224 for more details. Order Information: PASCO Stopwatch...............................................................................................ME-1234

130

Order Information: Photogate Timer..............................................................................................ME-9215B Recommended: Accessory Photogate. ...............................................................................ME-9204B p. 37

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Mechanics – Dynamics Systems Measurement

Photogates and Fences

Photogate Tape Set

ME-9471A

ME-6664

When used with the computer for data recording, display and analysis, the photogate/pulley timing system can provide a wide range of time, speed and velocity measurements. The photogates mount to the dynamics track using the provided brackets. The “picket fences” provided mount directly to the dynamics carts.

Flexible Mylar picket fence tape can be cut to needed length. Tape guide slides onto the arm of PASCO photogates to more accurately measure the motion of a cart.

Photogate tape can be used as a picket fence “string” to continuously measure the acceleration of the cart.

Position and velocity graphs are obtained using a Picket Fence and Photogate.

Slide the included bracket onto the arm of a PASCO photogate (ME-9498A or ME-9204B) and slide the photogate tape through the slot to measure position, velocity, and acceleration. The band spacing on the tape is 5 cm from edge to edge, which is identical to the Large Picket Fence (ME-9377A). The High Resolution Photogate Tape, available separately, has a distance of 1 cm between edges for more data points during high velocity or acceleration phenomena.

Two Tape Guides included

Includes: ME-9498A Photogate Heads (2) ME-9806 Photogate Brackets (2) ME-9804 Picket Fences (2) Super Pulley with attachment screw (attaches Super Pulley to Photogate)

Includes: Photogate Tape (30 m) Photogate Tape Guide (2) Double-Adhesive Tape (not shown) Velcro Strips (not shown)

Order Information: Photogates and Fences.......................................................... ME-9471A Individual Components: Photogate Head................................................................................ ME-9498A p. 37 Photogate Brackets (2)............................................................ ME-9806 p. 37 Cart Picket Fences (2)................................................................ ME-9804 Super Pulley......................................................................................... ME-9450 p. 164

Order Information: Photogate Tape Set......................................................................................ME-6664 High Resolution Photogate Tape................................................ME-6666 Required: Photogate Head................................................................................................ME-9498A p. 37 or Accessory Photogate.........................................................................ME-9204B p. 37

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Systems Measurement

Rotary Motion Sensor with Dynamics Track Mount and Track String Adapter

Track String Adapter

Use a Rotary Motion Sensor to measure the position of the cart on a Dynamics Track. It gives higher resolution than a Motion Sensor, and mounts on the side of the track for experiments that need two end stops. A second system can be mounted to the other side of the track to monitor two carts simultaneously. Dynamics Track Mount

Rotary Motion Sensor

Oscillator Driver

Spring

PAScar

DC Power Supply Additional Mass

Magnetic Damping The velocity amplitude is plotted as a function of driving frequency. The four resonance curves show the effect of varying the strength of the magnetic damping.

Equipment Shown: 1.2 m PAScar Dynamics System....................................... ME-6955 Dynamics Track Spring Set ..................................................... ME-8999 p. 116 Magnetic Damping Accessory. ............................................ ME-6828 p. 123 DC Power Supply.................................................................................. PI-9877 p. 278

Dynamics Track Mount CI-6692

The CI-6692 Dynamics Track Mount is for mounting the Rotary Motion Sensor to the dynamics track allowing it to act as a high resolution, bi-directional Smart Pulley.

Includes: Bracket

Track String Adapter ME-6569 When used in conjunction with the CI-6692 Dynamics Track Mount, this unit allows a Rotary Motion Sensor to continuously monitor the Dynamics Cart position. A loop of string wraps around the Rotary Motion Sensor pulley and the ball-bearing pulley and then attaches to the cart via a special clip (included).

Includes:

Bracket with Pulley Cart String Clip Thread

Dynamics Track Mount............................................................................CI-6692 Rotary Sensor for use with: ScienceWorkshop..........................................................................................CI-6538 p. 74 PASPORT .................................................................................................................PS-2120 p. 26

Order Information: Track String Adapter. ............................ME-6569

Mechanical Oscillator/Driver

Push/Pull Accessory

ME-8750

ME-8751

The Mechanical Oscillator/Driver delivers repeatable, low-frequency, high-force sinusoidal motion for harmonic motion experiments. Shown with ME-6956 PAScar Dynamics System, and also works with the Classic Dynamics Systems.

Features Sinusoidal Drive: 12 VDC motor (frequency: 0.3-3 Hz, current: 0-0.3 A). Adjustable Amplitude: Up to 12 cm. Order Information: Mechanical Oscillator/Driver................................................. ME-8750

132

The ME-8751 Push/Pull Accessory for the Mechanical Oscillator/ Driver can be used in almost any experiment where students need to push as well as pull. Drive Dynamics Carts, create standing waves in long ropes and cords or continuously operate PASCOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Transverse Wave Demonstrator (SE-9600). Order Information: Push/Pull Accessory........................................................................ ME-8751 Required: Mechanical Oscillator/Driver.................................................. ME-8750

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Air Track

The PASCO Air Track

2-Meter Scale Precision Cart

PASCO 2.0 m Air Track

Designed to accept accessories such as flags, extra masses, etc.

SF-9214

Mounted to both sides of track

Variable Output Air Supply SF-9216 A N  early Frictionless Linear Motion A Two Meters Long A Complete Accessories Included

Soft Bumpers

Reduce energy loss during collisions

It’s simple physics— a moving object will continue forever at a constant velocity unless it’s acted on by an external force. To the physicist, Newton’s first law is second nature. Yet it’s still fascinating to watch an air track glider moving endlessly back and forth on an air track. It’s even more fascinating for students, who are often seeing this simplest form of motion for the first time. An air track glider provides the raw material for highly accurate investigations into the laws of motion. Add a timing system and investigate uniform motion, average and instantaneous velocities, uniform acceleration, elastic and inelastic collisions, impulse and change in momentum, conservation of momentum, conservation of energy and more. The data is precise and unambiguous. Frictional forces are negligible.

Specifications Length: 2.0 m (working distance 1.9 m) Straight: ±0.04 mm Construction: Extruded aluminum square (3 mm wall thickness) on a U-channel support with seven alignment screws Air Holes: 382 holes of 1 mm diameter; 2 cm spacing; 4 cm diameter air inlet Base: Three-point with bilateral leveling screws Millimeter Scales: 2 meters long on each side

Shipping Information Track: Size: 2.2 m (85”) length x 17 cm (7”) diameter Weight: 12.7 kg (28 lb) Accessories: Size: 28 x 21 x 16 cm (11 x 8 x 6 in.) Weight: 4.5 kg (10 lb) Note: Air Supply needed for Air Track

Includes: Gliders (2):13 cm long; 170 g; with rubber band bumpers Glider Flags (2): 100 mm Glider Masses (4): 50 g Inelastic Collision Kit (1): Needle with wax-filled receptacle Constant Acceleration Kit: Ball-bearing pulley, glider hook, mass hanger (2 g) and five acceleration masses: 1 g (2); 2 g (1); 5 g (1); 10 g (1) Storage Tray

Sturdy Design

Guarantees stability

Alignment Channel

Ensures that the track will always be straight

Soft bumpers reduce vibrations, allowing elastic collisions that really are elastic

Compared to other air tracks, the PASCO Air Track is: A L  onger: The 2-meter length provides more room for experimenting (yet it still fits on a standard lab table). A S  traighter: Guaranteed straight to within 0.04 mm over its entire 2-meter length. If the air track should ever become misaligned, return it to PASCO and we will realign it for free. A T  ougher: The track is a large, square aluminum extrusion with 3 mm thick walls further strengthened by a supporting U-channel. This construction preserves straightness and allows for accurate realignment. A Q  uieter: PASCO’s Air Supply is exceptionally quiet. It allows the air flow to be adjusted to the perfect amount for each experiment. Too little air causes friction; too much air causes energy loss due to glider “flutter.” A C  omplete: The PASCO Air Track comes with a complete set of accessories:

A Two 170-gram gliders with soft bumpers. Glider collisions

with hard bumpers can cause glider vibration, resulting in significant energy loss. Soft rubber band bumpers eliminate vibration and allow students to control the force and duration of each collision by varying the band tension.

Order Information:

A Air Track Accessory Kit (all items shown on page 135) A Mounting hardware (two single-leg screws, two double-leg

2.0 Meter Air Track. ........................................................................................ SF-9214 Required: Variable Output Air Supply................................................................ SF-9216 Suggested: Replacement Parts......................................................................................... see page 135

A One single leg A One double leg with adjustable feet A Fixed-end stops (2)

screws, one 4 mm wrench, one 5 mm wrench)

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Mechanics – Air Track Accessories

Air Track Accessory Kit SF-9295 SF-9214 PASCO Air Track: available separately (add a timing system) or in a complete Photogate Timer system that includes everything required for an air track lab.

A set of accessories (SF-9295) comes with every PASCO Air Track. All that’s needed is a timing system. The set (SF-9295) may be ordered separately.

Electric Launcher-Air Track SF-9296

Order Information: Accessory Kit-Air Track. ...................... SF-9295

Launch a glider re­peat­ed­ly with the same impulse and velocity each time. Or use two launchers to launch both gliders in a collision ex­per­i­ment. Each launcher kit includes the iron core, coil and armature.

Note: This launcher is designed for use only on the PASCO Air Track.

Recommended: Glider Kit- Air Track................................... SF-9224 Air Supply Hose (2m)-Air Track................................................... SF-9298 T-Adapter and Hose-Air Track................................................. SF-9217 Riser Block Kit. ............................................... ME-9239

Variable Output Air Supply Power supply and patch cords not included.

Order Information: Electric Launcher-Air Track. ........................................................... SF-9296 Required: Banana Plug Cord-Black (5-pack).......................................... SE-9751 p. 261 Triple Output-Power Supply. ...................................................... SE-8587 p. 279 or Equivalent Supply providing 2 A at 5 VDC

SF-9216 The PASCO Air Supply is exceptionally quiet. Its variable output lets students match the air flow to the experiment. A 2-meter hose is included. By adding the (SF-9217) T-Adapter and Hose, the Air Supply can operate two PASCO Air Tracks at the same time.

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators-Air Track SF-9297 Investigate coupled harmonic motion on the PASCO Air Track Kit includes three gliders, 12 connecting plugs, six 50-gram masses, six springs and an adjustable end stop. With the two gliders that come with the PASCO Air Track, students can experiment with up to five gliders in coupled harmonic motion.

SF-9297 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators: mounted on the PASCO Air Track.

Note: This Air Supply produces 36 cfm at 0.122 psi for use with the SF-9214 Precision Air Track. If used with another track, the total area of the air flow holes must be ≥2.6 cm2, or the supply may overheat. Order Information: Variable Output Air Supply........... SF-9216

Note: Add the SF-9324 Mechanical Wave Driver and a Function Generator such as the PI-9587C, and students can drive the coupled oscillators at fixed and measurable frequencies. See the Waves section for more information. Order Information: Coupled Harmonic Oscillators- Air Track. ................... SF-9297 Recommended: Mechanical Wave Driver................................................................... SF-9324 p. 292 p. 284 Function Generator . ............................................................................. PI-8127

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Rubber Cord (30 meters) ME-8986 For Elastic Bumper (ME-8998) Also fits Air Track Bumpers Order Information: Rubber Cord (Spool of 30 m)..........................................ME-8986

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Air Track Accessories

Optional Accessories and Replacement Parts

12

The Air Track includes accessories for standard air track experiments, from simple acceleration to elastic and inelastic collisions. To add more advanced experiments, a variety of additional accessories are available.

9

10

11

14

13 1

8 2 Air Track Replacement Parts

3

7

4 5

6

Air Track Accessories (included in the SF-9295 Kit)

(not included in the SF-9295 Kit)

(Each item may be ordered separately. The number in parentheses indicates how many of each item is included in the Accessory Kit.)

(Must be ordered separately.)

1. Mass/Hanger Set- Air Track (1)

SF-6300

2. Bumper with Holder Air Track (3)

SF-6301

10. Glider- Air Track

11. Fixed End Stop- Air Track

SF-6302

SF-6313

12. Adjustable End Stop- Air Track

3. Bumper Set- Air Track (2)

SF-6306

SF-6309

13. 25 mm Glider Flag

SF-6311

14. U-shaped Glider Flag 4. Inelastic Collision Needle- Air Track (1)

SF-6303

SF-6312

15. Glider Kit- Air Track

5. Wax Receptacle (1)

(see inset photo above) SF-9224 (Includes one glider, two 50 g masses, bumper with holder, and bumper blade.)

6. Glider Hook (1)

16. Air Supply Hose (2m)- Air Track

SF-6304

(The following three items are not pictured above)

SF-6305

SF-9298

7. Glider Mass (4)

17. T-Adapter and Hose- Air Track

8. Ball Bearing Pulley- Air Track (1)

18. Riser Block Kit

SF-6307

SF-6308

9. 100 mm Flag (2)

SF-6310

15. SF-9224 Additional Glider Kit

SF-9217 (Allows two air tracks to be operated from one air supply.)

ME-9239 (Includes four aluminum blocks of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 cm to tilt air track at repeatable angles.)

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Hovercraft

Hovercraft

Cordless Air Source

ME-9838

SE-8806

A A A A

 tudents Experience Newtonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Laws S Durable Nylon Skirt Rubber Bumper Optional Cordless Air Supply

Our Hovercraft follows the classic design, with a rugged nylon skirt attached around a 1.2 meter wood platform. Students can easily ride on the Hovercraft to experience the kinematics of frictionless motion first-hand.

Air Source Not Included

Includes: Rechargeable Battery Charging Adapter Note: 220 V version not available.

How It Works: The nylon skirt is stretched around the wood platform and tightened using a steel wire. The center of the skirt is attached to the bottom of the wood platform. A custom rubber bumper is placed around the circumference of the wood platform. The bumper helps secure the skirt and also provides a soft cushion around the edge of the Hovercraft. A high-volume air source is used to force air through the platform and into the skirt. After sitting on the platform, the air source is turned on and the skirt inflates. Small holes in the skirt allow the air to escape, while providing the higher pressure needed to lift the rider. A built-in level helps students center their weight on the Hovercraft.

Order Information: Cordless Air Source. ............................SE-8806

Hovercraft Kit ME-9878

An optional Cordless Air Source (SE-8806) is also available (at right). In addition, most leaf blowers provide enough air flow to support the Hovercraft. The PASCO Hovercraft is capable of supporting up to 300 lbs and comes completely assembled.

DoubleReinforced Nylon Skirt

stretched around the wood platform and tightened using a steel wire prevents failure under high pressure loads.

Includes: Wood Platform (1.2 meter diameter, 1.9 cm thick) Nylon Skirt with Mounting Hardware

Custom Rubber Bumper

stretched securely around the circumference of the wood platform.

Air Holes

Allows air to escape, providing high pressure to lift the student.

The Hovercraft Kit includes everything to build the Hovercraft, except the wood platform. Cordless Air Source is available separately. Order Information: Hovercraft Kit...............................................ME-9878 Required: Cordless Air Source.............................SE-8806 Round Wood Platform (1.2 m diameter, 1.9 cm thick)

Rubber Bumper Liquid Level Connection Hose for Air Source Order Information: Hovercraft.......................................................................................................................... ME-9838 Required: Cordless Air Source.............................................................................................. SE-8806

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Mechanics – Ride-on Carts and Hover Puck

Kinesthetics Cart

Carts Developed for Workshop Physics® Activities

SE-8747

A T  he Student “Becomes” the Dynamics Cart A Developed by the “Workshop Physics” Program at Dickinson College Upper Cart

Ball bearings mounted on the bottom of this cart allow it to slide off the lower cart.

Cart Length: 90.5 cm

Holes for Coupler Upper Cart Wheels Act as “landing gear.”

Low “Roller Blade” Wheels Lower Cart Coupler

On both carts, allow for smooth, constant travel.

Keeps carts piggy-backed until rider removes it. When students sit on top of the Kinesthetics Cart they actually become part of the experiment. Active involvement makes for “fun physics,” but, more importantly, it provides a sensory experience that teaches what a concept such as Newton’s First Law “feels like.”

The student, using the Kinesthetic Cart, pushes off the Force Platform (PS-2141) on the wall and her speed is recorded using Photogate Tape Set ME-6664 (page 38). The impulse can be found from the resulting force versus time graph and the resulting change in momentum can be verified from the velocity graph. Data is recorded using the Xplorer GLX. Please note: This item is made to order and requires 30 days for delivery. Order Information: Kinesthetics Cart...................................................................................................... SE-8747

Hover Puck SE-7335B A Hovers on a Cushion of Air A Ideal for Inertia Activities Typical Applications

The Hover Puck glides on a self-generated cushion of air across any smooth surface, including low-pile carpet. The rubber bumper provides protection for the puck and other objects during collisions. Each puck includes four “AA” batteries.

A Inertia Activities: The Hover Puck removes friction from its motion, which helps students better understand Newton’s First Law

Specifications

A 2D Collisions: Use a video camera to record

Diameter: 18.5 cm Height: 6.0 cm

the motion of two Hover Pucks as they experience an off-axis collision. Use video analysis software to analyze the motion of the pucks before and after the collision

Includes: Hover Puck

Hover Puck Launcher

Four “AA” Batteries

SE-7389 Use this sturdy launcher to propel the Hover Puck with repeatable velocities. The launcher includes large rubber bands which can be placed at two different positions to vary the launch velocity.

(Appearance may vary) Use a Motion Sensor to measure the constant velocity motion of the Hover Puck.

Includes: Launch pad Large Rubber Bands (30)

Order Information: Hover Puck Launcher.......................................................................................... SE-7389

Order Information: Hover Puck. ............................................................................................................SE-7335B Recommended: PASPORT Motion Sensor.....................................................................PS-2103A p. 25 ScienceWorkshop Motion Sensor II.......................................CI-6742A p. 74

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Mechanics – Roller Coaster

Roller Coaster Complete System

Low-Friction Mini Cars

Rigid Support Pegs

ME-9812

Mini Car Catcher

A 3-Car Roller Coaster A Q  uantitative Studies of Energy Conservation A Easy to Change Track Configurations Features Support Panels: Have a variety of track configuration holes predrilled for easy student assembly. Feature a dry erase surface so calculations can be performed at the point of interest on the track. Mini Cars: Feature low-friction ball bearings and ABS construction to withstand repeated impacts. One red, one yellow and one green Mini Car included. Each car includes a slot for a supplied photogate flag, cup/mass holder and cup. The body of the car extends just far enough below the wheels to protect them should the car leave the track.

“Whiteboard” Support Panels

Variety of Track Configurations

Flexible Track: Guides carts on their path, yet is flexible enough to form loops and hills, or can be rolled out flat on a table. Easily attaches to the support pegs using the twist-on track clips. Long pegs allow two tracks side-by-side for comparison. Probeware Compatible: Threaded support pegs and Mini Car photogate flags allow photogates to be used at many positions around the track to measure velocity and acceleration.

Bumpers mount on Mini Cars to allow rubber band or clay collisions. Also used to couple Mini Cars into a train.

Basic System ME-9811

Complete System

Includes:

ME-9812

Order Information:

Includes:

ME-9815

Support panel (3 sections) Support feet (4) Flexible track (9.1 meters) Mini Cars (3) Support pegs for track (43) Photogate support pegs (4) Track clips (50) Mini Car catcher (2)

Includes:

Order Information:

Basic Roller Coaster...................................................................... ME-9811 Roller Coaster Upgrade (Basic to Complete)....................................................................... ME-9817

Roller Coaster Spares Kit Long track pegs (23) Short track pegs (2) Photogate support pegs (2) Track clips (25) Mini Car photogate flags (3) Ballast mass screws (3) Mini Car mass post (3) Order Information: Roller Coaster Spares Kit....................................................... ME-9815

138

Support Feet The Roller Coaster’s Mini Cars are low friction, yet rugged; mass can be added to the cars on top or in the ballast position.

Ballast Mass: Can be added to mass tray of Mini Car or hidden under Mini Car to increase the energy without changing the car’s outward appearance.

Flexible track (9.1 meters) (not shown) Mini Cars (3) Mini Car collision accessory (3) Mini Car photogate flags (3) Track Clips (50)

Flexible Track

Mini Car starter bracket (2) Mini Car collision accessory (3) Mini Car photogate flags (3) Water cup (3) Mini Car ballast mass (3) Photogate brackets (4) Track couplers (2)

Complete Roller Coaster......................................................... ME-9812 Recommended: Photogate Head................................................................................... ME-9498A p. 37, 75 p. 37 Photogate Bracket (2). ................................................................. ME-9806 p. 146 Smart Timer.............................................................................................. ME-8930 or Computer Interface (see pages 10-23 and 68-72) Replacement Supplies: Mini Car Set (3 cars)..................................................................... ME-9813 Roller Coaster Track (9.1 meters)................................... ME-9814 Starter Bracket...................................................................................... ME-9856

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Roller Coaster Accessories

Roller Coaster Applications:

Ballistic Pendulum Accessory ME-9845

Using the Ballistic Pendulum Accessory, students can investigate conservation of energy and momentum for a collision. The Mini Car is rolled down the hill from a known height and is captured by the catcher (included with Roller Coaster System). The kinetic energy of the Mini Car is transformed into gravitational energy as the car/catcher swings to a higher position. Conservation of Energy: Release the Mini Car and measure its velocity and height at several points along the track. Use these values to calculate total energy of the Mini Car. Frictional losses are less than 5%. Constant Acceleration: Several straight inclined sections can be used to measure and demonstrate constantly accelerated motion. Centripetal Acceleration: Use either the circular loop or clothoid loop to measure the maximum and minimum accelerations experienced by the Mini Car. Projectile Motion/Conservation of Energy: Use the initial height of the Mini Car to determine its speed as it flies off the end of the track. Using this speed and height above the ground when it leaves the track, predict where the Mini Car will land.

Includes: Support Plate Thread Velcro Order Information: Ballistic Pendulum Accessory......................................... ME-9845 Required: Complete Roller Coaster.......................................................... ME-9812 Mini Car Catcher is included in the Complete Roller Coaster

Physical Pendulum Accessory

Brachistochrone:

A Mini Car traveling between two points along a brachistochrone path takes less time compared to the straight line path.

Multi-car train:

ME-9858

Mini Cars can be coupled to form a train and the velocity of each car can be measured with a photogate and a Smart Timer. The velocities are not the same.

The Physical Pendulum Accessory allows students to investigate angular momentum, translational kinetic energy, rotational kinetic energy, and gravitational potential energy all in one experiment. The Mini Car is released from the hill and its rubber band bumper collides with the physical pendulum. The pendulum rotates as a result of this collision to a maximum of 180°. The release point and mass of the Mini Car are adjusted prior to the experiment such that all its energy is transferred to the pendulum during the collision.

Includes: Physical Pendulum Pivot Rod with Ball Bearings Masses Order Information: Physical Pendulum Accessory........................................ ME-9858 Required: Complete Roller Coaster.......................................................... ME-9812

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Mechanics – Amusement Park Physics

Amusement Park Physics Kit

Includes: Brass Hanging Weights (19) Springs* k = 3 N/m (16) Plastic Tubing (2.5 m) Plastic Tubes, 30 cm long (16) Plastic Tube End Caps (32) Bumper Stickers (16) Horizontal Accelerometer Cards (16) Push Pins (5) No. 3 Paper Clips (17) Cotton String Metal Balls (60) Straws (16) Wire Ties Vinyl Tape Rubber Bands #117 (32) Rubber Bands #19 (6) Plastic Storage Bags (16) Instruction Manual

ME-9426A A Extend Your Lab into the “Real World” A Complete Kit for 15 Students A Developed in Conjunction with AAPT*

Students experience the thrill of scientific investigation.

They might lose their notes. They might even lose their nerve. But in one day at an amusement park, students will also gain a real “gut-level” appreciation for Newton’s Laws. Using this kit, students don’t observe a dynam­ics cart. They are the dynamics cart. The PASCO Amusement Park Physics Kit is the only kit that is:

A A  pproved by the safety officers of major amusement parks across the USA.

A S  tudent-tested in amusement parks by

*Additional accelerometer springs may be purchased separately. See order  information below.

hundreds of schools.

A Teacher-tested in hundreds of

Amusement Park Physics Workshops.

A Made with a metal coil spring for

the Vertical Accel­erometer (far more accurate than the commonly used rubber band).

A Supporting physics education (for each

set sold, $2.50 is donated to the AAPT).

* American Association of Physics Teachers

Photo courtesy of Paramount’s Great America.

Typical Experiments Almost any ride, in or out of an amusement park, can be investigated. The manual includes the following ready-touse experiments: 1. Playground Physics/Merry-go-round 2. Playground Physics/The Swing 3. Elevator Physics

Check out the experiments on the web at www.pasco.com Order Information:

140

Teacher’s Guide Practice Problems Measurement Booklet Student Workbook

ANGLE

50

Additional Accelerometer Springs (15 pack).....................................ME-8734

Includes: The Vertical Accelerometer: The stretch of the spring measures the vertical acceleration in “g’s.”

60

Amusement Park Physics Handbook..........................................................SE-8740 (not included in kit)

Produced by the AAPT, this handbook gives teachers helpful information on their “Physics Day.”

70

Recommended: Scissors, pliers, masking tape, clear plastic tape

SE-8740

80

Amusement Park Physics Kit (15 pack)...........................ME-9426A

Amusement Park Physics Handbook

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

Resources

HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION CARD

The Horizontal Accelerometer: The angle to which the BBs rise measures the horizontal acceleration. This accelerometer doubles as a sextant to measure distances by triangulation.

Amusement Park Physics Handbook

— edited by Carole Escobar Order Information: Amusement Park Physics Handbook.................................SE-8740

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Roller Coaster

Design your own Roller Coaster with PASCO’s Structure System PASCO’s Structures System allows students to design and build their own roller coaster for detailed studies of conservation of energy and centripetal force. The flexible track is perfect for building hills, valleys and even a loop! Car with low friction ball bearing wheels minimizes energy losses. Measure the speed of the car using photogates or a Motion Sensor.

Roller Coaster 1.3 m long

Flag works with photogates to measure speed of car along track.

This Roller Coaster can be constructed with either a Bridge Set ME-6991 or a Physics Set ME-6989.

Position Accessory Photogate anywhere along the track to measure speed. Add Load Cells to measure the forces needed to support the track.

Car jump Adjust the launch speed and angle so the car lands safely on the top of the building. Constructed using the Large Structures Set ME-7003.

Add a loop to your roller coaster Investigate the effect of changing the size and shape.

Large Roller Coaster 2.3 m long Constructed using the Large Structures Set ME-7003.

Graph shows support forces exerted on the track as the car goes up and over the loop.

Order Information: Bridge Set*. ............................................................... ME-6991 Physics Structures Set* ........................... ME-6989 Large Structures Set* ................................ ME-7003 Shown in use with: Load Cell & Amplifier Set*.................... PS-2199 Accessory Photogate. ................................... ME-9204B

p. 169 p. 172 p. 176 p. 32 p. 37

*Patents pending

141


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Air Rocket System

Air Rocket System SE-8694A

Photogate Tape Set

A Launch Rockets 100 Meters Vertically

ME-6664

A Includes Everything Required to Launch

Attach Photogate Tape to any moving object to measure posi- Photogate not included tion, speed, and acceleration as the tape is pulled through the photogate bracket. The photogate tape is Mylar; a rugged yet flexible material. The band spacing on the tape is 5 cm from edge to edge, which is identical to the Large Picket Fence (ME-9377A). Each set includes a 30 m roll of tape with 5 cm spacing. The tape may be purchased separately and a high-resolution version of the photogate tape with 1 cm spacing is also available.

A M  easure Launch Velocity Using Photogate Tape Set (shown at right)

Actual product may vary from illustration.

Typical Applications Launch velocity of air rocket as measured with Photogate and Photogate Tape.

A Measure the launch speed and acceleration of an air rocket A Measure the acceleration due to freefall or the terminal velocity of an object in freefall A Investigate the relationship between the motion of the arm and the speed of a thrown ball

Includes: Photogate Tape (30 m) Tape Adapter Bracket (2) Double-Adhesive Tape (not shown)

Two Brackets included

Order Information: Photogate Tape Set.............ME-6664 Required: Photogate Head.......................ME-9498A p. 37 Recommended: Photogate Tape (30 m)....ME-6663

The Air Rocket System is a high-powered toy that launches rockets using only compressed air. Connect the included pump to the launch pad, place the rocket on the pad, pump 5 to 20 times, and let the rocket fly by pressing the launch button. The rockets are rugged plastic with foam fins and a heavy foam nose cone. The launch pad includes a safety mechanism which allows the rockets to be launched vertically only. Using the Photogate Tape Set (ME-6664), students can also measure the motion of the rocket during launch. Simply attach a length of photogate tape to the rocket and thread the tape through the guide on the photogate. As the rocket launches, the tape is pulled through the photogate. The alternating clear and opaque portions of the tape allow the Xplorer to calculate the position, velocity and acceleration of the rocket throughout the launch.

Includes: Air Rockets (2) Launch Pad Air Pump

Actual product may vary from illustration.

142

Plastic Tubing with Quick Connects

Photogate Tape, High Resolution (30 m). ................ME-6666 Xplorer GLX.................................PS-2002

p. 10

Digital Adapter..........................PS-2159

p. 85

Altitrak SE-8696 The Altitrak will indicate both the angle relative to horizontal and the maximum altitude of a rocket in meters.

Height

150 m Launch Pad

Order Information: Altitrak.......................................... SE-8696 Recommended: Photogate Tape Set. ...... ME-6664 Photogate Head................. ME-9498A p. 37

Order Information:

Digital Adapter.................... PS-2159

p. 85

Air Rocket System........................SE-8694A

Xplorer GLX........................... PS-2002

p. 10

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Gravity and Freefall

Discover Freefall System ME-9889 A Determine g A Investigate air resistance dependence on mass, volume, cross-sectional area PASCO’s Discover Freefall System can be used to drop almost any small object by attaching a small steel washer with a small adhesive pad (both are included in the system). Using an electric switch, timing is started automatically just as the object is dropped and the Time-of-Flight Pad stops timing when the object strikes it. Students can investigate the effect of air resistance on acceleration. In addition, students can drop objects of the same size but different mass to study how object mass affects terminal velocity during freefall. The drop box has a magnetic mount for attaching to metal frames in ceilings.

This redesigned system can also accept the Target Accessory, ME-6854, to perform the shoot-the-target demonstration. See page 152.

When the switch is pressed, the ball is dropped and the time of fall is measured for various balls. The graph shows height vs time-squared data for the 1 inch steel ball and the large hollow plastic ball. The slope of the line (equal to 1/2 g) gives an acceleration for the steel ball of 9.79 m/s2. Note that the acceleration of the large hollow ball is considerably smaller, and that its data is not linear.

Custom case with built-in rod clamp and magnets to fasten Drop Box to ceiling

Test button Shown in use with rods and clamps sold on pages 212-215. The Drop Box also has built-in magnets to fasten directly to the ceiling.

Charging light

Set includes six different balls

Any small object can be dropped with the Discover Freefall System by attaching a washer to the object with an adhesive pad (both included).

Active feedback loop measures the magnetic field and adjusts current to null field and release ball in less than 1 ms

The Discover Freefall System also works with any PASPORT or ScienceWorkshop Interface. Shown here using an Xplorer GLX with a Digital Adapter. Order Information:

Includes:

Drop box Control cable Control box AC adapter Time-of-Flight receptor pad Timer Switch Release washers (10)

Release labels for attaching washers to object (50) Small nylon ball Large plastic ball Golf ball Hollow golf ball 1” steel ball 5/8” steel ball

Discover Freefall System................................................ ME-9889 Required: Smart Timer....................................................................................... ME-8930 p. or ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface......................................p. or PASPORT Interface................................................................................................p. with Digital Adapter................................................................ PS-2159 p. Recommended: Freefall Balls Accessory..................................................... ME-9890 p. Rods and Clamps............................................................................................................p.

146 68-72 10-23 85 219 212-215

143


Mechanics – Gravity and Freefall

Coin and Feather Tube

Constant Velocity Tubes – 6 set

SE-9788

SE-9076 75

The “Coin and Feather” experiment is one of the best ways to dispel the “lighter objects fall more slowly” myth. Centimeters

50

When the air inside the 75 cm tube is at atmospheric pressure, the feather (in this case a very visible piece of styrofoam) falls significantly more slowly than the coin. The syringe vacuum pump (included) will bring the air inside the tube down to about 7% of atmospheric pressure, making the feather and the coin appear to drop at the same rate.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

By monitoring the bubble’s position, students can plot a position versus time graph. Slower tubes will have lower slopes. Constant Velocity Tubes effectively introduce the relationship between graphs and motion. Students can use a meterstick and a stopwatch to plot the position of the bubble as a function of time as it moves up the tube. Each tube has an obstruction that serves as the initial position for the bubble. The slope and vertical intercept from the graph yield the equation of motion. Constant Velocity Tubes include six tubes with varying viscosities and initial starting points.

Order Information: Coin and Feather Tube...................................... SE-9788

Freefall Timer Adapter

Order Information:

ME-9207B

Constant Velocity Tubes (6 set).............................................................. SE-9076

How It Works A steel ball is clamped into a spring-loaded release mechanism. At the instant the ball is released, the electronic timer automatically starts. The timer stops when the ball hits the receptor pad. With the accurate, high resolution timing and automatic start and stop, results are precise and repeatable.

Includes: Ball release mechanism with stereo phone plug and receptor pad Four steel balls (1.9 cm, 1.6 cm diameter) Maximum distance of fall is 2m. Freefall Timer Adapter shown in use with the ME-8930 Smart Timer. The Smart Timer records the elapsed time from when the ball is dropped until the ball hits the receptor pad.

Constant Velocity Tubes – 4 set SE-9072 A Includes a tube with both a bubble and a metal ball This set is unusual because it includes a tube with both a bubble, a plastic ball and a metal ball, giving the students the added twist of having an object with a negative velocity and thus a negative slope on the graph. Students can predict where the ball and the bubble will meet. Constant Velocity Tubes effectively introduce the relationship between graphs and motion. Students can use a meterstick and a stopwatch to plot the position of the bubble as a function of time as it moves up the tube. Each tube has an obstruction that serves as the initial position for the bubble. The slope and vertical intercept from the graph yield the equation of motion.

215 214 212 148 130 68-72 10-23 85

82 cm

This set includes three tubes with varying viscosities and initial starting points plus one tube with both a bubble and two balls. The red one and the colorless one have the same viscosity.

Order Information:

144

0

Seconds

The Coin and Feather Tube includes a 3.8 cm diameter clear plastic tube with end caps, coin and “feather” (styrofoam), and syringe vacuum pump.

Freefall Timer Adapter.......................................................... ME-9207B Required: Large Table Clamp..................................................................... ME-9472 p. Multi Clamp....................................................................................... SE-9442 p. Rod (90 cm long)........................................................................ ME-8738 p. Photogate Timer. ......................................................................... ME-9215B p. or Smart Timer. ............................................................................. ME-8930 p. or ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface. p. or PASPORT Interface p. with Digital Adapter................................................................ PS-2159 p.

25

Order Information: Constant Velocity Tubes (4 set).............................................................. SE-9072 Required: Meter Stick (6 pack)............................................................................................... SE-8827 PASCO Stopwatch................................................................................................... ME-1234

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Timing

Tape Timer ME-9283 A Crystal-Controlled A Two Frequencies (10 Hz and 40 Hz) A Easy-to-Read Dots While the concept of ticker tape timing has been widely accepted, traditional problems (the lack of calibration and the need to use special paper) often made this a difficult method to use. PASCO eliminated these problems with a unique design. Ticker tape timing is no longer a troublesome timing method.

Features Two Crystal-controlled, Calibrated Frequencies: (10 Hz and 40 Hz), accurate to 0.1%. The 40-Hz frequency is ideal for freefall experiments. The slower 10-Hz frequency is best for most dynamics track experiments. Includes an Internal 9-V Battery, or Use an Optional External 9-V AC Adapter/Power Supply: A single battery can last for up to a yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worth of normal experiments. Low Mass, Small-pin Printing Head: Driven by short millisecond pulses,produces sharp, round dots without smearing. Plain Paper: Print on 12.5 mm (1/2 inch) wide, plain paper supplied in 150-meter (500 feet) rolls. Carbon Paper Discs: Used for printing. The adjustable disc holder allows the printing point to be adjusted, giving a long life to the discs. Rod Clamp: Allows the Tape Timer to be mounted on a standard lab stand rod so that the paper path is either parallel or perpendicular to the rod. Rod sizes between 13 mm (1/2 inch) and 9 mm (3/8 inch) are accommodated.

Calculate the acceleration due to gravity by dropping a mass attached to the tape.

The Method Provides students with a visual demonstration of speed and acceleration. A moving object pulls a paper tape through the timer. The timer prints dots on the tape at equal time intervals. The result is a series of dots on the paper tape, representing the position of the object as a function of time. From the dots on the tape, the distance traveled can be measured, and the average speed for each time interval can be calculated. Plotting position versus time enables students to determine the average speed. Plotting the average speed for each time interval versus time enables acceleration to be determined. The paper tape can be attached to air track carts, dynamics carts, falling masses or other objects.

Includes: One roll of paper, 10 carbon paper discs, battery and manual (not shown). Order Information:

Use a Tape Timer, Dynamics Cart and Track to calculate acceleration down an inclined plane.

Tape Timer......................................................................................................................... ME-9283 Recommended: 9-V AC Adapter 120 V/500 mA................................................................. 540-007 9-V AC ADAPTER 220 V/500 MA. .......................................................... 540-027 Tape Timer Supplies............................................................................................. ME-9284 Includes five rolls of paper (each 150 m) and 10 carbon paper discs.

145


Mechanics – Timers

Smart Timer ME-8930 A Portable Timer for Photogates and Smart Pulleys

A Counter for G-M Tubes

A Measures Time, Speed and Acceleration

A Crystal-controlled 0.01% Accuracy

Measure Time: A One Gate: Returns time from leading edge to leading edge A Fence: Returns 10 time values A Two Gates: Returns time between two gates A Pendulum: Measures pendulum period A Stopwatch: Returns time between pressing Start/Stop button

2-line, 16-character Alphanumeric LCD

Top Line: Measurement Description Bottom Line: Numerical Values

Shown Actual Size

OR gives time that a single photogate is blocked

Measure Speed: A One Gate: Single object speed using picket fence A Collision: Initial and final speeds for one or two carts A Pulley: Angular speed radians/second or in revolutions/second Measure Acceleration: A One Gate: Direct measurement of acceleration using picket fence

A Linear Pulley: Acceleration of string tangent to PASCO pulley

A Angular Pulley A Two Gates: Object’s average acceleration between two photogates

Measure Counts: A Three timing intervals A Manual mode counts until Stop is pressed A Up to 5,000 counts/second A Up to 9,999,999 total counts A “Beeps” with each count in manual mode Test Mode: A Blocked/unblocked photogate indicator

Typical Experiments 1. Acceleration Due to Gravity* 2. Newton’s Second Law* 3. Conservation of Momentum in Collisions* 4. Rotational Inertia of a Disk & Ring* 5. Acceleration Down an Incline 6. Simple Harmonic Oscillator 7. Oscillations on an Incline 8. Springs in Series and Parallel 9. Projectile Motion Using Photogates 10. Time-of-Flight and Initial Velocity 11. Determining the Acceleration Due to Gravity 12. Counting Radiation with the G-M Tube *Experiments require accessories listed on page 149.

It’s as easy as 1-2-3. 1. Measurement

Press this button to select the quantity to be measured: “Time,” “Speed,” “Accel,” “Count” or “Test” will appear on the display.

Two Photogate Ports

2. Mode

Press this button to select the type of experimental setup. Each mode is shown in words on the display.

3. Start/Stop

Press Start. The Smart Timer “beeps,” displays an asterisk (*) and waits for an event to occur. After the event, the Smart Timer displays a result.

Durable Positive-click Buttons

Check out the experiments on the web at www.pasco.com

146

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Timers

The Most Versatile Stand-Alone Timer Available The microprocessor-based PASCO  Smart Timer is the most versatile way to make time, speed, acceleration and count measurements.

A Variety of Modes and Measurements

Features Works with two Photogates More than just a Timer: Measures speed and acceleration as well as time. Intuitive Operation: The menu-driven display mirrors the easy-to-follow flowchart on the Smart Timer label. Quick Setup: Turn on the switch, plug in the photogates, and it’s ready to use. Increased Timing Accuracy: The redesigned 3-section fence (two included) uses more accurate method of measurement from leading edge to leading edge. Portability or Plug-in: The battery-operated (four AA cells) Smart Timer can be used outside the classroom away from power outlets. It can also be operated on the 9 VAC adapter (included).

Speed before and after collision— In Speed: Collision mode, use two carts and two photogates with a single Smart Timer to measure initial and final speeds of both carts.

Speed of object through one gate— In Time: One Gate mode, timing begins when the photogate beam is first blocked and continues until the beam is blocked again. Use the fence supplied with the Smart Timer.

Calculation Lock-out Switch: A switch inside the battery compartment disables the speed and acceleration modes. Timing modes are unaffected, and students are required to do their own calculations.

Rotary motion— In Acceleration: Linear Pulley mode, the Smart Timer measures the acceleration of the string over the Smart Pulley.

Specifications Resolution: 100 µs Accuracy: 0.01% of full range of the measured time Display: 2-line, 16-character, alphanumeric LCD Inputs: Two 1/4” stereo phone jacks on side panel— TTL compatible Power Requirements: Four “AA” batteries (not included) or AC adapter (9 VDC, 500 mA) included

Smart Timer and Smart Timer Photogate System Components

Speed of projectile— In Time: Two Gates mode, determine the speed of a ball fired by a Projectile Launcher through two photogates.

Smart Timer Photogate System ME-8932

ME-8930 ME-8932

1. Smart Timer

1

1

2. Accessory Photogate

0

2

3. Super Pulley

0

1

4. Picket Fences

2

2

5. 9 VAC adapter

1

1

6. Lab Manual (not shown)

1

1

Order Information:

The ME-8930 Smart Timer works with all PASCO timing devices (see Order Information on this page): Accessory Photogate Photogate/Pulley System

5

Smart Timer..........................ME-8930 Smart Timer Photogate System........ME-8932 Recommended: Accessory Photogate.................................ME-9204B p. 149

4

2

Smart Timer Fences (2).................................ME-8933

Time-of-Flight Accessory Freefall Adapter

3

Freefall Adapter................ME-9207B p. 149

Laser Switch

Laser Switch.........................ME-9259A p. 149

G-M Tube

Photogate/ Pulley System.....................ME-6838

p. 149

Time-of-Flight Accessory.................................ME-6810

p. 149

1 Comes with a full set of accessories for timing experiments. Attach the photogate to the Super Pulley to produce a “Smart Pulley.”

G-M Tube/Power Supply..........................................SN-7927A p. 149 Phone Jack Extender Cord....................PI-8117

p. 149

147


Mechanics – Timers

Digital Photogate Timer System ME-9403A 0.1 ms Resolution

A High Accuracy and Resolution A F  our Timing Modes: Gate, Pulse, Pendulum and Manual Stopwatch A Built-in Memory PASCO digital photogates are used in thousands of physics labs throughout the world. They are rugged and simple to operate.

Four Timing Modes

Memory

Record two times in rapid succession. The photogate will remember the first and the total of the two times.

Features Built-in Photogate: Timer serves as the base 0.1 ms Resolution and 0.05% Accuracy Memory Function: Allows two measurements made in rapid succession, such as pre- and post-collision velocities

Precision Photogates

PASCO photogates are highly accurate timing devices. Each photogate has a high output, narrow angle infrared emitter and a narrow angle detector. The photogate signals: – have a spatial resolution error of less than 1 mm – have a rise time of less than 10 µs – are unaffected by normal ambient light

Easy Setup: Turn it on and begin taking measurements Portability or plug-in: Use four “C” cells (not included) or 9 V AC adapter (included)

The Photogate Timers work with the following: (see next page) Accessory Photogate Time-of-Flight Accessory

ME-9204B Accessory Photogate

Freefall Timer Laser Switch

Can be purchased separately.

ME-9215B Photogate Timer with Memory

ME-9403A Digital Photogate Timer System Includes both the ME-9215B Photogate Timer and the ME-9204B Accessory Photogate.

Specifications (ME-9215B) Modes: Gate, pulse, pendulum, manual stopwatch Resolution: 0.1 ms (max time 19.9999s) Accuracy: 0.05% of full range of the measured time ± 1 digit Display: 5-1/2 digit, 10 mm high LCD Memory: Preserves displayed time while new time is measured Photogate: 6.5 cm wide; fully adjustable swivel mount; LED trigger indicator; fall time <10 ns; spacial resolution <1 mm Inputs: ME-9204B Accessory Photogates, or TTL-compatible signals; one photogate jack and a 9-V AC adapter jack. (or four “C” size batteries) on back panel

Order Information: Digital Photogate Timer System.................................... ME-9403A Photogate Timer with Memory. .................................... ME-9215B Accessory Photogate............... ME-9204B

Shown with the ME-9207B Freefall Timer Adapter.

148

Four “C” Cell Batteries........... PI-6603

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Digital Sensors

Accessories for use with the PASCO Smart Timer and Digital Photogate Timers: Accessory Photogate

Time-of-Flight Accessory

Freefall Adapter

ME-9204B

ME-6810

ME-9207B

DO CAU DOW NOT TION N

BARLOO ! PR REL K OJ ! ECSH TILORT E RA LA NG UNE CH ER

Uses a photogate head to monitor low-friction pulley rotation, providing a simple, versatile sensor. Calculate and graph position, velocity, acceleration of carts, masses, etc. Additionally, the pulley can be removed and the photogate used to perform photogate experiments. Includes photogate, pulley and mounting rod.

00

ME-6838A

Photogate

Time t = 1.39 s

Freefall Adapter. .................................ME-9207B

G-M Tube/Power Supply Time of Flight Pad

Time-of-Flight Accessory..............ME-6810

Laser Switch

The G-M Tube/Power Supply is a GeigerMuller Probe that senses alpha, beta and gamma radiation. A built-in power supply allows direct connection to any interface that supplies an operating voltage of +5 V.

ME-9259A

Note: Not for use with Digital Photogate Timers.

Times objects that are too large to pass through the standard photogate, such as a bowling ball pendulum, a running student or a car. A laser, not included, is required as a light source.

Note: Not for use with Digital Photogate Timers.

of a Cart

Photogate/Pulley System............ME-6838A

SN-7927A

Order Information:

Typical Applications A M  otion at a Constant Speed A Freely Falling Object A Kinematics on an Inclined Plane A Speed of a Projectile and Acceleration

Order Information:

When the steel ball is dropped from the release mechanism, the Smart or Photogate Timer automatically starts. When the ball hits the receptor pad, the timer stops. Timer measurements of “g” are accurate and repeatable. Order Information:

-68

Photogate/Pulley System

Note: When used with the projectile launcher or freefall experiment, a photogate must be used to start the timer.

ME

Accessory Photogate.........................ME-9204B

.

Order Information:

Designed primarily for freefall or projectile experiments. When an object hits the plate, a signal is sent to the Smart or Photogate Timer.

WE SAF AR GLA ETY WH SSE EN IN S – USE

The easiest way to monitor many motion experiments. Plugs directly into either the Smart or Photogate Timer. A base, support rod and swivel mount are included.

Order Information: G-M Tube/Power Supply............. SN-7927A

Phone Jack Extender Cable PI-8117

Timer Switch ME-9819 This push-button switch has a 1.7 m cable ending in a “Y” with two stereo phone plugs. When the button is pressed, the Timer Switch sends a start signal to both devices it is connected to.

Laser

Laser Switch

Rod and Clamp

This 6-meter stereo phone extension cord expands the effective length between any digital sensor and the Photogate Timer.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Order Information:

Timer Switch............................................. ME-9819

Laser Switch. .......................................... ME-9259A

Extension Cord. .........................................PI-8117

149


Mechanics – Launchers

PASCO Projectile Launcher Family Short Range Launcher

Long Range Launcher

ME-6800

ME-6801

A Accurate

A Durable

A Versatile

Unique Sights

Three Repeatable Launch Ranges

Visible through viewing ports.

2.5 cm Nylon Balls

Two bore sights simplify aiming of the launcher.

Plumb Bob

Indicates angle to 1/2°.

Features Multiple Ranges — PASCO offers launchers for all classroom arrangements.

Flexible Launch Positions— Stable stands offer horizontal and variable angle launching positions.

Launcher Spares Kit

Fixed Firing Height at Any Launch Angle—

ME-6802

Firing height of ball is same for any launch angle.

Loading Rod (2)

Spring Mechanism— Fully enclosed

2-D Collision Accessory (2)

for safety.

Unique Piston Design— Minimizes

Plastic Balls (10 pack)

projectile spin to ensure repeatability of impact position.

Sights (5 pack)

Includes:

Angle Indicator Plumb Bobs (24 pack)

Launcher with base Projectile Balls Loading Rod Safety Glasses 2-D Collision Accessory Manual

m1v0 = m1v1x + m2v2x 1

V0

2

θ1

Loading Rod

Thumbscrew to attach launcher to base (10)

2-D Collisions

Order Information: Launcher Spares Kit. .......................................... ME-6802

V2

θ2 V1

Order Information: Projectile Launcher (Short Range)................................ ME-6800 Projectile Launcher (Long Range)................................. ME-6801 Recommended: Launcher Spares Kit............. ME-6802

The 2-D collision accessory (included with all PASCO launchers) allows the study of Conservation of Momentum in two dimensions. Use the points of impact with the floor of each of the two balls to determine relative velocities and angles.

150

Large C- Clamp (6 pk). ....... SE-7285 p. 215 Plumb Bobs (10 pack)......... SE-8728 p. 220

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Launchers

Mini Launcher Magnetic Piston

ME-6825A A Ideal for Tabletop Projectile Experiments

Holds ball in place for launching at downward angles.

A Low Cost

Steel Ball

1.6 cm diameter.

A Fires at Downward Angles The bracket can be clamped directly to the table top using a C-clamp (not included). Note that the launch velocity can be adjusted for a negative angle.

Three Launch Ranges Provides 0.5 m, 1 m and 2 m ranges.

Scale and Plumb Bob

Unique design allows ball to be launched from table top height. The ball lands on the table at the same height from which it was launched.

Measures from -45° to +90°.

Versatile Stand

Provides several different mounting configurations.

Optional Mounting System.

Mini Launcher Spares Kit ME-6824

Loading Rod (10) 2-D Collision Accessory (2) Steel Balls (10 pack) Angle Indicator Plumb Bobs (24 pack) Thumbscrew to attach launcher to base (10)

2 cm spread sideways

1.5 m to launch

Order Information: Mini Launcher Spares Kit. ......................................... ME-6824

Includes:

Specifications

Launcher Base Projectile balls Loading Rod Safety Glasses 2-D Collision Accessory Manual

Ranges:

Launch Angles:

Launcher Length:

ME-6825 Mini Launcher

ME-6800 (short range)

ME-6801 (long range)

0.5, 1, 2 m

1.2, 3, 5 m

2.5, 5, 8 m

0 to +90° and 0 to -45°

0 to +90°

0 to +90°

18 cm

21 cm

21 cm

Most of the accessories on the following pages are compatible with all of the launchers. Those accessories that work only with specific launchers are listed below. Compatible Accessories: (see following pages)

ME-6826

ME-6805

ME-6805

ME-6814

ME-6815

ME-6815

Order Information: Mini Launcher. ...........................ME-6825A Recommended: Mini Launcher Spares Kit.........................................ME-6824 Large C- Clamp (6 pk). .....SE-7285 p.215 Table Clamp..................................ME-9472 p.215 Steel Rod. .........................................ME-8736 p.212 Plumb Bobs (10)......................SE-8728 p.220 Optional: Replacement Launcher Bracket....................ME-6836

151


Mechanics – Launcher Accessories

Shoot-the-Target

Shoot-the-Target Accessory

ME-6853

ME-6854

A Demonstrate Independence of x- and y-Motion A For Use with All Launchers A unique electromagnet design provides quick release of the target. The projectile hits the target, proving that the projectile accelerates downward at the same rate as the target.

A Use with Discover Freefall System This accessory allows the Shoot-the-Target experiment to be performed with the ME-9889 Discover Freefall System.

Includes: High Impact Plastic Target (75 cm x 20 cm) Photogate Head & Bracket Order Information: Shoot-the-Target Accessory.............................................. ME-6854 Required: Discover Freefall System...................................................... ME-9889 p. 143

Discover Freefall Accessory ME-9893 This accessory allows the Drop and Control box from the ME-6853 Shoot-the-Target to perform all the experiments in the ME-9889 Discover Freefall System. See page 143.

Includes: Time-of-Flight receptor pad Timer Switch Release washers (10) Release labels for attaching washers to object (50) Small nylon ball Large plastic ball Golf ball Hollow golf ball 1” steel ball 5/8” steel ball Order Information: Discover Freefall Accessory. .............................................. ME-9893 Required: Shoot-the-Target.............................................................................. ME-6853

The “gun” is aimed directly at the target. Although the target “drops” the moment the projectile is fired, the ball still hits the target since the ball falls with the same acceleration.

Laser Sight

Includes:

OS-8527A

Drop Box & Control Box Control Cable High Impact Plastic Target (75 cm x 20 cm) ME-6852 Photogate Head & Bracket AC Adapter (9 VDC, 500 mA)

A For Use with Short and Long Range Launchers

Order Information: Shoot-the-Target System..................................................... ME-6853 Recommended: Short Range Launcher.............................................................. ME-6800 p. 150 Long Range Launcher............................................................... ME-6801 p. 150 Mini Launcher...................................................................................... ME-6825A p. 151

152

CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT – DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

Makes the Shoot-the-Target experiment even easier with more impact for students. The sight mounts on the back of the Projectile Launcher. Students can clearly see that the Launcher is aimed 1 mW at the target. Includes AC Adapter (9 VDC, 500 mA). Diode Laser

(650 nm)

Order Information: Laser Sight Accessory.............................................................. OS-8527A

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Launcher Accessories

Drop Shoot Accessory ME-9859 AS  imultaneously drops one ball and launches a second ball horizontally A Prove the independence of x and y motion AM  ounts on PASCO projectile launchers (Short and Long Range) The Drop Shoot Accessory is an easy-to-use tool that helps students better understand the independence between the horizontal and vertical motion of a projectile. Connect the accessory to either the short or long range projectile launchers, hang one ball from the magnet and fire away. The fired ball strikes the hanging ball, causing one ball to shoot horizontally at the same instant the other ball falls straight down. Both balls hit the ground at the same time, regardless of the fired projectileâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s muzzle velocity, provided the Projectile Launcher is level. This device also provides an interesting demonstration of Conservation of Momentum in collisions. When the (included) hollow steel ball is used, the two balls are both fired horizontally at two different speeds. A Photogate and Time-of-Flight Accessory can also be used to directly measure time of flight.

Includes: Order Information: Drop Shoot Accessory.............................................................. ME-9859 Required: Short Range Projectile Launcher. ............................... ME-6800 p. 150 Long Range Projectile Launcher.................................. ME-6801 p. 150

Drop Shoot Bracket 2.5 cm Steel Balls (2) 2.5 cm Hollow Steel Ball Mounting Hardware Loading Rod

Vertical Acceleration Demonstrator

Mini Drop Shoot Accessory ME-6827

SF-9339

A Compatible with the Mini Launcher This accessory is used with the Mini Launcher (ME-6825) to demonstrate the independence of x- and y-motion. The operation is similar to the Drop Shoot Accessory (ME-9859) shown above but it uses the smaller solid steel balls which fit the Mini Launcher. A photogate fits on the Mini Drop Shoot Accessory and can be used with a Time-of-Flight Accessory to measure the time of flight of each ball.

Includes: Drop Shoot Bracket 1.6 cm Solid Steel Balls (2) Mounting Hardware Loading Rod

Order Information: Mini Drop Shoot Accessory................................................ ME-6827 Required: Mini Launcher.................................... ME-6825A p. 151

One ball is dropped as the other is launched horizontally. Both balls hit the floor at the same time, demonstrating that vertical acceleration is independent of horizontal velocity. The SF-9339 Vertical Acceleration Demonstrator includes two steel balls, the launcher with a receptacle for storing the balls and instructions. Order Information: Vertical Acceleration Demonstrator. .............................................SF-9339

153


Mechanics – Ballistics

Ballistic Pendulum ME-6830 A E  xtremely Accurate— ±2.5% of Predicted Values A Both Elastic and Inelastic Experiments A Projectile Launcher Experiments

This classic physics experiment combines the laws of Conservation of Momentum and Conservation of Energy to determine the muzzle velocity of the projectile. Only simple mass and distance measurements are required to make this determination

Unique Angle Measurement Design

Easily measures pendulum angle to 0.5 degrees. Low friction gives repeatable results.

How It Works A projectile is fired into a pendulum, causing it to rise.

Removable Pendulum

Using the projectile mass, the pendulum mass and the rise in pendulum height, students can calculate the gravitational potential energy of the system.

Mass can be easily determined. Reverse the pendulum for elastic collisions.

Since the potential energy is equal to the pendulum’s kinetic energy at the lowest point, students can calculate the speed of the pendulum at impact.

Projectile Catcher

Applying the Law of Conservation of Momentum, the projectile’s speed is easily calculated.

Securely captures ball.

Add Masses

Projectile Launcher

Two 50 g masses (included) may be added to change the pendulum mass and rotational inertia.

Durable with 3 repeatable launch settings.

Mount the launcher on the other side of the base and perform the full range of projectile launcher experiments.

PASCO’s Ballistic Pendulum— A New Approach The PASCO Ballistic Pendulum has the following unique features:

Repeatable: The three velocity settings on the Projectile Launcher produce consistent velocities. Accuracy: The 0-80° angle measurement scale resolves to 1/2°, leading to experimental results within 2.5% of predicted values. Removable Pendulum: Remove the

pendulum to determine its mass and center of mass. It can swing freely so students can determine its rotational inertia. Mount the pendulum backwards so the ball bounces away for elastic collision experiments.

Already Own a PASCO Projectile Launcher? The base and pendulum assembly can be purchased separately. See the order block for more information.

154

Vary Ball and Pendulum Mass:

Two 50 g masses can be added to the pendulum, and two steel and two plastic balls are included.

Projectile Launcher: Mount the Projectile Launcher on the other side of the base, and students have access to all the accessories that come with the ME-6800 Projectile Launcher (see p. 150).

Includes: Ballistic Pendulum and Base Projectile Launcher 2.5 cm Plastic Balls (2) 2.5 cm Steel Balls (2) Masses (2) 2-D Collision Accessory Safety Glasses (2 pairs) Operations and Experiment Manual

Order Information: Ballistic Pendulum........ME-6830 Ballistic Pendulum (No Launcher).....................ME-6831 Recommended: Spherical Mass Set......ME-8968

p. 157

Shoot-the-Target.............ME-6853

p. 152

Time-of-Flight.....................ME-6810

p. 157

Large C clamp (6 pack)........................................SE-7285

p. 215

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Ballistics

Projectile Catcher Accessory

Mini Catcher Accessory

ME-6815

ME-6814

AF  or Use with Short and Long Range Launchers

AF  or Use with the Tabletop Mini Launcher

Use the Projectile Catcher as a ballistic pendulum or attach it to a Dynamics Cart. Fire the steel ball into the catcher. Measure the maximum catcher height to determine the potential energy of the catcher and ball. From the conservation of momentum and energy laws, determine the ball’s initial velocity. The Ballistic Pendulum Experiment Catcher Accessory. Thread passes through Velcro™ strips on the back of the launcher stand to measure the resulting motion of the catcher.

Mini Catcher Photogates can be used to measure the speed of the cart after catching the fired ball.

Students can perform a classic ballistic pendulum experiment by measuring the height of the ME-6814 Mini Catcher’s swing.

Includes: Projectile Catcher (25 g) String holder plate and clamp 1.6 cm steel balls (2) (16 g each) String and Velcro™ Instruction manual and experiment guide

Includes: Projectile Catcher (170 g) String holder plate and clamp 2.5 cm steel balls (2) (67 g each) Spool of string Velcro strips (not shown) Instruction manual and experiment guide

Order Information: Projectile Catcher Accessory...........................................................ME-6815 Recommended: Right Angle Clamp.......................................................................................SE-9444 p. Large Table Clamp.........................................................................................ME-9472 p. 90 cm Steel Rod. .............................................................................................ME-8738 p. 45 cm Steel Rod. .............................................................................................ME-8736 p.

215 215 212 212

Order Information: Mini Catcher Accessory..................................................ME-6814

155


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Ballistics

Ballistic Pendulum Accessories Ballistic Pendulum Accessory ME-9892 Mini Launcher Ballistic Pendulum Accessory ME-6829

The ME-6829 Mini Launcher Ballistic Pendulum is designed for use with the ME-6825A Mini Launcher.

A Accessory to the Rotary Motion Sensor A Both Elastic and Inelastic Experiments A Low Cost

The Ballistic Pendulum Accessories use a Rotary Motion Sensor to measure the speed of the catcher assembly immediately after the collision, as well as the maximum height to which the pendulum swings. The Rotary Motion Sensor can also be used to measure the rotational inertia of the pendulum, for detailed study of the collision using conservation of angular momentum. The rigid pendulum can be attached to the Rotary Motion Sensor at two locations (at the end of the rod and at its center) to vary the Rotational Inertia. In addition, the included Ballast Mass can be added to the end of the pendulum to increase the inertia. The Rotary Motion Sensor can also be mounted with its rotation axis vertical, allowing the pendulum to swing around in a horizontal circle, to study collisions without involving gravity and changes in potential energy. The initial launch velocity of the ball can be calculated using projectile motion, or measured directly using photogates (not included).

Rotary Motion Sensor The ME-9892 Ballistic Pendulum Accessory is designed for use with the ME-6800 Projectile Launcher.

Rigid Pendulum

Rotary Motion Sensor (required for use) allows measurement of instantaneous velocity of catcher immediately after collision, as well as total angle of rotation of the pendulum arm.

Foam Catcher

Additional Equipment Required for both ME-9892 and ME-6829:

Ballast Mass

Includes: Pendulum Arm with Catcher Ballast Mass Steel Ball Order Information: Ballistic Pendulum Accessory.......................................... ME-9892 Required: Projectile Launcher. ....................................................................... ME-6800 p. 150 Foam Spares (5)................................................................................ ME-9894

156

Table Clamp................................................................. ME-9472 Steel Rod (90 cm)................................................. ME-8738 Rotary Motion Sensor..................................... PS-2120 or Rotary Motion Sensor..................................... CI-6538 Recommended: Photogate Head....................................................... ME-9498A Photogate Mounting Bracket................. ME-6821A

p. 205 p. 212 p. 26 p. 74 p. 75 p. 157

Includes: Pendulum Arm with Catcher Counter Weight Ballast Mass Order Information: Mini Launcher Ballistic Pendulum Accessory............................................................... ME-6829 Required: Mini Launcher................................................................................... ME-6825A p. 151 Mini Foam Spares (5)............................................................. ME-6835

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Launcher Accessories

Time-of-Flight Accessory ME-6810 A For Use with All PASCO Launchers

Small Steel Balls (10 pack)

Projectile Launcher Sights (5 pack)

ME-9872

ME-9865

These 1.6 cm diameter steel balls are used with the Mini Launcher (ME-6825).

Purchase this five pack of aiming sights as a replacement for the Short Range or Long Range Projectile Launchers.

Order Information: Small Steel Balls (10 pack).........ME-9872

When the projectile is launched, the photogate mounted on the launcher starts timing. When the projectile hits the receptor pad on the Time-of-Flight Accessory an electric signal is sent to stop timing.

Steel Balls (4 pack) ME-9864

Order Information: Projectile Launcher Sights (5 pack). ..........................................ME-9865

Projectile Launcher Plumb Bobs (24 pack)

DO CAU DOW NOT TION N BAR LOO ! K REL!

ME-9868 Photogate

Receptor Pad

Purchase this four pack of 2.5 cm diameter balls for use in PASCO Short or Long Range Projectile Launchers (ME-6800 or ME-6801). Order Information:

Includes: Time-of-Flight Accessory Instruction manual and experiment guide Order Information:

Steel Balls (4 pack)...............................ME-9864

Plastic Balls ME-6822

Time-of-Flight Accessory..........................................................ME-6810

Photogate Mounting Bracket ME-6821A Extra brightly colored balls are available for the Projectile Launcher. Diameter is 2.5 cm (1 in.). Order Information:

Use this kit to make 24 tin plumb bobs to replace lost or broken parts from any of PASCOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s projectile launchers. Order Information: Projectile Launcher Plumb Bobs (24 pack).......................ME-9868

Plastic Balls (10-pack)........................ME-6822

Spherical Mass Set Mount one or two photogates on any Projectile Launcher. Compatible with ME-9498A and ME-9204B Photogate Heads.

ME-8968

Plumb Bobs (10 pack) SE-8728

Order Information: Plumb Bobs (10 pack). ......................SE-8728

Order Information: Photogate Mounting Bracket.................................. ME-6821A Photogate Head........ ME-9498A p. 37, 75 Accessory Photogate. ........................ ME-9204B p. 37

This set includes four balls with a diameter of 2.5 cm each, but featuring various masses, including a hollow steel ball, solid steel ball, plastic ball and aluminum ball.

Carbon Paper (100 pack) SE-8693 For marking the position of the ball.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Spherical Mass Set...............................ME-8968

Carbon Paper (100 sheets).............. SE-8693

157


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Statics

Force Distribution System

Equal Arm Balance

ME-8093

ME-8949

A Real-time Graph of Forces vs. Position

Developed for Workshop PhysicsÂŽ activities

A Static Equilibrium Force Distribution Apparatus with Sensors and Support Rods

R1

R2 400 g

200 g

F1

The Force Distribution System allows students to measure the vertical forces on a beam as a ball rolls along the beam. The position of the ball is tracked with a Motion Sensor. As the ball rolls down the beam, the force on one Force Sensor decreases as the force on the other Force Sensor increases. The sum of the forces remains constant. There are four different positions to attach the Force Sensors; at 5 cm, 25 cm, 75 cm, and 95 cm along the 100 cm long beam.

ME-8093 Includes: Beam (1 m long) with attachment Screws for the Force Sensors Ball (10 cm diameter, 810 g mass) Large Table Clamp (2) (ME-9472) 45 cm Long Rod (ME-8736) 90 cm Long Rod (ME-8738) 120 cm Long Rod (ME-8741 Multi-Clamp (2) (SE-9442)

F2

If the balance is at equilibrium, then: R1F1 = R2F2 With 200 and 400 gram masses placed as shown above, the balance remains in equilibrium. Force vs. Position of the ball for each support force and the total force using DataStudio software.

Order Information: Force Distribution System.............. ME-8093 Required for use with PASPORT: Force Sensor (2). .......................................... PS-2104

p. 28

Motion Sensor................................................ PS-2103A

p. 25

PASPORT Interface........................................................................... p. 10-23 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop:

The Equal Arm Balance was specially designed to simplify the study of torques. To put the balance in equilibrium, the clockwise torques caused by the weights to the right of the rotational axis must equal the counterclockwise torques caused by the weights to the left of the rotational axis. This balance has a ball-bearing pivot, and weights can be hung from the lower loops or from strings in the upper notches. Torques can also be exerted using spring scales.

Force Sensor (2). .......................................... CI-6746

p. 74

Includes:

Motion Sensor................................................ CI-6742A

p. 74

Balance arm with ball bearing pivot

ScienceWorkshop Interface.................................................. p. 68-72

Developed in cooperation with Professor Matt Ohland at Clemson University.

Specifications

Force Distribution Apparatus

Total length: 34 cm Maximum weight exerted on balance arm: 1 kg or 10 N

ME-8092 ME-8092 Includes:

Order Information:

Beam (1 m long) with attachment Screws for the Force Sensors Ball (10 cm diameter, 810 g mass)

Required:

Order Information: Force Distribution Apparatus........................... ME-8092

158

Equal Arm Balance............ ME-8949 Drilled Mass and Hanger Set................................... ME-8979

p. 223

or Ohaus Hooked Mass Set................................. SE-8705

p. 223

or Metric Spring Scales (<5 N).......................................... SE-8716

p. 217

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Statics

Dynamics Track Support Reactions Ultrasonic Motion Sensor

Combine the plastic PAStrack sections (page 113, 115) with the components from the Advanced Structures Set (page 172) to measure the support reactions as the Motorized Cart climbs the hill. The Load Cell and Amplifier Set (page 168) directly measures the forces in the structure as the Motion Sensor measures the carts position.

Motorized Cart

PAStrack PAStrack Curved Sections

Components from Advanced Structures Set

Load Cell Amplifier

Load cells are used to measure the compression in the supporting members.

Equipment Shown: PAStrack.........................................................................................ME-6960 Motorized Cart. .....................................................................ME-9781 250g mass...................................................................................ME-6756 Advanced Structures Set*. ....................................ME-6992B Load Cell & Amplifier*................................................PS-2199 Motion Sensor.......................................................................PS-2103A *Patents pending

p. 113 p. 118 p. 109 p. 172-173 p. 167 p. 25

Force vs. Position of the cart for each of the support forces as the Motorized Cart climbs the hill.

Why do objects tip over?

Structures System Stability Models

Stability Model

Advanced Structures Set

ME-8975

ME-6992B

Use the Stability Model to visualize the relationship between center of gravity and stability. The durable plastic indicator arrow pivots about the block’s center of gravity, showing the position of the c.g. relative to the support base.

Investigate center of mass and stability for a large variety of shapes using the components from the Advanced Structures Set (pages 170-171). Each object can be suspended from several different pivot points using the included axles to locate the center of mass. The structures shown here were built with a foam core center (not included).

Doesn’t fall:

The arrow (pinned at the center of gravity) shows clearly that gravity pulls down within the base support so the object does not fall over.

Axle

Is the structure on the right stable or unstable?

See it demonstrated at www.pasco.com/videos Falls:

Turn the Stability Model upside-down. Now, the arrow points down at a point outside the base support, so the object will fall over. Order Information: Stability Model........................................................................................................... ME-8975

See page 174 for more statics experiments using the Advanced Structures Set. (Plumb bob not included) Equipment Shown: Advanced Structures Set*. ............................. ME-6992B *Patents pending

p. 172-173

159


Mechanics – Statics

Super Pulley Force Table ME-9447 A High Accuracy

A

Laminated Surface

A Easy, Compact Storage

Draw vectors directly onto the tabletop, then wipe them off as needed.

A Inexpensive!

Resultant

Equilibrant

B

The Super Pulley Force Table uses super pulleys to reduce friction for more accurate results in vector experiments. This Force Table is easy to use, easy to store and inexpensive. Students can independently investigate the addition of vector forces and resolve vectors into their components.

Students hang masses to produce force on vectors A and B. Then the balancing vector (equilibrant) can be easily and accurately determined on the Force Table.

Accurate Results The ultra-low friction pulleys are the key to the Force Table’s accurate results. Friction is reduced to a bare minimum for increased sensitivity. The swivel feature of the pulleys can virtually eliminate parallax for more precise angle measurements.

String

Attach to centering ring (or knot string at center for greater accuracy) and place over pulleys.

Built-in Scale

Measure angles quickly and accurately.

Low Friction Super Pulley

Change a mass by one gram or an angle by one degree — and see an immediate change in the equilibrium position.

Screw-in Legs

Snap under the table for easy, compact storage.

Inexpensive Easier operation, better results and easier storage— at about a third the cost of a standard, large, metal Force Table.

Mass Hangers

Six included. (Masses sold separately.) See page 223.

Compact, Easy Storage The screw-in legs snap under the table for easy storage. Fold and stack as shown. When needed again, they reassemble in seconds!

Includes: Write-on/wipe-off 25 cm diameter table with detachable legs Three adjustable Super Pulleys with Clamps Six mass hangers (masses purchased separately) Plastic centering ring Spool of string

Order Information: Super Pulley Force Table..................... ME-9447 Required: Mass and Hanger Set............................. ME-8979

p. 223

Already have a Force Table or inclined plane? Experiments can be improved significantly by reducing friction and eliminating parallax. Replace old pulleys with PASCO’s inexpensive Super Pulleys with Clamp. The ME-9448B with its built-in clamp fits tables from 0.8 to 2.0 cm (5/16 to 13/16 in.) thick. Order Information: Super Pulley with Clamp.............................................................................ME-9448B

160

The PASCO Super Pulley fits tables up to 2 cm thick.

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Statics

Tension Protractor ME-6855 A Measure Tension and Angle with one device A Large scale for viewing demonstrations A Zero-adjust for torsion spring scale

The tension in the left string is greater than in the right string because the angles are different.

A Built-in rod clamp The Tension Protractor is a spring scale and a protractor integrated into one device. Perfect for static equilibrium experiments, the rotary dial indicates the tension in the string and the angle is read where the string passes over the degree scale on the outer ring. Since the Tension Protractor is supported on a rod, it has an advantage over other spring scales which tend to weight down the string, changing the angle. The string is wrapped once around a small pulley which is spring loaded. The torsion spring scale is carefully calibrated at the factory and can be zeroed by the user using the thumb screw on the back. The red arrow which indicates tension is color-coded to match the Newton scale. Even if the mounting rod is not plumb, the Tension Protractor’s degree scale can be adjusted to read 90 degrees vertically by rotating the outer ring until the string with a hanging mass aligns with 90 degrees.

String

Zeroing Ring for Angle Scale

Rod Clamp

30° angle reading

Arrow indicates tension reading (5.0 N)

mounts on either a vertical or horizontal rod.

Zeroing Thumb Screw for Force Scale

Specifications Force Range: 0 N to 10 N Smallest Force Division: 0.1 N Force Accuracy: ±4% of Reading Angle Range: -90° to +90° Smallest Angle Division: 1° Diameter: 15 cm

Includes: One Tension Protractor

Order Information: Tension Protractor. .......................................................................................ME-6855 Recommended: Large Table Clamp.........................................................................................ME-9472 p.215 90 cm Long Rod...............................................................................................ME-8738 p.212 Multi-clamp. ..........................................................................................................SE-9442 p.214 Hooked Mass Set...........................................................................................SE-8759 p.223

A 50 gram mass hangs vertically from the Tension Protractor: The tension reads 0.5 N as expected and the outer degree scale is dialed to align the 90° mark with the string. This compensates for unlevel tables or bent rods.

161


Mechanics – Statics

Introductory Mechanics System ME-9299A A Everything required for 15 experiments

Three accurate scales,

A Comprehensive— from vector addition to simple machines A Easy setup— magnetic mounting A versatile lab system for demonstrating the basic concepts of simple machines, vector forces, torques and more.

Features Magnetic Mounting: For quick setup. Special Mass Hangers: Just wrap a few turns of thread around the mass hangers. They’ll stay put. (No need to cut the thread to length or tie it to the hanger.) Drop-proof Masses: The masses slide over posts. They can’t fall off.

Durable, lowfriction Pulleys

40 cm x 45 cm Experiment board

on sensitive spring balance shown here, are provided for measuring forces, angles and loads.

Formulas and variables

can be written on the experiment board with a dry erase marker then wiped clean.

Porcelain-coated Steel

will withstand years of classroom use.

Magnetic mountings

allow precise repositioning for constructing accurate vector angles.

Accurate, Built-in Scales: For example, a built-in plumb bob and degree scale indicate the angle of inclination of the inclined plane.

All the accessories required including thread, mass hangers and masses.

Porcelaincoated Steel

Investigate static and sliding friction (Experiment 9)…

A degree scale

(in this experiment) gives the angle of the vector force required to balance two others.

…and then analyze forces on an inclined plane. The plumbbob indicator allows inclination angles to be read from a builtin scale (Experiment 8).

Typical Experiments Basic Experiments:

Investigate non-parallel forces with the torque wheel (Experiment 4)…

1. Measuring Forces: Hooke’s Law 2. Adding Forces: Resultants and Equilibrants 3. Resolving Forces: Components 4. Torque: Non-parallel Forces 5. Torque: Parallel Forces 6. Center of Mass

Advanced Experiments:

Pulley

Circular magnets Circular Magnet

Experimental devices are secured to the board by magnets that will not slide around but are easily repositioned.

Includes: Experiment Board: 40 x 45 cm – porcelain-coated steel surface, Spring Balance, Three Pulleys, Degree Scale, Torque Wheel, Balance Bar, Inclined Plane, Rolling Mass, Friction Block, Planar Mass, Double Pulley Block, Three Mass Hangers , Brass Masses, Thread, Experiment Manual: fully illustrated with worksheet-style experiments

Convenient Storage Box

7. 8. 9. 10. …and parallel forces with the balance beam (Experiment 5).

Equilibrium of Physical Bodies Forces on an Inclined Plane Sliding Friction Simple Harmonic Motion: Mass on a Spring 11. Simple Harmonic Motion: the Pendulum

Simple Machines: 12. 13. 14. 15.

162

The Lever The Inclined Plane The Pulley Designing a Balance Beam

Order Information: Introductory Mechanics System.......................... ME-9299A

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Pulley Systems

Pulley Demonstration System SE-8685

Structures Pulleys A Build your own pulley blocks

A D  emonstrate the Mechanical Advantage of Single or Combination Pulleys A C  omplete Stand-Alone Pulley Apparatus A Simple Setup Features Stable Base: Easily attach two threaded 81 cm rods to the sturdy base. Includes an eye-hook and capstan to demonstrate an entire pulley system. Comprehensive: Contains everything needed to effectively display the usefulness of pulleys, including slotted masses and mass hangers. Several Pulley Types: Reveal the benefits of single pulleys and those of tandem pulleys, quadruple pulleys and even the four-step pulley. Combine several of them for an efficient pulley system.

Set up a double pulley and a single pulley each with a 200 g mass. Pull the string of each from the same vertical height down to the base simultaneously. Observe that the mass of the single pulley moves twice as high as the double pulley with twice the force.

Includes 20 cm x 81 cm base with eye-hook and capstan Threaded 81 cm rods (2) Clamps (2) Horizontal rod Hook collars (8) 90 degree clamp Single pulleys (2) Triple-tandem pulleys (2) Quadruple pulleys (2) Four-step pulley (1) Slotted masses (13) Mass hangers (6) Order Information: Pulley Demonstration System.........................................................................................SE-8685

Use the PASCO Structures System to design and build pulley blocks to demonstrate mechanical advantage. Use a Force Sensor to measure the force needed to lift the weight. Compare the force, distance of pull, and the work needed to raise the weight with various number of pulley wheels.

See page 173 for more examples using the Physics Structures Set.

Order Information: Physics Structures Set*............... ME-6989 Shown in use with: Force Sensor.............................................. PS-2104 Large Slotted Mass Set .............. ME-7589 Rods and stands .................................. p. 212 *Patents pending

p. 28 p. 223

163


Mechanics – Pulleys

The PASCO Super Pulley Super Pulley ME-9450A A Produces Excellent Results A Nearly Frictionless A Durable

Photogate/ Pulley System Feature

Super Pulley with Mounting Rod

ME-6838A

ME-9499

This Super Pulley mounted on a rigid plastic mounting rod (12.7 mm diameter, 14 cm long) fits most standard laboratory clamps.

Order Information: Pulley with Mounting Rod.............................................ME-9499

The PASCO Super Pulley is the standard in physics labs. Its low-friction design produces excellent results. The precision spacing of the 10 spokes makes it ideal for photogate monitoring with PASCO’s computer interfaces and photogate systems.

Features Low Friction: Dual precision ball bearings

(not cone bearings) keep friction to a bare minimum, support heavier loads and minimize wear.

Lightweight: The sheave is only 5.5 grams, so pulley inertia is negligible in most applications. Precision Dimensions: The 10 spokes are accurately spaced, and the inside and outside diameters are machined to precise dimensions. This means accurate results and graphs.

Mounting Rods (10 pack) ME-9483

. ...............................................

SA-9242

Photogate/Pulley System............ME-6838A

Atwood’s Machine SA-9241

Order Information: Mounting Rods (10 pack).............ME-9483

Super Pulley with Clamp ME-9448B

ME-9448B Super Pulley with Clamp.

ME-9450A

Pulley Mounting Rod

Order Information:

These rigid plastic pulley handles (14 cm long, 1.27 mm diameter) screw into a Super Pulley.

Order Information: Super Pulley

The Super Pulley attaches directly to the Photogate Head, providing a simple, low friction system to measure position, velocity and acceleration. Additionally, with the pulley removed, the photogate can be used to perform standard photogate experiments. See page 37.

Upgrade your force table and inclined plane experiments. The Super Pulley with its integral clamp makes setup and alignment easy. The pulley height is fully adjustable, so you can skim the top of a force table for parallax-free readings, yet keep the force parallel to the track on an inclined plane as shown in the photo below. Fits tables from 0 to 2.0 cm (13/16 in.) thick.

This 14 cm long stainless steel mounting rod is 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) in diameter and fits most standard laboratory clamps, including the PASCO Universal Clamp.

Two Super Pulleys mounted on a 6.4 cm long rod produce a classic, low-friction introduction to Newton’s Second Law. The instruction sheet fully describes both the experiment and the theory.

Includes: Two Pulleys and Connecting Rod

Order Information: Pulley Mounting Rod (rod only)...........................................................SA-9242

164

Order Information:

Order Information:

Super Pulley with Clamp..............ME-9448B

Atwood’s Machine. ...............................SA-9241

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; I-Beams

Flexible I-Beam

Structures #6 I-Beam

A D  emonstrate the difference in stiffness between the two directions of bending A Show that I-beams twist easily A Do quantitative studies using a Force Sensor and a Motion Sensor

These 35 cm long plastic I-Beams are part of the PASCO Structures System. See pages 176-177.

ME-7008

ME-9891

Who is stronger? Although she appears to be much stronger, the beam is four times stiffer in the direction he is bending it.

This Flexible I-Beam is made of plastic so it can be visibly bent by hand. It shows the basic reasons for using this cross-section in construction. It is four times as stiff in the upright orientation as it is sideways. The beam does not sag under its own weight and returns to its original straightness after bending.

Quantitative studies of the bending of the I-beam can be performed with a Motion Sensor and a Force Sensor.

Show difference in stiffness between the two directions of bending.

Includes: 24 of the #6 I-Beams Order Information: Structures #6 I-Beam.........................ME-7008 Shown in use with: Hooked Mass Set............. SE-8759 p. 223 Aluminum Table Clamp............................ ME-8995 p. 215

Structures Flexible I-Beam ME-6985

The graph shows the force applied to the end of the cantilever beam versus the displacement for both directions of bending.

Use these flexible I-Beams to make a bridge which dramatically demonstrates how a bridge fails and yet the beams will return to their original shape when the load is removed.

Includes: Flexible I-Beam (24 inches long, 2 inches tall) Demonstration/Experiment Instructions Order Information: Flexible I-Beam...................................................................................................................ME-9891 Recommended: p. Motion Sensor.....................................................................................................................PS-2103A p. Force Sensor..........................................................................................................................PS-2104 PASPORT Interface p. p. Large Table Clamp...........................................................................................................ME-9472 p. 90 cm Long Rod (2).......................................................................................................ME-8738 p. Multi-Clamp. ...........................................................................................................................SE-9442

25 28 10-23 215 212 214

Dramatically demonstrate structural failure

Super-Flex I-Beam

ME-8987 A Super-Flex I-beam for demonstrations A Show bending in two directions A Show torsion and buckling A Grid shows deformation Includes: Super-Flex I-Beam (24 inches long, 2 inches tall) Instructions

Includes: Flexible I-Beam #5, 24 cm long (10) Flexible I-Beam #4, 17 cm long (18) Flexible I-Beam #3, 11.5 cm long (18) Order Information:

Order Information: Super-Flex I-Beam................................................. ME-8987

Structures Flexible I-Beam.........ME-6985 Shown in use with: Truss Set............................................ME-6990 p. 168

165


PASCO Structures System – Build, Measure, and Analyze

Structures Overview Experience real-world design building a large variety of structures. This reconfigurable system allows students to measure static and dynamic forces using load cells, and still have time to redesign and test again. See the following pages for ordering information, and details on individual structures sets. Numerical displays of load cell forces are generated in PASCO’s DataStudio® software. See pages 86-89.

Measure support forces with a Force Platform Measure the support forces of a crane by connecting it to a Force Platform (PS-2141) using the special Force Platform Structures Bracket (ME-6988A). The Force Platform is supported by four individual load cells which combine to measure the total vertical force on the platform. These four readings can also be viewed separately, to measure the unequal forces on the crane supports.

Tower Crane 2.3 m tall

Load Cell & Amplifier Set See page 168

Large Slotted Mass Set See page 223

Xplorer GLX® Hand-held Computer See pages 10-14

Motion Sensor See page 25 Displacement of the bridge is measured by the Xplorer GLX and the Motion Sensor as the 1/2 kg masses are added to the mass hanger.

Crane built using the Large Structures Set shown on page 176.

Measure bridge deflection with a Displacement Sensor The PS-2204 Displacement Sensor measures the travel of a spring-loaded indicator pressed against a bridge as the bridge is loaded. It consists of a PASPORT sensor which plugs into the included Digital Indicator, a digital travel indicator which has its own digital LED readout and can be used as a stand-alone device. When the PASPORT sensor is plugged into a PASPORT interface, the reading can be recorded. See pages 171-172 for more uses.

Specifications Maximum Travel: 10 mm N to +100 N Maximum Sample Rate: 5 Hz Resolution: 0.013 mm (0.0005 in)

Force Platform (PS-2141)

ME-6988A Includes:

Order Information: Displacement Sensor.................PS-2204 Shown in use with: Hooked Mass Set.............................SE-8759 p. 223 Small “A” Base. ...................................ME-8976 p. 212 60 cm long Steel Rod (threaded). .................................................ME-8977 p. 212 Required for use: PASPORT Interface (p. 8)

166

Brackets (2)

PS-2204 Includes:

Screws (4)

Sensor Bracket

Order Information:

Dial Gauge

Force Platform Structures Bracket.............................. ME-6988A Force Platform.......................................... PS-2141

p. 31

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PASCO Structures System – Load Cells and Amplifiers

Choice of Load Cell Amplifiers: CI Load Cell Amplifier CI-6464

This amplifier allows users of the CI 500 and CI 750 interfaces to collect data using the Structures System 100N and 5N Load Cells. This system has been successfully used at sample rates up to 10,000 Hz. The sample rate limit is determined by the interface and computer used.

Dual Load Cell Amplifier

Load Cell Amplifier (6 ports)

PS-2205

PS-2198

The Amplifier accepts either the 100N load cell or the 5N load cell or a combination of both. The maximum data sample rate is 1000 Hz for each port.

This Load Cell Amplifier can accommodate up to six load cells and only needs a single USBLink (PS-2100A) to connect to the USB port on a computer. This is useful for doing an extensive analysis of a bridge by inserting six load cells at various points in the structure to see if theory matches reality.

A PASCO PASPORT USB interface is required: Use a USBLink (PS-2100A) for just one Load Cell Amplifier or use an Xplorer GLX (PS-2002) or PowerLink (PS-2001) for multiple Load Cell Amplifiers.

A separate amplifier is required for each load cell. Order Information:

Order Information:

CI Load Cell Amplifier*.................. CI-6464 Required for Use: ScienceWorkshop Interface..... p. 68 Load Cell 100N*...................................... PS-2200 Load Cell 5N*............................................. PS-2201

Dual Load Cell Amplifier*.......... PS-2205 Required for Use: PASPORT Interface.............................. p. 8 Load Cell 100N*...................................... PS-2200 Load Cell 5N*............................................. PS-2201

Also available at a discount:

Also available at a discount:

CI Load Cell and Amplifier Set*.............................. CI-6465 Set Includes: CI Load Cell Amplifier* (CI-6464) Load Cell 100N* (PS-2200) Required for use: ScienceWorkshop Interface (p. 68)

Load Cell and Dual Amplifier Set*............... PS-2206 Set Includes: Dual Load Cell Amplifier* (PS-2205) Load Cell 100N* (PS-2200) Required for use: PASPORT Interface (p. 8)

The Amplifier accepts either the 100N load cell or the 5N load cell or a combination of both. The maximum data sample rate is 500 Hz for each port. Order Information: Load Cell Amplifier* (6 ports)......................................................... PS-2198 Required for Use: PASPORT Interface.......................... p. 8 Load Cell 100N*.................................. PS-2200 Load Cell 5N*......................................... PS-2201 Also available at a discount: Load Cell and Amplifier Set*.............................. PS-2199 Set Includes: Load Cell Amplifier* (PS-2198) Load Cell 100N* (qty 4) (PS-2200) Required for use: PASPORT Interface (p. 8)

Two types of Load Cells: Load cells are available in two different ranges: ±100 N and ± 5 N. These load cells are designed to be inserted into structures without changing the length of the member. A load cell attached to two shorter beams is equal in length to a longer beam. Both types of load cells can be used with the same amplifier in any combination. The semi-transparent case lets students see the strain gauge and beam inside.

Load Cell 100N

Load Cell 5N (PS-2201)

Load Cell 5N PS-2201

PS-2200

Specifications

Specifications

Range: -100 N to +100 N Accuracy: ±1% (± 1 N) Resolution: 0.02 N Safe Overload: -150 N to +150 N

Range: -5 N to +5 N Accuracy: ±1% (±0.05 N) Resolution: 0.001 N Safe Overload: -7.5 N to +7.5 N

2 1/4”

Load Cell 100N (PS-2200)

Order Information:

Order Information:

Mix 5N and 100N load cells on the same amplifier

100 N Load Cell*................ PS-2200

5 N Load Cell*....................... PS-2201

*Patents pending

167


PASCO Structures System â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Truss Set

Truss Set ME-6990

Through Truss with Verticals

A T  each the basics of trusses A Demonstrate the properties of I-Beams Plastic I-Beams Plastic Connectors

Steel Thumb Screws Use the Truss Set to build a variety of structures to investigate the principles of trusses. The ABS plastic I-Beams fasten securely together using the provided connectors and thumb screws. Load cells can be inserted anywhere into the design by replacing one beam at a time. Students can load the truss by hanging weights.

Measure the compression and tension in the I-Beam members by adding optional Load Cells.

Construction is easy: I-Beams fit into the connectors and are secured with thumb screws. Thumb screws are also slotted so a screwdriver can be used.

I-Beams key into the load cell and are fastened with thumb screws.

Students can construct a roof truss to study how the roof is supported in buildings.

Deck Truss Bridge

Kingpost Roof Truss

Truss Set includes: I-Beam #5 (8)

24 cm long

I-Beam #4 (18) 17 cm long I-Beam #3 (18) 11.5 cm long I-Beam #2 (8)

8 cm long

I-Beam #1 (8)

5.5 cm long

Connectors (14), Screws (75), and Instruction manual

168

Order Information: Truss Set* . .............................................................................................. ME-6990 Recommended: Load Cell & Amplifier Set* (includes four load cells)....................................................... PS-2199 *Patents pending

p. 167

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PASCO Structures System – Bridge Set

Bridge Set

Cross bracing

Warren with Verticals 1.5 m long

ME-6991 A L  arger quantity of I-beams and connectors A Study the principles of bridge construction A Road bed and car add realism to bridges A Add Load Cells to see dynamic loading as car traverses bridge

Verticals to support road bed

Car with Mass The Bridge Set includes all the I-beams and connectors required to build the structures shown on this page. Special cord locks allow tensioning of cord (cables) for cross bracing. A flexible plastic road bed clips to the cross-beams and, using load cells, the tension and compression of each element can be displayed in real time.

Flexible Road Bed

Add Load Cells to measure forces anywhere in the structure. A positive value represents compression.

Howe

Pratt

Warren

Students can build several types of fundamental bridges, including Howe, Pratt, and Warren bridges.

Design your own roller coaster!

Deck Truss 80 cm long

Add Load Cells to measure the forces needed to support the track as the car goes up and over the loop. See p. 141 for more roller coasters.

Waddell “A” Truss 1 m long

Bridge Set Includes: I-beam #5 (16) 24 cm long I-beam #4 (36) 17 cm long I-beam #3 (36) 11.5 cm long I-beam #2 (16) 8 cm long I-beam #1 (16) 5.5 cm long Connectors (28) Screws (150) Flexible road bed (3 m) Track coupler Road bed clips (24) Car with flag and mass Starter bracket

Cord tensioning clips (32) Yellow cord (1 roll) Instruction manual

The Waddell “A” Truss uses a cord (cable) for the center vertical member. Order Information: Bridge Set*. ........................................................................................... ME-6991 Recommended: Load Cell & Amplifier Set* (includes four load cells)...................................................... PS-2199 p. 167 *Patents pending

169


PASCO Structures System â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Advanced Set

Advanced Structures Set

Camelback Truss Bridge 1.4 m long

ME-6992B A Build larger bridges A Build cranes, catapults, cars The Advanced Structures Set includes more components to build a larger variety of structures. Axles and pulleys allow construction of cranes, cars and even a working catapult! See pages 171, 174, 175 and 178 for more examples of Advanced Structures.

Add Load Cells to measure forces anywhere in the structure.

Falling mass Catapult 60 cm tall Throws a projectile over 10 meters! Wheels allow catapult to move.

Use pulleys to investigate mechanical advantage.

Angle Crane 1.5 m tall

Straight Connector

Flexible I-Beams Mass Set

Flat Members

For cross-bracing

Suspension Bridge 2.2 m long

Round Connector

Flexible I-Beams

Advanced Structures Set Includes: Force Platform Bracket (2) I-Beam #5 (24) 24 cm long I-Beam #4 (54) 17 cm long I-Beam #3 (54) 11.5 cm long I-Beam #2 (24) 8 cm long I-Beam #1 (24) 5.5 cm long Flex I-Beam #5 (10) 24 cm long Flex I-Beam #4 (18) 17 cm long Flex I-Beam #3 (18) 11.5 cm long Flat Beams (16 ea. of 3 lengths) Axles (2 ea. of 3 lengths) Connectors (42) Cord Tensioning Clips (32)

170

Round and Flat Connectors (6 ea.) PAStrack Fasteners (6) Angle and Straight Connectors (24 ea.) Sliding Connector (12) Pulleys, O-rings, Spacers (12 ea.) Collets (24) Drive Wheel with Rubber Tire (4) Structures Rod Clamps (2) Screws (300) Yellow Cord (1 roll) Instruction Manual

Dramatically demonstrate structural failure

Order Information: Advanced Structures Set*. ............ ME-6992B Shown in use with: Load Cell & Amplifier Set* (includes four load cells).................. PS-2199 Hooked Mass Set....................................... SE-8759 Large Slotted Mass Set...................... ME-7566 *Patents pending

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PASCO Structures System – Hydraulics/Destruction

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Structures

Destructible Bridge Members

ME-6984

ME-7004

Add a hydraulic/pneumatic ram to make your structures move and do work. Not only will students see the cranes and jacks in action, they can directly measure the pressure and volume to calculate how much work was done.

Investigate structural failure by inserting a breakable link into the structure. The Destructible Bridge Fixture has a fail-safe mechanism so the bridge will not catastrophically collapse. Add Load Cells and the Displacement Sensor to measure the tension and displacement during the failure.

Pressure and volume are recorded as the weight is lifted, and the work done is the area under the curve.

Rotary Motion Sensor Pressure Sensor

Metal Plate

Breakable Link The weight is lifted using a syringe of water to fill the master cylinder. An Absolute Pressure Sensor (PS-2107) measures the pressure and a Rotary Motion Sensor (PS-2120) records the movement of the piston.

The black metal plate of the Destructible Bridge Fixture allows the Breakable Link to stretch and fail but keeps the bridge from falling down completely. A broken link can be easily replaced with a new one by simply sliding it onto the posts.

Valves are used with the syringe to pump up this fork lift. The use of different size syringes shows how a smaller force requires a greater number of pumps to do the same amount of work as a larger force.

Displacement Sensor As each weight is added, the stretch of the Breakable Link is measured with the Displacement Sensor and the tension in the member is measured with the Load Cell.

Load Cell

Includes: Master Cylinder Pressure Sensor “T” Check Valves and Tubing Syringes (10, 20, 60 ml) Drive Belt for Rotary Motion Sensor (Not shown)

Includes: Destructible Bridge Fixtures (2) Breakable Links (100 each of two different strengths) Order Information:

Order Information: Hydraulic/Pneumatic Structures.....................ME-6984 Advanced Structures Set*.......................................ME-6992B Steel Rod (45 cm)...............................................................ME-8736 Absolute Pressure Sensor.......................................PS-2107 Rotary Motion Sensor...................................................PS-2120 *Patents pending

p. p. p. p.

170 212 41 26

Destructible Bridge Members......................................ME-7004 p. Advanced Structures Set*................................................ME-6992B p. Load Cell & Amplifier Set* ............................................PS-2199 p. Displacement Sensor..............................................................PS-2204 p. Large Slotted Mass 2 kg Set........................................ME-7589 p. Destructible Bridge Members Spares...............ME-7005 *Patents pending

170 167 166 223 177

171


PASCO Structures System – Cast Beam Structures Set

Cast Beam Structures Set

Displacement Sensor

ME-7009

Both the tension fixture and the test fixture can be built concurrently with this set.

Cast Beam

Make your own cast beams which look like pre-stressed concrete beams. Test them and you’ll find they perform like them, too. These beams are cast with a mixture of sand and plaster of Paris (not included). The rebar is made of the same plastic used for the I-beams. Students can explore how the strength of the beam is affected by the amount of tension put on the rebar, the mixture of sand and plaster of Paris, or using one or two rebar.

Test Fixture

Displacement of beam is measured as load is increased.

Tension Fixture The graph of hanging mass versus displacement shows the relative strengths of three beams: One cast beam made with no pre-load; one cast beam made with 60 N of pre-load; and one normal plastic I-beam. Notice that the traces for the cast beams show discontinuities when the beams cracked. Also notice that the preloaded cast beam is stronger than the plastic I-beam until the cast beam cracks.

The beam rebar is kept under tension while the beam is drying.

Rebar

Cast Beam

Mold Step 1: The rebar with connecting ends snaps into the plastic mold.

Step 2: Insert rebar into tensioning apparatus and pour a mixture of sand and plaster of Paris into the mold. Measure Young’s Modulus for the rebar. The connecting ends can be cut off from the rebar allowing the rebar to fit into the Stress/Strain Apparatus (AP-8213).

Step 3: After it dries, it is easy to remove the flexible plastic mold from the cast beam.

Cast Beam Spares ME-6983 Consumable replacement parts for Cast Beams. These can also be used with the Advanced Structures Set (page 170).

Includes: 10 Reusable Plastic Molds 30 Rebar with Connectors Order Information:

Cast Beam Structures Set ME-7009 Includes: Collets (24) I-Beam #5 (8) 24 cm long Screws (150) I-Beam #4 (18) 17 cm long Pulleys, O-rings, Spacers (12 ea.) I-Beam #3 (18) 11.5 cm long Sliding connector (12) I-Beam #2 (8) 8 cm long Reusable Plastic Molds (10) I-Beam #1 (8) 5.5 cm long Rebar (30) Axles (2 ea. of 3 lengths) Yellow Cord (1 roll) Connectors (14) Instruction Manual Cord Tensioning Clips (32) Required but not included: Round and Flat Connectors (6 ea.) Sand and Plaster of Paris PAStrack Fasteners (6) Angle and Straight Connectors (24 ea.)

172

Cast Beam Spares. ................................ME-6983 Order Information: Cast Beam Structures Set*................. ME-7009 Also shown: Displacement Sensor.......................................... PS-2204 p.166 Stress/Strain Apparatus with Sensors........................ AP-8213 p.202-203 Large Slotted Mass Set.................................... ME-7566 p.223 Small Round Base (set of two)............................. ME-8974A p.212 60 cm Threaded Rod.. ME-8977 p.212 *Patents pending

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PASCO Structures System – Physics Structures Set

Physics Structures Set Impulse and Change in Momentum

ME-6989 A With one comprehensive set, study kinematics, momentum, energy, and rotation. A Build over 20 unique apparatus for learning physics A Over 10 copy-ready experiments included

The car goes down the hill and collides with the load cell attached to the track. The area under the force vs. time curve gives the impulse and the photogate measures the speeds so the change in momentum can be calculated.

The Physics Structures Set has been designed to maximize the number of different structures students can build to study and verify physics concepts. Sensors can be used to measure force, position, velocity, and acceleration. Literally in minutes, students can create their own unique apparatus to explore and measure physical quantities.

Newton’s Second Law

Mini Car

Create an inclined plane and measure the acceleration of the car up the plane using a photogate and pulley.

With low-friction ball bearing wheels.

Photogate

Measures speed of car.

Load Cell

Measures impulse.

CI Load Cell Amplifier

Elevator

Spring Set

Clamp-on Super Pulley

Hooke’s Law and Oscillations

The car hooked to two springs oscillates back-and-forth. Masses can be attached to the car over the pulley to cause a displacement and thus determine the effective spring constant using Hooke’s Law.

Physics Structures Set Includes: I-beam #5 (16) 24 cm long I-beam #4 (36) 17 cm long I-beam #3 (36) 11.5 cm long I-beam #2 (16) 8 cm long I-beam #1 (16) 5.5 cm long Axles (2 ea. of 3 lengths) Connectors (28) Cord tensioning clips (32) Round and Flat connectors (6 ea.) PAStrack fasteners (6) Angle and Straight connectors (24 ea.) Sliding connector (12) Pulleys, O-rings, spacers (12 ea.) Collets (24) Drive wheel with rubber tire (4) Yellow car and green car, each with ballast mass and flag

Velocity and acceleration (blue and red traces) are measured with the Rotary Motion Sensor as the elevator moves upwards. The green trace is the Normal Force on the 1kg mass inside the elevator.

Dual Load Cell Amplifier Order Information:

Collision brackets (2) Spring set Roll of thread Starter bracket (1) Structures rod clamps (2) Clamp-on Super Pulley

Screws (150) Flexible road bed (3 m) Road bed clips (24) Track coupler Yellow cord (1 roll) Instruction manual

Physics Structures Set*......................................ME-6989 Shown in use with: Load Cell Amplifiers....................................................................................... p. 5 N Load Cell*.................................................................PS-2201 p. 100 N Load Cell*..........................................................PS-2200 p. Photogate Head (2)...................................................ME-9498A p. Rotary Motion Sensor .........................................PS-2120 p. Mass and Hanger Set ..........................................ME-8979 p. Large Slotted Mass Set .....................................ME-7566 p. Table Clamps ......................................................................................................... p. Rods .................................................................................................................................. p.

167 167 167 37 26 223 223 215 212

*Patents pending

173


PASCO Structures System

Classic Statics using the PASCO Structures System Forces on a Boom

T

Vary all parameters including length and angle of the boom. Directly measure the horizontal and vertical forces exerted by the pivot (axle) on the boom, and the tension in the supporting cord.

q W

.

Fx

Wb

Classic statics problem of pivoted boom supported by a cable.

Fy

Use the Angle Indicator (sold separately) to accurately measure the angle of the boom and supporting cord.

Support structure uses 1/2 kg masses from the ME-7566 Large Slotted Mass Set (sold separately) for counter balance.

A Lesson in Balance Circus performer not included!

Teeter Totter Take â&#x20AC;&#x153;meter stickâ&#x20AC;? torque to a new level! By building their own unique structures, students learn about center of mass, torque, and static equilibrium as never before. See page 159 for more applications.

The examples shown on these two pages can be built using the Advanced Structures Set or Physics Structures Set.

Ladder Against Wall How does the required frictional force (measured by the load cell at bottom) change as the location of the hanging mass is moved further up the ladder?

f N

174

Human Leg Build and test structural models of the human body, like the leg shown here. See page 178 for more applications.

Order Information:

W

WL

N

Advanced Structures Set*. .....................................ME-6992B

p. 170-171

Physics Structures Set*..............................................ME-6989

p. 172-173

Shown in use with: Load Cell & Amplifier Set* (includes four load cells)...........................................PS-2199

p. 167

Additional 100 N Load Cell*.................................PS-2200

p. 167

Hooked Mass Set................................................................SE-8759

p. 223

Large Slotted Mass Set...............................................ME-7566

p. 223

Angle Indicator. .....................................................................ME-9495A

p. 116

Mass and Hanger Set....................................................ME-8979

p. 223

Large Table Clamp..............................................................ME-9472

p. 215

Steel Rod (90 cm)...............................................................ME-8738 *Patents pending

p. 212

www.pasco.com


PASCO Structures System

Combine the rigid, plastic PAStrack sections with the Structures System.

Cable-Stayed Bridge 1.5 m Long

PAStrack Cable-Stayed Bridge

Graph shows the change in tension and compression of the supporting members as the Motorized Cart moves across the span.

The cable-stayed bridge shown here was constructed using components from the Advanced Structures Set and two ME-6997 Round Connector Spares sets. The roadbed uses four sets of PAStrack and four sets of curved PAStrack.

PAScar PAStrack Curved Sections

PAStrack Mass

Add Load Cells to measure the support forces in the bridge.

Load Cells

Motorized Cart

PAStrack Arch Bridge 4 m Long The arch bridge shown here was constructed using components from the Advanced Structures Set and six ME-6997 Round Connector Spares sets. The roadbed uses four sets of PAStrack.

PAStrack Truss Bridge

See page 159 for more examples.

Adjustable Endstop

Order Information:

PAScar

Load Cell & Amplifier Set Load cells are used to measure the tension and compression in the members.

Advanced Structures Set*. ........ ME-6992B

p. 170

PAScar (set of 2)...................................... ME-6950

p. 108

PAStrack (2 sections)......................... ME-6960

p. 113

Curved PAStrack...................................... ME-6841

p. 115

Motorized Cart........................................... ME-9781

p. 118

250 g Mass..................................................... ME-6756

p. 109

Adjustable Endstop............................. ME-8971

p. 116

Round Connector Spares. ........... ME-6997

p. 177

Load Cell & Amplifier Set* (includes four load cells).............. PS-2199

p. 167

*Patents pending

175


PASCO Structures System â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Large Structures Set

Large Structures Set ME-7003 The Large Structures Set includes all the components contained in the ME-6992B Advanced Structures Set plus additional parts to build even bigger structures. It also includes the Mini Cars with plastic track to build roller coasters, and to add realistic roadbeds to your bridges.

New #6 I-Beam Flex I-Beam

Suspension Bridge 3 m long

Drawbridge 3.2 m long

Double Tied Arch Bridge 2.8 m long

Arch Truss 2 m long

Add load cells (page 167) to measure forces anywhere in the structure.

Student uses the Hydraulic/Pneumatic System (page 171) to raise and lower the drawbridge.

Cable Stayed 3.8 m long

Large Structures Set Includes: I-Beam #6 (24) 35 cm long I-Beam #5 (24) 24 cm long I-Beam #4 (54) 17 cm long I-Beam #3 (54) 11.5 cm long I-Beam #2 (24) 8 cm long I-Beam #1 (24) 5.5 cm long Flex I-Beam #5 (10) 24 cm long Flex I-Beam #4 (18) 17 cm long Flex I-Beam #3 (18) 11.5 cm long Flat Beams (16 ea. of 3 lengths) Axles (2 ea. of 3 lengths) Connectors (70) Cord Tensioning Clips (32)

176

Yellow car and green car, each with ballast mass and flag Force Platform Bracket (2) Round and Flat connectors (6 ea.) Angle and Straight Connectors (24 ea.) Drive Wheel with Rubber Tire (4) Pulleys, O-rings, Spacers (12 ea.) Structures Rod Clamps (2) Sliding Connector (12) PAStrack Fasteners (6) Collets (24) Screws (450) Yellow Cord (1 roll)

Flexible road bed (9.1m) Road bed clips (24) Starter bracket (1) Track coupler (2) Instruction Manual

See pages 141 and 166 for more examples of Large Structures. Order Information: Large Structures Set*.................................... ME-7003 Shown in use with: Hydraulic/Pneumatic Structures. ..................................................................... ME-6984....p. 171 Slotted Mass Set................................................... ME-7589....p. 223 *Patents pending

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PASCO Structures System – Replacement Spares Sets

Truss Set Members

Axle Spares

Roller Coaster Track

ME-6993 Includes:

ME-6998A

ME-9814

Includes drive wheel with rubber tire (4), pulleys with “O” rings (12 each), axles (two each of three lengths), spacers (12) and collets (24).

Longer replacement roll of flexible plastic track for use with the Bridge Set (ME-6991), Physics Structures Set (ME-6989), Large Structures Set (ME-7003), and Roadbed Spares (ME-6995).

I-beam #5 (8) 24 cm long I-beam #4 (18) 17 cm long I-beam #3 (18) 11.5 cm long I-beam #2 (8) 8 cm long I-beam #1 (8) 5.5 cm long Connectors (14)

(9.1 m)

Order Information: Truss Set Members.................................. ME-6993

Truss Set Screws ME-6994 Includes 75 screws. All components in the Structures System use this same 6-32 thumb screw. Order Information: Truss Set Screws........................................ ME-6994

Connectors Spares ME-7002

Order Information: Axle Spares. ...................................................... ME-6998A

Destructible Bridge Members Spares ME-7005 Consumable replacement Breakable Links for the ME-7004 Destructible Bridge Members (page 171). Each Sprue contains 10 each of two different diameter links, giving a total of 200 links.

Set of 14 connectors used to join truss members. This is the same connector included in the ME-6993 Truss Set. Order Information: Connector Spares...................................... ME-7002

Destructible Bridge Members Spares. ....................................... ME-7005

Includes:

(Set of 2) ME-6986

Order Information: Flexible I-Beams.......................................ME-6985

Flat Beams ME-6987 Includes 16 each: 2x3 beams 12 cm long F4 beams 17 cm long 3x4 beams 19 cm long

Connects structure members to 1/2 inch rod.

Cord Lock Spares

Angle Connector Spares ME-6999A Includes sliding connector (12) angle connectors (24), and straight connectors (24).

Order Information: Roadbed Spares.......................................... ME-6995 Mini Car Starter Bracket (purchased alone)...................................... ME-9856

Cast Beam Spares ME-6983

Consumable replacement parts for ME-7009 Cast Beams (page 172). Includes 10 Reusable Plastic Molds and 30 Rebar with Connectors. These can also be used with the Advanced Structures Set (page 170). Order Information: Cast Beam Spares. .................................ME-6983

Order Information: Angle Connector Spares. ................. ME-6999A

Round Connector Spares

Includes 32 cord tensioning clips and a spool of yellow cord.

Includes six each of round connectors, flat connectors, and bolts with nuts.

Cord Lock Spares....................................... ME-6996 Yellow Cord (2 pack).............................. ME-9876

Includes flexible road bed (3 m), road bed clips (24), car with flag and extra mass, mini car starting bracket and track couples (2).

Structures Rod Clamps (2). ........... ME-6986

ME-6996

Order Information:

ME-6995

Order Information:

Order Information: Flat Beams........................................................ME-6987

Roadbed Spares

Order Information:

Structures Rod Clamps

Flex I-beam #5 (10) 24 cm long Flex I-beam #4 (18) 17 cm long Flex I-beam #3 (18) 11.5 cm long

Roller Coaster Track................................. ME-9814

Starter Bracket

Flexible I-Beams ME-6985

Order Information:

ME-6997

#6 I-Beam Spares ME-7008

Longer beam to supplement the ME-6990 Truss set. Has the same cross section as the shorter beams. Includes 24 of the #6 I-beams, 35 cm long.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Round Connector Spares................ ME-6997

#6 I-Beam Spares...................................... ME-7008

177


Mechanics – Human Body

PASCO Structures System Use the components from the Advanced Structures Set (pages 170) or the Physics Set (page 172) to build and test structural models of the human body. Use load cells (page 167) to directly measure the forces as parameters are changed.

Human Back Model Model the forces acting on a human back. Vary all parameters including position of back muscle attachment and angle of the torso. Directly measure the force exerted by the back muscles (tension in supporting cord) and the horizontal and vertical forces exerted by the pivot. For the example shown here, the net force exerted on the base of the Lumbar spine is 29.2 N. Muscles

Arm

Torso

Load cells directly measure forces exerted on back model.

Support Structure allows the angle of the back to be easily adjusted.

The PASCO Structures System allows students to build models that represent real life problems.

T W

Fx

Fy

Human Arm Model The Advanced Structures Set allows students to build a realistic arm model and directly measure the forces exerted by the biceps muscle (tension in supporting cord). Vary the length and angle of upper and lower arm, as well as the point of attachment of the muscle.

W

θ

Wb

Load cell represents the biceps muscle.

F

WA

Hand

Human Leg Model The articulated leg shown below has a load cell on the foot to measure the force that the “toe” exerts on the ball. The impulse (area under the curve) is equal to the resulting momentum of the ball. The leg model shown at right uses a load cell for the quadriceps muscle to directly measure the force needed to support the leg at various angles.

Rubber Band

Support Structure allows the angle of the upper arm to be easily adjusted.

Axle allows arm to pivot freely at the elbow. Load cell represents quadriceps muscles.

θ

Directly measure the force needed to support the leg at various angles.

T

W

Order Information:

Load Cell

Advanced Structures Set*. ....................................ME-6992B

p. 170-171

Physics Structures Set*.............................................ME-6989

p. 172-173

Shown in use with: Load Cell & Amplifier Set*....................................PS-2199

p. 32

Hooked Mass Set...............................................................SE-8759

p. 223

Large Slotted Mass Set..............................................ME-7566

p. 223

*Patents pending

178

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Human Body

Human Arm Model

Cord Locks To easily adjust position.

PS-2611 with Angle Sensor ME-6807A without Angle Sensor

Mounting Bracket

A Working Model of the Human Arm A Associate Tricep/Bicep Muscle Action with Arm Motion A Measure Torque Resulting from Lifting Weights

Use with rod or clamp directly to a table with a C-clamp.

Bicep

Adjustable Wrist

Multiple Insertion Points

A Actually Throws a Ball

Hand

Color Graphics

The Human Arm Model simulates the muscles and motion of an actual human arm. To activate the arm motion, students pull on the cord with a Force Sensor. Changes in position are measured at the shoulder and elbow using the two built-in potentiometers plugged into one Angle Sensor (PS-2139), included with PS-2611. From this information, the torque applied when lifting an object can be determined. Also, students can evaluate the work done by the arm in throwing a ball and the resulting kinetic energy delivered to the ball.

Tricep Elbow Angle Sensor Measure Angle of forearm.

Adjustable Stops

Rod Clamp

To fix position of arm.

Shoulder Angle Sensor

The Arm can perform many types of motion such as extending and lifting an object, curling, or throwing a ball overhand. Different arm muscles are activated depending on which pulleys are selected. Static force measurements can also be made to see how the muscle tension changes at various arm positions.

Measure angle of arm.

Removable Mass Measure work and torque with and without mass.

Angles and Forces During Extension:

The upper graph shows the angles of the elbow (violet trace) and the shoulder (blue) as the arm is extended as shown in the picture at right. Shown in the lower graph, the bicep tension (red) has little change at first and then rises sharply as the arm reaches out, while the tricep tension (green) rises steadily.

Free throw

Extension

As the tricep muscle cord is pulled with a Force Sensor, another fixed Force Sensor records the tension in the bicep muscle cord.

To perform this motion, an elastic cord is used as the bicep muscle cord and the tricep muscle cord is pulled with a Force Sensor. The motion of the arm and the release speed of the ball are measured with the built-in potentiometers using the Angle Sensor.

Includes: Arm Angle Sensor Removable Mass

Curl

As the bicep muscle cord is pulled a short distance, the end of the arm moves through a very large distance, showing the mechanical advantage of the arm. The load at the end of the arm can be varied.

Cord & Cord Locks Mounting Bracket with Rod Force Sensor Mounting Rod Rubber Ball

Order Information: Human Arm Model .....................................................................................PS-2611 Human Arm Model without Angle Sensor..............................................................................ME-6807A Required: C-clamp or Large Table Clamp...................................................................................... p. Required for sensor measurement: PASPORT Force Sensor (2)................................................................PS-2104 p. PASPORT Interface....................................................................................................................... p. Angle Sensor.......................................................................................................PS-2139 p.

215 28 10-23 51

179


Mechanics – Human Body

Goniometer

Forces on the Human Body

PS-2137 A Accurately measures joint movements A Flexible mounting options for hip, knee and elbow

Force Platforms PASPORT 2-Axis PASPORT 1-Axis ScienceWorkshop 1-Axis

PS-2142 PS-2141 CI-6461

F wall

Data shows position, velocity and acceleration of hip joint during walking and running. Help students to better understand physics by using their body as the experimental apparatus. PASCO’s Goniometer can be connected to the knee, hip or elbow joints to measure angle changes throughout a variety of movements. Use with the Xplorer or Xplorer GLX for a compact, easy-to-use human motion lab.

Friction

Normal

By standing on a 2-Axis Force Platform while pushing against the wall with a 1-Axis Force Platform, a reallife statics problem can be analyzed.

The sensor includes one Angle Sensor (PS-2139) and one Goniometer Probe with Velcro straps. The sensor circuity can accommodate two Goniometer Probes, so purchase another probe to measure the motion of two joints simultaneously.

Typical Applications: A A  ngular Motion: Measure the angular

position, velocity and acceleration for the arm or leg. A Tangential Velocity: Simply enter the correct radius and Data-Studio will calculate the linear velocity for any point on the arm or leg A Work and Power: Use with a Force Sensor to measure the power generated by the arm or leg when lifting an object. Using DataStudio, integrate the power vs. time graph to find the work done by the student. A Torque and Rotational Inertia: Calculate the torque applied by a muscle after measuring the angular acceleration and rotational inertia of the arm or leg.

Specifications Range: 0 to 340º Accuracy: ± 1º (calibrated), ± 3º (uncalibrated) Resolution: 0.1º

180

Measure the motion of elbow, hip or knee. With use of optional second probe, two measurements can be taken simultaneously. Developed in cooperation with Nancy Beverly, Assistant Professor of Physics at Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York.

Includes: Goniometer Probe Angle Sensor Velcro Straps

Order Information: Goniometer Sensor.....................PS-2137 Recommended: Additional Goniometer Probe.........................PS-2138 Additional Velcro Straps.........................................PS-2547 Xplorer or Xplorer GLX. ..................................... p. 10-18

Shown with Force Platform Handle Set PS-2548 (not included). Order Information: 2-Axis Force Platform,  PASPORT........................................ PS-2142

p. 31

1-Axis Force Platform,  PASPORT........................................ PS-2141

p. 31

Force Platform,  ScienceWorkshop............... CI-6461

p. 76

Force Platform  Handle Set................................... PS-2548

p. 30

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Springs

Demonstration Wave Spring

Double-Length Slinky

WA-7334

SE-8760

The Demonstration Wave Spring is ideal for illustrating mechanical wave properties such as frequency, wavelength and interference. Because itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not as stiff as the Snakey (below), the Demonstration Wave Spring provides a different medium in which to study waves. Two hooks on either end allow students to stretch this spring to a length of 8 meters. It has a diameter of 2.3 cm and an unstretched length of 80 cm.

The Slinky is an excellent tool for demonstrating transverse and longitudinal wave phenomena. This Double-Length Slinky is twice as long as a traditional slinky, allowing students to create well-defined wave pulses and standing wave patterns. The tension in the Slinky is very low, causing wave pulses to travel slowly throughout its length. Order Information: Double -Length Slinky....................................................................... SE-8760

Clear standing wave patterns can easily be created.

Dynamics Track Spring Set ME-8999

Includes 12 springs (1.6 cm diameter) with approximate spring constants of: 3.4 N/m (3 short and 3 long springs) 6.8 N/m (3 short and 3 long springs) Order Information: Dynamics Track Spring Set (12)...................................................... ME-8999 Order Information: Demonstration Wave Spring..................................................................... WA-7334

Snakey

Longitudinal Wave Spring WA-9401

SE-7331

The extra-long metal spring is ideal for the study of mechanical waves. The Snakey has an unstretched length of 80 centimeters. Pull the convenient end loops more than 7 meters apart to demonstrate transverse, longitudinal and standing waves.

This spring has a 1.6 cm diameter and is 13.5 cm long. The approximate spring constant is 0.85 N/m.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Snakey. .......................................................................................................... SE-7331

Longitudinal Wave Spring...................................................................... WA-9401

181


Mechanics – Springs

Demonstration Spring Set

Equal Length Spring Set

ME-9866

The five color-coded equal length springs in this set have different spring constants:

ME-8970

Spring Color

Spring Constant (± 10%)

Red

25 N/m

Blue

30 N/m

Yellow

35 N/m

White

40 N/m

Green

50 N/m

These springs appear to be the same except for their colors. But, when equal masses are hung on them, each stretches a different amount. These extension springs are made of steel and are closed, requiring a slight initial force to separate the coils. The unstretched length of each spring is 30 cm and the approximate diameter is 1.4 cm. These springs are supplied with a white storage box with cardboard separators to keep the springs from touching each other.

This set includes four large springs for the demonstration of Hooke’s Law or Conservation of Energy. Each spring is constructed of rugged spring steel with large loops for hanging from a pendulum clamp or stretching with hanging masses. Spring constants range from 4 N/m to 14 N/m. Spring lengths vary between 11 cm and 22 cm.

The 5 color-coded springs stretch different amounts when a 1 kg mass is hung from each spring.

Includes:

Includes: White storage box Five (color-coded) springs

Order Information:

30 cm long

Demonstration Spring Set. ...................................................... ME-9866 Recommended: Pendulum Clamp.................................... SE-9443

Pendulum Clamp SE-9443

Order Information: Equal Length Spring Set.............. ME-8970

Multi-Length Spring Set ME-6848

Springs have an approximate diameter of 1.5 cm with a spring constant of 40 N/m. Lengths are 13 cm, 19 cm, 24 cm, and 29 cm.

A Equal spring constants

Hang up to three pendula from precisely the same height. Suspension points are 54 mm apart. Fits rods up to 16 mm (5/8 in.) in diameter. Order Information: Pendulum Clamp.................................... SE-9443

182

The four springs in this set appear to have the same diameter and wire material, but are actually designed to have the same spring constant even though they have different lengths. It makes a perfect companion to the ME-8970 Equal Length Spring Set and the ME-6842 Series/ Parallel Spring Set. Order Information: Multi-Length Spring Set............... ME-6848

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Springs

Parallel Spring Bracket

Series/Parallel Spring Set

ME-6844

ME-6842

This unique bracket allows springs of different spring constants to be hung in series and parallel. The masses can be hung in an offset position to compensate for the stronger spring.

Typical Applications A E  xplore how spring constants

The set of six springs consists of two each of three different spring constants. These springs are 15 cm long, half the length of the Equal Length Spring Set (ME-8970), making it possible to combine two series short springs in parallel with one long spring. Shown below in use with the ME-6844 Parallel Spring Bracket and the SE-8759 Hooked Mass Set.

add

A A  nalogous to addition of capacitors in series and parallel

A E  xplore torque by placement of mass along bracket

Parallel Spring Bracket is shown at right in use with the ME-6842 Series/Parallel Spring Set, the ME-8970 Equal Length Spring Set, and the SE-8759 Hooked Mass Set. Set-up below includes the use of the ME-9866 Demonstration Spring Set. Note the cm markings (see inset) on the Parallel Hook Bar. By calculating the applied torques, the relative forces from the two springs can be investigated.

Parallel Hook Bar has cm markings to allow calculation of the applied torques.

Specifications The six color-coded springs, two of each color, have different spring constants: Spring Color

Spring Constant (Âą 10%)

Red

10 N/m

Includes:

Blue

20 N/m

White storage box Six (color-coded) springs 15 cm long

Green

40 N/m

Order Information: Series/Parallel Spring Set...........................................................................ME-6842

Includes:

Hooked Mass Set

Large Slotted Mass Set

SE-8759

ME-7566

Suspension bracket Parallel hook bar See page 223 for more information

Order Information: Parallel Springs Bracket.................................................................................ME-6844 Recommended: Equal Length Spring Set. .............................................................................ME-8970 Series/Parallel Spring Set............................................................................ME-6842

Order Information:

Order Information:

Hooked Mass Set SE-8759

Large Slotted Mass Set ME-7566

183


Mechanics – Springs/Oscillations

Hooke’s Law Set ME-9827

Brightly colored stretch indicator

A B  rightly colored stretch indicator A Transparent measuring scale A Compatible with PASCO Mass Sets

allows students to easily measure the stretch of the spring.

The Hooke’s Law Set allows students to investigate the relationship between the force applied to a spring and the amount of stretch on the spring. This rugged set features a heavy base to allow the stretching of springs without toppling the unit. The transparent scale can be moved vertically to align zero with the brightly colored stretch indicator.

Includes: Stand with heavy base Transparent scale with mm resolution Horizontal support for spring Brightly colored stretch indicator

Transparent Scale Included

Three springs with identical diameter and length, but different spring constants

is adjustable.

Three of each spring included, for a total of nine springs: spring constants are 5 N/m, 8 N/m, 70 N/m.

stand with heavy base. As a force is applied to the spring by placing mass on the hanger, the spring stretches. Students can graph the applied force vs. spring stretch. The slope of this graph is the spring constant of the spring. The vertical intercept shows the initial force needed to begin stretching the spring.

Hooke’s Law Spring Set SE-8749

Includes three springs with the same diameter and length, but different spring constants. Three of each type of spring are included, and the springs fit nicely on PASCO mass hangers. All springs are 55 mm long and 7 mm in diameter. Spring constants are 5 N/m, 8 N/m and 70 N/m.

Order Information: Hooke’s Law Set. .......................... ME-9827 Recommended: Mass and Hanger Set............. ME-8979 p. 223

Measure passive damping with a Motion Sensor

This building frame is built with an Advanced Structures Set using the new Flat Members. A pendulum with drag caused by strings is suspended from the top of the building. The Motion Sensor is positioned to record the oscillation of the building.

See page 294 for more examples using the Shaking Tower.

Order Information: Hooke’s Law Spring Set.......................................................................... SE-8749

Light Duty Spring Set ME-9835 The Light Duty Spring Set consists of four springs having a spring constant of 1 N/m and four springs having a spring constant of 2 N/m. The springs are 8 mm in diameter. The 1 N/m springs have a closed coil length of 6.5 cm and stretch without deforming to about 90 cm. The 2 N/m springs have a closed coil length of 5.5 cm and stretch without deforming to about 60 cm. Order Information: Light Duty Spring Set............................................................................... ME-9835

184

The gray graph (in DataStudio® software) shows the oscillation without the pendulum. The red graph shows the damping caused when the pendulum is allowed to oscillate. Order Information: Advanced Structures Set*. ...................................... ME-6992B Motion Sensor......................................................................... PS-2103A Large Slotted Mass Set............................................... ME-7566 *Patents pending

p. 170 p. 25 p. 223

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Oscillations

Inertial Balance

Wilberforce Pendulum

SE-8683

ME-8091

Wilberforce Spring

A Use as a traditional Wilberforce to show coupled oscillations A Accommodates computer measurements

Photogate Wheel

How It Works When the Wilberforce Pendulum is initially displaced vertically, it oscillates in a purely up-and-down motion. The translational oscillation gradually transfers to a purely torsional mode and then back to the translational mode. The translational and torsional periods must be the same. This is accomplished by adjusting the position of the masses on the crossbar.

The height is measured using a Motion Sensor, angular velocity using a Laser Switch and Photogate Wheel, force using a Force Sensor.

Diode Laser Force Sensor

Crossbar and Masses

Measure the period of this Inertial Balance to find the mass of objects. The balance, three cylindrical 200 g masses and a C-clamp are included. Establish the spring constant of the balance with any combination of the three masses which fit into convenient slots. Or place one mass in at a time to observe the changing periods. Once calibrated, unknown masses may be measured. Order Information: Inertial Balance.................................................................................................SE-8683

Photogate Pendulum Set ME-8752 A Great for classic pendulum experiments

The vertical position, velocity and acceleration of the Wilberforce Pendulum are measured with a Motion Sensor (p. 74) placed below the pendulum. A laser (p. 335) and a Laser Switch (p. 149) measure the angular speed in the torsional mode as the spokes of the wheel break the laser beam. A Force Sensor (p. 74) attached to the end of the spring measures the spring force as the pendulum oscillates.

The Photogate Pendulum Set is a unique set of four pendula that have the same shape and size, but different masses. These pendula are ideal for use in timing experiments with the photogate due to their cylindrical shape. One pendulum each of brass, plastic, wood, and aluminum is included.

Cylindrical shape allows easy calculation of the speed of the pendulum using the time it blocks the photogate.

Includes: Spring and Mass Force Sensor attachment Rod Clamp

Typical Applications A D  etermine relationship between period and mass A D  etermine relationship between period and amplitude A Determine relationship between period and length

Photogate Wheel

Wilberforce Pendulum

Order Information: Photogate Pendulum Set........................................................... ME-8752 Recommended: Accessory Photogate ...................................................................... ME-9204B p. 37 Smart Timer.................................................................................................. ME-8930 p. 146 Pendulum Clamp................................................................................... SE-9443 Order Information:

Laser Switch

Wilberforce Pendulum............... ME-8091 Shown in use with: Large Rod Base ............................. ME-8735 p. 212

Motion Sensor

120 cm Steel Rods (2) ................... ME-8741 p. 212 45 cm Steel Rod. ................................ ME-8736 p. 212 Multi Clamps (2)............. SE-9442

p. 214

Pendulum Clamp SE-9443 Hang up to three pendula from precisely the same height. Suspension points are 54 mm apart. Fits rods up to 16 mm (5/8 in.) in diameter. Order Information: Pendulum Clamp............................................................................................SE-9443

185


Mechanics – Rotation

PASCO’s Complete Rotational System

Included Experiments

ME-8950A A Most Versatile Rotational System Available A Stable, 4 kg Cast Iron Base A Dual, Low-Friction Ball Bearings The Complete Rotational System includes: 1. R  otating aluminum platform with 4 kg cast iron base, dual ball bearings, stainless steel shaft, three-step pulley, two rectangular sliding 300 g masses and 50 cm track where a number of accessories may be mounted. 2. T  he Rotational Inertia Accessory with a 25.4 cm diameter, 1.50 kg disk (which may be rotated on two axes), a 12.7 cm diameter, 1.42 kg ring and Super Pulley with support rod and adapter. 3. T  he Centripetal Force Accessory with spring support and radius indicator, mass support, three masses and Super Pulley with Clamp.

1. R  otational Inertia of Disk and Ring 2 Axes 2. Centripetal Force 3. Rotational Inertia of Off-Axis Disk (fixed and rotating) 4. Conservation of Angular Momentum, Using a Point Mass Experiments not shown: 5. Rotational Inertia of a Point Mass 6. Conservation of Angular Momentum, Projectile Version 7. Conservation of Angular Momentum, Using Disk and Ring

Check out additional experiments at www.pasco.com Inertia of a Disk 1 Rotational and Ring— 2 Axes “Center” Axis

1

Disk

2

3-step Pulley Super Pulley

3 The unit features a cast iron base, dual ball bearings and Stainless Steel shaft. The moments of inertia are large enough to be sensed by the student when rotating the system by hand. Computer monitoring of angular velocity and a motorized drive are also possible. PASCO’s Complete Rotational System provides a range of experiments in centripetal force, angular momentum and rotational motion. A unique set of accessories makes it an ideal tool for experiments in torques, friction, magnetic levitation and Faraday’s Law.

Order Information: Complete Rotational System.........................................ME-8950A Required: Mass and Hanger Set..............................ME-8979

p. 223

Recommended: Photogate Head................ME-9498A p. 37 “A”-base Rotational Adapter. ......................................CI-6690

p. 190

Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Rotary Motion Sensor..........................................CI-6538

p. 74

Required for use with PASPORT: Rotary Motion Sensor..........................................PS-2120

186

p. 26

It is easy to use a computer to monitor rotational motion with the PASCO  Rotational System.

Hanging Mass

With the disk mounted on the top of the vertical shaft, a torque is applied by a hanging mass. From the mass, the radius and angular acceleration, the rotational inertia of the disk can be determined.

Radial Axis

The ME-9498A Photogate Head mounts directly to the rotating platform base and measures angular velocity, but not direction. See page 37. The CI-6538 and PS-2120 Rotary Motion Sensor mounts to the base with an “A” Adapter and measures both angular velocity and direction. See pages 26 and 74.

The disk can also be mounted on edge to decrease the rotational inertia by half.

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Rotation

2

Rotational System Components and Accessories:

Centripetal Force

Centripetal force may be thoroughly investigated by varying both the mass and radius. The unique radius indicator allows students to continuously monitor the equilibrium position.

Rotating Platform and Rotational Inertia Accessory......p. 188

Accurate Radius Indicator Can be monitored throughout the cycle of rotation.

Mass Support

Can be easily moved to change radius continuously from 2 to 20 cm.

Centripetal Force Accessory......p. 188 Spring Support

Mass

Adjusts easily up and down to accommodate a continuous range of applied force.

Easily changed to 100, 150 or 200 g.

Photogate Head

Clamp-On Super Pulley

Accessory measures every 1/10 of a rotation, see pages 37 and 75.

For easy force calibration.

3

Rotational Inertia of Off-Axis Disk

Conservation of Angular Momentum

Rotational Acceleration Tank...............p. 190

“A”-base Rotational Adapter..........p. 190

The rotational inertia adapter allows students to mount the disk anywhere along the platform. A bearing mounted on one side of the disk allows it to act either as a rigid mass or as a mass free to rotate around its point of attachment as the platform turns on the vertical shaft.

4

Magnetic Levitation Accessory and Rotational Motor Drive.......p. 190-191

Computer-based Centripetal Force ............p. 189

Demo Centripetal Force..............p. 189

Students can predict what will happen when a point mass rotating at a specific radius is pulled into a smaller radius. The rotational inertia of the mass at the inner and outer radii can be calculated and the results verified.

187


Mechanics – Rotational System Components

Rotating Platform

Centripetal Force Accessory

ME-8951

ME-8952 Two Rectangular 300 g Masses

Used as point masses on the Rotating Platform.

Rotating Platform

Three-step Pulley

Aluminum platform for mounting rotation experiments. Includes three T-slots for easy mounting and a 48 cm scale for easy measurements.

Dual Low-Friction Bearings Photogate Mount

With traditional centripetal units the ability to change the variables is either impossible or limited. The PASCO Centripetal Force Accessory is designed to make changing the mass, radius or the force quick and easy.

Support Rod

ME-9498A Photogate Head mounts here for photogate timing.

Holds pulley for hanging masses and Smart Pulley for timing.

Sturdy 4 kg Base

Eliminates wobbles and vibrations.

Features

A Versatile Base The stable base and precision bearings of the ME-8951 Rotating Platform provide the foundation of PASCO’s Rotational System. Serves as an excellent base for general rotation experiments. Order Information: Rotating Platform.................................................................................. ME-8951 Recommended: Rotational Inertia Accessory.................................................... ME-8953 Centripetal Force Accessory.................................................... ME-8952 Rotational Acceleration Tank.................................................... ME-8957 p. 190 Rotational Motor Drive................................................................... ME-8955 p. 190 Replacement Supplies: Photogate Mounting Rod............................................................ ME-8965

Rotational Inertia Accessory ME-8953 A disk and a ring permit several experiments in rotational inertia. The disk may be rotated about several axes. When used in conjunction with the adapter, experiments using the parallel-axis theorem may be performed by moving the disk off from the center of rotation. The ball bearing on one side of the disk permits it to rotate freely for some experiments while a “D” hole on the other side prevents rotation about the disk axis.

Includes:

Change Variables over a Wide Range: Radius can be varied continuously from 2 to 20 cm, and the rotating mass can be 100, 150 or 200 g. Observe the Radius Indicator throughout the Cycle: PASCO’s design has the indicator at the center of rotation, allowing continuous observation throughout the rotation cycle, resulting in more accurate measurements.

2

Plastic Disk 25.4 cm diameter, 1500 g.

3

Holes

for rotation on “vertical” axis.

4

Center Hole

has ball bearing on one side.

Super Pulley

1 Adapter

to mount disk to rotating platform at any radius.

and support rod.

Heavy-grade plastic disk (25.4 cm diameter, 1500 g) Metal ring (12.7 cm outside diameter, 1420 g) Disk Adapter Super Pulley and Support Rod Order Information: Rotational Inertia Accessory...........................................................ME-8953

188

Vary Parameters Independently: Change the centripetal force, mass and radius independently of each other.

Includes: Metal Cylinder 12.7 cm diameter, 1420 g

1. Spring support and radius indicator assembly 2. Mass support 3. Masses (100 g and two 50 g) 4. Super Pulley with Clamp Order Information: Centripetal Force Accessory.............................................. ME-8952

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Rotational System Accessories

Two More Accessories to Study Centripetal Force: 1) The Computer-Based Centripetal Force Accessory (ME-8089) is a good solution for student lab use. 2) The Demo Centripetal Force Accessory (ME-6959) is large enough for a whole lecture class to see. Both have these features:

Easily Change Experimental Variables: The mass can be changed

Computer-Based Measurements: The Force Sensor and Photogate facilitate the accurate and repeatable measurement of force and angular velocity.

by adding more mass to the platform. The radius is determined by the vertical position of the Force Sensor. Move the Force Sensor up and the radius decreases; move it down and the radius increases.

1) Computer-Based Centripetal Force Accessory ME-8089 A For use with the Rotating Platform “Free Mass” Low Friction Teflon Skid

Force Sensor with Low Friction Bearing Swivel

2) Demo Centripetal Force Accessory

ME-6959 A Large scale is perfect for demonstrations A Easily change key variables A Use with Dynamics Track and Rotating Platform Force Sensor

Directly measures centripetal force; adjust the height of sensor to change the radius

Radius Indicator

Pulley and Mount

Provides low friction pivot point

Fixed Mass for Balance

Photogate Port and PowerLink

Rotating Platform with Low Friction Shaft

How it Works

The base for the experiment with a convenient measuring tape along its length

Prevents tangling of the cable as it rotates

PAScars

Used as the mass in the experiment; a second PAScar of equal mass is placed an equal distance from the center of the track

Three-step Pulley

The “free mass” on a low-friction sled is connected to a small cable that runs under a pulley in the center of the arm and up to a Force Sensor. A ball-bearing swivel is used to ensure that the cable does not tangle as it rotates with the arm. The three-step pulley on the Rotational Platform is used with a Photogate to measure the speed of the platform. This allows DataStudio to calculate the angular velocity of the mass throughout its revolution.

Includes: Pulley with Mounting Block Connecting Cable with Ball-Bearing Swivel Mass Holders (2) 50 g Mass (4) 100 g Mass (2)

The slope of the Force vs. Angular Velocity squared graph is the “free mass” times the radius.

Order Information: Computer-Based Centripetal Force Accessory..............ME-8089 Required: Rotating Platform..........ME-8951 p. Large Table Clamp........ME-9472 p. 45 cm Steel Rod. ............ME-8736 p. 120 cm Steel Rod..........ME-8741 p. Multi Clamp..........................SE-9442 p.

Aluminum Dynamics Track

Low Friction Bearing

188 215 212 212 214

Used to measure velocity with a photogate

Rotating Platform

Photogate Port and PowerLink

Stable base with low friction shaft

Includes: Low-Friction Pulley with Mounting Hardware Pulley and Track Mounting Block Connecting Cable with Ball-Bearing Swivel This accessory uses a 1.2m Dynamics Track with cart and Rotating Platform to both measure and demonstrate centripetal force. Either a PAScar or Classic Cart is connected to a cable threaded through a pulley and up to a supported Force Sensor. The sensor directly measures the force on the cart causing the circular motion. The three-step pulley of the Rotating Platform is used in conjunction with a Photogate Head to measure the velocity of the platform as it rotates.

Required items for ME-8089 and ME-6959: Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Economy p. 74 Force Sensor........................CI-6746 Photogate Head................ME-9498A p. 75 ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface.........................................................................p. 68-72 Required for use with PASPORT: PASPORT p. 28 Force Sensor........................PS-2104 Photogate Head................ME-9498A p. 37 PASPORT p. 85 Digital Adapter...................PS-2159 PASPORT Interface...........................................p. 10-23

Order Information: Demo Centripetal Force Accessory...............ME-6959 Required: Large Rod Base. ...............ME-8735 p. 120 Cm Steel Rods (3)......................ME-8741 p. p. Multi Clamps (2)..............SE-9442 Rotating Platform...........ME-8951 p. 1.2m PAScar Dynamics System..........ME-6955 p. or

212 212 214 188 110

1.2m Classic Dynamics System..........ME-9429B p. 111

189


Mechanics – Rotational System Accessories

Rotational Motor Drive ME-8955

“A”-base Rotational Adapter

Rotational Acceleration Tank

CI-6690

ME-8957

Shown with PS-2118 2-Axis Acceleration Sensor (p. 34).

ME-8957 Rotational Acceleration Tank mounted on ME-8951 Rotating Platform and rotated by hand.

Easily change the gear ratio of the motor drive by moving the drive belt to one of the three possible pulley steps.

The ME-8955 Motor Drive is used with the Rotational Platform (ME-8951) to power continuous rotational motion demonstrations. Use this motor to drive the Rotational Acceleration Tank (ME-8957) at a constant speed. Power the Motor Drive with a ramp function using the DC Power Supply (PI-9877) to smoothly increase the angular speed of the Centripetal Force Accessory (ME-8089). The motor requires a 12 V DC power supply or a function generator.

Specifications Motor: 12 V maximum, 0.2 A minimum Base Spindle Speed Range: 10 to 600 rpm Three-step Pulley

Includes:

The tank can also be placed on a table, and light rays from a laser can then be passed through the tank to demonstrate refraction and Snell’s Law. Inside Dimensions: 43 cm x 20 cm x 2.9 cm. Order Information: Rotational Acceleration Tank...........ME-8957 Recommended: Rotating Platform...........ME-8951 p. 188 Rotational Motor Drive...........................ME-8955

Projectile Catcher Accessory ME-6815

Includes:

O-Ring Drive Belt

3-step Pulley

Three-Step Pulley

Drive Belt

190

Close-up of Rotary Motion Sensor mounted on “A”-base.

The Rotational Acceleration Tank demonstrates a centrifuge when used on the Rotational Platform (ME-8951). From the shape of the liquid in the tank, students can better understand rotational motion and its relationship to centripetal force.

Rotary Motion Sensor Mounting Post

Motor

Order Information: Rotational Motor Drive. .......................... ME-8955 Required: Rotating Platform........... ME-8951 p. 750 Interface...........................................................p. Power Amplifier............... CI-6552A p. or p. Function Generator. .... PI-8127 or p. DC Power Supply........... PI-9877

The CI-6690 “A”-base Adapter allows students to mount a Rotary Motion Sensor to obtain high resolution data. One revolution of the vertical shaft corresponds to one revolution of the Rotary Motion Sensor, giving 4000 data points per revolution for the PS-2120 Rotary Motion Sensor. The platform is quickly rotated (from rest) and then brought to a stop. Both the tangential and centripetal acceleration is measured (using the PS-2118 2-Axis Acceleration Sensor), while the platform’s angular velocity is measured by the Rotary Motion Sensor.

Pulley Mounting Screw

Order Information:

188 68-69 70 284 278

“A”-base Rotational Adapter......................................... CI-6690 Required: Rotating Platform............. ME-8951 p. 188 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Rotary Motion p. 74 Sensor............................................ CI-6538 Required for use with PASPORT: Rotary Motion Sensor............................................ PS-2120 p. 26

Use the rotating platform with the ME-6800 Short Range launcher to investigate Conservation of Angular Momentum. Use Photogates to measure the launch speed of the steel ball and the resulting rotational speed of the rotating platform. Order Information: Projectile Catcher Accessory.................................ME-6815 Recommended: Rotating Platform...........ME-8951 p. 188 Projectile Launcher (Short Range)......................ME-6800 p. 150

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Rotational System Accessories

Magnetic Levitation Accessory EM-8947 A

 etermine Lift and Drag Forces on a D Permanent Magnet Suspended Over a Spinning Aluminum Disk

A

Quantitative Results

Use PASCOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Magnetic Levitation Accessory to determine lift and drag forces and show students immediate, quantitative results. Perform the experiment with or without sensors. Spin the aluminum plate by hand or achieve faster, continuous speeds using the ME-8955 Motor Drive (not included). The versatile arm assembly mount allows students to measure vertical lift and horizontal drag forces.

Neodymium Magnet

Aluminum Disk Eddy currents are produced as the aluminum disk spins, creating a magnetic field that repels the magnet. Amount of lift varies with angular velocity of disk.

High Resolution Force Sensor Sold separately.

Photogate Sold separately.

Motor Drive Sold separately.

Sensor-based experiment shown using a Force Sensor (to measure lift and drag) and Photogate (to measure speed). The blue line is a plot of drag force versus speed (a linear relationship at low speeds). The red curve is a plot of lift force versus speed (a quadratic relationship at low speeds).

Magnet with Added Weight Add weight to magnet for quantitative measurement of force versus speed.

Rotating Platform Sold separately.

Equilibrium Position Lift and Drag forces can be measured without sensors.

Drag Force on the magnet may be measured

by mounting the arm assembly horizontally. Drag force is measured by hanging mass over pulley.

Move the counterweight left or right along the arm assembly to achieve an initial equilibrium. After adding the weight, spin the disk until the arm once again reaches equilibrium. At equilibrium you know the lift force equals the force of the added weight.

EM-8947 Includes:  luminum Disk A Arm Assembly 45 cm Rod

Order Information: Magnetic Levitation Accessory. ............ EM-8947 Required: Rotating Platform..................................................... ME-8951 p. Shown in use with: Super Pulley with Clamp............................... ME-9448B p. Mass and Hanger Set......................................... ME-8979 p. High Resolution Force Sensor. ............... PS-2189 p. Motor Drive..................................................................... ME-8955 p. Photogate Head.......................................................... ME-9498A p.

188 164 223 28 190 37

191


Mechanics – Centripetal Force

Centripetal Force Apparatus

Features

ME-8088

Stable Frame: The metal frame can be easily attached to a ring stand using the included clamp. The frame may also be attached to a tabletop with a large table clamp.

A E  mpirically Determine Centripetal Force A Easy to Set Up A Repeatable Results

High Quality Motor: Will withstand years of student use.

Computer-based Measurements: The Force Sensor and photogate facilitate accurate and repeatable measurements of force, angular velocity and tangential velocity.

Ball-Bearing Swivel Connection Cable

Stable Frame

“Free” Mass “Fixed” Mass

The graph illustrates the quadratic relationship between centripetal force and velocity.

Includes:

Photogate Flag

Rotating Arm

High Quality Motor

The study of circular motion traditionally involves examining relationships between centripetal force, velocity, radius and mass. However, these relationships are difficult to observe using traditional physics apparatus. One common experiment involves the swinging of rubber stoppers over a student’s head. The Centripetal Force Apparatus combines the “swinging mass” approach with sensors and a highquality electric motor to create a system that allows students to discover these relationships empirically.

How It Works The rotating arm features a groove with two captured masses along its length. One of the masses is free to move along the length of the groove. The “free mass” is connected to a small cable that runs under a pulley in the center of the arm and up to a Force Sensor. A ball-bearing swivel is used to ensure the cable does not tangle as the arm rotates. The other mass is placed the same distance from the center as the free mass; thereby balancing the arm. A flag attached to the bottom of the “fixed mass” passes through the photogate once per revolution, allowing DataStudio to calculate the angular and tangential velocity of the mass.

192

Frame with Mounted 12 VDC Electric Motor Connecting Cable Ball Bearing Swivel Connecting Hardware for Photogate Mass Holder for “Free Mass” Mass Holder for “Fixed Mass” 5 g Mass (2) 10 g Mass (2) 20 g Mass (2)

Order Information: Centripetal Force Apparatus..................................................... ME-8088 Required: Triple Output Power Supply...................................................... SE-8587 p. Large Rod Base. ........................................................................................ ME-8735 p. 45 cm Steel Rod. ...................................................................................... ME-8736 p. 120 cm Steel Rod.................................................................................... ME-8741 p. Multi Clamp.................................................................................................... SE-9442 p. Also required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Economy Force Sensor................................................................... CI-6746 p. Photogate Head......................................................................................... ME-9498A p. ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface........................................................... p. Also required for use with PASPORT: PASPORT Force Sensor................................................................... PS-2104 p. Photogate Head......................................................................................... ME-9498A p. PASPORT Digital Adapter............................................................. PS-2159 p. PASPORT Interface..................................................................................................................... p.

279 212 212 212 214 74 75 68-72 28 75 85 10-23

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Centripetal Force

Centripetal Force Pendulum

Hand Held Centripetal Force Discover Centripetal Force Kit

ME-9821

ME-9837

Motion Sensor detects stopper on each rotation, and is used to calculate its speed.

As the stopper is swung around in a circle by hand, the Force Sensor directly measures the centripetal force. This hand-held method allows students to feel the Centripetal Force.

A Q  uantitative Force vs. Velocity Data A Repeatable Results A V  ary Pendulum Length and Mass Force Sensor

Use the traditional method with hanging masses, or use with a Force Sensor to continuously measure the centripetal force. Adding sensors to this classic experiment creates a dynamic, quantitative lab that your students will never forget!

Very Low Mass Rigid Graphite Tube

Pendulum Mass

Rotary Motion Sensor

The Position vs. Time data (upper graph) gives the period of rotation, and is used along with the radius of rotation to determine the calculated value of the centripetal force. The Force data (lower graph) shows variations in the applied centripetal force as the student swings the stopper around in a circle. The average force for this run (4.7 N) agrees with the calculated value to within 2%.

Classic Approach

When used with Force and Rotary Motion Sensors, the Centripetal Force Pendulum allows students to collect accurate circular motion data.

The Centripetal Force Pendulum is used to produce graphs of force and angular velocity versus time. Note that the force changes direction at the top of the swing for large amplitudes. The Centripetal Force Pendulum attaches to a Force Sensor and allows students to directly measure the forces involved in circular motion. By attaching the Force Sensor/pendulum combination to the Rotary Motion Sensor, the relationship between force, mass and velocity in a circular path can be investigated.

Designed around the classic PSSC experiment. The rubber stopper moves in a circular path as the other end of the string is connected to a hanging mass. The student uses a stopwatch to time the period of one revolution.

Includes: Graphite Pendulum rod with threaded connector

Includes:

Sliding mass (100g)

Rubber Stoppers (sizes 6, 8, 10, 11.5, and 13)

Mount with cord clip

Plastic Ties (10) Yellow String (73 meters)

Order Information:

Hollow Tubes (2)

Order Information: Discover Centripetal Force Kit.............................................. ME-9837 Shown in use with: Xplorer GLX.................................................................................................. PS-2002 p. Force Sensor................................................................................................ PS-2104 p. Motion Sensor........................................................................................... PS-2103A p. Required for Classic Approach: Hooked Mass Set................................................................................... SE-8759 p. Stopwatch........................................................................................................ ME-1234 p.

10 28 25 223 224

Centripetal Force Pendulum....................................................... ME-9821 Required: Large Rod Base. .......................................................................................... ME-8735 p. 45 cm Steel Rod. ........................................................................................ ME-8736 p. 90 cm Steel Rod. ........................................................................................ ME-8738 p. Multi Clamp...................................................................................................... SE-9442 p. Also required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Rotary Motion Sensor......................................................................... CI-6538 p. Economy Force Sensor..................................................................... CI-6746 p. Also required for use with PASPORT: Rotary Motion Sensor......................................................................... PS-2120 p. Force Sensor................................................................................................... PS-2104 p.

212 212 212 214 74 74 26 28

193


Mechanics – Centripetal Force/Rotational Inertia

Rotational Inertia Set

Rotational Inertia Wands

ME-9774

ME-9847 Release two different sized objects simultaneously.

The red and blue wands have the same mass but the red wand is easier to rotate: The red wand has less rotational inertia.

How It Works

These two wands have the same mass and the same dimensions and yet the red wand is easier to rotate. This is because the red wand has two metal slugs near it’s center, while the blue wand has two similar metal slugs at it’s ends. This demonstrates that rotational inertia depends on the distribution of the mass.

Compare rotational inertias of objects with different shapes and sizes. Students learn that the speed of an object rolling down the ramp is not affected by its mass or radius. The shape or distribution of the mass determines the outcome. The sphere will reach the bottom first, followed by the disk. The ring will be last.

These sturdy plastic wands have small holes near the center and at the ends to enable students to see where the metal is located in each wand. So that what initially seems a mystery can be explained to the students by allowing them to examine the wands more closely.

Includes: 10 cm outer diameter set - Solid Sphere (810 g) - Ring (Aluminum, 230 g) - Disk (Plastic, 370 g) 5 cm outer diameter set - Solid Sphere (110 g) - Ring (Aluminum, 90 g) - Disk (Plastic, 70 g) Release Mechanism Order Information: Rotational Inertia Set.......................................................................................ME-9774

Spherical Mass Set ME-8968

Hollow Steel Ball This set includes four balls with a diameter of 25 mm each, but featuring various masses and rotational inertias.

Typical Applications A Race the hollow steel ball and solid aluminum ball down

an incline. They have about the same mass, but the solid aluminum ball has a much larger acceleration down the ramp.

A Fire the yellow plastic, solid steel and hollow steel balls from a PASCO short- or long-range projectile launcher.

To demonstrate the difference in rotational inertia of the two rods, ask two students to grab the center of a wand and instruct them to rotate the wand back-and-forth as rapidly as they can. No matter how strong the student with the blue wand is, he is not able to rotate it as fast as the student who has the red wand.

Specifications Length: 1 m Diameter: 4 cm Ratio of Blue Rotational Inertia to Red: Approx. 6

Includes: One red wand One blue wand

Includes: Solid Yellow Nylon Ball (10 grams) Solid Steel Ball (66 grams) Hollow Steel Ball (21 grams) Solid Aluminum Ball (24 grams) (release mechanism not included) Order Information:

Order Information:

Spherical Mass Set..............................................................................................ME-8968

Rotational Inertia Wands..............................................................................ME-9847

194

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Rotational Motion Accessories

Mini Rotational Accessory CI-6691

Large Amplitude Pendulum

Add the CI-6691 Mini-Rotational Accessory to the Rotary Motion Sensor to study the oscillations of a pendulum, the rotational inertia of an aluminum disk, a steel ring and a metal rod, as well as the conservation of momentum during a rotational collision. The clamp-on Super Pulley allows students to apply a torque by hanging a mass over the pulley.

See page 370 for complete experiment. By placing one mass on each end of the tube, the pendulum will oscillate slowly. Students will have time to view the motion of the pendulum while also watching the real-time graph of displacement, velocity and acceleration versus time. The period can be measured as a function of the amplitude of the pendulum and compared to theory. Finding the rotational inertia of the aluminum disk and ring.

The displacement, velocity and acceleration for large amplitude are plotted versus time to show the difference from the sinusoidal motion of low amplitude oscillations.

Conservation of Angular Momentum Finding the rotational inertia of point masses using the graph of angular velocity vs. time.

Coupled Pendula

See page 369 for complete experiment. To demonstrate conservation of angular momentum, a non-rotating ring is dropped onto a rotating disk. The angular velocity of the disk is recorded in real-time, and students can easily determine the angular velocities of the disk just before and after the ring is dropped. Combining these velocities with the rotational inertia of the disk and ring, students can confirm that angular momentum is conserved.

Couple two pendula with a rubber band and plot the position vs. time for each pendulum. The result is a vivid example of energy transfer between the pendula.

The angular speed of the disk decreases when the ring is dropped onto the spinning disk.

Includes: Rotating Disk (9.5 cm diameter, 120 g) Large Ring Mass (7.6 cm o.d., 5.4 cm i.d., 465 g) 38 cm Pendulum Rod (27 g) 75 gram Mass (2) Clamp-On Super Pulley Order Information: Mini Rotational Accessory.........................................................................CI-6691

195


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Rotational Motion Accessories

Physical Pendulum Set ME-9833 This set of six objects is perfect for studying Physical Pendula, Moments of Inertia, and the Parallel Axis Theorem. Each piece fastens directly to a Rotary Motion Sensor to measure the objects acceleration due to an applied torque, or the period when the pendulum freely oscillates. Each piece is made from 1/4 inch thick aluminum plate. Apply a known torque and measure the angular acceleration to calculate the moment of inertia of the object. Multiple holes in the plate allow investigation of the Parallel Axis Theorem. Center hole is at Center of Mass.

The Pendulum Bar has holes spaced at 2 cm intervals. A graph of oscillation period vs. pivot hole position shows that there is a unique placement that gives a minimum period. This location can be verified using calculus.

ME-9833 Includes:

Solid Disk, Thick Ring, Thin Ring, Offset Hole, Pendulum Bar, Irregular shape Six mounting screws

Unique design allows pivot exactly at the edge. Measure the period of the thick ring oscillating at either the inner or outer radius.

Order Information: Physical Pendulum Set........................................................ME-9833 Shown in use with: Xplorer GLX.......................................................................................PS-2002 Rotary Motion Sensor...........................................................PS-2120 Base and Support Rods......................................................See page 212 Super Pulley with Clamp..................................................ME-9448B Mass and Hanger Set............................................................ME-8979

p. 10 p. 26 p. 164 p. 223

Torsion Pendulum Accessory ME-6694 Aluminum Disk from CI-6691 Rotational Accessory A Force Sensor is used to pull on a string wrapped around the pulley, creating a real-time plot of torque versus angular displacement. Rotary Motion Sensor. See page 26.

Torsion Wire

196

Includes: From a plot of amplitude versus time, the period of the torsional pendulum can be determined.

One set of torsional wires Two clamps (One to attach the wire to a 12.5 mm (1/2 in.) diameter rod and one to attach to a Rotary Motion Sensor).

The slope of the resulting straight line is the torsional spring constant.

Order Information: Torsion Pendulum Accessory......................................................................... ME-6694 Shown in use with Rotary Motion Sensor................................. CI-6538 See page 212 for Rod and Base.

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Rotational Motion

Chaos/Driven Harmonic Accessory

Driven Harmonic Motion Physical Pendulum

CI-6689A

As a 10 cm aluminum disk is driven by a mechanical oscillator, two Rotary Motion Sensors simultaneously monitor the position of the disk and driver. The bidirectional sensors resolve to 1°, so the computer can easily display amplitude, frequency and phase.

The CI-6689A Chaos/Driven Harmonic Accessory allows students to study the behavior of a physical pendulum in either harmonic or chaotic motion. The disk mounts to a Rotary Motion Sensor, allowing DataStudio to monitor and plot the pendulum’s angular position and velocity.

Angular velocity vs. frequency graph shows effects of magnetic damping on amplitude of resonance peak.

String and Springs

Movable Damping Magnet

Damped Pendulum

ME-8750 Mechanical Oscillator/Driver

The Rotary Motion Sensor graphically monitors the damped oscillations of an aluminum disk. A movable magnet allows students to change the strength of magnetic damping.

A sinusoidal force is applied to the disk and spring system in the Chaos and Driven Harmonic Motion experiments.

Chaotic Motion

A turn of the screw moves the magnet away from or closer to the physical pendulum.

Chaotic oscillations of the physical pendulum are produced by adjusting the magnetic damping, driver amplitude and driver frequency. This phase plot (angular velocity vs. displacement) shows chaotic movement of the disk.

For more information, see Driven Damped Harmonic Oscillator Experiment EX-9906 on page 373 and Chaos Experiment EX-9907 on page 374.

Includes: This Poincaré plot shows the pendulum’s velocity versus position only once per period of the driving force. The gray background is the phase plot.

Rotating Disk (9.5 cm diameter, 120 g) Eccentric Mass (15 g) Springs Adjustable Magnet for Damping Order Information: Chaos/Driven Harmonic Accessory................................................CI-6689A

197


Mechanics – Rotational Motion

Discover Rotation Apparatus

Introductory Rotational Apparatus ME-9341

SE-8762 A

 hotogate Timing of Rotational P Motion

A

High Quality, Simple Design

A

 elps Students Discover the H Basics of Rotational Motion

A

Designed for Smart Pulley and DataStudio

A

Excellent Introduction to Rotational Motion

A

Full Range of Experiments

The Introductory Rotational Apparatus is a versatile, low-friction rotating system design­ed for use with PASCO’s Photogate/Pulley System and DataStudio. The simplicity of the equip­ment and the contin­u­ous data and high resolution graphs from the Smart Pulley assure students make that difficult transition from understanding linear motion to truly under­ stand­ing rotational motion.

How It Works A small flag is placed on the rotating shaft so that the photogate (not included) can be used to determine the angular position, velocity and acceleration data. A hanging mass is wrapped around the shaft and when released, provides the torque to spin the shaft. Different types of rotors with various moments of inertia can be attached to the shaft for a range of experiments.

Includes: Sturdy base unit with low-friction shaft and positioning collars Brass rotors of various diameters (3) Plastic rotors (cylindrical and conic) Spherical rotor Photogate flag Spool of thread Washers for hanging mass (5) Instruction manual and experiment guide

Includes: 1. B  ase with leveling feet, main bearing and spindle 2. M  ain platter with built-in step pulley 3. Auxiliary platter

As the platter rotates on a vertical axle, the Smart Pulley monitors its angular position, velocity and acceleration.

4. S  teel ring and steel bar for moment of inertia experiments

Features

5. Pulley clamp

Low Friction: The axle is supported by dual ball bearings, minimizing friction and max­im ­ iz­ing durability. Built-in Step Pulley: Use a hanging mass to apply torques of varying momentum and force. Auxiliary Platter: Drop the auxiliary platter onto the main platter to show that mo­men­tum is con­served in a rotational col­li­sion. Bar and Ring: Investigate the re­la­tionship between geometry and moment of inertia. Pulley Clamp: Mount the Pulley directly onto the base. No ad­dition­al mounting hardware is needed. Photogate Timing: Use a photogate timer to perform these exper­i­ments if a Smart Pulley or Computer are not available.

6. Photogate clamp 7. Level 8. C  omplete illustrated manual (not shown)

2

3

4

7 5 6

1

Order Information: Introductory Rotational Apparatus........................................................................................................ME-9341

Order Information: Discover Rotation Apparatus................................SE-8762 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Photogate Head................ME-9498A p. 75 Required for use with PASPORT: Photogate Head................ME-9498A p. 37 Digital Adapter...................PS-2159 p. 85 Recommended: Drilled Mass and Hanger Set..............................ME-8979

198

p. 223

Required for use with Stand-Alone Timers: Photogate Timer. ............................................................................................................................................................ME-9215B or Smart Timer System..................................................................................................................................................ME-8932 Super Pulley........................................................................................................................................................................ME-9450 Universal Table Clamp............................................................................................................................................ME-9376B

p. 148 p. 147 p. 164 p. 215

Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Photogate/Pulley System....................................................................................................................................ME-6838 Universal Table Clamp............................................................................................................................................ME-9376B

p. 75 p. 215

Required for use with PASPORT: Photogate/Pulley System....................................................................................................................................ME-6838 Digital Adapter..................................................................................................................................................................PS-2159 Universal Table Clamp............................................................................................................................................ME-9376B

p. 37 p. 85 p. 215

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Bicycle Wheel Gyroscope

Bicycle Gyroscope

Rotating Chair

ME-6837

ME-6856

A S  olid 1/2” Steel Shaft A Precision Ball Bearings for Low Friction A Non-marking Rubber Tire

Attach (included) cord to hole in handle to demonstrate precession.

Rugged design and incredibly low-friction make this far superior to any office chair. Sturdy 45 cm diameter rotating platform can be used with or Wrap rope around without included chair. groove to apply torque.

Steel base

Use a photogate (not included) with built-in spokes to measure the rotational speed and acceleration.

Use the included pull-cord with handle to spin up the wheel.

This 2.8 kg (6 lb.) Bicycle Gyroscope has a solid 12.7 mm (½”) steel shaft with cushioned hand grips.

Includes: Bicycle Gyroscope Non-marking Rubber Tire

P recision Ball Bearings result in extremely Low-Friction for both the Bicycle Gyroscope and the Rotating Chair.

Includes: Chair and rotating platform with leveling feet

Two cords with handles

Order Information:

Order Information:

Bicycle Gyroscope..................... ME-6837 Shown in use with: Rotating Chair. ................................ ME-6856

Rotating Chair.......................... ME-6856 Shown in use with: Photogate Head...................... ME-9498A

Bicycle Gyroscope Mass Set

Includes:

ME-6972

Four 400 g masses

Adding all four of the masses adds 1.6 kg to the wheel’s (approximate) 2.8 kg mass and increases its rotational inertia by over 60%.

Mass securely clamps to the wheel rim using included screws.

Order Information: Bicycle Gyroscope Mass Set. ............................................... ME-6972 Required: Bicycle Gyroscope..................... ME-6837

199


Mechanics – Gyroscope

Gyroscope (3 Axis) ME-8960 A

All Components Accessible

A

Excellent Demonstration Tool

A

Precision Angle Indicator

Dual Ball Bearings

Low friction allows long observation times.

The unique low friction and open design of PASCO’s Gyroscope allow studies of rotational motion never before possible with a commercial unit. The completely open design lets students stop precession by grabbing the vertical shaft and observing that the gyroscope dips. Rotational mathematics predicts the dipping action, but it could never be confirmed with traditional enclosed units.

Angle Indicator

Accurate and easy to read.

Pulley

For rotating the disk with a string.

25 cm diameter.

How It Works The disk is spun by wrapping a string around the pulley and pulling. Or the disks can be spun by hand. Add mass to either end of the gyroscope and it responds with a predictable precession. Many features make this an exceptional demonstration tool for rotational motion concepts.

Gyroscope Disk

Dual Ball Bearings Stable Base Won’t move when the gyro precesses or nutates.

Fine and Coarse Adjust Masses

Makes counter-balancing quick and easy.

ME-8960 Gyroscope Features Low Friction: The disk takes almost six minutes to slow to half of its original speed due to low-friction bearings in the gyroscope axle and vertical shaft. A Unique Experiment: Rotate two disks in opposite directions at the same speed. The angular momenta cancel and the total angular momentum of the gyroscope is zero. The result— no precession.

Ωp=

mgd Idisk ωdisk

Accurate Angle Indicator: Measures from 30° to 140° and is easily read to the nearest degree. A retractable stop acts as a marker during experiments. Easy Timing: Low rotation speeds allow measurement of angular speed by counting revolutions and using a stopwatch.

Gyroscope Disk and Mass ME-8961

Easy Balancing: Two counterweights allow coarse and fine balance adjustment. Large Inertia Disk: With the large rotational inertia of the disk, PASCO’s gyroscope generates precession rates similar to smaller, enclosed gyroscopes. The slow rotation speed of PASCO’s disk lets students study fast as well as slow precession and use a stopwatch to make measurements.

Includes: Accessory Disk

Order Information:

Students can determine the rotational inertia of the rotating disk. They can then check the measured precession rate when a mass (m) is added a distance (d) from the pivot point.

200

Gyroscope.........................................................ME-8960

Extra Counter Mass

Recommended:

Order Information:

Gyroscope Disk and Mass............................................................ME-8961

Gyroscope Disk and Mass............................................................ME-8961

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Mechanics – Gyroscope

Sensor Mounting Accessories

Nutation Patterns

Rotary Motion Sensor/ Gyroscope Mounting Bracket ME-8963

“A” base Rotational Adapter

Nutation pattern result when Gyroscope is given a slight push against the direction of precession.

Nutation pattern result when Gyroscope is released from rest.

CI-6690

With the ME-8963 Mounting Bracket and the CI-6690 “A” base Rotational Adapter, the PASCO ME-8960 Gyroscope becomes a quantitative instrument for advanced rotational motion experiments. With two Rotary Motion Sensors, students obtain a graphical picture of the Gyroscope’s nutation and precession motions.

Nutation pattern result when Gyroscope is given a push in the direction of precession.

Rotary Motion Sensor CI-6690 “A” base Adapter

Mounts a Rotary Motion Sensor to the base to monitor the Gyroscope’s precession rate. Order Information:

ME-8963 Mounting Bracket

Aligns a Rotary Motion Sensor with the Gyroscope’s vertical angle indicator. The sensor monitors the Gyroscope’s nutation angle.

Rotary Motion Sensor

For Recording Nutation Data: Rotary Motion Sensor/ Gyroscope Mounting Bracket.........................................ME-8963 For Recording Precession Data: “A” base Rotational Adapter.......................................CI-6690 p.190 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Two Rotary Motion Sensors.......................................CI-6538

p. 74

Required for use with PASPORT: Two Rotary Motion Sensors.......................................PS-2120

p. 26

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Mechanics – Stress/Strain

Stress/Strain Apparatus

Aluminum strip

Poly Carb strip

Brass strip

Steel strip

AP-8216 (includes ScienceWorkshop sensors) AP-8213 (includes PASPORT sensors) AP-8214 (without sensors) A Plot Stress vs. Strain in Real-Time The samples are stretched by cranking the knob by hand. The photos above show different sample strips that have been stretched until fracture.

A Determine Young’s Modulus A Determine the Breaking Point of Various Materials

Test Sample Hand Crank

Base Plate

Sturdy, 9 mm aluminum plate.

Available in different materials and thicknesses. Easily changed with just two screws.

Force Lever Arm

The 5:1 arm allows the Force Sensor to measure up to 250 Newtons.

Drive Belt

Connects Rotary Motion Sensor to lead screw.

Rotary Motion Sensor

Resolves changes in sample length to 0.063 mm.

AP-8213 shown Force Sensor

Provides a continuous measurement of the force applied to the sample. This compact Stress/Strain Apparatus shows the stress and strain during the entire process of stretching and breaking a material. PASCO has scaled-down the typically expensive engineering devices so that this apparatus is able to do all the physics without the high cost. Since the Stress/Strain Apparatus shows the entire stress versus strain curve, it is possible to measure a wide range of material properties including Young’s Modulus, the yield strength, tensile strength, ductility and toughness of the material. In addition, the different curve shapes for different materials can be compared. DataStudio software allows students to determine Young’s Modulus by measuring the slope of the initial straight line and to determine the toughness by integrating under the curve.

These are the characteristic curves for four different test coupons.

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Stress/Strain

How It Works...

Test Coupons

The set of test coupons included with the Stress/Strain Apparatus includes: steel, annealed steel, aluminum, two types of plastic, and two different thicknesses of brass. Ten test coupons of each material are included with the unit. Order Information: Replacement Test Coupons Full Set (70 coupons). .............................................. AP-8217

The Stress/Strain Apparatus is available in three forms:

The sample is stretched by cranking the knob by hand. The photo at right shows a sample which has been stretched until fracture.

AP-8214: Includes the base unit with micrometer head, sample holder, force lever arm and ten each of seven types of coupons.

The sample is stretched by turning the knob by hand until the sample breaks. The force used to stretch the sample is measured using a Force Sensor. A metal bar provides a 5:1 mechanical advantage, increasing the maximum force that the sensor can read to 250 N.

Test Coupons

AP-8216: Includes the AP-8214 plus a CI-6746 Force Sensor and a CI-6538 Rotary Motion Sensor. The apparatus is ready to connect to a ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface.

The stress is calculated using Data-Studio by taking the force over the cross-sectional area. No adjustment is made for any change in the cross-sectional area during stretching. The change in length of the sample is measured using a Rotary Motion Sensor. The strain is calculated using DataStudio by dividing the change in length by the original length.

Stress/Strain Unit

Youngâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Modulus for steel is determined using a linear curve fit on the elastic portion of the curve.

AP-8213: Includes the AP-8214 plus PS-2104 Force Sensor and PS-2120 Rotary Motion Sensor. The apparatus is ready to connect to two USB Links, a PowerLink, or Xplorer GLX interface. Order Information: Materials Stress/Strain Apparatus........................................... AP-8214 (without sensors) Materials Stress-Strain Apparatus........................................... AP-8216 (includes ScienceWorkshop sensors) Materials Stress-Strain Apparatus........................................... AP-8213 (includes PASPORT sensors) Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: (required only for AP-8214) Economy Force Sensor..... CI-6746 p. 74 Rotary Motion Sensor......... CI-6538 p. 74

For different types of plastic, the curves are substantially different.

Required for use with PASPORT:

This distinctive curve is characteristic of annealed steel, showing both an upper and a lower yield point.

(required only for AP-8214) PASPORT Force Sensor..... PS-2104 p. 28 Rotary Motion Sensor......... PS-2120 p. 26

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Mechanics – Materials

Matter Model ME-9825A A

Dynamic Model of Solid Materials

A

 xcellent Visualization of Wave E Motion

A

 asily Assembled into a Variety of E Configurations

The atoms of the Matter Model are brightly colored spheres specifically designed to allow students to better understand the structure of matter. The bonds between the atoms are modeled by springs, so that when forces are applied, the atoms can move in response. The atoms can be configured into many patterns depending on the concepts to be investigated. Each atom can be opened and closed using two snaps. The inside of each atom has a slot where students can place one of the included nuts. In this way, the mass of the atoms can be changed. In addition, the springs can be easily connected to or removed from the atom using the six quick connects. A hole extends through each atom, allowing several to be placed on the included brass rod for wave and pressure activities.

Torque and shear forces can be applied to the Matter Model to help students visualize the response in the material.

Typical Applications: A N  ormal Forces– Students can better

understand normal forces when heavy objects are placed on the Matter Model and they see the deflection of the atoms in response.

A M  odeling a Solid– By constructing a

matrix of spheres, students can build a model of matter that is dynamic and responds to external forces similarly to real solids.

A W  ave Properties– Students can

investigate wave properties including reflection, wave speed and standing waves.

Demonstrate the normal force response as a material is compressed.

A A  tmospheric Pressure– By placing the

Demonstrate transverse and longitudinal waves.

atoms on the included brass rod and holding it vertically, students can better understand why atmospheric pressure and altitude are inversely related.

Innovative Physics Textbooks and PASCO Physics Products

The Matter Model is shipped in component pieces, ready for assembly.

Includes:

Matter & Interactions is a 2-volume textbook and curriculum by Ruth Chabay and Bruce Sherwood, published by Wiley & Sons. Intended for science and engineering students taking calculus-based introductory university physics. For more information on purchasing these textbooks, visit www.wiley.com This textbook deals with mechanics and thermal physics as one integrated subject through emphasis on atomic-level descriptions and analysis and macro-micro connections. Modern physics is integrated with classical physics concepts. Students engage in modeling and 3-D computer modeling of real-world phenomena. The ball-and-spring model of solids plays an important role in the curriculum.

204

Atoms (4.5 g each) (40) Heavy springs (spring constant 350 N/m) (60) Light springs (spring constant 70 N/m) (60) Long springs (60) Nuts (for increasing the atom mass) (30) Brass rod (for longitudinal waves) (90 cm long) (1) Order Information: Matter Model................................................ME-9825A Replacement Supplies:

The atomic spacing changes under its own weight.

Heavy Springs (60). ...............................ME-9829 Light Springs (60)....................................ME-9830 Long Springs (60)....................................ME-9887

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Fluids

Venturi Apparatus ME-8598 A Bernoulli A Venturi A Continuity Equation The Venturi apparatus has a channel with varying cross-section to study the relationship between flow speed and pressure. The open design (2-D cross section) allows students to see inside and directly measure all needed dimensions.

The clear plastic cover can be easily removed so that students can measure the dimensions of the Venturi channel. Note the captured O-ring seal in the cover.

There are four built-in ports to attach pressure sensors to measure the pressure at four places along the stream line simultaneously. Pressure changes caused by both fluid speed and viscosity (drag) can be measured.

The pressure is measured at four different locations in the fluid stream.

The graph shows pressure data at three different flow rates. P2 and P4 are in the Venturi constrictions (see photo above, on right), and P4 is downstream from P1. The flow rate is calculated using Motion Sensor data of the water level in the graduated cylinder.

P1

P2

P3

P4

The Venturi Apparatus is shown below using a shop vac as the air source. A Spirometer (PS-2152) measures air flow and a Quad Pressure Sensor (PS-2164) measures air pressure in four locations.

Venturi Apparatus shown with Quad Pressure Sensor (PS-2164), Motion Sensor (PS-2103A), and the Water Reservoir (ME-8594)

Includes: Venturi Chamber Tubing (for both air and water) Restriction Clamps (2) Quick Connect Couplers

Order Information: Venturi Apparatus. ........................................................................... ME-8598 Recommended: Quad Pressure Sensor................................................................ PS-2164 p. Motion Sensor...................................................................................... PS-2103A p. Water Reservoir................................................................................... ME-8594 p. Spirometer Sensor.......................................................................... PS-2152 p. Variable Output Air Supply.................................................. SF-9216 p.

42 25 221 54 134

205


Mechanics – Fluids

Bernoulli Cart Accessory

Magdeburg Plates

ME-9481

SE-9717

This 5 cm diameter cylinder with precision ball bearings, easily set spinning by pulling a string, provides an excellent demonstration of the Bernoulli Principle. Requires a fan to provide airflow across the rotating cylinder.

These Two plates are a modern and versatile rendition of a classic demonstration. Air is evacuated using a syringe; no vacuum pump needed. Clear plastic design lets students see everything. Two different “O” rings allow Two different size areas. Tubing is provided so students can connect a Pressure Sensor for use with DataStudio.

Includes: 1.27 cm thick, 9.7 cm diameter circular polycarbonate plates (2)

Compatible with all PASCO Carts.

O-rings (2) (8.5 cm and 5.4 cm diameter) 60 cc syringe Connecting tubing with one-way valve with inline connector for optional Pressure Sensor Order Information: Magdeburg Plates................................................................................................... SE-9717

Magdeburg Plates Accessory Kit SE-9718

Using the Fan Cart to create wind, the Bernoulli Cart Accessory accelerates down the dynamics track.

When added to the Magdeburg Plates, these accessories provide a vacuum chamber in which balloons can be inflated or water made to boil just by evacuating the air. A suction cup will lose its “suction” when the air around it is evacuated.

Track

Front of Cart

Cart moves in this direction.

Higher Air Higher Air Speed – Lower Speed— Lower Pressure Pressure

Fan

Lower Air Lower Air Speed – Speed–– Higher Higher Pressure Pressure

Top view of the rotating cylinder on the Bernoulli Cart Accessory. Order Information:

Bernoulli Cart Accessory. ........................................................ ME-9481 Required: 1.2 m Classic Dynamics System.................................... ME-9429B p. 111 2.2 m Classic Dynamics System. .................................. ME-9452A p. 111 Fan Cart. ........................................................................................................ ME-6977 p. 119 or any highly focused fan

206

Includes: 0.95 cm thick, 9.7 cm diameter circular polycarbonate plate 6.5 cm tall, 7.5 cm diameter cylindrical acrylic pipe 80 cc plastic cup, two small balloons and a suction cup Order Information: Magdeburg Plates Accessory Kit................................................. SE-9718

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Fluids

Student Bell Jar SE-9790

Atmospheric Properties Chamber

Hydraulic/Pneumatic System

ME-6813

SE-8764

A R  ecreate the conditions that lead to cloud formation

This system allows students to investigate the differences between a hydraulic and a pneumatic lift system. Water or air can be used to lift heavy objects with a small amount of force. The mechanical advantage can be changed by varying the size of the input syringe. In addition, a Pressure Sensor can be used to monitor the pressure of the pneumatic system as air is added with the input syringe.

A M  easure changing temperature and pressure A B  uilt-in Fast Response Temperature Probe

This bell jar provides a vacuum chamber for students to perform many experiments including:

A W  atching a balloon expand

or warm water boil as air is pumped from the chamber.

A O  bserving that a suction cup no longer sticks when the jar is evacuated. Water boils as air is evacuated from the Bell Jar.

Includes: 8 cm x 6 cm dia. clear plastic bell jar with base

Add a small amount of water to the reservoir at the bottom of the chamber. Then seal the chamber, and press the rubber stopper into place on the top of the chamber. Students add pressure to the chamber using the included syringe. When the pressure is high enough, the rubber stopper will blow out and a cloud will form. Included for safety is a stopper catcher, which keeps the stopper contained within the apparatus.

Finally, the system can be used with a Pressure Sensor to collect pressure and volume data for the discovery of Boyleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law.

Graph of temperature and pressure as stopper blows.

Plastic vial, balloons and suction cup 60 cc syringe and valves for evacuating the jar

Order Information: Student Bell Jar.................................SE-9790

Gauge Pressure Accessory

Quick decompression, as stopper blows, causes cloud to form in chamber.

SE-8802 Use the Gauge Pressure Accessory with the Student Bell Jar (SE-9790) to demonstrate the concept of gauge pressure. The pressure gauge is placed inside the Student Bell Jar and the syringe is used to create a vacuum. As the air is removed from the bell jar, the gauge pressure increases from 0 to 14.7 psi or 1 atm. Order Information: Gauge Pressure Accessory (Gauge and base only).......................... SE-8802

Using DataStudio and a Pressure Sensor, the pressure-time graph is created real-time as air is added to the system with a syringe.

Includes: Stable base unit with mounted 60 cc syringe Three input syringes; 3 cc, 12 cc and 20 cc, to vary the mechanical advantage Connecting tubing with one-way valve with inline connector for optional Pressure Sensor Order Information: Atmospheric Properties Chamber............................................. ME-6813 Recommended: Absolute Pressure/Temp Sensor................................................... PS-2146 p. 42

Order Information: Hydraulic/Pneumatic System.................................................. SE-8764 Shown with: Hooked Mass Set.................... SE-8759 p. 223

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Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Fluids/Density

Density Circulation Model

Float and Chain Engineering Problem-Solving Kit

ME-6816

SE-8727 A C  ounter buoyant force with a chain partially resting on the bottom of the container A Build a hydrometer, thermometer, barometer, and a mass balance A Redesign each instrument to achieve different measurement ranges

Using a sensitive mass balance to weigh a leaf.

Hydrometer: Find the density of various fluids by putting the float and chain into the fluid, measuring the amount of chain which floats. Students can produce a calibration graph and determine the range and resolution that can be measured.

Thermometer: The expansion of the plastic float causes it to float at different heights, lifting more or less chain. Different floats and different chains are supplied to produce an engineering problem.

AM  odel density driven circulation based on temperature, dissolved substances or different liquids A Demonstrate the driving forces of vertical ocean currents A Measure temperature inversions based on density difference. The PASCO ME-6816 Density Circulation Model allows students to model, measure and understand the complex density driven circulation associated with heat transfer through convection. Students can recreate vertical ocean currents driven by water bodies with density differences. They can extend this learning by using sensors to collect data and create graphs showing the thermocline, halocline and pycnocline using PASCO Salinity Sensor PS-2195 (page 64).

Data showing temperature versus depth. Rapid temperature change occurs in the region where the two water bodies mix.

Barometer: A tube containing air is weighted by the chain and as the pressure changes, the amount of chain supported changes.

Mass Balance: The mass and volume of small objects can be measured by adjusting the chain so the float remains in the same place. This method gives a sensitive balance which would otherwise be quite expensive. The example shown in the photo is measuring the mass of a leaf. The chain rests on the bottom, giving a variable force.

(fig. 4) With the valves closed (fig.1) two bodies of liquid can be created that differ in temperature, dissolved materials or other properties. When the valves are opened a smooth flow of liquid occurs between the chambers (fig.2 & fig.3). Minimal mixing occurs and clearly defined layers of liquid based on density result (fig.4).

Includes: Four cylinders, Floats, Air Tube and Balance Float with Pan Order Information: Float and Chain Engineering Problem-Solving Kit.......................SE-8727

208

(fig. 1)

(fig. 2)

(fig. 3)

Order Information: Density Circulation Model............................................................................................ME-6816 Shown in use with: Stainless Steel Temperature Probe. ...................................................................p. 44

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Mechanics – Fluids/Density

Density Set

Mystery Density Set

ME-8569

SE-7316

Use this versatile set of materials with the Overflow Can to investigate Archimedes’ Principle of dis­place­ment, specific heats and basic length/volume relationships.

The Mystery Density Set puts a nice “wrinkle” in the typical density experiment. After measuring the mass and volume of the pieces, students graph their results. As students plot the first few points it appears there is no relationship between the mass and volume. However, as more data is graphed, it becomes obvious that two different linear relationships exist. Even though all the cylindrical pieces have a similar appearance, they are actually made of two different materials. To demonstrate the difference in density between the two materials, simply place them in the container with a concentrated salt solution. Eight pieces will sink and the other seven pieces will float.

Includes pieces that have the same shape, volume, density and mass, so the variable of interest can readily be isolated. Each piece has a hole so it can be suspended from a string.

Includes: Three cylinders: aluminum, brass, plastic; 2.2 cm dia. x 6.4 cm long (plastic is less dense than water) Two blocks: aluminum: 1.9 x 3.2 x 4.1 cm and brass: 1.6 x 1.9 x 2.8 cm. The mass of each block equals that of the alu­mi­num cylinder. Irregular shape: aluminum Instruction manual Order Information: Density Set. ...................................................................................................................ME-8569

Discover Density Set SE-9719

Includes: Eight Cylindrical Pieces (density = 1.41 g/cm3) Seven Cylindrical Pieces (density = 1.15 g/cm3) Storage Stand Order Information: Mystery Density Set..........................................................................................SE-7316

Classroom Density Set SE-7226

This set of 22 separate pieces allows students to discover the relationship between density, volume and dimensions. Two unique series of pieces hold one dimension constant while varying another.

Includes: Cylinders of same length and different diameters (4) Cylinders of same diameter and different lengths (4) Spheres with different diameters (4) Rectangular shapes of various sizes and materials (10) Instruction manual Order Information: Discover Density Set.........................................................................................SE-9719

Overflow Can SE-8568 This aluminum Overflow Can provides direct volume mea­sure­ ments for the materials supplied in the Density Set, as well as displacement mea­sure­ments for buoyancy experiments. It has a 76 mm diameter, a usable volume of 477 cm3 and an angled down­spout. Requires a graduated cylinder or a gram balance to measure the displaced volume.

Includes: Can only Order Information: Overflow Can..............................................................................................................SE-8568

The Classroom Density Set includes 12 sets of materials to study the density concept. Each material set includes four pieces of various sizes in a plastic storage tube. This selection of materials allows twelve lab groups to perform a density experiment at the same time. For each set, students measure the mass and volume of each piece and produce a mass vs. volume graph. Students will better understand density as a mathematical concept and realize that density is constant for a given material.

Includes each of the following materials in four different sizes: Maple Polypropylene Nylon Polystyrene

Acrylic (two colors) Polyurethane Aluminum

Phenolic PVC (two colors) Teflon

Order Information: Classroom Density Set...................................................................................SE-7226

Glassware Rugged borosilicate glassware for use in the physics lab. Order Information: 100 ml Beaker (12 pack)................................................................................SE-7287 1000 ml Beaker (6 pack)................................................................................SE-7288 50 ml Graduated Cylinder (12 pack). ............................................SE-7289

209


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Fluids

Atmospheric Pressure Demonstrator

Understanding Pressure Kit

Air Cannon

ME-8966A

SE-7329

New Larger Size

Feel the pressure of one atmosphere! This long cold rolled steel bar, with a cross-sectional area of one square centimeter and a weight of about 10 N, exerts a pressure on your hand equal to one atmosphere. The pressure can be reduced without reducing the weight by placing the supplied plastic end pad under the bar, spreading the force over a larger area.

The Air Cannon uses a vortex of air for ammunition. Its unique shape creates a stable toroidal vortex. Pull back the flexible membrane, release and the invisible wave front of air can hit a target 20 feet away! A great demonstration of the energy that can be stored in waves.

12â&#x20AC;?

Demonstrate the effect of a pressure differential. Easily lift a box or stool by simply placing the rubber sheet on a smooth surface of the object and lifting up on the handle.

SE-7370

In addition to the long bar, other size samples are supplied which demonstrate the feeling of other standard pressures. An instruction manual with a student lab is included.

Order Information: Air Cannon. ..............................................SE-7370

Tornado Tubes (10 pack) SE-7396A Use the Tornado Tube to create a water vortex between two plastic soda bottles. Fill one bottle about 3/4 full with water, then screw the two bottles into the Tornado Tube. Flip the bottles over so the water moves from the upper bottle into the lower bottle.

Includes:

As you pull up on the handle, a low-pressure region is created.

Order Information: Atmospheric Pressure Demonstrator. .......................................... ME-8966A

210

Cold rolled steel atmospheric pressure bar (stamped with letters): 1 cm2 x 133 cm, weight 10.13 N Brass Torr sample (stamped T): 1 cm2 x 1.6 mm, weight 0.013 N Brass millibar sample (stamped M): 1 cm2 x 0.1.3 mm, weight 0.01013 N Paper Pascal sample (stamped Pa): 1 cm2 x 0.11 mm, weight 0.001 N Steel rectangular solid (stamped H): 1 cm2 x 1.7 mm, weight 0.132 N Black plastic end pads (2) to reduce the pressure Teacher manual with student worksheet

As the water moves down through the tube, air from the lower bottle must rise into the upper bottle creating the vortex.

Use your own 2-liter soda bottles.

Includes: 10 Tornado Tubes

Order Information:

Order Information:

Understanding Pressure Kit.......... SE-7329

Tornado Tubes (10 pack). ............ SE-7396A

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Mechanics – Numbers

Mole Set

Significant Figures Set

SE-7586

ME-9849

The Mole Set contains four element specimens: Copper, Iron, Zinc and Aluminum. Each sample contains approximately one mole, 6.02 x 1023 atoms of the element.

A Connects Measurements to Significant Figures A Includes Materials for Four Student Groups A Detailed Activity Manual

Typical Applications A H  elps students visualize a mole in a solid state

A Use as specific heat specimens, density specimens and examples of common elements

A C  haracterize each specimen by density, atomic mass, etc. A Investigate molar heat capacity and gain a greater understanding of thermodynamics

Includes: Mole samples: Z  inc, Aluminum, Iron, Copper Teaching Suggestions

The series of activities included in the Significant Figures Set emphasizes the connection between measurements and significant figures. Students work through a number of situations in which they experience the concepts of accuracy and precision. Through these activities, students learn the importance of the measuring tool and its role in the uncertainty of measurements. For each activity, student groups are asked to place their measurements and/or calculations along a demonstration number line. The groups can then share their results with the entire class during discussions and presentations. The Number Line and Data Pointers are laminated for use with dry erase markers.

Order Information: Mole Set........................................................................................................................ SE-7586

The Ball Drop activity gives students experience with accuracy and precision.

Discover Pi Set (10 pack) ME-6819A The student reads the circumference directly from the transparent tape wrapped around the pi circle.

The Four-Scale Meter Stick is an important part of the Significant Figures Kit as it includes four scales of varying precision.

The Discover Pi Set allows students to derive the meaning of π directly from their measurements. This activity transforms pi from a constant with unknown origin to a fundamental characteristic of all circular objects. The slope of the circumference vs. diameter graph is equal to π

Included Activities: Ball Drop: Students toss small balls on a bulls-eye to discover the relationship between technique and measurements. In addition, the concepts of accuracy and precision are explored. “Forced Error” Measurements: Students use a meter stick which has inaccurate markings to take measurements to reinforce that precise measurements are not always accurate. Mass/Length Measurements: Students use a balance or FourScale Meter Stick with imprecise scales to limit the certainty in their measurements. Area/Volume/Density Calculations: Students use a variety of measuring devices to calculate the area, volume and density of various objects.

Includes:

Pi Circles (4) 5.2, 6.4, 8.9, 10.0 cm diameter Transparent Measuring Tape

Plastic Balls (4) Carbon Paper (100 pack) Paper Bull’s-eye (8) Four-Scale Meter Stick (4) Number Line Data Pointer (4) Meter Stick Label (4) Balance Label (4)

Order Information: Discover Pi Set (10 pack). ........................................................................ ME-6819A

Order Information: Significant Figures Set............................................................................... ME-9849

Includes:

211


Mechanics – Lab Supplies

Large Rod Base

9 to 12 mm dia. (3/8” to 1/2”)

ME-8735 A Stable 4 kg Casting A Leveling Feet A Supports Two Rods

Stainless Steel Rods

Two Rod Mounts Special Three Point Design

Inside mounting hole assures stability.

25 cm

ME-8738 90 cm Long

Leveling Feet

ME-8977 60 cm Long Threaded Rod

26 cm Certain experimental setups require extra stability. The PASCO ME-8735 is designed for just such experiments. This sturdy 4 kg cast-iron base provides stability that just can’t be achieved any other way than with a large mass. The A-frame design provides a wide base to support one or two rods. Rods from 9.5 to 13 mm (3/8 to 1/2 inches) can be supported. (See below). The rod mounting holes have a special three-point contact design to assure stability. Two adjustable feet provide the necessary leveling capabilities. Order Information: Large Rod Base.................................... ME-8735

Small “A” Base ME-8976

19 cm

ME-8741 120 cm Long

Steel Rods

ME-8736 45 cm Long

ME-8988 25 cm Long Threaded Rod

This 1.7 kg cast iron base is smaller than the Large Rod Base (ME-8735) and does not have leveling feet. This base can be used with both threaded and non19 cm threaded rods. Non-threaded rods from 9.5 to 13 mm (3/8 to 1/2 inches) diameter can be supported. Threaded rods must be 12.7mm (1/2 inch) in diameter with 1/2”-13 thread, such as ME-8977 shown at right. Order Information: Small A Base........................................... ME-8976

Small Round Base (2 pack) ME-8974A Great for those times when you just need a small support with a low profile, this 525 g cast iron base is 12.5 cm in diameter and has a 1/2”-13 threaded hole to accept threaded rods, such as ME-8988 or ME-8977 (shown at right).

These 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) diameter stainless steel rods do not mar like aluminum rods. They are non-magnetic, very rigid, and durable. Three different lengths are available in the non-threaded version. The 60 cm long rod and 25 cm long rod are threaded (1/2”-13) and fit the small A-Base ME-8976, the small round base ME-8974 and the ME-9376B Universal Table Clamp. Order Information: Stainless Steel Rods (bases not included) 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) in diameter: 45 cm Long (non-threaded)....................................................................... ME-8736 90 cm Long (non-threaded)....................................................................... ME-8738 120 cm Long (non-threaded)................................................................. ME-8741

Order Information:

25 cm Long (threaded).................................................................................... ME-8988

Small Round Base........................... ME-8974A

60 cm Long (threaded).................................................................................... ME-8977

212

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Mechanics – Lab Supplies

PASCO’s Flex Rod

Sensor Handles (4 pack)

ME-8978

CI-9874

AF  lexible rod for holding objects in any orientation The Flex Rod provides the freedom to place equipment where it’s needed. Simply connect the object to the end of the 46 cm long flexible tubing and move it to the desired location. The tubing has enough rigidity to hold many common items in any orientation. In addition, two convenient clamps are included.

These convenient plastic handles screw into virtually any ScienceWorkshop or PASPORT sensor and can be used with any standard lab clamp. Length: 5.7cm, diameter: 1.25 cm. Order Information: Sensor Handles (4 pack).................. CI-9874

The Flex Rod holds a green laser pointer. Shown with ME-8976 Small A-Base (not included).

Base and Support Rod Large ME-9355 Small SE-9451

The Flex Rod with rod clamp attachment fits sensor handles. Flex Rod holds photogate for acceleration due to gravity experiment using a picket fence shown with ME-9376B Table Clamp (not included).

Includes: Flex Rod attached to rigid section Rod Clamp attachment Test tube clamp attachment Base support not included Order Information: Flex Rod.................................................. ME-8978

1

Suggested Base Supports: Small A-Base

. .................................

ME-8976

2

p. 212

Universal Table Clamp.......... ME-9376B p. 215

Mounting Rods (10 pack)

Pulley Mounting Rod SA-9242

ME-9483

These rigid plastic pulley handles (14 cm long, 1.27 mm diameter) screw into a Super Pulley. Order Information: Mounting Rods (10 pack).............ME-9483

This 14 cm long stainless steel mounting rod is 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) in diameter and fits most standard laboratory clamps, including the PASCO Universal Clamp. It has a standard 1/4-20 thread. Order Information: Pulley Mounting Rod.......................SA-9242

1. L  arge Base and Support Rod: With built-in leveling screws and a threaded aluminum rod that is 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) in diameter and 45 cm long. 2. S  mall Base and Support Rod: The threaded steel rod is 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) in diameter and 50 cm long. Leveling screws not included. Order Information: Large Base and Support Rod................................................ ME-9355 Small Base and Support Rod................................................ SE-9451

213


Mechanics – Lab Supplies

Three-finger Clamp

Pendulum Clamp

SE-9445

SE-9443

Hang up to three pendula from precisely the same height. Suspension points are 54 mm apart. Fits rods up to 16 mm (5/8 inch) in diameter. Clamp tubes, rods and irregularly-shaped objects. The jaws extend 19 mm, open to 57 mm, rotate 360° and lock securely at any angle. Fits rods up to 19 mm (3/4 inch) in diameter. Order Information: Three-finger Clamp..............................................................................................SE-9445

Order Information: Pendulum Clamp....................................................................................................SE-9443

Double Rod Clamp (3 pack) ME-9873

Swivel Clamp (2 pack) ME-8743 Clamp two rods at any angle or clamp the two rods parallel to each other. Accepts 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) rods.

Includes: Two clamps

Holds any two rods (up to 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) in diameter) either parallel or perpendicular to one another. Order Information: Double Rod Clamp (3 pack). ....................................................................ME-9873

Order Information: Swivel Clamp (2 pack).....................................................................................ME-8743

Buret/Utility Clamp

Multi Clamp SE-9442

SE-9446

Multi Clamp (side angle).

The V-shaped, plastic-coated jaws of this Buret Clamp open from 5 to 35 mm, rotate 360° and lock in position at any angle. Fits rods up to 16 mm (5/8 inch) in diameter.

Holds two rods either parallel or at right angles. Fits rods up to 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) in diameter.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Buret/Utility Clamp. ...........................................................................................SE-9446

Multi Clamp..................................................................................................................SE-9442

214

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Lab Supplies

Universal Table Clamp

Table Rod Clamps

ME-9376B

Both clamps hold up to 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) diameter rods that can be mounted either horizontally or vertically.

Fits tables up to 6 cm thick.

1/2-13 Threaded Rod

Large Table Clamp ME-9472

Aluminum Table Clamp ME-8995 Accepts threaded rod.

12.7 mm or 9.5 mm (1/2” or 3/8”) Rod

Attach this Universal Table Clamp to tables or shelves up to 6.0 cm (2 3/8 inch) thick. Can also be mounted on a ring stand. Mount rods in the clamp either vertically or horizontally. The rods are held securely by stable 3-point contacts. Use standard unthreaded lab rods — 9.5 mm (3/8 inch) to 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) — vertically or horizontally. Use 1/2-13 threaded lab rod vertically.

Use non-threaded rods in two directions. Order Information: Large Table Clamp.................................................................................................ME-9472 10 cm grip range Aluminum Table Clamp..................................................................................ME-8995 6 1/2 cm grip range

Order Information: Universal Table Clamp.....................................................................................ME-9376B

Right Angle Clamp SE-9444

This standard right angle clamp fits rods up to 18 mm (11/16 inch) in diameter.

“C” Clamps SE-7286 Small SE-7285 Large These rugged clamps are perfect for attaching a variety of objects to a table. Available in 8 cm and 10 cm sizes.

Order Information: Order Information:

Small “C” Clamp (6 pack)...........................................................................SE-7286 Large “C” Clamp (6 pack)............................................................................SE-7285

Right Angle Clamp...............................................................................................SE-9444

Adjustable Angle Clamp ME-8744 This unique clamp fits any rod up to 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) diameter and can lock the rod in place at any angle. Order Information: Adjustable Angle Clamp...............................................................................ME-8744

Laboratory Jacks Raise, support and align equipment with these lab jacks. They’re rugged, stable and ensure precise height adjustment. Three sizes are available. Order Information: Max. Laboratory Model Platform Height Load Jack (cm) (cm) (kg) Small .........................................SE-9374......................... 10x10............................5.5 - 14..................... 10 Medium .................................SE-9373......................... 15x15...........................7 - 25.......................... 25 Large............................................SE-9372......................... 20x20...........................7 - 25.......................... 25

215


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Pulleys

The PASCO Super Pulley ME-9450A

Photogate/ Pulley System

A Produces Excellent Results

ME-6838A

A Nearly Frictionless

The Super Pulley attaches directly to the Photogate Head, providing a simple, low friction system to measure position, velocity and acceleration. Additionally, with the pulley removed, the photogate can be used to perform standard photogate experiments. See page 37.

Super Pulley

A Durable

The PASCO Super Pulley is the standard in physics labs. Its low-friction design produces excellent results. The precision spacing of the 10 spokes makes it ideal for photogate monitoring with PASCOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s computer interfaces and photogate systems.

Photogate/Pulley System............ME-6838A

are accurately spaced, and the inside and outside diameters are machined to precise dimensions. This means accurate results and graphs.

ME-9448B

1. ME-9448B Super Pulley with Clamp.

Upgrade your force table and inclined plane experiments. The Super Pulley with its integral clamp makes setup and alignment easy. The pulley height is fully adjustable, so you can skim the top of a force table for parallax-free readings, yet keep the force parallel to the track on an inclined plane as shown in the photo below. Fits tables from 0 to 2.0 cm (13/16 in.) thick.

. ...............................................

Includes: Super Pulley (1) Clamp (1) Mounting Screws (2) 14 cm long, 12.7 mm dia. Plastic Mounting Rod (1)

Super Pulley Combination.................................................ME-9433

ME-9450A

Super Pulley with Mounting Rod ME-9499

This Super Pulley mounted on a rigid plastic mounting rod (12.7 mm diameter, 14 cm long) fits most standard laboratory clamps. Order Information: Pulley with Mounting Rod.............................................ME-9499

216

2.

Order Information:

Order Information: Super Pulley

1. A Super Pulley with a rod or 2. A Super Pulley with a clamp

Super Pulley with Clamp

(not cone bearings) keep friction to a bare minimum, support heavier loads and minimize wear.

Precision Dimensions: The 10 spokes

ME-9433

This combination includes parts to assemble either:

Order Information:

Features Low Friction: Dual precision ball bearings

Lightweight: The sheave is only 5.5 grams, so pulley inertia is negligible in most applications.

Feature

Super Pulley Combination

Order Information: Super Pulley with Clamp..............ME-9448B

Mounting Rods (10 pack)

Pulley Mounting Rod SA-9242

ME-9483 These rigid plastic pulley handles (14 cm long, 1.27 mm diameter) screw into a Super Pulley.

This 14 cm long stainless steel mounting rod is 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) in diameter and fits most standard laboratory clamps, including the PASCO Universal Clamp (ME-9376B).

Order Information:

Order Information:

Mounting Rods (10 pack).............ME-9483

Pulley Mounting Rod.........................SA-9242

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Lab Supplies

Metric Spring Scales

Dial Spring Scale (10 N)

(Six different ranges)

SE-7348 PASCO Spring Scales: Six metric spring scales provide accurate force measurements over a wide range of forces.

Features Accurate: The precision springs provide excellent linearity, and the 10 cm long scales are sharp and clear for superior resolution.

Sealed Spring: Can’t get tangled, over-stretched or lost. Zero Adjust: Turn the knob to zero the balance.

Scales on Inside: They won’t wear off. Six Color-coded Ranges: Measure

Measure an applied force or apply a measured force. These highquality metric spring scales are precise, durable and calibrated in Newtons. Six different scales are available. Students can measure forces from a fraction of a Newton to 20 Newtons with excellent accuracy.

almost any force from 0.2 N to 20 N.

Use this spring scale to measure tension forces by hanging an object on the hook. The 7.6 diameter spring scale can measure up to 10 N with a resolution of 0.1 N. Each spring scale also features a mounting ring and weighing hook. 7.6 cm diameter Order Information: Dial Spring Scale (10 N). .................... SE-7348

Order Information: Metric Spring Scales Model SE-8713 SE-8714 SE-8715 SE-8716 SE-8717 SE-8718

Graduations are easy to read, and the resolution is 2% of full scale.

Range 0.2 N 1.0 N 2.0 N 5.0 N 10 N 20 N

Resolution 0.002 N 0.01 N 0.02 N 0.1 N 0.1 N 0.2 N

Color Yellow Red Lt. Green Brown Dk. Green Orange

Tension Protractor ME-6855 A Measure Tension and Angle with One Device A Large Scale for Viewing Demonstrations

Dial Spring Scale (20 N) SE-7340 Use this spring scale to measure tension forces by hanging an object on the hook. This 7.6 cm diameter spring scale can measure up to 20 N with a resolution of 0.2 N. Each spring scale also features a mounting ring and weighing hook. 7.6 cm diameter

A Zero-Adjust for Torsion Spring Scale A Built-In Rod Clamp

Order Information: Dial Spring Scale (20 N)..................... SE-7340

See page 161 for more information.

Demo Spring Scale

30° angle reading

SE-7349 String Arrow indicates tension reading (5.0 N)

20 cm diameter Order Information: Tension Protractor. ........................ME-6855 Recommended:

Includes:

Large Table Clamp..........................ME-9472

p.215

One Tension Protractor

90 cm Long Rod................................ME-8738

p.212

Multi-clamp. ...........................................SE-9442

p.214

Hooked Mass Set............................SE-8759

p.223

The Demonstration Spring Scale features a large 20 cm diameter faceplate so many students can view demonstrations. With a capacity of 20 N and a resolution of 0.5 N, it provides a versatile and inexpensive way to measure forces. Order Information: Demo Spring Scale................................... SE-7349

217


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Lab Supplies

Metric Measuring Tape

High Quality Meter Sticks (6 pack)

SE-8712A

SE-8827

This 30-meter woven fiberglass measuring tape reads metric on one side and English on the other. Order Information: Metric Measuring Tape......................... SE-8712A

Four-Scale Meter Stick SE-8695

Hardwood meter stick with metric graduations. Scale reads left to right on one side, right to left on the other.

Cross-section dimensions: 7 mm x 28 mm.

Order Information: Meter Stick (6 pack)................................ SE-8827

Optics Caliper OS-8468 A Glow in the Dark Tips

The Four-Scale Meter Stick is constructed of plastic square channel. One side has millimeter markings, one has centimeter markings, one has decimeter markings and the last side has only a one-meter mark.

A Waterproof This light-weight plastic caliper is perfect for measuring images in the dark. Simply span the object and then use a scale to measure the distance. For approximate measurements, use the built in cm scale on the calipers.

Order Information: Four-Scale Meter Stick......................... SE-8695

1.5 m Measuring Tape (10 pack) PM-8761

The tips of the caliper glow in the dark: Activate with an incandescent or UV lamp.

Easily measure distances in both inches and centimeters with this handy, 1.5 m measuring tape.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Recommended:

1.5 Measuring Tape (10 pack).................................................................. PM-8761

Use the Optics Caliper to measure interference and diffraction patterns. Glow-in-the-dark tips activated using a UV light source.

Optics Caliper (Set of 5). ............................................................................................................ OS-8468 UV Light Source.................................................................................................................................... SE-7228

p. 334

Digital Calipers

Stainless Steel Calipers

Micrometer

SE-8710

SF-8711

SE-7337

This metric/English (15 cm/6 in.) digital caliper measures to 0.01 mm (0.0005 in.). It has auto power-off and includes a sturdy plastic storage case.

These metric/English (18 cm/6 in.) calipers have an expanded Vernier scale of 20 divisions (instead of the usual 10), so itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s easier to read and more accurate. The sliding mechanism is smooth and durable. A case is included for added protection.

This low-cost micrometer provides measurements from 0 to 25 mm with 0.1 mm resolution. The wooden box is form-fitted to protect the micrometer during storage.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Digital Calipers. ............................................. SE-8710

Stainless Steel Calipers...................... SF-8711

218

Order Information: Micrometer. ........................................................ SE-7337

www.pasco.com


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Lab Supplies

Small Steel Balls ME-9872

Bounce/No Bounce Ball Set (3 sets)

Large Ball SE-8842

SE-7571

These 1.6 cm diameter steel balls are used with the Mini Launcher (ME-6825). Order Information: Small Steel Balls (10 pack)............. ME-9872

Steel Balls ME-9864

These two black balls look and feel identical, but drop them side by side and students will notice a big difference in their elasticity. One bounces back up close to the original drop height, while the other doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t bounce at all. Includes three sets of the Bounce/ No Bounce Balls. Each ball has a diameter of 2.5 cm.

This solid plastic ball is very round, rolls well, and is big enough to be easily seen by a motion sensor. It is used with the Force Distribution System shown on page 158, and has a diameter of 10 cm and an approximate mass of 800 grams.

Order Information: Bounce/No Bounce Ball Set (3 sets)............................................. SE-7571

Order Information: Large Ball............................................................... SE-8842

Freefall Balls Accessory Four pack of 2.5 cm diameter balls for use in PASCO Short or Long Range Projectile Launchers (ME-6800 or ME-6801).

ME-9890 This set of balls is used with the Discover Freefall system shown on page 143. The special stickers are used to attach the metal washers to the plastic balls, allowing them to be suspended from a magnet.

Order Information:

Includes:

Steel Balls (4 pack)................................... ME-9864

Small Nylon Ball (2.5 cm) Large Plastic Ball (10 cm) Golf Ball (4.4 cm) Hollow Golf Ball (4.2 cm) Steel Ball (2.5 cm) Steel Ball (1.6 cm) Release Washers (10) Release Stickers (50)

Plastic Balls ME-6822

Order Information: Freefall Balls Accessory....................... ME-9890

Spherical Mass Set ME-8968

Extra brightly colored balls are available for the Projectile Launcher. Diameter is 2.5 cm (1 in.). Order Information: Plastic Balls (10 pack)............................ ME-6822

This set includes four balls with a diameter of 2.5 cm each, but featuring various masses, including a hollow steel ball.

Includes: Solid Yellow Nylon Ball (10 grams) Solid Steel Ball (66 grams) Hollow Steel Ball (21 grams) Solid Aluminum Ball (24 grams)

Typical Applications A R  ace the hollow steel ball and solid aluminum ball down an incline. They have about the same mass, but the solid aluminum ball has a much larger acceleration down the ramp.

 ire the yellow plastic, solid steel A F and hollow steel balls from a PASCO short- or long-range projectile launcher. Order Information: Spherical Mass Set................................... ME-8968

219


Mechanics – Lab Supplies

Braided Physics String

Glow String

No-Bounce Pad

SE-8050

SE-8690

SE-7347

A 30-lb. Test This braided Dacron string is tough, resists stretching and won’t unravel. Withstands up to 133 Newtons of force (equivalent to 13.6 kg). Each roll provides 320 meters of string. Order Information: Braided Physics String......................... SE-8050

Stop falling objects from bouncing with PASCO’s No-Bounce Pad. The 30 cm x 30 cm x 2.5 cm dimensions of the pad provide an ample target for gravity demonstrations. Prevents heavy objects from damaging the floor and prevents falling objects from being damaged on impact.

Elastic Wave Cord SE-9409 Unlike a Slinky™, the tension can be varied. In addition to the Slinky™, this Wave Cord is great for wave demonstrations. The cord is 3 mm in diameter. Each roll provides 90 meters of cord. Order Information: Elastic Wave Cord....................................... SE-9409

Yellow Cord ME-9876

This stretchy “string” glows in the dark after being exposed to light. Use it to demonstrate wave motion, including resonance and standing wave patterns. Two rolls are included, totaling over 15 meters of string. Order Information: Glow String (2 pack)............................... SE-8690

Order Information: No-Bounce Pad.............................................. SE-7347

Carbon Paper (100 pack) SE-8693

Plumb Bobs (10 pack) SE-8728

Two rolls of highly visible braided yellow cord. Total length of 140 meters. Order Information: Yellow Cord (2 pack)............................... ME-9876

Rubber Cord (30 meters)

These finished steel plumb bobs are precision machined to a fine point. Just slide a string through the hole in the top and tie a knot. The plumb bob hangs precisely centered. Order Information: Plumb Bobs (10 pack). .......................... SE-8728

ME-8986 For Elastic Bumper (ME-8998) Also fits Air Track Bumpers Order Information: Rubber Cord (Spool of 30 m).............................................. ME-8986

Carbon paper is ideal for marking the position of an object as it strikes the floor or other surface. Order Information: Carbon Paper (100 sheets).............. SE-8693

Coffee Filters (500 pack) SE-7252

Spirit Levels (10 pack) SE-8729

Black Thread ME-9875

Includes three spools of Nylon black thread. Order Information: Black Thread (3 pack)............................. ME-9875

220

These 23 cm long Spirit Levels have three vials with striped graduations to indicate vertical, horizontal and 45° alignment. The frame is a durable plastic with tough acrylic vials. A magnetic tape allows no-hands leveling.

These 34 cm diameter coffee filters are ideal for freefall and terminal velocity experiments with the Motion Sensor.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Spirit Levels (10 pack)........................... SE-8729

Coffee Filters (500 pack). ................... SE-7252

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Lab Supplies

Storage Bins SE-7560 These stackable plastic bins, with lids, are useful for storing sensors. 14” long X 9.5” wide 6.9” high.

Glassware Rugged borosilicate glassware for use in the physics lab, particularly useful for buoying labs (shown on page 366).

Order Information: Order Information: Storage Bins (set of 5). ..................................................................................... SE-7560

3.8 Liter Plastic Container Set ME-7559 14” cm x 14 cm x 19.5 cm tall.

100 ml Beaker (12 pack)................................................................................SE-7287 1000 ml Beaker (6 pack)................................................................................SE-7288 50 ml Graduated Cylinder (12 pack). ............................................SE-7289

Syringes SE-7562 Large (60 ml) SE-7561 Small (24 ml) General purpose plastic syringes for use with our pressure sensors.

These containers are great for experiments needing ice-water baths. See the Heat Engine Experiment on page 379 for an example. Order Information: 3.8 Liter Plastic Container Set (set of 2).................................... ME-7559 Order Information:

Water Reservoir ME-8594 This calibrated 1000 ml cylinder is useful for experiments (as shown on page 269), requiring either a specific amount of water, a constant flow of water, or water at a constant pressure. The cylinder has three hose connections, one for connection to a source of water, one for overflow, and an outlet near the bottom. The unit comes with six meters of tubing and two restriction clips.

Order Information: Water Reservoir......................................................................................................... ME-8594

Large Syringe (5 pack)....................................................................................... SE-7562 Small Syringe (5 pack)...................................................................................... SE-7561

Bumper Stickers (100 pack) SE-7590 Use these bumper stickers as rewards for your students and to increase interest in physics.

Order Information: Bumper Stickers (100 pack). ...................................................................... SE-7590

221


Mechanics – Balances

Ohaus Scout Pro Balances

Ohaus Triple-Beam Balance

SE-8756A (400 g) SE-8757A (2000 g) SE-8758A (6000 g)

SE-8723 (without tare) SE-8707 (with tare)

Ohaus mechanical balances have been the standard weighing instruments in student laboratories for decades. They’re accurate, easy to use, durable and inexpensive.

Features Precision Ground Steel Knives: For exact measurements and a long balance life.

Specifications Model SPE402 SPE2001 SPE6000

Catalog # SE-8756A SE-8757A SE-8758A

Capacity Resolution 0-400 g 0.01g 0-2000 g 0.1 g 0-6000 g 1.0 g

Pan Size 12cm diameter 16.5cm x 4.2 cm 16.5cm x 14.2 cm

Stainless Steel Weighing Pan: Easy to clean, lasts indefinitely. Magnetic Damping: For quick, true measurements. Simple Zero-Adjustment: Just zero the masses, then rotate the knob. See Capacities in Table Below.

The Scout Pro digital electronic balances from Ohaus combine range, resolution and low cost, making them ideal for the student physics lab. Simple two-button operation and visual menu prompts allow students to begin weighing with minimal instruction. The large, crisp display is easily viewed from any angle so teachers can quickly check student results. A sealed front panel, molded spill ring and removable Stainless Steel platforms provide protection from spills and make Scout Pro easy to keep clean.

Ohaus Cent-o-Gram Balance SE-8725

Each Scout Pro balance includes a USB interface option for complete flexibility in Windows PC connectivity. By purchasing a USB Connection Kit (SE-8788), students can use these balances as a sensor with DataStudio software. Order Information: Ohaus Scout Pro Balance, 400 g......................................................... SE-8756A Ohaus Scout Pro Balance, 2000 g...................................................... SE-8757A Ohaus Scout Pro Balance, 6000 g...................................................... SE-8758A Recommended: USB Connection Kit.............................................................................................. SE-8788

Ohaus Additional Mass Set SE-8708 (for Triple-Beam Balances) These additional masses can increase the range of the Ohaus Triple-Beam Balance by an additional 2 kg. Included are a 0.5 kg and two 1 kg masses. Use with PASCO Model Nos. SE-8723 and SE-8707.

Specifications Product #

SE-8723

SE-8707

SE-8725

Ohaus Model

750-S0

760-00

311-00

Type

Triple-beam

Triple-beam

Cent-o-gram

Capacity w/add’l. mass set

610 g

610 g

311 g

2610 g

2610 g

N/A

Readability

0.1 g

0.1 g

0.01 g

Tare

None

225 g

None

Order Information: Ohaus Triple-beam Balance (without tare)............................. SE-8723 Ohaus Triple-beam Balance (with tare). ...................................... SE-8707 Ohaus Cent-o-Gram Balance.................................................................... SE-8725

Order Information:

Recommended:

Ohaus Additional Mass Set........................................................................ SE-8708

Ohaus Additional Mass Set........................................................................ SE-8708

222

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Masses

Mass and Hanger Set ME-8979 (1/2 g resolution) PASCO’s Mass and Hanger Set features precision 5 gram mass hangers with steel posts, and “holed” masses that will not fall off the hanger. All the masses have their values marked, and each hanger can hold up to 250 g.

Steel Post

Wrap thread in notch to hang without tying

For strength

Unique Design

Allows visibility of smaller masses

Large Slotted Mass Set ME-7589 (2 kg Set) Set Includes: One 1/2 kg mass hanger, and three 1/2 kg slotted masses. Diameter of masses: 8 cm. Height of hanger: 15 cm.

ME-7566 (5 kg Set) Set Includes: One 1/2 kg mass hanger, and nine 1/2 kg slotted masses. Diameter of masses: 8 cm. Height of hanger: 36 cm.

Order Information: Large Slotted Mass Set (2 kg Set)............................. ME-7589 Short Mass Hanger............................. ME-7590

Hooked Mass Set SE-8759

Order Information: Large Slotted Mass Set (5 kg Set)............................. ME-7566

Beck Angle Mass Hanger SE-9349

For medium to heavy ap­pli­ca­tions using slotted masses, these fusion-welded Stainless Steel mass hangers are ideal. This rugged Hooked Mass Set is made from cast iron and coated with enamel.

Includes: Masses: 1 x 1000 g 1 x 500 g 2 x 200 g 1 x 100 g 1 x 50 g 2 x 20 g 1 x 10 g Molded mass holder Order Information:

Includes: Four mass hangers (5 g each) ± 2% Brass masses: ± 1% 3 x 100 g 3 x 50 g 6 x 20 g Aluminum masses: ± 1% 3 x 10 g 3x5g Plastic masses: ± 2% 3 x 2 g 3 x 1 g 3 x 1/2 g Molded storage case

Recommended: Mass and Hanger Spares Kit..... ME-8980 (Contains four mass hangers and 10 each of 2g, 1g, and 1/2g plastic masses) Replacement Mass Sets for ME-8979: 5-gram Mass Set (set of 6). .......... ME-8981 10-gram Mass Set (set of 6)........ ME-8982 20-gram Mass Set (set of 6)........ ME-8983 50-gram Mass Set (set of 6)........ ME-8984 100-gram Mass Set (set of 6). ... ME-8985

Order Information: Beck Angle Mass Hanger.................. SE-9349

Slotted Mass

SE-8726A Set (10 g resolution) SE-8704A Set (1 g resolution) SE-8703A Hanger (50 g)

Hooked Mass Set........................................ SE-8759

This 50 gram mass hanger is the standard hanger for the slotted masses shown.

Ohaus Hooked Mass Set SE-8705

These slotted masses provide medium to heavy mass (up to 1.110 kg) with 1 or 10 gram res­o­lu­tion.

The SE-8726A Set Includes:

Order Information: Mass and Hanger Set.......................... ME-8979

The angled design of this 50-51 gram hanger ensures the masses won’t slip off.

Convenient when heavier masses (up to 2.1 kg) are required.

Masses:

Includes:

The SE-8704A Set Includes:

Masses: 1 x 1000 g 1 x 500 g 2 x 200 g 1 x 100 g 1 x 50 g 2 x 20 g 1 x 10 g

The above masses plus a 5 g, 1 g, and two 2 g. Mass hangers available separately.

Molded mass holder Order Information: Ohaus Hooked Mass Set. ................. SE-8705

1 x 500 g 2 x 200 g 1 x 100 g 1 x 50 g 2 x 20 g 1 x 10 g

Order Information: 10 g Slotted Mass Set......................SE-8726A 1 g Slotted Mass Set........................SE-8704A Slotted Mass Hanger.........................SE-8703A

223


Mechanics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Stopwatches

PASCO Stopwatch

PASCO Stopwatch 10 pack

ME-1234

ME-1235

A No alarm or clock

A Includes Fitted Foam Storage Box

A Memory for stored event times A Uses one AA battery A Durable buttons Are you tired of annoying stopwatch alarms going off all day? Are your students stuck in the clock mode and canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get their stopwatch back into the timing mode? Does your stopwatch stop working after changing that little watch battery? The PASCO stopwatch solves all these problems! This stopwatch was designed specifically for science timing. The modes of operation are intuitive and complete instructions are included. The buttons are built to last and it uses a single longlasting AA battery which is less expensive than a watch battery, and easier to install.

Two Display Modes: MM:SS.SS (00:25.18) or Decimal Seconds (25.18s)

Order Information: PASCO Stopwatch 10 pack. ........... ME-1235

Digital Stopwatch SE-8702C A Easy to Use A Start/Stop/Reset

The PASCO Stopwatch fits comfortably in your hand, or sets on the table at a convenient viewing angle.

(Appearance may vary)

Features 0.01 Second Resolution: Time up to 10 hours with 0.01 second resolution Split Timers: Measure two times simultaneously Countdown Timer with Alarm

Specifications

The EVENT/RECALL button allows you to view the last time, in case students forget to write it down. The EVENT/RECALL button is also used to store and recall up to nine event times: For example, record a series of events, such as times at which sandbags were dropped along the gym floor.

224

LED Display: Visible indoors and outdoors Two Display Modes: MM:SS.SS (01:25.34) or Decimal Sec (85.34s) Precision: 0.01 sec up to 59:59.99 (MM:SS.SS) or 3599.99 s Then 1 sec to 99:59:59 (HH:MM:SS) or 359999 s Max Number of Event Times: Nine Auto-off after one hour idle Can be used with a lanyard (not included) Includes AA battery and instruction sheet

Order Information: Digital Stopwatch................................ SE-8702C

Student Timer SE-8768 Features Inexpensive 0.01 Second Resolution Easy Operation: Start/Stop, Reset and Lap

Order Information:

Order Information:

PASCO Stopwatch..................................... ME-1234

Student Timer........................................... SE-8768

www.pasco.com


Mechanics – Strobes

Digital Stroboscope

PASCO’s NEW modular LED Strobe makes it easy for students to visualize motion.

SF-9211 A 1  -300 Flashes per Second (18,000 RPM)

Strobe

A Digital Frequency Readout

ME-6978

A Input and Output Trigger

A 1 Hz to 500 Hz A Variable Intensity

Front Panel View

A Low Cost Unique modular design makes it easy to light any geometry. The ME-6978 Strobe includes the Strobe Control Box and one Strobe Module. Additional Strobe Modules (ME-6982) can be purchased separately (see below) for up to a total of four lamp modules per controller, and multiple control boxes can be connected together using the External Trigger. The Strobe Modules have a tilting lamp head on a sturdy base that sits on the table or fastens to a rod stand.

Back Panel View Combines the mesmerizing fun of the traditional strobe with a digital frequency readout for accurate, quantitative data. Vary the flash rate manually to slow or stop motion, or trigger the flashes with an external signal so they stay in perfect synchronization with motion experiments.

Features

Features

Digital Display: Large, bright digits display the flash rate in Hertz or RPM

Display frequency in Hz or rpm

Auto Synch: Synchronize the flash with experiments using a 3- to 50-volt input signal

Adjustable light intensity

Bright: Xenon flash tube with 14 cm wide reflector

Trigger strobe using external input such as the ME-9498A photogate.

Or Even Brighter: Use one PASCO strobe to trigger another (banana plug connectors needed)

Specifications:

External Trigger to Daisy-chain multiple controllers together

Frequency Range: 1 Hz to 500 Hz Resolution: 0.1 Hz Accuracy: 0.1% Lamp Life: 50,000 hours. Brightness: 230 lumens (peak) per module

Order Information: Digital Stroboscope...................... SF-9211

Digital Mini-Strobe SE-9760 A Compact A Inexpensive

Digital Display

This handheld Digital Mini-Strobe is easy to use, accurate and inexpensive, with a xenon lamp that provides plenty of light for all standard applications.

Lamp ON/OFF Frequency Adjustment

Brightness Control Tilting lamp head on a sturdy base sits on the table or fastens to a rod stand.

Aim the flash by hand or mount it on a standard tripod. The flash rate is adjustable from 100 to 10,000 FPM (flash/min) and can be read on the 4-digit LED display. Expect ±1-digit accuracy to 5000 FPM and 0.05% accuracy for flash rates exceeding 5000 FPM. Bulb life is 300 hours.

Order Information: Strobe...............................................................................................................................................................................ME-6978 (Includes Control Box and one Strobe Module) Additional Strobe Modules..................................................................................................................ME-6982

Power cord included.

Shown in use with:

Order Information: Digital Mini-Strobe........................ SE-9760

Experiment shown using ME-6978 Strobe (with Strobe Module) and three additional ME-6982 Strobe Modules.

Small “A” Base. .....................................................................................................................................................ME-8976

p. 212

Stainless Steel Rod 60 cm long (threaded)

p. 212

....................................................................

ME-8977

225


Thermodynamics – Thermal Expansion

Thermal Expansion Apparatus TD-8558A A Easier, More Sophisticated and More Accurate than Traditional Equipment A Steel, Copper and Aluminum Tubes Included

Heat with Steam or Water

Steam or water at any temperature can be fed directly through the tube rather than using a troublesome water jacket.

Built-in Thermistor

Together with a digital ohmmeter, directly measures the temperature of the tube (not the fluid moving through it).

Tube temperature is easily calculated from this permanently affixed chart.

Built-in Dial Gauge

Simple and very accurate measurements with 0.01 mm resolution.

Three Drop-in Metal Tubes Steel, copper and aluminum.

Resistance/Temperature Conversion Chart

Input Jacks for Digital Ohmmeter

Resistance of the 100 kΩ thermistor is proportional to the temperature of the tube.

Digital Multimeter With PASCO’s Thermal Expansion Apparatus, students can accurately and easily investigate the expansion of metals with increasing temperature.

How It Works Measure the length of a metal tube at room temperature. Then vary the temperature of the tube and remeasure its length to determine the coefficient of linear expansion. The concept is simple (ΔL = αLΔT).

Features Built-in Dial Gauge: While some thermal expansion units only give single point readings of expansion, the PASCO dial gauge continuously measures as the rod expands and gives an accurate measure of the rod expansion (0.01 mm resolution). Built-in Thermistor: Temperature measurement is simple and accurate. Rather than measuring the temperature of the steam or water moving through the tubes, a 100 kΩ

226

thermistor is placed in direct contact with each tube. Equilibrium is quickly reached, and the temperature can be determined using a digital ohmmeter. (Resistance-to-temperature conversion table is permanently affixed to the base.) Heat with Steam or Water: Since the fluid moves through the tube, there is no troublesome water jacket. The fluid used may be steam or water at any temperature. Students don’t need to know the temperature be­cause the thermistor measures the tube temperature directly. This feature allows not only the calculation of the coefficient of linear expansion, but also the determination of the linearity of the relationship between ΔL and ΔT. Three Drop-in Metal Tubes: Each tube snaps neatly onto the rigid base. The other two can be simultaneously mounted on the base for convenient storage.

(Not included) measures thermistor resistance.

Includes: Base: 70 cm long extruded aluminum, with built-in dial gauge and thermistor Expansion tubes: steel, copper and aluminum; 16 mm dia. Foam insulator Laboratory manual

Order Information: Thermal Expansion Apparatus...............................TD-8558A Required: Steam Generator...........TD-8556A p. 229 Basic Digital Multimeter (ohmmeter)...........................SE-9786A p. 281

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Thermal Expansion

Compact Thermal Expansion Apparatus TD-8578 A Compact A 0.01 mm Dial Gauge

Heat with Steam or Water Input Jacks for Digital Ohmmeter

Resistance of the thermistor is proportional to the temperature of the tube.

Built-in 100 kΩ Thermistor

Together with a digital ohmmeter, directly measures the temperature of the tube.

Steam or water at any temperature can be fed directly through the tube.

Dial Gauge

Three Drop-in Metal Tubes Brass, copper and aluminum.

The Compact Thermal Expansion Apparatus provides experimental results within 5% of the accepted value, yet requires less storage space (tubes are 46 cm long) and costs less than the Thermal Expansion Apparatus (TD-8558A). In this experiment, a metal tube expands as steam passes through it. Three tubes (brass, copper and aluminum) allow students to compare the expansion of different materials. As the tube expands, one end is held fixed while a clip on the other end pushes against a 0.01 mm division dial gauge. Initial and final temperatures are determined by a 100 kΩ thermistor. A spring clip ensures good thermal contact to the tube and allows the thermistor to be changed between the three tubes provided. Insulation around the thermistor ensures accurate readings. The thermistor is permanently wired to banana jacks for easy connection to an ohmmeter.

Using the Steam Generator (TD-8556A) and a digital multimeter, students can accurately find the relationship between temperature and length of a solid.

The free-standing base supports the apparatus on a table without a clamp or stand. The base has storage slots for the three tubes. The entire apparatus requires a minimal amount of storage space. The working length of each tube is 35 cm. The TD-8578 Compact Thermal Expansion Apparatus comes complete with 0.01 mm dial gauge, three sample tubes (brass, copper and aluminum) and a thermistor.

Order Information: Compact Thermal Expansion Apparatus. ............ TD-8578 Required: Steam Generator.................................................................................... TD-8556A

p. 229

Digital Multimeter (ohmmeter)............................................ SE-9786A

p. 281

227


Thermodynamics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Thermal Expansion

Computer-Based Thermal Expansion

Thermal Expansion Holes

TD-8579A

SE-7328 A Plate expands visibly A Hole diameter increases as temperature rises A View on an overhead projector

Now students can see the length of the rod increase on a graph as the temperature rises. In this computerized version of the PASCO Compact Thermal Expansion Apparatus, the change in rod length is measured by a Rotary Motion Sensor with a special adapter pin that turns when in contact with the expanding rod. The temperature of the rod is measured using a 10 kΊ thermistor. The included cable can be connected to either a PASPORT Temperature Sensor or a ScienceWorkshop Thermistor Sensor to read the temperature directly without need of a resistance-to-temperature conversion chart.

Similar to the classic ball and ring demonstration, the large disk initially fits in the large hole with a gap showing. Then when the large disk is immersed in hot water, it expands and no longer fits into the hole. But this set has many other advantages. The expansions are large enough to see and measure with a meter stick. The large disk sitting in the hole can be put in a clear container and placed on an overhead projector so students can see the gap. Then when hot water is poured over both the disk and the sheet with the hole, students can still see the gap because both the disk and the hole are expanding. Also, the sheet has another smaller hole and a smaller disk which is slightly greater in diameter than the hole. Heating the plate causes the hole to expand and the disk will then fit into the hole. Then if the plate and the disk are allowed to cool with the disk in the hole, the disk will be stuck in the hole (although you can easily push it out).

The Rotary Motion Sensor measures the change in length of the expanding tube. Plate dimensions: 20 cm x 28 cm x 0.5 cm

Temperature (blue line), Expansion (brown line)

Includes: Three Sample Tubes: copper, brass and aluminum.

12.4 cm diameter hole

12.2 cm diameter disk

7.07 cm diameter hole

7.15 cm diameter disk

Order Information:

Includes:

Computer-based Thermal Expansion...................... TD-8579A

Plate with two holes

Required for use with ScienceWorkshop:

Large disk

Steam Generator............................................................................... TD-8556A

p. 229

Thermistor Temperature Sensor*. ............................... CI-6527A

p. 77

Rotary Motion Sensor................................................................. CI-6538

p. 74

ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface

p. 68-72

.....................................................

Small disk Manual with demonstrations and experiment

Required for use with PASPORT: Order Information:

Steam Generator............................................................................... TD-8556A

p. 229

Temperature Sensor...................................................................... PS-2125

p. 43

Thermal Expansion Holes............................................................................. SE-7328

Rotary Motion Sensor................................................................. PS-2120

p. 26

Required:

PASPORT Interface..................................................................................................................p. 10-23

Pan larger than the plate

*Note: Model CI-6527 is not compatible with this experiment.

Hot and cold water

228

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Thermal Expansion

Large Scale Thermal Expansion

Steam Generator

SE-7327

A Variable Steam Output A Rapid Heating A Automatic Safety Shut-off

TD-8556A

A See the pipe move as it expands A Visual proof of the need for expansion joints A Pipe disassembles for storage In most thermal expansion apparatus a micrometer is required to measure the expansion. With this apparatus the expansion is on the order of 2 cm and students can actually see it expand on, and easily calculate the coefficient of expansion for the plastic. The assembled pipe is about six meters long and has a plate to clamp one end to a table. The clamped end has an upward turn for pouring hot water into and the free end has a downward turn for emptying into a bucket. An o-ring on the free end marks the position of the pipe. Pouring a kettle full of hot (about 80°C) water through the pipe causes it to expand about 2 cm.

Hot flowing steam is essential to most introductory thermodynamics experiments. It’s inexpensive, plentiful and the perfect constant temperature heat reservoir. This Steam Generator brings 3/4 of a liter of water to a boil in 10 minutes and provides continuous steam at up to 10 gram/min. A baster is also provided for removing hot water for experiments. Includes many convenience and safety features.

Dual Steam Ports

Supply two lab groups ­ simultaneously.

Internal Electric Heater

No open flame, no exposed coils.

Rubber Stopper

For a tight seal and a safety pressure­ release.

Hot water is poured into the funnel, and flows down the pipe.

Extra-Wide Base

Stable, hard to tip over.

Low Water Warning Light

Variable Power (0 - 400 watts)

Adjust­able steam flow.

As the hot water flows down the pipe, students can see the pipe expand.

Here an Xplorer GLX is used to monitor the change in length of the sample as the heated tube rotates the spindle on the Rotary Motion Sensor. The change in temperature is measured using the thermistor attached to the temperature port on the GLX.

Order Information: Steam Generator...................................................................................................... TD-8556A

Pipe expands over 2 cm.

Hot Plate SE-8830 A Temperature range up to 400 °C A Built-in Support Rod holder This compact and durable hot plate can reach up to 400 °C in minutes. The cast aluminum top plate provides an even heating surface, and it even has a built in support rod holder.

Includes: Four 1.5 m long plastic pipes with fittings

Order Information: Large Scale Thermal Expansion..................................... SE-7327 Required: Large “C” Clamp (6 pack)....................................................... SE-7285

p. 215

Meter Stick (6 pack)........................................................................ SE-8827

p. 218

Metric Measuring Tape............................................................... SE-8712A

p. 218

Hot or cold water

The SE-8830 has a built-in rod holder for a 1/2 inch rod (not included).

Order Information: Hot Plate. .................................................................................................................... SE-8830

229


Thermodynamics – Thermal Conductivity

Thermal Conductivity Apparatus

Ice Melting Blocks

TD-8561

SE-7317

A Measure Heat Flow through Five Different Materials

A G  reat Thermal Conductivity and Heat Capacity Demonstration

A Constant Temperature Differential Makes Calculations Easy A Easy to Use, No Mess Constant Temperature Differential 0°C

Water Run-off Channel

For retrieving water from melted ice.

Plastic Tubing

For connecting a steam generator.

Not Shown

Two Ice Molds, Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide.

100°C

The Ice Melting Blocks look similar, but are composed of different materials. One block feels cold to the touch while the other block feels slightly warm. Both blocks are at room temperature but have very different thermal conductivities and heat capacities.

Stand with Insulating Pads

Keeps hot reservoir well above the table. Steam Generator and cup not included.

Durable Test Materials

12.7 cm square: glass, wood, polycarbonate, Masonite and Sheetrock. One of the most important considerations for buildings in the modern world is their ability to provide good thermal insulation. This apparatus provides students a means of observing and quantifying heat flow across a constant temperature differential. Students use five common materials as test samples— glass, wood, polycarbonate, Masonite® and Sheetrock.

How It Works

Features

Includes:

No Mess: Water from the melting ice runs off into the measuring cup — not on the lab table.

Stand with insulating pads 

Durable Test Materials: Wood, Masonite and Sheetrock are covered with a thin aluminum sheet for waterproofing and to ensure good thermal contact. Elevated Steam Reservoir: Hot reservoir is well above the lab table to eliminate heat damage.

A block of ice is placed against one side of the test material. The other side is clamped against a steam chamber, establishing a constant 100°C temperature differential. The rate at which the ice is converted to water is a measure of the rate at which heat passes from the steam, through the test material and into the ice.

After allowing students to hold the blocks, ask them which block would melt ice more quickly. Place an ice cube on each block and watch their amazement as the “cold” block melts the ice cube within two minutes. The melting of the ice cube is barely noticeable on the “warm” block. The “cold” block is aluminum and has a much greater ability to transfer heat to the ice cube or the hand. The “warm” block is plastic, which does not conduct heat as well.

Includes: Aluminum Block Plastic Block O-rings (2)

Steam chamber Ice molds (2) Materials; 12.7 cm square: glass, wood, polycarbonate, Masonite, Sheetrock Plastic tubing for connecting steam generator Instruction manual and experiment guide Order Information: Thermal Conductivity Apparatus...............................TD-8561

Order Information: Ice Melting Blocks. ................................... SE-7317

Required: Steam Generator...........TD-8556A p. 229 Graduated Cylinder

230

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Heat Conduction Apparatus

Heat Conduction Apparatus TD-8513 A Heat Flow Through Metals A Three Types of Metals, two cross-sections A Angstrom’s Method The Heat Conduction Apparatus shows the difference in the rate of heat conduction through bars made of different materials and through bars of the same material that have different cross-sectional areas. The difference in temperature between points along each bar is measured to quantify the rate of heat conduction. The Heat Conduction Apparatus has four metal bars (one aluminum, one stainless steel, two brass having different cross-sections). One end of each bar is heated or cooled by applying power to the Peltier device which is attached to one end. Each bar has two 10 kΩ thermistors embedded in it about 3 cm apart from each other. A cable (male 8-pin mini-DIN to male 8-pin mini-DIN) is supplied to connect the thermistors in this apparatus to the PASPORT Temperature Array (PS-2157) so data can be recorded from all eight sensors simultaneously. Foam insulators are supplied to cover the bars during the experiment.

A Peltier device heats one end of each of the different metal bars. Embedded thermistors detect the rise in temperature along the bars.

Temperature sensors at the end of each type of bar show the different rates of conduction.

The DC Power Supply (PI-9877) powers the Peltier Device and the thermistors are read by the required Temperature Array (PS-2157).

Specifications Aluminum, stainless steel, brass bar dimensions: 6.5 cm x 1.2 cm x 0.4 cm Second brass bar dimensions: 6.5 cm x 0.7 cm x 0.4 cm Maximum Voltage Input for Peltier: 15 VDC Board Size: 10 cm x 18.5 cm

Includes:

The two temperature sensors in the aluminum bar record the difference in time of the temperature rise as heat is conducted through the bar.

Heat Conduction Apparatus Circuit Board

Order Information:

Cable

Heat Conduction Apparatus.................................................... TD-8513

Foam Insulation (2)

Required: Temperature Array. .............................................................................. PS-2157

p. 44

PASPORT Interface....................................................................................................................... p. 10-23 Recommended: DC Power Supply................................................................................... PI-9877

p. 278

231


Thermodynamics – Calorimetry

Basic Calorimetry Set

Energy Transfer – Calorimeter

TD-8557A

ET-8499

A An Affordable Introduction to Thermodynamics

A Compare Electrical Energy Input to Changes in Internal Energy

Styrofoam calorimeter cups (7.5 cm inside diameter, 10 cm deep) have 1.3 cm thick walls for excellent thermal properties. Set includes three different metal samples, a thermometer, plastic tubing and a water trap that prevents unwanted condensation of steam.

Includes: Six calorimeters

The Energy Transfer – Calorimeter includes two nested aluminum cups with an air space in between for insulation. While most calorimeters use a coil to heat the water, PASCO’s design features a 10 Ω heating resistor mounted to a circuit board. Using temperature, voltage and current sensors students can investigate the relationship between the input energy and heat transfer into the water. Approximately 470 Joules of energy were added to the water using the Hand Crank Generator (EM-8090)

Alcohol Thermometer: 20 °C to 110 °C in 1° increments Samples of aluminum, copper and tungsten: 200 grams each Water trap and plastic tubing Instruction manual and experiment guide Order Information: Basic Calorimetry Set...................................................................... TD-8557A Required: Steam Generator.................................................................................... TD-8556A

p. 229

Ohaus Triple-Beam Balance...................................................... SE-8723

p. 222

Replacement Supplies: Calorimetry Cups (set of 6)....................................................... TD-8825A

Specific Heat Set SE-6849 This specific heat set has five different materials, all having the same mass (80 g). Each has a hole to tie a loop of string to hang the samples in water.

Includes: Aluminum: 1.25” D x 1.5” h Brass: 3/4” D x 1.5” h Stainless Steel: 3/4” D x 1.44” h Zinc: 3/4” D x 1.58” h Copper: 0.625” D x 1.8” h Order Information: Specific Heat Set.................................................................................... SE-6849 Recommended: Calorimetry Cups (set of 6)....................................................... TD-8825A

232

Includes: Outer Aluminum Cup (8.9 cm tall, 4.7 cm dia) Inner Aluminum Cup (7.5 cm tall, 3.8 cm dia) Plastic Lid Two-Hole Rubber Stopper Heating Resistor with Input Cables Order Information: Energy Transfer – Calorimeter................................................ ET-8499 Recommended for use with ScienceWorkshop: Hand Crank Generator.................................................................... EM-8090 p. Temperature Sensor........................................................................... CI-6605A p. Voltage Sensor.......................................................................................... CI-6503 p. Current Sensor.......................................................................................... CI-6556 p. ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface.............................................................. p. Recommended for use with PASPORT: Hand Crank Generator.................................................................... EM-8090 p. Temperature Sensor........................................................................... PS-2125 p. Voltage/Current Sensor.................................................................. PS-2115 p. PASPORT Interface........................................................................................................................ p.

270 77 79 79 68-72 270 43 48 10-23

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Equivalent of Heat

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus

Energy Transfer – Friction

TD-8551A

A Demonstrates Frictional Heating

A Accurate to 5% A Rugged Ball-Bearing Construction A Thermistor— No Thermometer to Break

A R  eal-Time Computer Measurement of Work Done and Resulting Temperature Increase

This Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Appara­tus provides an updated version of one of Joule’s most important experiments; converting mechanical work to thermal energy.

Work is done by pulling on the yellow cord wrapped around the 2.5 cm diameter cylinder and lifting the mass. Using a Rotary Motion Sensor and a Force Sensor, a real-time graph of power versus time can be generated by DataStudio. The area under this curve is the work performed.

ET-8770

A Brass and Aluminum Cylinder

Double Ball Bearings Minimize the wear on moving parts.

Crank Counter

Counts the number of turns on the handle.

A 10 kΩ thermistor is used to determine the temperature of the cylinder. A PASPORT Temperature Sensor (PS-2125) is used to graph the temperature real-time in DataStudio.

The work done is measured using a Force Sensor and a Rotary Motion Sensor. The amount of thermal energy transferred to the cylinder is measured using a Temperature Sensor.

Thermistor

Embedded in the cylinder, it has lower thermal mass than a thermometer and is less breakable.

How It Works

Durable Construction

Constructed primarily of steel and aluminum, there’s virtually nothing to break. The thermistor is protected in the cylinder.

Turn the crank to perform a measurable amount of work. The crank turns an aluminum cylinder. A flat nylon rope is wrapped several times around the cylinder. As the crank is turned, the friction between the rope and the cylinder is just enough to support a mass hanging from the other end of the rope. This ensures that the torque acting on the cylinder is constant and measurable. A counter keeps track of the number of turns of the crank. The thermal energy is measured by monitoring the temperature of the cylinder using the embedded thermistor. With this apparatus, the equivalence of work and heat is easily established to within 5%.

Includes: Base, cylinder, crank and counter with a built-in table clamp 2.7 meters of flat nylon rope 1-gallon can that can be filled with a measured mass of sand or water (if 10 kg of laboratory masses are not available)

Laboratory manual including theory, step-by-step instructions and data tables

Order Information: Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus............ TD-8551A Required: Basic Digital Multimeter. .............................................................. SE-9786A p. 281 Triple-beam Balance. ......................................................................... SE-8707 p. 222 A refrigerator (or ice) for cooling the cylinder below room temperature. Calipers and a thermometer for measuring room temperature are helpful, but not necessary. Replacement Supplies: Brush (single).............................................................................................. TD-8583 Cylinder.............................................................................................................. TD-8582

The area under the power vs. time curve shows 68.4 J of work done. The temperature increase of 2.7 °C results in 51.3 J (75%) of the work done converted to thermal energy.

Includes: Support base with plastic mounting bolt Brass and aluminum cylinders Yellow friction cord Thermistor Temperature Cable Order Information: Energy Transfer – Friction............................................................. ET-8770 Required: Small C Clamp (6 pack).................................................................. SE-7286 p. Hooked Mass Set................................................................................... SE-8759 p. Required for use with PASPORT: Force Sensor................................................................................................ PS-2104 p. Rotary Motion Sensor...................................................................... PS-2120 p. Temperature Sensor........................................................................... PS-2125 p.

215 223 28 26 43

233


Thermodynamics – Equivalent of Heat

Electrical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Tube

TD-8552

ET-8781

A Investigate the Equivalence of Heat and Electrical Energy

A C  ompare change in gravitational energy to change in thermal energy

A D  etermine the Efficiency of a Lightbulb

Thermal Hammer ET-8779 A C  onverts mechanical energy to thermal energy A M  onitor real-time temperature changes

A M  onitor real-time temperature changes How It Works:

This Electrical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus is straightforward and accurate. First, fill the clear plastic jar with water and insert the lightbulb. Measure the voltage and current into the bulb to determine the electrical energy input. Then measure the temperature rise of the water to determine the heat that is produced. Make the measurement once with clear water so only thermal energy is absorbed, then again with India ink in the water so all the radiant energy is absorbed. The electrical equivalent of heat can then be verified. As a bonus, students can calculate the efficiency of a standard lightbulb.

As the tube is turned over, the steel balls fall the length of the tube and strike the thin, metal plate at one end. Embedded in the metal plate is a fast-response thermistor which is used to continuously measure the temperature of the plate. The thermistor can be directly plugged into either the PASPORT Temperature Sensor (PS-2125) or ScienceWorkshop Thermistor Temperature Sensor (CI-6527A).

How It Works: Students hit the hammer on a foam square (included) and the small, steel balls within the hammer strike a thin, metal plate. Embedded in the metal plate is a fast-response thermistor which is used to continuously measure the temperature of the plate. The thermistor can be directly plugged into either the PASPORT Temperature Sensor (PS-2125) or ScienceWorkshop Thermistor Temperature Sensor (CI-6527A).

Includes: Calorimeter: F  ully heat-resistant clear plastic jar

The “loss” in gravitational energy is compared to the increase in thermal energy of the metal plate.

Lamp assembly: Lamp is fixed to the lid of the calorimeter and is soldered directly to the terminal posts to minimize resistive losses in the circuit and to prolong the life of the bulb

Typical Applications: A Conservation of Energy studies A Analogy for the “disappearance” of

Styrofoam insulators (2) India ink

Order Information: Electrical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus............. TD-8552 Required: Power Supply.................. SE-8587 p. 279 or: equivalent source providing 3 A at 12 V Digital Multimeter (2)................. SE-9786A Alcohol Thermometer.................. SE-9084A

234

p. 281 p. 247

kinetic energy during a collision

The temperature of the thin, metal plate rises each time the steel balls impact its surface.

Typical Applications: A Conservation of Energy studies A Analogy for the “disappearance” of kinetic energy during a collision

Includes:

Includes:

Thermal Hammer

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Tube (70 cm length, 4 cm diameter)

Built-in Fast Response Thermistor Probe

Built-in Fast Response Thermistor Probe

Steel Balls (60)

Steel Balls (60)

Foam Squares (2) (10 cm x 10 cm) Order Information:

Order Information: Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Tube................................... ET-8781

Energy Transfer – Thermal Hammer.................... ET-8779

Required for use with ScienceWorkshop:

Required for use with ScienceWorkshop:

ScienceWorkshop Interface.......... p. 68-72

ScienceWorkshop Interface........p. 68-72

Thermistor Temperature Sensor............ CI-6527A p. 77

Thermistor Temperature Sensor............CI-6527A p. 77

Required for use with PASPORT:

Required for use with PASPORT:

PASPORT Interface.................................. p. 10-23

PASPORT Interface.................................p. 10-23

Temperature Sensor............ PS-2125

Temperature Sensor............PS-2125

p. 43

p. 43

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Gas Law

Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus

Compression Igniter

TD-8565

TD-8577

A Investigate the Compression of Gases

A Adiabatic compression ignites paper!

A C  omputer Monitors Temperature, Pressure and Volume

A Durable and cleanable

Volume Transducer

A linear potential divider monitors the position of the piston.

Students will be amazed to see the paper catch on fire without a match.

A Works every time Put a small piece of tissue paper into the cylinder and quickly push down on the piston. In a quick compression there is no time for heat to be exchanged between the air inside and its surroundings, causing the temperature to rise well above the combustion temperature of paper.

Plastic Safety Shield Precision Glass Tube Three Signal Cables

Carry the volume, pressure and temperature signals to the computer.

Temperature Sensor

Optional Force Platform

Measures rapid changes in temperature as the resistance of a fine nickel wire changes.

Piston

DataStudio monitors pressure, temperature and volume as a gas is compressed rapidly.

Bottom Experiments PASCO’s Adiabatic Gas Law can be used with the ScienceWorkshop Interface. The computer functions as a 3-channel storage os­cil­lo­scope, plotting graphs of pressure, temper­a­ture and volume as well as integrating the area under a pressure versus volume curve to determine the work done on the gas.

Includes: Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus Instruction manual, experiment guide Signal Cables: (3.5 mm plug to 5-pin DIN) Power Adapter: 9V DC @ 1A Order Information: Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus....................TD-8565 Required: A computer with an interface that will accept three analog signals simultaneously via 5 or 8-pin DIN connectors such as: PASCO’s ScienceWorkshop 500 and 750 Interfaces.

Easy Cleanout

This Compression Igniter has been specially designed to be cleanable. The bottom screws off to clean out the soot and to load the paper. The large piston handle decreases the pressure on your hand and makes it easier to hit the piston quickly. The glass tube is surrounded by plastic for safety, and in the event that the glass tube breaks, the glass tube can be replaced.

Includes: Compression Igniter

Pressure data is calculated using the force measured by the Force Platform. The data shown in the above graph gives (assuming adiabatic) a compression ratio of nearly 20:1, and a peak temperature of over 700 oC.

Spare Glass Tube with “O” Rings Cleaning Wire Complete instructions with theory

Order Information: Compression Igniter. ................................. TD-8577 Replacement Tubes (2). ........................... TD-8498 Shown in use with: Force Platform PASPORT................................................................... PS-2141

p. 31

Force Platform ScienceWorkshop.......................................... CI-6461

p. 76

235


Thermodynamics – Gas Laws

Absolute Zero Apparatus

Molecular Motion Model

TD-8595

SF-8563

A Constant volume sphere

A Demonstrate the Kinetic Theory of gases A Model the relationship between Pressure, Volume and Temperature

A M  easure pressure and temperature directly using PASCO sensors A E  mpirically determine the absolute zero temperature The Absolute Zero Sphere is an effective tool for determining absolute zero temperature. Connect a Pressure Sensor and Temperature Sensor (either PASPORT or ScienceWorkshop) and immerse the sphere in water baths of several different temperatures. As the pressure and temperature change, a graph displays these changes in DataStudio. Once the data is collected, students can use a linear fit to extrapolate the value of absolute zero. Absolute Zero Apparatus being used with PS-2146 Pressure/Temp Sensor.

Maxwell’s kinetic theory of gases is the long-established point of entry into the difficult but rewarding theory of statistical mechanics. This Molecular Motion Model provides a concrete, qualitative introduction. Fifty-one chromed steel balls represent the molecules of a gas in a closed vessel. Heat is simulated by supplying vibrations from a wave driver. When this external energy is applied, the steel balls exert a pressure on the container, forcing the top of the container upward. The relationship between temperature, pressure and volume is clearly demonstrated. Students also gain insight into the effects of temperature and height on the density of an ideal gas in a gravitational field. It can be used on an overhead projector.

Temperature and Pressure data is taken for three temperature water baths. The experiment is repeated with a different amount of gas initially in the sphere. The slopes of the two graphs reflect the change in the number of moles of gas, and both graphs extrapolate to about the same value for absolute zero. As the “temperature” rises, the “gas” expands.

Typical Applications A Experimentally determine the temperature of absolute zero A Investigate the relationship between pressure and temperature (Gay-Lussac’s Law) A Discover the Ideal Gas Law

Includes: Absolute Zero Sphere Built-in Fast Response Thermistor Probe Quick Connect Pressure Port

Order Information: Absolute Zero Sphere............................................. TD-8595 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: ScienceWorkshop Interface............................................................... p. 68-72 Thermistor Temperature Sensor*. ........... CI-6527A

p. 77

Absolute Pressure Sensor................................. CI-6532A

p. 76

Required for use with PASPORT: PASPORT Interface......................................................................................... p. 10-23 Pressure/Temperature Sensor...................... PS-2146

Molecular Motion Model................................................ SF-8563 Required: Mechanical Wave Driver................................................. SF-9324

p. 292

p. 42

Required:

Temperature Sensor.................................................. PS-2125

p. 43

Sine Wave Generator..................................... WA-9867 p. 289

Absolute Pressure Sensor................................. PS-2107

p. 41

or

or

*Note: Model CI-6527 is not compatible with this apparatus.

236

Order Information:

Function Generator. ........ PI-8127

p. 284

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Gas Laws

Ideal Gas Law Apparatus TD-8596A A E  xperimentally determine the Ideal Gas Law A Large syringe for accurate volume measurements A Built-in fast-response thermistor Investigating the Ideal Gas Law is simple using PASCO’s Ideal Gas Law Syringe. By connecting a Pressure Sensor and a Temperature Sensor to this syringe, students can quantitatively look at the relationships between pressure, temperature and volume.

How It Works A low thermal mass thermistor is mounted within the syringe for real-time measurement of temperature changes inside the syringe. Tubing and a quick connect port allows a Pressure Sensor to be directly connected to the syringe. As the plunger of the syringe is depressed, the volume decreases while pressure and temperature increase. The data will help students better understand the Ideal Gas Law. PV = nRT A mechanical stop is included on the syringe plunger to prevent damage of the thermistor within the syringe and to allow quick (adiabatic) volume changes.

Typical Applications A Discover or verify the Ideal Gas Law A Investigate relationships such as pressure vs. temperature (Gay-Lussac’s Law), pressure vs. volume (Boyle’s Law) and temperature vs. volume (Charles’ Law) A Calculate the number of moles of air in the syringe based on pressure, temperature and volume measurements The measured values of Temperature and Pressure are used by DataStudio® to calculate the Volume. The student can compare this calculated volume to the actual volume on the syringe in real-time.

Includes: Ideal Gas Law Syringe Built-in Fast Response Thermistor Probe Quick Connect Pressure Port

Order Information: Ideal Gas Law Apparatus............................................................................... TD-8596A Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: ScienceWorkshop Interface............................................................................................................ p. 68-72 Thermistor Temperature Sensor*. ...................................................... CI-6527A

p. 77

Absolute Pressure Sensor............................................................................ CI-6532A

p. 76

Required for use with PASPORT: PASPORT Interface..................................................................................................................................... p. 10-23 Pressure/Temperature Sensor................................................................. PS-2146

p. 42

or T graph equals nR. Slope of the Volume vs. — P

Temperature Sensor............................................................................................. PS-2125

p. 43

Absolute Pressure Sensor............................................................................ PS-2107

p. 41

*Note: Model CI-6527 is not compatible with this experiment.

237


Thermodynamics – Thermoelectric

Thermal Efficiency Apparatus

Thermistor Connections

TD-8564

To 9 VDC Adapter

A R  eal Investigation into Carnot Efficiency A Heat Engines & Heat Pumps A 5% Accuracy The Thermal Efficiency Apparatus is a real heat engine that can be used to investigate and clarify the principles at work in Carnot’s ideal heat engine. Like Carnot’s model, it can be operated as a heat engine, converting heat into work, or operated in reverse as a heat pump, transferring heat from a cold source to a hot source. Results are typically accurate to better than 5%.

Peltier Device

(included)

Power Supply

Cooling Water

Inputs for heater

In/out ports

Load Resistors

Thermistor Conversion Chart

How it Works The key element is a Peltier device, a semiconductor that turns thermal energy into electrical energy. The device is sandwiched between two blocks of aluminum which act as the hot and cold reservoirs. One block is water-cooled using the built-in pump. The other is electrically heated. A 100 kΩ thermistor is implanted in each block so temperatures can be measured with a digital ohmmeter. The energy supplied to this heat engine is the electrical energy used to heat the aluminum block. The heat engine does work by running a current through the load resistor. Both the energy in and the work out are easily determined by measuring currents and voltages. Measure the real efficiency of a heat engine when operated between different temperature differentials.

Typical Experiments 1. Real Efficiency vs. Temperature Difference 2. Carnot Efficiency 3. Heat Pump Coefficient of Performance 4. Thermal Conductivity 5. Load for Optimum Performance

Check out the experiments on the web at www.pasco.com Order Information: Thermal Efficiency Apparatus................................................ TD-8564 Required: Basic-Digital Multimeter(s) (four needed).............. SE-9786A p. 281 p. 279 Triple Output Power Supply..................................................... SE-8587 or: Two voltmeters, two ammeters, one ohmmeter and a power supply providing 12 VDC @ up to 3 A

How Peltier Devices Work The apparatus on these two pages use a thermoelectric Peltier device as the basis of the heat engine/heat pump system.

Heat Pump A Peltier device is constructed of two ceramic plates with p and n semiconductors in between. As DC current is passed through the device, one plate warms and the other plate cools and the voltage across and current through the Peltier device can be measured.

Work

Aluminum (Hot Side) Qh

Peltier Device Qc Aluminum (Cold Side)

I Hot Side

+ DC – Voltage

Cold Side I

Heat Engine Using the temperature difference across its plates, the Peltier device generates current as the plates move to an equilibrium temperature. The current and voltage generated by the Peltier device can be used with output load resistors to determine the energy generated. The generated energy can be compared to the input energy to determine appropriate efficiencies. Furthermore, the effects on efficiency when changing the load resistance or temperature difference between the plates can be examined.

238

Work

Aluminum (Hot Side) Qh

Peltier Device Qc Aluminum (Cold Side)

I Hot Side

Load Resistor

Cold Side I

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Thermoelectric

Energy Transfer – Thermoelectric

Thermoelectric Converter

ET-8782

TD-8550A

A Fully Functional Heat Pump and Heat Engine A Use Voltage and Current Sensors to Measure Energy Conversions A Temperature Sensors can Monitor both Reservoir Temperatures A Models a Refrigeration System

A D  emonstrate the First Law of Thermodynamics A Reversible

Output Ports

Knife Switch

Measure current and voltage in Peltier device to determine energy input.

Use to toggle between heat engine and heat pump modes of operation.

Cooling Fan

Provides additional heat dissipation from hot side of Peltier device.

Features Demonstrates that a temperature differential is essential for extracting usable energy Produces electrical energy from a temperature differential Produces a temperature differential with electrical energy

Load Resistors

Temperature Ports

For output efficiency studies of the Peltier device.

A 10 kΩ thermistor mounted in each aluminum plate of the Peltier device is used to continuously measure temperature.

Peltier Device

Two aluminum plates are fastened to each side of the semi-conductor Peltier device. One plate heats while the other cools when DC current passes through the device. The Energy Transfer - Thermoelectric circuit board helps students better understand heat engines and heat pumps. Using a Peltier device, cooling and heating effects can be observed and measured using PASCO probeware. In addition, a cooling fan, heat sink and foam insulation can be used to determine their effect on the heating and cooling of the Peltier device.

15 cm tall with 6 cm diameter fan

How It Works The Thermoelectric Converter uses a series of semiconductor thermoelectric cells to convert thermal energy into electrical energy. The output from the cells drives a small electric motor.

Heat to Electrical Energy Place one leg of the Thermoelectric Converter into cold water, the other into hot. The fan turns as the converter draws energy from the hot source (typically a 50°C temperature differential is required).

Electrical Energy to Heat Pass a current (3 A DC at 5 V) through the Thermoelectric Converter. It acts as a “heat pump.” One leg becomes warmer while the other becomes cooler.

As the device is switched from heat pump to heat engine, DataStudio displays Power, Energy, Heat Transfer, and Temperature.

When a temperature differential is established between the two legs, the fan turns.

Includes: Energy Transfer – Thermoelectric Circuit Board Heat Sink

Foam Insulation (2) Thermistor Temperature Cables (2) Short Patch Cords (8) Order Information:

Order Information: Energy Transfer – Thermoelectric...................................................................................................... ET-8782 Required: Power Supply (18 Volt DC, 5 A)........................................................................................................... SE-9720A

p. 279

Recommended for use with PASPORT: Voltage/Current Sensor................................................................................................................................. PS-2115

p. 48

Quad Temperature Sensor......................................................................................................................... PS-2143

p. 43

Fast Response Temperature Probe. ................................................................................................ PS-2135

p. 44

PASPORT Interface............................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 10-23

Thermoelectric Converter............................... TD-8550A Required: Containers for holding hot water, cold water, etc. Triple Output Power Supply................... SE-8587

p. 279

Alcohol Thermometer................... SE-9084A

p. 247

239


Thermodynamics – Heat Engine

PASCO Heat Engine A M  easure the actual efficiency of a real heat engine, and bring the concept of P-V diagrams to life. A P  ASCO Heat Engine: Extracts heat from a large hot-water reservoir and does work to lift a weight. A R  eal-time Graph: The heat engine cycle is traced on a Pressure vs. Volume graph as the engine goes through each part of its cycle, closing the cycle as waste heat is exhausted to the ice-water reservoir. The DataStudio® graph above shows an isobaric/isothermal heat engine cycle operating between a cold water bath at 0.5°C and a hot water bath at 53.0°C.

A H  eat Engine Efficiency: Students compare the area inside the P-V cycle to the actual work done lifting the weight, and see how the efficiency of this heat engine compares to the theoretical maximum.

Rotary Motion Sensor

Work

(Lifting Mass)

Cold Reservoir

Hot Reservoir

(Ice water bath)

When the air chamber is moved from the cold water bath to the hot bath, the piston moves up and lifts the 200 g mass, doing work. The mass is removed, and then the air chamber is returned to the cold bath, creating an isobaric/isothermal cycle.

(Hot water bath)

Tc

200 g Mass

Heat Engine

Th Q c

Qh Heat Engine

(Air filled cylinder with piston)

Give meaning to the abstract drawing of a heat engine cycle and let your students see the connection to the real world.

Air Chamber Graphite Piston Ultra-Low Friction Cold Bath

The built-in temperature ports of the Xplorer GLX monitor the Hot and Cold water baths, the Rotary Motion Sensor measures the position of the Heat Engine piston, and the pressure of the air inside the Heat Engine is measured using the Dual Pressure Sensor. The graph is drawn in real time on the GLX screen as the heat engine is taken through its cycle.

Includes:

Dual Pressure Sensor Hot Bath

Heat Engine Air Chamber Rubber Stoppers (one and two hole) Tubing with Quick Connect Fittings Shut-off Valve and One-way Valve Order Information:

Temperature Sensors

Heat Engine/ Gas Law Apparatus............................. TD-8572 Xplorer GLX.................................................. PS-2002 Dual Pressure Sensor....................... PS-2181 Rotary Motion Sensor..................... PS-2120

Xplorer GLX™

3 Liter Plastic Container Set (2).................................... ME-7559 Small “A” Base. ......................................... ME-8976 60cm Rod......................................................... ME-8977

240

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Heat Engine

Heat Engine Accessory

Small Piston Heat Engine

TD-8581

TD-8592

The Heat Engine Accessory includes a set of parts for those items in the Heat Engine/Gas Law Apparatus most likely to need replacement after extensive use.

A S  mall Piston (8.1 mm dia.) is More Sensitive to Pressure and Temperature Changes A Connect to Heat Engine to Study Pascal’s Principle The Small Piston Heat Engine features a piston with one-quarter the surface area of the original Heat Engine (TD-8572). It includes the same high-quality Pyrex cylinder and low-friction graphite piston. In addition, the Quick Connect ports allow the two heat engines to be used with one another or with the same set of accessories.

Includes: Air Chamber Rubber Stoppers (one and two hole) Tubing with Quick Connect Fittings Shut-off Valve and One-way Valve

Pascal’s Principal is demonstrated by connecting two pistons of different diameters. More weight is required on the bigger piston to balance the weight on the smaller piston. Shown with TD-8572 Heat Engine.

Order Information: Heat Engine Accessory..................................................................................... TD-8581

Thermobile Nitinol Heat Engine SE-9089 A S  imple Heat Engine Based on Nitinol Memory Wire A Instructions Included The Thermobile is a Nitinol wire (memory wire) loop around two wheels. Nitinol (nickeltitanium) wire is called memory wire because it returns to its original shape when heated. In this case, the wire has been programmed by holding it in a straight line while heating it to a high temperature. After cooling, the straight wire was wrapped around the two pulleys. When the brass wheel is immersed in hot water, the wheels will begin to turn. When the brass wheel heats up, the wire in contact with it is heated, and tries to straighten out. When the wheel is spinning, the wire on one side of the wheel is hotter and bows out more than the other end. This results in an unbalanced torque on the wheel, causing it to turn.

Typical Applications A Investigate Pascal’s Principle A Demonstrate a Real-Time Heat Engine Cycle

Includes: Small Piston Heat Engine Air Chamber with Rubber Stopper Plastic Tubing with Quick-Connect Fittings

Includes: Thermobile Heat Engine includes instruction manual and storage box.

Order Information: Thermobile Nitinol Heat Engine

Order Information: . .......................................................

SE-9089

Small Piston Heat Engine............................................................................. TD-8592

241


Thermodynamics – Heat Engine

Glass Stirling Engine SE-8636

Low Delta-T Stirling Engine

“Visible” Stirling Engine SE-8575

SE-8576A A Runs on 4˚C ΔT A Ultra-low Friction

See the pistons at work. Look inside the glass cylinders at the Stirling Cycle principle in action. This engine is extremely interesting to watch, is well built, and runs at speeds up to 1500 RPM. To illustrate the versatility of a Stirling Engine, we provide a burner for denatured alcohol and a platform for solid fuel. A sample quantity of ESBIT dry fuel is supplied with the engine as well.

The SE-8576A Stirling Engine runs on the heat from a warm hand (approximately a 4 °C differential from room temperature). This beautifully made engine featuring high precision components, low- friction graphite piston, ball bearings and counterweighted cranks will amaze students. When it’s not used in class, teachers can set it on the back of their computer monitor and explain thermodynamics to students who come into their office. Order Information: Low Delta-T Stirling Engine.......................................... SE-8576A

Stirling Engine SE-8562

A Stirling Engine is a straightforward, practical example of a heat engine. A piston coupled to a foam air displacer shuffles air back and forth between hot and cold reservoirs. The expansion and contraction of air as it is heated and cooled drives the engine. This “Visible” Stirling Engine will run while sitting on top of an ice bath, a hot coffee mug or even a dish of ice cream. It provides a vivid demonstration of the thermodynamics of a Stirling Engine.

Features Easily Visible: All movable parts are clearly visible for a more in-depth demonstration Small Temperature Differences: Runs on temperature differentials as low as 20 °C Flexible Piston: Piston is a grey silicone rubber diaphragm that moves so students can see the air expand and contract

Both cylinders are transparent so the action of the pistons can be viewed.

Features: Gyro-quality ball bearings Machined flywheel Aluminum cooling fins Replaceable,adjustable Pyrex® heat cap Replaceable Pyrex® power cylinder Dual fuel capability Solid hardwood platform Completely assembled and ready to run

Specifications:

This sturdy engine is manufactured completely from precision-machined metal parts. Simply add a little alcohol (denatured is recommended— do not use “rubbing” alcohol) for fuel and a match. The included book, Stirling Cycle Engines, includes over 100 pages of history, illustrations and descriptions of the operation of various Stirling engines.

9” length x 4” height x 6” width. Order Information:

Order Information: Stirling Engine.......................................... SE-8562

Glass Stirling Engine. ..................... SE-8636

Required: Denatured Alcohol

242

Order Information: “Visible” Stirling Engine............. SE-8575

Visible Stirling Engine Kit SE-8590 This kit includes all the parts and instructions to build the Visible Stirling Engine SE-8575 shown above. No machining is required. Some common hand tools and glue are required but not included. Order Information: Visible Stirling Engine Kit. ........ SE-8590

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Radiation

Solar Constant Set

Radiation Cans

TD-8497

TD-8570A

A M  easure the Temperature of Three Cylinders in Real-Time A D  iscover the Rate at which Radiant Energy is Received from the Sun The Solar Constant Set includes five cylinders, three of which have identical size and mass. One cylinder is painted white, one is painted black and one has a shiny finish. A black brass cylinder of equal size and a black aluminum cylinder of twice the radius are also included. Using the included bracket and a standard ring stand, these cylinders can be used to discover the solar constant or to simply compare the energy transfer to the various cylinders.

How it Works The cylinders are each placed on a Temperature Sensor and secured in the bracket. The cylinders are then taken outside and positioned such that each cylinder is perpendicular to the sun’s light rays. Using a fourth temperature probe (such as our Fast Response PS-2135), the ambient temperature can be measured throughout the entire experiment. Collect temperature vs. time data for approximately 20 minutes. Data shows that the black cylinder heats up most quickly. After 20 minutes the white cylinder is the coolest. The slope of the temperature vs. time graph shows the rate of temperature change when the black cylinder reaches ambient temperature. This slope, along with the mass and surface area of the cylinder, gives a value for the solar constant of 1150 W/m2.

Includes:

These three aluminum cans have different surface finishes: Silver (unpainted), White and Flat Black. They are 15 cm high, and hold about 350 ml of water. Their large thermal mass ensures good results with both temperature probes and standard glass thermometers. Fill them with cool water and place them outside in the sunlight to investigate the effect of the surface finish on solar heating. Or place them inside filled with hot water to discover Newton’s Law of Cooling, as shown above. (Temperature probes not included)

The Black, White, and Silver Radiation Cans are filled with hot water, and allowed to cool.

Order Information: Radiation Cans (set of three)

Black, White and Polished Aluminum Cylinder 1.9 cm dia x 3.8 cm long Black Brass Cylinder (same size) Black Aluminum Cylinder (twice the radius)

. ................................................................

TD-8570A

Thermodynamics Kit CI-6514A

Mounting Bracket with Rod Clamp Order Information: Solar Constant Set......................................................................... TD-8497 Required for use with PASPORT: Quad Temperature............................................................................ PS-2143

p. 43

Temperature Probe (three needed)............................ PS-2153

p. 44

Measure the electrical equivalent of heat and investigate thermal absorption and radiation. The kit includes a 10 Ω/10 W heating resistor with a thermal cutoff switch for safety, and black, white and polished metal containers.

PASPORT Interface.................................................................................................................p. 10-23 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Temperature Sensor (three needed)........................ CI-6605A

p. 77

ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface.......................................................p. 68-72

Order Information: Thermodynamics Kit..................................................................................... CI-6514A

243


Thermodynamics – Radiation

Thermal Radiation Laboratory

Thermal Radiation Cube (Leslie’s Cube)

TD-8855

TD-8554A A L  ow-Temperature Radiation Source

With the Radiation Sensor, a versatile Radiation Cube and the Stefan-Boltzman Lamp, four key experiments in thermal radiation can be performed. Students begin with a study of thermal radiation from different types of surfaces at the same temperature. The Thermal Radiation Cube has four different surfaces which can be monitored (black matte, white matte, polished aluminum and dull aluminum). The cube is heated electrically with a 100-watt bulb (its output can be varied). The thick aluminum walls assure the same temperature on all four walls to within a fraction of a degree. The Radiation Sensor provides an accurate measure of thermal radiation throughout the infrared region. Its output is a voltage that is proportional to the intensity of radiation.

For quantitative experiments in thermal radiation, an accurate source is as important as an accurate sensor. With the Thermal Radiation Cube, students control the temperature (up to 120 °C) and observe the radiation rate from four different surfaces: black matte, white matte, polished aluminum and dull aluminum. With the Radiation Sensor, students can quantitatively investigate: radiation from different surfaces at a single temperature; radiation from a single surface at different temperatures (Stefan-Boltzman Law); and the absorptive and reflective properties of substances (window glass provided).

Another important introductory experiment is the Inverse Square Law. The Stefan-Boltzman Lamp uses a special bulb to provide a near-perfect point source, providing accurate results. Finally, students can verify the Stefan-Boltzman Law for both low and high temperatures using the Radiation Cube for the low temperatures and the Stefan-Boltzman Lamp for the high temperatures.

Features Electrically Heated: The 100-watt bulb inside eliminates the danger of an open flame and the inconvenience of waterheated cubes. Temperature is conveniently controlled with the power control knob.

Typical Experiments With Teacher’s Guide and Sample Data. 1. Introduction to Thermal Radiation 2. Stefan-Boltzman Law at Low Temperatures. (Rrad = σT4) 3. Inverse Square Law 4. Stefan-Boltzman Law at High Temperatures

244

Includes: Thermal Radiation Cube (TD-8554A) Stefan-Boltzman Lamp (TD-8555) Radiation Sensor (TD-8553) See following page for component details.

Thick Aluminum Walls: The aluminum walls of the cube are 6 mm thick, providing efficient heat conduction so the temperature is constant to within a fraction of a degree at all points on the cube. Thermistor: A 100 kΩ thermistor embedded in one wall of the cube provides accurate temperature measurement with no thermometer to worry about breaking.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Thermal Radiation Laboratory............................ TD-8855

Thermal Radiation Cube............................................. TD-8554A

Required:

Required:

Basic Digital Multimeter........................... SE-9786A

p. 281

Power Supply................... SF-9584B

p. 280

Radiation Sensor......... TD-8553 Basic Digital Multimeter........................... SE-9786A

p. 281

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Radiation

Radiation Sensor

Thermal Cavity

TD-8553

TD-8580A

A Radiation Detector

A Three Different Surfaces A Cavity Radiator A Control and Measure Temperature A Computer Compatible

Point the Radiation Sensor toward any object – open the shutter and read the digital voltmeter to measure the relative intensity of the thermal radiation emitted. Flat Spectral Response: 0.6 to 30 µm Protective Posts Complete Manual

Thermal Cavity

Temperature Port DC Power

This version of Leslie’s thermal Input radiation cube has a hole which acts as a cavity radiator. The aluminum cube has four different surfaces (black, white, polished and matte) to show students how surfaces radiate differently. Use an Infrared Sensor to detect the amount of radiation from each surface. The cube has a built-in heating element (10 VDC max., 1 A) to raise the temperature to 100 °C. It can be powered by the Power Amplifier (CI-6552A or PS-2006) or a separate DC power supply. A 10 kΩ thermistor is embedded in the cube to measure its temperature. Use a Thermistor Sensor (CI-6527A) or a PASPORT Temperature Sensor (PS-2125) to read the thermistor temperature. The cavity is the special feature of this cube. When the surface containing the cavity is scanned using a visible Light Sensor, the hole looks dark. However, when the cavity is scanned using an Infrared Sensor, the hole is brighter than the surrounding matte surface.

Order Information: Radiation Sensor...........TD-8553 Required: Basic Digital Multimeter.............................SE-9786A p. 281

Stefan-Boltzman Lamp

To scan the surface intensity of the cube, the Light Sensor is placed on the Linear Translator (OS-8535 on page 316).

The hot cube can be safely rotated by the large plastic knob.

TD-8555 A A  High-Temperature Radiation Source

In the infrared part of the spectrum, the hot cavity is brighter than the surrounding matte aluminum surface.

This 12-Volt incandescent lamp is an excellent source of thermal radiation at high, measurable temperatures. The temperature of the lamp filament can be accurately determined by measuring the voltage and current students supply to the lamp (a graph of temperature versus resistivity is provided). Order Information: Stefan-Boltzman Lamp. .......................................................................... TD-8555

In the visible part of the spectrum, the cavity is darker than its surroundings.

The top opens to reveal that the black-looking cavity is actually a matte finish, the same as the surface.

Order Information: Thermal Cavity.................TD-8580A Required: 60 cm Optics Bench............................................OS-8541 p. 311 Linear Translator.............OS-8535 p. 316 Aperture Bracket............OS-8534A p. 316 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Light Sensor........................CI-6504A p. 78 Infrared Sensor................CI-6628 p. 78 Thermistor Sensor. .....CI-6527A p. 77 Rotary Motion Sensor.........................................CI-6538 p. 74 Power Amplifier II.........CI-6552A p. 70 or Low Voltage AC/DC Power Supply.....................SF-9584B p. 280 ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface p. 68-69 Required for use with PASPORT: Light Sensor........................PS-2106A p. 46 IR Sensor. ................................PS-2148 p. 47 Temperature Sensor.........................................PS-2125 p. 43 GLX Power Amplifier...................................PS-2006 p. 14 Rotary Motion Sensor.........................................PS-2120 p. 26 Xplorer GLX.........................PS-2002 p. 10

245


Thermodynamics – Solar Radiation

Energy Transfer – Solar ET-8593 A Converts Solar Energy to Thermal Energy A Demonstrates the Greenhouse Effect A Built-In Thermistor for Measurement of Temperature

A sturdy plastic housing is covered with a transparent plastic lid to transmit visible light. The black aluminum plate (23 cm x 16 cm) inside is removable so its mass can be measured. The temperature of the plate is measured with a 10 kΩ thermistor attached to the bottom of the plate. The supplied cable connects the apparatus directly to a PASPORT Temperature Sensor (PS-2125). Or, the thermistor can be read with an ohmmeter and the temperature can be calculated with the supplied conversion chart. The amount of energy transferred to the plate can be calculated. Also, the maximum temperature reached and the rate of heating can be investigated with or without the plastic cover. The attached rod clamp is used to adjust the angle of the box toward the sun.

Rod Clamp and optional stand allows easy adjustment of unit. Aluminum plate inside is painted flat black. Using the slope of the heating curve with no cover, the intensity of the sun’s light was calculated to be 750 W/m2.

Shows the difference in the heating rates with the transparent plastic lid on and off.

Use an Xplorer datalogger with a Temperature Sensor for easy outdoor data collection.

Includes: Plastic box with lid Energy Transfer – Solar shown in use. The Xplorer GLX, with its two built in temperature ports, measures both the ambient outside temperature and the temperature inside the Energy Transfer – Solar. Graph from Xplorer GLX showing Greenhouse effect of heating on a cool, sunny fall day. Note ambient outside temperature (in light gray).

246

Black aluminum plate (23 cm x 16 cm) with 10 kΩ thermistor Cable for PASPORT Temperature Sensor Order Information: Energy Transfer – Solar.............................................................. ET-8593 Required for use with PASPORT: PASPORT Temperature Sensor. ..................................... PS-2125

p. 43

Xplorer GLX............................................................................................. PS-2002

p. 10

Small Tripod Base and Rod.................................................. SE-9451

p. 213

www.pasco.com


Thermodynamics – Thermometers

Pocket Digital Thermometer

Infrared Thermometer

Alcohol Thermometer

SE-9785C

SE-9084A

SE-9789

-50° to 150 °C Range

-20° to 110 °C Range

-50° to 270 °C Range

Measure from -20 to 110 °C with this 30 cm long thermometer. It is clearly marked at 1 degree intervals, and a ring on top lets students suspend it from a string. Order Information: Alcohol Thermometer................... SE-9084A

Digital Dial Thermometer This low-cost digital thermometer is excellent for many experiments in the physics lab. A data hold button freezes the reading on the display.

An excellent classroom tool for measuring the temperature of a surface without contact. A built-in laser indicates the area to be measured. Unit automatically holds last measurement after “measure” button is released. Uses two AAA batteries (included).

-50° to 150 °C Range

Specifications Resolution: 0.1 ºC Probe: 6.4 cm stainless steel probe with 51 cm cable Range: -50º to 150 ºC Order Information: Pocket Digital Thermometer............................................ SE-9789

Digital Thermometer SE-9086A

SE-9082

Specifications Range: -50º to 270 ºC; -58 º to 518 ºF Resolution: (1 ºF/1 ºC) Distance to target ratio: 6:1 Emissivity: 0.95, fixed Display: Backlit LCD Recommended measure distance: 5 to 91cm Order Information: Infrared Thermometer.................. SE-9785C

Waterproof Thermometer SE-7139

This 5 cm diameter Digital Dial Thermometer has a range from –50º to 150 ºC with 0.1º resolution. The probe is 13 cm long and includes a protective case. Order Information: Digital Dial Thermometer................. SE-9082

Non-contact Temperature Sensor PS-2197 A Non-contact A -70° C to 380° C The Non-contact Temperature Sensor measures surface temperature by detecting the emitted infrared light. Record the temperature of objects without touching them!

Typical Applications A Compare temperature of hands, skin, face and clothes

A Measure the temperature of different outdoor ground surfaces

A Map the temperature profile of an exterior wall

-50° to 1300 °C Range This compact Digital Thermometer measures from -50° to 1000 °C with 0.3% accuracy, and from 1000° to 1300 °C with 0.5% accuracy. Resolution is switchable from 1° to 0.1 °C. The sampling rate is three measurements per second, and a “hold” button freezes the display. Battery life is approximately 200 hours.

A pocket-sized digital thermometer for measuring the temperature of liquids. Slide the sleeve off to reveal the Stainless Steel probe that detects a temperature range of –50°C to +300 °C or –58 °F to +572 °F. One button toggles “on” and “off,” another toggles between “°C” and “°F,” while the third serves to change the mode. Other features include Min/Max recall, data hold and automatic shut-off.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Digital Thermometer...................... SE-9086A

Waterproof Thermometer.................. SE-7139

Specifications Range: -70 °C to 380 °C Accuracy: ±0.5 °C Response Time: Less than 0.1s Maximum Sample Rate: 200 Hz Field of view: ±35° Order Information: Non-contact Temperature Sensor.......................... PS-2197

See a variety of Temperature Sensors on pages 42-45 and page 77.

247


Electrostatics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Van de Graaff Generator

Van de Graaff Generator, High Voltage SE-8691 A Large Sphere Creates Higher Voltage A Sparks up to 35 cm in Length A Large Size Ideal for Demonstrations The High Voltage Van de Graaff Generator features a 25 cm diameter sphere which can generate approximately 400,000 Volts. The size of the sphere, the rounded edges of the sphere and the height of the sphere from the demonstration table contribute to the high voltages generated. Its large size, long sparks and high voltages make it ideal for use in larger rooms or lecture halls. An extra belt is included.

Electric Plume

Dimensions: Sphere diameter: 25 cm Overall height: 74 cm

SE-7232 The lightweight ribbons are connected to a stand which rests on top of the Van de Graaff Generator. As the generator operates, the ribbons stand on end due to the repulsive force between their like charges.

Discharge Sphere

Electric Whirl

SE-7231

SE-7233

Van de Graaff Replacement Belt

Order Information: Replacement Belt......................................... SE-7355 Order Information: Van de Graaff Generator, High Voltage........................................................ SE-8691 Electric Plume.................................................... SE-7232

This 25 cm sphere is supported on a Lucite column with a cast iron base. Includes cabling for connection to the Van de Graaff Generator or to a ground.

248

When held near the sphere of the generator, the spokes are propelled by charge leaving the points.

Discharge Sphere.......................................... SE-7231 Electric Whirl. ...................................................... SE-7233 Replacement Supplies: Replacement Belt.......................................... SE-7355

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Electrostatics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Charge

Classic Electrostatics Materials Kit SF-9068 Providing the classic introduction to electrostatics, this kit allows students to rub any of the three rods with rubbing cloths to produce a positive or negative charge. Place the rods on the insulated pivot stands to investigate electrostatic forces.

Includes: Three rods (acrylic, glass, PVC)

Discover Charge Set ES-8086 A Explore the Bipolar Nature of Charge A Experimentally Rank Materials within the Triboelectric Series The Discover Charge Set provides students with a collection of materials to explore the nature of static charge. By rubbing two sheets of material together, electrons are transferred from one material to the other. Students then hold each of the charged materials near a charged indicator to discover the direction of charge flow. Using this information, the materials can be ranked within the triboelectric series by rubbing with each of the materials in the set.

Two insulated pivot stands Three rubbing cloths (wool, silk, fur) Negatively charged tape is used as an indicator to verify the materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s charge.

Order Information: Classic Electrostatics Materials Kit...................................................... SF-9068

Electroscope SF-9069 When this Electroscope is charged, the conductive rod rotates to indicate charge magnitude. The shield ring is 15 cm in diameter and can be grounded with banana plug connectors (not included).

Rub two sheets together to transfer charge from one sheet to the other.

Includes: Charge Sampler: For transferring charge to the Electroscope Capacitor Plates (5.6 cm dia.): For testing charges without depositing them on the Electroscope

Included Materials: Teflon Styrene Polyester Wool PVC Each material sheet measures 15 cm x 10 cm. Order Information:

Order Information:

Electroscope...................................................... SF-9069

Discover Charge Set. ............................................................................................................................................. ES-8086

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Electrostatics – Electrostatics Systems

Basic Electrostatics System ES-9080A A Quantitative Electrostatics A C  omprehensive Experiment Manual Included A Individual or Demonstration Use The PASCO Basic Electrostatics System includes all the components necessary for a quantitative investigation into the basics of electrostatics. With this integrated set of equipment, students can study: A Production of charges, equal and opposite A Charge by induction A Principle of the Faraday Ice Pail A Charge transfer A Charge distribution in electric fields A Capacitors and the Q=CV relationship

Includes:

A Moving charges and current

ES-9078 Basic Electrometer

ES-9061 Conductive Shapes

Order Information:

ES-9057C Charge Producers and Proof Plane

ES-9079 Basic Variable Capacitor

Basic Electrostatics Systems. .......................................... ES-9080A Recommended: Charge, Equipotential and Field Mapper.......... ES-9060

Basic Electrometer ES-9078

p. 252

ES-9042A Faraday Ice Pail and Shield

ES-9077 Electrostatics Voltage Source

ES-9059C Conductive Spheres, 13 cm

Experiment Manual

Quantitative Readout

Readout in volts can be calibrated for units of charge.

The PASCO Basic Electrometer is a quantitative electroscope, measuring the polarity and magnitude of charged objects. With almost infinite input resistance (1014 ohm), the Electrometer is a high impedance voltmeter, draining almost no charge from the object it is measuring.

3, 10, 30 and 100 VDC Switch-Selectable Ranges. LED lamps indicate the range in use. Zeroing Switch. For removing all charge from the input and bringing the meter to zero. Automatic Shutoff. Unit turns off about three hours after being used.

Direct Polarity Indication

Output Compatible with ScienceWorkshop Interfaces. For recording data or producing a demonstration-sized meter display.

Centered zero scale shows both positive and negative charges.

Battery Operation. Uses four “AA” cells (included). Range indicator lights flash when batteries need to be replaced.

Signal Output

To computer interface.

Range Indicator LEDs Connector for Shielded Input Cable

Range Adjustment Switch

Adjust the sensitivity to match the experiment.

Grounding Jack On/Off Switch

250

Features Center-Zero Meter. Polarity is indicated directly.

Zero Button

Included Cables. Shielded input cable for connecting the Electrometer to the Faraday Ice Pail or other source of charge; grounding cable with clip; ScienceWorkshop interface cable. Instruction and Experiment Manual.

Order Information: Basic Electrometer.................................... ES-9078

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Electrostatics – Electrostatics Systems

Charge Producers and Proof Plane Use the ball end

Conductive Spheres

Conductive Shapes

ES-9059C

ES-9061

ES-9057C to sample inside the The Charge hollow Producers create sphere. equal positive and negative charges when rubbed together. The Proof Plane samples the charge density from a charged object. The charge can then be measured using the Electrometer and Faraday Ice Pail.

Order Information: Charge Producers and Proof Plane......................................................ES-9057C

Electrostatics Voltage Source ES-9077

30 cm high

These Conductive Spheres (two per set) can be used to store charge or investigate the charge distribution on one or two spherical conductors. A terminal on the bottom of each sphere provides a con­ nec­tion point for the power supply. Each sphere is attached to a heavy base (for stability) with an insulating rod. The spheres are 13 cm in diameter and 30 cm high. Order Information: Conductive Spheres............................ES-9059C

Basic Variable Capacitor ES-9079

Specifications Output: 30, 1000, 2000, 3000 VDC ±3%, line regulated Resistance in Series with Output: 120 MΩ/kV Operating Voltage: 115/220, 50/60 Hz AC Adapter: 9 VDC

This set includes a conductive sphere with a hole in it: Demonstrate that static charge resides the outside surface of a conductive sphere by sampling the inside surface with the ball end of the proof plane (ES-9057C, shown at left). Also included is an oblong shape for demonstrating the difference in charge densities on a large-radius surface versus a small-radius surface. The whole surface is at the same potential and students seem surprised to find that the charge density is greater on the smaller end. Order Information: Conductive Shapes. .............................ES-9061

Faraday Ice Pail and Shield

This compact unit is ideal for performing experiments in electrostatics. It may be used as a source of charge or to maintain an object at a constant potential. Since the current required for such applications is small (on the order of nanoamps), high megohm resistors (120 MΩ per kV) are placed in series with each output. Output voltages are 1000, 2000 and 3000 VDC, allowing students to make quantitative investigations of how voltage affects charge density on spheres, capacitor plates, etc. A 30 VDC source is also provided for experiments with capacitors. Banana plug to spade lug connecting cables are included.

30 cm high

ES-9042A

This variable, parallel plate capacitor permits a quantitative investigation of the Q=CV relationship. Two 18 cm diameter plates allow the capacitance to be varied from 225 pF to zero by sliding the movable plate in its 28 cm long track. The sliding plate has adjustment screws to make the plates parallel to each other. Electrical connection studs are located on each plate. A BNC connector cable is provided for connection to an Electrometer.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Electrostatics Voltage Source...................................................................ES-9077

Basic Variable Capacitor............................................................ES-9079

With the Faraday Ice Pail, students can use the Electrometer to measure charge as well as potential. Touch the Proof Plane to the point of interest on the charged body, then place the Proof Plane inside the ice pail. The Electrometer reading will be directly proportional to the charge on the Proof Plane. The Faraday Ice Pail is 10 cm in diameter and 15 cm deep. It is made of wire mesh, so it is easy to see what is going on inside. The outside shield has a diameter of 15 cm. Order Information: Faraday Ice Pail..........................................ES-9042A

251


Electrostatics – Charge/Field Mapping

Charge, Equipotential and Field Mapper

Field Mapper Kit

ES-9060

Conductive Paper

PK-9023

Cork Surface

Use pushpins to hold the paper during the experiment.

Printed grid makes measurements easy.

The Charge, Equipotential and Field Mapper is an excellent addition to the Basic Electrostatics System. Draw any set of two-dimensional conductors with the conductive ink. Investigate the electric field and the equipotential field lines between and around the conductive paper to any shape. Charge it and investigate the distribution of charge on its surface. Similar to the PK-9023 Field Mapper Kit, except it includes elec­trom­e­ter probes, a “point charge” holder and larger sheets of con­duc­tive paper for in­ves­ti­gat­ing charge dis­tri­bu­tions on con­duc­tive surfaces.

Includes: Conductive paper for mapping charge distributions; 30 x 45 cm (50 sheets) Conductive paper with cm grid for mapping equipotentials and field gradients; 23 x 30 cm (100 sheets)

Storage Tray

With this kit students can map both the potentials and the electric fields around any conceivable system of two-dimensional charged conductors. The procedure is simple: 1. Draw any Electrode: Draw the electrode with the special, conductive silver ink pen. It is easy to use, dries quickly and there is no mess. 2. Plot the Equipotentials: Connect a battery or power supply across the electrodes, then use a voltmeter to locate the equi­po­ ten­tial lines.

Conductive ink pen and a circular template for drawing conductors “Point charge” holder

Includes:

Plastic tray with corkboard top; 32 x 48 cm Manual with 13 experiments

Order Information: Charge, Equipotential and Field Mapper....................................ES-9060 Replacement Supplies: Conductive Ink Pen...............................PK-9031B (limited shelf life of six months; pen is not refillable) Conductive Paper with grid (50 sheets, 23 x 30 cm)....................PK-9025 Conductive Paper (no grid) (100 sheets, 30 x 43 cm). ...............PK-9026

252

Draw any shaped charge electrode with this conductive ink pen.

How it Works

3. Plot the Electric Field: Tape voltmeter probes together, then hold one probe on the paper and rotate the other probe around it like a compass. The maximum voltage reading indicates the direction of the electric field.

Pushpins (10), connecting wire (1) and electrometer probes (2)

Conductive Pen

After the lab, everything stores neatly under the corkboard.

Conductive paper with cm grid; 23 x 30 cm (50 sheets) 10 pushpins; three wires Conductive ink pen and circular template Plastic tray with corkboard top; 32 x 48 cm Instruction manual with 10 experiments

Special Conductive Ink Pen The PASCO Con­duc­tive Silver Ink Pen makes it easy to study field patterns. Draw over 60 meters of patterns with a single pen. Pen shelf life is six months. Not refillable. Order Information: Conductive Ink Pen. .............................PK-9031B

Typical Experiments 1. 2. 3. 4.

Dipoles of Like Charges Dipoles of Opposite Charges Parallel Plate Capacitor Point Source and Guard Ring (cylindrical capacitor) 5. Floating Electrode Plus five more experiments.

Check out the experiments at www.pasco.com

Order Information: Field Mapper Kit. .............. PK-9023 Required: Basic Digital Multimeter................................ SE-9786A p. 281 (or any voltmeter with at least a 10 M Ω input impedance) Power Supply........................ SE-8587 (or another low voltage DC power supply or battery)

p. 279

Replacement Supplies: Conductive Ink Pen......................... PK-9031B (limited shelf life of 6 months; not refillable) Conductive Paper with grid (50 sheets, 23 x 30 cm).............. PK-9025 Conductive Paper (no grid) (100 sheets, 30 x 43 cm). ......... PK-9026

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Electrostatics – Circuits

Charge/Discharge Circuit

Relay

EM-8678

CI-6462

The Charge/Discharge Circuit offers a unique way to observe and measure the behavior of DC circuits including batteries, capacitors, light bulbs and resistors. It also includes an open slot to allow a component of choice to be inserted for further experimentation.

A Single-Pole Double-Throw Switch

Experiment Example

A A  ctivated by DataStudio or Xplorer GLX A For Sense and Control Projects

Charge the capacitor using batteries, then discharge through a resistor or light bulb. Students measure the voltage and current as the capacitor discharges, and can graph the relationship between voltage and current for various components. See complete experiment on page 384. Voltage vs. Current for a 33 Ω resistor, a 10 Ω resistor, and a light bulb. Note the non-linearity for the bulb. 1F Capacitor Light Bulbs Batteries (not included) Resistors

This relay is a single-pole double-throw switch that is controlled by DataStudio or the Xplorer GLX for Sense and Control experiments. It is shown here with the EM-8678 Charge/Discharge Circuit, automatically turning on the light whenever the temperature above the bulb reads less than 25 °C.

Charge/Discharge Switch

Use your own rechargeable batteries to investigate the efficiency of energy storage and recovery.

The area under the power versus time graph is energy. 99 J of energy is delivered to the battery. During discharge, 51 J (52%) is delivered to the bulb.

Includes: 1 Farad Capacitor #14 Light Bulbs (3) 10 Ω Resistor 33 Ω Resistor 100 Ω Resistor

Battery Holders (uses AA or AAA) Double Throw Knife Switch

The Relay is controlled through the Xplorer GLX calculator: The statement above means that the Relay is switched on and the light comes on when the temperature probe in port #1 of temperature sensor #1 reads below 25 °C.

Instruction Manual

Order Information: Charge/Discharge Circuit.......................................................... EM-8678 Recommended: #14 Light Bulbs (25 pack).......................................................... EM-8627 p. 260 Batteries AA (4 pack)...................................................................... PI-6601 p. 261

Order Information: Relay..........................................................................CI-6462 Required: Digital Adapter..............................................PS-2159 PASPORT Interface..................................p. 6-23

253


Electricity – Circuits

RLC Circuit

Series/Parallel Circuit

Resistor-Capacitor Circuit

CI-6512

EM-8677

SE-9791

This board offers a unique set of com­po­nents for demonstrating:

PASCO’s Series/Parallel circuit is designed for use with the Hand-Crank Generator (EM-8090). The two 12 Volt bulbs can be wired in series or parallel. The two knife switches enable students to switch on one bulb or both bulbs.

The SE-9791 Resistor-Capacitor Circuit contains everything students need for studying resistor-capacitor circuits in the lab.

A Voltage/Current Phase Relationships A RLC Resonance A Non-Ohmic Characteristics. Components include resistors, capacitors and an inductor coil.

Experiment Manual Includes: Charging and Discharging Capacitors Series RC Circuits Parallel RC Circuits Combinations of Series and Parallel RC Circuits. A built-in battery (included) or external power supply can be used for experiments. A fuse protects components from overload. Two resistors and two capacitors are provided (one each soldered to the board). Unique spring connectors, the same as used on the Basic Electricity Laboratory (EM-8622) are used for easy component connection.

Using the Hand-Crank Generator. The 750 Interface can measure current and voltage as well as provide power to the RLC Circuit.

Measurements can be made either with a voltmeter and stopwatch (for graphing charge and discharge curves) ScienceWorkshop or PASPORT Interface with Voltage Sensors.

Close the switch to add an extra branch and twice the load to the parallel circuit.

A 1000 µF capacitor charging and discharging through a 15 kΩ resistor. Order Information:

Phase relationships between the voltage across the capacitor, resistor and inductor can be studied using DataStudio’s oscilloscope display.

Bulbs are less bright when wired in a series circuit. Order Information: Series/Parallel Circuit.......EM-8677 Recommended:

Order Information: RLC Circuit.................................................... CI-6512

254

Replacement Bulbs (5 Pack). ...............................................EM-8679 Hand-Crank Generator.........................................EM-8090 p.270

Resistor-Capacitor Circuit............................................. SE-9791 Recommended: Basic Digital Multimeter............................... SE-9786A p. PASCO Stopwatch.......... ME-1234 p. ScienceWorkshop Interface.................. p. p. Voltage Sensor................... CI-6503 PASPORT Interface........................................... p. Voltage/Current p. Sensor........................................... PS-2115

281 224 68-72 79 10-23 48

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Electricity – Circuits

Basic Electricity EM-8622

Circuit Experiment Board

Components Set

A Durable, Easy-to-Use Kits A Explore Basic Electronics A Complete Lab Manual

With this board and the included components, students can build a variety of basic circuits, from resistors in series and parallel, to a simple amplifier.

These simple kits provide a strong foundation for future studies in electronics. They take students from the basics of Ohm’s Law through simple series and parallel circuit analysis, and into some elementary aspects of electronics where they will build circuits using capacitors, transistors and diodes. One kit per two students is recommended, giving each student his or her own circuit board.

Includes: Two Circuit Boards with the following features: Battery holders: (2) Resistor: (1) 3.3 Ω, 2 W Light sockets: (3) with 3 bulbs (#14) Potentiometer: (1) 25 Ω, 2 W Spring connectors: (32) Transistor socket: (1) Storage tube for holding components (components stay with the kit longer)

Components Package containing: Resistors: (23) (10 Ω - 220 kΩ, 5%, 1/2 W) Capacitors: (4) (100 µf, 330 µf) Diodes: (2) Transistors: (2) Wire leads: 22 gauge

Typical Experiments With Teacher’s Guide and Sample Data. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Getting Acquainted Series vs. Parallel Circuits Ohm’s Law Resistances in Circuits Voltages in Circuits Currents in Circuits Kirchhoff’s Rules (nodes and loops) Capacitors in Circuits Diodes Transistors

Low Voltage Unique Spring Connectors

Twist them, bend them, push on them: no damage done. These connectors will still hold components and wires securely.

Innovative Physics Textbooks and PASCO Physics Products Matter & Interactions is a 2-volume textbook and curriculum by Ruth Chabay and Bruce Sherwood, published by Wiley & Sons. Intended for science and engineering students taking calculus-based introductory university physics. For more information on purchasing these textbooks, visit www.wiley.com.

Electric and Magnetic Interactions Electric and Magnetic Interactions (Vol. 2 of 2) continues the emphasis on atomic-level descriptions and analysis and modeling physical systems. Electrostatics and circuit phenomena are treated as one integrated subject. The Desktop Electricity Kit allows students to carry out just-intime desktop experiments on electrostatics, magnetism and circuits.

Desktop Electricity Kit

Basic Electricity Laboratory (2 boards).................................................... EM-8622 Required: “D” Cell Batteries (4-pack). ... PI-6602 Basic Digital Multimeters (2). ................................... SE-9786A p. 281 Replacement Supplies: Light Bulbs (#14, 25 pack)...... EM-8627 Electronic Components – Basic Electricity Lab....................... EM-8663

EM-8675 Desktop Experiment Kit EM-8675 Includes:

Check out the experiments at www.pasco.com Order Information:

Two D batteries provide all the power needed (batteries not included).

When used in tandem with the Electric and Magnetic Interactions textbook, this kit provides students the conceptual tools to further their understanding of electric and magnetic interactions. While its components look simple, they provide hands-on opportunities for students to build powerful conceptual models.

Capacitor 1F, 2.5 V Resistor 47 Ω, 0.5 W Resistor 100 Ω, 0.5 W Lamp Holder T3-1/4 (qty 2) #48 Miniature Lamp 2.0 V, 0.6 A (qty 2) Incandescent Lamp 2.5 V, 0.3 A (qty 2) Battery Holder Alkaline Battery D-cell (qty 2) Bar Magnet (0.375” x 1”) Compass, Liquid Filled Wire-Red 22AWG (6 ft) Alligator Clip Leads (12”) (qty 7) Nichrome Wire #26 (18”) Nichrome Wire #30 (18”) Order Information: Desktop Electricity Kit....................................... EM-8675

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Electricity – Basic Circuits

MR 200 Digital/Analog Breadboard

Plastic Cover

over ferromagnetic strips has holes to guide the magnets on the components.

SE-9982 A Magnetic Connections A Locking Metal Storage Case A Includes Wide Variety of Digital Components

The MR Board is a reusable magnetic breadboard that eliminates the need to solder or strip wires when constructing an electronic circuit. By using components that connect through magnetic attraction to the board, students are able to quickly check and expand their knowledge of electronics concepts.

Magnet

makes the electrical connection to the conducting strips.

Components are securely mounted to the special magnetic holder.

Components are protected from damage. DIP sockets are provided to allow users to insert their own devices.

Experiments: Basic Circuits Parallel and Series Circuits Short Circuit Kirchhoff’s Law Bias Circuits RC and RL Circuits Basic Gates Combinational Gates Boolean Expressions De Morgan’s Theorems Duality of Logic Function Binary System

Half Adder Full Adder Half Subtractor Full Subtractor Magnitude Comparator Decoder Encoder Multiplex Demultiplex Seven Segments Clipper Clamper

RS Latch RS Flip-Flops JK Flip-Flops D Flip-Flops Shift Register Timer Synchronous Sequential Circuit Asynchronous Sequential Circuit Counter Schmidt Trigger Multivibrator

Includes: Locking Storage Case Magnetic Breadboard Pre-mounted Digital and Analog Components Mounted DIP Sockets to Accept Customers Components Order Information: MR 200 Digital/Analog Breadboard. ...........................................SE-9982 Required: 9 V Battery

MR 100 Analog Breadboard SE-9981 Components are stored on a separate labeled board.

A Magnetic Connections A Fiberboard Storage Case A Includes Analog Components The MR Board is a reusable magnetic breadboard that eliminates the need to solder or strip wires when constructing an electronic circuit. By using components that connect through magnetic attraction to the board students are able to quickly check and expand their ideas regarding electronics concepts. Components are protected from damage and user provided components can be inserted in pre-mounted sockets.

Includes: Experiments: Basic Circuits Ohm’s Law Parallel and Series Circuits Short Circuit Kirchhoff’s Law Bias Circuits RC and RL Circuits

256

Storage Case Magnetic Breadboard Pre-mounted Analog Components Mounted Sockets to Accept Customers Components Order Information: MR 100 Analog Breadboard. ...........................................SE-9981 Required: 9 V Battery

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Basic Electricity

AC/DC Electronics Laboratory EM-8656

Push Button Switch

Light Bulbs and Sockets

Iron Core

Potentiometer

A Stand-Alone Operation A Computer Compatible A Includes Coil and Iron Core Coil

The EM-8656 AC/DC Electronics Laboratory dynamically teaches the basics of AC/DC circuits. Students can use this kit with a ScienceWorkshop Computer Interface and Power Amplifier or as a stand-alone unit. The storage tray holds all included components, reducing the chance of losing capacitors, resistors, etc. Two D batteries are required for stand-alone use (not included).

Banana Jacks

For computer connection.

Experiments Battery Holder

Component Springs

Hold circuit components securely.

Includes:

The AC/DC Electronics Laboratory can be used as a stand-alone electricity learning center. Students study how the resistance of a light bulb filament changes as it heats up. The graph below displays voltage vs. current for an incandescent light bulb. It is clear that the resistance is not linear but changes as the bulb begins to glow.

Using DataStudio and a Voltage Sensor, students can measure the electromotive force (EMF) created when a magnet is dropped through a coil. By integrating the voltage-time graph, students can also measure the changes in magnetic flux created by the magnet.

18 cm x 25 cm circuit board Resistors (24) (4.7 Ω–220 kΩ, 5%, 0.25-5 W) Capacitors (7) (1 µF – 330 µF) Diodes (6), Transistors (2) and LEDs (4) Wire leads (22 gauge) Push button switch Storage tray and laboratory manual Battery holders (2) Light sockets (3) and lamps (3) 25 Ω, 2 W potentiometer (1) Component connectors (36) Transistor socket (1) 8.2 to 19 mH coil and iron core

Order Information:

Check out the experiments at www.pasco.com

AC/DC Electronics Laboratory...............................................EM-8656 Electronic Components – AC/DC Electricity............................EM-8668

257


Electricity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Reinventing Science Kits

Reinventing Edison: Build Your Own Light Bulb SE-7145 A Experiment with different filaments A Discover how vacuum effects light bulb A Durable components last for years The Reinventing Edison Kit gives students the ability to experiment in just the way Edison did. They can use any one of the filament materials included to find out how the filament material impacts current flow, filament heating and light emission. The role that vacuum plays in filament life, and the color of light emitted from different filaments expand the learning opportunity to many different topics in science.

Students explore how a vacuum affects the life of a light bulb they constructed from a plastic cylinder and various filaments.

Includes: Safety Vacuum Chamber Hand Vacuum Pump Filament Materials (including tungsten and carbon) Test Leads 28 Page Instruction Manual Storage Box

Order Information: Reinventing Edison: Build Your Own Light Bulb..................................................... SE-7145 Light Bulb Refurbishment Kit. ............................ SE-7147

Reinventing Morse: Build Your Own Telegraph SE-7146 A Build a Working Telegraph A Explore Electrical Topics with Real Activities A Learn Morse Code The Reinventing Morse Kit includes everything needed to build a working telegraph. Students build a solenoid and explore the relationship between current and magnetic field strength and extend into building a sounder, buzzer and relay. With multiple kits in the classroom a working telegraph system can be built and messages sent from one station to another.

Students wind their own coils to construct a telegraph. They also learn Morse Code and how to connect simple circuits.

Includes: Coil Bobbins Telegraph Key 100â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Hookup Wire Test Leads 24 Page Instruction Manual Storage Box

258

Order Information: Reinventing Morse: Build Your Own Telegraph........................................ SE-7146 Required: 6 V Lantern Battery, 9 V, or two D Cells

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Electricity – Basic Circuits

CASTLE “2005” Curriculum

Carbon Resistors

These impede flow similar to low resistance bulbs, but don’t glow and divert attention to role as energy sinks.

Capacitor-Aided System for Teaching and Learning Electricity A Complete Electricity Curriculum A Redesigned Sections to Facilitate Beginning CASTLE Curriculum in Grade 8 or 9

CASTLE Kit (for 2 Students) Economy CASTLE Kit (for 8 Students) EM-8654

Battery Holder

Securely holds batteries and yet makes them visible so their function within the circuit is evident.

EM-8624A

High-Quality Compass

Non-invasive monitoring of movement in wires enables students to visualize the direction of charge flow.

The CASTLE™ Approach CASTLE is a high school electricity curriculum that leads students from initial naive ideas to an increasingly expert understanding of electrical phenomena. A sequence of self-guided experiments uses large capacitors and transient bulb lighting to help students confront misconceptions, grasp the physics of current propulsion and build intuitive explanatory models.

Typical Experiments Core Curriculum investigates:

1. What is happening in the wires? 2. What do the bulbs do to moving charge? 3. Where does the moving charge originate? 4. What makes charge move in a circuit? 5. How do wires distribute electric pressure in a circuit? 6. How are values of circuit variables measured?

Advanced Curriculum investigates:

7. Does all matter contain charge? What are electrons? 8. What is the cause of distant action effects? 9. What pushes on tiny charge carriers like electrons? 10. How do semiconductors work? What is AC? 11. How do motors and generators work? 12. How are magnetic and electromagnetic fields produced?

View the experiments at www.pasco.com

The Curriculum Guide Download the Manuals FREE. Download the CASTLE Curriculum Guide for FREE. At www.pasco.com just type CASTLE in the search box and click GO! The teacher’s manual helps teachers put the CASTLE Kits to the best possible use. The student manual has investigations for each stated experiment, plus commentaries to prepare students for labs and summary exercises to reinforce the lab experience.

Miniature Light Bulbs

Different shaped bulbs have different resistance values.

Screw Sockets and Stands

Stands provide a sturdy support for bulbs and are easy to quickly connect into a circuit.

Wires with Alligator Clips

These 10 color-differentiated wires make circuit connections quick and easy— no soldering or wire twisting required.

25,000 µf Capacitor

Provides the foundation for this intuitive introduction to current electricity.

Auxiliary Equipment for Core Curriculum

2

Auxiliary Equipment for Advanced Curriculum 3

1 The Mini Generator (1) enables students to distinguish charge circulation from energy transfer. The 100,000 µf Capacitor (2) lengthens the time scale of transient bulb lighting.

The Kits Each CASTLE Kit includes all the materials needed (except for three D batteries) for two students to work through a complete introduction to basic electricity. Each Economy CASTLE Kit includes all the materials needed (except batteries) for eight students.

Materials Included in Each Kit Component CASTLE Economy Kit Kit 25,000 µF capacitor 1 4 (20 volts, nonpolar) #14 light bulbs (round) 4 25 #48 light bulbs (oblong) 6 25 10 Ohm resistor 4 16 Miniature light bulb 4 16 sockets and stands Wires with alligator clips 10 40 Battery holder 1 4 (spring-loaded) High-Quality compass 1 4 Storage box 1 0

Bi-color LEDs detect electric vectors in electromagnetic fields produced in these coils (3) by accelerating charge when current is turned on and turned off. Order Information: CASTLE Kit....................................EM-8624A Batteries not included. Three “D” batteries are required per kit.

Economy CASTLE Kit.......EM-8654

Batteries not included. 12 “D” batteries are required per kit.

Recommended: (1) Mini Generator.............. SE-8645 p. 270 (2) Capacitor (0.1 F)........... EM-8655 (Minimum of 2 each per class)

(3) Primary and Secondary Coils..................... SE-8653

p. 272

(Minimum of 2 each per advanced class)

Replacement Supplies: We recommend the purchase of one EM-8627 and one EM-8628 spare bulb set for every five CASTLE Kits, or for every Economy CASTLE Kit.

Light Bulbs (#14, 25 pack).............. EM-8627 Light Bulbs (#48, 25 pack).............. EM-8628 Light Bulb Sockets (10 pack)....... EM-8630 D cell batteries (4 pack) ................... PI-6602 Light bulbs (#50, 4 pack) and Sockets (2 pack) . .......................... EM-9099 Liquid-Filled Compasses (5 pack) ............................. EM-8631A Capacitors (0.025 F, 2 pack).......... EM-8632

259


Electronic Circuit Components

Circuit Components Use these stand-alone components to build your own circuits. Investigate series and parallel combinations of bulbs and batteries using components detailed below.

Series/Parallel Battery Holder

Light Bulb and Stand

SE-8799 (10 pack)

EM-9099 Miniature socket has a plastic base with spring loaded metal clips to hold wire leads. Accepts screw type miniature bulbs. Includes two sockets and four #50 7.5 V, 0.22A bulbs. Order Information: Light & Socket

.........................................................................................................

EM-9099

Light Bulb Sockets EM-8630 This unique battery holder allows “D” cell batteries to be easily connected in both Series and Parallel. Metal extensions on both sides of the holder are also convenient for use with alligator clips.

Miniature socket has a plastic base with spring loaded metal clips to hold wire leads. Accepts screw type miniature bulbs. Includes ten sockets. Order Information: Light Sockets (10 pack)..................................................................................EM-8630

Light Bulbs Screw type base, suitable for use with EM-8630 Sockets. Series – Use the snaps to connect the batteries end to end.

EM-8627: 2.5 V, 0.3 A bulbs. Contains 25 bulbs. EM-8628: 2.0 V, 0.6 A bulbs. Contains 25 bulbs. EM-8814: 7.5 V, 0.22 A bulbs. Contains 25 bulbs. Order Information:

Parallel – Use the metal slides to use the batteries side by side. Order Information: Series/Parallel Battery Holder (10 pack)..................................SE-8799 Recommended: Light Bulbs (#14, 25 pack)...........................................................................EM-8627 Light Bulb Sockets (10 pack)....................................................................EM-8630 Alligator Clip Leads (set of 10)..............................................................EM-8634

260

Light Bulbs 2.5 V, 0.3 A (25 pack #14)...................................EM-8627 2.0 V, 0.6 A (25 pack #48)...................................EM-8628 7.5 V, 0.22 A (25 pack #50). ...............................EM-8814

Switch Set EM-8815 (6 pack) This single-pole single-throwknife switch has screw terminals and a Bakelite™ base. Through-holes allow for mounting base to another surface. Order Information: Switch Set (6 pack).............................................................................................EM-8815

www.pasco.com


Electricity – Supplies

Resistors and Capacitors

Banana Plug Cord Sets

Assortment of electrical components including 10 each of the following:

30 cm and 75 cm Lengths

Resistor Pack EM-8784

Capacitor Pack EM-8785

10 Ω, 100 Ω, 330 Ω, 560 Ω, 1000 Ω, 3300 Ω, 10 kΩ, 22 kΩ, 100 kΩ, 220 kΩ, 330 kΩ.

1 µF, 10 µF, 47 µF, 100 µF, 330 µF, 470 µF.

These heavy, insulated patch cords are convenient, durable and inexpensive. The grips are stackable and made of soft plastic for flexible strain relief. Springs connectors rotate in the grips, reducing wear due to friction.

Long Patch Cords SE-9750, SE-9751: 75 cm long (assembled), available in red or black. Order Information: Red (set of 5)...............................................................................................................SE-9750 Black (set of 5)...........................................................................................................SE-9751

Short Patch Cords Resistors

SE-7123: 30 cm long (assembled), two each red, yellow, blue, black.

Capacitors

Order Information:

Order Information: Resistor Pack. .............................................................................................................EM-8784 Capacitor Pack..........................................................................................................EM-8785

Short Patch Cords (set of 8). ...................................................................SE-7123

Spade-to-Banana Adapters EM-8629 (10 pack)

Capacitors

0.1 F

EM-8655 (0.1 F) EM-8632 (0.025 F) SE-8626 (1.0 F)

0.025 F

For use with both regular and shielded banana plugs. Includes five red and five black adapters. Order Information:

1.0 F EM-8655: (0.1 F) Electrolytic, bipolar, 10 Volt capacitor with screw terminals, 4.5 cm diameter, 14 cm long. EM-8632: (0.025 F) Electrolytic, bipolar, 25 Volt capacitor with screw terminals, 5 cm diameter, 8 cm long. Contains two capacitors. SE-8626: (1.0 F) Electrolytic, bipolar, 5 Volt capacitor, 4.5 cm diameter, 1.5 cm tall. Order Information: Capacitors

(0.1 F)..........................................................................................EM-8655 (0.025 F) (2 pack).........................................................EM-8632 (1.0 F)..........................................................................................SE-8626

Spade-to-Banana Adapter (10 pack)..............................................EM-8629

Alligator Clip Adapters SE-9756 (10 pack) Convert banana plugs into alligator clips with this set of 10 adapters. The 4 mm banana plug clips are bright tin-plated steel. Includes five red and five black. Order Information: Alligator Clip Adapters (set of 10)....................................................SE-9756

Batteries PI-6601 AA (4 pack) PI-6602 D (4 pack) PI-6603 C (4 pack) Each pack contains four alkaline batteries. Order Information: Batteries

AA (4 pack). ........................................................................PI-6601 D (4 pack)..............................................................................PI-6602 C (4 pack). .............................................................................PI-6603

Alligator Clip Leads EM-8634 (10 pack) Use these 30 cm long Alligator Clip Leads for almost any application — from hooking up instruments to bread boarding circuits. They come in sets of 10: two each of yellow, white, red, green and black. Order Information: Alligator Clip Leads (set of 10).............................................................EM-8634

261


Electricity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Resistance

Resistance Apparatus

Built-in cm scale and

slide wire probe make it easy to measure the voltage drop across various wire lengths.

EM-8812 A Slide-Wire Potentiometer A Measure Resistance and Resistivity

Sample wire

Wires are held securely and straight by the wire guides and lugs.

A Four wire diameters, five wire materials A current is established in a wire of known diameter, and the voltage drop across a section of the wire is measured. Students can calculate the resistance of the wire and the resistivity of the material.

Slide wire probe

Wire storage tray

Spring-loaded wire probe slides easily along the wire, making contact at a single point.

Features Vary wire length: Slide-wire potentiometer pick-up makes it easy. Use the built-in scale to measure the length of the wire.

Connection to DC power supply

Vary wire diameter: Four different diameters of brass wire are included. Investigate the difference between resistance and resistivity. Interchange wires quickly and easily. Vary wire material: Five different material wires are included. Investigate how resistivity depends on the wire material. Storage: Built-in storage tray holds wires.

The Resistance Apparatus has a slide wire probe to easily change the measured length of the wire, and utilizes a four wire hook-up to accurately measure the voltage drop. It comes with four different brass wire diameters and four other wire materials.

Connection to Galvanometer

Graph shows voltage drop across various lengths for three different material wires. The slope of the line (along with wire diameter and current) is used to calculate the resistivity of the material.

Includes two each of the following (30 cm long) wires: Copper (1.0 mm diameter) Aluminum (1.0 mm diameter) Stainless Steel (1.0 mm diameter) Nichrome (1.0 mm diameter) Brass (0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.3 mm diameter)

For the experiment shown, the GLX Power Amplifier produces a 10 second voltage ramp to apply a varying current through a brass wire. The current is measured directly by the Power Amplifier, and the voltage drop over the selected section of wire is measured by the Galvanometer Sensor. A graph of voltage drop vs. current is created, and the slope of this line is the resistance of that length of wire. See pages 10-14 for more information on the GLX and Power Amplifier. Order Information: Resistance Apparatus...................................................................................................................................... EM-8812 Recommended: Galvanometer Sensor..................................................................................................................................... PS-2160 Replacement Wires............................................................................................................................................. EM-8813

262

p. 48

www.pasco.com


Electricity – Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Hydrogen Fuel Cell A hydrogen fuel cell is a clean and efficient way of storing energy and generating electricity. With this Hydrogen Fuel Cell, students see a real-world example of cutting-edge energy technology.

Fan

Fuel Cell

SE-8573

Electrolyzer

Hydrogen Storage Tank

Electricity from the solar panel is used in the process of electrolysis to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen is used as fuel in the fuel cell. The process that takes place in the fuel cell is the opposite of electrolysis: the hydrogen is combined with oxygen to make water and produce electricity. In this demonstration, the electricity produced by the fuel cell is used to operate a fan. The fuel cell has an efficiency of about 50%. This apparatus uses Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology. A PEM is a proton-conducting polymer membrane that is covered with a layer of catalyst material on both sides. These two layers form the cell’s cathode and anode. One PEM is used to separate the hydrogen from the water, and a second PEM is used to re-combine the hydrogen with oxygen to make water.

4e-

Water

4e-

Solar Cell Specifications Dimensions: 15 cm x 53 cm x 18 cm Solar Cell: 2.5 V, 300 mA Fuel Cell Voltage Range: 0.3-0.9 V Fan Power: 20 mW

02

2H2 2H2

2H20

4H+ + 4e-+ 02

4H+ + 4e-

Order Information: Hydrogen Fuel Cell.............................................................................................................................................. SE-8573 Recommended for use with ScienceWorkshop: Voltage Sensor......................................................................................................................................................... CI-6503

p. 79

Current Sensor......................................................................................................................................................... CI-6556

p. 79

Recommended for use with PASPORT: p. 48

A The hydrogen and oxygen accumulate

Hyrunner Hydrogen Car

in their respective tanks. Since there are two hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atom in a water molecule, twice as much hydrogen gas is collected. The hydrogen gas collection tank will fill completely in about two minutes. A Disconnect the power supply and the Hyrunner is ready to hit the road!

SE-7341 A Uses Distilled Water as a Hydrogen Source A Top Speed of 20 cm/s A Ready to Drive in Minutes

The energy from a fuel cell can be used to do work on any system. In the case of the Hyrunner, the energy is used to move the car across the floor at a maximum speed of 20 cm/s. The Hyrunner is well-constructed,

2H20

PEM = Proton Exchange Membrane

Voltage/Current Sensor................................................................................................................................. PS-2115

PASCO’s Hyrunner Hydrogen Car is an outstanding example of a promising energy source for the future. The hydrogen fuel cell is an amazing device that combines hydrogen with oxygen to produce water and energy. Hydrogen fuel cells boast an efficiency that is roughly twice that of internal combustion engines.

The fuel cell contains a Proton Exchange Membrane which facilitates energy production.

with all components visible for student inspection and a more thorough understanding of its workings.

How it Works A Place distilled water into the two storage tanks to force any air out of the gas collection chambers. A Next, plug the included power supply into the hydrogen fuel cell. Using the energy from the power supply, the water in the storage tanks is electrolyzed, creating both hydrogen and oxygen gas.

Includes: Hyrunner Car

Reversible Fuel Cell

Power Supply

Distilled Water

Two Gas Collection Chambers

Safety Glasses Instruction Books

Order Information: Hyrunner. ........................................................ SE-7341

263


Energy – Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Fuel Cell Tutorial Set SE-8837

This complete fuel cell tutorial kit includes everything needed to study the operation of fuel cells. Students cover the metal base-plate with templates from the tutorial book. These act as guides to which students attach the magnetically mounted components. Solar cells, fuel cells, gas storage tanks and fan can be combined for numerous experiments such as solar car, hydrogen production in a solar hydrogen gas station, air-breathing fuel cell car, solar hydrogen system and reversible fuel cell system. A detailed textbook, “Fuel Cell Technology for Classroom Instruction” with exercises is included.

Specifications Electrolyzer Cell 5: 5 cm3/min H2; 2.5 cm3/min O2; 1.16 W Reversible Fuel Cell H2/O2/Air H2/O2 mode: 500 mW H2/Air mode: 150 mW Gas storage: 30 cm3 H2; 30 cm3 O2 Solar module: 2.0 V / 600 mA; 13 cm x 9 cm Battery Box: 4.5 VDC / 0.8 A (Three AA batteries, not included) Power supply: 1.2 A Load (fan): 10 mW Load (car): 150 mW Cable length: 250 mm H x W x D: 140 x 450 x 380 mm Weight: 3.5 kg

Fuel Cell Tutorial Set Includes: –R  eversible Fuel Cell H2/O2/Air: for production of hydrogen and oxygen and conversion of hydrogen to electricity – PEM Electrolyzer Cell 5: for hydrogen and oxygen production – Two Hydrogen/Oxygen Storage Tanks – Solar Cell – Fan: to use as an electrical load – Car: to use as an electrical load – Experimentation Plate with Templates – 110V Power Supply: for use when solar is not available – Battery Box (Three AA batteries, not included) – Connector Cables and Tubing – 250 ml Distilled Water – Fuel Cell Technology Textbook – Carrying Case

Template: This template for the Solar Hydrogen Setup shows students how to connect the components. The components mount magnetically to the steel backing plate.

Solar Hydrogen Setup: Uses solar energy to power the electrolyzer which separates the hydrogen from the oxygen in the water. Then the hydrogen and oxygen are used in the fuel cell to run electricity through the fan.

Solar Hydrogen Car Setup: The car can also be powered directly by the solar cell outside in full sunlight.

Hydrogen Gas Station and Fuel Cell Car H2/Air Setup: Students can construct this hydrogen gas station to fill the tanks on the fuel cell car.

Order Information: Fuel Cell Tutorial Set (110V)......................................................................SE-8837

264

www.pasco.com


Energy – Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Dissectible Fuel Cell

Exploded View of Fuel Cell

SE-8834

This fully functional fuel cell can be completely taken apart and then reassembled in working condition. Satisfy your students’ curiosity about what is inside a fuel cell.

Order Information:

Specifications

Dissectible Fuel Cell...........................................................................................SE-8834 Required (Hydrogen Fuel Source): Electrolyzer 10............................................................................................................SE-8836 Solar Cell...................................................................................................................SE-8838 or Power Source......................................................................................................SE-8839

Fuel Cell Power Output H2/O2: 600 mW Fuel Cell Power Output H2/Air: 200 mW Dimensions: 56 x 42 x 50 mm Weight: 60 g

Fuel Cell 10-Stack

Hydrogen Fuel Supply

SE-8835

Electrolyzer 10

Power Supply

SE-8836

SE-8839

This electrolyzer supplies hydrogen by separating the hydrogen from water. It requires a power source: Either a solar cell or an AC power adapter (see below)

This power supply plugs into line voltage and outputs 5 VDC at 3 A. Used to power the Electrolyzer when sunlight is not available.

Includes:

Connection: 2 mm banana

This stack of 10 fuel cells can be used as a 2-Watt power source. Cells can be demounted to meet lower power needs. The voltage of each cell can be monitored.

Specifications Power 10 Cells: 2 W Dimensions: 60 x 175 x 70 mm Weight: 430 g Order Information: Fuel Cell 10-Stack............... SE-8835 Required (Hydrogen Fuel Source): Electrolyzer 10......................... SE-8836 Solar Cell................................ SE-8838 or Power Source................... SE-8839 Recommended to Measure Voltage: ScienceWorkshop or PASPORT Interface Voltage Sensor ..................... CI-6503 p. 79 PASPORT Voltage/ Current Sensor ..................... PS-2115 p. 48

Solar Cell

SE-8838

This solar cell outputs 4 V at 350 mA in full sunlight. Used to power the Electrolyzer. Dimensions: 13X9 cm. Connection: 2 mm banana

Double-cell PEM electrolyzer with water tanks, hydrogen and oxygen tanks

Specifications Hydrogen Production: 10 cm3/min Oxygen Production: 5 cm3/min Power: 2.33 W Dimensions: 200x180x120 mm Order Information:

Order Information:

Electrolyzer 10...................................... SE-8836

Power Source........................................ SE-8839

Solar Cell 1.00 W

SE-8847

Power: 1  W nominal power output; 2.40 V open circuit voltage Dimensions: 127x152x8 mm outside dimensions; 30.5 cm2 actual cell area Includes one pair of 4 mm banana plug cables.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Solar Cell...........................................................SE-8838

Solar Cell 1.00 W.......................................SE-8847

265


Electromagnetism – Magnetism

Variable Gap Magnet

Neodymium Magnets

3/4-inch diameter on an iron base. Field strength can be adjusted between 70 and 7500 Gauss.

EM-8641 A Variable Field Strength (70 - 7500 Gauss)

Adjustment Screws

Gap can be varied between 0.5 cm and 8.9 cm.

A Great for Induction Experiments PASCO’s Variable Gap Magnet demonstrates difficult ideas such as force on a current-carrying wire, eddy currents, paramagnetism and diamagnetism. Vary the pole separation of this ultra strong lab magnet to provide field strengths from 0.007 to 0.75 Tesla (70 to 7500 Gauss). It’s a strong, general purpose lab magnet convenient for experiments in magnetic induction. The neodymium magnets are plastic-coated to prevent chipping. The heavy-duty iron base is stable in four different freestanding positions and also mounts on standard 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) rods.

Versatile Iron Base

May be used in four freestanding positions or mounted on a threaded rod.

On End

Upright Upright

Upside Down Upside-down

On Side

On On end End

Upside Down

On On side Side

The Variable Gap Magnet may be used in 4 different freestanding positions as well as on a stand.

Flat Pole Pieces

Supplied to provide a more uniform field when needed. Order Information: Variable Gap Magnet....................................................................................................................................... EM-8641 (Includes Variable Gap Magnet with Pole Pieces) Magnetic Demonstration System................................................................................................... EM-8644A (Includes EM-8641 and EM-8642A, shown below)

Magnetic Force Accessory EM-8642A

The Magnetic Force Accessory includes items required to perform three demonstrations with the Variable Gap Magnet:

3. Force on a Current-Carrying Wire Swing the wire through the gap and detect the induced EMF with a galvanometer. Or, pass a current through the wire and watch it move in the magnetic field.

(a)

(b)

1. M  agnetic Damping Swing the solid aluminum paddle through the gap and it stops dead, the motion damped due to eddy currents. Now try the slotted paddles. One swings freely while the other is immediately damped. 2. Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism Diamagnetic and paramagnetic rods are placed in the strong magnetic field of the Variable Gap Magnet.

266

Includes: Three aluminum paddles (solid, slotted, closed slotted) Glass rod Aluminum rod Wire swing Special mounting rod Order Information: Magnetic Force Accessory.............................. EM-8642A Required: Power Supply (18 V DC, 5A)..................... SE-9720A

p. 279

or

The diamagnetic glass rod (figure a) aligns transverse to the field; the paramagnetic (figure b) aluminum rod aligns with the field.

Mini-Generator............... SE-8645

p. 270

Base and Support Rod. ............................................... ME-9355

p. 213

www.pasco.com


Electromagnetism â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Motors

Induction Wand EM-8099

AC/DC Motor (Accessory to Variable Lab Magnet)

Permanent Magnet Motor

SE-8657

SE-8658A

The SE-8657 Motor Accessory is an electromagnet designed as an armature that will rotate when placed in a magnetic field and connected to an AC or DC power supply. The Motor Accessory can transform:

A The EM-8641 Variable Gap Magnet into

a DC and a synchronous AC motor and generator. Students can explore the relationships between motor speed, voltage and AC frequency, as well as armature direction, rotation and polarity.

The Induction Wand is a rigid pendulum with a coil at the bottom end, connected to the banana terminals at the other end. A through-hole allows the pendulum to be connected to a Rotary Motion Sensor (pages 26, 74 (not included)), for detailed investigations of induction, as the coil is swung through a magnetic field.

A The SF-8616 Coils and Cores Set into

a universal motor. Students learn the relationships between current and magnetic field direction the effects of voltage, AC current frequency and DC voltage changes on motor speed.

Experiments All experiments with the Motor Accessory can be performed with either a Digital Function Generator or with the ScienceWorkshop 700 or 750 Interface and the Power Amplifier. Motor Accessory with the SF-8616 Coils and Cores Set

The SE-8658A Permanent Magnet Motor teaches principles involved in the operation of DC and synchronous AC motors, as well as AC and DC power generation. Open construction permits students to trace the wiring and relate motor performance to basic laws of electromagnetism. A few seconds and no additional parts are required to reverse the armature and change from a DC split-ring commutator to AC slip rings. Powerful ceramic field magnets and ample windings give excellent performance with minimal current.

Experiments This motor will operate with simple flashlight cells or a function generator/ amplifier, but it is designed to take advantage of the features of DataStudio. Photogates can measure the motorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speed as frequency, voltage and current are varied. Powering the motor with the CI-6552A Power Amplifier permits control from the computer keyboard.

Includes: The energy of the pendulum decreases with each pass of the coil through the magnet. The energy dissipated in the resistor is obtained from the area under a power versus time plot. For more information, see page 390.

Includes: Wand with screw Resistive load

Order Information: Induction Wand.............................................. EM-8099

Armature Brushes Mounting Rod Order Information: AC/DC Motor Accessory.................................. SE-8657 Required: Function p. Generator.................................. PI-8127 or ScienceWorkshop 750 with Power Amplifier. ................................... p. Variable Gap Magnet. ........................................ EM-8641 p. p. Basic Coil Set. ...................... SF-8616

Order Information: 284

Permanent Magnet Motor.......................................... SE-8658A Required:

68-70

Function Generator.............................. PI-8127 or

266 272

ScienceWorkshop 750 with Power Amplifier. ................................ p. 68-70

p. 284

267


Electromagnetism – Generators

Energy Transfer – Generator

Energy Transfer – Flywheel Accessory

ET-8771A

ET-8773

A Transfers gravitational potential energy to electrical energy A O  pen design: 19 mm neodymium magnet can be seen spinning between the two Coils A Real-Time computer measurement of output power

Transparent Case

Coil

Rod Clamp

The Flywheel Accessory is attached to the Generator (ET-8771) See photo below left, to demonstrate the storage of rotational kinetic energy. The solid aluminum disk (6.3 cm diameter, 80 g mass) keys into the shaft of the Generator to prevent slipping. A thread attached to a hanging weight easily wraps around the built-in pulley. ET-8773 Flywheel Accessory has a built-in pulley and a spiral pattern on the label to show rotational motion.

Magnet

Order Information:

Three-Step Pulley

Power Output

Shown using optional ET-8773 Flywheel As the hanging mass falls, rotational kinetic energy is stored in the flywheel, and converted to electrical energy.

PASCO’s Energy Transfer Generator demonstrates the conversion of gravitational potential energy into electrical energy as a falling weight turns a magnet between two coils. The open design permits easy identification of the essential parts of the generator. The supplied lamp or load resistor can be plugged into the output banana jacks. A Voltage/Current Sensor can be used to measure the generated current, voltage and power. By wrapping the string around different sized steps on the three-step pulley, the generator will spin at different speeds. The smaller the pulley radius, the slower the weight falls and the greater percentage of the potential energy is converted to electrical energy.

Energy Transfer – Flywheel Accessory. .............................ET-8773 Required: Energy Transfer – Generator......ET-8771A

Energy Transfer – Generator Gearing ET-8775 Use the Generator Gearing with the Energy Transfer – Generator to create a measurable power output with a few turns of the hand. Simply connect the gearing to the same rod stand as the generator and stretch the drive belt over the two pulleys. Use the LED on the generator or voltage and current sensors to monitor the output.

The AC power generated by spinning the shaft by hand easily lights the included red-green LED. The LED goes from red to green, indicating the direction of the current.

Includes: Generator with three-step pulley Red-Green LED mounted on plug 100-ohm load resistor mounted on plug Spool of thread

The built-in rod clamp is used to mount the generator on a rod stand. Order Information: Energy Transfer – Generator....................................... ET-8771A Recommended: Flywheel Accessory........... ET-8773 Hydro Accessory................... ET-8772

p. 269

Hooked Mass Set................. SE-8759

p. 223

Large Rod Base. ..................... ME-8735

p. 212

Steel Rod (90 cm)................ ME-8738

p. 212

No Bounce Pad....................... SE-7347

p. 220

Required for use with PASPORT: Voltage/Current Sensor................................................ PS-2115

268

Includes: Generator Hand Crank Disc Built-in Rod Clamp Drive Belt (2) Order Information: Energy Transfer – Generator Gearing. ................................. ET-8775 Required: Energy Transfer – Generator

.....

ET-8771A

Large Base and Support Rod. ... ME-9355 Recommended for use with PASPORT: Xplorer or Xplorer GLX. ..................... p. 10-18

p. 48

Voltage/Current Sensor....................... PS-2115

www.pasco.com


Electromagnetism – Generators

Energy Transfer – Wind Turbine

Energy Transfer – Hydro Accessory ET-8772

ET-8783

A D  emonstrates Hydroelectric Power Generation A O  pen Design Gives View of Spinning Turbine and Water Stream A Falling Water Lights an LED

Attach this clear propeller to the Energy Transfer – Generator for a complete wind energy turbine. Students will better understand the process of electrical energy production from wind after using the turbine.

The Hydro Accessory is used with the Energy Transfer-Generator (ET-8771) to demonstrate how falling water generates electricity. The gravitational potential energy of the water is converted into electrical energy as the falling water turns the turbine. The water can be supplied using the optional Water Reservoir (ME-8594). The water that has passed through the turbine is caught in a beaker and measured to determine the total mass that has fallen. The water nozzle size and angle can be adjusted to optimize performance. By changing the height of the Water Reservoir, different efficiencies are achieved.

Power generated by the Wind Turbine is measured using the Xplorer GLX, and the wind speed is measured using the PS-2174 Weather/Anemometer Sensor (see page 62). The resulting data, in the graph below, shows that power generated by a wind turbine, depends on the cube of the wind speed.

Includes: Turbine housing Plastic turbine (4 cm diameter) Water nozzles (5) Tubing (2-meter long) Plastic hose clamp Screw driver for attaching Hydro Accessory to Generator

Power data as water falls from the reservoir through the turbine.

Includes:

Order Information: Energy Transfer – Hydro Accessory................................................................................................ ET-8772

Fan and mounting hardware

Required: Energy Transfer – Generator................................................................................................................... ET-8771A Recommended: Water Reservoir....................................................................................................................................................... ME-8594

p. 221

Large Rod Base. ...................................................................................................................................................... ME-8735

p. 212

Steel Rod (90 cm)................................................................................................................................................. ME-8738

p. 212

Three-Finger Clamp........................................................................................................................................... SE-9445

p. 214

1000 ml Beaker (6 pack)............................................................................................................................... SE-7288

p. 221

Order Information: Energy Transfer – Wind Turbine............................................. ET-8783 Required: Energy Transfer – Generator...................................................... ET-8771A

269


Electromagnetism â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Generators

Hand-Crank Generator EM-8090 A Heavy-Duty geared generator A D  urable aluminum crank arm with free-turning plastic handle A Output up to 25 Watts

This generator produces up to 12 Volts with a sturdy handle, designed to be cranked by hand. When used to power the light bulbs on the Series/ Parallel Circuit board (sold separately), students can feel the difference in effort required for lighting one bulb, two bulbs or no load. Order Information: Hand-Crank Generator..........................................................EM-8090 Recommended: Series/Parallel Circuit..............................................................EM-8677 p. 254

Mini Generator

Motor/Generator Kit

SE-8645

CI-6513

SE-8645 Mini Generator with the recommended accessories: EM-9099 Light bulb and Stand SE-8626 1 Farad Capacitor

Investigate the efficiency of electrical to mechanical energy conversion as the motor lifts a hanging mass. The precision DC motor is coupled to a ball-bearing windlass by a 10:1 mechanical advantage belt drive. The motor will lift masses up to 1.5 kg. The Motor/Generator can be powered with most DC power supplies, however it is designed for use with the Power Amplifier (CI-6552A) and a Voltage Sensor. Motor/Generator shown with optional photogate to measure the rotational speed.

The Mini Generator produces up to 6 volts DC for basic experiments in electricity, electromagnetism and electrolysis. It replaces the usual power supply with a device that students can see, operate and understand.

Includes: Precision DC Motor Low Friction Pulley/Drive System Sturdy Base with Built-in Table Clamp

Order Information:

Order Information:

Mini Generator........................................ SE-8645

Motor/Generator Kit. .........CI-6513

Mini Generator Experiment Manual. ......................... SE-8646

Required:

Recommended:

Voltage Sensor...........................CI-6503

p. 79

Capacitor (1 Farad )........................... SE-8626

Hooked Mass Set....................SE-8759

p. 223

Power Amplifier........................CI-6552A

p. 70

Light Bulb and Stand...................... EM-9099 Replacement Bulb #50, 7.5 V, 0.22 A

270

Input power and energy for the motor are compared to the output power and energy for the generator.

750 Interface.....................................................................p. 68

www.pasco.com


Electromagnetism – Induction

Ring Launcher

Ring Launcher Accessories

EM-8661 Aluminum Ring

A Shoots Ring 2 Meters High A Improved Design with Thermal Shutoff A Inexpensive, Classic Demonstration

Includes a coil with a bulb that lights by induction when the coil is placed over the launcher core. Also includes three additional rings: one split aluminum ring that will not launch, one copper ring to show the effect of changing materials and one shorter aluminum ring with higher resistance to show that it will not go as high because of decreased induced current.

In this classic demonstration of electromagnetic induction, an aluminum ring is propelled straight up a maximum distance of two meters. The changing magnetic field from the AC powered coil causes a changing magnetic flux through the aluminum ring. The induced EMF in the ring sets up a current which produces a magnetic field. The induced magnetic field opposes the field of the coil, pushing the ring up. Even though the fields are AC, and changing directions at 60 Hz, the two fields are (nearly) always 180˚ out of phase due to the induction of the ring.

Iron Core

Specifications Voltage: 120 VAC, 60 Hz, not available for 220 VAC Fuse: 8 A max. temp. 60 °C Aluminum Ring: 2.2 cm ID Launcher Dimensions: 12 x 18 x 30 cm

EM-8662

Rod Clamp

Coil

is attached to the back for attaching to a ring stand

Power Indicator Light

Lighting a bulb connected to a coil by induction. The coil and bulb are included in the Ring Launcher Accessories (EM-8662).

Includes: Coil with light bulb Split aluminum ring Short aluminum ring The PASCO Ring Launcher has been optimized to launch the ring higher and maximize safety by enclosing all wiring inside the case. A thermal shutoff switch protects the coil by preventing overheating when the momentary launch switch is held down for a prolonged time. A red light indicates when the thermal switch is activated, and further launches are prohibited until the device cools.

Includes: Ring Launcher Aluminum Ring (2)

Copper ring

Overheat Light

Launch Switch

Ring Launcher design ideas contributed by Carl Schneider and John Ertel from the U.S. Naval Academy. Order Information: Ring Launcher......................................... EM-8661

Order Information: Ring Launcher Accessories................................................. EM-8662

271


Electromagnetism â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Coils

Coils and Cores Basic Coil Set SF-8616 Complete Coil Set SF-8617 These high-quality coils and laminated iron cores provide an effective introduction to electromagnetic theory. Purchase them individually or as a complete set. The coils are color-coded and each coil is labeled with the number of turns and the direction of the winding. Use them to investigate:

Electromagnetism: Show how the magnetic field can be increased by increasing the current, by adding an iron core or by using a coil with more turns.

Induction: Pass a magnet through a coil and

detect the resulting electromotive force (EMF) with a galvanometer. Show how the EMF depends on the number of turns in the coil and on the relative velocity of the magnet and coil.

SF-8616 Basic Coil Set Basic Coil Set SF-8616

SF-8617 Complete Coil Set

Complete Coil Set SF-8617

Individual Parts Model Description

1

1

SF-8609

Coil (200 turn)

2

2

SF-8610

Coil (400 turn)

1

1

SF-8611

Coil (800 turn)

-

1

SF-8612

Coil (1600 turn)

-

1

SF-8613

Coil (3200 turn)

1

1

SF-8614

U-shaped core

-

1

SF-8615

E-shaped core

Transformers: Mount coils onto the U-or E-shaped

iron cores to demonstrate mutual inductance and transformer theory. Then connect a load to investigate power transfer. Investigate basic transformer theory with an AC power supply and a voltmeter. Advanced principles require a high power output function generator (Model PI-9587C or PI-9598) and an oscilloscope. For better experiments and demonstrations, use a computer with PASCOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ScienceWorkshop Interfaces.

Using the signal generator capability of the 750 Interface and oscilloscope display of DataStudio, students can investigate transformer theory.

Order Information: Basic Coil Set ...................................................................... SF-8616 Complete Coil Set ......................................................... SF-8617 Individual parts sold separately (See chart, above right)

Primary and Secondary Coils

Air Core Solenoid

SE-8653

SE-7585

Transformer theory can be studied with this set of nested coils consisting of an outside coil (length = 11 cm) having 2920 turns, an inner coil (length = 12 cm) having 235 turns, and a removable 0.96 cm diameter soft iron core. The outer coil is large enough (inner diameter = 2 cm) to drop a bar magnet (SE-8604, page 277) through to demonstrate induction.

This air core solenoid has an inner diameter of 5.5 cm and a length of 14.5 cm, allowing ample room to insert an experimental apparatus into its uniform magnetic field. The maximum current of 5 A produces a 125 Gauss magnetic field.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Primary and Secondary Coils. ...............................................................SE-8653

Air Core Solenoid..................................................................................................SE-7585

272

www.pasco.com


Electromagnetism – Coils

Field and Detector Coils A 5 volt triangle wave (red trace) is applied to the Field Coil, and the induced voltage in the 2000 turn Detector Coil is a square wave (green trace).

2 1

200-turn Coil

500-turn Coil

3

4

5

1. EM-6711 Field Coil: 200 turns of #22 copper wire, 18.6 cm ID, 22.1 cm OD. Max. current 2 A. 2. EM-6723 500 turns of #22 copper wire. Max current 2 A. 3. EM-6712 Detector Coil (400 turn): 400 turns of #28 copper wire. 4. EM-6713 Detector Coil (2000 turn): 2000 turns of #36 copper wire. 5. EM-6714 Bi-color LED Indicator.

Features Verify Faraday’s Law: Verify all aspects of Faraday’s Law. Qualitative Demonstration: With the EM-6714 Bi-Color LED Indicator and the EM-8641 Variable Gap Magnet, students can see when a current is induced in the detector coil. With the LED indicator plugged into a detector coil, the LED flashes red or green as the detector coil passes through the magnet.

Quantitative Demonstration: PASCO’s coils can be used with a function generator and an oscilloscope, or connected to the ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface.

Developed for Workshop Physics® activities

For details of experiments using these coils, see Christopher C. Jones, Faraday’s Law Apparatus for the Freshman Laboratory. Am. J. Phys. 1987; 55(12):1148-1150.

Order Information: Field Coil (200 turn). ........................................................................... EM-6711 Field Coil (500 turn). ........................................................................... EM-6723 Detector Coil (400 turn)................................................................. EM-6712 Detector Coil (2000 turn). ............................................................ EM-6713 LED Indicator............................................................................................... EM-6714 Recommended: Variable Gap Magnet........................................................................ EM-8641 p. 266 ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface.................................................................................. p. 68 or Low Voltage AC/DC Power Supply................................... SF-9584B p. 280 and: Function Generator. ............................................................................ PI-8127 p. 284

Helmholtz Coils EM-6722 with 200-turn Coils EM-6724 with 500-turn Coils The Helmholtz Coils consist of two coils mounted on a base to provide a uniform magnetic field between the coils. The base has a slot that allows the coils to be spaced apart at any distance from 3 cm to 20 cm (center-to-center distance). The proper separation for Helmholtz coils (i.e., the radius of the coils) is marked on the base. Two 0.635 cm (0.25 inch) diameter holes between the coils accommodate mounting devices in the uniform magnetic field.

This plot shows the magnetic field strength along the axis of Helmholtz coils for three different coil separations: the green data is the magnetic field with the coils separated at the proper distance (the radius of the coils). Order Information: Helmholtz Coils (200-turn Coils) ......................................................EM-6722 Helmholtz Coils (500-turn Coils) ......................................................EM-6724 Helmholtz Coil Base (without coils) ...........................................EM-6715

273


Electromagnetism – Force on Current-Carrying Wires

Basic Current Balance

The Current Balance Accessory Kit

SF-8607

SF-8608

A M  easure Force vs. Current, Wire Length, Magnetic Field and Angle A Use a Gram Balance to Measure Force

The Current Balance Ac­ces­so­r y Kit completes the Basic Current Balance, allowing the angle between the conductor and the magnetic field to be varied. The experiment is the same as with the Basic Current Balance, but a 10-turn rectangular coil is used. The coil can be turned through a full 180°, and a built-in degree scale lets students accurately measure the angle between the coil and the field of the fixed magnet.

SF-8607 Basic Current Balance:

measuring the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. With the SF-8607 Basic Current Balance, students can perform quantitative investigations into the force between a current-carrying wire and a magnetic field. Vary the wire length (L), the current (I), and the magnetic field (B), and then measure the resulting force (F).

The Basic Current Balance One to six magnets are mounted on an iron yoke, which is placed on a gram balance. A conductor is suspended between the magnets. The weight of the magnets and yoke is measured, then a current (0-5 A) is passed through the conductor. The change in the reading of the balance (0-4 grams) measures the force between the conductor and the magnetic field.

Fixed Magnet with Yoke 10-turn Rectangular Coil

4

Order Information:

2 1

Eddy Current Rods SE-7361

3 1. 2. 3. 4.

Iron Yoke (holds magnets) Removable Magnets (six) Six Conductors (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 cm in length) Mount (for holding/positioning conductors)

Six conductors of different lengths are provided and can be easily changed while main­tain­ing a repeatable position with respect to the magnetic field. The mag­net­ic field is pro­por­tion­al to the number of magnets used. Order Information: Basic Current Balance........................................SF-8607 Required: Ohaus Balance...................SE-8725

p. 222

Power Supply......................SF-9584B

p. 280

Base and Support Rod. ........................ME-9355

p. 213

Recommended: Basic Digital Multimeter.........SE-9786A p. 281 Tesla Meter.............................SF-7579

274

Current Balance Accessory Kit............................................. SF-8608

3

Add the SF-8608 Current Balance Accessory Kit, and students can also determine how the angle (θ) between the wire and the magnetic field affects the force. With this addition, all the relevant variables can be analyzed:

Fm = ILBsinθ

Includes:

Includes:

p. 277

This dramatic demonstration uses falling ring-shaped neodymium magnets to create eddy currents in four rods of differing materials. Due to the difference in conductivity of the rods, the magnets fall at different rates. The demonstration is performed by turning the apparatus upside down and can be repeated by continuing to invert the apparatus. The 15-cm long rods are made of (in order of decreasing conductivity) copper, aluminum, brass, plastic. Order Information: Eddy Current Rods............................. SE-7361

www.pasco.com


Electromagnetism – Magnetic Levitation

Lenz’s Law Demonstrator

Magnetic Levitation Demonstration

MG-8600

A Demonstrate Magnetic Levitation A Shipped Ready for Display

SE-7339

How it Works The force of earth’s gravity pulls the cube magnet downward. Simultaneously, the ceramic ring magnets exert an upward force. Two diamagnetic graphite plates, one above and below, repel either pole of the cube, creating a stable equilibrium.

Features Visually Appealing: Clear plastic bell housing is viewable from 360 degrees. No Setup: Shipped ready to display. Only a minor finger-tight adjustment of the hex nut may be necessary. Easy to Use: Adjust the hex nut manually. No tools necessary to levitate the cube. A hex key is supplied for reassembling the device or making precise measurements. Complete Manual: Ships with a detailed manual including a theoretical explanation, disassembly/reassembly instructions and an experiment with illustrated instructions.

Includes: A sealed unit (10 cm high) of high purity diamagnetic graphite plates, a gold-plated rare earth levitating magnet and adjustable field magnets. Clear plastic plates (2), Hex key, Complete Manual Order Information: Magnetic Levitation Demonstration............................................................................................................................... SE-7339

Magnetic Levitation Accessory 1.5 meter tube

EM-8947

Drop a mass through the 1.5 meter tube. It takes about half a second to drop. Then drop a magnet with an identical mass. It takes over 10 times as long to fall. As the magnet falls, it generates a current in the tube, moving in one direction above the magnet and in the opposite direction below. Both currents obey Lenz’s Law and induce magnetic fields that oppose the magnet’s motion. (Scale included).

Neodymium Magnet

A D  etermine Lift and Drag Forces on a Permanent Magnet Suspended Over a Spinning Aluminum Disk Eddy currents are produced as the aluminum disk spins, creating a magnetic field that repels the magnet. Amount of lift varies with angular velocity of disk. See page 191 for more information.

Aluminum Disk

High Resolution Force Sensor Sold separately.

Eddy currents are produced as the aluminum disk spins, creating a magnetic field that repels the magnet. Amount of lift varies with angular velocity of disk.

Motor Drive

Sold separately.

Photogate Sold separately.

Includes: Aluminum Disk Arm Assembly 45 cm Aluminum Rod Manual (not shown)

Rotating Platform Sold separately. Order Information:

Order Information:

Magnetic Levitation Accessory. ......................................................................................................... EM-8947

Lenz’s Law Demonstrator. ............................. MG-8600

Required: Rotating Platform.................................................................................................................................................. ME-8951

p. 188

275


Electromagnetism â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Magnetic Fields

2-D Magnetic Field Demonstrator

Dip Needle

Magnaprobe

SF-8619

SE-7390

SF-8602A

Consists of four plastic plates, each containing 98 small iron bars, a bar magnet and four cardboard disks. Place a magnet above or below this demonstrator. Magnetic field lines are clearly revealed as the iron bars align with the field. Lay the plates together to form a large plate, or stand them on edge to map out a 3-D field. Can be viewed directly or used with an overhead projector.

This rotating compass has durable and almost frictionless bearings. Use it horizontally as a standard compass, or vertically to find the dip angle of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s magnetic field. Instruction sheet included.

The Magnaprobe is a great way to demonstrate the 3-D nature of magnetic fields. The probe features a gimbal-mounted Alnico magnet which is free to move in the x, y and z dimensions. As the probe is brought near a magnetic field, the alnico magnet aligns itself with the field. Use it to investigate the magnetic field around various geometries of magnets or the magnetic fields around common electrical devices. Suggested activities are included with each probe. Magnaprobe is 12 cm long.

Order Information: 2-D Magnetic Field Demonstrator. ..............................................SF-8602A

3-D Magnetic Field Demonstrator

Order Information: Dip Needle.........................................................SF-8619

Transparent Compass SE-8681

SE-8603

Order Information: Magnaprobe...................................................... SE-7390

Liquid Filled Compasses (5 pack)

(Magnet not included) With this 3-D Magnetic Field Demonstrator, the iron filings are suspended in oil in a sealed acrylic container. Insert a magnet into the opening, or two magnets with opposing polarities, and watch the filings line up. View the demonstration directly or with an overhead projector. Order Information: 3-D Magnetic Field Demonstrator. ................. SE-8603 Recommended: Bar Magnets p. 277 (set of 2).................................. SE-8604 or: any magnet, 4-5 cm long, dia. <10 mm

276

EM-8631A

This Transparent Compass provides an economical way to conduct magnetism labs. Includes 20 compasses marked in red with North-South and East-West lines. Students can place several compasses around a bar magnet and draw the magnetic field lines. Each compass has a diameter of 19 mm.

2.5 cm long needle has north end marked in black. This compass is perfect for investigating the magnetic fields around straight wires. 4.5 cm diameter liquid filled plastic case. Contains five compasses. Order Information:

Order Information:

Liquid Filled Compasses (5 pack). ......................... EM-8631A

Transparent Compass (20 pack)................................................................. SE-8681

Replacement part for CASTLE Kits (EM-8624A and EM-8654).

www.pasco.com


Electromagnetism – Magnetism Supplies

Bar Magnets

Neodymium Magnets

SE-8604 (2 pack)

Neodymium magnets are some of the strongest commercial magnets available. Available either bare or with a protective coating to prevent the brittle metal from chipping. Plastic case included.

These cylindrical magnets (10 x 50 mm) are small, strong and color-coded for polarity. Plastic case and keeper plates included.

Plastic Coated EM-8621

With Hole EM-9980A 13 mm dia. x 10 mm

Without Hole EM-8648B 13 mm dia. x 5 mm

19 mm dia. x 10 mm

Order Information: Bar Magnets (2 pack). ........................... SE-8604

Rotating Magnet Stands SE-8605 (2 pack)

These clear acrylic stands have low-friction swivels and can be used with an overhead projector for demonstrations with magnets and charged rods. The agate bearings are smooth and durable. An azimuth scale is molded into each base. Shown with SE-8604 Bar Magnets (not included). Order Information: Rotating Magnet Stands (2 pack).............................................. SE-8605

Alnico Bar Magnets

Hole fits a #2 screw Order Information:

Order Information:

Order Information:

Neodymium Magnets (2) (Plastic Coated) EM-8621

Neodymium Magnets (8) (with hole) EM-9980A

Neodymium Magnets (16) (without hole) EM-8648B

Magnetizer SE-8637

Re-magnetize bar and horseshoe magnets or magnetize iron bars for experiments. Insert a magnet into each cavity and press the button. Three keeper bars are included. Magnet not included.

EM-8620 (2 pack) Specifications These magnets (150 x 13 mm) are stronger and last longer than iron magnets. They fit a St. Louis motor and the north poles are notched. Case included.

Coil Current: 100 A peak (min.) Magnetization Field: At least 7 kG peak Operating Voltage: 115/220V AC, 50/60 Hz

Order Information:

Tesla Meter

Alnico Bar Magnets (2 pack)..................................................................... EM-8620

SF-7579

Bar Magnets SE-8687 (2 pack) These economical Bar Magnets (100 mm x 12 mm) are color coded to distinguish between the north and south poles. Align the similar poles together and watch the magnets repel. Align the opposite poles together and watch them attract. Order Information: Bar Magnets (2 pack). ........................... SE-8687

Order Information: Magnetizer. ................................................... SE-8637

A 0–2 Tesla Range A Range Autoscaling A 6-12 Volt DC power supply is required to use the Tesla Meter.

Includes: Tesla Meter with Digital Display Probe (80 mm x 8 mm x 2 mm) Power Adapter: 110V AC to 9V DC, 200 mA

Specifications Resolution: 0  .1 mT (0 – 200 mT) 1 mT (200 mT – 2T) Accuracy: ±5% of measurement

Order Information: Tesla Meter..................................................... SF-7579

277


Electromagnetism – Magnetic Fields

DC Power Supply

Display Selection

PI-9877

Current, voltage, cycle time. Green LED indicates which measurement has been selected.

Power Output

A 1 Amp at 18 VDC A Digital Display A Ramp or Step Positive Voltage Up or Down Provides a current of 1 A at 18 V, with a resolution of 0.01V and typical ripple of 10mV. This DC power supply has added features to cycle the voltage on and off, to ramp the voltage up or down between the maximum and minimum set, and to change the voltage in steps. A positive offset can be introduced so the ramp can start at a voltage other than zero. Minimum period is 0.1 sec (10 Hz) and the maximum period is 999 seconds. The digital display has four digits (0.76 cm high) and can display voltage, current, or time. The time is displayed to set the period, duration, or duty cycle. There are both coarse and fine adjustment knobs. As a safety factor, a maximum current and a maximum voltage can be set to protect your students’ external circuits. The output is voltage regulated but not current regulated. The power supply is connected to AC power using a universal power adapter.

Standard banana jacks allow the DC Power Supply to be easily connected to circuits.

Start/Stop Cycle

Choice of steps, ramps, or cycle on and off.

Indentations

For stacking during storage.

LED Display

Red LEDs make the display easy to read.

Available Functions:

Small and light weight; 12cm x 13 cm x 5.5cm high and approximately 300g. Step Voltage Up

Step Voltage Down from Max to Min

Amplitude Adjustment

Sets maximum current, voltage, cycle period.

Cycle On and Off

Includes: DC Power Supply Universal Power Adapter Order Information:

Cycle On and Off with Different Duty Cycles

Ramp Up with Offset

Instrument Amplifier PI-2212 A Drive a Speaker with a Low Power Signal The Instrument Amplifier is a current amplifier and is capable of using a low power input (such as the output of an MP3 player) to produce an output with up to 10 watts of power (±10 V at 1 A). This output can be used to drive a variety of devices such as the PASCO SF-9324 Mechanical Wave Driver. The input to the amplifier is a pair of stripped and tinned wires on a 72 inch (1.8 meter) cord. One lead is red and the other is black. These wires feed into a differential amplifier with an input impedance of 50,000 ohms (50 kΩ). The output is present on the red and black female banana jacks on the side of the amplifier opposite to the input cord.

278

Programmable

Heat sink

DC Power Supply................................. PI-9877

Included AC Adapter

Dissipates waste heat.

Output Jacks

Accept 4 mm banana plugs (shielded or unshielded) to connect a device to the Instrument Amplifier.

Specifications Input Range: ±10 V Input Impedance: 50 kΩ Output Range: ±1 A @ ±10 V Output Current Limit: ±1.5 A Over-current Indicator Input Signal Leads Over-current Indicator: 1 A Lighted LED indicates that Connect to the signal Load Regulation: 1% the output voltage may be to be amplified by the Output Noise: 20 mV p-p, typical clipped or distorted. Instrument Amplifier. Output Connectors: Shock proof 4 mm Order Information: “banana” jacks, 0.75 inch spacing (19 mm). Black connector common with earth ground. Instrument Amplifier....................... PI-2212

www.pasco.com


Electromagnetism – Magnetism Supplies

Power Supply (18 VDC, 5 A)

Power Supply (30 VDC, 6 A)

Triple Output Power Supply

SE-9720A

SE-9721A

SE-8587

A 0-18 VDC at 0-5 A

A 0-30 VDC at 0-6 A

A 0-30 VDC at 0-3 A

A S  erial and Parallel Operation

A 0.01% High Regulation

A Digital Voltage & Current Meters

The SE-9720 has a remote control connector and switch on the rear panel so units can be connected in series or parallel with each other to provide higher voltage, higher current and higher power output.

This medium-size power supply is conservatively designed for long-term stability and durability. Dual display allows for fast checking of both voltage and current.

Specifications

Specifications

This power supply offers adjustable voltage output (0-30 V), adjustable current output (0-3 A) and two independent constant voltage outputs (5 V and 12 V). Digital displays of both current and voltage allow students to easily gather data. Features overload and shortcircuit protection.

Digital Meter: Voltage or Current Constant Voltage Mode: Output voltage: continuously variable, coarse and fine control; line regulation: ≤0.01%±3 mV; load regulation: ≤0.01%+3 mV; ripple and noise: ≤0.5 mV rms at low current, ≤1 mV rms at high current Constant Current Mode: Output voltage: continuously variable, coarse and fine control; line regulation: ≤0.02% ±3 mA; load regulation: ≤0.02% ±3 mA; ripple and noise: ≤3 mA rms Power Source: AC 100, 120, 220, 240 V± 10%, 50/60 Hz; Protection— overload and reverse polarity protected Dimensions: 29 x 13 x 15 cm (5.5 kg)

Digital Meters: Voltage and Current Constant Voltage Mode: Output voltage: continuously variable, coarse and fine control; line regulation: ≤0.01%± 3 mV; load regulation: ≤0.01%+3 mV; ripple and noise: ≤0.5 mV rms at low current, ≤1 mV rms at high current Constant Current Mode: Output voltage: continuously variable, coarse and fine control; line regulation: ≤0.02% ±3 mA; load regulation: ≤0.02% +3 mA; ripple and noise: ≤3 mA rms Power Source: AC 100, 120, 220, 240 V± 10%, 50/60 Hz; Protection— overload and reverse polarity protected Dimensions: 34 x 26 x 15 cm (11.5 kg)

Specifications

Order Information:

Order Information:

Order Information:

Power Supply. ........................................... SE-9720A (18 Volt DC, 5 A)

Power Supply. ........................................... SE-9721A (30 Volt DC, 6 A)

Triple Output Power Supply. ........................................... SE-8587

Digital Meters: Voltage and Current Constant Voltage Mode: Output voltage: continuously variable; line regulation: ≤0.05% ±10 mV; load regulation: ≤0.05%+10 mV; ripple and noise: ≤0.5 mV rms Constant Current Mode: Output voltage: continuously variable, line regulation: ≤ 0.05%+10 mA; load regulation: ≤0.05%+10 mA; ripple and noise: ≤3 mA rms Power Source: AC 110/220 VAC, 50/60 Hz Dimensions: 29 x 13 x 15 cm (5.5 kg)

Variable Transformer

Student Power Supply (18 VDC, 3 A)

SE-7351

SE-8828 A 0-18 VDC at 0-3 A

Specifications

A Constant voltage or current

Digital Meters: Voltage and Current Constant Voltage Mode: Output voltage: continuously variable; line regulation: <0.01% ±3mV; load regulation: <0.01% ±2mV; ripple and noise: <0.5mV rms Constant Current Mode: Output current: continuously variable; line regulation: <0.2% ±3mA; load regulation: <0.2% ±3mA; ripple and noise: <3mA rms Power Source: AC 110/220 VAC, 60/50 Hz Dimensions: 24 x 11 x 15.4 cm (3 kg)

A Short-circuit protected A Current limiting The Powerstat Variable Transformer is designed for heavy-duty use. Rotation of the knob delivers any output voltage in the range of 0 to 140 Volts. Operating characteristics make it ideal for laboratory, testing and other applications requiring a portable source of variable AC voltage. This variac provides up to 140 V at 10 Amps. 110 VAC power only. Order Information: Variable Transformer................................ SE-7351

A Low noise/ripple This high quality, compact power supply provides the DC voltage and current levels necessary for most introductory student labs.

Order Information: Student Power Supply 18-volt ................................................................ SE-8828

279


Instrumentation – Power Supplies

High Voltage Power Supply

Kilovolt Power Supply

Low Voltage AC/DC Power Supply

SF- 9585A

SF- 9586

SF- 9584B

A 0 to 50 VDC at up to 50 mA

A 0 to 6 kVDC

A 0 to 24 VDC at 0 to 10 A

A 0 to 500 VDC at up to 50 mA

A 6.3 VAC, 2 A filament source

A 0 to 24 VAC at up to 6 A

A 2 to 7 VAC at up to 3 A

A Digital readouts

A versatile and reliable supply for electron physics and other experiments requiring medium to high voltages at relatively low currents.

This Kilovolt Power Supply is a stable and reliable source of very high potentials for electron tubes, electrostatics, the Millikan Oil Drop experiment, etc.

The 50 and 500 VDC outputs are in­de­pen­ dent­ly variable, providing up to 50 mA, and the output displays can be switch-selected to read voltage and current in either range.

The output is well regulated for repeatable results and current limited for safety. (The maximum current varies from 2 mA at lower voltages to 0.1 mA at the full voltage output.) The 6 kV output is center-tapped, providing simultaneous and symmetrical outputs up to ±3 kV. A built-in meter reads the output potential, and 6.3 VAC is provided for heating the filaments of electron tubes.

A separate set of output terminals provides 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7 VAC at up to 3 A, a convenient source for electron tube filaments. Note: The positive terminal of the 50-volt supply is internally connected to the negative terminal of the 500-Volt supply.

Specifications Ripple: Less than 0.1%, ±1 digit Line Regulation: <1% at 98-130 V (line voltage) Load Regulation: <1% at 0-100% load Displays: Digital readouts 0-50 V, 0-500 V, 0-50 mA (switch-selectable) Power Source: 115/220 VAC, 50/60 Hz Dimensions: 21 x 29 x 11 cm (8 x 12 x 4 in.)

Order Information: High Voltage Power Supply. .......................................... SF-9585A

This Power Supply has been designed specifically for use in teaching physics, chemistry and other science subjects. The Power Supply can provide both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). The Power Supply can provide both types of electrical power at the same time, and they can be adjusted independently of one another. Separate digital displays are provided for DC and AC output.

Specifications

Specifications

Current: 0.1 mA at 6 kV differential (3 kV each side), 1.8 mA at 4 kV differential (2 kV each side) Ripple: Less than 1% Line Regulation: Less than 1% output change for 10% input change Meter Scale: 0-6.5 kV Power Source: 115/220 VAC, 50/60 Hz Dimensions: 21 x 29 x 11 cm (8 x 12 x 4 in.)

DC Output Voltage: 0 to 24 V DC Current: From 0 to 12 V, 10 A maximum. From 12 to 24 V, linearly decreasing from 10 A to 6 A, dependent on voltage setting Meter: Digital display (volts/amps); 1%± 2 LSD Ripple: <25 mVpp

Order Information: Kilovolt Power Supply. .......................................... SF-9586

AC Output Voltage: 0 to 24 V AC, continuously adjustable Current: 0 to 6 A Overload Protection Meter: Digital display (volts/amps); 2%± LSD Power Source: AC 115/230 VAC, 50/60 Hz Power Use: 320 W Dimensions: 30 x 23 x 12 cm (12 x 9 x 5 in.) Order Information: Low Voltage AC/DC Power Supply. .......................................... SF-9584B

280

www.pasco.com


Instrumentation – Meters

Basic Digital Multimeter SE-9786A This basic meter includes all functions and ranges needed for most in­tro­duc­to­r y lab work.

Features 20 Amp range Backlit display with 25 mm digits

General Purpose Digital Multimeter SE-9589A This durable, general purpose meter is recommend­ed for general use in the student lab.

Precision Digital Multimeter, Component Tester and Thermometer SB-9631B

Soft rubber boot for drop protection Built-in tilt stand

Specifications

Type K thermometer built in for surface or air measurements

DC Voltage: 200 mV, 2 V, 20 V, 200 V, 1000 V; ±(0.5% +1 digit) 10 M Ω input impedance AC Voltage: 200 mV, 2 V, 20 V, 200 V; ±(1% + 4 digits) 750 V; ±(1.5% + 4 digits) 10 M Ω input impedance DC Current: 200 µA, 2 mA, 20 mA, 200 mA; ±(1% + 2 digit) 2 A; ±(2% + 3 digits) AC Current: 200 µA, 2 mA, 20 mA, 200 mA; ±(1.5% + 5 digits) 2 A; ±(2.5% + 5 digits) Resistance: 200 Ω, 2 k Ω, 20 k Ω, 200 k Ω, 2 M Ω; ±(1% + 4 digits) 20 M Ω; ±(3% + 5 digits) Additional Functions: diode test, logic probe, audible continuity test Display: 3-1/2 digit LCD, 17 mm high digits, polarity indication, low battery indication Power: 300-hour life on 9-V alkaline (battery included) Protection: Overload on all ranges

Auto power off saves battery life

Specifications DC Voltage: 0.1 mV to 600 V with ± 0.5% accuracy AC Voltage: 1 mV to 600 V with ± 0.3% accuracy DC Current: 0.1 μA to 20 A AC Current: 0.1 mA to 20 A Resistance: 0.1 Ω to 20 MΩ Additional Functions: Input fuse protection, audible and visible misconnection signals, data hold freezes display reading Display: 3-1/2 digit display with 25 mm digits, polarity indication, low battery indication Power: 9V battery (included)

Order Information: Basic Digital Multimeter.......................................................SE-9786A

Digital LCR Meter SE-8792 Measure in­duc­tance, ca­pac­it­ ance and re­sis­tance. Test leads are included, along with a battery, a protective holster and a manual.

Features Accuracy: 1% or better on most ranges Easy to Use: Push-button selection for all mea­sure­ments Digital Display: 4-1/2 digit backlit LCD Built-in Tilt Stand: Con­ve­nient tabletop use

Order Information: General Purpose Digital Multimeter.................................SE-9589A

Specifications Inductance: 2000.0 μH, 20.000 mH, 200.00 mH, 2000.0 mH, 20.000 H, 200.00 H, 20.000 H (± 0.7% rdg + Lx/10000 + digit) Capacitance: 2000.0 pF, 20.000 nF, 200.00 nF, 2000.0 nF, 20.000 μF, 200.00 μF, 2000.0 μF (± 0.7% rdg + 5 digit) Resistance: 20.000 Ω, 200.00 Ω, 2.0000 kΩ, 20.000 kΩ, 200.00 kΩ, 2.0000 MΩ, 20.000 MΩ (± 0.5% rdg + 8 digit) Power: 9 V alkaline battery (included) Accessories: Test leads (2), alligator clips (2), protective holder

An excellent general purpose multi-meter. Features high-ac­cu­ra­cy overload pro­tec­tion on all ranges and a built-in digital ther­mom­ e­ter. It also has 10 A current ranges for use in electromagnetic experiments. It can measure capacitance and transistor gain (hFE).

Specifications DC Voltage: 200 mV, 2 V, 20 V, 200 V, 1000 V; ± (0.5% + 1 digit) 10 M Ω input impedance AC Voltage: 200 mV, 2 V, 20 V, 200 V; ± (1% + 4 digits) 750 V; ± (1.5% + 4 digits) 10 M Ω input impedance DC Current: 200 µA, 2 mA, 20 mA, 200 mA; ± (1% + 1 digit) 2 A, 10 A; ± (2% + 3 digits) AC Current: 200 µA, 2 mA, 20 mA, 200 mA; ± (1.2% + 4 digits) 2 A, 10 A; ± (2% + 4 digits) Resistance: 200 Ω; ± (1% + 3 digits) 2 k Ω, 20 k Ω, 200 k Ω, 2 M Ω; ± (0.8% + 1 digit) 20 M Ω; ± (3% + 3 digit) Capacitance: 2 nF, 20 nF, 200 nF, 2 µF, 20 µF; ± (3% + 10 digits) Temperature: -4° to 1400° F -4° F to 900° F; ± 2.0% reading + 4° F; 900° F to 1,400° F; ± 3.0% reading + 4° F Additional Functions: Diode test, transistor hFE, audible continuity test, fold-out stand Display: 3-1/2 digit LCD display, 17 mm high digits, polarity indication, low battery indication Drop Resistant Power: 200-hour life on 9-V alkaline (battery included). Test leads, temperature probe and battery are included. Order Information: Precision Digital Multimeter.......................................................SB-9631B

Order Information: Digital LCR Meter...................................SE-8792

Replacement Supplies: Thermocouple Probe. ........................SB-9632

281


Instrumentation – Oscilloscopes

20 MHz Dual Trace Oscilloscope SB-9591A

Features Dual Channel: Allows two variables to be monitored on the y-axis simultaneously X-Y Operation: Displays one variable on the y-axis and the other on the x-axis Built-in Calibration Source Algebraic Add and Subtract: For differential measurements Two 10:1 probes are included, along with a detachable power cord, spare fuse, schematic diagrams and parts list.

Digital Storage/Analog Oscilloscope SB-9699B

Features Dual Channel: Allows two variables to be monitored on the y-axis simultaneously Analog Operation: Excellent for general purpose oscilloscope experiments Digital Storage: Cap­tur­e, replay and analyze fast transients and one-shot events at the touch of a button The SB-9699B Digital Storage/Analog Oscilloscope comes complete with two 10:1 probes, a spare fuse and an instruction manual.

Order Information: Digital Storage/Analog Oscilloscope. .............................................. SB-9699B Replacement Supplies: Oscilloscope Probe............................ SB-9648

282

Specifications: Vertical Deflection: Deflection Factor: 5 mV/div to 5 V/div in 10 calibrated steps (1-2-5 sequence) with variable control Magnification: 5x increase in sensitivity of selected range (provides 1 mV to 1 V/div) Accuracy: ±3% at CAL’D position: ±5% at CAL’D position for 5x gain Bandwidth (referenced to 5 divisions at 50 kHz)— DC to 25 MHz (at –3 dB); DC to 10 MHz (at –3 dB) on 1 mV/div range Rise Time: Approximately 18 ns Input Impedance: 1 M Ω shunted by 25 pF ± 10 pF Max. Input Voltage: 400 VDC + AC peak Operating Modes: CHA, CHB, DUAL (ALT or CHOP) and ADD Chop Frequency— approx. 500 kHz Channel B Polarity— waveform inversion selectable Horizontal Deflection: Triggered Operation: Sweep Time: 0.2 s to 0.1 ms/div; 20 steps in 1-2-5 sequence with variable control Magnification: x10 (provides sweep expansion to 10 ns/div) Accuracy: ±3% at CAL’D position except ±6% on 0.2 s and ±20% on 0.1 ms (add ±3% when using x10 magnifier) Trigger Holdoff Time-adjustable to longer than 5 times full-width sweep length on all ranges

Specifications Digital Mode Operating Modes: Storage: 2048 x 8 bits/channel (2K per channel direct sampling, 1K per channel equivalent time sampling) Vertical Resolution: 1 in 256, approximately 25 steps/div Horizontal Resolution: 1 in 2048, approx. 200 samples/div Sampling Rate: 10 M samples/sec to 4 samples/sec, reduced in proportion to time base; direct sampling at >10 µs/div; equivalent time sampling at <5 µs/div Time Base Expander: For storing slow events; expand time base from 1 sec/div to 50 sec/div in 1-2-5 sequence for time base steps >10 ms/div Equivalent Time Sampling Bandwidth: 20 MHz for repetitive waveforms Linear Interpolation: Smooths digital trace Display: Roll: Continuously updates data and display Refresh: Updates at each triggered sweep Hold: freezes trace on both channels Save CH2: Freezes channel 2 trace Pre-trigger Storage: single shot events, switchable to 0 or 50% Output Plotting: Output Jacks: Rear panel (0.2 V/div, 2 V max) Sweep Rate: 1/10 of time base setting Pen Lift Output: output jack on rear panel; TTL high, pen up; TTL low, pen down LED Indicators: Trigger (green), arm (red), pen down (red)

X-Y Operation: Inputs: Channel A: x-axis; channel B: y-axis Sensitivity: Same as channel A and channel B deflection factor switch setting on corresponding axis Frequency Response: DC to 1 MHz (at -3 dB) Phase Shift: Less than 3° at DC to ~ 100 kHz Trigger: Source: CHA, CHB, LINE and EXT Coupling/Sensitivity: AUTO— 100 Hz-30 MHz: 1.5 div (int.); ≥ 0.1 V p-p (ext.) NORM— DC-30 Mhz: 1.5 div (int.); ≥ 0.1 V p-p (ext.) TV-V— 20 Hz-1 kHz: 0.5 div (int.); ≥ 0.05 V p-p (ext.) TV-H— 1 kHz-100 kHz: 0.5 div (int.); ≥ 0.05 V p-p (ext.) Slope— Normally “+”; pull TRIG LEVEL control for “-” External Input: Input Impedance: 1 M Ω, 30 pF Maximum Input Voltage: 300 V (DC + AC peak)

Order Information: 20 MHz Dual Trace Oscilloscope. .............................................. SB-9591A Replacement Supplies: Oscilloscope Probe............................ SB-9648

Analog Mode Operating Modes: Single trace: Channel 1 or 2 Dual trace: Alternate or chop Algebraic Sum or Difference X-Y: 5 mV/div to 5 V/div on each channel, DC to 2 MHz (-3 db), phase difference approximately 3° at 50 kHz Vertical Amplifiers (both channels) Sensitivity: 5 mV/div to 5 V/div in 1-2 5 sequence, 10 steps; vernier provides continuous adjustment between steps, increasing max sensitivity to 1 mV/div Accuracy: ±3% Input Impedance: 1 M Ω ±2%; 25 pF ± 10 pF Freq. Response: DC to 20 MHz at 5 mV to 5 V/div (calibrated), DC to 10 MHz at 1 mV/div (uncalibrated) Rise Time: Approximately 18 ns Polarity Reversal: Channel 2 only Max. Input Voltage: 400 V (DC + AC peak) Max. Undistorted Amplitude: 4 divisions (DC to 20 MHz); 8 divisions (DC to 10 MHz) Sweep System: Speed: 0.1 µs/div to 0.5 s/div in 1-2-5 sequence, 21 steps; vernier provides continuous adjustment between steps Accuracy: ±3% Magnifications: 10x Trigger Coupling: AC, TV H/HF, TV V DC/LF Trigger Sensitivity: 0.5 div (internal); 500 mV (external) OTHER: CRT– 8 x 10 div, rectangular with internal graticule (1 div = 1 CM)

www.pasco.com


Instrumentation – Digital Oscilloscopes

Digital Storage Oscilloscopes SB-9620 (60 MHz) SB-9621 (100 MHz) A Stunning Color Display A Advanced Triggers A Memory and Interface The 5.6” TFT color LCD greatly enhances the display performance, letting you see the waveform details clearly from a broad range of viewing angles. Easily adjust settings to capture any signal of interest with Normal, Single, Force, Pulse Width, and Video line selectable triggers. Up to 17 waveforms on the screen can be saved into the internal memory for later recall and comparison. SD card mass storage and USB device port are supported to provide a safe environment for data storage/transfer of measurement results and remote control for diversified solutions.

Specifications: Vertical SB-9620: DC to 60MHz(-3dB) SB-9621: DC to 100MHz(-3dB) Channels: 2 Rise Time: <5.8ns Approx. (SB-9620); <3.5ns Approx. (SB-9621) Sensitivity: 2mV/div to 10V/div (1-2-5 increments) Accuracy: (3% x |Readout| + 0.1 div + 1mV) Input Coupling: AC, DC & Ground Input Impedance: 1MΩ 2% Polarity: Normal & Invert Maximum Input: 300V (DC+AC peak), CATII Waveform Signal Process: +, —, X , FFT, FFTrms Offset Range: 2mV/div to 50mV/div: ±0.4V; 100mV/div to 500mV/div:±4V; 1V/div to 5V/div: ±40V Bandwidth Limit: 20MHz (- 3dB)

Trigger Sources: CH1, CH2, Line, EXT Modes: AUTO, NORMAL, SINGLE, TV, Edge, Pulse width Coupling: AC, DC, LF rej. , HF rej., Noise rej. Sensitivity: DC to 25MHz: Approx. 0.5div or 5mV; 25MHz to 60/100/150MHz: Approx. 1.5div or 15mV

External Trigger Range: ±15 V Sensitivity: DC to 25MHz: ~ 50mV; 25MHz to 60/100MHz: ~100mV Input Impedance: 1MΩ ± 2% Maximum Input: 300V (DC, AC peak), CATII

Horizontal Range: 1ns/div to 50s/div (1-2-5 increments); ROLL: 250ms/div to 50s/div Modes: MAIN, WINDOW, WINDOW ZOOM, ROLL, X-Y Accuracy: ±0.01% Pre-Trigger: 10 div maximum Post-Trigger: 1000 div

X-Y Mode X-Axis Input: Channel 1 Y-Axis Input: Channel 2 Phase Shift: ±3° at 100 kHz

Signal Acquisition Real-Time Sample Rate: 1 GSa/s maximum Equivalent Sample Rate: 25 GSa/s maximum Vertical Resolution: 8 Bits Record Length: 2 Mega Points maximum Acquisition Mode: Normal, Peak Detect, Average Peak Detection: 10ns (500ns/div to 50s/div) Average: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256

Cursors and Measurements Voltage Measurement: Vpp, Vamp, Vavg, Vrms, Vhi , Vlo, Vmax, Vmin, Rise Pre-shoot/Overshoot, Fall Pre-shoot/ Overshoot Time Measurement: Freq, Period, Rise Time, Fall Time, Positive Width, Negative Width, Duty Cycle Delay Measurement: Eight different delay measurements Cursors Measurement: Voltage difference between cursors (ΔV) Time difference between cursors (ΔT) Auto Counter: Resolution: 6 digits

Accuracy: 2% Signal Source: All available trigger sources except the Video trigger mode

Adjustable Probe Compensation Signal Frequency Range: 1 kHz to 100 kHz, adjustable 1 kHz/STEP Duty Cycle Range: 5% to 95% adjustable, 5%/STEP

Control Panel Function Autoset: Adjust Vertical VOLT/DIV, Horizontal TIME/DIV, and Trigger level automatically Save Setup: 15 sets of measurement conditions Save Waveform: 15 sets of waveform

Display TFT LCD Type: 5.6 inch Display Resolution: 234 (Vertically) x 320 (Horizontally) Dots Display Graticule: 8 x 10 divisions Display Brightness: Adjustable

Interface USB Device: USB1.1 & 2.0 full speed compatible (printers and flash disk not supported) SD Card Slot: Image (BMP) waveform data (CSV) and setup (SET)

Power Source Line Voltage Range: AC 100V to 240V, 48 Hz to 63 Hz , Auto selection

Miscellaneous Multi-Language Menu: Available Online Help: Available

Dimensions & Mass 31cm(W)×14cm(H)×14cm(D), Approx. 2.5kg

Order Information: Digital Storage Oscilloscopes 60 MHz

SB-9620

.........................................................

100 MHz

SB-9621

. ....................................................

283


Instrumentation – Function Generator

Function Generator PI-8127 A 0.001 Hz to 150 kHz A Programmable Frequency Sweep A 10 Volts at 1 Amp A Use for circuits and/or driving speakers A Use the ramp function to vary the speed of DC motors

Feature

LCD displays frequency, voltage, current and menus.

Menu driven selection makes the Function Generator intuitive to use. Frequency Selection Voltage Adjust/ Menu Item Selection

A Frequency Resolution of 0.001 Hz over entire range

Feature A Upgradable Firmware Download the latest new features for your PI-8127: The built-in USB port allows users to access and upgrade firmware whenever the unit is attached to a computer running current versions of DataStudio (page 86) or SPARKvue (page 22).

Features The Function Generator outputs sine, square, triangle, positive and negative ramps in addition to DC. It’s powerful output, 1 Amp at 10 Volts, makes it useful for driving speakers, string vibrators, and circuits. Set maximum current and voltage outputs for safety. The LCD display is used to show readouts of frequency, voltage amplitude and rms current. LCD Readout: The LCD displays frequency, voltage, current, waveform, and menus. The backlight has two levels, low and high, selectable using the menu. The low backlight is useful in dark rooms. Frequency/Range Selection: There are two ranges, 0.001 Hz to 100 Hz and 1 Hz to 100 kHz, selected using the range push-button switch (integrated with the frequency knob). Output Standby: Pushing the standby button disables the output without changing settings. Output Current/Voltage Maximum: The maximum current or maximum voltage can be set using the menu. This is useful when the instructor needs to limit the voltage applied to a light bulb.

284

Power Button

Standby push-button enables/disables output voltage

Resolution Selection Buttons

Output Jacks

Specifications: Offset Voltage: Any waveform may be offset with a DC voltage ranging from -10 V to +10 V, provided the peak voltage does not exceed 10 V. Frequency Sweep: Sweep between any two frequencies at a selectable rate. Available Waveforms: A Sine A Triangle A Square A Positive Ramp A Negative Ramp A DC Upgrades: The PI-8127 has upgradable firmware. The USB port allows users to access and upgrade firmware whenever the unit is attached to a computer running current versions of DataStudio (page 86) or SPARKvue (page 22).

Input Power: 15 V @ 1.6 A. Voltage Output: ±10 V @ 1 A. Frequency Range: DC to 100 kHz. Sine Wave retains its form to 150 kHz. Frequency Resolution: 0.001 Hz over entire range. Offset Voltage: ±10 V. Waveforms: Sine, Triangle, Square, Positive Ramp, Negative Ramp, DC External Voltage Input: ±10 V Maximum Trigger Output: TTL Compatible; BNC jack on back of unit Display: LCD Graphics Monochrome Display, 128 x 64, with Two-Level Backlight Displays: Frequency, Waveform, Voltage, Current, Offset Voltage. Amplitude Modulation Modulate the signal of one function generator using another. Order Information: Function Generator

..............................

PI-8127

www.pasco.com


Instrumentation – Function Generator/Decade Boxes

Wide Range Function Generator

Decade Resistance Box

Heavy-duty Voltmeter

PI-9588

SF-9568A

SB-9549A This function generator is similar to the Basic Function Generator, but it provides a wider frequency range and greater output voltage.

Specifications Ranges: 0.2 Hz to 5 MHz in seven ranges, (±1 count) Waveforms: - sine (distortion <1% below 100 kHz) - square (2% symmetry, 50 nS max rise and fall time) - triangle (98% linearity below 100 kHz, 95% above 100 kHZ Outputs: - 20 Vp-p no load, 10 V p-p max into 50 Ω load - continuously variable, 20 dB range with 20 dB step - DC offset: ±10 V (no load), ±5 V (50 Ω load) - TTL/CMOS-compatible pulse Sweep: external voltage-controlled oscillator, 0-10 V signal can produce 100:1 frequency change Power Source: 115/220 VAC, 50/60 Hz Accessories: BNC to insulated clips

The Voltmeter has three ranges and is switch-selectable to measure AC or DC voltages. Resistance is plainly displayed with this six-decade resistance box since a rotary switch selects the resistance within each decade. With 1% accuracy and 1 Watt dissipation it will accommodate most student experiments.

Specifications Resistance: 0 to 1, 111, 110 Ω in 1 Ω increments Accuracy: ±1.0% ±0.1 Ω Power Dissipation: up to 1 Watt

Specifications DC Ranges: 0 to 3 V/15 V/30 V AC Ranges: 0 to 3 V/15 V/30 V Accuracy: ±2% Sensitivity: 10 k Ω/V Order Information: Heavy Duty Voltmeter.................... SF-9568A

Heavy-duty Ammeter SF-9569A

Order Information: Decade Resistance Box................ PI-9588

Order Information:

The Ammeter has three ranges and is switch-selectable to measure AC or DC values. All ranges are overload-protected up to 15 amps.

Wide Range Function Generator........................... SB-9549A

Decade Capacitance Box

Decade Resistance Box

SE-8689

SE-7122

Specifications DC Ranges: 0 to 50 mA/500 mA/5 A AC Ranges: 0 to 50 mA/500 mA/5 A Accuracy: ±2% Max Volt Drop: 0.23 V Order Information: Heavy Duty Ammeter..................... SF-9569A

Heavy-duty Galvanometer SF-9500A This Decade Capacitance Box supplies five decades of capacitance from 100 pF to 11.111 μF in 100 pF steps. Add or subtract capacitance with slide switches. Three color-coded binding posts provide reliable connections.

This Decade Resistance Box delivers seven decades of resistance from 1 Ohm to 11,111,110 Ohms in 1 Ohm steps. Add or subtract resistance values with slide switches. Three color-coded binding posts provide reliable connections.

Specifications

Specifications

Specifications

Accuracy: ±5% Maximum Voltage: 50 VDC

Accuracy: ±1% Power Dissipation: up to 0.3 Watt

DC Ranges: 50 µA/500 µA/5 mA Internal Resistance: 1.5 k Ω/170 Ω/17 Ω Accuracy: ±2%

Order Information:

Order Information:

Decade Capacitance Box............ SE-8689

Decade Resistance Box................ SE-7122

A “push-to-read” switch protects the gal­ va­nom­e­ter during hookup by shunting the cur­rent through an equivalent resistor.

Order Information: Heavy Duty Galvanometer........................................... SF-9500A

285


Waves and Sound – Ripple Tank

Ripple Tank System WA-9899 A Completely Redesigned System A More Affordable

White LED Strobe

A Integrated strobe/ripple generator simplifies operation

Cool running, produces bright, clear, wave patterns (includes rod)

A F  oam “beach” design dramatically reduces reflections from walls

Ripple Generator

A Silent operation

Sloped Foam Beach

Producing interference pattern with two point sources

Eliminates reflections

PASCO has completely redesigned its Ripple Tank System to make it easier to use, more reliable, and more affordable. The strobe and rippler are controlled by the same unit and a new feature makes it possible to introduce a small frequency difference between the strobe and the rippler to make the waves appear to move slowly. A simple switch changes the phase of the two ripplers from 0 to 180 degrees. The rippler uses voice coil actuators for precise and silent operation. The frequency range (1.0 Hz to 50.0 Hz) includes those important low frequencies that make refraction more prominent. The LED digital frequency readout can be seen in low lighting. The rippler has knobs to easily adjust the dipper depth and the amplitude of the dipper stroke.

Ripple Tank Base and Rod (not included)

Detachable Legs

The new light source is a white LED which remains cool during operation and produces a bright, clear wave pattern. The light can be used as a strobe or in steady mode.

Typical Applications:

Viewing Screen

Point Sources

(included)

(Three sizes)

A Speed of Wave Propagation A Superposition of Waves

Plane Wave

A Effects of Varying Water Depth

and multiple source

A Reflection, Refraction and Diffraction Digital Frequency Readout

Phase

Curved Reflector Depth Control

Diffraction Barriers

Refractors

Convex, Concave and Trapezoid

Amplitude

Frequency The yellow convex lens focuses the plane water waves. The waves show a pronounced refraction due to the abrupt change in depth of the water over the plastic lens.

286

(1-50 Hz)

Ripple Arms (shown with Point Source)

Strobe Control

Level Control

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Ripple Tank

Ripple Tank WA-9897

Refraction occurs at the boundaries of this rhomboid shape.

Includes: The Doppler Effect is clearly demonstrated by moving the dipper. In this picture the movement is downward.

Diffraction Barriers are used to create a double slit to show interference. The barriers can be changed to adjust the slit width and slit separation.

Viewing Area: 34 cm x 34 cm Usable Tank Depth: 1 cm Drain Tube: 30 cm long Projection Screen: 35.6 cm x 38.8 cm wide Acrylic Mirror: 49.8 cm x 38.8 cm wide Light Source Support Rod: 46 cm long Water Resistant Storage Box: 64 cm x 52 cm x 17 cm

Specifications given at left Order Information: Ripple Tank.............................................................. WA-9897

WA-9896

Specifications Ripple Generator/Light Source (WA-9896) Voice Coil Actuator Frequency Range: 1.0 to 50.0 Hz with 0.1 Hz Resolution Light Source: Strobe or Steady, 5 W White LED Digital LED Display: Frequency/Delta Adjustable Delta Frequency Between Ripple Generator and Strobe: Âą 45% frequency setting in steps of 9% Phase Switch: 0 or 180 degrees Depth, Tilt and Amplitude Adjustment Controls Power Supply: 15 VDC at 1.5 A with On/Off Switch Rippler Case Dimensions: 10.5 cm x 16.3 cm x 3.9 cm Includes:

Includes: Ripple Generator/Strobe driver with Power Adapter LED Strobe Assembly

Plane Wave Generator with multi-point dippers Point Sources (3 sizes)

Specifications given at left Order Information: Ripple Tank Generator/Light Source........................ WA-9896

Ripple Tank Replacement Set

Ripple Tank WA-9897 (complete components list at right) Ripple Generator/Light Source WA-9896 (complete components list at right) Water Resistant Storage Box included (64 cm x 52 cm x 17 cm)

WA-9898 Includes:

Order Information: Ripple Tank System...................................................................................................................... WA-9899 Required: ME-8735

p. 212

90 cm Rod. ............................................................................................................................................... ME-8738

p. 212

..............................................................................................................................

Surfactant Drainage tube (30 cm) with clamp 1 liter Plastic Beaker Pipette Clear Plastic Ruler Water Resistant Storage Box for Entire System

Ripple Generator/Light Source

Specifications Ripple Tank (WA-9897)

Large Rod Base

Tank with legs Projection Mirror and Screen Strobe Mounting Rod Refractors (convex, concave, rhomboid) Curved Reflector Diffraction Barriers (2 long, 1 short, 1 mini) Plastic Storage Box for components

Replacement: Ripple Tank Replacement Set........................................................................................... WA-9898

Plastic Storage Box for Components Dippers Pipette Foam Beach

Refractors Curved Reflector Diffraction Barriers

Specifications given at left Order Information: Ripple Tank Optics. ....................................... WA-9898

287


Waves and Sound – Mechanical Waves

String Vibrator

Power Inputs

Drive String Vibrator’s coil with included power supply, Sine Wave Generator or 750 Interface.

WA-9857

Clamping

Convenient for clamping the String Vibrator to the tabletop or any other edge. Holes allow permanent mounting to a surface.

Custom Plastic Case

A G  reat Tool for Mechanical Wave Demonstrations

Tough enough for student use; stacking posts allow several units to be vertically stacked for storage.

A U  ses Magnetic Field to Drive Flexible Tongue A Includes Constant Frequency Power Supply

Built-in Rod Clamps

Stainless Steel Tongue

Flexible metal strip mounted to a powerful neodymium magnet; includes a hole for connecting string or wave cord.

For mounting on either a horizontal or vertical rod.

Air Vents

Provides good circulation of air around coil. The String Vibrator transforms mechanical wave demonstrations to hands-on activities that every lab group can easily perform. Featuring an elegant design with no motors or speakers, the String Vibrator allows students to study the fundamental characteristics of mechanical waves including wave speed, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, interference and resonance.

Powering the String Vibrator Constant Frequency Power Supply: Use the included power supply to create waves at a constant 60 Hz frequency. By changing the tension, various standing wave patterns can be created.

How it Works A neodymium magnet fastened to the stainless steel tongue is free to move within a coil. By supplying AC current to the coil, an alternating magnetic field is created which vibrates the magnet and tongue.

Power the String Vibrator by plugging the included power supply into the wall outlet. The waveform is varied by changing the tension in the elastic Wave Cord. Sine Wave Generator: Use this versatile device to drive the String Vibrator over a range of amplitudes and frequencies (0-800 Hz). A special mode allows the Sine Wave Generator to “learn” the fundamental frequency and scan through each of the resonant frequencies. See page 289 for more details. 750 Interface: The String Vibrator can also be powered by the 750 Interface (CI-7650) directly or by using the Power Amp (CI-6552A).

Includes:

By varying the amplitude and frequency of the AC signal, standing waves are created in the vibrating string.

Typical Applications A Standing Wave Patterns: Students learn about constructive and destructive interference by studying these waveforms

A Mechanical Wave Characteristics: Wave speed, string density, frequency, amplitude and wavelength can all be examined

288

String Vibrator Unit Constant Frequency Power Supply (60 Hz) Wave Cord (not shown) (3 meters) Order Information: String Vibrator...........................................................................................................WA-9857 Recommended: Sine Wave Generator........................................................................................WA-9867

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound – Mechanical Waves

Sine Wave Generator WA-9867

Power Output

Standard banana jacks allow the Sine Wave Generator to be easily connected to other devices

Frequency Increments

Use these buttons to store a frequency increment and scan through a frequency range by this increment.

A Sine Wave Output up to 800 Hz A Ideal for Driving Speakers and Wave Drivers Amplitude

A Auto-Scan of Resonant Frequencies

Vary the amplitude of the sine wave.

LED Display

Red LEDs make the display easy to read with 0.1 Hz resolution. The Sine Wave Generator is an effective tool for generating waves with speakers or wave drivers. It enables users to change both the frequency (0-800 Hz) and amplitude of the sine wave output. Both fine and coarse frequency controls are included and the digital display features a 0.1 Hz resolution. In addition, the generator can “learn” the fundamental frequency for a particular configuration. Students can observe the quantum nature of standing wave patterns as the Sine Wave Generator jumps from one resonant frequency to the next.

Frequency Adjustment

Change the frequency by 1 Hz or 0.1 Hz increments.

Typical Applications A Wave Patterns in Strings: The Sine Wave Generator can drive the following: String Vibrator (WA-9857) Economy Wave Driver (WA-9854) Mechanical Wave Driver (SF-9324)

A Resonant Frequencies in Air: Use the generator with the Open Speaker (WA-9900) and Economy Resonance Tube (WA-9495) to produce easily audible standing waves in air.

Features Custom Plastic Case: Designed to withstand student use; includes angled rubber feet for ease of use and rear rod clamp for additional mounting options. Cases are also stackable for easy storage. Digital Display: Frequency is displayed with 0.1 Hz resolution using red LEDs. Frequency Adjustment: Adjust the frequency of the output with either the fine (0.1 Hz) or coarse (1 Hz) knobs. The knobs include a “smart scan” feature so they change frequency more quickly when continuously turned.

Clearly demonstrate various standing wave patterns.

Built-In Clamp

Includes:

is used to mount the generator on a standard rod.

Sine Wave Generator Power Supply

Order Information: Sine Wave Generator.............................. WA-9867

Amplitude Adjustment: Change the voltage of the sine wave signal.

Recommended: String Vibrator................. WA-9857

p. 288

“Learn” Frequency: The Sine Wave Generator will store a frequency increment, then cycle through the selected frequency range by the increment automatically; very useful for resonance demonstrations or activities.

Economy Wave Driver.......................................... WA-9854

p. 291

Mechanical Wave Driver.......................................... SF-9324

p. 292

Open Speaker.................. WA-9900

p. 296

Economy Resonance Tube. ........... WA-9495

p. 296

289


Waves and Sound – Mechanical Waves

Visualize motion with PASCO’s NEW modular LED Strobe. Strobe ME-6978

Shown using ME-6978 Strobe (with Strobe Module) and three additional ME-6982 Strobe Modules.

A 1 Hz to 500 Hz A Variable Intensity A Low Cost Unique modular design makes it easy to light any geometry. The ME-6978 Strobe includes the Strobe Control Box and one Strobe Module. Additional Strobe Modules (ME-6982) can be purchased separately (see below) for up to a total of four lamp modules per controller, and multiple control boxes can be connected together using the External Trigger. The Strobe Modules have a tilting lamp head on a sturdy base that sits on the table or fastens to a rod stand.

Features Display frequency in Hz or rpm Adjustable light intensity External Trigger to Daisy-chain multiple controllers together Trigger strobe using external input such as the ME-9498A photogate.

Specifications: Frequency Range: 1 Hz to 500 Hz Resolution: 0.1 Hz Accuracy: 0.1% Lamp Life: 50,000 hours. Brightness: 230 lumens (peak) per module

Lamp ON/OFF

Digital Display

Frequency Adjustment

Brightness Control

WA-9857 String Vibrator includes a constant frequency (60 Hz) brick power supply. Can also be used with the WA-9867 Sine Wave Generator to vary the amplitude and frequency.

Tilting lamp head on a sturdy base sits on the table or fastens to a rod stand.

Order Information: Strobe..................................................................................................................... ME-6978 (Includes Control Box and one Strobe Module) Additional Strobe Module............................................................ ME-6982

Includes: Control Box and one Strobe Module

290

Shown in use with: String Vibrator.............................................................................................. WA-9857

p. 288

Small “A” Base. ........................................................................................... ME-8976

p. 212

Large Rod Base. ......................................................................................... ME-8735

p. 212

60 cm long Steel Rod (threaded)

ME-8977

p. 212

90 cm long Steel Rod (non-threaded) ....................... ME-8738

p. 212

Pendulum Clamp

p. 214

.....................................

....................................................................................

SE-9443

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound – Mechanical Waves

Economy Wave Driver WA-9854 A Economical Tool for the Study of Mechanical Waves A Includes Constant Frequency Power Supply A Can Also be Driven with PASCO’s Sine Wave Generator or 750 Interface

Using the Sine Wave Generator, the frequency and amplitude of the Economy Wave Driver can be varied to facilitate the study of standing wave patterns. The Economy Wave Driver is an inexpensive yet effective solution for hands-on experiments on the properties of mechanical waves. It includes everything students need to generate and analyze standing wave patterns in strings.

Sine Wave Generator WA-9867

How it Works A molded plastic post is attached directly to the cone of the speaker and the wave cord is fed through the groove on the top of the post. The two ends of the cord are tied off or held with suspended masses. Using the included power supply, students can drive the speaker at a constant 60 Hz and vary the tension to create standing wave patterns. The Economy Wave Driver can be used with any function generator which outputs 0 – 7 Volts and 0.3 – 0.6 Amps. The operating frequency for the driver is 0 – 90 Hz.

Includes: 5 ¼” Sub Woofer Speaker with Wave Driver Post Elastic Cord (three meters) (not shown) Power Supply (60 Hz) Order Information: Economy Wave Driver. .......................... WA-9854

Wave Driver Post

The Sine Wave Generator is an excellent tool for generating waves with speakers or wave drivers. It allows both the frequency (0-800 Hz) and amplitude of the sine wave output to be changed. Both fine and coarse frequency controls are included and the digital display features a 0.1 Hz resolution. In addition, the generator can “learn” the fundamental frequency for a particular configuration. Students can observe the quantum nature of standing wave patterns as the Sine Wave Generator jumps from one resonant frequency to the next. For more information on its full capabilities, see page 289.

WA-9870 (2 pack)

Typical Applications A Study the effect of tension on resonance

while powering the wave driver at a constant frequency (60 Hz) and amplitude

A Using the Sine Wave Generator or 750

Interface, vary the frequency and amplitude of the wave driver to discover the relationship between frequency and resonance wave patterns

The Wave Driver Post can also be purchased separately for use with existing 5 1/4” speakers. Actual diameter is 3 1/4” (8.3 cm). Order Information:

Order Information:

Wave Driver Post (2 pack) ............ WA-9870

Sine Wave Generator. ........................WA-9867

291


Waves and Sound – Mechanical Waves

Mechanical Wave Driver SF-9324 A Drive Any Wave Experiment at Specified Frequencies A Variable Amplitude A Tough and Versatile

SF-9324

8 Ω Impedance

Features Frequency Response: From 0.1 to 1000 Hz with an amplitude of approximately 5 mm up to about 50 Hz. Mounts Vertically or Horizontally: Designed to sit upright on a table, on its side or mounted on a 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) rod.

Powering the Wave Driver

Driving Signal Required: Requires a function generator with a minimum of ±8 V@0.5 A. An accurate measurement of frequency is necessary for quantitative resonance experiments.

Mechanical Wave Driver Accessories Chladni Plates Kit WA-9607

In the early nineteenth century, Ernst Chladni added another dimension to wave experiments by sprinkling sand on a thin plate and using a violin bow to induce vibrations. The sand collected along the nodal lines of the wave patterns painted clear and beautiful pictures of the various modes of vibration. The Chladni Plates Kit and a Wave Driver allow continuous vibrations to be produced at measurable frequencies. Students can determine the resonant frequencies of the plates and examine the modes of vibration at any frequency. The Chladni Plates Kit includes a 24 cm x 24 cm square plate, round plate, 0.8 kg of extra-fine sand and a sand shaker. The round plate can be vibrated about its center or an offset point to investigate both symmetric and asymmetric modes of vibration.

Different PASCO products can be used to power the Wave Driver: Power Amplifier II CI-6552A

Sine Wave Generator WA-9867

Function Generator PI-8127

292

Order Information: Mechanical Wave Driver..................... SF-9324 Required: Banana Plug Patch Cord......................... SE-9751 p. 261 and one of the following function generators: Sine Wave Generator........................... WA-9867 p. 291 Function Generator........................... PI-8127 p. 284 Power Amplifier II........................ CI-6552A p. 70 with ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface...................................................................... p. 68-69 Equivalent function generator providing up to 1 A to an 8 Ω impedance.

Order Information: Chladni Plates Kit

...................................

WA-9607

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound – Mechanical Waves

Mechanical Wave Driver Accessories

Structures Resonance

Metal Resonance Strips

Longitudinal Wave Spring

SF-9404

WA-9401

PASCO’s Structures System is perfect for demonstrating resonance in complex systems. The plastic I-Beams clearly show two different bending moments, and can be connected together to build a variety of structures. See page 294 for more examples.

These resonance strips demonstrate standing waves, harmonics and the relationship between length, frequency and resonance.

Using the Longitudinal Wave Spring accessory, it is easy to demonstrate and visualize the nodes and antinodes of longitudinal waves. Unstretched length is 13 cm.

Investigate the unique resonant frequencies of the SF-9404 Metal Resonance Strips. Order Information: Metal Resonance Strips ................. SF-9404

Resonance Wire Loop SF-9405

Longitudinal waves can be easily demonstrated with the WA-9401 Longitudinal Wave Spring. Use this wire loop (29 cm diameter) to introduce Bohr’s quantum atom using a classical model. Order Information: Resonance Wire Loop.......................... SF-9405

String Holders Slot (set of 4) SF-9322

Order Information: Longitudinal Wave Spring............ WA-9401

Violin Chladni Plate

Order Information:

1.2 m tall

SE-7319

Hole (set of 4) SF-9323

4 mm diameter banana plugs fit into shaft of Wave Driver.

Composite I-Beam

The long plastic I-Beam is constructed of components from the Advanced Structures Set (p. 170). It is driven using the SF-9324 Mechanical Wave Driver and the PI-8127 Function Generator, demonstrating the three lowest harmonics. This 40 cm-long plate is shaped like a standard violin. Place sand on the plate and excite with either a violin bow or wave driver. Includes a standard banana jack connector for use with the Mechanical Wave Driver (SF-9324).

Equipment Shown: Advanced Structures Set*...............ME-6992B p. 170 Large Slotted Mass Set. ................................ME-7566

p. 223

45cm Stainless Steel Rod................................ME-8736

p. 212 P. 212

Slot String Holder (set of 4)........ SF-9322

Order Information:

Large Rod Base...............ME-8735

Hole String Holder (set of 4)....... SF-9323

Violin Chladni Plate............................... SE-7319

*Patents pending

293


Waves and Sound â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Resonance

Demonstrate resonance in complex systems. The bridge shown here was constructed using the Advanced Structures Set (pages 170-171), plus additional Truss Sets (page 168). The bridge is driven using the SF -9324 Mechanical Wave Driver and the PI-8127 Function Generator.

Tied Arch Bridge

Short Slotted Mass Set (ME-7589)

2 m long

Load Cell Amplifier (PS-2198)

Shaking Tower 75 cm tall

5N Load Cell

Students can analyze phase relationship between the driving force (blue trace) and resulting acceleration of the bridge (red trace).

Measure acceleration with a 5N Load Cell This building frame is built with an Advanced Structures Set. The building is being shaken with the Mechanical Wave Driver. Additional mass is added to the foam core floors (not included). See page 184 for an example of passive pendulum damping with the shaking tower.

Connect one end of a load cell to the structure and attach a mass to the other end of the load cell. The acceleration of the structure is graphed in real time as the structure shakes.

Mechanical Wave Driver (SF-9324) The resonance of the bridge is characterized by driving the bridge at different frequencies, and measuring the resulting accelerations using Load Cells at various locations. The graph above (orange trace) shows the response in the 1 Hz to 10 Hz frequency range. The students can also look at the free vibration of the bridge by simply hitting it with a hammer! The resulting FFT (blue trace) shows the correlation between the forced and free vibrations. Experiments on this page shown in use with:

Function Generator (PI-8127)

294

Advanced Structures Set*...............................ME-6992B p. Load Cell Amplifier*................................................PS-2198 p. 5 N Load Cell*.................................................................PS-2201 p. Function Generator. .................................................PI-8127 p. Mechanical Wave Driver.....................................SF-9324 p. Mass and Hanger Set............................................ME-8979 p. Short Slotted Mass Set. ......................................ME-7589 p. Rods and Stands......................................................................................................... p. *Patents pending

172 32 33 284 292 223 223 212

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound – Mechanical Waves

Sonometer System

1

WA-9757 A Investigate Waves on a Wire A C  ontrol Length, Tension, Density and Driving Frequency 3

A O  bserve and Measure the Waveforms on an Oscilloscope

Uses Standard Guitar Strings They come in a variety of linear densities and can be changed in seconds.

2 The WA-9757 Sonometer with Driver/Detector Coils includes:

Magnetic Mounts

The two movable bridges and the Driver/ Detector Coils mount magnetically to the base, so setup is easy and components stay put.

Slotted Tensioning Lever

Adjust the tension quickly and accurately using a single hanging mass (1-2 kg). Vary the tension instantly by factors of 2, 3, 4 or 5.

Driver Coil

Use a function generator to drive the wire at set frequencies.

Built-in Millimeter Scale Determine lengths quickly and easily.

Detector Coil

Monitor frequency and amplitude at any point on the wire with an oscilloscope or computer.

1. Base with magnetic mounting strip, sounding board, tensioning lever and wire positioning screw 2. 10 Solid Steel Wires— two each of 0.245, 0.356, 0.432, 0.508 and 0.559 mm diameter 3. Driver and Detector Coils 4. BNC-to-Banana Plug Adapter (not shown— used to connect to ScienceWorkshop interface) 5. Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide (not shown)

Experiments Using a PASCO computer interface to monitor the detector signal makes it easier to measure and document the relationship be­tween wave amplitude and frequency. Use the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) mode for a more sophisticated analysis of wave behavior on a string. The Sonometer’s immediate audio feedback from the vibrating string combined with DataStudio’s sophisticated analysis tech­niques adds reality to advanced concepts.

Equipment Required: ScienceWorkshop 500, 700 or 750 Interface

Sound Box

Students can hear the sound of the plucked or driven wires.

CI-6552A Power Amplifier (ScienceWorkshop 700 or 750 only) or PI-9587C Function Generator to drive the Sonometer CI-6503 Voltage Sensor to monitor the detector

With the classic sonometer, students can investigate waves on a wire by adjusting the wire tension and length and listening to the difference in tone when the wire is plucked or bowed. It is a useful demonstration, but is only qualitative. With the PASCO Sonometer and the Driver/Detector Coils, students can vary the density, tension and length of the wire, adjust the driving frequency and examine the resulting waveform in full detail on an oscilloscope or computer interface. This is all done quantitatively. Features include a slotted tensioning lever, magnetic mounts, built-in scale and a sound box.

In the Laboratory The included Sonometer Manual contains a discussion of the theory of waves on a stretched string, and student-ready experiments for investigating the resonant modes of a stretched string and for measuring velocity of wave propagation on a string.

Driver Coil

Detector Coil

60 cm

Guitar String

Bridge

Tensioning Lever

Sonometer 1 kg

100.0 Hz

Channel 1 (Detector Coil) Frequency Generator Oscilloscope

Channel 2 (Driver Coil)

The PASCO Sonometer measuring resonant modes on a stretched string.

This oscilloscope display shows the output signal generated from the power amplifier (red trace) and the input signal from the detector coil (green trace). The output frequency is 55 Hz.

This FFT display shows a fundamental frequency of 400 Hz for a plucked sonometer string.

Order Information: Sonometer System............................................................................. WA-9757 Sonometer (No Coils)...................................................................... WA-9611 Sonometer Driver/Detector Coils (pair)................... WA-9613 Required: Slotted Mass Hanger......................................................................... SE-8703A p. Slotted Mass Set..................................................................................... SE-8704A p. ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface.............................................................. p. Voltage Sensor.......................................................................................... CI-6503 p. Dual Trace Oscillosope.................................................................... SB-9591A p. Function Generator. ............................................................................ PI-8127 p. or Power Amplifier II.................................................................................. CI-6552A p. (for ScienceWorkshop 700 or 750 Interface only)

223 223 68-72 79 282 284 70

295


Waves and Sound – Sound

Demonstrate Acoustic Resonance Economy Resonance Tube WA-9495

Metric Scale

Directly measures length of air column for open and closed tube.

Nested Tubes

Stand

Students will have no difficulty hearing resonant frequencies from this tube. Two nested cardboard tubes allow the length of the air column to be easily varied, and the inner tube contains a removable end-cap to change from a “closed” to an “open” tube. The length of the resonating column can be read directly off the metric scale for both open and closed operation.

Closed tube (with end cap in place)

Open tube (with end cap removed) The removable end-cap on the inner tube allows the air column to act as either an “open” or a “closed” tube.

Open Speaker WA-9900 Features a high-quality, 13.3 cm woofer mounted on a sturdy base with standard banana jack inputs. The Open Speaker is not enclosed inside a case, making it perfect for resonance experiments.

Specifications Frequency Response: 75 - 8000 Hz Impedance: 8 ohms Input Power: 60 watts (max)

Shown in use with the Open Speaker (WA-9900) and the Sine Wave Generator (WA-9867)

WA-9495 Includes: Outer Tube (length 1.3m; diameter 0.15m) Inner Tube (Includes measuring tape and removable end-cap) Tube Stands (2) Order Information: Economy Resonance Tube.................................... WA-9495 Shown in use with:

Order Information:

Open Speaker....................................................................... WA-9900

Open Speaker........................................................................................................ WA-9900

Sine Wave Generator.................................................. WA-9867

296

p. 289

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound – Sound

Resonance Tube

Movable Piston

WA-9612

Built-in Metric Scale

Push in the piston to adjust the tube length.

Makes it easy to measure tube length and microphone position.

A Investigate Sound Waves in a Closed or Open Tube A Observe Waveforms on an Oscilloscope A Movable Piston and Microphone This Resonance Tube brings the same advantages to longitudinal wave experiments that PASCO’s Sonometer brings to transverse wave experiments. Drive the speaker with a function generator to create stable wave patterns at specified frequencies. Then connect an oscilloscope or ScienceWorkshop computer interface to the microphone to examine the waveforms in detail. The 90 cm long, clear plastic tube is simple and rugged.

Musical Instrument Holes

Built-in Speaker/ Microphone Assembly Movable Microphone

Two methods of investigating wave patterns:

Position the microphone at the edge of the tube or use the probe to position it anywhere inside the tube. Easily locate all the nodes and antinodes of a standing wave pattern.

Movable piston

with a movable piston and fixed microphone...

Setup is easy. A function generator is used to drive the speaker.

A pair of holes in the tube let students investigate the effects of closed and open holes in musical instruments. When performing other experiments, the holes can be covered with the included slip rings.

This DataStudio FFT display shows the frequency spectrum for a sound above 600 Hz recorded by the Resonance Tube’s microphone.

Microphone on probe rod

with a fixed piston and movable microphone.

The oscilloscope display shows two traces: the green trace is the output signal from the Resonance Tube’s microphone, and the red trace is the output signal from DataStudio’s Signal Generator.

Includes: 1. 90 cm Acrylic Tube with mounting stand and built-in millimeter scale 2. Piston and Rod for adjusting tube length 3. Miniature Microphone 4. Microphone Probe Rod for examining the waveform inside the tube 5. Speaker Assembly 6. Two holes with slip ring covers 7. BNC-to-Banana Plug Adapter (not shown— used to connect to ScienceWorkshop interface) 8. Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide (not shown)

Equipment Required: ScienceWorkshop 700 or 750 Interface CI-6552A Power Amplifier (ScienceWorkshop 700 or 750 only) or PI-9587C Function Generator to drive the Resonance Tube  CI-6503 Voltage Sensor to monitor the detector

Order Information: Resonance Tube........................................................................................ WA-9612 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: ScienceWorkshop 750 Interface................................................................................... p. Voltage Sensor.......................................................................................... CI-6503 p. Power Amplifier II.................................................................................. CI-6552A p. (for ScienceWorkshop 700 or 750 Interface only) Required for use without sensors: 20 MHz Dual Trace Oscilloscope......................................... SB-9591A p. Function Generator. ............................................................................ PI-8127 p. Replacement Supplies: Replacement Speaker...................................................................... WA-9662

68-72 79 70

282 284

297


Waves and Sound â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Transverse Waves

Complete Wave Motion Demonstrator

Single Section Wave Motion Demonstrator

SE-9600

SE-9601 A Produces Slow-Moving, High-Amplitude Transverse Waves A Demonstrates All Basic Wave Phenomena

SE-9600 Complete Wave Motion Demonstrator: in three sections. The high-amplitude, slow-moving waves provide a fascinating introduction to basic wave phenomena. The PASCO SE-9600 Complete (Transverse) Wave Motion Demonstrator allows mechanical waves to be created to demonstrate the behavior and properties common to many types of waves.

How It Works A series of steel rods is attached at their centers to a torsion wire. When a rod is displaced and released, a wave propagates along the rod. Velocity depends on the torsion constant of the wire and the moment of inertia of the rods.

The SE-9601 Single Section Wave Motion Demonstrator: A-frame design collapses for easy storage.

Three Wave Sections: Each section has rods of different lengths, allowing reflection and transmission demonstrations. -S  ection 1 is 92 cm long with 46 cm rods. -S  ection 2 is 92 cm long with 23 cm rods. The resulting wave velocity is about three times as fast. -S  ection 3 is 46 cm long with rods that vary exponentially from 46 cm to 23 cm. This section acts as an impedancematching unit. Yellow Rod Tips: Easy viewing and highlights wave motion.

Features

Folds for Compact Storage

2.3 Meters Long: Plenty of room to watch the wave develop and interact.

Easy Setup Order Information:

Includes: Section 1 (46 cm long rods) Length of section: 92 cm Clamp for rigid termination Dash Pot for liquid damping

Order Information:

Complete Wave Motion Demonstrator........................... SE-9600

Single Section Wave Motion Demonstrator........................... SE-9601

Matter Model

Longitudinal Waves

ME-9825A

A Dynamic Model of Solid Materials A E  xcellent Visualization of Wave Motion

Transverse Waves

A E  asily Assembled into a Variety of Configurations Students can investigate wave properties including reflection, wave speed, and standing waves. See page 204 for more information on Matter Model.

298

Includes: Atoms (40) Heavy springs (60) (350 N/m spring constant) Light springs (60) (70 N/m spring constant) Long Springs (60) Nuts (30) (for increasing the atom mass) Brass rod (1)

Order Information: Matter Model............................................. ME-9825A

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound – Wave Media

Demonstration Wave Spring

Double-Length Slinky

Elastic Wave Cord

SE-8760

SE-9409

The Slinky is an excellent tool for demonstrating transverse and longitudinal wave phenomena. This Double-Length Slinky is twice as long as a traditional slinky, allowing students to create well-defined wave pulses and standing wave patterns. The tension in the Slinky is very low, causing wave pulses to travel slowly throughout its length.

This highly visible elastic cord can be used to set up standing transverse waves. Or, pluck it to watch wave propagation. Approximately 3 mm diameter and 90 meters in length.

WA-7334

The Demonstration Wave Spring is ideal for illustrating mechanical wave properties such as frequency, wavelength and interference. Because it’s not as stiff as the Snakey (below), the Demonstration Wave Spring provides a different medium in which to study waves. Two hooks on either end allow students to stretch this spring to a length of 8 meters. It has a diameter of 2.3 cm and an unstretched length of 80 cm.

Order Information: Double-Length Slinky........................... SE-8760

Clear standing wave patterns can easily be created.

Order Information: Elastic Wave Cord....................................... SE-9409

Digital Stroboscope

Glow String (2 pack)

SF-9211

SE-8690

A 1  -300 Flashes per Second (18,000 RPM) A Digital Frequency Readout A B  right: A Xenon flash tube with a 14 cm wide reflector

Order Information:

This “string” glows in the dark after being exposed to light. Use it to demonstrate wave motion, including resonance and standing wave patterns. Two rolls are included, totaling over 15 meters of string.

Demonstration Wave Spring. ..................................................... WA-7334

Snakey SE-7331

The extra-long metal spring is ideal for the study of mechanical waves. The Snakey has an unstretched length of 80 centimeters. Pull the convenient end loops more than 7 meters apart to demonstrate transverse, longitudinal and standing waves.

See page 225 for more information.

Glow String forming a standing wave using PASCO’s String Vibrator WA-9857, Sine Wave Generator WA-9867 and a UV Light Source SE-7228. Color of string may be different from what is shown. See page 334 for more information on UV Light Source.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Order Information:

Snakey. ..................................................................... SE-7331

Digital Stroboscope................................. SF-9211

Glow String (2 pack)............................... SE-8690

299


Waves and Sound – WAVEPORT

Software Single User Classroom License Site License

CI-6872D CI-6858B CI-6874D

A No sensors required A Uses computer sound card to generate and record sound A Intuitive, yet powerful analysis tools

In the Sound Analyzer mode, the computer listens to sound through a microphone. The waveform and the FFT of the frequencies comprising the sound are displayed. In this case, a student was singing a note centered on 280 Hz.

Using the hand icons, students can change the frequency, wavelength, and phase of sound waves. In this case, the sum of the waves is shown and beats can be seen and heard. Never before have students had the opportunity to learn about waves and sound in such an interactive manner. WAVEPORT engages students’ senses, allowing them to see, hear and feel sound waves. WAVEPORT software uses only the internal sound capability of the computer, so no additional equipment is necessary. WAVEPORT also enables students to collect and analyze sound waves. Using an external sound source or a favorite music CD, students can see the changes in the sound waves as they change the input sound. Students can whistle into the computer microphone and observe the waveform on the screen. Next, they can change the pitch of their whistle and see the changes in the waveform. WAVEPORT allows students to directly manipulate a waveform to see, feel and hear the effects of their manipulations. Students can change the frequency of the waveform by dragging an intuitive icon across the screen. As the students change the frequency on the screen, they can hear the changing sound waves from the computer’s speakers! All data created in WAVEPORT can easily be exported into DataStudio for more detailed analysis.

In the Piano mode, students can relate pressing piano keys to the notes they hear and the waveform they see.

Each WAVEPORT CD includes: WAVEPORT Software Six DataStudio Workbooks: - Sound Creator Tutorial - Creating Sound - Constructive/Destructive Interference

- Sound Analyzer Tutorial - Beat Frequency - Capturing Sound

DataStudio Lite

WAVEPORT Computer Requirements Windows™: 2000 or higher Free RAM: 8 MB (16 MB preferred), CD-ROM drive, hard disk (20 MB free) Macintosh®: MAC OS X v. 10.4 or higher (Universal Binary), Free RAM: 8 MB (16 MB preferred), CD-ROM drive, hard disk (20 MB free)

300

MAC

Windows

WAVEPORT may be purchased as a single copy for use with one computer, or as a Classroom License for use in a single K-12 classroom, or as a Site License for use on all computers in a high school or college/university department. Order Information: WAVEPORT Software (Single User)..............................................CI-6872D WAVEPORT Software (Site License).............................................CI-6874D

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound – Doppler

Doppler Rocket

Demonstrate Waves and Doppler

WA-9826

Ripple Tank System

A Experience the Frequency Shift of Sound Waves A Easily Generate High Velocity Motion A Rugged Construction

WA-9899

O-rings

Remove easily to change battery

Skinned Foam Body

Protects buzzer during impact

PASCO’s Ripple Tank is perfect for demonstrating waves that students can actually see! Vary the amplitude and frequency, and use the built-in strobe to “stop” the waves or make them appear to move slowly. Students can investigate speed of wave propagation, superposition of waves (interference), reflection, refraction and diffraction. In the photo below, the Doppler Effect is demonstrated by rotating the Ripple Generator on its stand, causing the single point source dipper to move though the water.

Rope Tube

The Doppler Effect is clearly demonstrated by moving the dipper. In this picture the movement is downward.

Pass rope through to fly horizontally

Flying Horizontally — A set of two ropes can be passed through the center of the unit. This allows students to use the included handles to propel the Doppler Rocket across the room at high velocities. The unit is guided by the ropes. Students hear the change in pitch as the Doppler Rocket flies past them.

White LED Strobe

Ripple Generator

Producing wave pattern for single point source

Cool running, produces bright, clear, wave patterns

Water covered glass plate

The Doppler Rocket combines the elements of a toy with an audio Doppler shift to create an educational experience students won’t forget. The Doppler Rocket emits a true, sinusoidal sound waveform at a constant frequency of approximately 620 Hz. The circuit and speaker are housed in skinned foam that protect the unit during normal impacts. The circuit is powered by a 9V battery. As the Doppler Rocket passes the students, they hear a noticeable shift in frequency. Velocities of 10 m/s can be easily achieved, resulting in a 20 Hz shift in frequency.

Ripple Tank

Includes: Doppler Rocket Rope (30 meters) Handles (4) Handle Cushions (4) Battery (9 Volt)

Order Information:

Order Information:

Doppler Rocket.........................................................................................................WA-9826

Ripple Tank System.........................................................WA-9899

p. 286-287

301


Waves and Sound – Tuning Forks

Resonance Boxes

Tuning Fork Set

Ideal for use with TM

Ideal for use with TM

SE-7342

Resonance Box (Single) SE-7344 Sympathetic Resonance Box Set SE-7345

(b)

(a)

Resonance boxes are great instruments for amplifying sound from a tuning fork. These boxes are constructed from hardwood and feature an A4 tuning fork mounted directly to the box. Use WAVEPORT software to measure the sound waves and beat frequencies created by these resonance boxes.

The tuning fork has long been the tool of choice for helping students understand the relationship between wave frequency and pitch. These high-quality aluminum tuning forks are both rugged and economical. The set includes eight forks representing a full octave of frequencies, a soft protective case and a rubber mallet.

Note

Frequency

C

256 Hz

D

288 Hz

Resonance Box (Single)

E

320 Hz

Hardwood resonance box with a 256 Hz A4 tuning fork (a)

F

341.3 Hz

G

384 Hz

A

426.7 Hz 480 Hz 512 Hz

Sympathetic Resonance Box Set Hardwood resonance box with a 256 Hz A4 tuning fork (a)

Order Information: Resonance Box.............................................. SE-7344

B

Hardwood resonance box with an adjustable tuning fork (b)

Sympathetic Resonance Box Set..................................................................... SE-7345

C

Chime Set

Recommended: WAVEPORT Software............................. CI-6872D

Ideal for use with TM

SE-9081 The Chime Set features three chimes which produce easily heard tones at 1750, 2650 and 3500 Hz. The highest frequency chime is one octave above the lowest frequency chime. Use WAVEPORT software to analyze the sound waves from the Chime Set. Length of bars (1.2 cm diameter): 17.7 cm, 14.4 cm, 12.4 cm.

Order Information: Tuning Fork Set............................................. SE-7342

Adjustable Tuning Fork SE-7343

Use the Adjustable Tuning Fork to demonstrate how to change the frequency of a tuning fork. Includes a 240 Hz tuning fork and two adjustable masses. The adjustable masses can be moved up and down to change the pitch. Conveniently labeled notches allow an entire octave from “C” to “B” to be produced.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Chime Set............................................................. SE-9081

Adjustable Tuning Fork........................ SE-7343

302

www.pasco.com


Waves and Sound

Slide Whistles (4 pack) SE-8686 Ideal for use with

Acoustics Demonstration Disc

Digital Sound Level Meter

SE-9410

SE-9761C Ideal for use with

TM

TM

These brightly colored whistles are a great tool for demonstrating the relationship between tube length and pitch. Students blow into the mouthpiece and change the length of the tube by pulling the piston handle. As the length of the tube is increased, the frequency of the whistle varies from approximately 1500 Hz to a minimum of 500 Hz.

A 3  9 Aural Demonstrations A High-Quality Compact Disc

A C  ompact, Easy to Use A Versatile Measurements A ±1.5 dB Accuracy

Between the physics of sound and the app­re­ciation of a Bach fugue lies the fascinating field of psychoacoustics. The basic question is simple: What is the relationship be­tween physical vibrations in the air and the sounds we perceive?

The Digital Sound Lever Meter provides greater accuracy and more sophisticated measuring capabilities than an analog meter.

The high-quality digital compact disc provides 39 aural demonstrations that introduce the key elements of human sound perception. Each demonstration highlights a particular aspect of human hearing.

SE-9410 Acoustics Demonstration Disc: Order Information: Slide Whistles (4 pack)......................... SE-8686

Sound Tubes (4 pack) SE-8692

39 aural demonstrations introduce students to the fascinating field of psychoacoustics.

Investigate:

Features

Frequency analysis and critical bands

Easy push button operation

Sound pressure, power and loudness

Wide range; 40 to 130 dB

Masking

Large 3-1/2 digit display

Pitch

Variable response rate

Timbre Beats, combination tones, distortion and echoes

The Digital Sound Level Meter comes ready-to-use with a built-in microphone and four AAA batteries.

Biaural effects

Specifications

When students spin these tubes over their heads the tube produces an audible tone similar to that produced by blowing across the mouth of a bottle. As the tube is spun faster, the resonant frequency increases. Five different frequencies can be achieved. Four tubes of various colors are included. Order Information: Sound Tubes (4 pack)............................. SE-8692

Ranges: 40 to 130 dB Accuracy: ± 1.5 dB Frequency Range: 31.5 Hz to 8 kHz Frequency Weighting: A and C Time Weighting: Fast and Slow Auxiliary Outputs: AC conditioned, 0.707 V rms Display: 3-1/2 digit LCD Power: Four AAA batteries (included) Order Information: Acoustics Demonstration Disc

...............................

SE-9410

Required:

Order Information:

Compact Disc Player (Headphones required for biaural demonstrations)

Digital Sound Level Meter. .................................................................. SE-9761C

303


Light and Optics – Basic Optics Systems

Basic Optics System OS-8515C A Geometric and Ray Optics A Concave and Convex Lenses

Viewing Screen

A Concave/Convex Mirror PASCO’s Basic Optics System is easy-to-use, affordable, and ruggedly designed. Large 50 mm diameter optics components are mounted in protective holders that snap directly onto the aluminum track, and are easy to slide and position. Built-in metric tape makes measurements of image and object distances quick and accurate for both lenses and mirrors. The versatile Light Source doubles as a table-top ray box, for studies in reflection, refraction, color addition, and Snell’s Law. All the components (except the track) fit in the included custom foam storage box.

Adjustable Lens Holder Use your own lenses (from 19 mm to 75 mm in diameter) or choose from our lens sets.

White plastic screen snaps into the optics bench and the position of the screen can be read directly on the bench scale.

Four 50 mm diameter Lenses

+100, +200, +250, -150 mm lenses are mounted in protective holders.

Concave/Convex Mirror

50 mm diameter plastic mirror with reflective surface on both sides. Includes “half-screen” upon which the image is focused.

Ray Optics Kit

Optics Bench (1.2 m) Ray Table

Two-piece construction allows the table to be rotated for studying Snell’s Law or the Law of Reflection. Includes D-shaped acrylic lens.

Concave/convex lenses, concave/convex/plane mirrors, acrylic rhomboid for prism spreading of white light and refraction experiments, hollow lens for teaching the lensmaker’s equation. Includes storage tray which can also be used as a water tank for the hollow lens.

The lenses, mirrors, light source, and screen snap into this rugged aluminum extrusion. The metric tape makes position measurements easy.

“Half Screen” with image Mirror

Ray Table in use showing both the Reflected and Refracted rays.

304

Components from the Ray Optics Kit showing Refraction and Reflection.

Light Source: Has a lighted crossed arrow target with metric scale for focusing images through lenses or using with the concave mirror.

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Light and Optics – Basic Optics Systems Versatile Light Source: Has a crossed arrow target, a point light source for inverse-square law experiments, and acts as a ray box for table-top ray optics experiments. Red-green-blue rays are also available for color addition experiments.

Basic Optics Components and Accessories: System Components pg 306-307

Lens Sets pg 308 Rotate the selector knob to choose between rays (1, 3 or 5) or the primary color mask. The primary color mask allows experiments in color addition using components from the Ray Optics Kit.

Basic Optics System Experiments Included: 1. Color Addition 2. Prism 3. Reflection 4. Snell’s Law 5. Total Internal Reflection 6. Convex and Concave Lenses

7. Hollow Lens 8. Lensmaker’s Equation 9. Apparent Depth 10. Reversibility 11. Dispersion 12. Focal Length and Magnification of a Thin Lens

System Accessories pg 309-311

Human Eye Model pg 312-313

13. Focal Length and Magnification of a Concave Mirror 14. Virtual Images 15. Telescope 16. Microscope 17. Shadows

Diffraction

Basic Optics System Storage Box:

pg 314-317

All components (except the track) fit in the custom foam box. There are additional slots for accessory lenses. (See page 308)

Includes: 1.2 m Optics Bench

Concave/Convex Mirror with Screen

Basic Optics Light Source

Ray Optics Kit

50 mm diameter Glass Lenses in Holder

Ray Table with D-shaped Lens

+100 mm, -150 mm, +200 mm,+250 mm Adjustable Lens Holder

Dynamics Track Optics pg 319

Viewing Screen Storage Box

Order Information: Basic Optic System................................................................................................................. OS-8515C

305


Light and Optics – Basic Optics Components

Basic Optics Light Source OS-8470 A One, Three or Five Parallel Rays A Three Primary Color Source A Crossed Arrow Object and Point Source The Basic Optics Light Source is an excellent source for a variety of optics experiments. A single 10-watt quartz-halogen bulb provides bright, easy-to-see ill­umination without a lot of heat. By turning the box to a different side, it becomes a: 1. C  rossed Arrow Object with Metric Scale. Ideal for showing images, focal point and magnification. 2. B  right Point Source. The very small filament of the halogen bulb provides an excellent point source for experimenting with shadows or the Inverse Square Law. 3. T  hree Primary Colors Source. The red, green and blue filters provide 3 rays of light which are easily combined with a lens for color mixing. 4. 1  , 3 or 5 Ray Source. Just rotate the knob on front of the light source to vary the number of rays produced.

Rotate the selector knob to choose between rays (1, 3 or 5) or the primary color mask.

The Basic Optics Light Source provides a point source and an extremely bright crossed arrow target.

Use free standing or easily clip directly to Basic Optics Track.

The primary color mask allows experiments in color addition using components from Ray Optics Kit (OS-8516A). Order Information: Basic Optics Light Source..........................................................................OS-8470

Concave/Convex Mirror Accessory

“Half Screen” with image

OS-8457 A 50 mm Diameter A ±100 mm Focal Length A Plastic Mirror

Mirror

This double-sided convex/concave plastic mirror is mounted in a lens holder for easy placement on the Basic Optics Track. The Accessory also includes a “half screen” that allows light to pass through on one side, and an opaque screen on the other half to focus the real image formed by the concave mirror.

Includes: Concave/Convex Mirror Half Screen

306

Order Information: Concave/Convex Mirror Accessory.................................................OS-8457

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Light and Optics – Ray Optics

Ray Optics Kit

Storage Tray

Doubles as water tank for Hollow Lens

OS-8516A

Hollow Lens

Rhomboid acting as a prism to separate white light.

Acrylic Lenses

Double Convex Lens Double Concave Lens Rhomboid Eye Dropper

Triangular mirror accessory with concave, convex and plane reflective surfaces Hollow lens to fill with a liquid or use as an air lens.

Acrylic Rhomboid

The storage tray is used to create a “hollow” air filled convex lens.

Ray Optics Kit includes two lenses and a three-sided mirror.

Includes:

Mirror

Note that the rays diverge.

Order Information: Ray Optics Kit.............................................................................................................OS-8516A

Ray Table OS-8465 A Angle of Reflection A Snell’s Law A Total Internal Reflection

The Ray Table provides an excellent viewing surface for ray optics. The table can be rotated about its axis to quickly change the incident angle of the ray. The resulting angles of reflection and refraction are easily measured directly off the polar grid printed on the table. The (included) acrylic cylindrical D lens simplifies the experiment by having the rays bend at only one surface. Investigate Snell’s Law for both cases of rays either entering or leaving the acrylic.

Includes: Table D-shaped Lens

Order Information: Ray Table............................................................................................................................OS-8465

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Light and Optics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Lenses

Ground Glass Lenses (set of 6) SE-9013

General Quality Lens Sets Geometric Lens Set

50 mm Diameter Lens Assortment

OS-8466A

These precision ground glass lenses provide a useful range of focal lengths. Each lens has a 50 mm diameter â&#x20AC;&#x201C; small enough for easy mounting, yet large enough for effective viewing. The set of six comes in a convenient storage box.

Focal Length

Description

Focal Length

Description

500 mm

concave convex

-167 mm

double concave

333 mm

plano convex

-333 mm

plano concave

167 mm

double convex

-500 mm

convex concave

Order Information: Ground Glass Lenses (set of 6).................................................................. SE-9013

Lens Holder Set OS-8522

This is a set of three unmounted 50 mm diameter glass lenses with focal lengths of +100 mm, +200 mm, and -150 mm. These are the same lenses included in the Dynamics Track Optics Kit (OS-8471A) and the Beginning Optics System (OS-8459). They can be mounted in the Adjustable Lens Holder (OS-8474).

SE-7581 This set of six lenses is made of polished glass with ground edges, and comes in a wooden storage box.

Focal Length (mm)

Description

Focal Length (mm)

+1000

double convex

-1000

Description double concave

+300

double convex

-200

double concave

+150

double convex

-150

double concave

Order Information:

Order Information:

50 mm Diameter Lens Assortment.......................................... SE-7581

Geometric Lens Set................................. OS-8466A

50 mm Diameter Convex Class Sets These class sets each contain six identical 50 mm diameter lenses made of polished glass with ground edges, and come in a wooden storage box. Order Information: 100 mm Focal Length Class Set................................................................ SE-7582 200 mm Focal Length Class Set................................................................ SE-7583

75 mm Diameter Convex Class Set SE-7584 These holders for the Basic Optics System are an excellent way to permanently mount 50 mm diameter lenses.

This class set contains four identical 75 mm diameter 200 mm focal length lenses made of polished glass with ground edges. Shipped in a cardboard box with thermoform packing.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Lens Holder Set (2 pack)................... OS-8522

75 mm Diameter Class Set............ SE-7584

Adjustable Lens Holder OS-8474 The Adjustable Lens Holder for the Basic Optics System is designed for use with lenses and mirrors with diameters between 19 mm and 75 mm. Place the lens or mirror in the holder and adjust the three arms to hold the component. A set screw in each adjustable arm ensures the mirror or lens will remain in place. The holder snaps into the Basic Optics Track and is designed to position all mirrors and lenses at the same height as the rest of the Basic Optics System components.

Actual view through the lens of the magnified image of the pencil.

Build a telescope or microscope: Shown with 1.2 m Basic Optics Track OS-8508

Order Information: Adjustable Lens Holder.................................................................................OS-8474

308

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Light and Optics – Basic Optics Accessories

Lens Sets Basic Optics Geometric Lens Set (Set of 2)

Basic Optics Viewing Screen

Concave Mirror Accessory

OS-8460

OS-8532

(+200, +100 mm) OS-8456

Accessory Lens Set (Set of 2) (+250, -150 mm) OS-8519

Each lens is mounted in a lens holder for protection and easy storage. The lens holder clips directly to the Basic Optics track.

This white plastic screen is used with Basic Optics systems. The screen snaps into the optics bench and the position of the screen can be read directly on the bench scale. Also fits the Dynamics Track Optics Carriages (OS-8472 on page 319) for use with a Dynamics Track.

The OS-8532 Concave Mirror is made of glass and has a 50 mm focal length. Using the “crossed arrow” object of the light source, students will shine the light through the open section of the “halfscreen” onto the concave mirror. The light rays will reflect off the mirror and form a partial image on the screen. Students can use the Lensmaker’s Equation to verify the focal length of the mirror.

Order Information: Basic Optics Geometric Lens Set (set of 2)...................................... OS-8456

Order Information:

Order Information:

Accessory Lens Set (set of 2).................................................................. OS-8519

Basic Optics Viewing Screen............................................. OS-8460

Concave Mirror Accessory.............................................................. OS-8532

Basic Optics Spares Kit OS-8510 The Basic Optics Spares Kit includes many of the small parts which are sometimes lost after student use. Also includes two replacement bulbs for the Light Source. Suitable for all versions of the Basic Optics System (OS-8515). All parts are organized in a plastic case for easy storage.

Includes: 2 10W bulb for Basic Optics Light Source OS-8470 or OS-8517A 8 6-32 1 1/2” screw for the Basic Optics Light Source OS-8517A 6 3/8” screw for optics accessories 4 3/8” brass thumbscrew for optics track brackets 8 1/4-20 1/2” nylon thumbscrew 20 1/4-20 square nut 6 nylon washers 6 nylon washers 4 1/4-20 9/16” round steel thumbscrew

4 1/4-20 3/8” round steel thumbscrew 6 6-32 5/8” round steel thumbscrew 4 6-32 3/8” round steel thumbscrew 4 4-40 5/16” round steel thumbscrew 4 6-32 3/16” round steel thumbscrew 6 Replacement rubber feet for optics bench 15 replacement rubber feet for Basic Optics Light Source OS-8517A 4 replacement screws for Basic Optics Light Source OS-8470 1 Plastic Storage Box

Order Information: Spares Kit – Basic Optics. ................ OS-8510

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Light and Optics – Basic Optics Accessories

Adjustable Focal Length Lens

Aperture Accessories

Photometer

OS-8494

OS-8524

PASCO’s Photometer is an easily understood, nonelectronic device that allows students to measure relative light intensities. By looking through the eyepiece, students can see if the two fluorescent disks, each receiving light from an opposite side of the photometer, are equal in intensity. Students can verify the Inverse Square Law.

Use the syringe to adjust the amount of water in the lens. Changing the curvature of the clear flexible membranes changes the focal length of the lens.

Viewing Screen

Adjustable Lens Holder

Light Source

OS-8520

Aperture Disk Simulate the compound lens system of a camera using the Aperture Disk. Simply snap the disk onto one face of a lens. The disk offers six different f-number settings for controlling the amount of light that reaches the viewing screen. The f-number is designated as f /#, where # equals the focal length of the lens, f, divided by the diameter of the aperture, D. (Example uses a +100 mm lens.)

Use the Adjustable Focal Length Lens with your Basic Optics System See page 313 for use with Human Eye Model.

Clear Flexible Membrane

ƒ-Number ƒ / 4 ƒ / 5.6 ƒ / 8 ƒ / 11 ƒ / 16 ƒ / 22

IA

Aperture Diameter (mm) 25.0 17.7 12.5 8.8 6.3 4.4

IB

Photometer View through Photometer for the case that IA > IB

Spherical Aberration Attachments Water-filled Lens

Syringe

Do the center and outside parts of a lens focus light differently? With the Spherical Aberration Attachments, students will be surprised by the answer. Simply snap the attachments onto a lens from the Basic Optics System and compare the image distance for each attachment.

Includes: Photometer

Set of polarizers and an accessory holder Clear Flexible Membrane

Retaining Ring

Disk of neutral density filters— 25, 50, 75 and 100% transmittance The Peripheral Mask passes light through the center only.

Order Information: Photometer..............................................OS-8520

Polarizer Set

Removable membranes make it easy to clean.

OS-8473

Includes: Syringe Tubing Lenses (2)

The Center Mask passes light through an outside ring.

Peripheral Mask shown mounted on +250 mm lens.

Includes:

Order Information:

Aperture Disk and Holder

Adjustable Focal Length Lens..........................OS-8494......

Spherical Aberration Attachments

Shown in use with: Basic Optics System.........................................OS-8515C.... p. 304

310

This accessory set includes two polarizer disks and an optics holder. Rotate the polarizers relative to one another to view the effect on light intensity.

Order Information:

Order Information:

Aperture Accessories..................OS-8524

Polarizer Set. ..........................................OS-8473

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Light and Optics – Basic Optics Accessories

Polarization Analyzer

Optics Benches

OS-8533A Students can confirm Malus’ Law of Polarization by using the Polarization Analyzer with the Basic Optics System. All components mount directly to PASCO’s OS-8515B Basic Optics Bench. The Rotary Motion Sensor is used to measure the angle between the two polarizing disks. The Light Sensor measures the intensity of light which passes through both polarizers.

First Polarization

Diode Laser

CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT – DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

60 cm Optics Bench OS-8541 The short optical bench is for experiments such as polarization and spectrophotometry.

120 cm Optics Bench OS-8508 This optics bench is used for lens and mirror experiments, inverse-square law, and diffraction/interference experiments. If you want a bench longer than 120 cm, use the Optics Bench Connectors (OS-8538) shown below. Order Information: 60 cm Optics Bench.......................... OS-8541 120 cm Optics Bench...................... OS-8508

Polarization Analyzer

Optics Bench Rod Clamps OS-8479

Rotary Motion Sensor

Rod Clamps are used to elevate Basic Optics benches to match the height of various light sources.

High Sensitivity Light Sensor Shown with OS-8541, 60 cm track.

As the polarizer is rotated, the intensity of the light varies as the square of the cosine of the angle between the two polarizers.

Includes: Two Rod Clamps

See page 394 for complete experiment.

Order Information: Optics Bench Rod Clamps. ........... OS-8479

Optics Bench Connectors OS-8538 Order Information:

Includes: Polarizer Disks (2) Polarizer Holder Aperture Bracket Accessory Holder with Mounting Bracket Accessory Holder for Aperture Bracket Retarder Disk

Polarization Analyzer................................. OS-8533A Required for use with PASPORT: Rotary Motion Sensor...................................... PS-2120

Optics Bench Connector

p. 26

Light/High Sensitivity Sensor...................................... PS-2176

p. 46

Basic Optics System..................................... OS-8515C

p. 304

The OS-8538 Connectors slide into the T-slot to couple two Basic Optics Benches together. Includes two connectors.

Diode Laser........................ OS-8525A p. 316

Order Information:

PASPORT Interface.........................................p. 10-23

Optics Bench Connectors. ............. OS-8538

311


Light and Optics – Optics of the Human Eye

Human Eye Model OS-8477

Blind Spot Retina

A C  lassic Eye Model at an Affordable Price

Three positions for near-sighted, far-sighted and normal vision

Plastic Eyeball

Simulates retina attachment point

Holds water to simulate the vitreous humor

Crystalline Eye Lens

Interchangeable lenses to focus on near and far objects. Additional slots for pupil and asymmetric lens

A 3  -dimensional Working Model of the Human Eye Features Working Model of the Human Eye: Two lenses are used to form images on the retina. Sealed tank holds water to simulate the vitreous humor. Size and orientation of the illuminated object can be easily measured. Study the Optics of Normal Vision and Vision Correction: Use the included plastic lenses to create images for normal vision, far-sightedness, near-sightedness and astigmatism. Additional lenses are placed in front of the eye to correct for vision problems. Fixed Corneal Lens and Interchangeable Crystalline Lens: The crystalline lens is surrounded by water (vitreous humor). By changing the crystalline lens, the eye can focus on both near and far objects. Moveable Retina: Three positions to demonstrate near-sightedness, far-sightedness and normal vision. Variable Pupil Size: Students can observe the change in brightness and clarity of the image as the pupil size is reduced.

Eyeglass Lens Slots Corneal Lens

Change to correct vision

Fixed glass lens

Pupil Aperture

The Eye Model can image any illuminated picture, or use with the Basic Optics System and Eye Model Bracket shown on page 313.

Includes:

Use the Pupil Aperture to reduce the pupil size, or to change the shape to a “cat’s eye”.

Specifications Focal Lengths in Air of Plastic Lenses: +62 mm (+16d), +120 mm (+8.3d), +400 mm (+2.5d), -1000 mm (-1.0d), -128 mm (-7.8d) cylindrical, +307 mm (+3.26d) cylindrical Corneal Lens Focal Length in Air: +140 mm (+7.1d) Dimensions: 15 cm x 17 cm x 10 cm high

312

Molded Plastic Eyeball Plastic Lenses (2 sets of 6) Pupil Aperture Retina Screen Optics Caliper (1) Experiment Manual Included Order Information: Human Eye Model................................................................................ OS-8477 Recommended: Basic Optics Light Source........................................................... OS-8470 p. 306 Human Eye Replacement Set (includes lenses, screen and pupil) .............................. OS-8476 Optics Caliper (set of 5)................................................................. OS-8468 p. 313

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Light and Optics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Optics of the Human Eye

Eye Model Bracket OS-8469

Basic Optics Light Source

Adjustable Focal Length Lens

Image on retina screen of crossed-arrow target

OS-8494 Use the syringe to adjust the amount of water in the lens. Changing the curvature of the clear flexible membranes changes the focal length of the lens. The OS-8469 Bracket allows the Human Eye Model (OS-8477) to be used with the Basic Optics System (OS-8515). The bracket holds the Eye Model securely on the track at the correct optical height.

Built-in scale

The illuminated crossedarrow target on the Basic Optics Light Source makes the perfect object. Easily measure object and image distances, as well as the size of the object and image for calculations of magnification.

Simplifies distance measurements on the optics track.

Retina

Human Eye Model Demonstrate accommodation: Show how the eye lens changes focal length by changing its surface curvature. See page 304 for use with Basic Optics System.

Includes: Bracket Eye Model and Bracket shown with a telescope made using two Adjustable Lens Holders (OS-8474) and accessory lenses (see page 309). Students can see the image through the telescope with their own eyes, and then place the Eye Model on the track and see the same image projected on the retina screen.

Two 1/4-20 thumb screws with nuts

Clear Flexible Membrane Water-filled Lens

Order Information: Eye Model Bracket. ........................... OS-8469 Shown in use with Basic Optics System. ...................... OS-8515C

Syringe

Human Eye Model............................. OS-8477

Clear Flexible Membrane

Optics Caliper

Retaining Ring

OS-8468 A Glow in the Dark Tips A Waterproof This lightweight plastic caliper is perfect for measuring images in the dark. Simply span the object and then use a scale to measure the distance. For approximate measurements, use the built-in cm scale on the calipers.

Removable membranes make it easy to clean.

Includes: Syringe Use the Optics Caliper to measure image sizes in the Human Eye Model. Glow-in-the-dark tips activated using a UV light source. Order Information:

The tips of the caliper glow in the dark: Activate with an incandescent or UV lamp.

Optics Caliper (Set of 5)....................................... OS-8468 Recommended: UV Light Source................. SE-7228 p. 334

Tubing Lenses (2) Order Information: Adjustable Focal Length Lens..........................OS-8494...... Shown in use with: Human Eye Model........OS-8477...... p. 312

313


Light and Optics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Diffraction

Sensor-Based Diffraction System OS-8452 with Optics Bench OS-8455A without Optics Bench

Single-Slit Set

A Single-Slit Diffraction A Double-Slit Interference A Real-Time Intensity Graphs

Aperture Bracket

High Sensitivity Light Sensor Rotary Motion Sensor

Multiple-Slit Set Red Diode Laser

Linear Translator

Optics Bench

Computer scan of a single-slit and double-slit having the same slit width.

CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT â&#x20AC;&#x201C; DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

The Sensor-Based Diffraction System enables students to scan many diffraction and interference patterns during one lab period. They can study the differences caused by changing the slit width, slit separation, and number of slits. And, with the addition of the Green Diode Laser, they can study the difference caused by changing the wavelength. Easy Laser Alignment

How It Works Scanning with the Linear Translator In this unique scanning system, the diffraction pattern is scanned using a light sensor attached to a Rotary Motion Sensor. As the wheel on the Rotary Motion Sensor is rotated by hand, the Rotary Motion Sensor moves along a gear rack (called the Linear Translator). Students make the association between the diffraction pattern they see and the real-time graph of the light intensity versus position. The DataStudio computer scan of an interference pattern is shown above a photograph of the actual laser pattern. The pattern was produced with a double-slit, having a slit width 0.08 mm and slit separation 0.50 mm.

Light Sensor Aperture Bracket

The laser beam can be aimed through the slits using two thumb screws. Once the beam is aligned, either the laser or the slits can be removed from the optics bench and returned to the bench without re-aligning the beam. Change slits in the dark without re-aligning everything. The slit wheels eliminate the frustration of trying to change the slits in a darkened room. Simply rotate to the next positive click to lock a different slit into position. The alignment of the disk only has to be done once; thereafter all the slits on that wheel will be in aligned.

Includes: Red Diode Laser Diffraction Slits Linear Translator Aperture Bracket Optics Bench

OS-8525A OS-8453 OS-8535 OS-8534A OS-8508

Order Information:

Linear Translator

314

Rotary Motion Sensor

Sensor-Based Diffraction. ............................................................ OS-8452 Also Available without Optics Bench: NEW Sensor-Based Diffraction Kit.................................. OS-8455A Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Light Sensor................................................................................................. CI-6504A Rotary Motion Sensor...................................................................... CI-6538 ScienceWorkshop Interface............................................................................................... p. 68-72 Required for use with PASPORT: High Sensitivity Light Sensor. ............................................... PS-2176 Rotary Motion Sensor...................................................................... PS-2120 PASPORT Interface........................................................................................................................ p. 10-23 Recommended: p. 316 Green Diode Laser................................................................................ OS-8458

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Light and Optics – Diffraction

High Precision Diffraction Slits

Double-Slit Diffraction Pattern

OS-8453 A Vacuum Deposited Chromium on Glass A Single-Slit and Double-Slit Wheels OS-8453 includes two slit wheels with holders designed to match the height of the slits to the height of the diode laser. All components clip directly to the Optics Bench from the OS-8515C Basic Optics System. The slit wheels eliminate the frustration of trying to change the slits in a darkened room. To change the slit being illuminated by the laser, the slit wheel is simply rotated to the next positive click to lock another slit into position. CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT – DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

Four Slit Diffraction Pattern

Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern

The Multiple-Slit wheel includes four double slits, a set of four multiple slits having the same slit width and separation (2, 3, 4, and 5 slits), four slit comparisons, and a variable double slit.

4.

3. The Single-Slit wheel includes four single slits of different widths, two circular apertures, one line/ slit comparison, one opaque line, a variable width slit and four patterns.

The Circular Diffraction pattern has the same dimensions for both the dots and the holes.

The diffraction geometry represents the structure of the Square and Hex pattern.

Green Diode Laser

2. 1. The comparisons have two slits illuminated by the same laser beam, so that the patterns can be viewed side by side. 1. Two slit and three slit comparison 2. Different slit widths 3. Different slit separation 4. Single slit and Double slit

Simply rotate the wheel to select the desired slit. Each position locks into place making it easy to use, even in the dark.

OS-8458 CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT – DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

Add a second wavelength with the new Green Laser.

Includes: Single-Slit Wheel with holder Multiple Slit-Wheel with holder Order Information:

Order Information: Green Diode Laser

OS-8458

....................................................................................

High Precision Diffraction Slits............................................ OS-8453 Recommended: Basic Optics System. ......................................................................... OS-8515C p. 304

315


Light and Optics – Diffraction

Diode Laser – Basic Optics

CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT – DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

OS-8525A (Red) OS-8458 (Green)

Green Laser These unique diode lasers take the frustration out of aligning the laser beam with the diffraction slits because the horizontal and vertical positions of the beam can be adjusted by turning the thumb screws on the back of the laser. With the addition of the new Green Diode Laser, you can demonstrate the effect of changing wavelength on the diffraction and interference patterns. At left, a red laser beam was passed through a double slit. Then the Red Diode Laser was replaced by the Green Diode Laser by simply pulling the Red Laser off the optics track and clipping the Green Laser into its place. The recorded patterns from red and green lasers show clearly that the longer wavelength (red) is spread out more than the green.

Linear Translator

Aperture Bracket

OS-8535

OS-8534B

The Linear Translator transforms a Rotary Motion Sensor into a linear motion device. The toothed rack of the Linear Translator fits into the slot in the side of the Rotary Motion Sensor. As the Rotary Motion Sensor pulley is rotated by hand, the Rotary Motion Sensor moves along the rack.

Specifications Output Power: <1 mW Wavelength: 650 nm (OS-8525A) 532 nm (OS-8458) Power Supply: 9-V adapter (included) Order Information: Diode Laser – Red............................... OS-8525A Diode Laser – Green......................... OS-8458

The Aperture Bracket acts as a mask for a light sensor. The wheel is rotated to select different size slits, defining the spatial resolution. Narrow slits are used to scan diffraction patterns having fine detail. Wider slits are used to let in more light when scanning dimmer patterns. The diffuser selection is used for inverse square law experiments.

See page 314 for more information.

Specifications Resolution for Rotary Motion Sensor: 0.055 mm (CI-6538) 0.020 mm (PS-2120) Maximum Travel: 20 cm

Rotate the wheel to select the aperture.

Rotary Motion Sensors Not Included Order Information:

Specifications

Linear Translator.................................... OS-8535

Optics Bench (120 cm) OS-8508 Includes: This is the optics bench included in the OS-8515C Basic Optics system. Order Information: Optics Bench (120 cm).................. OS-8508

316

Six Slits: From 0.1 mm to 1.5 mm width Open Aperture: No reduction in intensity Screen Aperture: 10% transmittance Diffuser

Aperture Bracket with Screen

Order Information:

Metal Handle

Aperture Bracket.................................... OS-8534B

Accessory Holder

Replacement Part: Aperture Bracket Handle. ............ OS-8451

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Light and Optics – Diffraction

Diffraction Optics Kit OS-8531 Add this kit to the Basic Optics System to allow the investigation of a wide variety of diffraction slit patterns. The following patterns are included on the two slit accessory disks: A Single Slit (Four variations)

Single Slit Pattern (a = 0.04 mm)

Diffraction Pattern

A Variable Width Single Slit A Double Slit (Four variations)

Double Slit Pattern (a = 0.08 m, b = 0.05 mm)

A Multiple Slit (3,4,5) A Single Slit/Double Slit Comparison 4-Slit Pattern (a = 0.04 mm, d = 0.125 mm)

A Variable Spacing Double Slit

Diode Laser Includes: Diode Laser (OS-8525) Slit Accessories (OS-8523)

Slit Accessory

Snaps into position on the bench for automatic slit alignment with laser. Rotate disk to select a different pattern.

CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT – DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

Order Information: Diffraction Optics Kit. ..................... OS-8531

Optics Caliper

Slit Accessories – Basic Optics

OS-8468

OS-8523

This light-weight plastic caliper is perfect for measuring interference and diffraction patterns in the dark. Glow-in-the-dark tips are activated using an incandescent or UV lamp. See page 313 for more information.

Two Slit Accessory disks offer a variety of single and multiple slits for diffraction experiments. The two accessory disks come mounted to lens holders. Just rotate the disk for a wide range of diffraction patterns. The slit patterns automatically align with the laser. Includes User’s Guide with experiments. Slit wheels are constructed using a photographic process. Single-slit Disk— Four single slits, two circular apertures, one line/slit comparison, four two-dimensional diffraction patterns, variable-width slit (0.02-0.20 mm),one opaque line. Multiple-slit Disk— Four double slits, four multiple slits (2, 3, 4 or 5 slits), four single/double-slit comparisons, variable double-slit (slit separation 0.125-0.75 mm).

Order Information: Optics Caliper (Set of 5)....................................... OS-8468 Recommended: UV Light Source................. SE-7228

p. 334

Order Information: Slit Accessories – Basic Optics.......................................... OS-8523

317


Light and Optics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Basic Optics System

PASCO Optics Systems Basic Optics System Basic Optics System II Computer-Based Optics System II

OS-8515C

These optics systems provide a wide range of optics laboratories from the very basics of ray tracing to quantitative measurement of blackbody radiation.

OS-8546B OS-8548B

Computer-based Optics System II OS-8548B Basic Optics System II OS-8546B Basic Optics System OS-8515C

2

4

3

7

8

10

6

1

22

9

5

Basic Optics System OS-8515C

12 21 13

11

14*

Basic Optics System II OS-8546B

15

16

17

18

19 20

Computer-based Optics System II OS-8548B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Computer-based Optics System II OS-8548B Basic Optics System II OS-8546B Basic Optics System OS-8515C

Page

1.2 m Optics Bench OS-8456 Geometric Lens Set (+100, +200 mm lens) OS-8460 Viewing Screen OS-8470 Basic Optics Light Source OS-8516A Ray Optics Kit OS-8465 Optics Table (for ray experiments) OS-8474 Adjustable Lens Holder OS-8519 Accessory Lens Set (+250, -150 mm lens) OS-8457 Convex/Concave Mirror Accessory O12-09900A Experiment Manual and Storage Box

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

311 309 309 306 307 307 308 309 306

11. 12. 13. *14.

OS-8524 Aperture Accessories (for studying Ć&#x2019;-stop settings) OS-8525A Diode Laser OS-8523 Slit Accessories OS-8520 Photometer (with polarizers)

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 0

310 316 317 310

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

CI-6504A Light Sensor (for interference experiments) CI-6604 High Sensitivity Light Sensor (for spectrophotometry) CI-6538 Rotary Motion Sensor CI-6630 Broad Spectrum Light Sensor OS-8544 Prism Spectrophotometer Kit OS-8537 Spectrophotometer Accessory Kit OS-8535 Linear Translator OS-8533A Polarization Analyzer

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

78 78 74 78 330 328 316 311

*14. Not included with OS-8548B. NOTE: The computer-based systems include the necessary sensors for the experiments but not the necessary ScienceWorkshop Interface (500 or 750). See pages 68-72.

318

Basic Optics System (OS-8515C) Includes the lenses and mirrors required for geometrical and ray box optics. Experiment manual and storage box included.

Basic Optics System II (OS-8546B) Adds to the Basic Optics System a wider assortment of lenses and mirrors plus components for polarization, interference and diffraction.

Computer-Based Optics System II (OS-8548B) Adds to the Basic Optics System II a wider assortment of lenses and mirrors plus components for prism and grating spectrophotometers. Additionally the sensors to allow a computer to record and analyze data from diffraction, interference, polarization and Inverse-Square Law experiments are included. Order Information: Basic Optics System.................... OS-8515C Basic Optics System II. ............. OS-8546B Computer-Based Optics System II................................ OS-8548B

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Light and Optics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Dynamics Track Optics

Entry Optics Systems

NEW Lab Manual with Experiments

Dynamics Track Optics Kit

Beginning Optics System

OS-8471A

OS-8459

A Makes your Dynamics Track into an optical bench

A New lab manual with five experiments

A Use with 1.2 or 2.2 meter Dynamics Tracks and PAStrack

A Expandable with Basic Optics System components

AE  xpandable with Basic Optics System components

A The most affordable optics system with a metal bench

The PASCO Dynamics Track Optics Kit includes specially designed slides (carriages) that snap on the dynamics track. PASCO Basic Optics components attach directly to the carriage for positioning anywhere on the track. Choose from a wide range of optics components to expand your system. See pages 306-317 for more components.

Dynamics Track Optics Kit Includes: Basic Optics Light Source Two Adjustable Lens/Mirror Holders +100 mm, +200 mm, and -150 mm Focal Length Lenses Viewing Screen Three Optics Carriages

Order Information: Dynamics Track Optics Kit..........................................................................OS-8471A Required: Dynamics Track 1.2 m........................................................................................ME-6953 or Dynamics Track 2.2 m.......................................................................................ME-9779 or PAStrack.............................................................................................................................ME-6960

Dynamics Track Optics Carriage

This economical system has everything needed to do the five included experiments. It is a good start for studying optics and can be expanded using the components of the Basic Optics System (see pages 306-317).

Included Experiments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Focal Length and Magnification of a Thin Lens Telescope Microscope Shadows Virtual Images

Includes: Basic Optics Light Source (Point, Luminous Object, Rays, and Primary Colors); Two Adjustable Lens/ Mirror Holders

Geometric Lens Set (+100 mm, +200 mm, and -150 mm focal length lenses) Viewing Screen 1.2m Optics Bench Lab Manual

Order Information: Beginning Optics System...........................................................................OS-8459

Geometric Optics Kit OS-8518

OS-8472 The Dynamics Track Optics Carriages are designed to snap onto the PASCO Dynamics Track. Basic Optics components attach directly to the carriages for positioning anywhere on the track.

Includes: Carriages (3)

The Geometric Optics Kit Includes: Optics Bench Two Lenses in Holders: +100/+200 mm Viewing Screen

Order Information:

Order Information:

Dynamics Track Optics Carriage..........................................................OS-8472

Geometric Optics Kit. .......................................................................................OS-8518

319


Light and Optics – Introductory Optics System

Introductory Optics System OS-8500 A Complete and Comprehensive System A 22 Experiments— From Basic Ray Optics to Multiple-Slit Diffraction A Easy Setup– Magnetic Mounting 70 cm Optics Bench

This tough aluminum bench has two built-in metric scales, one on each side, and magnetic pads for attaching the light source, component holders and ray optics table.

Rotating Ray Table

Table mounts magnetically on the bench, at a slight angle, for bright, sharp rays. Measurements are easy: there’s a polar grid on one side of the table and both a polar and rectangular grid on the other.

High-Intensity Light Source

The special line filament makes images and diffraction lines bright and sharp. Features a built-in power supply and a knob for adjusting the filament position.

Calibrated Polarizers Ground Glass Lenses and Mirror

Two polarizers rotate through 360° in 2° increments.

Produce sharp images and mount in recessed plastic holders for protection.

Diffraction Scale, Grating and Slits

The system includes a diffraction grating and diffraction plate with 10 diffraction apertures (single, double and multiple slits, plus random and ordered arrays).

Full Range of Components Includes a parallel ray lens, slit mask, universal mirror and other components needed for a full range of optics experiments.

Color Filters

Investigate color mixing.

A Comprehensive and SelfContained Optics System This Introductory Optics System includes both a ray table and an optics bench. It includes everything needed for a complete course in introductory optics. It will take students through re­flec­tion, thin-lens the­o­r y, color theory, po­lar­iza­tion, in­ter­fer­ ence, diffraction and optical instruments. The manual includes 22 quantitative experiments.

Designed for the Introductory Lab In many ways, the requirements for a good introductory system are even more stringent than for more advanced equipment. The equipment must be easyto-use and durable, and the experiments must be substantive, yet conceptually straight-forward. With these requirements in mind, we incorporated the following features into our Introductory Optics System:

320

Virtual Image Locators

Help locate virtual images and determine their magnification.

Features Magnetic Mounting: Com­po­nents mount mag­net­i­cal­ly to the optics bench and ray table, yet are easily aligned and re­po­si­ tioned. Fully-Illustrated Manual: The 22 copyready experiments provide a thor­ough and orderly introduction to both elementary and more advanced optics experiments. Full Range of Components: No improvising or buying additional equipment. Built-In Scales: Built-in scales are convenient and provide accurate results.

Order Information: Introductory Optics System. .......................................... OS-8500

Calibrated Variable Aperture

Investigate the relationship between aperture and depth of field.

Typical Experiments With Teacher’s Guide and Sample Data. 1. Introduction to Ray Optics 2. The Law of Reflection 3. Image Formation in a Plane Mirror 4. The Law of Refraction 5. Optical Reversibility 6. Dispersion and Total Internal Reflection 7. Converging Lens— Image and Object Relationships 8. Light and Color 9. Two-Slit Interference 10. Polarization 11. Image Formation: Concave Mirrors 12. Image Formation: Spherical Mirrors 13. Image Formation: Cylindrical Lenses 14. Spherical Lenses: Spherical and Chromatic Aberration, Aperture Size, Depth of Field 15. The Diffraction Grating 16. Single-Slit Diffraction 17. General Diffraction 18. Introduction to Optical Instruments 19. The Projector 20. The Magnifier 21. The Telescope 22. The Compound Microscope

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Light and Optics – Introductory Optics System

Lenses and Mirrors

Diode Laser – Intro. Optics OS-8528A

The OS-8500 Introductory Optics System comes in a fitted box for convenient storage.

Component List for Introductory Optics System Each system contains a complete set of the following components: Optics bench— 70 cm extruded aluminum bench with magnetic surface Incandescent light source— high-intensity; built-in power supply Instruction and experiment manual— with 22 experiments The following components are included and can be purchased separately Product # Diffraction Set— Introductory Optics. ............. OS-8480 Diffraction plate (ten patterns)— single slits, double slits, multiple slits, crossed slits and circular apertures Diffraction grating Diffraction scale— for measuring maxima and minima Color Filter Set— Introductory Optics. ............ OS-8481 Color filters— red, green and blue Polarizer Set— Introductory Optics.................... OS-8482 Polarizers (two)— with degree scales Mirror Set— Introductory Optics............................ OS-8483 Mirror— front surface, concave (50 mm F.L.) Mirror— three-sided (plane, concave, and convex) Slit Set— Introductory Optics...................................... OS-8484 Slit plate and mask— for producing up to seven rays Variable aperture— for investigating depth of field Virtual image locators (two) Screen/Target Set— Introductory Optics... OS-8485 Crossed arrow target— for determining image orientation and magnification Viewing screen— with metric scale for measuring images Virtual image locator Rotating Base Set— Introductory Optics. .. OS-8486 Ray Table– degree scale, mm grid and component holder Component Set— Introductory Optics............ OS-8487 Component holders (three)–– attach magnetically to the bench 75 mm Lens— Introductory Optics....................... OS-8488 Spherical lens— ground glass, mounted in plastic carrier for protection (75 mm F.L.) 150 mm Lens— Introductory Optics.................... OS-8489 Spherical lens— ground glass, mounted in plastic carrier for protection (-150 mm F.L.) 150 mm Lens. .........................................................................................OS-8490 Spherical lens— ground glass, mounted in plastic carrier for protection (150 mm F.L.) Parallel Ray Lens— Introductory Optics...... OS-8491 Parallel ray lens— for producing parallel rays for ray tracing Cylindrical Lens— Introductory Optics.......... OS-8492 Cylindrical lens— for ray tracing

These ground-glass lenses and silver coated front-surface glass mirrors are mounted in recessed plastic holders to protect the optical surfaces. Order Information: Double Concave (-22 mm).............OS-9131 Double Convex (+18 mm)..............OS-9132 Double Convex (+48 mm)..............OS-9133 Double Convex (+127 mm)...........OS-9134 Plano Convex (+252 mm)...............OS-9135 Mirror, Flat– Advanced Optics........................................OS-9136 Concave Mirror (-25mm)– Advanced Optics........................................OS-9137

Component Carrier OS-9107

Mounts magnetically to the Optics Bench and components mount magnetically to the carrier. The aperture is 22 mm x 22 mm.

Order Information: Component Carrier– Advanced Optics.......................................... OS-9107

Electroformed Diffraction Slits

These slits are extremely sharp (±5 micron tolerance), producing diffraction patterns superior to those produced by traditional film emulsion slits. Four slides are available, each providing four patterns. Order Information: Complete Slit Set– Advanced Optics........................................OS-9165 Four slides. Slide 1–4 single slits: widths 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16 mm...............................OS-8461 Slide 2–4 sets of double slits: slit widths 0.04 and 0.08 mm; slit spacing 0.25 and 0.5 mm.......................OS-8462 Slide 3–4 sets of multiple slits: 2, 3, 4, 5 slits; all widths 0.04 mm, all spaced 0.125 mm............................................OS-8463 Slide 4–Apertures: 2 circular apertures 0.04, 0.08 mm dia.; 1 array of triangular apertures (equilateral); 1 array of square apertures.............................................OS-8464 Single/Double Slits– Advanced Optics........................................OS-9179 Slides 1 and 2 only.

Support bracket automatically aligns laser with Introductory Optics or Advanced Optics components. CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT – DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

This versatile, inexpensive Diode Laser can be placed on the Introductory Optics bench. The metal stand adheres to the magnetic strip and automatically aligns the laser beam with each system’s diffraction accessories. Easy set-up makes it ideal for diffraction or other general laser experiments.

Specifications Output Power: <5 mW Wavelength: 650 nm Power Supply: 9 VDC, 500 mA adapter (included) Order Information: Diode Laser – Intro. Optics............................................OS-8528A

High Precision Diffraction Slits – Intro. Optics OS-8454

The two sets of interference slits fit the Introductory Optics bench. Perfect for use with the OS-8528A Diode Laser. Just rotate the disk for a wide range of diffraction patterns. The slit patterns automatically align with the laser.

Single-slit Disk

Multiple-slit Disk

4 single slits - 2 circular apertures - 1 line/slit comparison - 4 two-dimensional diffraction patterns - variable-width slit (0.02-0.20 mm) -1 opaque line

4 double slits - 4 multiple slits (2, 3, 4 or 5 slits) - 4 slit comparisons - variable double slit (slit separation 0.125-0.75 mm)

See page 315 for more details. Order Information: High Precision Diffraction Slits – Intro. Optics....................................................... OS-8454

321


Light and Optics – Demonstrations

Ray Optics Laser System

Lens Plus Set

SE-8506

SE-7578

A No Need to Dim the Lights A Wide Variety of Optical Components A Templates Simulate Real-World Optical Devices CLASS 2 LASER PRODUCT LASER LIGHT – DO NOT STARE INTO BEAM

Add this additional lens set to extend the use of the Ray Optics Laser System or Laser Ray Box. Components were chosen to demonstrate the effect of both positive and negative optical devices. The laser rays are focused in front of the retina by the myopic lens used with the human eye template.

The laser rays are redirected by the converging lens and focused on the “film” of the camera template.

This demonstrations optics set uses a Laser Ray Box which has bright, welldefined rays because it uses lasers rather than an incandescent light source. The Laser Ray Box projects five parallel laser beams onto any flat surface. It contains five 1 mW diode lasers (wavelength 635 nm). The laser beams are spread out into clearly visible lines by cylindrical lenses inside the box. The ray box has a magnetic back for mounting on any steel board. The unit is powered by an included AC adapter. This exceptional optics set includes six magnetically-backed templates that have guidelines showing where to put components to perform different demonstrations, including:

A A A A A

Modeling the human eye and eyeglasses How a camera works Two types of telescopes Spherical aberration Refraction and reflection

Each component has a magnetic backing for mounting on any steel board.

Lens Plus Set............................................. SE-7578

Includes: Laser Ray Box Laser Ray Mask Double-convex lenses (4) Double-concave lens Plano-concave lens “D” lenses (4.5 cm and 7.5 cm radius) (2) Plane, convex and concave mirrors Right-angle prism Rectangle (6 cm x 10 cm) Optical Fiber (2 cm x 20 cm) Templates (6) Steel white board (56.5 cm x 41.5 cm)

Specifications for Laser Ray Box Dimensions: 11 cm x 6 cm x 2 cm Laser Ray Separation: 1.8 cm Power Adapter: 3 VDC, 300 mA (included) Wavelength: 635 nm Order Information:

322

Biconcave Air Lens Biconcave Glass Lens Biconvex Air Lens Biconvex Glass Lens Optical Air Prism Equilateral Optical Glass Prism Rectangular Optical Glass Prism (2 piece) Square Glass Planar Parallel Plate Rectangular Glass Planar Parallel Plate (2 piece) Planar Mirror (2 piece) Order Information:

Most components are 10 cm tall and 1.7 cm thick.

The included protractor template can be used to demonstrate refraction.

Includes:

“Visible Ray” Optics Set SE-9767

Students can see the light rays as they pass through these unique 20 mm thick acrylic components. Refraction and internal reflection are easily observed.

Each set comes in a convenient case and includes: Double Convex lens: 50 mm focal length Double Concave lens: 50 mm focal length Plano-Convex lens: 100 mm focal length Prism: 120°, 90°, 90°, 60°

Ray Optics Laser System. ............SE-8506

Order Information:

Laser Ray Box (only)...........................SE-8505

Visible Ray Optics Set................... SE-9767

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Light and Optics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Demonstrations

Blackboard Optics Systems Basic Magnetic System

SE-9193

A Versatile Magnetic System A Magnetic Mounting A Large Components With this unique system, optics diagrams are transformed into working demonstrations. All components and light sources mount right on the blackboard. Instead of ray diagrams, students observe the interactions of actual light rays.

Carrying Case

The basic system stores neatly in the included hardwood carrying case.

Large Acrylic Components

(5 cm thick and 20 cm high) Durable and easy to use.

Systems Available Basic Blackboard Optics Systems include: Ray projector (2)

High-intensity Light Sources

Holder for projector (2) Clamping bar, 13-inch (2) Clamping bar, 15-inch (1) Plano-convex lens (1) Plano-concave lens (1)

For clearly visible rays, both inside and outside the components. Adjust the sliding apertures for thin rays of light or divergent cones.

Semi-circular lens (1) Rectangular block (1) Prism, right angle (1) Plane mirror (2) Curved mirror, double (1) Projector lamp, spare (1) Cushioned storage cabinet (1) Note: A power supply, such as the SE-9197 AC Transformer, is required and must be ordered separately. See Order Information on this page.

Reflection Law of Reflection Virtual Images Focal Lengths Real Images

Lenses Focal Lengths Virtual Images Thick Lens Optics

Refraction Law of Refraction Rectangular Block Critical Angle Total Internal Reflection Reversing Prism Angle of Minimum Deviation

Components can be rotated without moving the brackets.

Magnetic Mounting

Magnetic mounting for steel-backed blackboards.

The Blackboard Optics Accessories include: (not shown)

The Blackboard Optics System with Accessories includes:

Multiple-ray projector w/spare lamp Two prisms: flint glass, equilateral Projection screen w/holder Replica grating w/holder (6000 lines/cm) Color filters (3) and polarizers (2) Double slit Three lenses: plano-convex (2); plano-concave

Basic Blackboard Optics System Blackboard Optics Accessories

Demonstrations  asic System primary B demonstrations:

Versatile Mounting Brackets

Order Information:

Basic System with Accessories additional demonstrations: Advanced  ocal Lengths: Double Convex F and Double Concave Lens Real Image Formation: Double Convex Lens Nearsighted/Farsighted The Telescope The Microscope Spherical Aberration Dispersion: Prisms and Gratings Two Slit Interference

Basic Blackboard Optics System: Magnetic Mount................................... SE-9193 Blackboard Optics Accessories: Magnetic Mount................................... SE-9195 Blackboard Optics System with Accessories: Magnetic Mount................................... SE-9198 Required: (for Blackboard Optics) AC Transformer (110V version only). ........................... SE-9197 or Equivalent supply providing up to 100 watts at 12 VAC Replacement Bulbs: for Single Ray Projector (12 V, 35 W)................................................... SE-9406A for Multiple Ray Projector (12 V, 55 W)................................................... SE-9407 Note: Blackboard not included.

323


Light and Optics – Ray Box

Ray Box

Ray Box Component Set

Basic Optics Light Source

SE-9474

SE-9476

OS-8470

A Bright, Sharp Ray Optics A O  ne, Three or Five Parallel, Convergent or Divergent Rays A Rugged and Reliable The Ray Box is the standard light source for ray optics experiments. It is easy to use, extremely durable and the rays are bright enough to be seen clearly, even in a relatively bright room.

Includes:

Just plug it in, turn it on and rotate the adjust­able screen to produce one, three or five pencil-thin rays, or a single wide beam. A sheet of white paper makes a great experimental surface. The rays are clearly visible, and both rays and component positions can be traced onto the paper.

Cushioned plastic storage case

The included manual describes 15 basic experiments that can be performed using the Ray Box, Ray Box Component Set, Ray Box Color Filter Set and a prism.

Two lenses — double concave and double convex Three mirrors — flat, concave and convex

Rotate the selector knob to choose between rays (1, 3 or 5) or the primary color mask. Order Information: Basic Optics Light Source

Order Information: Ray Box Color Component Set...................................... SE-9476

...........................................

OS-8470

Ray Optics Kit OS-8516A

Ray Box Color Filter Set

Storage Tray

Doubles as water tank for Hollow Lens

SE-9475

Tabletop Design

The flat Ray Box and flat components mean the lab bench quickly becomes the experimental surface.

Acrylic Lenses

Mirror

Acrylic Rhomboid

Hollow Lens

Order Information: Ray Optics Kit......................................... OS-8516A

Hollow Lens

Includes:

OS-8511

Amber Lucite™ filter w/stand White Plexiglas® filter w/stand Slotted screens (2)

Adjustable Ray Slits

Quickly adjust the number of rays to fit the experiment.

Cellophane color filters (7.62 cm sq: red, blue, pink, purple, green, orange, yellow) Cushioned plastic storage box Order Information: Ray Box Filter Set..........SE-9475

Order Information:

Recommended:

Ray Box............................................................. SE-9474

Equilateral Prism. ...........SE-9021A

324

The Hollow Lens allows students to investigate the effect of different liquids on the index of refraction. In addition, students can fill only one or two of the compartments to experiment with compound lenses. Order Information:

p. 327

Hollow Lens..................................................... OS-8511

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Light and Optics – Optics Components & Accessories

Color Filters

Basic Diffraction Grating Set

SE-9360

SE-9357

High-Quality Gratings 300 lines/mm 600 lines/mm

SE-9359 SE-9358

A For Qualitative Demonstrations Seven filters in glass-covered 35 mm slides. Colors include red, green, blue, magenta, peacock blue, yellow and purple. Filters can be used in projectors and ray boxes and are excellent for color mixing and color perception demonstrations. Three diffraction gratings on a single slide: 100, 300 and 600 lines/mm.

Order Information: Color Filters (set of 7)......................................................... SE-9360

Polarizing Sheets (2 pack) OS-9477

By looking at spectral light sources, students can study the relationship between line spacing and angle of diffraction. The low cost means each student can use one during lecture demonstrations. Order Information: Basic Diffraction Grating Set. ............................................... SE-9357

The 300 lines/mm replica grating is strongly blazed in the first through fifth orders, while the 600 lines/mm grating is strongly blazed in the first order. They have excellent resolving power and produce bright, sharp spectral lines for spectrometer labs or for projecting spectra in lecture demonstrations. Order Information:

Diffraction Gratings SE-9361

High-Quality Gratings 300 lines......................................................... SE-9359 600 lines......................................................... SE-9358

Digital Light Meter Two large polarizing sheets for easily visible classroom demonstrations. Show how the intensity of transmitted light varies with the angle between the two sheets, or investigate stress patterns by viewing plastic objects (not included) between crossed polarizers. Two 23 x 25 cm sheets included. Order Information: Polarizing Sheets (2 pack)............................................................ OS-9477

This set of four glass-mounted diffraction replicas are excellent for introductory student work. Four line spacings are provided: 80, 100, 300 and 600 lines/mm. Excellent for quantitatively studying the relation between line spacing, angle of diffraction and wavelength. Each grating is 21 x 35 mm. Order Information: Diffraction Gratings (set of 4)......................................................... SE-9361

Optics Bench Couplers

Polarizer

OS-9142

OS-9109

2 cm Order Information: Calibrated Polarizer– Advanced Optics........................................ OS-9109 (HN-32) calibrated in 2 degree increments

SE-9087A

Connect two Optics Benches together for a two meter long bench. The couplers keep the benches in alignment. Order Information: Optics Bench Couplers (2 pack) – Advanced Optics........... OS-9142

This handheld Digital Light Meter measures light intensity from 0-50,000 lux in three ranges (2000; 20,000; 50,000 from 1 lux). A precision selenium photovoltaic cell is built-in, providing high accuracy (to 5%) and a fast sampling time (0.4 seconds). To measure light intensities, turn the switch to the desired range, then read the result on the large digital display (13 mm high digits). Zero adjustment is automatic, and the display lets students know if the intensity exceeds the range setting. Read the result in lux or in foot-candles (0 to 5000 Fc). In addition to the digital readout, the meter provides an analog output that can be used to drive a strip chart recorder or other voltage measuring device. Powered by 9-volt battery (included). Order Information: Digital Light Meter........................... SE-9087A

325


Light and Optics – Mirrors

Demonstration Mirrors

Large Corner Reflector Set SE-8810

Convex Mirror (SE-7574)

Classic demonstration to teach students about reflection: Do mirrors really reverse the image? Two mirrors are held at 90˚ by a rigid base. Set also includes a third mirror which when placed over the base, creates a corner reflector. A cork base is also included for ray tracing.

Virtual and real images are formed with these large, curved mirrors.

Includes: Sturdy base, three mirrors and a cork base for tracing. Order Information: Large Corner Reflector Set........................................................... SE-8810

Reflect View SE-8699

Concave Mirror SE-7573

Convex Mirror

The Reflect View is a unique plane mirror that is both reflective and transparent. By placing an object on one side of the “mirror,” students can locate the position of the virtual image by looking through the “mirror.” This position will coincide with the location where the reflected light rays from the object appear to converge. Students will better understand virtual image formation and location after using the Reflect View.

SE-7574 Extra large mirrors are a great way to teach students about image formation. Watch the amazement on their faces as they observe a real image hanging in space before their eyes (produced by the concave mirror). Use the convex mirror to demonstrate why they are used for security purposes in many retail establishments. Order Information: Demonstration Convex Mirror................................................. SE-7574

Concave Mirror SE-7573 The mirrors combine large size and a sturdy stand for ease of use during demonstrations. Each silver-backed, non-aluminized mirror measures 60 cm in diameter with a 75 cm focal length. Unique clamp on stand allows mirror to be adjusted to any angle.

The reflection of the yellow car appears to be behind the mirror next to the blue car.

Includes: Four reflect view mirrors (9 cm X 15 cm) Cars not included

Order Information:

Order Information:

Demonstration Concave Mirror.............................................. SE-7573

Reflect View (4 pack)............................................................................ SE-8699

326

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Light and Optics – Mirrors & Prisms

Discover Reflection Kit

Dioxide Glass

SE-8803

SE-8719

The Discover Reflection Kit includes everything to perform a variety of reflection experiments. The plane mirror is plastic to avoid the chipping which accompanies glass mirrors and the sturdy stand holds the mirror perpendicular to the surface. The corkboard provides a reusable surface for inserting pins during experiments. Law of Reflection Students place a pin in the corkboard and view the image of the pin. Light rays are drawn from the pin to the mirror and finally to the position of their eye. This is repeated for several different viewing positions. For each reflected light ray, a normal line is drawn at the surface of the mirror. Students use a protractor to measure the angle of incidence and angle of reflection to determine that they are always equal.

Includes:

Intrigue your students: What special property of Dioxide Glass causes it to invert blue letters (GLASS) while not effecting red letters (DIOXIDE)? Of course, it is a trick of symmetry. Dioxide Glass is actually an acrylic rod which acts as a lens and both words are inverted in the image. Includes acrylic rod with stand and printed card. Order Information: Dioxide Glass.................................................................................................................... SE-8719

Prisms These prisms are made of high quality optical glass. Equilateral Prism: 30 x 30 mm sides; 50 mm long Right Angle Prism: 23 x 32 mm sides; 50 mm long

Plane mirror with stand (15 cm x 15 cm) Corkboard (22 cm x 28 cm) Colored pins

Equilateral SE-9021A

Right Angle SE-9022A

Order Information:

Order Information:

Discover Reflection Kit............................................................................. SE-8803

Equilateral Prism. ...................................................................................................... SE-9021A Right Angle Prism. ................................................................................................... SE-9022A

Plane Mirror (2 pack) SE-8804 These mirrors are excellent for many reflection demonstrations. The mirrors are constructed of plastic to avoid chipping on the edges. Each mirror measures 15 cm x 15 cm.

Achromatic Prism Pair SE-9333

Top View of Achromatic Prism Pair A beam of white light can be broken up into its constituent colors, and the colored light can be recombined to produce the original white beam of light. Use these prisms to demonstrate dispersion, to show that white light is actually a mixture of colored lights.

Specifications Includes: Unassembled Mirrors (2) Wrench

Material: Optical glass Shape: Isosceles Length: 45 mm (long side) Angles: 20°, 80°, 80° for one, and 40°, 70°, 70° for the other

All colors emerge parallel— no dispersion

White

Dispersion

Order Information:

Order Information:

Plane Mirror (2 pack)....................................................................................... SE-8804

Achromatic Prism Pair............................................................................... SE-9333

327


Light and Optics – Spectrophotometer

Educational Spectrophotometer Educational Spectrophotometer Accessory Kit OS-8537

Educational Spectrophotometer System OS-8539 A Analyze and Graph Spectral Lines A Explore Relationship Between Angle, Wavelength and Intensity A Versatile and Inexpensive

PASCO’s Educational Spectrophotometer teaches basic optical principles and allows quantitative measurements rivaling those of more expensive units. When the Spectrophotometer is used with DataStudio, students can explore the relationship between angle, wavelength and intensity and graph the spectral lines from discharge tubes. Lines from mercury,

sodium, helium, neon, krypton and argon can be plotted— even the lines of the Balmer series in hydrogen can be detected. Students can also analyze the trans-mission characteristics of filters, chemical solutions and even the absorption spectrum of a leaf. Few instruments can be used to teach so many aspects of science.

Rotating Light Sensor Arm and Table

The arm can rotate 360 degrees. As the arm rotates, the edge of the circular table drives the Rotary Motion Sensor. The arm angle can be resolved to 15 seconds of arc.

Collimating Slits

Set of five slits ranging from 0.1-1.5 mm.

Collimating Lens

100 mm focal length, 50 mm dia. coated lens.

Focusing Lens

100 mm focal length, 50 mm dia. coated lens.

Diffraction Grating

High-quality, 600 lines/mm grating strongly blazed in the first order.

CI-6604 High-Sensitivity Light Sensor

Provides full-scale, switch-selectable ranges of approximately 5, 0.5 and 0.05 lux (full aperture). Spectral Response: 320–1100 nm.

Aperture Bracket with Light Sensor

Allows selection of aperture slits from 0.1 to 1.5 mm in six steps. The 0.1 mm slit, when used with a 600 lines/mm grating, permits resolution to 1.5 nm.

Rotary Motion Sensor

Sensor is coupled to the rotating table via a friction rim drive. Resolves to 15 arc seconds.

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Light and Optics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Spectrophotometer

Typical Spectrum Graphs

Educational Spectrophotometer Components Teachers that already own a PASCO Interface and the OS-8515C Basic Optics System should purchase the OS-8537 Accessory Kit and any additional equipment needed from the list below.

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Mercury Spectrum in the Second Order

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4 Mercury Spectrum in the First Order

3 7 8 6 10 9 The left graph shows three lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen. A second scan, with a 10X increase in sensitivity, shows an additional line in the violet (410 nm).

The Spectrophotometer Accessory Kit includes: 1. Spectrophotometer Table 2. Rotating Arm 3. Collimating Slits and Lens 4. Focusing Lens 5. Diffraction Grating and Holder 6. Optics Bench Rod Clamps (2) (ME-9836, see page 116)

The Spectrophotometer System includes:

Incandescent light transmitted through a green leaf. Helium Spectrum

Note: The open design of this spectrophotometer accessory is ideal for education. It is not intended for industrial or research applications. Order Information: Educational Spectrophotometer System............................................. OS-8539 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface.............................................................. p. 68-72 Spectral Sources.................................................. p. 333 For adjusting height of optics bench to your light source: Large Rod Stand (2)........ ME-8735 p. 212 45 cm Rod (2).......................... ME-8736 p. 212

1-6 above and 7-10 below. 7. Optics Bench (60 cm) 8. CI-6538 Rotary Motion Sensor 9. CI-6604 High-Sensitivity Light Sensor 10. OS-8534 Aperture Bracket Order Information: Educational Spectrophotometer Accessory Kit........................... OS-8537 Required for use with ScienceWorkshop: Basic Optics System. ..... OS-8515C p. 304 ScienceWorkshop 500 or 750 Interface....