Home Study Manual
ENGLISH BOWLS UMPIRES ASSOCIATION
Foreword EBUA Home Study
The Umpire’s Duties Practical Umpiring
The Marker’s Duties The Principles of Marking Mastering Lollipops
Equipment The Umpires Kit Markers Kit Alternative Equipment
Introduction Tips for Measuring Measuring Exercises
Laws of the Sport
A brief history of the “Laws of the Sport” Learning the Laws Laws of the Sport
Policy Document Protecting Children & the Vulnerable Policy
The English Bowls Umpires Association gratefully acknowledges the following for their assistance with the production of this Home Study Manual. World Bowls Ltd For permission to print extracts from the Laws of the Sport and training documents EBUA Training & Development Committee, Allan Thornhill, Andy Ewens, Richard Moore, Phyl Jones, Jack Sadie and Ian Munroe For content, design and proofing Nick Anderson – “Smile Please Photogroup” For photography Chawton Park Indoor Bowls Club For photography venue Drakes Pride For bowls, umpires kits and content
Visit the EBUA Website www.ebua.org.uk
Welcome to the English Bowls Umpires Association ‐ Home Study Manual. This manual will provide the information you need to help you qualify for the first grade of English umpire – the Club Umpire. It will also serve as a valuable tool for the future, as you gain experience, complementing the training programme as you progress from a new recruit right through your career. In 2010 the EWUA and EBUA unified to form a new umpiring body – The EBUA. The training of umpires in both associations was evaluated and the best of both used to develop a new programme of training and development. We are proud that World Bowls Ltd has used many of our principles to develop a world standard for umpire training. This standard is what we continue to achieve and improve upon to ensure that umpires trained in England remain among the best in the world. This Home Study Manual is divided into chapters to make the learning process manageable. It covers all aspects of umpiring, marking and measuring as well as providing a basic knowledge of the Laws of the Sport. Each chapter is complemented by photographs, working exercises and, tips and there are videos on the accompanying DVD. The aim is to provide you with everything you need to train as an umpire in the comfort of your own home and at your local bowls club. Many of our members have been fortunate to reach the very highest pinnacles during their umpiring careers – Commonwealth Games, World Championships and International Championships. You are now beginning that journey of enjoyment and satisfaction. With our help, we hope that you can achieve the best of your ability and fulfil your hopes of being part of some of the great games of bowls. We wish you the best success and enjoy the journey Allan Thornhill Honorary National Development Officer
CHAPTER 1 | 1
Introduction EBUA Home Study
Your progression as an umpire is dependent on self learning with support from our Training & Development Team. This manual will assist you in your learning throughout your career as an EBUA Umpire. Study each chapter in turn and follow the tips and home study guides. The accompanying DVD is divided into the same chapters and is a visual accompaniment to the manual. When you are satisfied that you have learnt all you can in any chapter, you should attempt the questions in the Workbook. You can use whatever sources of information you choose in order to arrive at your answers – you can even contact the Training Team for advice. When you have completed the questions post your Workbook back to the Training Administrators who will mark it and provide you with feedback on your result. This assessment will form the first module as part of your training process. Throughout the manual you will find a number of useful info‐boxes. They are colour coded to assist you.
Green info‐boxes provide you with the
Laws of the Sport that are relevant to that particular chapter or subject. These should be read in conjunction with the current Laws of the Sport booklet
Purple info‐boxes give you suggestions on how you can study the laws, measuring and other practical aspects of umpiring in the comfort of your own home or garden. Practise is most important, especially with measuring, so use what is available at home.
This DVD icon will indicate that a demonstration or additional material is available on the accompanying DVD.
TIPS Orange info‐boxes provide you with hints and tips on how you can perfect your duties as a marker or umpire. The tips provided are designed to make your job easier but are also an aid to learning.
The hand icon refers to a Revision Break. Take a moment to review the chapter you have read and answer the question in the Manual or Workbook
CHAPTER 1 | 2
Introduction Umpire Training Programme Here is a brief summary of the modular training programme:
New Applicants Module 1 ‐ a written open book theory paper supported by the Home Study Pack Module 2 ‐ the Club Umpire Assessment, including measuring practical and theory questions. PASS awarded an EBUA Club Umpire certificate valid for 4 years.
Club Umpire to Regional Umpire Umpires wishing to upgrade from Club Umpire to Regional Umpire must complete the following modules of training and have at least 12 months experience. Module 3 ‐ a theory workbook supported by the Home Study materials. Module 4 ‐ a practical workshop Module 5 ‐ a practical and theory assessment PASS awarded an EBUA Regional Umpire certificate valid for 1 year. After 1 year experience: Module 6 ‐ a shorter practical and theory assessment PASS awarded an EBUA Regional Umpire certificate valid for 3 years.
Regional Umpire to National Umpire Umpires wishing to upgrade from Regional Umpire to National Umpire must complete the following modules of training and have at least 2 years experience. Module 8 ‐ a theory workbook supported by the Home Study materials Module 9 ‐ a practical workshop Module 10 ‐ a practical and theory assessment PASS awarded an EBUA National Umpire certificate valid for 4 years.
Continual Assessment The Training and Development of Umpires is an ongoing process and each qualified member must complete a module every 4 years. Module 7 ‐ a four yearly workshop and assessment
CHAPTER 1 | 3
Umpiring In this chapter we aim to give you a basic understanding of the duties of an umpire and detail some of the practical aspects of the role.
In this Chapter Law 56 – Duties of an umpire Your role as an umpire
By the end of this chapter you will Understand your role as defined by
the Laws of the Sport Have a basic understanding of the tasks required, before, during and after a game Know the basic principles for working with other officials Complete chapter 2 of the module workbook
Your appearance Arrival at the venue Measuring the green Checking the bowls Your equipment Trial ends The game What to look out for Measuring Completing the game Working with other umpires Working with markers
Introduction Whether you are training to become a new umpire or progressing to the next grade, this chapter will provide you with some basic introductions to various aspects of your role. Of course, much of your knowledge will come with experience. However, it is important that you are armed with this basic knowledge before attempting your first official duty. Experienced EBUA members will be on hand to assist you through your learning by training and mentoring. Take their advice and use it to improve your performance in each game.
CHAPTER 2 | 1
Revision Break 1
List below your main duties before the start of a game
CHAPTER 2 | 5
Umpiring The Game Whilst the game is in progress, keep alert and be aware of everything that is going on so that if you are asked to give a decision, hopefully you will have seen what the problem is and not have to rely on what you are told. Do not sit down, you will lose your concentration and will miss a call or a potential problem developing. However, if you are at a long game with only one or two rinks, use commonsense - if you need to rest your legs, do so for a few minutes but stay alert. When moving around the green, be mindful of walking in front of players when they are on the mat about to bowl.
This umpire is not alert and has missed a call from the marker to carry out a
What to Look Out For Stay alert and look out for the following: You may notice the jack or bowl going to
the side of a rink; move towards that rink in anticipation of being asked to check if it is within the boundary. Watch the jack being delivered. If it looks
short, be ready for a call to measure the length of the jack. When asked to measure a jack length,
make sure you know if it was the first cast or the second; you could end up throwing the jack back to the wrong end!
The player is taking a close look - the umpire may be required for a measure
Just as the last bowls are being delivered in an end, and the threes or the
markers are looking closely at the head or have started measuring, move towards the rink so that if they cannot make a decision you are close at hand. When officiating at singles competitions, work with the Markers as a team. If
there is no danger of disturbing players on adjacent rinks, help them by clearing the mat from the end of the rink, but of course, make sure the end has finished before removing the mat!
CHAPTER 2 | 7
Umpiring Measuring When you go to measure, take a few seconds to assess what you are being asked to do? Check with the players to make sure you know what is required. Ask the players to take out any bowls not in contention; NEVER take them out yourself. Check with the players the status of any bowls in the ditch. Are they marked or nominated as touchers or nontouchers? Remember, the last bowl may have taken the jack in the ditch and not been marked by the players. If they are not touchers then remove them from the ditch. Will any of the bowls need wedging? If there is a leaning bowl, or one standing on its running surface, wedge it before you start to measure.
Assess what you are being asked to measure before you start
If the players are standing over you, ask them politely to retire to the bank, explaining why - you do not want them to influence you or put you under any pressure to make a decision. Normally they will oblige and move away. If you need to do a long measure on the green or when the jack is in the ditch, ask one of the players, a marker or another umpire to act as an assistant. Make sure you take the pointer end of the string to the bowls to make the decision and give clear instructions to your assistant at the jack end of the box measure. If you are asked to measure length or rebounded Jack or length Bowl, use an assistant, another umpire; they take the the tape to the mat.
The umpire takes the decision end of the measure and the player assists at the jack end
a minimum a minimum a marker or fixed end of
If you are assisting another umpire with a long measure, the general rule of thumb is for the umpire who is at the head end to take the decision end of the tape.
CHAPTER 2 | 8
Marking In this chapter we aim to provide you with a basic understanding of the duties of a marker, some detail on best practice to improve your skills and instruction on the use of shot indicators.
By the end of this chapter you will Understand your role as defined
by the Laws of the Sport Have a basic understanding of the tasks required, before, during and after a game Know the basic principles of good marking skills Understand how to best manage your time on the rink for the benefit of the players Understand best practice in the use of shot indicators Complete chapter 3 of the module workbook
In this Chapter Law 55 – The marker’s duties Principles of marking Preparation Your equipment Introduction to players Where to stand during the game Questions about distance Questions about the head Understanding the question Dealing with a firing shot Moving bowls Dealing with players Completion of the end Time management for markers Scorecards After the game Practise, practise, practise Mastering lollipops Final thoughts
Introduction The Marker is a crucial match official. Marking is an “Art” and like all other arts will take time to master. A good Marker will make a game whilst a bad Marker can ruin a game so the players have a right to expect the best standards you can reach. You will no doubt have been involved in marking club competitions or may already be an experienced marker at a higher level. Whatever standard you are, these principles will identify the skills you need to become a good marker. You should have a good understanding of Law 55 – The Marker’s Duties. CHAPTER 3 | 1
Marking Your Equipment Carry the minimum equipment with you when on the green. Normally you will only need the following items: Chalk spray and / or chalk A box measure, which should ideally be carried in a pocket or fastened
securely to a belt. Three or four wedges A pen or pencil is essential for completing the scorecard (a pencil is better if it
is raining). A coin to toss for start of the game or start of sets lollipops or shot indicators if required by the governing body A scorecard holder can also be carried and can double up as a kneeling pad,
but ensure it does not fall out of your pocket when you bend. Do not carry items that could easily get displaced or will become a distraction, for example: Small change mixed in with a handkerchief. A quick sneeze and there could
be coins all over the green. Wallets and purses should not be carried – lock them away. Mobile phones should never be carried on the green. Switch them off and
lock them away. Finally, ensure all necessary equipment (additional wedges, string measures, long tape, callipers etc.) are available and to hand, in order to maintain the flow of the game. This is not necessary when an official Umpire is present.
Essential equipment for markers
Do not carry mobile phones when marking
CHAPTER 3 | 4
Revision Break 1
List below the items that you should and should not carry on the rink when marking
Introductions to Players Before commencing the game, introduce yourself to the players and out of courtesy tell them what they may expect from you during the game: Indicate to them that you would like to centre the mat before they deliver the
jack. You will mark touchers before the next bowl is delivered You would like permission to remove dead bowls from the ditch or green.
The players will most likely play two trial ends. Ask each of them if they would like to jack to be centred on the full length position or where it comes to rest. As each bowl comes to rest, indicate to the players the distance of the bowl in front or past the jack using either hand signals or clear voice. With your hands, place the bowls at the back of the rink near the ditch in a tidy group. Each player’s bowls on opposite sides of the centre line.
Introduce yourself to both players before they start the trial ends
At the completion of the trial ends, shake the players’ hands and wish them well as you cross to take up your position at the end of the rink ready for the start of the game. CHAPTER 3 | 5
Marking Where to Stand During the Game After you have checked the mat is centred and the jack has been delivered, centre the Jack with your hand, never your foot. Don’t hesitate to verify a dubious length jack even if the players think it is ok. It is the duty of the Marker to ensure the jack is delivered correctly. Check with the long tape if necessary. Your position on the rink is important for two reasons: You should not obstruct a player’s view of any legal markers they may use on
the bank You should also be in a position where you can view and act upon anything
that happens in the head. For these reasons, the ideal position is to stand approximately 1 metre to the rear (2 paces) and 1 metre to one side of the jack. Remember not to move when a player is on the mat ready to deliver their bowl. Ensure you are alert at all times and try to anticipate questions so that you have the answers ready. When a bowl is on its way up the rink, take a discreet step forward and to the side of the head to check any distances and shot positions, taking care not to distract the players. You will then be ready for the next question without revisiting the head.
Stand approximately 1 metre to the side and 1 metre back from the head during an end
Take a discreet step forward to check any distance and shot CHAPTER 3 | 6
Revision Break 2
As a marker, what distances would you give for each bowl labelled A to H?
D H F
CHAPTER 3 | 8
Marking Questions about the Head Only answer questions to the player in possession of the rink, remembering that possession of the rink passes to the opponent immediately after a bowl has come to rest, but allowing time for marking a toucher. The Laws state that you should answer specific questions, e.g. “Am I holding shot?” answer “Yes”. Don’t answer questions that have not been asked! However, you should provide enough information to the player to avoid further questioning and to avoid misleading the player. Equally do not elaborate too much and do not give the player instructions. Remember – what a player can see from the mat is different to what you can see at the head. Look at the example below. HOME STUDY Would you answer the question as Marker 1 or Marker 2? Which is the better Marker? Which would you prefer as a player? Marker 1 Red Player: Marker: Red Player: Marker: Red Player: Marker: Red Player: Marker: Red Player:
Am I holding one? No Am I one down? No Who holds shot then? Blue So how many does he hold then? Two Thank you!!!
Marker 2 Red Player: Marker: Red Player:
Am I holding one? No you are two down Thank you
Now look at what the player can see from the mat It really does look like the red bowl is shot!
CHAPTER 3 | 9
Marking Understanding the Question It is important to have an understanding of the questions the players are likely to ask and not to hold back information you know that they are looking for – you are their eyes at the head. Put yourself in their position as the player, what questions would you be asking? Players sometimes ask, “What is the position?” or make a hand signal. As a practitioner of the game of bowls it is anticipated that you will know the information for which the player is actually looking. Much of this comes with both experience as a marker and with knowing the style of player and the types of questions asked. It may take a few ends to get to know the players. It is acceptable for a marker to show a player in possession of the rink the position of the Jack if asked.
HOME STUDY Set some bowls and a jack in your lounge and practise judging which is shot. Measure them to see if you were right.
If you are unsure which is shot bowl, don’t be shy to call it a measure and don’t be pressed into choosing one of them. Depending on the rules of the competition, it is up to the players to visit the head to see the situation for themselves, if they wish to do so. However, with experience and confidence you will be able to judge shots more accurately. It is a great sign of trust when players ask for your opinion after checking themselves and even declare shots based on your call.
Dealing with a Firing Shot Some players display a slightly different stance if they are preparing to deliver a firing shot. It is important for a marker to notice such behaviour to prevent being caught out. If you are really lucky some players inform the marker of their intention.
TIPS If a player fires at the head, always move to the front to avoid injury and to ensure that you get a clear view of a toucher if it should occur.
If you know that a player is about to play a firing shot you can improve your position on the rink to prepare yourself for the shot. Take a step forward so that you are almost level with the jack and perhaps a step to the side to move away from the head. This will save you some valuable time when the bowl is delivered. Move to the front of the head CHAPTER 3 | 10
Marking Mastering Lollipops
Introduction Some events may require the use of “Lollipops” or shot indicators. They are used to indicate the state of play to spectators and players. Law 55.2.8 states that the marker should “when authorised by the Controlling Body, signal to players and spectators (using the appropriate number and colour of shot indicators or some other suitable method) which player’s bowl or bowls the marker considers to be the shot” The decision on whether shot indicators are to be used during an event lies, therefore, with the Controlling Body and not with the marker. The most widely used type of shot indicators are known as ‘lollipops’ or ‘paddles’. They are usually pieces of white plastic material, about 20 centimetres (8 inches) long, which have been cut in the shape of a child’s lollipop or a boat-paddle (hence the names). The head of each lollipop is usually square or round and covered in a coloured sticker. It is quite common, to see lollipops which have been cut from coloured plastic sheet. For Singles games, a set of lollipops comprises four individual lollipops of the same colour which have been joined near the end of the handle by a pin. The marker should always have two sets to hand – with the colours of the sets matching the colours of the adhesive stickers on each of the player’s bowls.
Displaying the Lollipops during an End When giving an opinion on the current state of the head for the benefit of spectators, the marker should, without disturbing the players, have a look at the head, decide who is lying shot and how many, then display the appropriate number and colour of lollipops. If there is any doubt as to which bowl is shot, the marker should always indicate that it is a measure. When displaying the lollipops, they should be held in one hand, with the arm extended to the side of the body in line with the shoulders and the elbow bent at an angle of CHAPTER 3 | 19
Marking around 45째. The heads of the lollipops should be in line with, or be slightly above, the level of the forehead. The lollipops should be displayed facing the direction of the mat line for two or three seconds, then turned through 90째 for a further two or three seconds, before once again being turned to face the direction of the mat line for a final two or three seconds. There should be no need for the marker to alter the body position whilst displaying the lollipops. To avoid distracting the players, lollipops should not be displayed while a player is on the mat preparing to deliver a bowl.
Indicating the Number of Shots Indicating one shot To indicate that one shot is being held or has been scored, the four individual lollipops should be placed behind each other in one group, so that only one lollipop can be seen when the set is held up.
Indicating two shots To indicate that two shots are being held or have been scored, the four individual lollipops should be separated into two groups of two so that only two lollipops can be seen when the set is held up.
Indicating three shots To indicate that three shots are being held or have been scored, the four individual lollipops should be separated into three groups. When the set is held up, two of the groups should be held in a horizontal position at 180째 to each other, with the third being positioned vertically in relation to the other two.
CHAPTER 3 | 20
Marking The lollipops should be displayed with the hand facing the direction of the mat line for the first four or five paces, then turned through 90Â° for a further four or five paces, before once again being turned to face the direction of the mat line for the final four or five paces. Ideally the lollipops should only be displayed until reaching a point about two-thirds of the length of the rink i.e. until reaching the 25-metre marker. On reaching this point, the lollipops should be lowered smoothly and placed in the other hand alongside the unused set, or placed in your pocket, in readiness for the start of the next end. When walking down the rink, the marker should move swiftly but smoothly to enable him to reach the other end to check the placed mat without delaying the players.
A demonstration on the use of Lollipops can be found on the DVD.
Revision Break 5
Describe when it is appropriate and not appropriate to show lollipops during an end.
CHAPTER 3 | 25
Equipment In his chapter we aim to provide details of the first and second choice equipment and its use.
By the end of this chapter you will Know what equipment is essential in an
In this Chapter The umpire’s kit The markers kit Alternative equipment
umpires and markers kit Understand the basic use of each item of equipment Complete chapter 4 of the module workbook
Introduction An Umpire’s kit is as individual as the person who owns it. However, there are a number of basic items of equipment that should be present in every kit; these are often referred to as First Choice Equipment. Additional gadgets, spare measures and odds and ends will be collected over time and this is why no two kits are identical. Basic kits are available to purchase from reputable suppliers and are a good starting block for new Umpires or for clubs to own.
CHAPTER 4 | 1
Equipment The Umpiresâ€™ Kit Box String Measure There are many different models on the market and you should use the measure with which you feel most comfortable. Metal Tapes can be used but are not ideal. We recommend a String Measure such as the one shown. These are suitable for distances of between 20cm and 3 metres. It is worth keeping two measures in your kit in case you need a spare.
Callipers Spring callipers are available in a range of sizes but the most suitable sizes for Umpires kits are 8 to 12 inch (2 to 30 cm) versions. Ensure that you obtain the internal versions. Good quality engineerâ€™s callipers will last a long time and are worth the extra investment. They can be used for measuring distances of 1 cm to 30cm. Keep two or three different sizes. Avoid using the small callipers attached to a String or Tape measure, as they are difficult to control.
Wedges Wedges can be purchased from Bowls suppliers, made from off cuts of wood or made from Erasers. Rubber wedges have better holding power especially on indoor carpets. Aim to keep at least 4 wedges in your kit but you can never have too many. A set of 4 small round rubber wedges together with a pair of jack wedges are available as a kit and are excellent for awkward spaces.
30 metre tape A nylon or metal long tape is essential for measuring rinks and jack lengths etc. A retractable 30 metre metal tape is commercially available and is one of the most popular types. A nylon version is ideal in wet weather as it will not rust.
CHAPTER 4 | 2
Equipment The Markersâ€™ Kit As a Marker in a game of singles you will need some basic equipment. The following are the items that you should carry as a Marker:
String Measure Carry a small box string measure like the one shown in the photo. Donâ€™t forget that the players have the right to measure any shots and it will be useful if you have a measure they can use if needed.
Wedges Always carry wedges when marking. You may be asked to secure any bowls that are leaning and you will need to wedge any bowls before you measure. It is also helpful to wedge bowls for the Umpire before he is called.
Chalk A chalk puffer is recommended for marking touchers but be aware that some indoor clubs do not allow their use.
Card Holder & Pen In order to keep the scorecard neatly, you may wish to carry a scorecard holder. Keep them securely in a pocket. Keep a pen and a spare just in case. It is also a good idea to have a pencil as a spare and in case it rains.
Lollipops You may be required to use Shot indicators or Lollipops, and although it is perhaps not essential it is a good idea to acquire red and white sets of your own.
Coin & Watch Keep a coin in your pocket for the toss at the start of the game and wear a wrist Watch with a second hand or a digital second counter.
CHAPTER 4 | 5
Measuring In this chapter we aim to give you the basic knowledge to enable you to carry out accurate measures using a range of equipment.
By the end of this chapter you will Understand the requirements for carrying
out a measure. Be able to practise and carry out 15 measuring exercises using a range of equipment. Complete chapter 5 of the module workbook
In this Chapter General procedures for conducting a measure Tips for umpires Tips for markers Wedging bowls Measuring accurately Two person measures Measuring exercises
Introduction One of the main duties of an umpire is to measure any disputed shots on behalf of the players. An umpire is expected to be a competent impartial individual who is trusted by the players to carry out these duties to the best of their ability. It is therefore vitally important that you practise and perfect your measuring techniques with the range of equipment used. It is unlikely you will be called to give a decision unless it is a difficult one, a close one or a very long one. Therefore you must be confident of your ability to do the job asked of you. Show the players that you are competent because on your decision one team will lose and the other win. No one will fault you if you prove to be capable and show it. Our training workshops are designed to help you practise prior to taking assessments. They will give you the opportunity to challenge your peers and learn from each other. But you do not need to attend a workshop in order to learn the basic skills. Why not practise at home in your living room with a couple of bowls and a jack? Of course you will not be able to carry out the very long jack measures using your steel tape unless you live in a mansion, but you may be able to do some long measures in your garden or better still at your local bowls club. Some people embarking on their umpiring journey for the first time may find it embarrassing or intimidating practising at their clubs. Use this to your advantage and explain to your fellow club members what you are doing and hope to achieve. Get them to help and support you and make them part of your training. CHAPTER 5 | 1
Measuring Some items of equipment take some practise before you are fully comfortable with them. Find equipment that works for you. If you prefer larger box measures to the smaller ones then practice with them. This may sound strange - but handle them, get used to the feel of them in your hand and practice different handling techniques until you are comfortable. The use of the equipment should eventually become natural and you will not have to worry about feeling uncomfortable with it when you are called on to complete an important measure in a game.
HOME STUDY Practice the measuring from this chapter in the comfort of your own home and garden. You may find It less embarrassing than at your local club. Use a step, stair or a couple of house bricks and a board to practise ditch measures â€“ be careful you donâ€™t tumble down the stairs though!
CHAPTER 5 | 2
Measuring Wedging Bowls Any bowl that is not lying in a stable position on its flat surfaces i.e. the bias or nonbias sides, should be wedged. Ideally you should use one or more wedges on each side of the bowl. Try and place at least one of the wedges on the opposite side of the bowl to which you are measuring especially if using callipers or feeler gauges. This way you can be sure the bowl will not move if you touch the bowl with your measuring equipment. Try and get into the routine of wedging bowls as the first priority â€“ it should become second nature.
Place wedges on each side of the bowl
Gently squeeze the wedges against the bowl to get a firm grip
Measuring Accurately Practise measuring between a bowl and jack with the common equipment such as box measure and callipers. Try and be as accurate as possible. Use the reflection of the pointers in the bowl and jack as an aid to getting an accurate measure.
Notice the reflection of the pointer on the bowl.
Similarly, note the reflection in the jack CHAPTER 5 | 6
Measuring Exercise 1 – Box String Measure between two or more bowls The box string measure is suitable for distances of more than 15cm between two or more opposing bowls. Only the length of the string limits the maximum distance. The following procedure will also be used for exercise 6. Procedure: Place the fixed pointer of the measure against the jack,
with the string extended a short distance, facing the bowl to be measured. Ensure the measure is in a straight line between the jack and object bowl. Hold down the release button and carefully extend the string until the tip of
the pointer just touches the bowl. Release the lock on the measure and check that the measurement is straight
and accurate before moving to the next bowl. Without altering the setting of the measure, move the measure so that the
fixed pointer is against the jack and the measure is pointing towards the second bowl to be measured. Extend the string and check the measure against the second bowl by passing
the pointer down from the top to the bottom and from side to side. DO NOT waggle the pointer. Telescopic Measure between two or more bowls The telescopic measure is an alternative to the box string measure. You can extend the rods to the distance between the jack and bowls and use the screw-pointer to make any fine adjustments necessary. Procedure: Extend the measure until it is just short of the distance from bowl to jack. Without moving the bowl, hold the end of the measure which does not have
the screw adjustment against the bowl. Make the fine adjustment with the screw end until the minimum of contact
is made with both jack and bowl. Without altering the setting of the measure, check the other bowls.
For added difficulty you could introduce more bowls. For a measure between 3 bowls, set your measure against the odd bowl first and then measure it against the 2 similar bowls. A demonstration of the 4 bowl measure is included on the DVD CHAPTER 5 | 11
EXERCISE 1 A measure between two or more bowls.
Measuring Exercise 4 - Two second bowls resting on a shot bowl A measure between two opposing second bowls, which are leaning and blocked by the shot bowl. This exercise is designed to ensure you can secure leaning bowls before commencing the measure. Procedure: Use plenty of wedges and push them under the leaning bowls carefully but
firmly. Only if the Jack is touching the shot bowl is it acceptable to carefully wedge
the Jack. When you are confident the bowls are secure, steady yourself behind the
wedged bowls and carefully try to remove the obstructing bowl by lifting it over the bowls using both hands. If anything moves, stop and re-secure. Do not position yourself on the jack side of the head in order to remove the
bowl because there is a higher risk of displacing the jack. Once you have removed the obstructing bowl you can confidently continue
with the measure using the procedures described in exercise 2.
Securely wedge the bowls. Callipers are useful for pushing wedges into tight spaces
CHAPTER 5 | 17
Position yourself behind the bowls and slowly move the shot bowl. If the wedged bowls move, replace the shot bowl and secure the wedges
Carefully lift the shot bowl out of the head.
EXERCISE 4 Two second bowls resting on a shot bowl.
Self Management In this chapter we aim to provide you with some background information on managing yourself and your performance
In this Chapter Relating to people
By the end of this chapter you will Understand
the requirements for managing yourself whilst officiating Understand how to manage people by communicating effectively and dealing with conflict
Presentation Professionalism Physical preparation Mental preparation Concentration Arousal
Officiating is a challenging role, often undertaken in a potentially hostile environment. Umpires need to be of strong character if they are able to cope with the officiating environment in a positive manner. It is important that umpires know their own strengths and weaknesses in order to undertake effective self management. Umpires need to develop a philosophy towards their involvement in sport that is in line with the aims of the competition (e.g. junior competitions are designed to focus on fun and skill development rather than winning). Umpires should be aware that their approach to officiating can influence the participants’ experience and enjoyment of the sport.
Receiving &responding to feedback
CHAPTER 6 | 1
Self reflection Officiating diary People management Communicating effectively Conflict Minimising conflict Resolving conflict Dealing with abuse
Laws of the Sport of Bowls
Laws of the Sport Learning the Laws of the Sport No one is expected to learn the Laws of the Sport “parrot fashion”. More importantly an umpire must understand how the laws operate practically during a game. There are a number of laws which are purely factual, for example, the size of a jack or the depth of ditches. An umpire would simply refer to the law book if a question relating to these factual laws was raised. We have tried, where possible, to represent these graphically to assist in the learning process. However, there are a number of laws that must be understood and applied when you are officiating, for example, what do you advise the players when the jack strikes the foot of an opponent when it is delivered or if you are called to measure a short delivered jack, what would be an unacceptable distance? You will find there are some laws missing from this manual, because their content is self explanatory, and some that are out of sequence, to assist with the learning process. We have not quoted the full text of the laws word for word; instead we have provided some notes to assist in your understanding. Space has been provided to allow you to add your own notes. It is important, therefore that you read this section with the Law book at your side and refer to it as you study. Take your time! Study one Section of the Laws at a time and answer the questions in your Workbook as you go. If you try to learn too much in one go – you will fall asleep! To help you with your understanding, especially with some of the more complex situations, we have employed some characters of the game!! Let’s meet them:
They will make an appearance occasionally in the text to help explain some of the decisions that need to be made by an umpire and how to apply some of the few penalties that occur during the game.
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Laws of the Sport On the subject of penalties – there are not many laws where a player can be penalised so in order to help you identify them we have used the Umpire character shown here on the right.
Penalty You will be aware that there are two sets of Laws applicable in England. We have concentrated on the World Bowls Ltd Crystal Mark Edition in this chapter but to help you identify laws that are applied differently in the World Indoor Bowls Council Laws for Indoor bowls we have used the icon shown to the left.
We recommend that you purchase a copy of the WIBC Laws of the Sport for Indoor Bowls First Edition to keep in your kit. So if you have your Law books at your side and open on the first page, we can begin! Before we get into the main body of the Law Book, there is one very important rule which should be remembered at all times when officiating and is found at the front of the Law book. We like to call it the “Law of Commonsense”
Introduction No laws governing a sport can cope with every situation, and the laws governing the sport of bowls are no exception. Unusual situations not covered within the laws can often arise. The Laws of the Sport of Bowls (‘the laws’) have been drawn up in the spirit of true sportsmanship. So, if a situation arises that is not covered by these laws, players, markers and umpires should use their common sense and a spirit of fair play to decide on the appropriate course of action. Conventions 1
References to ‘should’ and ‘will’ within these laws mean that the action is compulsory.
References to ‘can’ within these laws mean that the action is optional.
References to ‘between’ when used to describe a range of weights or measurements within these laws mean that the smallest and largest numbers given are included within the range.
The definitions in laws 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 are in alphabetical order.
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Laws of the Sport Section 2 The green, ditch and banks Section 2 of the Laws of the Sport; deals with the dimensions and layout of the playing surface and its surrounds. The diagram on the next page and the photographs on this page show the requirements of the following Laws. 2
The green – For Domestic games, the national governing bodies can allow different standards of green if they were built to comply with previous editions of the laws.
The ditch - For indoor greens, only the end ditches in the direction of play are required to meet the conditions of this law
The bank – One of your important checks is to ensure that there are no sharp objects in the bank that may damage a bowl.
Division of the green – When measuring the rinks, make sure each rink is the same width both ends and start measuring each end them from the same side of the green. Check the National Handbook or the Domestic Regulations in the Law book for the national variations on rink widths. See Chapter 2 and the DVD for instruction on how to measure the green. If you are asked to determine if a bowl or jack is inside the rink boundary or not – make sure you straighten the boundary marker first. Some clubs may have boundary lines laid on the rink, make sure they are straight before you determine a line bowl or jack.
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Diagram 2: Green dimensions 1
Rink Widths: Outdoor 4.3 - 5.8 m Indoor 4.6 - 5.8 m
Minimum Mat Line
Length of Green: 31 â€“ 40 m
1 Outdoor Boundary Peg Min. 600mm
Indoor Boundary Peg Min. 460mm
200 â€“ 380 mm Min. 230 mm Upright or inclined not more than 35 degrees
Level Playing Surface of Green Depth 50 - 200 mm
Non-damaging material Holding Surface
Laws of the Sport Section 3 Equipment: mat, jack, bowls and measures 6
Mat - 600 millimetres long and 360 millimetres wide.
Jack â€“ The jacks can be white or yellow. Indoor jacks and jacks used on synthetic outdoor greens are larger and heavier than outdoor jacks. Make sure you check the jacks when you are doing your pre-match checks especially at clubs that have an outdoor green and an Indoor arena as they may have become mixed.
Bowls â€“ Modern bowls are made of plastic resin although there are still sets made of wood available. The photo below shows the key features of a bowl and what to look for when checking their validity before a match.
Bias Side of Bowl Model & Manufacturer Size Serial Number
Emblem World Bowls Stamp
Often the Controlling Body will supply adhesive stickers for players to temporarily fix to both sides of their bowls. There should only be one sticker fixed to each side of the bowl; the larger ring sticker should be placed on the non-biased side and the small round sticker on the bias side of the bowl. The stickers should not cover any distinguishing marks on the non-biased side CHAPTER 7 | 12
Laws of the Sport Bias of bowls – bowls are tested against a Working Reference Bowl by a
licensed tester. Bowls must be tested every 10 years but National Governing Bodies may decide on the stamp requirements for games under their control and they may allow a stamp which is older than 10 years. For example for early rounds of English County competitions the stamp should have a date of 1985 or later. Alteration to bias – A player is not allowed to alter the bias of their bowls,
doing so may result in suspension from the game. However, players may paint or colour the engraved rings or the dimples on a bowl for decoration. Lodging a challenge to bowls – Challenges to bowls
are extremely rare but you may be asked to deal with a challenge. Follow the instructions in the Law to resolve the situation. The National Governing Body may set a fee which must be paid, for example £50. 9
See Also Laws 8.4, 8.5 and 8.6 for instructions on dealing with challenges to bowls
Bowls: World Bowls Stamp - Licensed Manufacturers and Licensed Testers are entitled to imprint the registered World Bowls Stamp between the inner and outer rings of bowls. The year that the date expires (in this example, 2013) The code letter of the Licensed Manufacturer or Licensed Tester
The stamp is a Registered Trademark
The current World Bowls Stamp was introduced on 1 April 2002. Other stamps such as the International Bowling Board (IBB) and the World Bowls Board (WBB) stamps, which were used before the current World Bowls Stamp, are valid until the end of the year that the stamp expires. For example, the stamp above would not be valid after 31 December 2013.
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Laws of the Sport 20
Position on the mat – Laws 20 and 21 work together. If a player does not meet the requirements of Law 20 then Law 21 will apply. Before a player delivers a jack or a bowl they must be standing
with at least one foot fully within the confines of the mat as shown below. This law is intended to prevent a player walking onto the Law 19 mat and delivering in one continuous movement. At the moment the player delivers the jack or a bowl, they should have all
or part of at least one foot on or above the mat. Remember, delivery is defined as the moment the bowl or jack leaves the hand. The same principles apply to players in a wheelchair, where the wheels
apply instead of feet or the footplate. How an umpire deals with an infringement of this law is important.
Correct foot position prior to delivery of bowl or jack
Correct foot position when delivering a bowl or jack
An example of a correct position of wheelchair, prior to, and when delivering a bowl or jack CHAPTER 7 | 21
Laws of the Sport 21
Foot-faulting – This law carries a penalty for a breach If you notice, or a player alerts you to, a breach of law 20 you
should consider how you will deal with the situation. Is the player gaining any advantage by their action i.e. are they trying to gain a few feet of green by stepping off the side of the mat, or are their feet so far off the mat prior to delivery Penalty that it results in their foot being completely clear when they do deliver. Usually a quiet word with the player concerned does the trick. Make them
aware of the error of their ways and explain what may happen if they continue. If foot-faulting is blatant and you believe that the player is gaining an
advantage by doing so then you should, on the first occasion, warn the player in the presence of the skip. If managers or coaches are present then advise them that a warning has been given. See Also On each occasion after this, you should have the player’s bowl stopped and declared dead. If it has Law 23.2 to see what not been possible to stop the bowl and it disturbs happens if the player foot-faults whilst the head, the opponent should choose whether to: delivering the jack. o replace the head; o leave the head as altered; or o declare the end dead.
Incorrect foot position prior to delivery of bowl or jack
Incorrect foot position when delivering a bowl or jack TIPS
When is the best time to speak to a player if they consistently deliver every bowl from the position shown in Picture 1 below? After the game perhaps, over a drink? Notice we mention the word advantage; it does not appear in the laws so use your own judgement as to whether a player is gaining an advantage with his foot position. CHAPTER 7 | 22
Laws of the Sport 22
Delivering the jack As already described earlier, the mat must be placed correctly before the
jack is delivered. The player to play first delivers the jack and makes sure that it is centred. If the jack finishes less than 2 metres from the front
ditch, it is centred so that the nearest point of the jack to the mat is 2 metres from the front ditch. This should be done by: placing the jack on a 2 metre mark on the
centre line of the rink; or
2 metres The minimum distance the front of the jack must be from the front ditch
placing the jack alongside a 2 metre measuring
stick Whilst there is no penalty associated with the incorrect placement of the jack, it is an umpires duty to ensure that the jack is placed correctly and a quiet word with a skip that places the jack incorrectly (e.g. on the end of a 2 metre stick), is often enough to solve the problem. Diagram 4 illustrates the requirements.
Diagram 4: Placing the jack Front Ditch
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Laws of the Sport Sometimes the wrong player can deliver the jack by mistake. The following options are available:
Red delivers the jack instead of Blue and delivers the first bowl
Umpires decision? Law 22.5
Blue restarts the end and bowls first
Red delivers the jack instead of Blue and both deliver a bowl
Umpires decision? Law 22.6
Play continues in the sequence
Improper delivery of the jack – if after delivery the jack comes to rest: in the ditch; completely outside the boundaries of the rink; less than 23 metres from the mat line; on the rink after rebounding from the face of the
bank (unlike during an end when the jack is allowed to rebound and remains live, see Law 32); or on the rink after contact with any object or person
completely outside the boundaries of the rink,
23 metres The minimum distance a delivered jack must travel to be live, measured in a straight line from the centre of the mat line to a centred jack.
then the opposing player must place the mat correctly, re-deliver and centre the jack, but not play the first bowl. If the jack is improperly delivered once by each player it must be centred 2 metres from the front ditch, the mat must be placed by the first player to play. If as an umpire you are asked to check a jack length, make sure you ask the players if it is the first or second delivery.
Measuring Exercise 11
A National Governing Body may change the distance of a minimum length jack from 23 metres to 21 metres.
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Laws of the Sport Sometimes the jack can be displaced whilst it is travelling up the rink on its original course. The following options are available: 33.1 Jack displacement by another player
Red delivers the jack and it hits his team mate
Umpires decision? Law 188.8.131.52
Red delivers the jack and it hits his opponent
Umpires decision? Law 184.108.40.206
Blue delivers the jack but does not bowl first. He can reposition the mat too.
Red re-delivers the jack and bowls first
33.3 Jack displacement by a neutral person or neutral object
Red delivers the jack and it hits a neutral person
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Umpires decision? Law 33.3.1
Red re-delivers the jack and bowls first
Diagram 5: Law 27.1 Dead Bowls 1
Measuring Exercise 12
Laws of the Sport 30
Dead jack – There are a number of instances where a jack can be dead: passes over the top of the bank; passes
completely outside boundary of the rink;
finishes in any hollow in the face of the
bank. Not very common but may occur on grass banks; or comes to rest less than 20 metres when
measured in a straight line from the centre of the mat line.
20 metres The minimum distance a jack, which has been moved as a result of play, must be from the mat line to be live.
Measuring Exercise 13
However, a jack is not a dead jack if it comes to rest: on top of a toucher in the ditch; or on top of any bowls on the rink. If you ever see this take a
photograph of it! As with a bowl, the players must decide if the jack is live or dead. 31
Dead End - If the jack is dead, the end is a dead end. It is not counted as a completed end and nothing is written on the scorecard. A dead end must be played in the same direction again unless the players agree to leave the bowls where they are and start from the other end. Whoever delivered the jack in that end should deliver it again when the end is replayed. Remember, a dead end is an end that has not been completed. See Also In some competitions, for example where Sets play is used, instead of replaying the end; the governing body may decide to have the jack placed on a re-spot position. Make sure you check the competition rules.
Law 15 to see what happens after a dead end in Sets Play
Rebounding jack – If a jack rebounds off the bank back onto the rink or rebounds back out of the ditch after being hit by a toucher, then it remains in play and the end continues.
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Laws of the Sport 28.1 Bowl displacement by another player 33.1 Jack displacement by another player
There are so many possible scenarios which can occur as a Law 39A result of a player displacing a bowl or a jack that we would not expect you to learn and remember each option. A number of charts and tables, such as the one in Appendix C of the Law book, have been developed to help umpires understand and apply the options. As part of your Home Study Pack you will be provided with some small Penalty laminated cards which can be kept in your umpires’ kit and used during the game. Those cards are reproduced in large format on the next few pages. Use the following scenario as an example of how to use the charts. You are called on to the rink as the umpire to advise the players on the following occurrence.
Red delivers a bowl and it hits Blue on the leg and then hits a red bowl in the head.
Umpires decision? Ask the questions
Was the bowl on its original course Yes – follow the green arrow Did the bowl displace anything before it hit your foot No – follow the red arrow Was the bowl displaced by the team that delivered it i.e. Red No – follow the red arrow Did the bowl disturb anything after it hit your foot Yes – follow the green arrow You should now have arrived at the options available in Law 220.127.116.11
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Laws of the Sport
Red skip should choose to: • replace the head and have the bowl replayed • replace the head and place the bowl where he thinks it would have come to rest; or • declare the end dead
If you used the table in Appendix C of the Laws of the Sport then you would arrive at the row highlighted below: Situation
Action Bowl displaced by a player or wheelchair In original course – head not disturbed before Declare the bowl dead • By member of team that delivered the bowl, head not disturbed after Replace the head and declare the bowl dead • By member of team that delivered the bowl, head disturbed after Have the bowl replayed, or place the bowl where it is believed it • By opponent, head not disturbed would have come to rest, or leave the bowl where it came to after rest Replace the head and have the bowl replayed, or replace the • By opponent, head disturbed after head and place the bowl where it is believed it would have come to rest, or declare the end dead In original course – head disturbed before Do not replace any part of the head disturbed before the • Head not disturbed after displacement. Place the bowl where it is believed it would have come to rest, or leave the bowl where it came to rest Do not replace any part of the head disturbed before the • Head disturbed after displacement. Replace any part of the head disturbed after displacement and either place the bowl where it is believed it would have come to rest or leave the bowl where it came to rest
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Opposing skip should replace any part of the head that has been disturbed and choose to: • place the bowl where he believes it would have come to rest • leave the bowl where it came to rest
Opposing skip should choose to: • place the bowl where he believes it would have come to rest • leave the bowl where it came to rest
Did bowl disturb the head AFTER displacement
DISTURBANCE IS VALID Law 18.104.22.168
Did bowl disturb the head BEFORE displacement
Was Bowl in its ORIGINAL COURSE
Opposing skip should replace the head and declare the bowl dead
Opposing skip should declare the bowl dead
Did bowl disturb the head AFTER displacement
Skip of the team that played the bowl should choose to: • Replace the head and have the bowl replayed, • replace the head and place the bowl where he thinks it would have come to rest • declare the end dead.
Skip of the team that played the bowl should choose to: • have the bowl replayed • place the bowl where he thinks it would have come to rest • leave the bowl where it came to rest.
Did bowl disturb the head AFTER displacement
GO TO PAGE TWO
GO TO PAGE TWO
Was Bowl displaced by the team that delivered it
Was Bowl AT REST
Was Bowl IN MOTION
Bowl Displacement by a Player – PAGE ONE
Laws of the Sport 35
Possession of the rink
Position of players These two laws are linked, so we shall look at them together. Firstly Law 41 Law 42 let us look at the definition of “Possession of the Rink” Possession of the rink belongs to the player or team whose bowl is being
played. As soon as each bowl comes to rest, possession of the rink transfers to the
opposing player or team, allowing time to mark a toucher. If a player is not in possession of the rink as defined above then they must be in certain positions. In relation to the rink of play: Players at the mat-end who are not delivering a bowl must stand at least 1
metre behind the mat. Players at the head-end who are not controlling play must stand:
o behind the jack if their team is in possession of the rink or o behind the jack and away from the head if they are not in possession of the rink o on the surrounds of the green if the jack is in the ditch or o well clear of the head if it is not possible to stand on the surrounds. If a player at the head end, is level with or in front of the jack when
instructing his team mate, he must move behind the jack as described above as soon as the bowl is delivered. In relation to a neighbouring rink: A player must not wander into a neighbouring rink where play is in
progress. A player must not go into or walk along a neighbouring rink, even if it is not
being used, while an opponent is about to, or is actually delivering a bowl. If the rink is an outside rink, a player must not go into or walk along the
narrow outside section of green between the side boundary and the side ditch while an opponent is about to, or is actually delivering a bowl. Diagram 6 shows some correct and incorrect positions of players, take note of which player is in possession of the rink.
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Diagram 6: Law 36 – Position of players
Front Ditch 0
Side Boundary of Rink
Side Boundary of Rink
Laws of the Sport If a player is not in the correct position shown in the diagram, then the penalty in Law 35 can be applied….BUT!!!! Read carefully the extract from Law 35 below and look for the three magic words: “If the umpire, either by their own observation or on appeal by one of the skips or opponents in Singles, decides that the players in possession of the rink are being interfered with, annoyed or distracted in any way by their opponents, the umpire should:” Did you see them?
As an umpire should you apply a penalty to a player that has not annoyed, distracted or interfered with his opponent even though he may not be in the correct position? Think about a game that you have played where your opposition has not quite reached the head before their bowl. If you were enjoying the game with your opponent would you like to see them being penalised? Of course if their action is annoying then you may speak to the umpire or the umpire may already have noticed and should take action. Usually a quiet word in their ear works first time but if they persist then the following penalty can be applied: On the first occasion, warn the player in the presence of the
skip. If managers or coaches are present then advise them that a warning has been given. on each occasion after this, the umpire should have the bowl
last played by the offending player or team declared dead. If that bowl has disturbed the head, the opponent should choose whether to: o replace the head; o leave the head as altered; or o declare the end dead.
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Policy Document Protecting Children & the Vulnerable Policy of the English Bowls Umpires Association Introduction & Policy Statement The English Bowls Umpires Association (hereafter referred to as the EBUA) recognises its responsibilities to establish policies which promote and encourage their members to adopt the highest possible standards of care towards children and vulnerable people participating in the Sport of Bowls. The EBUA believes that everyone has a duty of care, both legally and morally, towards children and vulnerable adults with whom they have contact, and to safeguard and protect them from abuse. Both qualified umpires and umpires under training need to be informed about and be able to recognise the different forms of abuse. They should also know what precautions or steps should be taken for its prevention and what action to take if an incident occurs. The aim of this document is to establish the EBUA policy on the protection of children and vulnerable persons and to provide guidelines to assist umpires to understand and fulfil their obligations within the context of umpiring the sport of Bowls. It generally follows recommendations published by the Home Office, National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, Sport England and other concerned bodies. Additionally, it follows the recommendations of the National Joint Policy of Bowls England, and the English Indoor Bowling Association. It is not intended to be a comprehensive guide to all aspects of protecting children and the vulnerable but is a summary of those elements which are considered relevant to the umpire’s role within the Sport of Bowls. Where the term “child” or “children” appear in this document, it is assumed to include “vulnerable adults”. More information can be found on the Bowls Child Protection website; www.bowlschildprotect.co.uk The EBUA will appoint a Child Protection Officer (C.P.O.) to give guidance to the EBUA Executive on issues concerning children and vulnerable adults and advise on appropriate action. It is the responsibility of the EBUA Executive to act appropriately on this advice. The Child Protection Officer will also investigate, or cause to be investigated, all complaints in this area where EBUA members are involved. CHAPTER 8 | 1