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Publisher: International Association of Sufism a nonprofit corporation. Editor-in-Chief: Seyyed Ali Kianfar, Ph.D. Executive Editor: Nahid Angha, Ph.D. Journal Board: Hamid Edson, Ali Haji, Sheikha Halima Haymaker, Munir Hedges, Elizabeth Miller, Safa Ali Newman, Hamed Ross, Taher Roybal, Sarah Hastings Mullin, PhD Photography:

Susan W. Lambert

Steve Uzzell

Inside Cover Photo: Steve Uzzell Cover Art: “Nasruddin’s Tears” The various articles in SUFISM: an inquiry represent the individual views of their authors. SUFISM: an inquiry does not imply any gender bias by the use of feminine or masculine terms, nouns and/or pronouns.

Editorial Advisors: Dr. Shahid Athar, MD The awardee of “Dr. Ahmed El-Kadi Award for distinguished service to the Islamic Medical Association of America Dr. Arthur Buehler Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi Sufi Lineage Scholar in the field of Islamic Studies Dr. Neil Douglas-Klotz (Saadi Shakur Chishti) Edinburgh Institute for Advanced Learning Dr. Aliaa R. Rafea Ain Shams University, Women’s College, Egypt The Human Foundation: Chair and Founder

SUFISM: an inquiry is a quarterly journal (ISSN: 0898-3380) published by the International Association of Sufism. Address all correspondence regarding editorials and advertising to: SUFISM, P.O. Box 2382, San Rafael, California 94912 Phone: (415) 472-6959 Fax: (415) 472-6221 email All material Copyright © 2013 by International Association of Sufism. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication (including art) may be reproduced without written permission from the publisher. The publication is published by the International Association of Sufism, a California nonprofit corporation. The publication of any article, essay, story, or other material herein constitutes neither an endorsement of, agreement with, or validation of the contents of the author’s views expressed therein. Although the Publisher has made all reasonable efforts in its editing of such material to verify its accuracy, the Publisher takes no responsibility for any innacurate or tortious statement by the author set forth therein.


Sufism: An Inquiry Vol XVI, No. 4

Inside cover spread translations by Nahid Angha, PhD.

Sufism: an inquiry - Vol16.4  

A journal for people of the heart.

Sufism: an inquiry - Vol16.4  

A journal for people of the heart.