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Conference Notes

John Joseph

Name: Learning is the biological imperative of the human brain. We are born good at it. We feel happy when we’re doing it. We are endlessly immersed in it. We never reach a ‘use-by’ date when we’re open to it. Learning is a source of health, wealth and pride. Good teachers create the conditions for kids to want to learn.

Conference Booklet © 2011 by: Focus Education Australia Pty Ltd PO Box 402 Flagstaff Hill, South Australia 5159 Phone: +61 8 8358 6993 Fax: +61 8 8358 6763 © Focus Education. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any form for any means without the written consent of the publisher. Log on at: Resources: Email:

www.focuseducation.com.au www.mindwebs.com.au john.joseph@focuseducation.com.au

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Brain Busters – fire up those neurons!

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Taken from: Brain Busters Mind Muddlers to Muse Over, Matt Joseph 2003 Order on-line at www.mindwebs.com.au – over 250 puzzles plus over 200 phrases to make your own

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Meet the Speaker

J

ohn Joseph has presented keynote addresses, conferences and workshop sessions to more than a quarter of a million people representing more than 3,000 education institutions across 24 countries. Week after week, he facilitates full-day workshops for student groups where he challenges young people to learn about learning, behaviour and emotions. John uses stunning computer-generated graphics and actual brain dissections to engage kids. He has facilitated the dissections of more than 140,000 sheep brains! Little wonder that people refer to him as “The Brain Man!” John has presented keynotes and full day sessions to principals, teachers, students, parents, judges, business leaders, accountants, the medical profession, community service organizations, government departments and tertiary education staff. He has published more than 100 articles, 6 books and a number of CD Roms. His web sites generate over 120,000 downloads monthly.

Countries of Speaking Experience: China Philippines South Korea England Thailand Borneo

Australia Hong Kong United Arab Emirates Netherlands South Africa Wales

New Zealand Singapore Japan Germany Tonga Kenya

Romania United States Turkey India Malaysia Indonesia

Contact Details John Joseph Mail: Phone: Fax: Mobile:

Dip.T. B.Ed. M.Ed. (Mathematics and Science Education) Focus Education Australia: PO Box 402 Flagstaff Hill, South Australia, 5159 08 8358 6993 Email: John.joseph@focuseducation.com.au 08 8358 6763 Web: www.focuseducation.com.au 0410 536 993 Resources: www.mindwebs.com.au Learning and Career Profiling: www.learningandcareers.com

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John Joseph Sessions Session 1: Thursday afternoon: The Four Worlds of a Student: Focus on Citizenship The Four World’s Model defines John Joseph’s work. In this stimulating session John will explain how to use the model as a framework for creating a curriculum for the heart, the hands and the intellect. John will share a number of pertinent anecdotes that inspire and engage young minds. • World One: an education that respects and dignifies each individual at the personal level • World Two: an education that focuses on the skills component of the curriculum • World Three: an education that focuses on the intellectual components of the curriculum • World Four: an education that seeks innovation, possibilities, open-mindedness and a willingness to contribute to the creative capacity and capital of each ensuing generation Session 2: Thursday afternoon: The Emotional Rooms: Focus on Citizenship The Emotional Rooms – How to create classrooms that are uplifting for the spirit Emotional smartness and creative thinking are critical skills for successful living. The Emotional Rooms Model provides a conceptual framework to assist teachers and their students in establishing common ground for productive working relationships. This presentation focuses on learner attitude, building motivation and confidence, and creating low stress classrooms. • • •

The Emotional Rooms Model – its origins and possibilities Introduction to the power of concepts and behaviour – growing healthy thought patterns Managing stressors in classrooms – contributing to others

Session 3: Thursday afternoon: Learning How to Learn: Focus on Citizenship Your students’ capacity to learn, their moods and attitudes towards school, their day-to-day behaviour and ultimately their academic success can be significantly boosted by Cognitive Strategy Training. John Joseph will give you an insight into the strategies and resources he uses to share the secrets of learning with students. The program is a remarkable PowerPoint-based series of lessons. Each colourful PowerPoint Section reveals amazing information about the human brain and how to use that information to enhance understanding and retention both at school and learning beyond school. • • • •

How the brain develops and learns – a virtual dissection with commentary The role of sleep in classroom learning and behaviour – brain care for better outcomes Information processing – building collaboration between students How memory works and levels of memory – learning about learning

Session 4: Friday afternoon: Learning and Career Profiling: Focus on Connectivity Focus Education’s on-line Learning and Career profiling System will engage students and their parents in connecting school-based learning with life-long learning and career options. Using great interfaces, students will learn how to build Personal learning Plans that bring greater purpose to their education. You’ll even get a PowerPoint presentation that you can use with students and parents. Please bring a USB memory device! • The models that underpin the System • Using the System with students • Using the System with parents

Session 5: Friday afternoon: Learning and Career Profiling: Focus on Connectivity REPEAT Focus Education’s on-line Learning and Career Profiling System will engage students and their parents in connecting school-based learning with life-long learning and career options. Using great interfaces, students will learn how to build Personal learning Plans that bring greater purpose to their education. You’ll even get a PowerPoint presentation that you can use with students and parents. Please bring a USB memory device! • The models that underpin the System • Using the System with students • Using the System with parents Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Session 6: Saturday afternoon: Creative Thinking in Classrooms: Focus on Creativity Creative thinking is a critical cognitive skill for managing life’s challenges, and for certain types of employment. The Emotional Rooms Model provides a conceptual framework to assist teachers and their students in determining the difference between critical and creative thinking. Using computer games and planning strategies, John will share with you the work on creativity he implements with students in international schools around the world. Bring you USB memory device for some free games! • Critical versus creative – establishing the definitions • Using creative thinking in classrooms – how to engage students in creative thinking • The serious side of creativity – John’s work with creative organisations

Session 7: Saturday afternoon: Creative Thinking in Classrooms: Focus on Creativity REPEAT Creative thinking is a critical cognitive skill for managing life’s challenges, and for certain types of employment. The Emotional Rooms Model provides a conceptual framework to assist teachers and their students in determining the difference between critical and creative thinking. Using computer games and planning strategies, John will share with you the work on creativity he implements with students in international schools around the world. Bring you USB memory device for some free games! • Critical versus creative – establishing the definitions • Using creative thinking in classrooms – how to engage students in creative thinking • The serious side of creativity – John’s work with creative organisations

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Commonly Used Focus Education Terms in this Conference Stages of Learning and Memory Sensory first stage of memory; awareness of a stimulus through the senses (Sensory Memory) Acquisition second stage of memory; making sense and meaning; link to interest level (Immediate Memory) Rehearsal third stage of memory; constructing new neural interconnections (synapses) (Working Memory) Retention forth stage of memory; building long-term memory (Long-term Memory) Retrieval fifth stage of memory; recall for use and modification in light of experience(s) (Recall Memory) The Four Worlds Model Four Worlds a conceptual framework for identify, learning preferences, career aspirations, the future Direct Experience ‘World Two’ approach to learning: participatory, going places, meeting people, doing things Indirect Experience ‘World Three’ approach to learning; non-participatory (observatory) listening, watching and reading Abstract

relating to thinking (theoretical) without necessity for practical application

Analysis

a subjective description relating to a report of results

Career

the combination of paid employment (jobs) over an extended period

Concept

a core idea expressed as an opinion and justified by experience

Behaviour

actions we take to release our emotions or influence another person

Concrete

relating to practical (application) with or without theoretical justification

Confidence

perceived ability to satisfy the requirements of the learning task

Convergent

tending towards a common or standard conclusion

Creative Thinking

imaginative, intuitive, playful, innovative, divergent, random, ingenious

Critical Thinking

logical, rational, organised, sequential, step-by-step, convergent, deductive

Divergent

tending towards an uncommon or novel conclusion

Emotions

our experiences represented by the physiological of the state of the body and mind

High Risk

speculative, exploratory, possibility-driven

Imagination

creative thinking about possibilities. Future tense

Learning

process to construct knowledge, concepts and skills to make sense of the world

Low Risk

conservative, conventional, probability-driven

Memory

neural representation of information, objects or events. Past tense

Motivation

the degree to which one wants to engage in the learning task

Novel

original, new, unusual, new-fangled, fresh, unique, high-risk

Perception

the inside view of the outside world; how we see things

Profile

an outline, summary and report

Standard

normal, typical, usual, old-hat, regular, tried-and-tested, low-risk

Strategy

the cognitive processes used to acquire and rehearse information

Tangible

relating to physical objects and events

Thoughts

cognitive (thinking) activity that we are aware of. We speak or hear our thoughts

Weighted Elements

factors that contribute to the achievement gap between students

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Session 1: Thursday afternoon:

The Four Worlds of a Student: Focus on Citizenship

Weighted Elements Questions asked of thousands of students globally

Why do you come to school Typical student responses: 1. Because I have to (legal or family insistence) 2. To see friends (social networking) 3. To learn (interest in what is being taught) 4. For my career (futures perspective) There is much overlap in student responses

Why do some students do better at school than others Typical student responses:

Motivation Learning strategies

Confidence *PEER*

Career aspirations Developmental readiness

Time allocations Preferred learning style

*FAMILY*

Physical and mental health

Learning disorders

Sleep patterns

Competing responsibilities

Family aspirations

Nutritional habits

*TEACHER*

Emotional state

Peer influences

Teacher effectiveness

Intellect

Poverty

Language barriers

*STUDENT*

Feedback and assessments

Who has the greatest influence over the Weighted Elements Typical student responses in order of preference: 1. Student 2. Teacher 3. Family Peer Discussion Topic Consider students in your classes and make tentative judgements about why some students perform better than others. Consider the impact of social, ethnic, cultural and religious background factors ...education is at the heart of both personal and community development; its mission is to enable each of us, without exception, to develop all our talents to the full and to realise our creative potential, including responsibility for our own lives and achievement of personal aims. Jacques Delors (Learning: The Treasure Within)

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Making a difference What evidence exists to show that teaching students about learning improves performance? John Hattie, University of Auckland undertook a study to determine the major influences on student achievement in classrooms. The study involved over 600 meta-analyses of over 300,000 studies involving over 200 million students. Hattie, a strong critic of national testing, tight curricula specifications, prescribed textbooks, bounded structures and ‘idiot-proofing’ curriculum, suggests that educators should instead focus on identifying the major sources of variance in students’ lives and then enhancing those sources of variance to truly make a difference. P e rc e n ta g e o f Ac h ie v e m e n t V a ria n c e

S tu d e n ts

Hom e

T eacher

Peer

Sch o o l

Prin cip all

Students Home Schools Principals Peer effects Teachers

about 50% of the variance about 5% - 10% of the variance about 5% - 10% of the variance already accounted for in the ‘Schools’ category 5% – 10% of the variance about 30% of the variance

Source: John Hattie (October 2003) Teachers Make a Difference – What is the research evidence? ACER. “Cognitive strategy training has a major positive influence on student performance, second only to the degree and quality of feedback.” Professor John Hattie, University of Auckland Tony Townsend, Associate Professor at Monash University (Melbourne) reported a study that would reveal how concepts students held about schooling would impact on their learning and behaviour. The researchers surveyed students to determine whether a change in young people’s attitudes toward school would increase their achievement and concurrently whether particular methods of working with young people could be passed on to teachers. Results showed that when student grew healthier concepts about learning and about the future, their performance at school improved dramatically. “There is a 90% correlation between the concepts student hold and their perceived ability to learn within the school system.” Source: Associate Professor Tony Townsend, (2003) Radical Intervention. Working with those who struggle to learn. IARTV Seminar Series No 126, Melbourne

One of the major ways to increase student engagement and improve student performance is to show students how to grow healthy concepts about learning and about the future. Ways to do this include: 1. Facilitate engaging and inspiring Learning to Learn programs 2. Bring more meaning to the schooling experience by profiling student strengths, areas for development and career interests 3. Provide timely, relevant feedback so that students can re-work assignments to mastery level 4. Bring parents and caregivers on-board as much as possible Discussion Topic Using the research of What Makes the Difference (John Hattie) along with the Weighted Elements (John Joseph) and Student Concepts (Tony Townsend) discuss your role in improving student performance and connectedness to school

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Weighted Elements: Motivation and Confidence The capacity for learning can be viewed as a combination of at least five factors: • • • • •

your level of confidence based on previous learning experience(s) the motivation (degree of wanting to learn) you expend on learning the strategies (learning methods) you use the amount of time it takes you to master the learning your concept of the future

Confidence and motivation are more significant than strategies and time – but not sufficient – as conditions for learning. You may have high confidence in your capacity for learning, for example, an algorithm in maths but low motivation. An optimistic view of the future is essential for engaging in productive learning in the present.

© Focus Education Australia. May be photocopied for classroom use Defining characteristics of each group The following generalizations hold true for most of the students, most of the time. They were developed by teachers and parents observing young people and from our workshops and discussions with tens of thousands of students across the globe who plotted themselves on the Motivation and Confidence graph. People shift between the categories and the quality of the teacher can make a significant difference to where a particular student places their plot. We define the Anxious Learner as one who wants to do very well at school but has low belief in his or her capacity to do so. Typically, the Anxious Learner requires coaching, regular feedback and comparative grades against self rather than others. Anxious learners like to re-work their assignments based on teacher feedback. They enjoy group work where they can share their ideas in a smaller forum than the whole class. This reduces their anxiety because it lowers risktaking. Anxious learners often struggle with tests, giving class talks, reading aloud and other activities that make them the centre of attention. They thrive on success, gaining great satisfaction from genuine praise. If Anxious Learners cannot get teacher support when they need it, they tend to either give up easily or become frustrated. We enjoy working with these kids because they bring a passion for learning into the classroom and are so welcoming of any support teachers can offer.

We define a High Flyer Learner as one who wants to be the highest achiever in a classroom and one who has no doubt about his or her capacity to do so. A High Flyer is not necessarily a ‘Straight A student’ but rather one who aims to be, and one who generates much satisfaction from success and much frustration from a perceived lack of success. Typically, the High Flyers prefer to work alone without the distraction from a group of peers. It’s difficult to get them to share ideas, Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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lest someone benefits from their genius! High Flyers thrive on tests and examinations, where the playing field is even and they are anxious to receive feedback about their results. Unlike the Anxious Learners, they seek comparative feedback against others and they may regard lost grades as punitive rather than educative. Their downside is generally a lack of risk-taking in classroom assignments. They often work out the game called ‘schooling’ early on in their learning careers and see no reason to risk losing grades over being too creative. We enjoy working with these kids because they are a living demonstration of commitment to mastery goals. We define a Competent Learner as one who comes to school primarily to see friends and they are usually prepared to engage in a little learning along the way! Most young people choose this label for at least some of their subjects. Typically, their comments are, “I’ll never be a Straight A student and I don’t really want to be one.” Competent Learners define themselves by a rather layback attitude. They invest more effort in subjects that they want to do and less in the subjects they have to do. They know they need to prepare for high stakes tests as learning isn’t easy for them (at least that what they tell you!) but they are confident they will always get through. Feedback on assignments is interesting for them but the Competent Learners rarely re-submit their assignments, even for a chance of higher grades. For a Competent Learner, the quality of the teacher is arguably the biggest single factor in their classroom performance. Their casual attitude to school and life makes them highly likeable. They are rarely in trouble and easily enthused by novelty and good teaching strategies. We define a Struggling learner as one who does not want to learn in a classroom and one who holds grave doubts about his or her capacity to learn anyway. It is important to note that a Struggling Learner in a classroom might be a High Flier Learner when it comes to riding a skateboard, playing a musical instrument or getting to a new level on a computer game. These kids are in trouble, sometimes, big trouble. They feel the pain associated with failure in the early years of formal schooling and by the time most of them have left the junior primary years, they still feel the pain but they no longer care. Boredom and frustration are the key emotional drives of these kids’ thinking and behaviour. In their clumsy attempts to let the schooling system know they are not coping, they often resort to behaviour that draws all manner of heat onto themselves, and many schools respond by dedicating isolation rooms for their exclusive use. Very few teachers enjoy working with these kids but the good news is that they can learn and when they do engage their minds, they can provide teachers with great satisfaction for their efforts. Struggling Learners tend to remain around Grade 4 level, academically speaking for most of their primary and high school years. High quality teachers enjoy breaking their selfimposed glass ceilings and sharing in their satisfaction, generated from seemingly insignificant learning. We define an Underachiever learner as one who wants to remain around the ‘Competent’ level in a classroom but one who has no doubt about his or her capacity to reach High Flyer status. The bottom line is, these kids know that mediocrity is acceptable so why put in all the effort just to get a higher grade. Minimum standards define these learners. Strict time-lines mean nothing; lateness, sloppy bookwork and general apathy are their benchmarks. They frustrate their teachers, their parents and eventually themselves. They may refer to the High Flyers as ‘nerds’ and often hassle the Strugglers. The Underachievers are our classroom thermostats. Because their confidence is high, when teachers move the Underachievers into high-level engagement, they produce evidence of amazing capacity for learning. The Underachievers at school often thrive in learning situations outside of school. Copy the graph and invite students (and their parents/caregivers) to circle the learner type that best describes them. Then, invite students to do a similar self-assessment but this time, for each subject they undertake at school.

Questions for discussion: • How important are motivation and confidence to student performance at school • How would you rate the students in your classes • Do you notice differences between subject areas for individual students • How do you contribute to building motivation and confidence in students • What role does feedback and assessment play in building motivation and confidence • What do you do to engage the Struggling Learners • Are there any cultural or gender patterns in your students • How would you teach students about motivation and confidence Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Model One – The Four Worlds World One – my inner world, Me This is the world that is uniquely me; the world beneath my skin; my identity. This is the world of my beliefs and attitudes, of my journey and expectations through my life. It is the world of my personal likes and dislikes, my biases and prejudices, my loves and fears. World One is the world of my hopes and dreams. This world is mine and mine alone. I may choose to share parts of it with others but it is, in essence, private. It’s my mind. It lives, grows and changes, and eventually, it dies with me. Any learning that influences my World One is profound indeed. Contributing to the growth of a healthy World One is the prime purpose of school. If a child has a healthy World One, that child’s mind is a pleasant place for her or him to spend their time, regardless of their medical, economic or social circumstances. On the other hand, if a child has an unhealthy World One, that child’s mind is an unpleasant place for her or him to spend their time, regardless of their medical, economic or social circumstances. Adults help young people build healthy World Ones through genuine care, respect, connectedness, and encouragement. We help destroy World Ones through punishment, isolation, pain-based threats, loss of approval and negativity about the future. World Two – the concrete world We build World One through reflection on our direct, sensory experiences and our indirect, academic-type learning. World Two represents the direct experiences – an education for my hands if you like. This is the world I learn about through my senses. This world represents all the people I have actually met and all the places I have visited. I directly touch and smell and taste things in this world. It is the world of the events I attend, the celebrations I am part of, my holidays and even my physical skills such as swimming, learning to ride a bike, playing musical instruments, building things, using artists tools and building technologies. World Two direct sensory experiences is the natural way for children to learn. It requires no reading nor writing but it does require coaching and feedback. Any learning that influences my World Two is powerful and personally meaningful. World Three – the abstract world This is the world I learn about indirectly. The world I know about but have never experienced through the senses. This world is full of people I have heard about, but never met. It contains all the things that others have done but I only know about it through reading, watching or listening. It’s the world I know about, but don’t really know. If I’m interested in it, I learn. If not, I just drop it. World Three learning is unique to humans. It enables us to learn from our history and pass on the generational gift of knowledge from adult to child. Were it not for World Three you would not be reading this print. I am a big fan of World Three, a prolific reader and writer and one who thoroughly enjoys a great documentary. In this world I can play with numbers and figures without the risk associated with direct experience. The vast majority of kids I teach appear literate in this way of knowing and when I combine their World Three with World Two experiences their learning reaches its cognitive and sensory peak. World Three can present teachers with issues. Kids get to label the names of parts they have never seen, or illustrate and name countries, cities and rivers that may not even exist today. They may learn about wars but not about how to use the experience to avoid conflict. Some young people regard this world of knowing as boring and in their minds, largely a waste of time and effort because it holds no personal relevance. More young people act out their frustration at school when undergoing World Three than World Two experiences. World Four – the possibilities This is the world I have yet to experience. It holds all the infinite possibilities that I am not even aware exist. World Four is my future; my relationships, my career, my health and well-being, my journey through life. ‘It is their desire and determination to do real things, not in the future but right now, that gives children the curiosity, energy, determination, and patience to learn all they learn.’ John Holt

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Discussions using the Four Worlds Model World 1 questions On a continuum, from terrible (1) to terrific (10), how would you describe your own World 1? Who do you know that has a terrible World 1? Who do you know that has a terrific World 1? What makes World 1 so good for some people and so poor for others? Who are the main people in your lives who help you grow a healthy World 1?

World 2 questions What words describe World 2, for you? What is the difference between World 2 and World 3? On a scale, would you describe yourself as more of World 2 or more of World 3? What are some of your favourite World 2 things to do? What are some of the World 2 activities you do at school? Think of some family members. What careers paths have they chosen, World 2 or World 3? Would you prefer a World 2 or World 3 career weighted career?

World 3 questions What words describe World 3, for you? What are some of your favourite World 3 things to do? Speculate on why World 3 is so important in schools? Who in your home helps you the most with your World 3 learning? What skills do you most need to be a successful World 3 learner? Think of some family members. Who is the strongest in World 3? Why do you say that?

World 4 questions What sorts of things would be World 4 for a young child, say a 2-year-old? What is exciting about World 4, for you? What careers from today was World 4 twenty or 30 years ago? 100 years ago, many things that we take for granted were not yet invented. Can you name a few? What World 4 learning would you like to do?

Those with a healthy World One view World Four as a great opportunity to visualise and actualise

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Session 2: Thursday afternoon:

The Emotional Rooms: Focus on Citizenship

The Green Room The Blue Room

The Room of Imagination • Imaginative • • • • • • • •

Creative and design-oriented Contextual Playful Tackles novel challenges Detects opportunities, takes chances Reassemble existing ideas in different ways Metaphor-driven Possibility-driven, you can be anyone

The Room of Logic • • • • • • • • •

Reasoned Methodical and sequential Textual Purposeful Solves routine problems Analyses the risks, treads carefully Pull apart the whole to analyse its parts Literal-driven Reality driven, you are you

The Orange Room

The Room of Moods and Feelings

The Red Room

The Room of Impulse • The mixing of emotion with behaviour • Experience imposes a reactionary landscape on the present and future • Usually brief, and always intensive • Rapid deployment of behaviour • The Room of impulse • Public • Strong physiological responses • Action-oriented • Rarely active • Stimulated and enhanced during stress

• The mixing of emotion with thought • Experience imposes an interpretive landscape on the present and future • Sometimes brief and sometimes intensive • Thoughtful deployment of behaviour • Private • Weak physiological responses • Feeling-oriented • Always active • Impeded by stress

© 2006 John Joseph, Focus Education

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The destruction of a quality World One - Allostasis Carry-over stress becomes Distress. Distress disrupts homeostasis. The brain of a highly stressed person does not always return to the healthy baseline.

“Allo”– adjusted “Stasis” – stability

Allostasis is a new stable baseline generated by high levels of stress.

The term Allostatic load was coined by Bruce McEwen and refers to the physiological costs of chronic exposure to the neural or neuroendocrine stress response. It is used to explain how frequent activation of the body's stress response, an essential tool for managing acute threats, can in fact damage the body in the long run. Allostatic load is generally measured through a composite index of indicators of cumulative strain on several organs and tissues, but especially on the cardiovascular system.

Old view Body returns to previous stable baseline

Amended view Body stays at new stable baseline

When the new state is chronic (over a long time frame) and pervasive (every day) the new stable base-line is difficult to withdraw from. The cumulative changes generated by allostatic loads lead to a greater wear and tear on the body. Traditionally, stress was treated after the symptoms appeared. More recently, a model of early intervention and prevention has emerged.

What does allostasis look like in teachers? • • • • •

High energy levels; can work 12 – 14 hour days Very efficient; no time for mistakes Bossy; low tolerance for poor performance Get sick during first days of holidays Burn-out rate is high

• • • • •

Work late at night and work during holidays Wake early before alarm clock Find it difficult to relax Can reach ‘can’t go on’ levels Changes in blood pressure

High allostatic loads can lead to: • • •

Impaired cognition Reduced neurogenesis Discipline problems

• • •

Increased pressure on heart Diminished social skills Poor attention span

• • •

Impaired creativity Motivation problems Premature aging

Discussion Questions: How do you manage your allostatic load How do you notice allostasis in your students Do you notice gender or cultural tendencies Who in the school can support the reduction of allostasis

References for Allostasis Robert Sapolsky, Why Zebras don’t get Ulcers McEwen, B.S. Excitotoxicity, stress hormones and the aging nervous system. Integrat. Med. 1:135-141 (1998). And McEwen, B.S. Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Annals NY Acad. Sci. 840:33-44 (1998). And McEwen, B.S. Stress and the aging hippocampus. Fron. Neuroendocrin. 20:4970 (1999). Stress and Emotions: Antonio Damasio, Looking for Spinoza Sterling, P. and Eyer, J., 1988, Allostasis: A new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In: S. Fisher and J. Reason (Eds.), Handbook of Life Stress, Cognition and Health. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Society for Neuroscience (2010) Primer on the Brain Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Factors that influence concepts Concept: an idea based on personal experience and usually expressed as an opinion.

Motivation

Confidence

}

LEARNING Strategies

Time

Concepts

Interviews about concepts

In 2001, Tony Townsend, Associate Professor at Monash University (Melbourne) reported a study that would reveal how concepts students held about schooling would impact on their learning and behaviour. The researchers surveyed students to determine whether a change in young people’s attitudes toward school would increase their achievement and concurrently whether particular methods of working with young people could be passed on to teachers. Question asked What is a concept? What is your concept of school? What is your concept of teacher? What is your concept of student? What is your concept of learning? What is your concept of your future? What is your concept of yourself?

Poor Learner (1s) Responses • Dunno • Who cares • Sh**-hole • Drive through brainwash centre • • • • • • • •

Dunno Brainwasher Dork Thing There is no learning Getting work stuck in your head I don’t have a future Same sh** as the past

Good Learner (10s) Responses • An idea • Something you think about • Where you learn and get new skills • Somewhere to make new friends • Someone who helps you learn • Someone with lots of knowledge • People who want to learn • Someone who learns • To get smarter • To put new things into my life • Good job, great family • Depends on what I learn at school

• •

I don’t know I’m a failure

• •

I am a nice person, smart, clever I am willing to learn. I’m okay.

Reference: The impact of radical intervention on the attitude and achievement of school refusers, a preliminary report. Townsend, 2001, Monash University.

The responses suggested that the strategy to be used if students were to move from being #1s to #10s was one of helping them to build new concepts about themselves and about learning. Struggling Learners

Success at school is related to a young person’s level of motivation for the ‘have to do’ elements of curriculum AND how closely those ‘have to do’ aspects relate to the ‘want to do’ elements of the curriculum.

Struggling Learners Boredom Doing what I have to do

High Flyer Learners Enjoyment Doing what I want to do

Guilt Avoiding what I have to do

Fulfilment Finishing what I have to do

Frustration Lack of achievement

Satisfaction The feeling of achievement

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High Flyer Learners

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Emotionally Powerful Concepts When the concepts people hold are different to the world they exist in, they will try to modify their behaviour in such a way as to change the outside world until it matches the concepts they hold. Most arguments occur over differences in concepts. What are some of the Emotionally Powerful Concepts in your family that are a source of conflict? Concepts, parents, kids and home Sporting activities Homework Food What’s okay to play When to do it What to eat Competition or leisure Where to do it Where to eat Degree of parental support How much time on it When to eat Radio or TV on or off How to eat Fights with siblings When to clean up How to resolve it Computers How to clean up When to resolve it When to use How to apportion blame What to ‘play’ Dress How much screen time What to wear Bedroom tidiness ‘Chat’ rooms When to wear Chores Web sites to visit How to wear Toys and games Hair styles Family functions Television and video Caps and hats Music and Bands What ratings at what age Body piercing Personal hygiene How loud to have it Make-up Ways to speak to others When to turn it off Jewellery Parties What videos to watch Drugs/smoking/alcohol How much time Sleep Sleep-overs How close to sit to TV When to go to bed Careers When to get up Recreation activities Friends Televisions in bedrooms Language Who to have Reading in bed Pocket money When they can come over Night-lights Part-time jobs What to do with them Sleep-ins and napping Tattoos

This activity highlights how parents hold EPCs and seek to influence their kids until each child behaves in a way that matches the adult’s concept. But of course, no kid wants to be bossed around so most kids reject at least some of their parent’s concepts and therefore the inevitable conflict looms. Sometimes the conflict can escalate to violence. Families can fracture if the differences in concepts cannot be resolved peacefully. The key points about concepts: • No school subject is emotionally neutral • Managing the emotions is better than managing other people’s behaviour • Unhealthy concepts compromise a person’s ability to learn within a classroom • Unhealthy concepts are terrible advisors of behaviour • Our concepts govern our social and learning conduct in classrooms • Concepts allow us to respond effectively but not creatively to our lessons • The subjects (maths, science, LOTE, Sports…) are the innocent bystanders. The concept conditions the response • Teachers can help students grow healthy concepts or offer containment strategies • kids tend to feel frustration and anger when they cannot feel enjoyment and satisfaction

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Bringing the Rooms together with behaviour in mind The main goal of the teacher is to reconnect the young person with learning, not to find ways to increase their pain. By way of contrast, let’s compare the differences between Green Room questions and strategies and Blue Room questions and strategies. What questions arise for you during your comparisons? What are the similarities and differences between what you these approaches and what you currently implement? What are the plusses and minuses for each approach, for you? Blue Room Questions • What needs to happen to fix the issue? • How can I help? • Who in the school can help you if this ever happens again? • How might you avoid this situation in the future? • Who could help you to do that?

Green Room Questions • What rule did you break? • Why did you break it? • Where did it happen?

Blue Room Strategies • Reconnecting with learning • Questioning and explaining • Self reflection within a supporting framework • Logical consequences (fix up whatever you hurt, damaged, broke…) • Goal-setting and coaching • Earning of privileges • Acknowledgement of growth • Behaviour rubrics • Reconnecting with the teacher

Green Room Strategies • Time-out • Goal setting (meeting teacher’s goals) • Thinking time and Writing time • Punitive consequences (‘do the crime, do the time’) • Counselling • Loss of privileges • Acknowledgement of problem • Behaviour charts • Stickers and other tokens or rewards

Who else was involved?

• • • •

Whose fault was it? What is the consequence? Why should I let you back into my class? What will you do next time this situation arises?

Green Room thinking fits nicely with a behaviourist perspective on learning; reward what you like and punish what you don’t like. Find the faults and apportion both blame and consequences. Blue Room fits nicely with a psychological perspective; clarify the issue, fix up the damage the behaviour created and reconnect the young person with learning and a healthy future.

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Behaviour Rubric Principles

Novice •

Learning In our school, we complete learning tasks and allow others to do so.

• • • • • • • • • • •

Safety In our school, we keep ourselves and others safe.

• • • • •

Treatment In our school, we treat others with respect and look after our environment.

• • • • • • • • • •

Conflict Based In our school we manage our conflicts without violence or verbal abuse.

• • • • • •

Proficient

Distracts self and others from tasks Low motivation for learning Talks over teachers Calls out in class Does not have correct equipment at class Late to class, misses instruction Homework incomplete Learning/bookwork left incomplete Starts before instructions Disregards teacher feedback Cheats from others Apathetic attitude

Throws objects Runs around class/in corridors Swings back dangerously on chair Disregards safety rules and procedures

• •

Initiates harassment of others Wears caps inside Mocks others willingly Uses put-downs, sexism, racism, looks for chances to “get” others Swears at others when frustrated Seeks to exclude others from the group Vandalises property Baits teachers Breaks property Disrespect others School uniform incomplete

Bullies others Picks fights Tries to escalate conflict Uses Red Room to deal with issues Blames others, or situation for own actions Refuses to resolve issues

• • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• •

• • • • • • • • • •

• •

Excellent

Focuses on tasks when asked Average motivation for learning Listens when required Waits turn to speak Brings correct equipment to classes At class on-time ready to begin Homework completed Completes to required standard Waits for request to start Uses teacher feedback to improve quality Completes own tasks Interested attitude

Passes objects safely Walks safely around class/in corridors Keeps all legs of chair on floor Conforms to safety rules and procedures

• •

Treats all others respectfully Removes cap on request Sympathetic to others Uses compliments, tolerates differences, look for ways to support others Uses assertive statements when frustrated Seeks to include others in the group Respects property Supports teachers Protects property Respects others School uniform complete

Treats others respectfully Avoids fights Tries to minimise conflict Uses Green or Blue Room to deal with issues Accepts responsibility for own actions Seeks to resolve issues

• • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• •

• • • • • • • • • •

• •

Focuses on tasks without reminder High motivation for learning Listens attentively Waits turn to speak Has equipment in class ready to use At class on time ready to begin Homework completed Aims for mastery/ extension work Manages own start Seeks teacher feedback to reach mastery level Coaches others Anticipatory attitude Passes objects safely Models safety, reminds others Keeps all legs of chair on floor Keeps self/other safe, seeks safety Empathises and, encourages others Removes cap when inside Supports others willingly Uses compliments, respect individuality, befriends others Inspires others through choice of language Encourages others to join the group Protects property Contributes to teachers Mends property Validates others School uniform complete Befriends others Arbitrates conflict Tries to maximise peace Chooses most appropriate ways to deal with issues Articulates the issue and resolves it peacefully Diminishes impact

What are the strengths and limitations of behaviour rubrics, for you? In what ways would you adapt my behaviour rubric? What needs to happen if you wanted to use behaviour rubrics in you class(es)? How might you present your ideas to the young people you teach? In what ways might behaviour rubrics contribute to healthier classroom behaviour? How might parents respond to rubrics as opposed to your current reports?

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Session 3: Thursday afternoon:

Learning How to Learn: Focus on Citizenship

Available for purchase at the Mind Webs Trade Stall during the IB Conference or by email or web: Web: www.mindwebs.com.au or email: cathy@mindwebs.com.au School and Individual Licences available. Presenter Training Available

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Preface: Why should young people learn about their brains? Young people living today are fortunate enough to witness the accelerating development of the science of learning. What we discover today about the human brain will probably be looked upon with some degree of scorn in decades to come, yet journeys of discovery always build on the work of previous discoveries. The young people we teach will live through some of the most remarkable discoveries ever made. And, maybe, not all of those discoveries will be to the benefit of human kind. Kids will need to be critical reviewers of research findings and apply their judgements with diligence and wisdom. The program, Mind Your Brain - A Journey into the Mechanics of Learning, Emotions and Brain Care for Young Minds introduces students to the mysteries of their brains and highlights brain organisation and functionality in ways that are accessable to young minds. Your students will gain insights into memory, ways to care for their brains, emotion and behaviour. They will learn terminology to describe the processes involved in learning and they will learn new ways to foster their intelligences by nurturing their own brain growth during its most sensitive periods. The human brain is a masterpiece of design and capability. This single organ manages all bodily functions, ranging from heart rate and immune system responses through to emotions, behaviour, learning and memory. By understanding how their brains work, students are better placed to use them more effectively. Building and maintaining cognitive tools and the capacity to manage their own emotions can enrich one’s life, regardless of the circumstances in one’s life. Mind Your Brain - A Journey into the Mechanics of Learning, Emotions and Brain Care for Young Minds provides the essential ingredients for developing a fully integrated thematic approach to learning about learning. Its mission is to advance the understanding of the brain and provide rich learning experiences coupled with practical, user-friendly teacher resources. With slight modifications, the program is suitable for primay school and high school students. The 312 page book with 150 lesson plans and its accompanying DVD includes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Course rationale Course overview Objectives and intended outcomes Lesson plans and accompanying teacher notes Key definitions and terminology to explain the brain Background reading for teachers Easily accessible notes and images for student use Black-line masters for photocopying or digital pasting Digital anatomic models of skulls and brains for electronic dissections Step-by-step slides and movies for sheep brain dissections Neuron animations detailing what neurons are and how they work Brilliant, engaging animations to describe brain care Interacive digital games to highglight key points about the brain Examples of model-making and step-by-step digital instructions with graphics References, glossaries and recommended print, manipulatives and Internet resources

I have personally run this program for more than 140,000 children across the globe. And I will run it many, many more times. I never tire of the startled expressions of anxiety or wonderment on kids’ faces when a fresh lamb brain is ‘plonked’ in front of them for dissection. Nor of the screams of delight as they urge each other to ‘smash’ world records as we challenge our brains’ capacities. I would wager that almost every student who participates in the program will remember the experiences as long as they live – testimony to the emotion that underlies this wonderful oportunity to learn about our most remarkable organ. Learning about learning is both educational and enjoyable. It is a source of health, a passport to reasonable wealth, and a precious introspection into what it is truly like to be human. Enjoy these precious moments with your classes. John Joseph Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Mind Your Brain – a User’s Guide Mind Your Brain is an adventure in learning about learning. The Course is divided into six sections, plus an introduction, glossary and reference section. Whilst each section can operate as a stand alone, the design follows a sequence and best results would likely occur by following that sequence. A full list of anticipated outcomes follows this brief Course Structure. Each Anticipated Outcome is numbered for ease of reference and the numbers correlate with the PowerPoint slides provided on the accompanying disk. Introduction: building students’ willingness to undertake the Course in meaningful ways Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: Section 4: Section 5: Section 6:

Anatomy of the Brain – neuroscience for beginners Neurons - tiny cells that learn Information processing - understanding learning and memory Learning Styles - assessing talents and strengths Brain Care - grow a healthy brain! The Emotional Rooms – enjoying life’s challenges

The division of components into Sections offers opportunities for educators to scope (select the anticipated outcomes) and sequence (select the presentation order across time and year levels) the Course. There are a number of ways to approach this: a) b) c) d) e)

divide the Sections across a number of year levels run each Section for each year level and divide the Anticipated Outcomes across the year levels run Section 1 for all year levels in your school then scope and sequence the other Sections select a key year level for introducing the Course and add Researchable Questions and extension exercises to other year levels allocate a defined period of time to the Course each year and encourage students to select components that most interest them

Depending on your approach, you may want to modify the PowerPoints so each year level teacher has a clear scope and sequence to follow. Secondly, the Course has a number of student booklets which you may also modify to suit the approaches that you choose. Primarily, the Course is aimed at students in the age range from 10 through to 17, although with modification of the activities and researchable questions, younger students can readily cope. Components of the Course, including brain dissections and model building have been regularly undertaken with children as young as 4 years of age. Whilst repetition is a key component of learning, avoid running the same session with the same group of students year after year.

A scope and Sequence document has been produced for primary grades 1 through to 6. The kit consists of 6 individual teacher lessons with accompanying PowerPoint slides.

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Anticipated Outcomes: samples What do I expect students to learn from participating in the Course, Mind Your Brain – A Journey into the Mechanics of Learning, Emotions and Brain Care for Young Minds. Below is the checklist developed for the Course. Each outcome statement begins with a verb, signifying what students are expected to know, think or do. If you follow all the suggested activities in this book and accompanying DVD, you can expect similar outcomes. For a full list of anticipated outcomes email John Joseph john.joseph@focuseducation.com.au Section 1 – Anatomy of the Brain – neuroscience for beginners 1

name 10 brain parts and describe their key functions

2

correctly label an illustration of a human brain

3

dissect an animal brain and locate and name 10 parts

4

correctly label by drag-and-drop a computer-based brain model and demonstrate understanding by correctly completing a ‘cloze’ activity

5

follow a step-by-step process to draw a brain and label 10 brain parts

6

compose slogans or mnemonics to help me remember brain parts and functionality

7

design and construct a brain poster using anecdotes and metaphors, and use the poster as a teaching tool with another person or group

8

construct a model brain from play-dough and name 10 parts, along with functionality

9

compare and contrast a human brain with a computer and explain major differences

10

fabricate a new brain by combining the best features of people and computers and state some ethical or moral dilemmas with doing this

11

persuade someone that memory pills are a good or bad idea

12

research how the bionic ear works or discuss the possibility of bionic eyes

13

construct a timeline to illustrate major brain changes from birth until death

14

speculate whether dogs have better brains than cats

15

fabricate a new brain by combining the best features of many different animals

16

construct a matrix to illustrate the plusses and minuses for each of our senses

17

speculate on why animals have brains but plants do not

18

prioritise brain websites from very useful to practically useless, for you

19

compare different brain sizes and research what the differences might mean

20

research learning systems and clarify your understanding by teaching another person

Section 6 – The Emotional Rooms – enjoying life’s challenges outline the Emotional Rooms Model by colouring a black-line master and defining the characteristics of each 104 Room explain the Emotional Rooms Model by constructing a play-doh model and outlining the characteristics of each 105 Room 106 think-up scenarios to describe the characteristics of each Room 107 define Orange Room Expressive Verbs and associate emotions with each Verb 108 speculate on the number and frequency of Orange Room instances in your classroom during a typical week 109 construct a recording tool to ascertain actual episodes and frequency of Orange Room Expressive Verbs 110 design a survey instrument to help you identify how your family applies the Orange Room Expressive Verbs 111 compare the ways that adults use their Orange Rooms with the ways that kids use their Orange Rooms

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What is learning? Knowledge gained from study…to acquire a skill…to commit to memory…to gain from experience…to become onformed… The word ‘learning’ continues to appear in countless educational documents and publications worldwide, while its specifics undergo investigation and questioning by researchers. From the perspective of neuroscience, learning may be defined as a process whereby individuals construct neural representations (memory) from particular (learning) experiences. And, those experiences may be generated from the external world (through the senses) or from the internal world (through thought and feelings). Learning is the main activity of the brain and involves a continuous modification of its anatomy. From an academic perspective, we define learning as a process through which people develop their knowledge, concepts and skills to make sense of their world. However, that definition has some glaring omissions as it focuses primarily on the semantic pathways for learning. Other learning and memory pathways such as emotions, procedural, reflexive, spatial and autobiographical for example may not fit well with an academic definition. Such difficulties in establishing definitions for terms such as learning and memory create opportunities for educators to create workable definitions for classroom use. What is information? We define information as the stimulus that that we engage with that enters the brain through our senses. The majority of sensory information that bombards the brain is ignored (never enters the awareness level). Learnt information eventually becomes what we call semantic or declarative ‘memory.’ What is memory? The ability to store and retain for future use…the sum of everything retained by the brain…all I know…my recollections… The word ‘memory’ is typically used to describe the processes by which people make records of their experiences and recall those records as a later date. We define memory as the neural representation of knowledge, objects, skills, emotions, places or events. In other words, memory is the inside model of the outside world. Memory, it seems, involves a persistent change in the connections between neurons (Society for Neuroscience, 2005). Memory is dynamic rather than fixed, and distributed across multiple neurons and brain systems rather than filed or stored like photographs that someone catalogued. Our memories give us a sense of the past and help us to predict the future. What are the major types of memory? Most neuroscientists classify memory into two major types, procedural, and declarative. Procedural memory is knowing how whereas declarative is knowing what. Knowing how to ride a bike is procedural. Knowing that you it call it a bike is declarative. You can learn how to ride a bike without knowing what to call it and you can know to label it as a bike without knowing how to ride it. Procedural memory is implicit. It consists of the skills we learn and use without being consciously aware of them. We perform procedural memories. According to neuroscientist, Susan Greenfield, memory for this form of learning is organised within the cerebellums, located at the back of the head. Emotional memory is also implicit and refers to information and associated feelings stored in the brain (and perhaps other parts of the body) as a result of intense sensory stimulation. To varying degrees, all memories contain emotional elements. What makes a memory, idea, object or event emotionally powerful? The distinction is graded. Some ideas, objects and events evoke weak, barely perceptible emotions while others evoke powerful emotional reactions, and there is every grade in between. Emotions, and feelings occur on a continuum. Declarative memory is explicit. We know we are learning it. We describe it as our ability to acquire, rehearse, retain and retrieve information that we can declare (speak or write). It requires conscious processing, and typically, lots of repetition. Declarative memory consists of semantics (words and their Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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meanings) and episodes (events and their locations). It appears that declarative memory is the basis of much learning at school. How does the human brain process stimulus into memory? Only a tiny fraction of information perceived through the human senses warrants further processing. To determine engagement with stimulus, the brain has a number of rejecting or accepting mechanisms. Collectively, I call the rejecting mechanisms the ‘crap detectors.’ Other ‘crap detector’ terms you could use include, surge protector, over-ride switch, dumpster, trash can, rubbish detector and so on… One such detector is the reticular activating system (RAS) located in and around the brain stem and another is the thalamus, a pair of grape-shaped structures on top of the brain stem which briefly monitors the degree of importance against other competing stimuli. We acquire Information that passes through the crap detectors. The thalamus instantly relays acquired information to other brain areas, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, the occipital lobes (visual), the cortex and the temporal lobes (language) for further processing. If the perceived information appears threatening or suspicious the amygdala (fight or flight mechanism) can activate an immediate physiological response (LeDoux). Non-amygdala activating information generates a temporary memory state in which the brain forms a rough sensory impression of the data and can immediately determine importance and understanding against such criteria as curiosity, prior knowledge, emotional content and learning style preferences. Most of the information in this temporary memory state, referred to as immediate memory, is not compelling enough to engage the brain in learning. Thus, the system dumps it. Working memory, a type of transient or on-line memory, is the next temporary memory state and involves activating existing neural networks to interact with recent acquisitions. Working memory requires attention and probably conscious processing, called rehearsal. Memories consist of vast networks of interconnected bits – bits of language, bits of emotion, beliefs, actions, places, smells, tastes and so on. Something must be responsible for divvying up events into bits, and bringing them all back together again to form a memory of that event. Mounting evidence suggests that the hippocampus might serve as the master regulator (Ratey). The hippocampus, it seems, organises and indexes information for subsequent long-term storage in the cortex (outer layer of the brain). Good rehearsal strategies enable the brain to construct or retain long-term memories. Researcher and writer, Dr David Sousa describes it in this way, ‘Retention refers to the process whereby long-term memory preserves a memory in such a way that it can locate, identify, and retrieve it accurately in the future’ (page 85). The processes involved in constructing long-term memory can take days or weeks, affected by such factors as emotional content, modality of acquisition and rehearsal and degree of repetition, Retrieval and application are evidence that long-term memories formed. Retrieval in classrooms is usually in print or oral form and often undertaken as tests or essays. The application stage of learning is often missing in school curricula generating questions from students about the purpose(s) of learning. In summary, learning is the process of acquiring and rehearsing whereas memory is the process of retaining and retrieving.

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What are the key elements that affect the four stages of learning that we use in schools? Firstly, let’s reconsider learning as the processes by which we acquire and rehearse, and memory as the processes by which we retain and retrieve – in all, four stages. Learning and memory are different but related processes. Learning certainly involves at least two important stages that blend together almost seamlessly. The first stage is the Acquisition Stage utilising the sensory memory networks and the immediate (short-term) memory networks. Here we sense and attend to the stimulus (information) in order to engage the brain in rehearsal. Networks of brain neurons link the incoming information with existing memories in what I refer to as the ‘mixing room.’ It involves the mixing of the now (what’s being asked of us) with the past (what we already know and do) and possible futures (new ways of knowing and doing). Many factors influence the Acquisition Stage, all to varying degrees: Emotions Attentiveness Curiosity Concepts Prior knowledge

affective value associated with the learning capacity to focus and not be distracted during critical learning periods degree of interest in wanting to understand the information how students perceive themselves as learners and how they perceive their futures the capacity to understand (make sense of) the information

Collectively, these factors significantly contribute towards the level of engagement the learner brings when asked to acquire information. The higher the level of engagement, the higher the probability that the student will invest his or her brain in the learning task directed by the teacher. The second stage is the Rehearsal Stage utilising the brain’s working memory networks. We rehearse (practice) learning in order to retain (keep) it. Many factors influence the Rehearsal Stage, all to varying degrees: Motivation Confidence Capacity Modality Strategies Time

conscious desire or necessity to learn, the relevance factor perceived ability in one’s capacity to learn intellect, ability to make sense of learning preferred sensory input preferred ways, methods or styles to learn how long it takes to learn

Successful learning strategies take account of both stages of learning because memory is a direct function of how well a learner acquires and rehearses information. The first stage of memory is the Retention Stage utilising the brain’s amazing capacity to link short-term memories to long-term memories. During retention, connections are made in synapses across tens of thousands of dendrites. Ideas are organised and reorganised, linked with people, places, events and emotions, and stored as interconnections between neurons. Retention is critical to classroom success for all students. Repetition (practice) is the key ingredient of retention. Factors that influence Retention include: Understanding Motivation Strategies Time Sleep

capacity to make sense of the information willingness to practice over an extended period types, or styles of practice distributive or massed practice, time before fatigue sets in the coding of memory probably occurs during certain phases of sleep

Scanning studies demonstrate that the frontal lobes of the cortex are strongly involved during the retention stage of constructing memory. Evidence exists to suggest that REM sleep is important for turning shortterm memories into long-term memories. The second stage of memory is the Retrieval Stage utilising multiple brain areas, often concurrently. Retrieving an item from working memory (transient, on-line memory) is typically very quick. However, retrieving an item from long-term memory can range from virtually instantaneous to several days. The brain uses two major methods for retrieving declarative memory – recognition and recall. Of the two, recognition is typically easier. For example, we may recognise a person by their face but struggle to recall that Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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person’s name. A student may recognise the correct answer on a multiple choice test paper but struggle to arrive at an answer for the question in the absence of the recognition cue. Recall is more difficult. The brain must locate the components of the memory from multiple neural networks and decode it back to working memory (transient, on-line memory). Recall requires multiple cues and is linked to the neural strength of the encoding process. In other words, strong memories are more easily recalled than weaker memories. The more frequently we retrieve long-term memories back to working memory, the stronger the memory pathway grows. In effect, each time we retrieve something from long-term memory, we relearn it. Factors that affect Retrieval include: Quality of Retention Frequency of retrieval Degree of stress Strategies Time

it needs to be there before we can retrieve it! use it or lose it! cortisol and other stress hormones can impede retrieval people can learn methods to make retrieval more efficient variances in decoding exist between individuals

The Information Processing Model presented later places all of these elements into one model. Further, we invite students to consider their strengths and weaknesses against the elements that affect learning and memory performance at school.

Figure 1 Memory Pathways Most memories are stored in multiple pathways. Emotions can occur in all pathways.

If you want to have good memories in the future, you had better do something about it now. John Lennon

Some useful additional reading about learning and memory for you includes: How the Brain learns 3rd Edition by Dr David Sousa Teaching with the Brain in Mind by Eric Jensen How to Explain a Brain by Robert Sylwester In Search of Memory by Eric Kandell (for those who want a detailed thesis by a Nobel Prize winner) Brain Primer by the Society for Neuroscience http://www.sfn.org The Brain that Changes Itself by Norman Doige The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Understanding Memory by Bard and Bard

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Info rmation P rocessing Model

Your Model must include:

The Memory Pyramid

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The World Sensory Memory Immediate Memory Working Memory Long Term Memory Trash Can

Source: National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine USA

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Key parts of the Model to emphasise to students a) The necessity of the brain to selectively dump unwanted stimuli before the acquisition stage of learning. Explain how people are` able to sit in a noisy restaurant with lots of conversations happening at the same time, yet they can focus exclusively on their own conversations. b) Introduce the idea of the ‘junk detectors.’ Other terms to use if you are not comfortable with ‘junk detector’ include, crap detector, refuse bin, over-ride switch, rubbish eliminator, dumpster, trash can, surge protector, waste can…… Discuss the significance of the junk detectors as they relate to classroom learning. c) Elaborate on the acquisition stage of learning by stating the importance of linking acquisition to rehearsal. In other words, during a typical lesson, a teacher will set some strategies for acquisition (immediate memory) followed by some strategies for rehearsal (working memory). Most students are fine with the acquisition stage; they are efficient listeners or readers and can make sense of what is being presented. However, some students protest at the idea of extended listening, writing, colouring, reading, constructing mind webs, discussing ideas and other classic World Three processes. These students typically want more tactile, hands-on approaches (World Two). d) Discuss the importance of having a broad repertoire of strategies for the rehearsal stage of learning and invite students to generate a list of the strategies they have used in previous classes. Typically, students will list the following; reading, writing reports, discussing, making models, role plays, tests, observation, practice, note-taking, drawing and labelling and so on… e) State the importance of a good night’s sleep for the brain to continue rehearsing until it has retained something. During sleep, ideas are organised and re-organised; new connections (synapses) are made; useless information probably dumped; and memory consolidated. f) Convince students that retention requires repetition. Typically, repetition is mundane, even boring at times. However, there is much competition for neural real estate and the human brain is very good at building strong memories for the information we rehearse frequently. Clarify this point by asking students the following questions: Who has watched the same movie at least 20 times? Who has spent at least 30 hours (a full week of lessons) on a video game? g) State that every time the brain retrieves information from long-term memory, it is rehearsing it again, thus re-learning that information. Retrieving an item from working memory (transient, on-line memory) is typically very quick. However, retrieving an item from long-term memory can range from virtually instantaneous to several days. h) Describe how the brain uses two major methods for retrieving declarative memory – recognition and recall. Of the two, recognition is typically easier. For example, we may recognise a person by their face but struggle to recall that person’s name. A student may recognise the correct answer on a multiple choice test paper but struggle to arrive at an answer for the question in the absence of the recognition cue. Recall is more difficult. The brain must locate the components of the memory from multiple neural networks and decode it back to working memory (transient, on-line memory). Recall requires multiple cues and is linked to the neural strength of the encoding process. i) Introduce the notion of massed practice and distributive practice. Massed practice refers to intense rehearsal within a relatively short time frame. For example, we probably all engaged in massed practice the night before an important examination or job interview. Distributive practice refers to less intense rehearsal over a relatively long time frame such as days, weeks or even months. j) Conclude your presentation regarding the Information processing Model by referring to the long arrow that goes from working memory to the outside world. Remind students that memory is the inside model of the outside world, and how we relate to that world. Our transient working memory provides a reactionary filter for us to judge the world we exist within and a reactionary filter linked to our attitudes and stereotypes. If a student has a history of poor performance in a particular subject, say science, she or he is less likely to enthusiastically acquire new learning during my science lesson than the more successful science student. Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Forget it! Forgetting is not a modern phenomenon, nor is it a sign of mental laziness. A German psychologist, Hermann Ebbinghaus conducted studies back in the late 19th Century to try to determine the purpose of forgetting and the rates at which the human brain forgets. Ebbinghaus drew conclusions along the lines that forgetting plays a fundamental role in acquisition, rehearsal, retention and retrieval and without the capacity to forget, the human brain could not cope with the deluge of information it acquires. Imagine the enormous difficulty we would experience if the brain had to rehearse and retain all that happened to us; all that our senses acquired and all the trivial information we are exposed to during the course of a normal day. Forgetting benefits the process of remembering by allowing us to eliminate the unimportant. Ebbinghaus developed a ‘forgetting curve’ which has subsequently undergone modification in light of new findings. He concluded that forgetting occurs in two major ways: eliminating recently acquired information and the slower decay of long-term memories (a condition that seemingly intensifies as we age!). In a nutshell, the following represents some current thinking about the rates of forgetting: Time frames for forgetting Immediately after the initial rehearsal

Amount MOST

Probable reason for forgetting Doesn’t make sense or low motivation

Throughout the next 24 hours

Interference from other learning

Throughout the next 14 days

Weak rehearsal or retention strategies

Two weeks after the initial rehearsal

LEAST

Not much left to forget

Other contributing factors to forgetting include poor sleep, stress, poor nutrition, mind altering substances such as alcohol or marijuana, lack of purpose, and even learning modality. For example, we probably forget more from what we hear than from what we read because reading is a more sustained and more focused activity than listening. When reading, we can return to re-read a sentence or paragraph, and we are only reading one thing at a time. When listening, the words are fleeting, gone in an instance with fewer opportunities for replays (unless we record the voice). Further, when listening, there are typically other sounds competing for the brain’s attention. Discuss with students the purposes, plusses and minuses of forgetting. Consider when forgetting would be a good or bad thing to happen... Invite students to construct an Advantages/Disadvantages Matrix to explain the function of the junk detectors. Encourage students to arrive at their own terms for describing the ‘junk detector’.

Questions for Discussion • What are the benefits of building independent student learners • What are the concerns, for you • How and when might students get opportunities to plan their own learning experiences • What are the implications of Hermann Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve for your classes Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Sample Games to demonstrate the learning process for students Rates of processing information: the affects of stress on performance

84

27

51

78

59

52

13

85

61

55

28

60

92

04

97

90

31

57

29

33

32

96

65

39

80

77

49

86

18

70

76

87

71

95

98

81

01

46

88

00

48

82

89

47

35

17

10

42

62

34

44

67

93

11

07

43

72

94

69

56

53

79

05

22

54

74

58

14

91

02

06

68

99

75

26

15

41

66

20

40

50

09

64

08

38

30

36

45

83

24

03

73

21

23

16

37

25

19

12

63

Memory Conve yor: lev e ls of m e m o r y a n d b u i l d i n g s t r a t e g i e s 1

11

21

2

12

22

3

13

23

4

14

24

5

15

25

6

16

26

7

17

27

8

18

28

9

19

29

10

20

30

N u m be r C o nve yor: us ing s trat eg ies t o imp ro ve p erforman ce 7 digits

not bad

8 digits

good

9 digits

really good

10 digits

yeah!

Beyond 10

wow

24 Numbers

genius!

Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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The special role of sleep in learning and behaviour Ten Tips to Get Better Sleep Tip 1. Have a regular bed time each night Tip 2. Catch up on missed sleep another night Tip 3. Reduce Sleep Thieves, especially light and noise Tip 4. Avoid exercising before bed Tip 5. Avoid food, caffeine and sugar close to bed time Tip 6. Get off the computer or TV one hour before bed Tip 7. Use the bathroom before bed Tip 8. Have a relaxing, quiet bedtime routine Tip 9. Prepare clothes and gear for the next school day Tip 10. Fill out a Sleep Diary and manage your sleep patterns

Calculating Down-Time sample Sleep time:

10pm

Wake time:

6am

Total time:

8 hours

Total /2:

4 hours

Mid point:

2am

+ 12 hours:

2pm Down-Time

Ways that poor sleep can hurt you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Tiredness during class Aggressive behaviour Learning problems Sports problems Risk of skin problems Risk of stunted growth Risk of depression Risk of being overweight Clumsy behaviour Social withdrawal Motor vehicle accidents Weakened immune system

Yours?

‘Poor sleep equals poor behaviour, no matter how we looked at it,’ explains Dr Sarah Blunden of the University of South Australia’s Centre for Sleep Research. Dr Blunden’s study has found that kids with behaviour issues are five times more likely to have sleep problems such as night terrors, sleep walking, sleep talking, difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep, and daytime sleepiness. The year-long study found that every child with a behaviour problem at school had a sleep issue at home. The researchers also found that kids who don’t get a good night’s sleep do worse in school and are more likely to need remedial teaching. One recent study showed that people who were awake for up to 18 hours scored substantially less on performance tests and memory tests than those with a blood-alcohol level of .08 – the definition of being legally drunk! Sleep affects how we look, feel, play, behave, learn, remember, retrieve and generally perform, on a daily basis. Source: National Sleep Foundation

Sources: Dr Sarah Blunden Sleep Psychologist sarah.blunden@unisa.edu.au Crick and Mitchison REM Sleep and the Neural Net J. Winson, The Meaning of Dreams National Sleep Foundation article: From ZZZ’s to A’s. *John Joseph, Parenting with the Brain in Mind – 60 articles by subscription www.mindwebs.com.au Mary Carskadon, When Worlds Collide, Adolescent need for sleep versus societal demands www.sleepfoundation.org www.sleepohio.com/sleep_disorders.asp www.sfn.org/briefings/rem_sleep.html

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Session 4: Friday afternoon:

Learning and Career Profiling: Focus on Connectivity

When measuring learning profiles, what do we observe? Decades of research demonstrates that individuals have preferences for the way they learn. We call those preferences, learning styles. Generally most research approaches base their interpretations for learning styles on psychological and/or behaviourist foundations. And most measuring techniques rely on either questionnaires or observations of tasks, extrapolating preferences from the data generated. This is not an overly objective science: human judgement and biases dominate observation of other people’s behaviour. We propose that learning styles may be further assessed in terms of components of information processing; namely their association with the first two key stages of learning, acquisition and rehearsal. To be fair, this element is also based on subjective observations, and that subjectivity can become a major problem if those engaged in the process of observation do not communicate their intentions and behaviour to those engaged in the task. Having said that, the very nature of undertaking tasks while under observation; may influence the candidate’s approach, thereby skewing their results. There is no precisely valid way of overcoming the difficulties presented. That does not mean that learning styles have no place in modern education settings. But it does mean we need to be careful about what we claim they can and cannot do.

A word (or two) of warning! Styles are supposed to represent biases in how individuals prefer to acquire and rehearse; not how well individuals acquire and think. Secondly, the preferred style may not be the best or most effective style for a particular situation. Thirdly, there is little (if any) evidence to show that a person who uses their preferred style shows improvement in learning performance, purely as a result of using a particular style. Having said that, there is probably little if any evidence to show the converse is true. *We make no claim that students will learn better when instruction matches their learning style. *We make no claim that a student should know his or her learning style in order to gain an edge over others in their learning. *We make no claim that using a preferred learning style acts as leverage for cognitive weaknesses or other Weighted Elements. What are Learning Styles? Learning styles are snapshots in time showing a person’s preferences from a series of questions whose answers are stated as pairs of opposite statements. They provide a guide to preferences; not a recipe for instructional practices that make learning easier. Learning profiles are significant when they enable students to better: 1. identify their personal and unique learning profile 2. connect with learning opportunities by managing their emotions 3. choose appropriate learning strategies 4. build skills as an independent, confident learner 5. review their strengths and areas for development 6. research options and preferences for employment 7. identify transition goals from school to further education and employment 8. articulate their capabilities and plans 9. review and adjust their plans 10. document a meaningful personal learning plan Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

© John Joseph P 32


What are the two key stages of learning that we measure? Learning certainly involves at least two important stages that blend together almost seamlessly. The first stage is the Acquisition Stage utilising the immediate (short-term) memory networks. Here we sense and attend to the stimulus (information) in order to engage the brain in rehearsal. Networks of brain neurons link the incoming information with existing memories in what I refer to as the ‘mixing room.’ It involves the mixing of the now (what’s being asked of us) with the past (what we already know and do) and possible futures (new ways of knowing and doing). Many factors influence the Acquisition Stage, all to varying degrees: Emotions Attentiveness Curiosity Concepts Prior knowledge

affective value associated with the learning capacity to focus and not be distracted during critical learning periods degree of interest in wanting to understand how we perceive ourselves as learners and how we perceive our futures whether one can understand (make sense of) the information

Collectively, these factors significantly contribute towards the level of engagement the learner brings when asked to acquire information. The higher the level of engagement, the higher the probability that the student will invest his or her brain in the learning task directed by the teacher. The second stage is the Rehearsal Stage utilising the brain’s working memory networks. We rehearse (practice) learning in order to retain it. Many factors influence the Rehearsal Stage, all to varying degrees: Motivation Confidence Capacity Modality Strategies Time

conscious desire or necessity to learn, the relevance perceived ability in one’s capacity to learn intellect, ability to make sense of learning preferred sensory input preferred ways, methods or styles to learn how long it takes to learn

Successful learning strategies take account of both stages of learning because memory is a direct function of how well a learner acquires and rehearses information. Note: a number of commercial Learning Styles instruments are available for schools to profile their students. Focus Education has developed the Learning and Career profiling System used in schools around the world. All such instruments have their benefits and limitations. Should you be interested in Profiling Students, we advise that you research the options available, obtain a trial version before committing to any program, and choose a program that suits your specific school needs.

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Predicting learning profile quadrants with students INVENTIVE

INNOVATIVE

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

Self-oriented Enjoys constructing creatively Rarely contributes to groups Highly energetic Likes trial and error approaches High risk taker (World 2) Seeks novel practical solutions Likes challenges

Team-oriented Enjoys thinking creatively Prefers to work in groups Highly imaginative Likes discussing options High risk-taker (World 3) Seeks novel mental solutions Likes socialising

METHODICAL

ANALYTIC

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

Task-oriented Enjoys constructing logically Dominates in group situations Highly organised (doing) Likes to know procedures Low risk-taker (World 2) Seeks standard practical solutions Likes following instructions

Print-oriented Enjoys thinking logically Prefers to work alone Highly organised (thinking) Likes to know the facts Low risk-taker (World 3) Seeks standard mental solutions Likes subjects/topics

Note: remind students of the strengths and weaknesses of Learning Profiles. Do not over-interpret results. Questions to ask the students you teach 1. How reliable is the information you gathered by predicting your learning profile? 2. What could make your profile predictions more reliable? 3. How would you describe your own strengths and weaknesses other than with a learning profile? 4. Do you expect differences between girls and boys learning profiles? 5. What is your most favourite through to your least favourite quadrant? 6. What quadrant(s) describe your some of your teachers? 7. When might it be a bad idea to use the Inventive style? 8. How does your learning profile differ from other class members? 9. Can you predict the learning profiles of some of your heroes? 10. What quadrants are your best friends strongest in? 11. If you were planning a camping holiday which quadrant would you mainly use for planning? 12. In what ways might societies benefit from having people with different learning profiles? 13. What activities would best suit the Analytic style? 14. When might it be a good idea to use the Inventive style? 15. Which profiles would suit a surgeon, a professor, a counsellor, a mountain climber? 16. Which groups would prefer to get information by reading and which styles would prefer to build things? 17. Which school subjects favour particular profiles? 18. Why might someone who is strong in the innovative quadrant get annoyed with someone who is strong in the methodical quadrant? 19. How would you plan a homework study session based on your learning profile? 20. What subjects best utilise your learning profile? 21. In a typical day at school, can you identify some activities from each of the quadrants?

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HOW WELL DO YOU KNOW YOUR STUDENTS?

How can your students build a meaningful Personal Learning Plan? The Learning and Career Profiling System is a fully integrated on-line Tool that will assist a person from the age of 11 onwards to build a meaningful learning pathway plan. The Tool enables a person to identify their learning preferences and strengths, providing guidance to future careers. Features of the Learning and Career Profiling System •create real-time plots of the student’s learning style and career profiles •build a comprehensive view of the students’ learning strategies •engage or re-engage students through emotional connectedness to education •plan teaching and learning methodologies to reach every student •formally recognise and celebrate student diversity •import and export information on selected groups of students and teachers •generate immediate access to the student’s development on-line •construct data collection and management systems to create individual and group reports •compare student learning profiles with career profiles to bring purpose to learning •review student strengths and areas for development •adjust plans as needed to set and reach new goals

CONTACT INFO@LEARNINGAND CAREERS.COM FOR A FREE TRIAL VERSION

What you get for your 12 month subscription: Student and Teacher Profile Tests Student Section 1. Learning Profile 2. Characteristics Profile 3. Strategy Profile 4. Emotions Profile 5. Career Profile Teacher Section 1. Teaching Profile 2. Personal Profile 3. Teaching Strategy Profile 4. Emotions Profile 5. Career Profile

Teacher Section

Integrated Profile Reports

Generalised and studentspecific written reports based on individual Profiles and capable of being printed, exported into reports and used as discussion frameworks for planning, implementing and reviewing learning and career goals. Capacity for students to enter and re-enter the Tool multiple times over the course of 12 months. Secure remote access for students and parents managed by Password protected log-in.

1. Teacher capacity to compare individual teacher and student profiles 2. Capacity to view individual or whole class results to generate data about student preferences and areas for development 3. PowerPoints and lesson plans to use with students to create Personalised Learning and Career Plans 4. Conceptual framework and written reports to provide students and their parents a view of what the school is attempting to achieve 5. On-line student data collection, management and review systems

Learning and Career Profiling System Website: www.learningandcareer.com

Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Components of the Learning and Career Profiling System The Learning and Career Profiling System is divided into sections with each Section designed to build upon the previous profiling section to help students, their teachers and parents make informed decisions about learning, training and career opportunities and directions. The System recognises and encourages student interest and student diversity. Learning Profile The Learning Profile Tool is a series of 25 questions where the candidate uses check boxes to identify their learning preferences from pairs of opposite statements. Results are then added up and a graph generated. The candidate can print a report displaying their own Learning Profile Graph. Teachers can access each student’s graph and compile group or class lists if required. Personal Profile The Learning Profile Tool displays a graph which lists personal attributes for each quadrant. The interactive nature of the Tool provides the candidate with the flexibility to personalise their Profile Chart thereby recording a personality profile for each user. Strategy Profile The Strategy Profile enables the candidate to choose engaging ways to lean, from a list of 40 briefly described strategies, cultivating independent learning. The candidate then assigns, in percentage terms, personal weightings for each strategy. Teachers can access each student’s list of rated strategies, or compile a class list, in order to compare student profiles with teacher profiles. Emotions Profile The Emotional Profile Tool assists candidates to identify emotions that will engage or re-engage them in their learning. Often students who are more difficult to engage in classroom learning will have little current knowledge of what they enjoy in classrooms. This exercise will help those students stimulate the knowledge of when and how they enjoy learning. The candidate selects one of four emotions to associate with each learning strategy. A bar graph and tally sheet display results allowing teachers to see instantly which teaching strategies individuals, groups or entire classes will most likely engage or disengage with. The Emotions Profile assists to students in becoming independent, self-motivated learners. Career Profile The Career Profiling Tool bridges the gap between education and careers by utilising an overlaying graph technique to compare a candidate’s Learning Profile with more than 300 possible future careers. The information generated enables students to view what areas they may need to develop in order to get into careers that interest them. Based on student self-interests rather than close matches between skills and careers, this Section helps students, teacher and parents create goals and plans to reach those goals. The Career Section is the jewel in the Learning and Career Profile System crown. It brings meaning and planning to the student within a framework of shared conceptual understanding.

By using the framework of this System, the student, parent and teacher are able to engage in productive, insightful discussions about meaningful schooling enabling students to make a better transition into productive interest and skill-based employment. Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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What are the defining characteristics of each continuum? Along the Immediate Memory continuum,, the Abstract Acquirers prefer to listen and watch (initially a spectator) while the Concrete Acquirers prefer to do something (initially a participant). Concrete Acquisition (World Two)

Abstract Acquisition (World Three)

Tangible

Intellectual

Direct

Indirect

Practical

Theoretical

Along the Working Memory continuum, the Critical Rehearsers prefer Critical thinking and standard application while the Creative Rehearsers prefer Creative thinking and inventiveness. Critical Rehearsal (Green Room)

Creative Rehearsal (Blue Room)

Low risk

High risk

Systematic

Intuitive

Factual

Imaginative

These defining, assessable characteristics form the basis of the questionnaire developed for the learning profiling instrument. The tables above list the extremes modes of the continuum. In reality, we can plot our positions somewhere along the continuum. The profiling tool enables each person to do just that by utilising a series of check boxes from which candidates select the frequency of response that best describes them. The following table displays the defining characteristics in four quadrants. Quadrant 1-type learners prefer Abstract Acquisition and Creative Rehearsal Quadrant 2-type learners prefer Abstract Acquisition and Critical Rehearsal Quadrant 3-type learners prefer Concrete Acquisition and Critical Rehearsal Quadrant 4-type learners prefer Concrete Acquisition and Creative Rehearsal Quadrant 4

Quadrant 1

Concrete Acquisition

Abstract Acquisition

Tangible

Intellectual

Direct

Indirect

Practical

Theoretical

Creative Rehearsal

Creative Rehearsal

High risk

High risk

Intuitive

Intuitive

Imaginative

Imaginative

Quadrant 3

Quadrant 2

Concrete Acquisition

Abstract Acquisition

Tangible

Intellectual

Direct

Indirect

Practical

Theoretical

Logical Rehearsal

Logical Rehearsal

Low risk

Low risk

Systematic

Systematic

Factual

Factual

Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Quadrant Characteristics What names do we attribute to the four learning quadrants? The naming of the quadrants refers primarily to the type of cognitive processing, personality type, emotional dispositions and memory processing systems a person brings to learning situations. Clockwise, beginning at twelve o’clock, the names are: Innovative, Analytic, Methodical and Inventive. The table below lists the essential characteristics for each quadrant.

INVENTIVE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Self-oriented Enjoys constructing creatively Rarely contributes to groups Highly energetic Likes trial and error approaches High risk taker (World 2) Seeks novel practical solutions Likes challenges

METHODICAL

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Task-oriented Enjoys constructing logically Dominates in group situations Highly organised (doing) Likes to know procedures Low risk-taker (World 2) Seeks standard practical solutions Likes following instructions

INNOVATIVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Team-oriented Enjoys thinking creatively Prefers to work in groups Highly imaginative Likes discussing options High risk-taker (World 3) Seeks novel mental solutions Likes socialising

ANALYTIC

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Print-oriented Enjoys thinking logically Prefers to work alone Highly organised (thinking) Likes to know the facts Low risk-taker (World 3) Seeks standard mental solutions Likes subjects/topics

Discussion questions 22. How reliable is the information you gathered by undertaking the tasks set? 23. What could make your Preferences Profile more reliable? 24. How would you describe your own strengths and weaknesses other than by Profiling? 25. Do you expect differences between girls and boys profiles? 26. What quadrant(s) describe your some of your teachers? 27. How does your learning profile differ from other class members? 28. Can you predict the learning profiles of some of your heroes? 29. When might it be a bad idea to use an Inventive approach to learning something? 30. In what ways might societies benefit from having people with different learning and career profiles? 31. What learning strategies would best suit the Analytic style? 32. Sometimes, your preferred strategy to learn may not be the best strategy to learn. How might you handle that problem? 33. Which styles would suit a surgeon, a professor, a counsellor, a mountain climber? 34. Which school subjects favour particular profiles? 35. Why might someone who is strong in the innovative/social quadrant get annoyed with someone who is strong in the methodical quadrant? 36. How would you plan a homework study session based on your learning profile? 37. What subjects best utilise your learning profile? 38. In a typical day at school, can you identify some activities from each of the quadrants? Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

Š John Joseph P 38


LEARNING AND CAREER PROFILING TOOL A Brilliant New Way to Engage Students In Becoming Independent, Life-Long Learners www.learningandcareers.com

The on-line Learning and Career Profiling Tool will assist a person to build a meaningful learning pathway plan. The Tool enables a person to identify their learning preferences and strengths, providing guidance to future careers. The Tool can be tailored to your unique circumstances and deployed at home, school or system levels. It has remarkable flexibility to suit school students, families and adult learners. It has capacity for translation into multiple languages, including Indigenous languages. The Tool has an associated training package for the retail user and is part of a larger suite of education products and services offered by Focus Education. Features of the Learning and Career Profiling Tool •create real-time plots of the student’s learning and career profiles •build a comprehensive view of the students’ learning strategies •re-engage students through emotional connectedness to education •plan teaching and learning methodologies to reach every student •import and export information on selected groups of students and teachers •generate immediate access to the student’s development on-line •construct data collection and management systems to create individual and group reports •compare student learning profiles with career profiles to bring purpose to learning •review student strengths and areas for development •adjust plans as needed to set and reach new goals As a User, You will receive access to world-class PowerPoints and train-the-trainer conferences; training and session notes for You to use with students and school staffs; access to the high quality intellectual property of the developers; and on-going access to all updates associated with the product and promotional exposure from one of Australia’s most highly profiled educators. Components of the Learning and Career Profiling Tool Learning Profile The Learning Profile Tool is a series of 25 questions where the candidate uses check boxes to identify their learning preferences from pairs of opposite questions. Results are then added up and a graph generated. The candidate can print a report displaying their own Learning Profile Graph. Personal Profile The Learning Profile Graph lists personal attributes for each quadrant. The interactive nature of the Tool provides the candidate with the flexibility to personalise their Profile Chart. Strategy Profile The Strategy Profile enables the candidate to choose engaging ways to lean, from a list of 60 richly described strategies, cultivating independent learning within the candidate. Emotions Profile The Emotions Profile assists candidates to identify emotions that will engage or re-engage them in their learning. Career Profile The Career Profile bridges the gap between education and careers by utilising an overlaying graph technique to compare a candidate’s Learning Profile with more than 300 possible future careers. Learning and Career Profiling Tool Website: www.learningandcareer.com Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

© John Joseph P 39


Benefits for student users, teachers and family users

Benefits for Students We created the Learning and Career Profiling Tool to help you make informed decisions about your education, training and career options. The Tool provides an on-line environment for you to use with your teachers and family to develop a personal learning plan for successful academic and career pathways. You will learn how to: 11. identify your personal and unique learning profile 12. connect with learning opportunities by managing your emotions 13. choose appropriate learning strategies 14. build skills as an independent, confident learner 15. review your strengths and areas for development 16. research options and preferences for employment 17. identify transition goals from school to further education and employment 18. articulate your capabilities and plans 19. review and adjust your plans 20. document a meaningful personal learning plan

Benefits for Teachers Are you the type of teacher who wants to engage more students in learning what you want to teach? Do you believe that students are capable of taking more responsibility for their academic performance and career pathways? Are you more interested in an education for the whole child as opposed to narrow systemic tests? Well, if you answered ‘yes’ to these questions, this Tool was designed with you in mind. The Learning and Career Profiling Tool creates a conceptual framework for you and the students you teach to engage in productive, insightful and sophisticated discussions and activities about success in school, as well as training and transitions to productive employment. The Learning and Career Profiling Tool provides you with: 1. high quality PowerPoints that enable you to facilitate discussions and activities about learning 2. interactive learning tasks that focus on learning strategies, preferences and areas for development 3. an on-line environment for students to assess and record their personal learning profile 4. capacity for you to import and export student generated data about learning and careers 5. capacity for you to compare student and teacher profiles to better match the needs of both groups 6. a conceptual framework backed by student-generated data to discuss matters about learning and careers with students and their families 7. an opportunity to use student-generated data to guide students towards independent learning habits 8. a framework for students to build and report their personal learning and career profiles 9. instant on-line access for students to electronically review and adjust their learning and career plans 10. unique opportunities to profile entire school teaching staffs with data-based discussions about pedagogy, teacher effectiveness, differentiation strategies, and planning for productive student transitions from school to further education and employment

Benefits for Parents Each child’s schooling and career options are shaped by a variety of influences. Significantly, these influences include ability, motivation, confidence, strategies, strengths and interests. The Learning and Career Profiling Tool supports families to shape plans in order for children to achieve success in school, further education and ultimately, employment. Learning is the cornerstone of life and career choices. Parents are their children’s first and most significant teachers and mentors. It is parents who hold unconditional positive regard for their kids and it is parents who gain the greatest degree of satisfaction Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

© John Joseph P 40


from seeing their children identify, adjust and develop their capabilities. To enable this, we have created an on-line environment for you and your children to assess and record their personal learning profile. The Tool provides your family with a conceptual framework for discussing matters relating to school and employment that can otherwise be difficult for parents to raise. The Tool is fun, educative, informative and a terrific guide for making informed decisions about learning and employment directions. The main reason for identifying a learning and career profile is to provide the family unit with the most appropriate methods of learning to maximise motivation and achievement for each child. Parents with a comprehensive learning and career profile of each member of the family can… 1. understand why a child clashes with other family members; why he or she doesn’t like particular family tasks or interests; why he or she seems to be very “close” or in tune with one other family member; or why he or she thinks about a particular issue in a different way to others 2. understand why a child is doing well or poorly with particular subjects and/or teachers at school 3. understand why different family members often have different approaches for doing things, reading books and newspapers, learning how to operate a new gadget, and so on... 4. help a child strengthen or develop areas of weakness 5. suggest possible courses and careers that suit the interests of a particular family member 6. support a child moving from one profile to another profile in order to accomplish a career aspiration 7. suggest out of school activities that suit the learning profile of individual family members 8. use evidence to demonstrate factors that contribute to formation of personal identity 9. discuss factors that contribute to learning and employment success 10. communicate with their children within a framework of shared language

Terms, Conditions and Payment Options available from the website www.learningandcareers.com Contact: John Joseph: john.joseph@focuseducation.com.au for a trial version today! Phone: 08 8358 6993 International: +61 8 8358 6993 Fax: 08 8358 6763 International: +61 8 8358 6763

Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

© John Joseph P 41


Session 6: Saturday afternoon:

Creative Thinking in Classrooms: Focus on Creativity

The Intellect – The Green Room and Blue Room Standard solutions are met by standard thinking, the hallmark of Green Room. The Green Room excels in fact-finding, enquiry, analysis, interpretation and appraisal, just to name a few! When used well, Green Room thinking is consistently effective for accurate and thorough investigations and applications. On the other hand, it can stifle the more creative and imaginative Blue Room options. The Intellect – Green Room and Blue Room comparisons Features of the Creative Blue Room Features of the Critical Green Room • • • • • • • • •

Imaginative Creative and design-oriented Contextual Playful Tackles novel challenges Detects opportunities, takes chances Reassemble existing ideas in different ways Metaphor-driven Possibility-driven, you can be anyone

• • • • • • • • •

Reasoned Methodical and sequential Textual Purposeful Solves routine problems Analyses the risks, treads carefully Pull apart the whole to analyse its parts Literal-driven Reality-driven, you are you

Consider the following curriculum perspective. What questions and comments do you have? Blue Room Curriculum Options Green Room Curriculum Options Event, episode and task rich Print-rich Creative and design-oriented Methodical and sequenced Rigorous and intuitive Rigorous and logical Elective, non-linear and interest-driven Mandated, linear and time-driven Imagination-oriented Fact-oriented Authentic assessment Systemic, timed, graded assessment Developed along responsive and informal lines Developed along scope and sequence lines Linked with relevance by many students Linked with indifference by many students Lightly valued by system, parents, employers Highly valued by system, parents, employers Inputs-based Outcomes-based Future-oriented Scholarship of the past The Blue Room – Preferred types of instruction, ways of learning and ways of recording • Field trips and excursions • Personal attention such as coaching • Simulations – including developing simulations • Story telling and film making • Open-ended tasks • Construction tasks, product-oriented • Model building and map-making • Experimentation based on own questions • Practical projects • Using graphic organisers to explain ideas • Scenario acting • Trial and error • Learning games • Task-driven • Designing and crafting • Questioning, discussing and interviewing • Product appraisal and re-design • Brainstorming • Scenario acting • Play and games based • Artistic representations, collage, cartooning,

The Green Room – Preferred types of instruction, ways of learning and ways of recording • Listening to lectures • Reading for specific information • Researching through books, the web • Recipe and guided practice • Procedural and methodical tasks • Textual tasks, speaking- and writing-oriented • Handouts that provide step-by-step instructions • Experiments based on other’s questions • Written projects • Using essays and reports to explain ideas • Research and implementation of procedures • Logical and sequential • Research and conclusion drawing • Subject discipline-driven • Case studies • Reading, writing and correspondence • Learning Logs and Journals • Cloze Activities • Handouts for later reflection and revision • Project based • Reflective review, metacognition,

There is considerable overlap between the lists.

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Creative Thinking: The hallmark of the Blue Room Blue Room question stems • • • • • • • • •

What might…? What will…? When would…? Who can…? Who might…? Where can…” How might…? Why might…? Why not…?

Green Room question stems • • • • • • • • •

What did…? What is…? When did…? Who is…? Who did…? Where did ? How did…? Why did…? Why…?

The Blue Room – some comments Failure to teach Blue Room thinking to kids means the only cognitively active options they know are routines. deBono (1999) says that recognition of a problem is powerful and useful but recognition does not provide remedy. People typically base remedies on dominant thinking patterns (Green Room) that have historically served us well. Design (Blue Room) is the process whereby new thinking occurs. Design does not just make things better, Green Room thinking can handle that, it creates entirely new ways of doing things. Blue Room thinking is the flow of ideas that opens up possibilities but not certainties. It allows us to design a future with variations that will be useful to us individually and useful to us as a society. Blue Room thinking provides options, encourages flexibility and reduces reliance on someone else’s thinking. It seeks provocations and dilemmas, but creative Blue Room thinking does not necessarily assume that a problem exists. In my mind, Edward deBono must surely be one of the world’s greatest Blue Room thinkers. Here are just five key points I extracted from his 1990 book, New Thinking for the New Millennium. I have attached the Rooms labels to his work: • To write about the past (Green Room) requires skill as a researcher and writer. To write about the future (Blue Room) requires skill as a thinker and writer. • We drive into the future (Blue Room) with our eyes fixed on the rear view mirror (Green Room). • Value lies in the relationship between the information we learn (Green Room) and the creative use of it (Blue Room). • Judgement deals with what we have done (Green Room). Creativity deals with what we might do (Blue Room). • Green Room analysis breaks things down into its bits. Blue Room design puts bits together in new ways to create a better outcome. Blue Room thinking is vital in today’s world of rapid change, globalisation and frequently presenting economic and social challenges. Whereas analytic-type Green Room thinking is superb at breaking the whole into compartments, the opposite is true for Blue Room synthesis, which weaves the parts into entirely new wholes. Green Room thinking remains indispensable but insufficient. Blue Room emerges as the new way to generate ideas, income and satisfaction from accomplishment. Blue Room combines the unrelated in seemingly never-ending ways. I am arguing a case for the greater inclusion of Blue Room thinking in classrooms. In doing so, I am not denouncing Green Room thinking, just the overwhelming quantity of it and the increasing amount of low level, memorisation thinking. Given the crisis created by the emergence of cheap offshore labour, the power of technologies to reduce mundane Green Room memorisation tasks and the increasing wealth beyond need that so many people now enjoy, I’m optimistic that the schooling enterprise will see the need for creative, design-oriented thinking. It is possible to run outcomes-based education (OBE) against a Blue Room framework providing the amount of time devoted to the outcomes does not overly interfere with the amount of time devoted to more significant pursuits such as Blue Room creativity and the young person’s wellbeing. Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference

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Examples of the Blue Room in classrooms In the Blue Room lays immense untapped possibility created by our imaginations. There is more to do, and more to see, and more to invent than can ever be accomplished in a single lifetime.

Tense

SITUATIONS What did? When did? What was?

PEOPLE Who did? Why did? Who was?

CHOICES What did? Which did? Which was?

WAYS How did? When did? How was?

PRESENT Mixing Room

What is? Where is? Where can?

Who is? Who ought? Why is?

Which is? Why is? Where is?

How is? How ought? How do?

FUTURE Creative Blue Room

What can? What might? What if?

Who can? Who might? Who will?

Which might? Why might? When would?

How can? How might? Where might?

PAST Analytic Green Room

Putting the Blue Room Thinking Verbs into action – Mind Your Brain Workshop Listed below are some of the Blue Room Thinking Verbs we apply during the Mind Your Brain student workshops. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Create a plasticine model to explain how the brain processes information Re-arrange the school day to take account of what you know about nutrition and sleep Speculate whether dogs have better brains than cats Design a homework centre for yourself that optimises learning Design a brain-compatible classroom environment. How would desks be set up? What colours would you use? How might you access information? How would you establish routines? What music might enhance learning in the classroom? What posters would hang from the walls…? Generate some brain-compatible alternatives to writing and reading for processing information presented in classrooms Compose slogans or songs to help you remember ten brain parts and their functionality Think-up some new ways to make your school timetable more student- and teacher-friendly Create a teaching pack to teach your parents or other family members what you are learning about how your brain learns Brainstorm things that a computer cannot do that a brain can do and vice versa Fabricate a new brain by choosing and integrating the best features of five different animals’ brains Fabricate a new brain by choosing and integrating the best features of the human brain and computer technologies The answer is ‘a healthy brain.’ Compose five questions with this answer in mind Picture five ways in which a human brain is different to a whale’s brain Imagine a human brain without sight and hearing. How might you learn? What might be your strengths and limitations? Speculate on why animals have brains but plants do not Design a game that uses 3 levels of your memory (short-term, working and long-term memory) Make-up a quiz about the brain and ask a family member or friend to answer your questions. How will you handle any errors they might make, or any misconceptions they might hold? Propose an advertising campaign for promoting healthy brains Create an information processing model using metaphors

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Target Verbs Š John Joseph 2009 Planning for World 3 – Green Room logic, analytic, methodical, sequential GREEN ROOM World 3 VERBS

analyse assess categorise clarify compare contrast convince critique decide deconstruct deduce define deliberate demystify deploy solutions

describe estimate evaluate examine generalise fact-find infer interpret identify investigate judge justify list name observe organise outline persuade plan predict prioritise recite recount report research resolve review sequence summarise

DEFINITIONS

to determine the parts in order to determine the nature of the whole to estimate or determine the value or significance of something to classify or put into categories to make clear by way of explanation to determine similarities and differences to set in opposition in order to emphasise differences to persuade through argument to critically review or discuss specified topic or work to make a choice; to reach a decision, to resolve a problem to pull apart ideas, substances or parts systematically to reach a conclusion through reasoning to state the exact meaning of to carefully think out something to make something that was confusing clear to put into use or action to give an account of, or tell about in detail to calculate roughly or to form an opinion to examine and judge carefully to inspect or scrutinise carefully, to investigate to infer from many details; to reduce to a general idea to search out the truth to conclude by reasoning from evidence to explain or present the meaning of something to prove or recognise as being certain; to point out an idea to make a detailed enquiry or systematic examination to form an opinion or estimation of worth to demonstrate or prove something to be right, valid or fair to write, print or imagine a series of items, one after the other to label or point out to watch attentively or to make a systematic or scientific description to put something together in an orderly, functional or structured way to give the main points, important characteristics, or general principles to convince by reasoning or argument to formulate a scheme or program of action for accomplishment To guess or expect a particular outcome based on logic or experience to put in order of importance or urgency to give a detailed account of; to repeat aloud to an audience to tell in detail to present an account of something to study thoroughly to reach a decision or find a solution to a problem to look over, study or examine again; to consider retrospectively to organise or arrange, put in order to restate briefly; to state the key points

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Planning for World 3 – Blue Room creative, intuitive, innovative BLUE ROOM World 3 VERBS

brainstorm cartoon compose contrive depict design develop devise draft dream elaborate envision formulate imagine invent make-up orchestrate originate picture propose rearrange scheme sketch spawn speculate suggest synthesize think-up visualise

DEFINITIONS

try to solve a situation by thinking intensely about it, offer a range of ideas to depict something through caricature to make or create by putting together parts or elements to bring about, to form plans or schemes to represent in a picture or sculpture to conceive or fashion in the mind, to formulate a plan for to bring into being gradually, to bring towards fulfilment to form, arrange in the mind, suppose or imagine to represent something to be constructed, to develop a plan, document or picture to conceive of; to imagine to add detail to; to decorate further to picture in the mind to prepare according to a formula, devise or invent to form a mental picture or image of to produce or contrive by the use of ingenuity or imagination to cause to exist or happen, to bring about from scratch to arrange or control the elements of, as to achieve a desired overall effect to bring into being, start to visualise, to describe vividly in words to put forward a new idea for consideration to change the arrangement of, to put into a new order to make a systematic plan of action, to plot to outline an idea or concept to cause to bring forth, produce a product or outcome to consider a range of options, to meditate on an idea to offer or consideration or action to combine so as to form a new complex product to invent by thinking, devise to see in your mind, to create a mental picture

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Planning for World 2 – tactile, concrete, direct experience World 2 VERBS

attend build compile construct cook choreograph count craft create cut dance engrave experiment fabricate generate interview join together make map measure meet montage narrate paint perform photograph produce publish render re-enact renovate restore role-play sample saw sculpt sew simulate solve shape tinker teach test tile undertake video weld

DEFINITIONS

to be present at to assemble, make or put something together for a specific purpose to accumulate or assemble to erect according to a plan To change the chemical composition of a substance according to a recipe to arrange a manoeuvre or performance in a particular way to add up or check in order to ascertain something to make by hand to make something from scratch to slice something according to a pre-conceived plan or measure to move according to a choreographed plan to etch, score or otherwise make something permanently according to a plan to try out by controlling variables to construct by combining or assembling diverse parts, to concoct to bring an idea into existence, to produce or form to question another person with a specific purpose in mind to bond, adhere or otherwise join together to put together to construct a chart or atlas of a particular area to determine actual length, breadth, depth volume, quantity or intensity‌ to get together with others for a specific purpose to mosaic or otherwise create a mixture of objects to report or describe an event to tint, dye, decorate or protect with a coloured substance to carry out or execute a predetermined piece or act to get something interesting on film to bring into being to issue and distribute to cover a building surface with a layer of mixture to perform by recreating an historical event to refurbish according to a pre-conceived idea to bring back to former condition to act a story or episode in front of an audience to produce or provide a taster of something to use a toothed instrument to cut into another object to carve, shape or form something to join, alter, adorn or embroider with stitch to imitate in a representative way to decipher or unravel an actual physical problem to give a particular form to, to cause to conform to a particular pattern, adapt to fit to mess about with without any particular purpose to impart knowledge or skill to others to gather data and assess using comparisons; to trial approached to solutions to cover a surface with a pattern of objects to commence a project with the intention of completion to film a particular event or situation to fuse, solder or join together with a purpose in mind

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What?

So What?

Now What?

Self-assessing what has been learned or considered in light of what I already know The main things I have learned about or been challenged about are:

Something(s) I have found fascinating about and want more information about:

Setting goals/directions The skills I need/want to refine are:

Self-assessing for organisational-wide growth As a result of this conference I would like to see:

I say this because:

Self-assessing learning behaviour The next steps for me are:

The next step for the school might be:

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References and resources Items marked * available for purchase through Mind Webs. Call +61 8 8358 6993 for a catalogue or visit www.mindwebs.com.au Neuroscientists, scientists, doctors and psychologists Amen, Daniel (1998) Change Your Brain, Change Your Life. New York. Times Books. Calvin, William (1996) How Brains Think. New York. Basic Books. Calvin, William and Ojemann, George (1994) Conversations with Neil’s Brain. Reading, MA. Addison-Wesley. *Diamond, Marian and Hopson, Janet (1998) Magic Trees of the Mind. New York. Penguin. Diamond, M. et al., On the Brain of a Scientist: Albert Einstein. Experimental Neurology (1985), 88: 198-204. *Damasio, Antonio (2003) Looking for Spinoza, Joy, Sorrow and the Feeling Brain. London, Vintage Books. Damasio, Antonio (1994) Descartes’ Error. New York. Putnam and Co. Gazzaniga, Michael (1988) Mind Matters: How Mind and Brain Interact to Create Our Conscious Lives. Boston. HoughtonMifflin/MIT Press. Eldeman, Gerald (1992) Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind. New York. Basic Books. *Greenfield, Susan (2000) The Private Life of the Brain. London. Penguin Books Greenfield, Susan (1997) The Human Brain. New York. Basic Books. Giedd, Jay Frontline Interview Visit the website at: www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/shows/teenbrain Hobson, J. Allan (1989) Sleep. New York. W. H. Freeman. Judith Rapoport, NIMH Teenage Brain, a Work in Progress. Web www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/teenbrain.cfm Kandel, Eric (2006) In Search of Memory. W Norton and Co. New York Le Doux, Joseph (1996) The Emotional Brain. New York. Simon and Schuster. Gopnik,Alison et al,(1999) The Scientist in the Crib – Minds, Brains and How Children Learn. William Morrow and Co, New York. J Healy, Your Child’s Growing Brain. McEwen, B.S. Excitotoxicity, stress hormones and the aging nervous system. Integrat. Med. 1:135-141 (1998). Pert, Candace (1997) Molecules of Emotion. New York. Charles Scribner’s Sons. Pinker, Steven (1997) How the Mind Works. Penguin Press, London Ramachandran, V.S. and Blakeslee, Sandra (1998) Phantoms in the Brain. NY. William Morrow and Sons. Rizzollati, Giacomo et al. Resonance Behaviours and Mirror Neurons, Archives Italiennes de Biologie 137 (1999) 85-100. *Schwartz, Jeffrey and Begley, Sharon(2002) The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York. Regan Books. Sapolsky, Robert (1998) Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers. New York. WH Freeman. Sperry, Roger (1968) Hemisphere disconnection and unity in conscious awareness. American Psychologist 23, 723-33. Squire, Larry (1992) Memory and the Hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys and humans. Psychological Review. 99.2, 195-231 Winston, Robert (2003) The Human Mind and How to make the most of it. London, Bantam Books. Brain Books by non-neuroscientists Bard, Arthur and Bard, Michael (2002) The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Understanding Your Brain. IN. Alpha. Glasser, William (1999) Choice Theory.: A new Psychology of Personal Freedom. New York. Harper Collins. Goleman, Daniel (1995) Emotional Intelligence. New York. Bantam Books. Kurland, Michael and Lupoff, Richard (1999) The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Improving your Memory. IN. Alpha. Ratey, John (2000) A User’s Guide to the Brain. New York. Pantheon. Restak, Richard (2001) The Secret Life of the Brain. The Dana Press. Sylwester, Robert (2005) How to Explain a Brain. An Educator’s Book of Brain Terms and Cognitive Processes. CA. Corwin Press. Sylwester, Robert (1995) A Celebration of Neurons. Alexandria VA. ASCD. Emotions and relationship to learning and teaching *Joseph, John (2006) 2nd Edition Learning in the Emotional Rooms: How to Create Classrooms that are Uplifting for the Spirit. Adelaide, Focus Education Australia. *Joseph, John (2006) Learning in the Emotional Rooms – A1 POSTER. Focus Education Australia. *Jensen, Eric (2003) Tools for Engagement: Managing Emotional States for Learner Success. CA, The Brain Store. Teenagers and Middle Schooling *Fuller, Andrew (2002) Raising Real People. ACER. *Feinstein, Sheryl (2004) Secrets of the Teenage Brain. CA, The Brain Store. *Gibbs, Jeanne (2001) Discovering Gifts in the Middle School. CA, Centre Source. *Zorfass, Judith (1998) Teaching Middle School Students to be Active Researchers. VA, ASCD. Learning with the Brain in Mind 25th Asia Pacific Annual IB Conference © John Joseph P 49


Translators of brain research and with interpreted implications for schooling *Caine G. and Caine, R. and Crowell, S. (1994) Mindshifts. Tuscon,AZ: Zephyr Press. *Jensen, Eric (2005) Teaching with the Brain in Mind 2nd Edit. VA, ASCD. *Jensen, Eric. (1998) Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA, ASCD. *Sousa, David (2003) The Leadership Brain. CA, Corwin Press. *Sousa, David (2006) How the Brain Learns 3rd Edit. CA, Corwin Press. *Rogers, S, Ludington, J. and Graham, S. (1997) Motivation and Learning. Peak Learning Systems. Sylwester, Robert. (2000) A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom. CA, Corwin Press. *Wolfe, Patricia (2001) Brain Matters – Translating Brain Research into Classroom Practice. VA, ASCD. Claxton, Guy (2009) What’s the Point of School: rediscovering the heart of education. Oxford. Oneworld. Classroom-based teaching and learning strategies *Costa, Arthur (2003) Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking 3rd Edit. VA, ASCD. *Jensen, Eric. (1995) Super Teaching. Adelaide, Focus Education Australia. *Jensen, Eric. (1998) Brain-Compatible Strategies. Adelaide, Focus Education Australia. *Jensen, Eric (1999) The Great Memory Book. San Diego, CA, The Brain Store. *Kagan, S. (1989) The Structural Approach to Cooperative Learning. Educational Leadership. *Marzano, Robert et al (2001) A Handbook for Classroom Instruction that Works. ASCD. *Pohl, Michael. (1997) Teaching Thinking Skills in the Primary Years. Vic, Hawker Brownlow. *Pohl, Michael (1998) Learning to Think – Thinking to Learn. Vic, Hawker Brownlow. *Jensen, Eric (2006) Enriching the Brain – How to Maximize Every Learner’s Potential. Wiley. *Model Brain (High quality 8-piece kit including life-size skull with removable cranium and beautifully illustrated full-colour booklet). Housed in a strong aluminium case. Adelaide, Focus Education. *Plastic moulds for building and painting model plaster brains. (Available in class sets). Adelaide, Focus Education. *Joseph, John (2008) Mind Your Brain – A Journey into the Mechanics of Learning, Emotions and Brain Care for Young Minds DVD and Teacher level accompanying workshop notes and guide. A remarkable 50+ hour brain programme with stunning PowerPoint images brain images. (For classroom use ONLY). This is a site-licenced product. Adelaide, Focus Education Australia *Joseph, John and Clinch, Randall (2010) Learning and Career Profiling Tool. Adelaide, Focus Education Australia *Joseph, John (2006) A1 Laminated Brain Posters of Emily with labels and descriptions of 10 brain parts *Joseph, John (2007) A1 Laminated Poster: The Emotional Rooms with descriptions of each Room of the Brain *Joseph, John (2008) A1 Laminated Poster: Information Processing Model with the Model and descriptions *Emotional Rooms Stress Brain. A soft model brain coloured specifically with the Emotional Room. Great for getting young people to recognise when they are about to go into the Red Room. *Brain Thinking Caps. Specially designed baseball-type caps with a brain texture image on the material. *Joseph, John (2008) 65 brain articles by subscription. Written specifically with parents in mind, this series, ‘Parenting with the Brain in Mind’ is available as 65 PDF downloads from Focus Education. You may photocopy the articles and send them home with your school’s newsletters or have them as handouts at the school’s reception. Focus Education Products for release in 2011 Wake up to the Impact of Sleep: includes teacher PowerPoints, lesson plans for 6 lessons, background reading , video interview with a sleep psychologist... aimed at age 11 onwards A Glass full of Fun – a Bottle Full of Trouble: computer-animated journey of alcohol travelling through the body. Includes teacher PowerPoints, 3 lessons and background reading

www.focuseducation.com.au

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