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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734 ISSN (Online): 2328-3696 ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688

Issue 6, Volume 1, 2 & 3 March-May, 2014

American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences

International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR) (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

STEM International Scientific Online Media and Publishing House Head Office: 148, Summit Drive, Byron, Georgia-31008, United States. Offices Overseas: India, Australia, Germany, Netherlands, Canada. Website: www.iasir.net, E-mail (s): iasir.journals@iasir.net, iasir.journals@gmail.com, aijrhass@gmail.com


PREFACE We are delighted to welcome you to the sixth issue of the American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (AIJRHASS). In recent years, advances in science, engineering, formal, applied and natural sciences have radically expanded the data available to researchers and professionals in a wide variety of domains. This unique combination of theory with data has the potential to have broad impact on educational research and practice. AIJRHASS is publishing high-quality, peer-reviewed papers covering topics such as Business administration, Management, Marketing, Finance, Economics, Banking, Accounting, Human resources management, Entrepreneurship, Relationship management, Risk management, Retail management, Linguistics, International relations, Anthropology, Archaeology, Sociology, International business, Tourism and hospitality management, Law, Psychology, Corporate governance, Education, Ethics, Geography, History, Industrial relations, Information science, Library science, Media studies, Philosophy, Political science, Public administration, Sociology, Social welfare, Literature, Performing arts (music, theatre and dance), Religious studies, Women studies, Production and operations management, Organizational behavior and theory, Strategic management & policies, Statistics and Econometrics, Technology and innovation, Management information systems and other closely related field in the disciplines of arts, humanities and social sciences.

The editorial board of AIJRHASS is composed of members of the Teachers & Researchers community who are enthusiastically involved in the systematic investigation into existing or new knowledge to discover new paths for maintaining a strong presence in the arts, the humanities and the social sciences which can easily be coupled with the information and communication technologies. These fields respect objective and logical reasoning to optimize the impact of research in social, economic and cultural, quality of life to understand the advancements in humanities, arts and social sciences. These fields are the pillars of growth in our modern society and have a wider impact on our daily lives with infinite opportunities in a global marketplace. In order to best serve our community, this Journal is available online as well as in hard-copy form. Because of the rapid advances in underlying technologies and the interdisciplinary nature of the field, we believe it is important to provide quality research articles promptly and to the widest possible audience.

We are happy that this Journal has continued to grow and develop. We have made every effort to evaluate and process submissions for reviews, and address queries from authors and the general public promptly. The Journal has strived to reflect the most recent and finest


researchers in the fields of humanities, arts and social sciences. This Journal is completely refereed and indexed with major databases like: IndexCopernicus, Computer Science Directory,

GetCITED,

CRCnetBASE,

Google

DOAJ,

SSRN,

Scholar,

TGDScholar,

Microsoft

Academic

WorldWideScience, Search,

INSPEC,

CiteSeerX, ProQuest,

ArnetMiner, Base, ChemXSeer, citebase, OpenJ-Gate, eLibrary, SafetyLit, SSRN, VADLO, OpenGrey, EBSCO, ProQuest, UlrichWeb, ISSUU, SPIE Digital Library, arXiv, ERIC, EasyBib, Infotopia, WorldCat, .docstoc JURN, Mendeley, ResearchGate, cogprints, OCLC, iSEEK, Scribd, LOCKSS, CASSI, E-PrintNetwork, intute, and some other databases.

We are grateful to all of the individuals and agencies whose work and support made the Journal's success possible. We want to thank the executive board and core committee members of the AIJRHASS for entrusting us with the important job. We are thankful to the members of the AIJRHASS editorial board who have contributed energy and time to the Journal with their steadfast support, constructive advice, as well as reviews of submissions. We are deeply indebted to the numerous anonymous reviewers who have contributed expertly evaluations of the submissions to help maintain the quality of the Journal. For this sixth issue, we received 164 research papers and out of which only 51 research papers are published in three volumes as per the reviewers’ recommendations. We have highest respect to all the authors who have submitted articles to the Journal for their intellectual energy and creativity, and for their dedication to the field of humanities, arts and social sciences.

This issue of the AIJRHASS has attracted a large number of authors and researchers across worldwide and would provide an effective platform to all the intellectuals of different streams to put forth their suggestions and ideas which might prove beneficial for the accelerated pace of development of emerging technologies in formal, applied and natural sciences and may open new area for research and development. We hope you will enjoy this sixth issue of the American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences and are looking forward to hearing your feedback and receiving your contributions.

(Administrative Chief)

(Managing Director)

(Editorial Head)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (AIJRHASS), ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 (March-May, 2014, Issue 6, Volume 1, 2 & 3). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


BOARD MEMBERS

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EDITOR IN CHIEF Prof. (Dr.) Waressara Weerawat, Director of Logistics Innovation Center, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University, Thailand. Prof. (Dr.) Yen-Chun Lin, Professor and Chair, Dept. of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chang Jung Christian University, Kway Jen, Tainan, Taiwan. Divya Sethi, GM Conferencing & VSAT Solutions, Enterprise Services, Bharti Airtel, Gurgaon, India. CHIEF EDITOR (TECHNICAL) Prof. (Dr.) Atul K. Raturi, Head School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala campus, Suva, Fiji Islands. Prof. (Dr.) Hadi Suwastio, College of Applied Science, Department of Information Technology, The Sultanate of Oman and Director of IETI-Research Institute-Bandung, Indonesia. Dr. Nitin Jindal, Vice President, Max Coreth, North America Gas & Power Trading, New York, United States. CHIEF EDITOR (GENERAL) Prof. (Dr.) Thanakorn Naenna, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University, Thailand. Prof. (Dr.) Jose Francisco Vicent Frances, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Huiyun Liu, Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London. ADVISORY BOARD Prof. (Dr.) Kimberly A. Freeman, Professor & Director of Undergraduate Programs, Stetson School of Business and Economics, Mercer University, Macon, Georgia, United States. Prof. (Dr.) Klaus G. Troitzsch, Professor, Institute for IS Research, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany. Prof. (Dr.) T. Anthony Choi, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mercer University, Macon, Georgia, United States. Prof. (Dr.) Fabrizio Gerli, Department of Management, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Italy. Prof. (Dr.) Jen-Wei Hsieh, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan. Prof. (Dr.) Jose C. Martinez, Dept. Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Panayiotis Vafeas, Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Patras, Greece. Prof. (Dr.) Soib Taib, School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, University Science Malaysia, Malaysia. Prof. (Dr.) Vit Vozenilek, Department of Geoinformatics, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic. Prof. (Dr.) Sim Kwan Hua, School of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak, Malaysia. Prof. (Dr.) Jose Francisco Vicent Frances, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Rafael Ignacio Alvarez Sanchez, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Praneel Chand, Ph.D., M.IEEEC/O School of Engineering & Physics Faculty of Science & Technology The University of the South Pacific (USP) Laucala Campus, Private Mail Bag, Suva, Fiji. Prof. (Dr.) Francisco Miguel Martinez, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Antonio Zamora Gomez, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Leandro Tortosa, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Samir Ananou, Department of Microbiology, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain. Dr. Miguel Angel Bautista, Department de Matematica Aplicada y Analisis, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain.


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Prof. (Dr.) Prof. Adam Baharum, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Universiti Sains, Malaysia, Malaysia. Dr. Cathryn J. Peoples, Faculty of Computing and Engineering, School of Computing and Information Engineering, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Prof. (Dr.) Pavel Lafata, Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, 166 27, Czech Republic. Prof. (Dr.) P. Bhanu Prasad, Vision Specialist, Matrix vision GmbH, Germany, Consultant, TIFACCORE for Machine Vision, Advisor, Kelenn Technology, France Advisor, Shubham Automation & Services, Ahmedabad, and Professor of C.S.E, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, India. Prof. (Dr.) Anis Zarrad, Department of Computer Science and Information System, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prof. (Dr.) Mohammed Ali Hussain, Professor, Dept. of Electronics and Computer Engineering, KL University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. Dr. Cristiano De Magalhaes Barros, Governo do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Prof. (Dr.) Md. Rizwan Beg, Professor & Head, Dean, Faculty of Computer Applications, Deptt. of Computer Sc. & Engg. & Information Technology, Integral University Kursi Road, Dasauli, Lucknow, India. Prof. (Dr.) Vishnu Narayan Mishra, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Ichchhanath Mahadev Road, Surat, Surat-395007, Gujarat, India. Dr. Jia Hu, Member Research Staff, Philips Research North America, New York Area, NY. Prof. Shashikant Shantilal Patil SVKM , MPSTME Shirpur Campus, NMIMS University Vile Parle Mumbai, India. Prof. (Dr.) Bindhya Chal Yadav, Assistant Professor in Botany, Govt. Post Graduate College, Fatehabad, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. REVIEW BOARD Prof. (Dr.) Kimberly A. Freeman, Professor & Director of Undergraduate Programs, Stetson School of Business and Economics, Mercer University, Macon, Georgia, United States. Prof. (Dr.) Klaus G. Troitzsch, Professor, Institute for IS Research, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany. Prof. (Dr.) T. Anthony Choi, Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mercer University, Macon, Georgia, United States. Prof. (Dr.) Yen-Chun Lin, Professor and Chair, Dept. of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chang Jung Christian University, Kway Jen, Tainan, Taiwan. Prof. (Dr.) Jen-Wei Hsieh, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan. Prof. (Dr.) Jose C. Martinez, Dept. Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Joel Saltz, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Prof. (Dr.) Panayiotis Vafeas, Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Patras, Greece. Prof. (Dr.) Soib Taib, School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, University Science Malaysia, Malaysia. Prof. (Dr.) Sim Kwan Hua, School of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak, Malaysia. Prof. (Dr.) Jose Francisco Vicent Frances, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Rafael Ignacio Alvarez Sanchez, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Francisco Miguel Martinez, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Antonio Zamora Gomez, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Leandro Tortosa, Department of Science of the Computation and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Samir Ananou, Department of Microbiology, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain. Dr. Miguel Angel Bautista, Department de Matematica Aplicada y Analisis, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain. Prof. (Dr.) Prof. Adam Baharum, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Universiti Sains, Malaysia, Malaysia. Prof. (Dr.) Huiyun Liu, Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London.


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Dr. Cristiano De Magalhaes Barros, Governo do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Prof. (Dr.) Pravin G. Ingole, Senior Researcher, Greenhouse Gas Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343, KOREA. Prof. (Dr.) Dilum Bandara, Dept. Computer Science & Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. Prof. (Dr.) Faudziah Ahmad, School of Computing, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, University Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Darulaman. Prof. (Dr.) G. Manoj Someswar, Principal, Dept. of CSE at Anwar-ul-uloom College of Engineering & Technology, Yennepally, Vikarabad, RR District., A.P., India. Prof. (Dr.) Abdelghni Lakehal, Applied Mathematics, Rue 10 no 6 cite des fonctionnaires dokkarat 30010 Fes Marocco. Dr. Kamal Kulshreshtha, Associate Professor & Head, Deptt. of Computer Sc. & Applications, Modi Institute of Management & Technology, Kota-324 009, Rajasthan, India. Prof. (Dr.) Anukrati Sharma, Associate Professor, Faculty of Commerce and Management, University of Kota, Kota, Rajasthan, India. Prof. (Dr.) S. Natarajan, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SSM College of Engineering, NH 47, Salem Main Road, Komarapalayam, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu 638183, India. Prof. (Dr.) J. Sadhik Basha, Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Prof. (Dr.) G. SAVITHRI, Department of Sericulture, S.P. Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati517502, Andhra Pradesh, India. Prof. (Dr.) Shweta jain, Tolani College of Commerce, Andheri, Mumbai. 400001, India. Prof. (Dr.) Abdullah M. Abdul-Jabbar, Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Prof. (Dr.) ( Mrs.) P.Sujathamma, Department of Sericulture, S.P.Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati-517502, India. Prof. (Dr.) Bimla Dhanda, Professor & Head, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Home Science, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125001 (Haryana) India. Prof. (Dr.) Manjulatha, Dept of Biochemistry,School of Life Sciences,University of Hyderabad,Gachibowli, Hyderabad, India. Prof. (Dr.) Upasani Dhananjay Eknath Advisor & Chief Coordinator, ALUMNI Association, Sinhgad Institute of Technology & Science, Narhe, Pune -411 041, India. Prof. (Dr.) Sudhindra Bhat, Professor & Finance Area Chair, School of Business, Alliance University Bangalore-562106, India. Prof. Prasenjit Chatterjee , Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCKV Institute of Engineering West Bengal, India. Prof. Rajesh Murukesan, Deptt. of Automobile Engineering, Rajalakshmi Engineering college, Chennai, India. Prof. (Dr.) Parmil Kumar, Department of Statistics, University of Jammu, Jammu, India Prof. (Dr.) M.N. Shesha Prakash, Vice Principal, Professor & Head of Civil Engineering, Vidya Vikas Institute of Engineering and Technology, Alanahally, Mysore-570 028 Prof. (Dr.) Piyush Singhal, Mechanical Engineering Deptt., GLA University, India. Prof. M. Mahbubur Rahman, School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Perth Western Australia 6150, Australia. Prof. Nawaraj Chaulagain, Department of Religion, Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, IL. Prof. Hassan Jafari, Faculty of Maritime Economics & Management, Khoramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, khoramshahr, Khuzestan province, Iran Prof. (Dr.) Kantipudi MVV Prasad , Dept of EC, School of Engg., R.K.University, Kast urbhadham, Tramba, Rajkot-360020, India. Prof. (Mrs.) P.Sujathamma, Department of Sericulture, S.P.Mahila Visvavidyalayam, ( Women's University), Tirupati-517502, India. Prof. (Dr.) M A Rizvi, Dept. of Computer Engineering and Applications, National Institute of Technical Teachers' Training and Research, Bhopal M.P. India. Prof. (Dr.) Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi, Faculty of Economics and Management, Industrial Management Department, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran. Prof. P.R.SivaSankar, Head, Dept. of Commerce, Vikrama Simhapuri University Post Graduate Centre, KAVALI - 524201, A.P. India. Prof. (Dr.) Bhawna Dubey, Institute of Environmental Science( AIES), Amity University, Noida, India. Prof. Manoj Chouhan, Deptt. of Information Technology, SVITS Indore, India.


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Prof. Yupal S Shukla, V M Patel College of Management Studies, Ganpat University, KhervaMehsana. India. Prof. (Dr.) Amit Kohli, Head of the Department, Department of Mechanical Engineering, D.A.V.Institute of Engg. and Technology, Kabir Nagar, Jalandhar,Punjab (India). Prof. (Dr.) Kumar Irayya Maddani, and Head of the Department of Physics in SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dhavalagiri, Dharwad, State: Karnataka (INDIA). Prof. (Dr.) Shafi Phaniband, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad, INDIA. Prof. M H Annaiah, Head, Department of Automobile Engineering, Acharya Institute of Technology, Soladevana Halli, Bangalore -560107, India. Prof. (Dr.) Prof. R. R. Patil, Director School Of Earth Science, Solapur University, Solapur Prof. (Dr.) Manoj Khandelwal, Dept. of Mining Engg, College of Technology & Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur, 313 001 (Rajasthan), India Prof. (Dr.) Kishor Chandra Satpathy, Librarian, National Institute of Technology, Silchar-788010, Assam, India Prof. (Dr.) Juhana Jaafar, Gas Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering (FPREE), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia-81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor. Prof. (Dr.) Rita Khare, Assistant Professor in chemistry, Govt. Women’s College, Gardanibagh, Patna, Bihar. Prof. (Dr.) Raviraj Kusanur, Dept of Chemistry, R V College of Engineering, Bangalore-59, India. Prof. (Dr.) Hameem Shanavas .I, M.V.J College of Engineering, Bangalore Prof. (Dr.) Sanjay Kumar, JKL University, Ajmer Road, Jaipur Prof. (Dr.) Pushp Lata Faculty of English and Communication, Department of Humanities and Languages, Nucleus Member, Publications and Media Relations Unit Editor, BITScan, BITS, PilaniIndia. Prof. Arun Agarwal, Faculty of ECE Dept., ITER College, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan University Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India Prof. (Dr.) Pratima Tripathi, Department of Biosciences, SSSIHL, Anantapur Campus Anantapur515001 (A.P.) India. Prof. (Dr.) Sudip Das, Department of Biotechnology, Haldia Institute of Technology, I.C.A.R.E. Complex, H.I.T. Campus, P.O. Hit, Haldia; Dist: Puba Medinipur, West Bengal, India. Prof. (Dr.) Bimla Dhanda, Professor & Head, Department of Human Development and Family Studies College of Home Science, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125001 (Haryana) India. Prof. (Dr.) R.K.Tiwari, Professor, S.O.S. in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, M.P.-474011. Prof. (Dr.) Deepak Paliwal, Faculty of Sociology, Uttarakhand Open University, Haldwani-Nainital Prof. (Dr.) Dr. Anil K Dwivedi, Faculty of Pollution & Environmental Assay Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Botany,DDU Gorakhpur University,Gorakhpur-273009,India. Prof. R. Ravikumar, Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, TamilNadu Agricultural University,Coimbatore-641003,TamilNadu,India. Prof. (Dr.) R.Raman, Professor of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai university, Annamalai Nagar 608 002Tamil Nadu, India. Prof. (Dr.) Ahmed Khalafallah, Coordinator of the CM Degree Program, Department of Architectural and Manufacturing Sciences, Ogden College of Sciences and Engineering Western Kentucky University 1906 College Heights Blvd Bowling Green, KY 42103-1066. Prof. (Dr.) Asmita Das , Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Shahbad, Daulatpur, Delhi 110042, India. Prof. (Dr.)Aniruddha Bhattacharjya, Assistant Professor (Senior Grade), CSE Department, Amrita School of Engineering , Amrita Vishwa VidyaPeetham (University), Kasavanahalli, Carmelaram P.O., Bangalore 560035, Karnataka, India. Prof. (Dr.) S. Rama Krishna Pisipaty, Prof & Geoarchaeologist, Head of the Department of Sanskrit & Indian Culture, SCSVMV University, Enathur, Kanchipuram 631561, India Prof. (Dr.) Shubhasheesh Bhattacharya, Professor & HOD(HR), Symbiosis Institute of International Business (SIIB), Hinjewadi, Phase-I, Pune- 411 057, India. Prof. (Dr.) Vijay Kothari, Institute of Science, Nirma University, S-G Highway, Ahmedabad 382481, India. Prof. (Dr.) Raja Sekhar Mamillapalli, Department of Civil Engineering at Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur, India. Prof. (Dr.) B. M. Kunar, Department of Mining Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand, India. Prof. (Dr.) Prabir Sarkar, Assistant Professor, School of Mechanical, Materials and Energy Engineering, Room 307, Academic Block, Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab, India.


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Prof. (Dr.) K.Srinivasmoorthy, Associate Professor, Department of Earth Sciences, School of Physical,Chemical and Applied Sciences, Pondicherry university, R.Venkataraman Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry 605014, India. Prof. (Dr.) Bhawna Dubey, Institute of Environmental Science (AIES), Amity University, Noida, India. Prof. (Dr.) P. Bhanu Prasad, Vision Specialist, Matrix vision GmbH, Germany, Consultant, TIFACCORE for Machine Vision, Advisor, Kelenn Technology, France Advisor, Shubham Automation & Services, Ahmedabad, and Professor of C.S.E, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, India. Prof. (Dr.)P.Raviraj, Professor & Head, Dept. of CSE, Kalaignar Karunanidhi, Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641402,Tamilnadu,India. Prof. (Dr.) Damodar Reddy Edla, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004, India. Prof. (Dr.) T.C. Manjunath, Principal in HKBK College of Engg., Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Prof. (Dr.) Pankaj Bhambri, I.T. Deptt., Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana 141006, Punjab, India. Prof. Shashikant Shantilal Patil SVKM , MPSTME Shirpur Campus, NMIMS University Vile Parle Mumbai, India. Prof. (Dr.) Shambhu Nath Choudhary, Department of Physics, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur 81200, Bihar, India. Prof. (Dr.) Venkateshwarlu Sonnati, Professor & Head of EEED, Department of EEE, Sreenidhi Institute of Science & Technology, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Prof. (Dr.) Saurabh Dalela, Department of Pure & Applied Physics, University of Kota, KOTA 324010, Rajasthan, India. Prof. S. Arman Hashemi Monfared, Department of Civil Eng, University of Sistan & Baluchestan, Daneshgah St.,Zahedan, IRAN, P.C. 98155-987 Prof. (Dr.) R.S.Chanda, Dept. of Jute & Fibre Tech., University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019, West Bengal, India. Prof. V.S.VAKULA, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, JNTUK, University College of Eng.,Vizianagaram5 35003, Andhra Pradesh, India. Prof. (Dr.) Nehal Gitesh Chitaliya, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Institute of Technology, Vasad 388 306, Gujarat, India. Prof. (Dr.) D.R. Prajapati, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PEC University of Technology,Chandigarh 160012, India. Dr. A. SENTHIL KUMAR, Postdoctoral Researcher, Centre for Energy and Electrical Power, Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Prof. (Dr.)Vijay Harishchandra Mankar, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, Govt. Polytechnic, Mangalwari Bazar, Besa Road, Nagpur- 440027, India. Prof. Varun.G.Menon, Department Of C.S.E, S.C.M.S School of Engineering, Karukutty,Ernakulam, Kerala 683544, India. Prof. (Dr.) U C Srivastava, Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, U.P-203301.India. Prof. (Dr.) Surendra Yadav, Professor and Head (Computer Science & Engineering Department), Maharashi Arvind College of Engineering and Research Centre (MACERC), Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Prof. (Dr.) Sunil Kumar, H.O.D. Applied Sciences & Humanities Dehradun Institute of Technology, (D.I.T. School of Engineering), 48 A K.P-3 Gr. Noida (U.P.) 201308 Prof. Naveen Jain, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, Udaipur-313 001, India. Prof. Veera Jyothi.B, CBIT, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Prof. Aritra Ghosh, Global Institute of Management and Technology, Krishnagar, Nadia, W.B. India Prof. Anuj K. Gupta, Head, Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, RIMT Group of Institutions, Sirhind Mandi Gobindgarh, Punajb, India. Prof. (Dr.) Varala Ravi, Head, Department of Chemistry, IIIT Basar Campus, Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, Mudhole, Adilabad, Andhra Pradesh- 504 107, India Prof. (Dr.) Ravikumar C Baratakke, faculty of Biology,Govt. College, Saundatti - 591 126, India. Prof. (Dr.) NALIN BHARTI, School of Humanities and Social Science, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, India. Prof. (Dr.) Shivanand S.Gornale , Head, Department of Studies in Computer Science, Government College (Autonomous), Mandya, Mandya-571 401-Karanataka, India.


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Prof. (Dr.) Naveen.P.Badiger, Dept.Of Chemistry, S.D.M.College of Engg. & Technology, Dharwad-580002, Karnataka State, India. Prof. (Dr.) Bimla Dhanda, Professor & Head, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Home Science, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125001 (Haryana) India. Prof. (Dr.) Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani, Faculty of IT, Salalah College of Technology, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman. Prof. (Dr.) Naresh Kr. Vats, Chairman, Department of Law, BGC Trust University Bangladesh Prof. (Dr.) Papita Das (Saha), Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India. Prof. (Dr.) Rekha Govindan , Dept of Biotechnology, Aarupadai Veedu Institute of technology , Vinayaka Missions University , Paiyanoor , Kanchipuram Dt, Tamilnadu , India. Prof. (Dr.) Lawrence Abraham Gojeh, Department of Information Science, Jimma University, P.o.Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia. Prof. (Dr.) M.N. Kalasad, Department of Physics, SDM College of Engineering & Technology, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. Prof. Rab Nawaz Lodhi, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Sahiwal. Prof. (Dr.) Masoud Hajarian, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, General Campus, Evin, Tehran 19839,Iran Prof. (Dr.) Chandra Kala Singh, Associate professor, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Home Science, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125001 (Haryana) India Prof. (Dr.) J.Babu, Professor & Dean of research, St.Joseph's College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry, Palai,Kerala. Prof. (Dr.) Pradip Kumar Roy, Department of Applied Mechanics, Birla Institute of Technology (BIT) Mesra, Ranchi- 835215, Jharkhand, India. Prof. (Dr.) P. Sanjeevi kumar, School of Electrical Engineering (SELECT), Vandalur Kelambakkam Road, VIT University, Chennai, India. Prof. (Dr.) Debasis Patnaik, BITS-Pilani, Goa Campus, India. Prof. (Dr.) SANDEEP BANSAL, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, I.G.N. College, Haryana, India. Dr. Radhakrishnan S V S, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faser Hall, The University of Mississippi Oxford, MS- 38655, USA. Prof. (Dr.) Megha Mittal, Faculty of Chemistry, Manav Rachna College of Engineering, Faridabad (HR), 121001, India. Prof. (Dr.) Mihaela Simionescu (BRATU), BUCHAREST, District no. 6, Romania, member of the Romanian Society of Econometrics, Romanian Regional Science Association and General Association of Economists from Romania Prof. (Dr.) Atmani Hassan, Director Regional of Organization Entraide Nationale Prof. (Dr.) Deepshikha Gupta, Dept. of Chemistry, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences,Amity University, Sec.125, Noida, India. Prof. (Dr.) Muhammad Kamruzzaman, Deaprtment of Infectious Diseases, The University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW-2145. Prof. (Dr.) Meghshyam K. Patil , Assistant Professor & Head, Department of Chemistry,Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,Sub-Campus, Osmanabad- 413 501, Maharashtra, India. Prof. (Dr.) Ashok Kr. Dargar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur (Raj.) Prof. (Dr.) Sudarson Jena, Dept. of Information Technology, GITAM University, Hyderabad, India Prof. (Dr.) Jai Prakash Jaiswal, Department of Mathematics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology Bhopal, India. Prof. (Dr.) S.Amutha, Dept. of Educational Technology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli620 023, Tamil Nadu, India. Prof. (Dr.) R. HEMA KRISHNA, Environmental chemistry, University of Toronto, Canada. Prof. (Dr.) B.Swaminathan, Dept. of Agrl.Economics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India. Prof. (Dr.) K. Ramesh, Department of Chemistry, C.B.I.T, Gandipet, Hyderabad-500075. India. Prof. (Dr.) Sunil Kumar, H.O.D. Applied Sciences &Humanities, JIMS Technical campus,(I.P. University,New Delhi), 48/4 ,K.P.-3,Gr.Noida (U.P.) Prof. (Dr.) G.V.S.R.Anjaneyulu, CHAIRMAN - P.G. BOS in Statistics & Deputy Coordinator UGC DRS-I Project, Executive Member ISPS-2013, Department of Statistics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar-522510, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.


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Prof. (Dr.) Sribas Goswami, Department of Sociology, Serampore College, Serampore 712201, West Bengal, India. Prof. (Dr.) Sunanda Sharma, Department of Veterinary Obstetrics Y Gynecology, College of Veterinary & Animal Science,Rajasthan University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences,Bikaner334001, India. Prof. (Dr.) S.K. Tiwari, Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009 U.P., India. Prof. (Dr.) Praveena Kuruva, Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore560012, INDIA Prof. (Dr.) Rajesh Kumar, Department Of Applied Physics, Bhilai Institute Of Technology, Durg (C.G.) 491001, India. Dr. K.C.Sivabalan, Field Enumerator and Data Analyst, Asian Vegetable Research Centre, The World Vegetable Centre, Taiwan. Prof. (Dr.) Amit Kumar Mishra, Department of Environmntal Science and Energy Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Prof. (Dr.) Manisha N. Paliwal, Sinhgad Institute of Management, Vadgaon (Bk), Pune, India. Prof. (Dr.) M. S. HIREMATH, Principal, K.L.ESOCIETY’s SCHOOL, ATHANI Prof. Manoj Dhawan, Department of Information Technology, Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology & Science, Indore, (M. P.), India. Prof. (Dr.) V.R.Naik, Professor & Head of Department, Mechancal Engineering, Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji (Dist. Kolhapur), Maharashatra, India. Prof. (Dr.) Jyotindra C. Prajapati,Head, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa Anand -388421, Gujarat, India Prof. (Dr.) Sarbjit Singh, Head, Department of Industrial & Production Engineering, Dr BR Ambedkar National Institute of Technology,Jalandhar,Punjab, India. Prof. (Dr.) Professor Braja Gopal Bag, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology , Vidyasagar University, West Midnapore Prof. (Dr.) Ashok Kumar Chandra, Department of Management, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Bhilai House, Durg (C.G.) Prof. (Dr.) Amit Kumar, Assistant Professor, School of Chemistry, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India Prof. (Dr.) L. Suresh Kumar, Mechanical Department, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India. Scientist Sheeraz Saleem Bhat, Lac Production Division, Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Namkum, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. Prof. C.Divya , Centre for Information Technology and Engineering, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli - 627012, Tamilnadu , India. Prof. T.D.Subash, Infant Jesus College Of Engineering and Technology, Thoothukudi Tamilnadu, India. Prof. (Dr.) Vinay Nassa, Prof. E.C.E Deptt., Dronacharya.Engg. College, Gurgaon India. Prof. Sunny Narayan, university of Roma Tre, Italy. Prof. (Dr.) Sanjoy Deb, Dept. of ECE, BIT Sathy, Sathyamangalam, Tamilnadu-638401, India. Prof. (Dr.) Reena Gupta, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, India. Prof. (Dr.) P.R.SivaSankar, Head Dept. of Commerce, Vikrama Simhapuri University Post Graduate Centre, KAVALI - 524201, A.P., India. Prof. (Dr.) Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi, Faculty of Economics and Management, Industrial Management Department, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran. Prof. (Dr.) Praveen Kumar Rai, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, U.P. India. Prof. (Dr.) Christine Jeyaseelan, Dept of Chemistry, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, India. Prof. (Dr.) M A Rizvi, Dept. of Computer Engineering and Applications , National Institute of Technical Teachers' Training and Research, Bhopal M.P. India. Prof. (Dr.) K.V.N.R.Sai Krishna, H O D in Computer Science, S.V.R.M.College,(Autonomous), Nagaram, Guntur(DT), Andhra Pradesh, India. Prof. (Dr.) Ashok Kr. Dargar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur (Raj.) Prof. (Dr.) Asim Kumar Sen, Principal , ST.Francis Institute of Technology (Engineering College) under University of Mumbai , MT. Poinsur, S.V.P Road, Borivali (W), Mumbai-400103, India. Prof. (Dr.) Rahmathulla Noufal.E, Civil Engineering Department, Govt.Engg.College-Kozhikode


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Prof. (Dr.) N.Rajesh, Department of Agronomy, TamilNadu Agricultural University -Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Prof. (Dr.) Har Mohan Rai , Professor, Electronics and Communication Engineering, N.I.T. Kurukshetra 136131,India Prof. (Dr.) Eng. Sutasn Thipprakmas from King Mongkut, University of Technology Thonburi, Thailand. Prof. (Dr.) Kantipudi MVV Prasad, EC Department, RK University, Rajkot. Prof. (Dr.) Jitendra Gupta,Faculty of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura. Prof. (Dr.) Swapnali Borah, HOD, Dept of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, Central Agricultural University, Tura, Meghalaya, India. Prof. (Dr.) N.Nazar Khan, Professor in Chemistry, BTK Institute of Technology, Dwarahat-263653 (Almora), Uttarakhand-India. Prof. (Dr.) Rajiv Sharma, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (TN) - 600 036,India. Prof. (Dr.) Aparna Sarkar,PH.D. Physiology, AIPT,Amity University , F 1 Block, LGF, Sector125,Noida-201303, UP ,India. Prof. (Dr.) Manpreet Singh, Professor and Head, Department of Computer Engineering, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, Haryana, India. Prof. (Dr.) Sukumar Senthilkumar, Senior Researcher Advanced Education Center of Jeonbuk for Electronics and Information Technology, Chon Buk National University, Chon Buk, 561-756, SOUTH KOREA. . Prof. (Dr.) Hari Singh Dhillon, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar (Punjab), INDIA. . Prof. (Dr.) Poonkuzhali, G., Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, INDIA. . Prof. (Dr.) Bharath K N, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, GM Institute of Technology, PB Road, Davangere 577006, Karnataka, INDIA. . Prof. (Dr.) F.Alipanahi, Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University,Zanjan Branch, Atemadeyeh, Moalem Street, Zanjan IRAN Prof. Yogesh Rathore, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, RITEE, Raipur, India Prof. (Dr.) Ratneshwer, Department of Computer Science (MMV), Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221005, India. Prof. Pramod Kumar Pandey, Assistant Professor, Department Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering, ITM University, Gwalior, M.P., India Prof. (Dr.)Sudarson Jena, Associate Professor, Dept.of IT, GITAM University, Hyderabad, India Prof. (Dr.) Binod Kumar,PhD(CS), M.Phil(CS),MIEEE,MIAENG, Dean & Professor( MCA), Jayawant Technical Campus(JSPM's), Pune, India Prof. (Dr.) Mohan Singh Mehata, (JSPS fellow), Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi Prof. Ajay Kumar Agarwal, Asstt. Prof., Deptt. of Mech. Engg., Royal Institute of Management & Technology, Sonipat (Haryana) Prof. (Dr.) Siddharth Sharma, University School of Management, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India. Prof. (Dr.) Satish Chandra Dixit, Department of Chemistry, D.B.S.College ,Govind Nagar,Kanpur208006, India Prof. (Dr.) Ajay Solkhe, Department of Management, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India. Prof. (Dr.) Neeraj Sharma, Asst. Prof. Dept. of Chemistry, GLA University, Mathura Prof. (Dr.) Basant Lal, Department of Chemistry, G.L.A. University, Mathura Prof. (Dr.) T Venkat Narayana Rao, C.S.E,Guru Nanak Engineering College, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Prof. (Dr.) Rajanarender Reddy Pingili, S.R. International Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Prof. (Dr.) V.S.Vairale, Department of Computer Engineering, All India Shri Shivaji Memorial Society College of Engineering, Kennedy Road, Pune-411 001, Maharashtra, India Prof. (Dr.) Vasavi Bande, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Netaji Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Prof. (Dr.) Hardeep Anand, Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra, Haryana, India. Prof. Aasheesh shukla, Asst Professor, Dept. of EC, GLA University, Mathura, India.


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Prof. S.P.Anandaraj., CSE Dept, SREC, Warangal, India. Satya Rishi Takyar , Senior ISO Consultant, New Delhi, India. Prof. Anuj K. Gupta, Head, Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, RIMT Group of Institutions, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab, India. Prof. (Dr.) Harish Kumar, Department of Sports Science, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India. Prof. (Dr.) Mohammed Ali Hussain, Professor, Dept. of Electronics and Computer Engineering, KL University, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. Prof. (Dr.) Manish Gupta, Department of Mechanical Engineering, GJU, Haryana, India. Prof. Mridul Chawla, Department of Elect. and Comm. Engineering, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal, Haryana, India. Prof. Seema Chawla, Department of Bio-medical Engineering, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal, Haryana, India. Prof. (Dr.) Atul M. Gosai, Department of Computer Science, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Prof. (Dr.) Ajit Kr. Bansal, Department of Management, Shoolini University, H.P., India. Prof. (Dr.) Sunil Vasistha, Mody Institute of Tecnology and Science, Sikar, Rajasthan, India. Prof. Vivekta Singh, GNIT Girls Institute of Technology, Greater Noida, India. Prof. Ajay Loura, Assistant Professor at Thapar University, Patiala, India. Prof. Sushil Sharma, Department of Computer Science and Applications, Govt. P. G. College, Ambala Cantt., Haryana, India. Prof. Sube Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Engineering, Govt. Polytechnic, Narnaul, Haryana, India. Prof. Himanshu Arora, Delhi Institute of Technology and Management, New Delhi, India. Dr. Sabina Amporful, Bibb Family Practice Association, Macon, Georgia, USA. Dr. Pawan K. Monga, Jindal Institute of Medical Sciences, Hisar, Haryana, India. Dr. Sam Ampoful, Bibb Family Practice Association, Macon, Georgia, USA. Dr. Nagender Sangra, Director of Sangra Technologies, Chandigarh, India. Vipin Gujral, CPA, New Jersey, USA. Sarfo Baffour, University of Ghana, Ghana. Monique Vincon, Hype Softwaretechnik GmbH, Bonn, Germany. Natasha Sigmund, Atlanta, USA. Marta Trochimowicz, Rhein-Zeitung, Koblenz, Germany. Kamalesh Desai, Atlanta, USA. Vijay Attri, Software Developer Google, San Jose, California, USA. Neeraj Khillan, Wipro Technologies, Boston, USA. Ruchir Sachdeva, Software Engineer at Infosys, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Anadi Charan, Senior Software Consultant at Capgemini, Mumbai, Maharashtra. Pawan Monga, Senior Product Manager, LG Electronics India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. Sunil Kumar, Senior Information Developer, Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc., Bangalore, India. Bharat Gambhir, Technical Architect, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Noida, India. Vinay Chopra, Team Leader, Access Infotech Pvt Ltd. Chandigarh, India. Sumit Sharma, Team Lead, American Express, New Delhi, India. Vivek Gautam, Senior Software Engineer, Wipro, Noida, India. Anirudh Trehan, Nagarro Software Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Manjot Singh, Senior Software Engineer, HCL Technologies Delhi, India. Rajat Adlakha, Senior Software Engineer, Tech Mahindra Ltd, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Mohit Bhayana, Senior Software Engineer, Nagarro Software Pvt. Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Dheeraj Sardana, Tech. Head, Nagarro Software, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Naresh Setia, Senior Software Engineer, Infogain, Noida, India. Raj Agarwal Megh, Idhasoft Limited, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Shrikant Bhardwaj, Senior Software Engineer, Mphasis an HP Company, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Vikas Chawla, Technical Lead, Xavient Software Solutions, Noida, India. Kapoor Singh, Sr. Executive at IBM, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Ashwani Rohilla, Senior SAP Consultant at TCS, Mumbai, India. Anuj Chhabra, Sr. Software Engineer, McKinsey & Company, Faridabad, Haryana, India. Jaspreet Singh, Business Analyst at HCL Technologies, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.


TOPICS OF INTEREST Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:  Business administration  Marketing & Management  Finance  Economics  Banking  Accounting  Human resources management  Entrepreneurship,  Education and its applications  Business ethics  Relationship & Risk management  Retail management and communication  Linguistics  International relations  Anthropology & Archaeology  Sociology  International business  Tourism and hospitality management  Law  Psychology  Corporate governance  Demography  Education  Ethics  Geography  History  Industrial relations  Information science  Library science  Media studies  Philosophy,  Political science  Public administration  Sociology  Social welfare  Literature  Paralegal  Performing arts (music, theatre and dance)  Religious studies  Visual arts  Women studies  Production and operations management  Organizational behavior and theory  Strategic management Policy  Statistics and Econometrics  Personnel and industrial relations  Gender studies & Cross cultural studies  Management information systems  Information technology


TABLE OF CONTENTS (March-May, 2014, Issue 6, Volume 1, 2 & 3) Issue 6 Volume 1 Paper Code

Paper Title

Page No.

AIJRHASS 14-305

Lessons from Natural Disasters, A Case Study Based on Rehabilitation and Re-establishment of Tsunami affected Small and Medium-scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Sri Lanka Prof. S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka, Dr Gayan Wedawatta

01-10

AIJRHASS 14-306

THE BUDGET COST FOR THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION Prof. Dr. Herman Matthijs

11-18

AIJRHASS 14-307

Classic Suit and Polystylism: Modern Parallels of Fashionable Forms Development Based on the Tendencies Analyses within the Framework of Great Britain and Ukrainian Fashion Week-2013 TATYANA KROTOVA

19-24

AIJRHASS 14-308

Multidisciplinary approach of noise in the urban environment Samira. DEBACHE BENZAGOUTA & Bachir.RIBOUH

25-28

AIJRHASS 14-310

The New Public Sphere: a Way to Democratization Ms. Daria S. Mukhortova

29-33

AIJRHASS 14-313

Stakeholders’ Needs Assessments on Curriculum Development for Library and Information Science Program at Jimma University in Ethiopia: A Review Lawrence Abraham Gojeh and Getachew Bayissa

34-43

AIJRHASS 14-314

Political symbolism and Mass Mobilisation for Political Participation in Nigeria Alakali Terfa T., Sambe, S. A, Tondo, Aondosoo Wilfred

44-49

AIJRHASS 14-315

Symbolic Deterritorialization: the Case of Francis Alÿs Jesús Segura Cabañero, Toni Simó Mulet

50-54

AIJRHASS 14-316

THE RELEVANCE OF FABRIC TOYS IN CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION Dr. (Mrs.) Gloria U. Anikweze

55-62

AIJRHASS 14-323

Fusion of Inner Mind and External Life in Welty’s “Delta Wedding” G. Mohana

63-66

AIJRHASS 14-325

Study the Awareness of Trained School Teachers in Relation to RTE Act at Elementary Level Nabin Thakur

67-71

AIJRHASS 14-326

Women in Public Sphere: An Enquiry into Women’s Representation and Participation in Politics Dr. Durga Prasad Chhetri

72-76

AIJRHASS 14-327

Regional Dimensions of Rural Employment and Levels of Development in Panayur and Chanderi Town: A Case Study of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Nargis Salim

77-81

AIJRHASS 14-328

Appraisal of Public Awareness of Human Rights Campaigns in the Mass Media: A Study of Selected Local Government Areas in Benue State Ogah, Ijuo Abari, Ameh, Solomon Ochojila

82-89

AIJRHASS 14-331

Communication Skills & Regional Dimensions: A Study on Engineering Students Sita, Rekha

90-94

AIJRHASS 14-334

AN ASSESSMENT OF ITEM BIAS USING DIFFERENTIAL ITEM FUNCTIONING TECHNIQUE IN NECO BIOLOGY CONDUCTED EXAMINATIONS IN TARABA STATE NIGERIA Amuche Chris Igomu & Fan Akpan Fan (PhD)

95-100

AIJRHASS 14-341

A PANORAMA OF MARBLE CRAFT OF BHEDAGHAT AS GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION UNDER THE INDIAN LAW Rama J Sirpurkar, Dr. Shashikala Gurpur

101-108

Issue 6 Volume 2 Paper Code AIJRHASS 14-353

Paper Title The Marginalized Groups in Indian Social Construct: A Critical Study of Mahesh Dattani Sanjiv Kumar, Dr. Prakash Bhadury

Page No. 109-114


AIJRHASS 14-358

Role of Sarsara in Revival of Spirituality and Management Pintu Mahakul

115-120

AIJRHASS 14-367

Art or Avant-garde – A reading of Jack Kerouac’s On the Road A.Mathini

121-123

AIJRHASS 14-368

Spread of Islam in Africa Javad Haghnavaz

124-128

AIJRHASS 14-369

A Novel Education Structure for Poverty Diminution in India Chhaya Yadavm Prof. (Dr.) S. P. Lal

129-133

AIJRHASS 14-373

A Comparative Study of Several Sights Between Jalaluddin Mohammad Balkhi(Rumi) and Emily Dickinson Zahra Ahmadi

134-138

AIJRHASS 14-376

Relationship between hardiness, self-efficacy and coping responses among IT employees U.Vijayabanu, V. Jhahani

AIJRHASS 14-377

Occupational Stress, Burnout and Coping in Police Personnel: Findings from a Systematic Review Prof. Poonam Kapade-Nikam, Prof. Mohsin Shaikh

144-148

AIJRHASS 14-378

The Relationship among Organisational Climate, Job Satisfaction and Happiness of the Employees of Educational Institutions Dr. Santosh Meena, Ms. Mahima Agarwal

149-152

AIJRHASS 14-379

A View – Real Democratic India Towards Superpower (Phase I) DHARANE S.S.

153-154

AIJRHASS 14-380

Mission Statement Analysis of Selected Public Sector and Private Sector Banks in India RAJANI K G, VIJAY LAKSHMY K V

155-161

AIJRHASS 14-381

Travelling through Cultural Spaces: R.K.Narayan – the Indian Vs the Writer in My Dateless Diary: an American Journey Bibhudatta Dash

162-165

AIJRHASS 14-382

The effectiveness of the entrance to the development of aesthetic skill mapping among fifth-grade students in primary and inclination towards Social Studies Dr. Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed(Ph.D)

166-177

AIJRHASS 14-389

An Analysis of Theories of Diffusion Pankaj Kumar, Dr. Prabhjot Kaur

178-185

AIJRHASS 14-390

Testing the Mediation Effect Using Covariance Based Structural Equation Modeling With AMOS Wan Mohamad Asyraf Bin Wan Afthanorhan, Sabri Ahmad, Ibrahim Mamat

186-190

AIJRHASS 14-393

Mass media campaign to improve infant and young child feeding practices amongst tribal mothers of Chikhli taluka, Gujarat Shriya A.Seksaria and Dr. Mini K.Sheth

191-195

AIJRHASS 14-394

Teaching language through Mnemonics Programme in pre-school Children with Hearing Impairment Dr. Sita Ram Pal, Dr. Arun Banik

196-199

Issue 6 Volume 3 Paper Code

Paper Title

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AIJRHASS 14-395

The Socio-Political Implications of Some of the Episodes in Chinua Achebe’s Novel “A Man of The People” ADERINTO, S.I. ABIODUN

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Impact of Spiritual Food on Managerial Decision Making Mantu Mahakul

203-208

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Analysis of Vendors in Banking Industry Dr. Hariharan.N.P, Reeshma.K.J

209-211

AIJRHASS 14-404

A Stylistic Analysis of Dickens’ “No. 1 Branch Line: The Signalman” Dr. Sheelu Singh Bhatia

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Imperatives and impediments of Inclusive Education and scheduled tribes in India on the era of transnational education Dr.HaseenaV.A

215-217


AIJRHASS 14-407

Effectiveness of Anganwadi Centres in Punjab in combating Malnutrition among Children Dr. Manisha Bhatia

218-223

AIJRHASS 14-412

Analysis of cost and Benefits of education – case study of Tamil Nadu Dr. Hariharan.N.P, Siva Gurunathan.S

224-227

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A Comparative Study of Sustainability of Reason Specific Inter-State Migration in India: Empirical evidence from two states with severe poverty rates Pinak Sarkar, Nutan Shashi Tigga

228-235

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An Intersection of Fact and Fiction: A Study of V.S.Naipaul’s The Middle Passage Pragnya Parimita Pradhan

236-238

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Growth & Development of Tourism Sector in West Bengal: Issues & Concerns Dr. Sherap Bhutia

239-246

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Early Centres of Origin of Agriculture In The Middle Ganga Plain Dr. Shitala Prasad Singh

247-251

AIJRHASS 14-443

Integrated Corporate Communication Dr. Rachna Rastogi

252-255

AIJRHASS 14-446

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Agriculture use in and around Hingoli Region, Maharashtra, India Godbole Mahendra T. & Patode H.S.

256-263

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Onset of Discussion and Realistic Characters in Drama Dr Parul Yadav

264-268

AIJRHASS 14-450

Effects of Community Based Schools In Promotion Of Education Established By Khwendokor in Rural Areas of Khyber Agency, Pakistan Shahzad Khan

269-272

AIJRHASS 14-453

The Impact of Parents’ Educational Level on Educational Achievement and Aspiration of Secondary School Girls Manpreet Kaur

273-278

AIJRHASS 14-456

Application of ARIMA Model for Forecasting Production of Jasmine Flower in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, India K. Prakash and B. Muniyandi

279-285


American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences

Available online at http://www.iasir.net

ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

The Marginalized Groups in Indian Social Construct: A Critical Study of Mahesh Dattani 1

Sanjiv Kumar, 2Dr. Prakash Bhadury Research Scholar, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand , India 2 Assistant Professor, NIT Hamirpur, Himanchal Pradesh, India

1

Abstract: Dattani is one of the prominent exponents of Indian drama in English (IDE), especially with his contributions in the 90s India when the dram of roots has already made its presence felt and postcolonial studies began a culture study of reclaiming spaces and places, asserting cultural integrity, revising history while questioning the aspects of subversion. This paper is an attempt on how Dattani has responded to the concept of marginality in Indian social construct in the 80s onward when Indian society has made its mark as the largest democracy in the world, yet reeling under several vexing issues, one of them being the problem of social inequality of which marginality forms part of it. He has taken up the taboo subjects like eunuchs, gay/lesbian relations, inter-caste marriages and, gender discriminations. A select drama has been taken up as to show the condition of subaltarnity of the marginalised groups and how the dramatist has struck the conscience of the society by exposing the hypocrisy of the middle class urban Indian society. The deft use of English as a hybrid form of indigenous language has been a powerful tool in showing the conditions of marginality and class identity. Keywords: Marginalization, Postcolonial, Subaltern, Hierarchy, Gender, Sexuality, Hegemony

I. Introduction The term marginalization refers to individual or groups who live at the margin of society. Their situations may be historical or cultural as they suspend between social classes or cultural groups, without being fully integrated to it. The term has different connotations and nuances in the modern era of post colonial, postmodern period and in a world that is predominantly driven by market forces. In cultural anthropology marginalization is a major subject of study in which ethnic groups and their social situations are studied. It may have various forms like class, caste, gender, community and so on at one level and at the other level groups who are subjected to economic and social hardships. These groups may still be marginalised at multiple levels in a country like India which has witnessed tremendous socio-political changes in both pre-independence and post independence period. Of course, the forms of marginalization may vary. It is generally linked to “the level of development of society; culturally, and as (if not more) importantly, with relation to economics. For example, it would generally be true, that there would exist more marginalized groups in the Third World”, and developing nations, than in the developed/first-World nations. Indeed, there can be a distinction made, on the basis of the choice that one has within this context—those in the Third World who live under impoverished conditions, through no choice of their own (being far removed from the protectionism that exists for people in the First World,) are often left to die due to hunger, disease, and war. One can also add to this various minorities, as well as women. Within the First World, low-income drug addicts stand out as being the most marginalized. This deliberate or chosen marginalization of people carries with it aspects of a so-called “Social Darwinism” (Anup kumar: 3).The concept of marginality rose to its high prominence while modernism held its sway in the world during 19 th century and: “Man, as the Renaissance slogan had it, was the measure of all other things in the universe: while the Western norms of dress, behavior, architecture, intellectual outlook and so on provided a firm centre against which deviation, observations, variations could be detected and identified as Other and marginal”(Barry: 67).

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Indian society witnessed a multilayered marginality during colonial period and in the postcolonial scenario in the 20th century. When India emerged as a nation-state, the western concept of marginality began to melt slowly, yet a profound question –whether the subaltern can speak- kept the nation haunting. Gayatri Chakraborty rightly elaborated on the issue through her epoch making post colonial discourse, ‘Can the Subaltern Speak? ‘and she meant that the subalterns are still at the periphery and Dattani in his dramatic discourse attempts to give voice to the voiceless while letting them a push from the margin toward the center. Mahesh Dattani’s concern of marginality was in the backdrop of Indian social construct beginning at the 80s onward when Indian society already stood the test of democracy, yet reeling under several vexing issues, one of them being the problem of social inequality of which marginality forms part of it. An effort has been made in Indian Writing in English (IWE) in general to free it from colonial hangover and since 60s the theatre practitioners attempted to give a fresh look of Indian drama putting the invisible issues in the fore unlike the traditional drama that continued to recreate either in the colonial period or in the historical past representing its mythical or allegorical essences. Girish Karnad's Tughlaq (1964) is one of the prominent examples. Dattani falls into the category of experimental theatre that uses folk and traditional performance genres. It mainly draws attention by its contemporary relevance while representing the urban middle class society in general. The concept of marginalisation issuing from the ‘theatre of roots’ has incorporated all the hidden elements of the middle class society upon which erstwhile theories and practices of marginalization may hinge upon. Dattani while reflecting on marginality has taken all the threads that divides the society in various strata, one of them being the issues of class struggle. The Bravely Fought the Queen is a case in point. All the three couples of Trivedi family in the play are related in terms of social hierarchy. The relationship of two brothers Jiten and Nitin and their wives Dolly and Alka are strictly on the basis of patriarchy while the third family of Shridhar and Lalitha are placed as inferior in class as they are the employees in the advertising company of the family. The condition of Lalitha is worse as she is subservient to her husband as well as to those two women. Lalitha’s character has a resonance with other minor characters on stage which reflects a similarity of classes with them and the treatment they receive. For example, the characters like Baa, Daksha and the auto driver and the space they share on stage show their inferior class. It reminds the Marxist theory of class struggle which is always a fact of any given society. For Marx, “All history is the history of class struggle.”(Marx & Historical Materialism). The class that wins the class struggle is the one that in its time is best able to preside over the productive forces. His analysis of history is based on his distinction between the means of production, literally those things, like land, natural resources, and technology that are necessary for the production of material goods and the social relations of production. In other words, the class is determined by the social relationships people enter into as they acquire and use the means of production. Thus, the drama while reflecting marginality also reflects the modern Indian social psyche which is predominantly urban with a distinct flavor of the West as such .Time has come as Dattani showcases through his stage settings and dialogue, let alone the succinctly constructed plot and characters, how Indian drama is evolving and searching for a distinctive identity. The contemporary Indian drama, whether written in vernacular or in English, is part of the larger ‘Indian theatre’, decidedly influenced by, and drawing inspiration from many of its traditional forms, yet it is evolving to the need of the hour. In the context of marginality what is succinct in the plays of Dattani is the aspect of subaltarnity what has been deliberated widely in postcolonial studies during 80s.It is very well pointed out that: The words subaltern and subaltarnity of course reinforce what the quest of a critical historiography - Marxist, feminist, anti-colonial, subalternist, minority - has long been about: the endeavour to recover lives, and possibilities, and politics that have been marginalised, distorted, suppressed and sometimes even forgotten. They allow us to reinforce the point that not all ‘citizens’ (or human beings) are born equal, that many remain "second class" even when granted the formal status of citizens, and that many are denied formal citizenship altogether- today, and of course over most of human history( The Subaltern: Gyanendra). The entire post-colonial literary theory moves around the question of subaltern condition. Dattani explores thematically the subaltern condition that continues to plague the modern India. This paper attempts to explain how Dattani as an exponent of modern Indian drama brings the concerns of oppression, marginalisation and subaltern voices closure to the real life experience that keeps happening now. Identity crisis is a major issue in

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which the voices of the oppressed section of the society either go unheard or it is chocked under domination, social prejudices and myth. Social dynamism is represented lively putting across the archetypal characters, queer resistance, subaltern voices, protests and thus, resounding it truly representative of totality of human experience amid domination, repression, and prejudice . He curiously shows that the marginalised or the subaltern speak as well. An effort has been made to eliminate the difference of drama on paper page and drama on live stage in which the stage is given adequate realistic setting to manifest the cause of marginalised and to capture the roots of the disease of fragmentation of human psyche in the era of declining value. One way Dattani is convinced that the representation of the subaltern is a relational position in any society with intimate relationship of exercise of power the way power is conceptualized by Foucault who is concerned less with the oppressive aspect of power, but more with the resistance of those the power is exerted upon. The Marxist thinker Louis Althusser is in contrast with Foucault as the former ‘studied mainly how people are oppressed by the state institutions and how they build themselves as individuals through the mystifying action of the ideology’. For Althusser, individuals are just puppets of the ideological and repressive apparatus and power is seen as acting from top downwards, but for Foucault “power relations dissipate through all relational structures of the society. This enables him to build a model of the daily and mundane manners in which power is exerted and contested, as well as an analysis centered on the human individual as an active subject, not as a simple object for the power.”( Sergiu Bălan). Similarly, in the revolutionary essay ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ by Gayatri Chakraborty Spivak looked into the concerns of subaltarnity in postcolonial study and she meant to say that the voiceless, the oppressed and the ‘other’ are the subalterns who are not allowed to speak. The term normally used to denote those who were of inferior rank in the army during the colonial period. The exact meaning of the term is disputed though attempts are being made since 80s by subaltern study group to voice the concerns of the subalterns of the society that takes into consideration the matters of sex, gender, class, patriarchal domination, third world feminist discourse and so forth. Spivak argued that marginality has been a major issue which assumes to acquire the status of discipline in postcolonial study. She is of the opinion that the subalterns all over the world remain a voiceless, margialised section. They are forced to maintain silence against oppression. Mahesh Dattani as an exponent of modern Indian drama, attempts to portray the archetypal characters that continue to maintain the patriarchal domination. Where There is a Will focuses on how the protagonist Mr. Hasmukh is a typical dictatorial husband, a domineering father and a rubber stamp of his father as a stereotyped patriarchal domination. His submissive wife Sonal and the son Mr. Ajit are representative of subaltern condition who cannot speak and hence marginalised. Hasmukh expresses his authority in the family and attempts to assert himself upon everything as a Big Boss. Ajit the modern young man refuses to be a copy of his father and the father plays his hegemonic power: “If you are you, then you are nowhere. You are nothing, just a big zero. No matter what you do, you will remain zero. Over the years you’ll just deep adding zeros to your zero. Zero, zero, zero” (461).Thus the marginalised are taken always valueless or meaningless in our society. Similarly, the condition of his wife, sonal; daughter and his mistress named Kiran are pathetic as well, for they are always treated as less than human beings. Ironically, the mistress controlled the man all the way. She substituted a father figure for him and she was the real decision maker. Hasmukh has always attempted to control others will but eventually he himself was under the will of the mistress and thus Dattani so skillfully crafted the characters so as to lend voice to the voiceless and the marginalised speaks in modern Indian society in a different way. At least a beginning has been made and truly it happens. The author’s other plays like Seven Step Around the Fire, On a Muggy night in Mumbai, and Do the Needful speak about how the heterosexual society marginalise the ‘queer’ and never ready to create a space for them. The lesbian and gay people are born as human being in this earth like any other human being but they are denied their normal place and basic societal rights to love and be loved. They are socially degraded, psychologically tortured and turned into a staff that they start pitying upon themselves. What could be worse than this when one loses faith on one’s self! The condition of the hijra community as marginalised society is not new in Indian society as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have such vivid depictions galore. For example, Sita despite being the queen was marginalised and today thousands of girls are named as Sita, yet they are expected as submissive as Sonal’s condition. Further, Draupadi, another brave character, and an women of substance who could be a representative woman of modern India for her self-

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assertion against the condition of marginality. She is parallel to modern urban Indian women asserting or in the process of asserting their existence as individuals and as human beings, as against any gendered identity. Do the Needful exposes the hypocrisy of modern Indian society to the extent of a crime. The romantic comedy revolves around two Gujrati family namely the Patel family and the Gowda family. The protagonistAlpesh Patel family is a divorced man of thirty years and a gay. He finds Mr. Trilok as his soul mate as he finds all his emotional satisfaction in him. But he is denied his rights first by his own family and then by the society. He is not a debased person in terms of morality but the society takes it to be a moral degeneration. At best he could be defined as psychologically defective or mentally sick. On the other hand Lata Gowda who is proposed for Alpesh is in love with a terrorist. Certainly, the marriages of choice were impossible in society. But Dattani’s theatre celebrates the social dynamics of whole truth against any partial truth and the truth is the call of the religion of blood as put forward by D.H Lawrence in his quest for the dehumanizing effects of modernity. Lawrence confronted issues relating to emotional health, human sexuality and instinct. Dattani makes possible the total experience of human sensibility by arranging the dramatic personae to accept the hasty marriages of social custom and then smoothly deviate from it silently and they pursued their own choices of cohabitation. Economically, the protagonists belong to upper class society, but socially they stand at the margins. Dattani does not bring them to the centre at once by showing an arranged inter- caste marriage or by an approval for the gay/lesbian relations, but he certainly problematizes the conscious of the Indian society in general about the social restraints and inhibition of such relationship and inter-caste marriages. By exposing Lata and Alpesh as exquisitely uninhibited young and honest human beings, frank and straight in their view of life, Dattani not only surprises the audience at the end by twists and turns of fortune, but also makes it a theme of global concern. It may be inferred here that Dattani dispenses justice to the socially marginalised people and empowers them to be considered as human beings unlike an historic treatment to them as something defectively human or less than human beings. His concern for the marginalised is made clear in his interview: I write for my milieu, for my time and place middle class and urban Indians… My dramatic tension arises from people who aspire to freedom from society …I am not looking for something sensational, which audiences have never seen before …some subjects , which are under explored , deserve their space. It’s no use brushing them under carpet. We have to understand the marginalised, including the gays. Each of us has a sense of isolation within given contexts. That’s what makes us individual (Quoted in Agrwal: 3) Tara says that gender inequality is a form of inequality which is distinct from other forms of economic and social inequalities. It stems not only from pre-existing differences in economic endowments between women and men but also from pre-existing gendered social norms and social perceptions. Through this play Dattani brings out the root of gender discrimination by making the woman, the destroyer of another woman’s life. Tara is protagonist in the Play. She is a victim of social prejudices. She has all the quality of an emerging new woman ready to defy age-old prejudices and compulsions. Here emergence as new woman is reflected in her ability to take decision and assert her identity. Further, the Seven Steps around the Fire and Dance like a Man, reflects the otherness in Indian society which comes more as the pattern of socio-psychological way of thinking of average Indians. The play claims for the drama divine and a close connection with the Sacred Vedas themselves. The play beautifully deals with the pitiable condition of the hizras, their throes of life, yet how they retain a strong sense of individuality in a callously differentiated society of marginality. Dattani, while reflecting the tradition of social realism of the contemporary social problems like intercaste marriage, concerns of the hijra community, untouchability, gender issues and various power relations, has created a panoptic scope and has added a new colour to the Indian drama. Dattani’s Final Solutions states that Mahesh Dattani has always been concerned with truthful depictions of the Indian society. Here, the marginalisation is on the basis of cultural hegemony. Both the communities of Hindus and Muslims suffer which disturbs the entire social set up. It reflects more on how Indian poor people with little social capital are excluded from the corridors of power and often denied their legitimate position. Dattani attempted to bring to the fore marginalised voices that reflect heterogeneity, not homogeneity with more nuances of subaltarnity. Thus, he has manifested the diversity within diversity.

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Marginalisation is not only found on the counts of socio-economic or political conditions of the characters, but a deconstructive approach of reading would reveal the repressed unconscious within language of the protagonists what has made them the way they are having been locked within the bounds of the sentence of history. Munuswmy in the Seven Steps Around the Fire declines being addressed as brother by Anarkali, a Hijra (Collected Play: 11). Again, Anarkali thinks that Uma cannot be her sister as she is not a hijra: Anarkali: But you are not a hijra, no? So you will not be my sister! Uma: of course, we can be sisters! Anarkali: Where are you and where am I? (Collected Play: 13). Hijras in the drama have not been addressed as he or she instead as ‘it’. When the hizras are addressed as madam as the case like: “You are madam Champa evokes her guffaws (22)!” since they are not habituated of any gendered addressing. Uma, the research scholar and the social worker views the hizras as belonging to society whereas the Hijra like Champa is surprised: “You see us also as society, no?”(23) . It’s a clear satire on the society’s division on marginality as the hizras are not willing to be in the mainstream as the society will always discriminate and make their life hell. Uma’s monologue through telephonic conversation with her professor bears the testimony of the gravity of the divide and a reminder for the society to bridge the gap: “Well, it seems a little too sordid and I find it more and more difficult to do a thorough research …I know there is very little written about them, and now I understand why…” (28). Curiously, while Uma feels so concerned for the margialised as she is doing her paper on class and gender related issues, she herself can commit a white collar crime of using a Government vehicle with the constable Munnuswamy to drive to Shivajinagar to meet Anarkali’s friend Champa what highlights in a subtle way how white collar crime can be committed in our society just by being placed in higher social and economic ladder as it is given in the drama that Uma is the daughter-in –law of a deputy commissioner and the wife of S.S.P. Dattani narrates the plight of ‘Hijra community’ through the lens of Uma, a sociology scholar who is working on her thesis on social issues. Perhaps, Dattani, in this context, makes a pun on our social system and its power relationship that to unearth the secret of murder of a Hijra could be investigated only by a person of power, or by someone, who is socio-economically superior. Further, one relief is given to her endeavour that she herself is a lonely woman being not so happy in her own marriage and this motive force has driven her to empathize with the Hijra community. Making Anarkali her sister comes from this sympathy. Her investigation for the tragic death of Kamla, a beautiful Hijra, is the kernel of the drama laying bare the condition of subaltarnity. While Uma is as passionate and ardent as to the investigation for the secret of Kamal’s death, other Hijra sisters and particularly Anarkali desist her for such a venture, for they have never been taken seriously by the society, nor their wails have been heard so far! The simple everyday use of language to Uma by Anarkali brings to the fore the complex contrast: “One Hijra less in this world does not matter to your husband” (35). At the end of the drama Uma wins her victory of getting at the truth that the cause of Kamala’s death is the result of her uncalled for love affairs with Subbu, the son of the powerful politician, Mr. Sharma and he could not accept his son to marry a Hijra, however beautiful and a choice of his son she might be. She was killed stealthily after Subbu married her secretly in a temple. Anarkali knew well that such marriage would bring kamala her tragic death: “She is dead…So many times I warned her… I tried to stop them. I fought with her. I scratched her face, hoping she will become ugly and Subbu will forget her…I was there at their wedding…” (41). Uma’s research is the Dramatist’s thesis statement that atrocities against women and marginalised are rampant with the nexus of police and politicians. Kamala had her wedding photograph what Mr. Sharma was on hunt to destroy: “A picture of kamala as a beautiful bride smiling at Subbu with the wedding garland around him …of course Mr. Sharma could not have it –totally unacceptable. So he arranged to have kamala burned to death” (41) .Dattani in such dialogues and settings seems to have left moralist undertones, but he has avoided being didactic. Like Arvind Adiga’s The White Tiger, an attempt of, “…an unflattering portrait of present day India as a society of servitude and rampant corruption…as an attempt to temper the society with the vision of justice against the brutal injustice at large in a vein of what writers like Balzac, or Dickens did in the 19th

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century” (Bhadury: 36), Dattani too has done the same to lend a voice through an Indianised English to the voiceless: “Anarkali, Champa and all the Hijra people knew who was behind the killing of Kamala…The police made no arrests…” (Collected Play: 42). A shift to indigenous English was a daunting task as Dattani challenged the stereotype of Indian English drama making it distinct not only in its character and setting but also giving it a language which is free from colonial hangover and the same is stated by him as: A lot of the damage colonization has done is reflected in the theater, in the English language. The way most people speak the English language, most of it is imitative, there is an embarrassment about speaking it with your own background, and there is a need to sound different, to sound British (Mee, 1997:25). The motive of making English language quite familiar to Indians and close to its flora and fauna is double fold: to create a distinctive genre of Indian writing in English (IWE) and to create a heteroglossia for making the voiceless heard. In the use of English both the traditional English and modern Indian idioms have been mixed so as to make a feel of it as the language of the masses and whoever reads it s/he may feel a common identity with the dramatic personae. In other terms, Dattani attempted to demystify any hyphenated identity of any short. The deft use of English is also necessary to deal with the taboo subjects like eunuchs or marginal people in a way to deconstruct the age old social practices while unmasking inherent bias and prejudices against the marginal. The powerful metaphors and everyday language suddenly draws the readers’ attention to contrasting situations of Indian society which gives English language a stamp of Indian cultural product via the discourse of common people or the marginalised. Dattani himself admits the same in an interview: “It’s not that I have a political motive to promote Indian English, but it is a part of Indian culture, so it has to be given it’s reflect in India and in the world” (Mee, 1997:26).The plays of Dattani are perhaps most satisfactory when in subtle ways they suggest that there might be more to life than the bleak or tragic course of events they so often realistically and rightly present: when they leave a window open for the possibility of redemption, or a better life. II. Conclusion Almost all the plays of Dattani centers on the theme of marginality prevailing in our society, be it gay/lesbian relations, caste-class divide, gender discrimination or women and voiceless people. The handling of apparently taboo subjects with the deft use of language, sound and stage settings has certainly shaken the conscience of the make believe society of ours. It seriously questions as to the gravity of the injustices meted out to the marginal people and the hypocrisy of the so called urban India. The controversial issues and the challenges thereupon on the society are likely to make a change of heart of educated middle class India. After all, Dattani’s efforts will remain as a milestone in the process.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. [9]

Aditya Anupkumar. “Introduction to sociology project – The Concept Of Marginalization” nd. 1-13. Web. http://www.adityaanupkumar.com/files/TheConceptOfMarginalization.pdf. Agrwal, Anuj bala. “The Drama of Mahesh Dattani: A Study in Technique”. The Dramatic World of Mahesh Dattani.ed. Amarnath Prasad. Sarup book Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. Print. Barry, Peter, Beginning Theory.2nd ed. 2004 (67).Manchester University Press, Manchester. Print. Bhadury, Prakash. “India Relocated in Arvind Adiga's The White Tiger”, Research Analysis and Evaluation.3.35, August 2012, Print. Dattani, Mahesh. Collected Plays. Penguin books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 2000. Print.. Gyanendra Pandey. “The Subaltern as Subaltern Citizen”. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.41, No.46 (Nov.18-24, 2006),pp.4735-4741. Web.URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4418914. Marx & Historical Materialism. Age of the Sage. nd. n. pag. Web..http://www.age of the sage.org /philosophy/history/Marx Historical Materialism.html. Mee, Erin B. “Mahesh Dattani: Invisible Issues.”PAJ :Journal of Performance and Art 191 (January 1997)..Print. Sergiu Bălan “M. Foucault's View on Power Relations”.nd. n. pag.Web. http://cogito.ucdc.ro/.pdf

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Role of Sarsara in Revival of Spirituality and Management Pintu Mahakul Doctoral Candidate, Department of Business Administration Berhampur University, Bhanja Bihar, Berhampur-760007, Odisha, INDIA Abstract: While values degrade in society the instability and impurities in surrounding environment grow rapidly. Human tendencies of human values diminish due to impure desires and complicated life style acquired by various human resources. In such situation many of the intellectuals think of bringing revolution in society by spiritual practices and visions of spiritual management. Spirituality which is often referred as an alleged immaterial reality brings deep feeling of humanity during the course of evolution. Spirituality not only changes the attitudes of human individual from negative to positive but also purifies the environment and develops personalities from many angles. This also brings reformation as per necessity and rapidly brings evolution in human mind, body, spirit, thought and actions. Today’s developed world is severely suffering from diminishing humanity. This has resulted increasing rate of violence and breakage of communal harmony worldwide. In such case we do think and act for acceptance of spiritual laws, awareness programmes and practice which up lift natural tendencies of human individuals and give a new direction for development of humanity. This study highlights the role of an Indian rural village that brings lots of changes through spiritual evolution and practice of spiritual unity, integrity and harmony instead of race, caste, colour, religions etc. Its action clarifies the learning and perception of spiritual practices that helps in development of human resources a lot. Hope this study will help others with benefit of new visions about humanity and management of human resources. Keywords: Revival, humanity, spirituality, management and performance I.

Introduction

Supreme Father says, “May you be an intense effort maker, show the angelic form through your face. With the volcanic yoga through the form of light and might, burn the waste and donate powers to the unhappy and peace-less souls.” (Avyakt Murli, 31.12.2011) It is true that modern world is suffering from value crisis. Due to rapid downfall and diminishing values many problems have come out and modern life has become clumsy. Toda’s people remain unhappy in many affaires with lack of peace. This does not bring essence in modern living although we have developed a lot with science and technology. No doubt modern amenities and inventions have made our lives very easy with comfortable feelings, but have not given the complete satisfaction of peace and happiness. Many of us wander in today’s busy world in search of happiness and pleasure. But exactly nobody thinks about this matter that how can we get these things easily while we have forgotten the true purpose of human birth? For this purpose efforts are required to make to realize about our true identity that from where have we come, what is our purpose of human birth and where shall we go after death? Beloved father, the creator God says that we have angelic form and we should show this in our face. Jesus Christ says that God is light and might. It is exactly true thing. Again it is true that all souls are children of Supreme Soul and they also originally inherit the nature of light and might from beloved father. All souls are like tiny light form of stars. Through this form by practice of meditation i.e. yoga we can concentrate and by charm of light and volcanic power of knowledge we can burn the waste thoughts and polluted or corrupt actions along with the destruction of vices. Through this charm of knowledge we can again do another main duty of giving spiritual knowledge through which unhappy souls can attain happiness and peace in their inner cores. The word, “Sarsara, also pronounced as Sarasara,” is specifically derived from Sanskrit and Maithali languages. In South Koshli language which is often referred as Sambalupri, Sarsara means a person either a male or female with charm of power of knowledge and cuteness, whose life has simple appearance but has kept the treasure of unlimited happiness and spiritual knowledge. In Japanese Sarasara means noble whereas in Spanish and Hebrew this word means princess. In Japanese word, ‘Sa’ is commonly used for naming girls and it is more feminine in nature. If we break this word in to two as Sara-sara it expresses two different meanings. According

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to many Indian languages Sara refers to soul and Sara means to have deep inner desire of purity, companionship, love, mercy, working capacity with peace and harmony and excellent creative nature. In together Sarasara means a soul having above qualities within him, which exactly refers to human being, a soul in a material body with skills, knowledge, values and ethics and in set finally refers to human resources. In Sanskrit, ‘Sara,’ expresses the meaning of stream, cream layer of milk and person who gives summary of knowledge. Let us break this word as Sa-ra-sa-ra. As per the meaning in Sanskrit, ‘Sa,’ means the beloved God, the creator of the universe, the ocean of all qualities Lord Shiva, ‘ra’ refers to fire that signifies spiritual knowledge, gold that signifies to virtues and golden qualities, colour refers to self luminous light and charm of soul and his journey in earth and speed of world. ‘Sa,’ refers to moon that signifies the calmness and peaceful nature of soul. Finally, ‘ra,’ refers to the coming of soul from soul world called Paramdhaam and eternal nature of soul’s origin, infinite qualities and journey along with the eternal existence of the infinite universal system of God’s creation and also refers to paradise. If we break the word as, ‘Sarasa-ra,’ then Sarasa expresses the meaning of pond, fresh, juicy, sweet, smiling, beautiful, lovely, excellent, thinking quality, observer and receiver of qualities. The word, ‘ra,’ refers to land, soil, waiting and judging. Beloved father says here by practice of yoga to become the treasure of knowledge through which a human being can provide spiritual service for others by giving the same. During the time of instability it is essential to establish peace and prosperity in the world. This is the duty of God and his children. But the main obstacles come in modern world are the various vices and impurities. Due to the selfish motives and bad desires negative vibrations are added continuously to environment. Modern world is captured by evil. God’s duty is to save humanity on earth. Expression of the Holy Bible says, “But the Lord is faithful. He will establish you and guard you against the evil one.” (2 Thessalonians 3:3, English Standard Version) Definitely God will guard us when we shall purify ourselves. For this reason we need to purify by charm of power knowledge as a service to mankind and service to nature. God says to his beloved children that all souls should understand this properly and culture the values and ethics within them through which they can serve for society. Spirituality is not a concept of modern people rather it exists from very ancient tradition to uphold humanity when degradation of status of human beings is observed. Spirituality does fix life’s true destination properly and guides human beings. Famous poet of Japan Fujiwara-no Akisue (1055-1123 AD) defines spirituality as the essence of life that directs and saves human beings with righteousness, truth and love to achieve the greater purpose of birth. Japanese emperor Go-Toba (1180-1239 AD) defines spirituality as royal and heavenly path of living life which directs and controls human beings during their crisis of morality and up lifts them to achieve higher purpose of life with Godly knowledge. Warrior poet cum Buddhist monk Ota Do Kam (1432-1486 AD) defines spirituality as a path of mercy of God which shows human beings the truthful purpose of life, understanding which people love each other and live happily with cooperation, integration and harmony. Japanese poet of renku and haiku nature Matsuo Basho (1644-1694 AD) defines spirituality as the true purpose of God’s creation which rings the bell of self realization with the realization of true aspect of universe that pours deep impact in building personality with personal and social affairs of human beings. Yoso Buson (1716-1784 AD) defines spirituality as a true eternal path of self development with values and ethics that builds positivity in human mind and intellect by purifying instantly the activities of human beings. German Jewish poet Harry Heine (1797-1856 AD) defines spirituality as an essential wise full breath that is very secret in nature but nurtures humanity with sincere effort at all time to spread kindness among all souls. Indian philosopher, Saint Shri Aurobinda (18721950 AD) defines spirituality as indeed the master key of human civilization, the sense of infinitives and giver of true knowledge which makes the mind still and calm to attain the chance of truth and purity through which souls know that hidden nature is secret God. Scottish cum American poet Helen Adam (1909-1993 AD) in her writings expresses and defines spirituality as essential essence of the universe that builds the personalities of human beings as faithful and marvellous. Famous American poet Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979 AD) defines spirituality as an important art created by beloved creator of the universe that decorates the letters of life and living of all the creatures those move and do not move in to pleasing and faithful as per God’s principles. Many authors give their opinions about management. Although various modern authors have given many definitions still let us have a vision about the remarks of old age authors exactly what they say about management. Famous King of Haryanka dynasty and founder of first Magadhan Empire Bimbisara (599-527 BC), the important disciple of Buddha defines management as a process of dealing and controlling of people by a ruler as a trustee through his noble character, skills, attitudes, power and wealth for the benefit of people and development of organization or kingdom. Panini (520-460 BC) defines management as an art of skilful tactics followed by an individual or groups of individuals who act or play as authority in directing, controlling and dealing people and their affaires to plan, organize, lead and motivate them for higher social benefit and development of all. Socrates (470-399 BC) defines management as a process of control and co-ordination of people by definite authority with ascending to wisdom and up lift of the society with virtue to break down the wrong doing which is consequence of ignorance. Aristotle (384 -322 BC) defines management as special series

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of actions by a ruler, authority, individual or group of individuals with spontaneity for dealing, ordering, leading and controlling people in order to achieve a particular goal or end. Chanakya, also known as Kautilya (350-275 BC) in his famous work of Arthashastra defines management as a sequential process that involves social, cultural, political, financial, intellectual and natural tendencies and qualities by an individual ruler or groups of individuals who act as ministers in regulation of public or public affairs in directing and controlling them with responsibilities with trickily deceit. There are several meanings of word revival. In spiritual sense revival means time of reawakened interest for religious beliefs which is characterised by public testimony including impassions of preaching. Revival also refers to judicial decisions, contract, validity or effect of renewal laws. In true sense revival refers to consciousness, strength, vigour and their restoration in human life to use acceptance of truth and activities with new presentation over a new period of time. In general sense revival means an improvement about fortunes, conditions, or strength of a person or something that brings reintroduction and reestablishes the true original qualities of human beings through which those become active and important in life once more. Due to multiple appearance and satisfaction revival plays major roles in shaping human beings during crisis of values and ethics. Revival in spirituality and management becomes very much essential during the period of diminishing humanity specifically in the critical period. For learning and perception of principles revival is very much necessary in society for up lifting. II.

Objectives

To describe about characteristics of soul it is necessary to bring human beings towards true knowledge. In approach it gives rise to many unsolved questions in many minds as values and ethics are degrading rapidly in modern world. This is why it requires spiritual transformation. But how is it possible without revival? How can relationship with God be built for transformation? How can people be more aware about spirituality and management? How do spirituality and management are related and in which way they will solve the problems? Why do values go down and why does humanity suffer a lot without spiritual awakening? If we go on asking why and how, then this will definitely form a chain of questions here. To solve and find answers we do proceed forward for studying such activities made by certain public which become role model for people of other regions to learn for future growth and development. So, here to outline the process of spiritual development and absorbing positive divine qualities it is necessary to participate actively in spiritual affaires. This along with above unsolved dilemmas forms the objectives of such study here. III.

Literature review

Increased spiritual interest brings lots of changes in churches with renewal and restoration of Godly principles and knowledge in late 16th, 17th, 18th and early of 19th centuries regionally or globally which is often referred as Christen revival. During protestant reformation in 17th century in Scotland, Ulster, Virginia and Pennsylvania revivals of Christianity is brought up by the charitable work of missionaries of many monks. In 18th century revival of Age of Enlightenment is countered by Methodist revival which is brought up in England by John Wesley, Charles Wesley and George Whitefield. Revival of First Great Awakening with a motive of salvation taught by preachers has left the impact over American colonies in between 1730-1740. Series of Methodist revivalists do campaigns in 18th century in England to influence over population of the land. Revival movements of 19th century deeply influence many of the people instead of caste, colour, religions, poor or rich not only in England or America but also in other parts of the world. In between 1858-59 the revival movement brought up by Great Awakening influences Australia which brings many changes and motivates people for spiritual learning. In between 1800-1850, Second Great Awakening, 1850-1900, Third Great Awakening, revival movement in Britain and Ireland and in 20th century after 1904 the final movement of Great Awakening are also considered as Holiness Movements bring spiritual evolution about Holy Spirit in many of the countries including Australia. Christian revival of world has left the deep mark of development of churches and religious people around us. This teaches many more moral things for our benefit. Again such movements are made by people with activeness for the purpose of learning. Revival in Sarsara is not a new concept. The name expresses multiple meanings in many ways. The word, ‘Sarasara,’ mainly follows the principles of Sanskrit language although we find many meanings of this in other languages. In Persian Sara means pure and Sara means excellent. As per Persian language Sara-sara refers to a pure and excellent place where all required amenities are available according to village administrative systems. Also this word expresses the meaning for a pure and excellent leader or person. The history of Sarsara dates back to ancient period. At different time period movements of Viashnavas, Shaivas, Shaktas and many more along with Jainas monks and Buddhist monks have brought revival for spiritualism as per their own doctrines during the crisis of values here. Broken rock edicts and ancient broken statues of different deities found from Sarsara, which are expected to be of time period of 322 BC to 2 nd Century AD, recently decorate the boundary of constructive temple of Lord Shiva. There are several marks found among these have similarities with many of the arts of Maurya Empire (322-185 BC). During the spread of kingdom of Gandawana, famous queen named

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Rani Durgavati (1524-1564) brings the kingdom of Bonai under her and Sarsara becomes a part of this empire for long time. At this period Sarsara is leaded by land-lord rulers called zamindaras of tribal origin of Gond community. During this time tribal ruling has brought new direction in settlement of tribal faiths and revival of tribal religion has also focused to protect the humanity. During British Raj (1858) travelling of missionaries to the region of Chota-Nagpur and to Bonai leaves the mark of social service of Christians mainly in the region of Gurundia and Sarsara. The Third Great Awakening in England also pours impact in India and Sarsara gets the benefit of revival moment of Christians. Being excellent in multi cultured social system Sarsara has smoothly maintained communal harmony with strong administrative system with respect for each other from ancient period to this modern age. This is such a place which has got the beloved touches of multi-revival approaches of Hindus, Christians, Muslims, Shikhs, Buddhists and Jainas along with varieties of tribal and traditional people. Interest is seen for spiritual education and material education with great hope which wonders many of the visitors. The foot print of ancient education has fallen in Sarsara by holy Buddhist monks during their visit to the place. However establishment of modern school for education is the effort of former land lord, Sj. Pramod Chandra Singdandpat and his consort Smt. Punyavati Singdandapat along with the people of Sarsara and Balang. It is said by the people that Punyavati with her spiritual vision of doing virtuous works has motivated her husband for donations of wealth and land for establishment of school of learning and for other developments of the region like preservation of forest resources, protection of soil from erosion, preservation of water, prevention of health, food rights for the poor, protection of domestic animal resources and many more. The practice of daily prayers in the religious institutions at morning and evening called Satsanga gives the thrilling of spiritual life. Daily worship at temples like temple of Lord Swapneswara, temple of Lord Vamshidhara and Lord Jagannath temple spread the fragrance of revival of spirituality. The weekly market brings the destination for better marketing of forest products including cereal grains like paddy, wheat, maize etc. This place is famous for exporting mango to outer places. Sarsara is not only surrounded by beautiful sceneries of mountains, forests and streams around but also stands with courage of spirituality. Sarsara belongs to Bonai subdivision of Sundargarh district in the Indian state of Odisha. This village is near about 117 kilometres far from district head quarter and 22 kilometres far from sub-divisional heard quarter Bonai, which is situated in coordinates with latitude 21.750 N and longitude 84.970 E. Scenic beauty of Sarsara attracts the attention of many with special rhythm of spiritual songs of nature. This speaks about the message of revival of new period with respect to spiritual management as per necessity of time in this modern world. At this modern age revival of spirituality is highly essential for development of children and youth to establish ethics and values among them. Intellectuals of world today think very deeply about this issue and turn faces to study about spirituality and management simultaneously from various corners. IV. Importance of the study Existence of civilization passes through successive time periods and faces lots of changes with obstacles and favours. Due to the long journey on the surface of earth gradually the status of civilization degrades due to the degradation of qualities of human beings which is well observed by the diminishing of values and ethics in society. Such situation creates disturbance in society and life becomes puzzle oriented. Anxiety, stress and many negative tendencies grow in the minds of many human individuals. They suffer and their negative vibrations which enter frequently in to the environment make them sad and they feel the sorrows and pain. Other creatures also are affected by such vibrations along with people of other regions due to impurities and negative tendencies. During instability it becomes very much necessary to establish stability by revival of true qualities and true education to the people as per demand of time. It signifies that there is importance of such study about revival of re-establishment of true and original values of human souls through spiritual teachings and spiritual awareness. We need to analyse the different factors and reform them in such a manner that these will become more valuable for learning purpose. Humanity is the essence of people through which they feel and co-operate each other and live happily in this world through different colonial systems and civilizations. Awakening with spirituality is a natural tendency of human individuals. They knowingly or unknowingly search for happiness, prosperity, peace, bliss and many more things which are super natural. But exactly they do not get these things rather they compute each other for acquiring material things and many matters motivate them. Matters attract attention of people. Due to this attraction human beings start forgetting their own identity and fall in illusionary trapping. It originates clumsiness in living. Competition for material grasping originates conflict among two individuals or two groups of people. In modern world inhuman activities are growing rapidly in many countries due to this reason. For resolution of such problems we need to educate people with beneficial principles of nature to revive them for stable living with harmony and integrity. So such study comes in mind to learn many more about revival with respect to spirituality. Now let us fix our visions about learning of management principles from this study and understand them properly for implementation in life for longevity of humanity. A. Characteristics of Human souls as essence of humanity drawn from Sarsara:Single word Sarsara represents multiple meanings as it is originated from Sanskrit. This is very much related to original qualities of human beings. In each step this teaches to rectify and remember the original nature of

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human soul to each individual. Here we focus in each meaning which represents the soul’s each quality. Let us interpret all of them to become clear about these. Definitely these bring change in mind on learning. A.1. Soul consciousness: - Sara indicates that first a human being is a soul, the energy of consciousness inside human body. So, we should feel that we all are souls of equal nature. We all are equal in size but the appearances of our bodies differ in size and colour, ordure and posture, nationality and religion, race and caste, rich and poor etc. The dignities of various bodies go away while we leave them on the bed of death and these decompose in soil. While we realize soul consciousness we forget about differences among bodies with gender and feel the equality among all. This teaches us to feel all human beings as our own brothers and sisters around the world and universal brotherhood is achieved easily. Sara represents the universal brotherhood in unity. Remembrance of soul consciousness empowers us from inside and gives chance to understand meaning of life. A.2. Rights of true knowledge: - Sarsara satisfies the meaning with awareness of our rights of true knowledge about spirituality and materials available in different forms of matter around us. There is no difference among all in method of perceptions but perceptions of each person differ a lot with activities. Understanding this we should not bring any obstacles in learning and acquiring of knowledge for others. We should bring maximum scope for them for gaining knowledge and distribute knowledge on the basis of their learning and perceptions. A.3. Charming and lovely: - Soul expresses the quality of charming and remains in lovely state. Sarsara expresses the same and reminds us to remember this quality always as we are eternally charming and lovely. A.4. Love and kindness: - These are two precious qualities of soul. A soul likes to give love and likes to receive kindness from others. A soul free from vices is not so cruel towards others and gives love and shows kindness automatically while vice dominated human being expresses arrogance and cruelty. But a wise soul shows kindness and gives love to a cruel man even in critical situations with stability and unlimited ability. A.5. Tolerance and forgiveness: - While soul remembers his originality then he tolerates all the naturally coming obstacles and manmade troubles. He forgives the trouble creators, enemies and the persons who cause harm to him and never takes revenge knowing this as sin. A.6. Peacefulness and politeness: - Originally soul is peaceful. This is one eternal and natural quality of human soul. This is either forgotten or suppressed while body consciousness increases and a soul thinks him as a human body. Sarsara says soul is peaceful and always we should remember this. Peacefulness automatically expresses the politeness. B. Management perspectives drawn from sub-areas and streets of Sarsara:B.1. Kaaputikraa - Destroyer of impolite or uncivil qualities: - Kaapu means impolite or uncivil while Tikra means the destroyer. Growing rates of uncivil qualities among human beings break the strength of unity and integrity of society. So it is essential to destroy such unfair qualities through spiritual knowledge for stability of society. Sarsara destroys the impoliteness and brings the charm of humanity. B.2. Kuramdihi - Establisher of strong administration: - Society needs the strong and well managed administration which is well realized by people. Sarsara focuses on strong administration for real development including, social, political, cultural, economical, and spiritual and many more. B.3 Phikaldihi - Thinking, planning and organizing: - Well established administration thinks properly before taking any step for development, properly plans and organizes the same in effective manner. Sarsara does the same and speaks about these important management roles. B.4. Mundasahi - public relation and social welfare: - In any village or town or country many types of people of different castes and communities including of different religions stay. Authority needs to have public relation among them and the relationship is also maintained among them with the motive of social welfare to justify the social need with communal harmony. Sarsara gives strong attention on public relation and social welfare. B.5. Talsahi - Management of lower channels with cooperation, coordination and control: - This is the duty of authority or administration to control, cooperate and coordinate the entire social mass from top to grass root level to avoid inferiority and superiority with equal justice. Sarsara manages the lower channels properly. B.6. Damaadihi - Conflict resolution and handling of instable situation: - Conflicts and instable situations arise due to mismatching of ideas in between two persons of different motives, or in between two or more groups of people due to diverse interests. While conflict increases it gives rise to breakage of communal harmony. So it is very much essential to resolute the conflicts, avoid and remove out instable situations. Sarsara does the same with more tricks and wonderful ways.

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V.

Discussion

There are many examples in history of periodic revival during diminishing humanity. In such situation spirituality brings change as per efforts of the spiritual leaders around the world. It is necessary to establish peace and harmony, values and ethics, morality and humanity during such crisis. Realization of reestablishment of human qualities needs special attention for studying such movements of different periods for spreading the essence of study for other parts of the world. Main focus here is that to obtain the recognition of human soul through spiritual knowledge and spiritual practices. Building of character of children and youth is a big issue as they are running behind material grasping to acquire matters and material happiness and forgetting the path of righteousness. Many of them have neglected to understand true ambition of life and birth. Unnecessary competition of acquiring matters has resulted unrighteous practices and selfishness among teenagers and youth today including some of the senior persons. During such rapid degradation it is necessary to educate them with necessary requirements for becoming more aware about spirituality to manage them and surrounding with courage and effort. Beloved God, the father says to be instant effort maker to realize the angelic form of being light and might. This expresses the advice to become soul consciousness in all regards and to leave body consciousness. Matters do not give permanent happiness. On realization of soul consciousness human beings feel the importance of humanity. Establishment of human values and spiritual values only bring new direction in transformation of world. That is way revival of spirituality manages human resources nicely. VI.

Conclusion

This study reveals out the importance of a particular place and its role in revival of human affairs with instant efforts of the leaders of the region. Spiritual awareness brings new direction in shaping humanity and human affairs with love and affection. Spirituality teaches to become more kind towards others in all conditions and not to give pain to others. The motive of spirituality is to achieve higher order of life that would be pleasing to other in all occasions. After having this study we can say in strength that this definitely gives benefit to the authorities and organizations to aware about righteous practice in workplace and motivates workforce with greater purpose. For children, students and youth this helps in character building and personality development. For common people this helps in understanding life, society and environment and this increases helping nature among them. For all persons including managers and employees this guides them giving sufficient knowledge for taking instant decisions at workplace, to increase patience, to reduce stress of workload, to think well, plan, organize, coordinate, cooperate, control and manage well their affairs for developmental works. Revival of spirituality brings new charm in faces of human individuals. The Holy Bible reminds about the original qualities of spirit with true statement. Bible verse says, “But the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self control; against such things there is no law. (Galatians 5:22-23, English Standard Version, the Holy Bible) References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]

Aadipitaa Avyakt BapDada. “Avyakt Murli, 31.12.2011.” Brahma Kumaris Murlis, Avyakt Murlis 2011-12.p 1. Ackrill, J.L. “Aristotle: The Philosopher.” Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1981. Aurobinda, Shri. “The Life Divine.” Shri Aurobinda Ashram, 2001, pp 13-24, 511-610, 1113-1149. ISBN 8170586399 Bhupala, Badden. Rao, E. Nageswar.(Translator). “Sumati Satakamu.” C.P Brown Academy-The Alpha Foundation, Hyderabad, pp 9-13. Bishop, Elizabeth. “One Art: Letters.” Robert Giroux (Editor), Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995, pp 31-37, 68-79, 513-610. ISBN 0374524459 Brun, Jean. “Socrates.” Presses universitaires de France, pp 37-53. ISBN 2-13-035620-6 “About Sundargarh District.” District portal Sundargarh, Govt. of Odisha. Available at http://www.ordistricts.nic.in/district_profile/aboutus.php Duigang, B. “The 100 most influential Philosophers of all time.” The Rosen Publishing group, pp 31-34. Edwards, Jonathan. (C. Geon, editor) “The Great Awakening: A Faithful Narrative Collected contemporary comments and letters.” 1972, Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01437-6 Frost, Robert. “(a) A Boundless Moment (b) A Cliff Dwelling.” Available at http://www.poemhunter.com/robert-frost/ Frost, Robert. “The Road not Taken and Other poems.” Dover Publications Inc., 1993, pp23-27, 51-55. ISBN 0486275507 Heine, Harry. “Buch der Lieder.” Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg, 1827, pp 45-56. “Helen Adam Biography.” Scottish Poetry Library, Edinburg. Available at http://www.scottishpoetrylibrary.org.uk/poetry/poets/helen-adam Kautilya. “The Arthashastra.” Penguin Books India, 1992, pp 23-27, 617-712, 861-873. Kolatch, Alfred J. “The comprehensive dictionary of English and Hebrew.” P 463. Konishi,Jinichi. “A History of Japanese Literature: the archaic and ancient Ages.” Princeton University Press, 1984, pp 209-324. Mahakul, Pintu. “The Indian Tribals: The Soul of the Soil.” Prabhat Publication, Berhampur, 2009, pp 15-189. Muller, F. Max. “The Dhammapada and Sutta –nipata.” Routledge (UK) ISBN 0700715487 “The Holy Bible.” English Stndard Version, Crossway Bible, Good News Publishers, 2001. “Varshika Vivarani (Annual Report)-2013.” Sarsara U.G.U.P. School, Sarsara, Bonai, Sundargarh, 2013, pp 1-4. Veevers, J.J. Tiwari R.C. “Gondwana-Master Basin of Peninsular India Between Tethys and the interior of the Gondwanaland Province of Pangea.” Geological Society of America, 1995 pp 2-17. ISBN 0-8137-1187-8

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Art or Avant-garde – A reading of Jack Kerouac’s on the Road A.Mathini Assistant Professor, Department of English SCSVMV University, Enathur, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu 631561, India Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to analyse the novel On the Road as a piece of Literature detailed analysis has been done to understand the inherent value of the text. The novel is merely considered as a travelogue by the critics but the aim of this analysis it to look at the text from different perspective to appreciate the innate value of the text.

During the post-war period the struggle between marginal and mainstream literature found importance. With it began a unique period in literary and cultural history that challenged the humanistic grounds on which American Literature is based. Many young writers who belonged to the post-war period started to write about the destruction of the war. Especially in America, writers of postwar period started to celebrate the freedom of marginality particularly in the light of growing materialism and technological progress. In their novels outcastes of society such as criminals, suicides, drunkards found sympathetic treatment. Attention was focused on their problems and society was seen as responsible for their worse conditions. In their novels, they wrote about drug use, obsessive wandering and violence that opposed mainstream culture and narrative. These writings are called Underground Writings. The Underground Writings inspired many because it worked towards self-liberation and opposed all moral codes and conditions through which they wanted to lead a new liberated life, a life without any rules and restrictions. The powerlessness of the individual in this vast and complex society is a major theme in these writings. These Underground Writings resisted the technological, military, industrial and political forces and asserted the human potential in desperate acts of freedom. The Underground Writers wrote about the hidden world provided an insight into the secret world of forbidden drugs. These writers wanted to establish an alternative community that many felt had been destroyed by the Second World War. These narratives reflected their attempts to recover a loss of potential or to channelize their energies into alternative social and to abandon it constraints in order to embrace new experiences. One of the important of these underground writings is the Beat Movement. The important aspect of the Beat Movement is that it championed all forms of social, sexual and spiritual liberation. It celebrated risk and individuality and opposed materialistic society and its established orders. The Beat Generation not only rejected the established order, but also insisted people to turn to the distant past and seek values that were radical and primitive. According to Beats, the traditional forms were not adequate to express post-war America. For them the immediate experience is superior to derivative experience. They believed that America had become a spiritual wasteland, a land of suppression and repression so certain measures were needed to overcome the restrictions placed on the individual. They believed that the individuality was not to be found in corporate society or middle class suburban but must be found in the outcast, marginal people, thieves and dropouts. Their main project was to project the world of outcasts in the most intimate detail. Such intimate identification with the outcaste of society was not something that other artists could do. Among the artistic group with which they connected the Beats were unique establishing the importance of a radical lifestyle as one element in the tradition of the individual spirit. The Beat Writers suggested that in a world characterized by control systems, individuals could still matter. For the Beats the individuals were very important and they gave importance to individuality in most of their writings. Beat Literature is best represented by the works of novelists like Jack Kerouac who is considered as “King of Beats”. Jack Kerouac is the chief literary figure of the Beat Movement because he is the spokesperson of the movement. He coined the world “beat” to describe the then beaten down condition of the people. What

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became apparent in all Beat writings was the belief that the alternative community of like-minded souls who felt alienated from mainstream society should come together to fight against the existing norms. All Beat Writings deal with the search of liberation and affirmation of life. These writes sought a revolution of the soul a cultural revival, not a political revival. Most of the Beat novels were autobiographical in character, innovative in prose style and the author’s personal experiences are transferred into hero’s experiences of the novel. They were not interested in literary forms and had an extraordinary attraction for the nature of language in literary art and quality of expression to be expressed like Coleridge and Wordsworth, the Beats promoted the use of language of ordinary men. On the Road is not only the most popular novel by Jack Kerouac but also the best known and widely read novel of the Beat Generation. The novel is based on cross-country trips that Kerouac took during the late 1940’s with his friend Neal Cassady. This novel was published in 1957. Many critics have analysed On the Road as “Road Literature” or “Travelogue”. Even though it has some features of a travelogue it cannot be simply considered as a travelogue or Road Literature. In addition to this it is a best example for Kerouac’s use of “Spontaneous Prose Method”, one can also analyse this novel as an “Episodic Tale”. It can be analyzed by using “Part and Whole Technique” and also by using Poe’s theory of “The Philosphy of Composition”. The main theme of the novel is the search for identity and the belief on the road. The act of going on the road is a kind of protest, turning against society and its conventional moral codes. This turning against society is a result of the Second World War. The World War psychologically affected the youth and they wanted to identify themselves somewhere, somehow. This is reflected in Kerouac’s novels. The search for self and individuality is the major theme in most of his novels. The Travel Literature is very subjective in nature because it includes personal thoughts with facts about the particular place, recommendations for places, amusing experiences and misadventures of the author. Many critics regarded On the Road as a travelogue since it has some of the features of Travel Literature. Travel Literature must not be confused with travel guides. Travel guides usually give information about a particular country, city or region. Almost after fifty years of publication of On the Road, a re-reading of the novel is necessary, since in the recent review of Time magazine, On the Road makes a place in all time 100 top novels list. In Volume 61 of Contemporary Literary Criticism Frederick Feied states that, “In a sense, On the Road is a twentieth-century restatement of The Pilgrims Progress. Sal and Dean are on the road, and the road is their life. Like Christian and Faithful their goal is celestial city….” Like The Pilgrims Progress which was written by John Bunyan which deals with the journey of Christian, On the Road also deals with the journey of Dean and Sal. They undertake this journey in search of self and identity. But On the Road is considered as a travelogue since it is written by bohemian author. Kerouac is an underestimated writer since he belongs to a group called the Beat Movement which is considered as a rebellious movement. Due to these reasons critics rejected On the Road as a travelogue without understanding the value of the author and the novel. Many failed to understand that Kerouac mirrors American life and he criticizes the middle class values in his novel. They never realised that it is not someone’s story but their own story. Since it makes a place among the hundred top novels critics began to analyze the deeper relevance and implication of the text. Now, he is widely recognized as an important contributor to American literature. So a re-reading of the novel is necessary in order to prove that it is not merely a travelogue. The novel is divided into five parts. Sal and Dean play a major in the novel. The important aspects of the first part of the novel are the search for identity and the belief in the West. This novel reflects the American’s fascination with road travel. This novel reflects their belief in the West, which appears as a ‘Promising Land’. In the second part Sal simply responds to Dean’s invitation to travel. At the end of each trip Dean does not grow in the way Sal does. In the third part Sal gains the vision about life and it dominates the fourth part. Many critics view On the Road as a travelogue because it has some of the features of a travelogue. The description of landscape, the challenges faced by Dean and Sal, the conditions of toads, the speed, miles they covered and time- everything is carefully described by Kerouac which is a distinct feature of the Beat Movement. Kerouac is at his best in describing, smells, sounds, sights and his eye misses very little and his ears is acute to every sound. They fail to understand to distinct features of On the Road and the deeper implications of the text. Many critics reject this method as pointless, formless. For him spontaneity is a quality of feeling and not of writing. It is a matter of saying whatever comes to one’s mind in any order one feels like saying it. The

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right words are not important but the first word. A word from ‘life’ rather than ‘literature’, a word from ‘heart’ rather than ‘brain’. On the Road is a best example, which depicts the loss of American values. This book is Kerouac’s complaint against the loss of old America, which is celebrated by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman and Thomas Wolfe. Travelling on the road is both escaping from the conventional society and nature. Kerouac felt that traditional forms are not adequate to express the decayed condition of post-war America. Depressed by the Second World War and the resulting established system they wanted to escape form society and wanted to settle down some where somehow. They found travelling as an escape from the established order and a way to depress their soul to settle somewhere. So, in this novel, Sal and Dean travel all over America to find a place to settle. This reflects their quest for liberty and individuality. Since the novel represents the true picture of postwar America and their fascination for travel it cannot not be merely treated as a travelogue. Home in Missoula, Home in Truckee, Ain’t no Home for me. (On the Road, p-98) Sal never finds his place and identity in this novel. His search continues in the novel. He achieves nothing. In reality, this search of Sal for identity is the search of Kerouac. It is not only the search of Kerouac but it is the search of post- war youth of America. This search for identity and self is there in every novel of Kerouac. In On the Road the road acts as a symbol of search for Sal Paradise. The modes may be different but the search is there in every novel. When the novel was published thousands of the people believed that it was their story and On the Road was their book. In this novel Kerouac mirrors the life of the people of post-war America so it cannot be rejected as a travelogue. So the re-reading of the novel is necessary to understand the relevance of the text. The re-reading is also necessary to understand the importance of Kerouac as a writer and the text as an American classic. Kerouac works were mainly rejected by the critics as formless, pointless and mere autobiographical ramblings. The prejudice about the Beat movement led critics to reject the works of Jack Kerouac without understanding its deeper aspects. On the Road more than any other work of Jack Kerouac represents the most vivid picture of post-war America. This work brought out values and life-style of post-war youth. While it was published, it triggered the imagination of many young people and they realized that it was their story. But at the same time they failed to realize that Kerouac just mirrored the true picture of their society in the novel. Another reason for its rejection may be because he broke all the conventional forms of writing and presented the real picture of American society. So it is hard for the critics to digest this reality since everyone believed that America is a civilized land. The re-reading of the novel reveals the deeper values in the novel. It is a kind of research which seems to have created a space where writers like Jack Kerouac who was earlier adored of being wild and sensational and chastised for being pointless and formless are now being read with more seriousness. Academic interest and research on a writer of such a magnitude like Jack Kerouac will only sensitize individuals to literature and literary values. He definitely deserves a scholarly treatment. He is not merely the “King of Beat Generation” he is of all times. Beat Writers not only reflected the picture of post-war America, they reflected the condition of America in their works, they celebrated nature and the life of common man. So in the post-global world there is loss of values, morals and aesthetic pleasure. So in the post-global world, reading the works of Beat Writers with an understanding of their intrinsic worth is needed to fill the space. References [1] Kerouac, Jack “,On the road”, Times Mirrora; New American Library,1957. [2] French, Warron, “Jack Kerouac”, Boston: Twayne Publishers,1986. [3] Hilfer, Tony, “American Fiction Since 1940”, London: Longman,1992. [4] Kennedy, Coral, “Jack Kerouac” Modern American Literature 2 (1999): 125- 128 [5] Newhouse, Thomas, “The Beat Generation and the Popular Novel in the United States 1945-1970”, London: McFarlan Company,2000.

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Spread of Islam in Africa Javad Haghnavaz Department of Islamic Thoughts faculty, Jolfa Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jolfa, Iran Abstract: Africa was the first continent, outside of Arabia that Islam spread into in the early 7th century. Almost one-third of the world's Muslim population resides in this continent. Muslims crossed current Djibouti and Eritrea to seek refuge in current Ethiopia during the Hijarat. Most Muslims in Africa are Sunni or Sufi the complexity of Islam in Africa is revealed in the various schools of thought, traditions, and voices in many African countries. African Islam is not static and is constantly being reshaped by prevalent social, economic and political conditions. Generally Islam in Africa often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems forming Africa's own orthodoxies. It was estimated in 2002 that Muslims constitute 45% of the population of Africa. Islam has a large presence in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Swahili Coast, and much of West Africa, with minority but significant immigrant populations in South Africa. Key words: Islam, Islamic History, Islamic Civilization, Islam in Africa, Islam in South Africa. I. Introduction: The history of Islam concerns the religion of Islam and its adherents, Muslims. Muslim is an Arabic word meaning one who submits to God. Muslims and their religion have greatly impacted the political, economic and military history of the Old World, especially the Middle East, where its roots lie. Though it is believed by nonMuslims to have originated in Mecca and Medina, Muslims believe that the religion of Islam has been present since the time of the prophet Adam. The Islamic world expanded to include people of the Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization. In pre-Islamic Arabia, Arab people lived on the Arabian Plate [5]. In the south of Hedjaz (principal religious and commercial center of post-classical Arabia) the Arabic tribe of Quraysh (Adnani Arabs) to which Muhammad belonged, had been in existence. Near Mecca the tribe was increasing in power. The Quraysh were the guardians of the Kaaba within the town of Mecca and was the dominant tribe of Mecca upon the appearance of Islam [12]. The Kaaba, at the time, was used as an important pagan shrine. It brought revenues to Mecca because of the multitude of pilgrims that it attracted. Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim tribe of the Quraysh clan a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe, descended from Khuzaimah and derived its inheritance from the Khuza'imah (House of Khuza'a) [4]. A century after the death of last Islamic prophet Muhammad the Islamic empire extended from Spain in the west to Indus in the east. The subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, Ajuuraan, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India and Safavids in Persia and Ottomans were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world [8]. The Islamic civilization gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors, nurses and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. Technology flourished; there was investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals and the importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace [6]. In the later Middle Ages destructive Mongol invasions from the East and the loss of population in the Black Death greatly weakened the traditional centre of the Islamic world stretching from Persia to Egypt and the Ottoman Empire was able to conquer most Arabicspeaking areas creating an Islamic world power again although one that was unable to master the challenges of the Early Modern period. Later in modern history (18th and 19th centuries) many Islamic regions fell under the influence of European Great powers. Although affected by ideologies such as socialism and secularism during much of the 20th century the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues intensified during the early 21st century [10]. Global interests in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization changed the type of Islamic influence on the contemporary world. In the contemporary period a set of ideologies holding interpretations of Islamic texts that advocate the unification of religion and state has spread, but the ideology has been criticized. Islam has been in Africa for so long since its genesis on the Arabian peninsula that some scholars have argued that it is a traditional African religion [9]. Although the majority of Muslims in Africa are Sunni or Sufi the complexity of Islam in Africa is revealed in the various schools of thought, traditions, and voices that constantly contend for dominance in many African countries.

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Islam in Africa is not static and is constantly being reshaped by prevalent social economic and political conditions [3]. Islam in Africa is often adapted to local cultural contexts and belief systems forming the continent's own orthodoxies. Africans have generally appropriated Islam in both more inclusive ways, or in the more radical ways, as with the Almoravid movement. Additionally Islam in Africa has both local and global dimensions [1]. On the local level experts assert that Muslims (including African Muslims) operate with considerable autonomy and do not have an international organization that regulates their religious practices. This fact accounts for the differences and varieties in Islamic practices throughout the African continent. On the global level Muslims in Africa are also part of the ummah or worldwide Islamic community and follow global issues and current events that affect the Muslim world with keen interest. With globalization and new initiatives in information technology Muslims in Africa have developed and maintained close connections with the wider Muslim world [12]. II. Islam in Africa: The presence of Islam in Africa can be traced to the seventh century when the prophet Muhammad advised a number of his early disciples, who were facing persecution by the pre-Islamic inhabitants of the Mecca to seek refuge across the Red Sea at the court of Axum in Zeila under the rule of al-Najashi. In the Muslim tradition this event is known as the first hijrah or migration. These first Muslim migrants provided Islam with its first major triumph and the coastline of Eritrea became the first safe haven for Muslims and the first place Islam would be practiced outside of the Arabian Peninsula. Seven years after the death of Muhammad (in 639 AD) the Arabs advanced toward Africa and within two generations Islam had expanded across the Horn of Africa and North Africa. In the following centuries, the consolidation of Muslim trading networks connected by lineage trade, and Sufi brotherhoods had reached a crescendo in West Africa enabling Muslims to wield tremendous political influence and power. During the reign of Umar II the then governor of Africa Ismail ibn Abdullah was said to have won the Berbers to Islam by his just administration. Other early notable missionaries include Abdallah ibn Yasin who started a movement which caused thousands of Berbers to accept Islam [11]. Similarly, in the Swahili coast Islam made its way inland - spreading at the expense of traditional African religions. This expansion of Islam in Africa not only led to the formation of new communities in Africa but it also reconfigured existing African communities and empires to be based on Islamic models. Indeed in the middle of the eleventh century the Kanem Empire whose influence extended into Sudan, converted to Islam. At the same time but more toward West Africa the reigning ruler of the Bornu Empire embraced Islam [13]. As these kingdoms adopted Islam, its populace thereafter devotedly followed suit. In praising the Africans' zealousness to Islam, the fourteenth century explorer Ibn Battuta stated that mosques were so crowded on Fridays that unless one went very early it was impossible to find a place to sit. III. Islam in South Africa: Islam in South Africa is a minority religion practiced by less than 1.5% of the total population, according to estimates. Islam in South Africa has grown in three phases. The first phase brought the earliest Muslims as part of the involuntary migration of slaves political prisoners and political exiles from Africa and Asia (mainly from Indonesian Archipelago) that lasted from about 1652 to the mid-1800s. The second phase was the arrival of Indians as indentured laborers to work in the sugar-cane fields in Natal between 1860 and 1868 and again from 1874 to 1911. Of the approximately 176,000 Indians of all faiths who were transported to the Natal province, almost 7-10% of the first shipment were Muslims [2]. The third phase has been marked- post apartheid – by the wave of African Muslims that have arrived on the shores and borders of South Africa. Recent figures put the number at approximately at 75-100 000. Added to this are a considerable number of Muslims from the Indo-Pak subcontinent that have arrived as economic migrants. The first recorded arrival of free Muslims known as Mardyckers is in 1658. Mardycka or Maredhika implies freedom. The Mardyckers were people from Amboyna in the southern Moluccas and were brought to the Cape in order to defend the newly established settlement against the indigenous people and also to provide labour in the same way that they had been employed at home first by the Portuguese and later by the Dutch in Amboyna. Jan Van Riebeeck had requested that the Mardyckers be sent to the Cape as a labour force. The Mardyckers were prohibited from openly practising their religion Islam. This was in accordance with the Statute of India (drafted by Van Dieman in 1642) which stated in one of its placaats. No one shall trouble the Amboinese about their religion or annoy them so long as they do not practise in public or venture to propagate it amongst Christians and heathens. Offenders to be punished with death, but should there be amongst them those who had been drawn to God to become Christians, they were not to be prevented from joining Christian churches. The same Placaat was re-issued on 23 August 1657 by Governor John Maetsuycker probably in anticipation of the advent of the Mardyckers to the Cape of Good Hope. The Placaat governed the Cape as part of the Dutch Colonial Empire. During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century the Dutch continued to exile Muslim leaders from Dutch East Indies to the Cape. 1667 saw the arrival of

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first Muslim political exiles banished by the Dutch to the Cape. These political exiles or Orang Cayen were Muslim men of wealth and influence who were banished to the Cape from their homeland in the East because the Dutch feared them as a threat to their political and economic hegemony. The first political exiles were the rulers of Sumatra. They were Sheikh Abdurahman Matabe Shah and Sheikh Mahmood. Both were buried in Constantia. From the very outset the Cape authorities accommodated the exiles away from Cape Town as they feared the exiles would escape [11]. A tomb for these political exiles has been erected on Islam Hill in Constantia in the Cape. Sheikh Abdurahman Matebe Shah used his exile to consolidate the teaching of Islam among slaves in the Cape. The next Orang Cayen was Sheikh Yusuf of Bantam who arrived on board 'De Voetboog on 2 April 1694 along with his family and followers. They were housed on a farm in Zandvleit near the mouth of the Eerste River in the Cape far from Cape Town on 14 June 1694. The Company's attempt to isolate Shaykh Yusuf at Zandvleit did not succeed. On the contrary Zandvleit turned out to be the rallying point for fugitive slaves and other exiles from the East. It was here that the first cohesive Muslim community in South Africa was established. Since the Sheikh and his followers hailed from Macassar the district around Zandvleit is still known today as Macassar. Sa‘id Alowie (Sayyid Alawi) popularly known as Tuan Sa‘id of Mocca in Yemen, Arabia arrived at the Cape in 1744 with Hadjie Matarim [14]. They were banished to the Cape by the Dutch and were incarcerated on Robben Island. On his release from Robben Island Tuan Sa'id settled at the Cape where he worked as a police constable - an occupation which gave him ample opportunities for visiting slave quarters at night to teach. Tuan Sa‘id is known for his active Da'wah (missionary endeavor) amongst the slaves in the Slave Lodge. He is generally regarded as the first official imam of the Cape Muslims. In 1767 Prince Abdullah Kadi Abu Salaam of Tidore, Indonesia, was exiled to the Cape. He wrote a copy of the Quran from memory during his incarceration and the volume is still preserved in Cape Town. He was released from jail in 1793 and establish a madrasah or Islamic school the same year. It is the first madrasah in the country and extremely popular among the slaves and the Free Black community. It played an important role in converting many slaves to Islam. It was also at this madrasah that the literary teaching of Arabic-Afrikaans emerged. It was through his work at the madrasah that he gained the appellation Tuan Guru, meaning mister teacher. In 1793 the growth of the community encouraged Cape Town's Muslims to petition the VOC for permission to build a mosque [4]. Tuan Guru became the first imam of the first mosque established at the Cape. Islam was a popular religion among the slaves its tradition of teaching enabled literate slaves to gain better positions in their masters' households and the religion taught its followers to treat their own slaves well. IV. Arrival of Indian Muslims: In 1800s there were two waves of Muslims that emigrated to South Africa from India. The first began with a wave of immigration by indentured labourers from South India in 1860s. These labourers were brought to South Africa by the British. 7-10% of these labourers were Muslim. The second wave of immigrants were merchants or traders (Passenger Indians) that arrived from North India and settled in Natal, the Transvaal and the Cape. The first mosque in Natal, Jumuah Musjid was built in Grey Street in Durban in 1881. By 1911 152,641 Indians had come to Natal. Since South Africa became a democracy in 1994 there has been a growing number of Muslim migrants from South Asia and North Africa; however, their numbers are fairly low. Most of the Muslims are urban dwellers and thus live in or near Cape Town, Durban Port Elizabeth East London Kimberley Pretoria or Johannesburg. According to converts quoted by the Christian Science Monitor, their biggest reason for the dramatic rise in Islam is that the religion is a refuge from sex AIDS alcoholism and domestic violence that is rampant in the black townships where the greatest rates of conversions are seen [10]. It is estimated that Islam is the largest religion of conversion in South Africa. Islam grew by sixfold in thirteen years during the time from 1991 to 2004. Even though organizations such as IPCI the Islamic Dawah Movement of South Africa and the Africa Muslim Agency have been eager to proselytize in the region there have been other civic organizations such as the MYMSA and the Call of Islam who considered other approaches to weave Islam into the social fabric of South Africa as a more significant way of making the Muslims presence conspicuous. According Michael Mumisa a researcher and writer on African Islam there has been an increase in the number of black South Africans converting to Islam particularly among the women and the youth. He believes that for some of the youth and women who were schooled in the politics of South African resistance and confrontation with the security forces of the former Apartheid state the acceptance of Islam has become part of a radical rejection of a society based on Christian principles which are seen as having been responsible for establishing and promoting the Apartheid doctrine through the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa. The influence of the radical ideas espoused by Malcolm X is very evident among South African Muslims of all races. Branches of the Nation of Islam are already established in South Africa. Louis Farrakhan paid a visit to South Africa and was received by President Nelson Mandela and African Muslim communities. Another Reason has been the presence of a growing Number of Sufi Orders and Groups. Amongst these is the Murabitun a group that has a strong following in Spain [6]. When the first democratic elections took place in April 1994 two Muslim parties emerged, the Africa Muslim Party and the Islamic Party. The AMP contested the National

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Assembly as well as the provincial legislature and the IP contested only the Western Cape provincial legislature. Neither party was able to secure seats in either legislature. V. Prominent Muslims in South Africa: In addition to Cabinet ministers there are a number of Members of Parliament as well as councillors in the various provinces. The former Western Cape premier, Ebrahim Rasool is Muslim (Rasool is currently serving as South Africa's Ambassador to the United States of America). Imam Hassan Solomon (Raham) was a Member of Parliament from 1994 until his death in 2009. During the struggle for liberation, Imam found himself being asked by many communities to preach even in churches. He joined the United Democratic Front, seen by many as a front for the banned African National Congress (ANC). During his years in exile in Saudi Arabia Imam Solomon furthered his Islamic education but was always available to enlighten people on the situation in South Africa. Imam Solomon returned to South Africa in 1992 and took up a seat in the National Assembly in Parliament following the first democratic elections in 1994. He served Parliament until his death in 2009 [1]. Hazrat Sheikh Ahmed Badsha Peer was a highly respected Sufi. He arrived in South Africa in 1860 as an indentured labourer and was given an honourable discharge by the colonial British authorities when he was discovered to be mystic. His tomb is at the Badsha Peer Square/Brook Street Cemetery in Durban. Abu Bakr Effendi was an Osmanli qadi who was sent in 1862 by the Ottoman sultan AbdĂźlmecid I at the request of the British Queen Victoria to the Cape of Good Hope in order to teach and assist the Muslim community of the Cape Malays. During his stay at the Cape he produced one of the first works in Afrikaans literature with his work in Arabic Afrikaans, Uiteensetting van die godsdiens. VI. South African schools of Islam: Most South African Muslims are members of the Sunni branch of Islam there are however a small number of individuals who had converted to the Shi'a school. Although they were vocal in the late 1980s and early 1990s they seem to have become part of the silent Muslim minority at the turn of the 21st century. This could be attributed to the fact that South Africa's large Sunni oriented community have not adopted a favourable and accommodating attitude towards the Shi'is and that Iran's influence had dwindled in the 1990s. Organizations such as the Jamiat ul-Ulama of the Transvaal (est. 1923) The Muslim Judicial Council (est. 1945)The jamaa of nepali Muslims whose leader is today Dr Jigme Rai and Muslim Youth Movement of South Africa (est. 1970) enjoyed a fair amount of moral and financial support from the Muslim community for their social welfare activities. The once strong Muslim Students Association of South Africa (est. 1974) which had branches on many tertiary campuses, became less vocal and thus lost its grip on student activities the MSA was thus replaced by Islamic societies that were either independent or affiliates of other Muslim organizations outside these institutions [5]. The Muslim Students Association of South Africa has recently been very active once again. The first National Muslim Students Association of South Africa Conference (first in the last 10 years) was held in Durban in January 2004. MSA representatives from all over the country met here. This was hoped to be a new future of student work in the country. There is also a recent presence of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community who established in the country in 1946. and a small community of Qur'an Alone Muslims. There is also a Sufi community. VII. Community & Interfaith Relations: The Muslim community in South Africa lives in harmony with other faith communities. This religious cohesion is most obvious in the Indian and Coloured residential areas where Muslims live amongst work with and attend school with fellow South Africans of Hindu Sikh, Buddhist, Christian Atheist and Agnostic beliefs. South African Muslims generally do not segregate themselves from people of other faiths. As per the culture in South Africa it is not uncommon for South African Muslims just like their fellow non-Muslims to shake hands hug or even kiss (in the case of close friends and distant or close family) as a greeting- even with non-mahrams. The National Interfaith Leadership Council which advises President Zuma includes former Western Cape premiere Ibrahim Rasool [3]. The Muslim community has been affected by a rise in drug abuse, particularly in Cape Town of the drug Tik crystal meth Crime and gangsterism are also visible in the poorer Muslim communities. Qur'ans are available in libraries including the National Library. During the month of Ramadan, many retail stores radio stations (public and private) publications and organisations send messages of goodwill to the local Muslim community. Many Muslim stores are closed on Eid-ul-Fitr. The majority of South African Muslim attend mixed gender public schools while some attend private (mostly Catholic or Anglican) schools where they are exempt from prayer sessions and Biblical curriculum [14]. Islamic schools also exist as well as Madrasahs. Some institutions offer short courses on Islamic teaching, while Islamic Law and Islamic finance studies are also available. Qu'ran Study groups are common and Arabic studies are available through private tutoring, or universities such as Wits University and University of the Western Cape. South Africa has also been bestowed with numerous Dar alUlums (institutes for higher Islamic learning). These institutes attract students from around the world. One

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salient feature of the Dar al-Ulums is that it teaches Islam in its pristine purity. Some famous Dar al-Ulums are, Dar al-Ulum Zakariyyah, Dar al-Ulum Azaadville, Dar al-Ulum Pretoria, Dar al-Ulum Cape Town CTIEC, Dar al-Ulum Benoni, Dar al-Ulum Newcastle, Dar al-Ulum Springs, Dar al-Ulum Isipingo, Dar al-Ulum Camperdown, Dar al-Ulum Strand [6]. VIII. Conclusion: The History of Islam in Africa and accounts of how the religion spread especially in North and the Horn of Africa have always been contentious. Head of Awqaf Africa London, Sheikh Dr. Abu-Abdullah Adelabu has written in his Movements of Islam in face of the Empires and Kingdoms in Yorubaland claims about the early arrival of Islam in the southwestern Nigeria. He seconded the Arab anthropologist Abduhu Badawi on the argument that the early Muslim missionaries had benefited their works from the fall of Kush in southern Sudan and the prosperity of the politically multicultural Abbasid period in the continent which according to him, had created several streams of migration, moving west in the mid-9th century into Sub-Saharan Africa. Adelabu pointed at the popularity and influences of the Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258), the second great dynasty with the rulers carrying the title of 'Caliph' as fostering peaceful and prosperous migration of the inter-cultured Muslims from the Nile Valley to Niger as well as of the Arab traders from the desert to Benue. Adelabu's claim seems to be in line with the conventional historical view that the conquest of North Africa by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate between AD 647–709 effectively ended Christianity in Africa for several centuries. In the sixteenth century, the Ouaddai Empire and the Kingdom of Kano embraced Islam, and later toward the eighteenth century the Nigeria based Sokoto Caliphate led by Usman dan Fodio exerted considerable effort in spreading Islam. Today Islam is the predominant religion of the northern half of Africa, mainly concentrated in North Africa, the Horn of Africa and the Sahel, as well as West Africa. REFERENCES: [1]

Abbas-Ali Amid Zanjani, The Islamic Revolytion and its Roots,Tehran: Tehran University, 1998.

[2]

Bosworth, CE.,The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D.1000-1217). In: Boyle JA(ed) The Cambridge History of Iran,Vol.5.The Saljuq and Mongol Periods:Cambridge University Press, 1968. Eghbal Ashtiyani, A, History of Iran, Tehran: Tehran University publication, 2001. Haghnavaz , J, A Brief History of Islam: The Spread of Islam, International Journal of Business and Social Science- United States of America, Vol.4, No. 17, 213- 217. 2013. Icker, M, The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, Praeger Publishers, 2000. Keddie, N. R, Modern Iran Roots and Results of Revolution,New Haven. Yale University Press, 2006. Lambton, A. K. S, The Breakdown of Society. The Central Islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War, Cambridge University Press, 1970. Mohammad Reza, Historical correspondence of Iran, Tehran: Key Han publications,1987. Polk, W. R, Understanding Iran: Everything You Need to Know, From Persia to the Islamic Republic, From Cyrus to Ahmadinijad, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Rashidvash, V, The Qajar Dynasty in Iran: The Most Important Occurence Evented in the Qajars Monarchy. International Journal of Business and Social Science- United States of America, Vol. 3, No. 12, 181-187. 2012 . Rashidvash, V, Qajar Rule in Iran: The Qajar Government Events That Changed the Fate of Iran, The Journal of History and Social Sciences- Pakistan, Vol.2, No.2, 1- 29. 2011. Sicker, M, The Islamic World in Decline From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Praeger Publishers, 2000. Saidiyan, Abd Alhossein, Peoples of the World, 4th edit. Tehran, Science and life pub, 1991. Abbas-Ali Amid Zanjani, The Islamic Revolytion and its Roots,Tehran: Tehran University, 1998.

[3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

A NOVEL EDUCATION STRUCTURE FOR POVERTY DIMINUTION IN INDIA Chhaya Yadav1, Prof. (Dr.) S. P. Lal2 Central Library, Birla Institute Of Technology, Mesra, Patna Campus PIN-800014, INDIA Abstract: An equitable education system meeting basic learning needs represents not only a human right, but also a means for reducing poverty, promoting productivity, and sustaining development. India is a developing nation, the majority of whose citizens live in rural area 68.83%. In India if we will start compulsory school education for 8+4 years then it may be helpful in the poverty diminution and sustaining development. If will commit to universalize 8+4 years compulsory education among school -aged children and eliminating illiteracy among youths and adults aged 18–30. As we know this is the age from where youth can be molded in any direction. If proper direction is given to them they can do better. After getting 12th class certificates no guarantee of employment which results youth are diverting to wrong directions like joining anti social activities, becoming drug addict, involving themselves in crime etc. If we could able to introduce new education system(8+4PE) which is useful to youth in getting or fulfillment their requirement it will be very useful to remove not only poverty from our country but also to discourage the youth in joining different anti social organization/activities. Key Words: poverty, employment, poverty reduction, compulsory education, 8+4PE education system. I. Introduction Education was central to Nehru’s vision of a modern, secular, democratic and prosperous nation-state. The 1950 Indian Constitution established basic education up to the age of 14 as a key focus for nation-building. Education was perceived as being able to provide the human capital required for the developmental project, and to consolidate the position of a ruling class that emerged in the colonial era [1]. A. Rights of a Child Over the years, the concept of childhood has appeared to evolve and change shape as lifestyles change and adult expectations alter that has been ratified by 192 of the 194 member countries, (UNRC 1989), where the child has been defined as. The UNRC, is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights—civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. It was at this convention that world leaders decided to ensure that the world recognized that children have human rights too. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child. Protection of child’s rights as laid down in the convention is pursued world over setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services. B. Inclusive Education The key purpose of education is to ensure that all students gain access to knowledge, skills, and information that will prepare them to contribute to the world’s communities and workplaces. This becomes more challenging as schools accommodate students with increasingly diverse backgrounds and abilities. As we strive to meet these challenges, the involvement and cooperation of educators, parents, and community leaders is vital for the creation of better and more inclusive schools. Inclusion is what comes naturally to an inclusive society. Though, inclusive education seeks to maximize the potential of all students, irrespective of any differences, in reality, inclusive schools face the toughest challenge when it comes to changing attitudes that would promote the movement, skills to support its efficiency and the language to advocate for it. While the government and perhaps universities induce changes at macro or policy levels, it is schools and other bodies like NGOs made up of individuals at the grass root levels that are instrumental in putting the policy into practice. C. Protection of Child’s Rights and the Marginalized Child The diametrically opposite concept to inclusion is exclusion, and social exclusion is a concept used in many parts of the world to label forms of social disadvantage. Marginalization refers to be process of those socially excluded communities/ groups who are placed on the fringe of society, and is connected to a person's social

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class, educational status and living standards. Some children considered marginalized are; homeless children (pavement dwellers, displaced/evicted, refugees etc.), migrant children, street and runaway children, orphaned or abandoned children, working children, child beggars, children of prostitutes, trafficked children, children in jails/prisons, children affected by conflict, children affected by natural disasters, children affected by HIV/AIDS, children suffering from terminal diseases, disabled children, children belonging to the Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes. While the charter of the rights of the child is to be applauded for its impact at policy level for the world, the laws and charters in many of the developing countries, stay as simply being instituted not yet implemented. According to the report by Council for World Mission (CWM, 2012), 250 million children were robbed of their freedom and childhood. The fate of children in almost all the Third World countries runs parallel to each other. D. The Marginalized Child and Education in India UNICEF’s (2009) estimate of 11 million street children in India is considered to be a conservative figure. The Indian Embassy has estimated that there are 314,700 street children in metros such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Kanpur, Bangalore and Hyderabad and around 100,000 in Delhi alone. 12.6 million Children work in India. 65.9% of the street children live with their families on the streets. Out of these children, 51.84% sleep on the footpaths, 17.48% sleep in night shelters and 30.67% sleep in other places including under flyovers and bridges, railway platforms, bus stops, parks, market places (CWM 2012). The scenario worsens when one considers the exploitation of a group within an already marginalized group- the girl child. Sexual assault on girls between the age of 4 and 7 is a common feature in India. Many little girls are denied education as they start working in the household and the fields in the rural areas at the age of four. Stratified into manifold layers based on class, caste, gender, and religion, the Indian social system, has widely evident disparities in education access and attainment between different social and economic groups. The urban Indian education scenario is known for its inequitable character; high fee charging schools catering to the rich and privileged and ordinary government schools with extremely insufficient facilities catering to the masses of children living on the streets and in slums. Street children, often forgotten by official authorities, become the primary victims of exclusion [2]. According to census 2011, population of India is 1,21,01,93,422. Rural population is 833087662 and urban is 377105760[3]. The seventh survey has identified 10, 30,996 recognized primary, upper primary, secondary and higher secondary schools in the country. These schools are further segregated over rural and urban areas. The rural area has 8, 53,184 schools, whereas the urban area has 1, 77,812 schools. Of these, the % of primary, upper primary, secondary and higher secondary schools is 63.15, 23.79, 8.80 and 4.26 respectively. These recognized schools according to type are nearly 31,623, 40,034, and 9, 59,339 for boys, girls and co-education schools of which nearly 20,663, 24,061 and 8, 08,460 schools respectively are situated in rural area in the country [4]. E. Education System in India Education is not only an instrument of enhancing efficiency but is also an effective tool of widening and augmenting democratic participation and upgrading the overall quality of individual and societal life. According to the Indian Constitution, Education is a concurrent subject whereby powers are vested both in the Central and State Governments. The Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002, enacted in December 2002 seeks to make free and compulsory education a Fundamental Right for all Children in the age group 6-14 years by inserting a new Article 21-A in Part III (‘Fundamental Right’) of the Constitution. The new Article 21-A reads as “21 A Right to Education”. By this article the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine”. The Right of Children to FREE and Compulsory Education Bill is the consequential legislation to the Constitutional 86th Amendment Act, 2002, which inserted Art 21 in the Constitution of India to make education for all children in the 6- 14 age group a Fundamental Right. The Bill is anchor in the belief that the values of equality, social justice and democracy and the creation of a just and humane society can be achieved only through provision of inclusive elementary education for all. II. Background The present education system in India mainly comprises of primary education, middle education, secondary education, and senior secondary or higher secondary education. Elementary education consists of eight years of education. Each of secondary and senior secondary education consists of two years of education. Higher education in India starts after passing the higher secondary education or the 12th standard [5]. Depending on the stream, doing graduation in India can take three to five years. Post graduate courses are generally of two to three years of duration. After completing post graduation, scope for doing research in various educational institutes also remains open. India needs flexible education that will provide the foundation for learning, secondary and tertiary education and to develop required competencies as means of achieving lifelong learning . A. Major Government Initiatives in Education System There have been many policy initiatives to improve the education system in India particularly in the last two decades. Some of the major initiatives are: District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), Mid Day Meal

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Scheme and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA).21 DPEP was a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 1994. The main objective of this program was to universalize primary education (I–V) to get all children into school. Later, in 2001–2002, it was replaced by SSA which is aimed at achieving universalisation of elementary education (I–VIII) and is being implemented in partnership with state governments in all districts of the country. The focus areas of SSA are to increase access, enrollment and retention of all children and to reduce school dropouts. The stress of SSA is also on offering quality education to all children including life skills. The Government of India introduced the National Program of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) in 1995 with a view to improve primary schooling by increasing enrollment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among students. The Mid Day Meal Scheme is the world’s largest school feeding program and provides for free of cost lunch to school children on all working days in government and aided schools. Recently, India has joined the group of those countries where education is a fundamental right of every child. The Indian Parliament passed the ‘Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act’ or Right to Education Act (RTE) which came into effect on April 1, 2010. The RTE Act makes education a fundamental right of every child in age group 6–14 and specifies minimum norms in elementary schools [6]. B. 

The Indian education system is structured as follows: Pre-school: Education at this level is not compulsory. The Montessori system is especially popular at the pre-school level  Private playschools: Catering for children between the ages of 18 months and three years.  Kindergarten: This is divided into lower kindergarten (for three- to four-year-olds) and upper kindergarten (for four- to five-year-olds)  Primary school: First to fifth standard/class/grade (for six- to ten-year-olds)  Middle school: 6th to eighth standard/class/grade (for 11- to 14-year-olds)  Secondary school: Ninth and tenth standard/class/grade (for 15- to 16-year-olds)  Higher secondary or pre-university: 11th and 12th standard/class/grade (for 16- to 17-year-olds). This is when students choose an academic area on which to focus.  Undergraduate: A BA is a three-year degree. Specialised courses such as medicine and engineering can be longer.  Postgraduate: A one-year/two year course. TYPES OF SCHOOLS IN INDIA  Public/government schools: Most schools in India are funded and run by the government. However, the public education system faces serious challenges including a lack of adequate infrastructure, insufficient funding, a shortage of staff and scarce facilities  Private schools: Since many government schools do not provide adequate education, Indian parents aspire to send their children to a private school. Some expats choose to send their children to private Indian schools  International schools: There are international schools in all major cities. They are attended by expat and Indian children  National open schools: Provide education up to the higher secondary level for children whose schooling has been interrupted and have been unable to complete formal education  Special-needs schools: Provide non-formal education and vocational training to children with disabilities[7] III. Problem description It is found that in India most of the children are getting education up to class 9 th through Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan [8] and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan educational schemes started by Governments in rural and urban area [9]. It is observed that after 9th class dropout percentage of student is higher due to following problems:  Lack of higher education facilities in rural areas.  Lack of financial support for higher studies.  Students feel even if they complete 12th class certificate, there is no guarantee of employment.  They don’t have choices to select their education according to desires. Above mentioned problem attract students to discontinue their studies due to which unemployment increases & compel them to divert into wrong directions like involving themselves in antisocial activities which increases the unemployment and make our country economically poor. IV. Methodology

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A. Universalize 12 years compulsory education as 8+4 yrs. education system in India Universalize and compulsory education system 8(Existing basic course)+4PE ( combination of existing courses of 9th to 12th standard and professional courses like ITI, Polytechnic, Hotel management, Wine study, Music, Dance, Accountancy, Medical lab, Technology, Social service, Yoga, Games, Architecture, law, Audio, Health care, Fashion designing, Automobile, Travel & Tourism, Mass communication & Media, Event management, foreign language, Acting, Beautician etc.) under the various categories which will be adopted by student according to their interest. We have taken few categories in this paper. Fig 1 shows the education system of our country, in the age of 17 i.e. class XII is the point from where youth get desirable directions or unable to continue their education due to lacking in financial support, family responsibility, and distance of colleges/university from rural areas. Proposed structure of the education will be benefited to those who are unable to continue their education after 12th class (basically those are in rural area and discontinue their study due to financial problem of family) and it will be also helpful to those who continues study after 12th class, mention in the conclusion paragraph. Fig 3 shows the further study after the 12th class.

Level 4

16-17y rs

Higher Secondary School(class11-12)

14-15y rs

Secondary school(class9-10)

Level 3

11-13y rs

Middle School(class6-8)

Level 2

6- 10y rs

Primary School(class 1-5)

Proposed new education system(8+ 4PE) 15-17yrs

Level 1

Figure 1: Indian education structure and proposed new education system. We can add the new Professional education syllabus that is 8+4 PE. In our country up to age of 14 educations is compulsory. In proposed system from 8th class to 12th class course will be combination of existing (base subjects) and the professional subjects. Professional education will be segregated in PE1, PE2, PE3 &PE4 from 8th to 12th respectively and will be compulsory. This will be beneficial to rural as well as for urban students and students can choose the desirable line for their future, if student/s are unable to continue their study after 12th class. 8yrs Basic course

CAT- 1(ITI

,Polyt. Leather tech., etc.)

CAT-2 (med ical lab tech n .,p aramed ical, n u rsin g , h ealth care, n u rsin g )

CAT- 3 ( hotel mgmt, Accountancy, event mgmt)

CAT- 4 ( Sports, mental health ed., stress mgmt. Martial arts,yoga)

CAT-n

4YRS PE CATEGORIES Technology

Medical

Management

Physical Education

N fields

UG PG

EMPLO YMEN T

RESEARCH

Figure 2: NOVEL Education Structure. The PE course can be categories as follows: In Professional education we can start to teach students after 8th class by compulsory Professional Education in the area of ITI, Polytechnic, Hotel management, Wine study, Music, Dance, Accountancy, Medical lab, Technology, Social service, Yoga, Games, Architecture, law, Audio, Health care, Fashion designing, Automobile,

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Travel & Tourism, Mass communication & Media, Event management, foreign language, Acting, Beautician etc. In Figure-2, we have suggested different categories in which syllabus of different professional educational courses are included, students can adopt only one category (which is compulsory) as per their own desire. Benefits of Different categories are as follows:  Job opportunity will be increased after 17 years which reduces poverty, unemployment and will discourage youth to be antisocial.  New educational structure will provide practical as well as theoretical background to higher education to those who are getting employment after UG, PG & Research area of different categories. V. Conclusion In rural area, there are so many students discontinue their study after 8th class (compulsory education), This new course will encourage the students to continue their study after 8th class due to new course (included with PE 1, 2, 3 & 4).After completion of 12th class at least they can get opportunity to do either job/business or to continue further higher education in future. Due to professional Education scope to do higher education and job opportunity will be increased which results that there will be less unemployed/antisocial persons in our country. This education pattern will be helpful to youths and children to achieve literacy as well as to get employment for their survival in rural as well as urban area. This dual goal will also reduce the crime and poverty in our society. People having age between18-30 can get job in different fields. Benefits are as follows:  New education structure will create a strong base to all those are going to continue UG/PG course.  Provide hands on practice by which even after achieving to higher position, a person could be self dependent.  Top level need not have to be completely dependent onto the junior assistant. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

Craig Jeffrey, Patricia Jeffery and Roger Jeffery” When Schooling fails: Young men, education and low caste politics in rural north India,” 2005, Indian Sociology 39: 1, Sage, 2005, pp:1-38] DOI: 10.1177/006996670503900101 Sujata Bhan and Suzanne Rodricks / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences , 69 , Elsevier, 2012 pp:367 – 376 . http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/indiaatglance.html [Seventh all India school Education survey, National tables on Schools, physical and ancillary facilities Department of Educational Surveys and Data Processing ‘National council of educational research and training’, New Delhi. Dr. Vijay P. Goel , Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) system\ In India for sustainable development , Department of Higher Education. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. Tushar Agrawal , Educational inequality in rural and urban India International Journal of Educational Development, International Journal of Educational Development; Elsevier 2014, (34 ) 11–19 http://india.angloinfo.com/family/schooling-education/school-system/ http://mhrd.gov.in/schemes. http://www.educationforallinindia.com/rastriya-madhymic-shiksha-mission-RMSM.pdf

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

A Comparative Study of Several Sights Between Jalaluddin Mohammad Balkhi(Rumi) and Emily Dickinson Zahra Ahmadi B.A Student of Department of English Language and literature, Payame Noor University, Iran Abstract: Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi's works are the most famous works of human history that it enforces man to run and it is guidance for a better understanding of life and the universe. Emily Dickinson and her works are very prominent in English literature and many readers are eager to read his works.Dickinson , Professor Elahi Ghomshi has introduced daughter of Rumi. In this study, the effects of these two thinkers and with documentary and the implication of all the elements is taken .In this study, the sights of Jalaluddin Mohammad Balkhi and Emily Dickinson about: hope, prayer, time, God and munificence is explored and it shows that despite many differences, including time, religion, country and so on. Rumi and Dickinson have similar idea and prominent and noticeable thought. Key Words: Maulana, Dickinson, hope, God, time, Munificence I. Introduction Mowlānā Jalāloddin Balkhi, known in Persia as Jalāl ad-Dīn Mohammad Balkhī and in the West simply as Rumi, was born on September 30, 1207 in Balkh Province, Afghanistan, then on the eastern edge of the Persian Empire. Rumi descended from a long line of Islamic jurists, theologians, and mystics, including his father, who was known by followers of Rumi as "Sultan of the Scholars." When Rumi was still a young man, his father led their family more than 2,000 miles west to avoid the invasion of Genghis Khan's armies. They settled in presentday Turkey, where Rumi lived and wrote most of his life. As a teenager, Rumi was recognized as a great spirit by the poet and teacher Attar, who gave him a copy of his own Ilahinama (The Book of God). When his father died in 1231, Rumi became head of the madrasah, or spiritual learning community. Rumi's oldest son, Sultan Velad, managed to save 147 of Rumi's intimate letters, which provide insights about the poet and how he lived. Rumi often involved himself in the lives of his community members, solving disputes and facilitating loans between nobles and students. The letters are described as having lines of poetry scattered throughout. In 1244, Rumi met Shams Tabriz, a dervish "God-man" who had taken a vow of poverty. Their meeting is considered a central event in Rumi's life. Though accounts of their meeting differ, one story claims that Rumi was teaching by a fountain, and Shams walked up through the crowd of students and pushed Rumi's books into the water. "You must now live what you have been reading about," Shams told Rumi. Rumi believed both his real life and his real poetry began when he met Shams. Shams and Rumi were close friends for about four years. Over the course of that time, Shams was repeatedly driven away by Rumi's jealous disciples, including one of Rumi's sons, Ala al-Din. In December of 1248, Shams again disappeared; it is believed that he was either driven away or killed. Rumi left the madrasah in search of his friend, travelling to Damascus and elsewhere. Eventually, Rumi made peace with his loss, returning to his home believing Shams to be a part of him: "His essence speaks through me." Rumi's mourning for the loss of his friend led to the outpouring of more than 40,000 lyric verses, including odes, eulogies, quatrains, and other styles of Eastern-Islamic poetry. The resulting collection, Divan-e Shams-e Tabrizi or The Works of Shams Tabriz, is considered one of Rumi's masterpieces and one of the greatest works of Persian literature. In his introduction to his translation of Rumi's The Shams, Coleman Barks has written: "Rumi is one of the great souls, and one of the great spiritual teachers. He shows us our glory. He wants us to be more alive, to wake up... He wants us to see our beauty, in the mirror and in each other."For the last twelve years of his life, beginning in 1262, Rumi dictated a single, six-volume poem to his scribe, Husam Chelebi. The resulting masterwork, the Masnavi-ye Ma'navi (Spiritual Verses), consists of sixty-four thousand lines, and is considered Rumi's most personal work of spiritual teaching. Rumi described the Masnavi as "the roots of the roots of the roots of the (Islamic) Religion. In his introduction to an English edition of Spiritual Verses, translator Alan Williams wrote: "Rumi is both a poet and a mystic, but he is a teacher first, trying to communicate what he knows to his audience. Like all good teachers, he trusts that ultimately, when the means to go any further fail him and his voice falls silent, his students will have learnt to understand on their own." Rumi fell ill and died on December 17, 1273, in Konya, Turkey. His remains were interred adjacent to his father's, and the Yeşil Türbe (Green Tomb) was erected above their final resting place. Now the Mevlâna museum, the site

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includes a mosque, dance hall, and dervish living quarters. Thousands of visitors, of all faiths, visit his tomb each month, honoring the poet of legendary spiritual understanding. Emily Elizabeth Dickinson, She was an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life. After she studied at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she spent a short time at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst. Thought of as an eccentric by the locals, she became known for her penchant for white clothing and her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, even leave her room. Most of her friendships were therefore carried out by correspondence .While Dickinson was a prolific private poet, fewer than a dozen of her nearly eighteen hundred poems were published during her lifetime. The work that was published during her lifetime was usually altered significantly by the publishers to fit the conventional poetic rules of the time. Dickinson's poems are unique for the era in which she wrote; they contain short lines, typically lack titles, and often use slant rhyme as well as unconventional capitalization and punctuation. Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends. Although most of her acquaintances were probably aware of Dickinson's writing, it was not until after her death in 1886—when Lavinia, Dickinson's younger sister, discovered her cache of poems—that the breadth of Dickinson's work became apparent. Her first collection of poetry was published in 1890 by personal acquaintances Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd, both of whom heavily edited the content. A complete and mostly unaltered collection of her poetry became available for the first time in 1955 when The Poems of Emily Dickinson was published by scholar Thomas H. Johnson. Despite some unfavorable reviews and some skepticism during the late 19th and early 20th century as to Dickinson's literary prowess, she is now almost universally considered to be one of the most important American poets. Criticism perspectives of Rumi and Dickenson II. Hope Hope is one of the major literary works that many poets and writers, Most of his works are devoted to it This feature is much more pronounced in mystical poetry .The United States of America Poet Emily Dickinson looks Life very hopeful. He sees hope as a bird that apart from the problems that may be blocking the her way , still goes on and as far as he breath ,her message: Smile Life, will advance by itself to people in the world will not have an excuse for despair. How would hope "perch," and why does it perch in the soul? As you read this poem, keep in mind that the subject is hope and that the bird metaphor is only defining hope. Whatever is being said of the bird applies to hope, and the application to hope is Dickinson's point in this poem. " Hope " is the thing with feathers – That perches in the Soul – And sings the tune without the words – And never stops – at all – And sweetest – in the Gale – is heard – And sore must be the storm – That could abash the little Bird That kept so many warm – I've heard it in the chilliest land – And on the strangest sea – Yet , never , in Extremity , It asked a crumb – of Me “ We see in the works of Rumi drawing on the ideas of hope and optimism, Rumi is a hopeful man. Sometimes he speaks about the sun hope and Sometimes he remembers everyone that should not take the disappointment way to arrive at the darkness. First Book of the Masnawi says: “God beheaded disappointment” Perhaps we should say that The hope in Rumi s poetry is mystical This is why that the pain and sadness does not discourage him.

‫رنج و غم را حق پی آن آفرید‬ )3311 ‫بیت‬،‫ دفتر اول‬،‫تا بدین ضد خوشدلی آید پدید (مثنوی‬ “God created pain and sorrow for the purpose that happiness might be made manifested by means of this opposite” III. Devotion (prayer) This issue is taken from poems of Emily Dickinson that She has a close relationship with prayers and to answer of prayer she invoked Christ, However, most experts agree on his withdrawal. This is evident in the poetry of Emily, He seeks help of Christ sincerely and desperately, He did not have any pride. It smashes on every door to find Christ. In this way, he's not afraid from the speech and behavior of others that Perhaps they blame her. “At least – to pray – is left – is left – O Jesus ! in the air – I know not which thy chamber is ,

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I'm knocking everywhere . Thou stirrest earthquake in the South , And maelstorm in the sea ; Say , Jesus Christ of Nazareth , Hast thou no Arm for Me ? “ Rumi isn’t unaware of prayer and knows that prayer and meditation is the key to many problems. God loves and sees and hears than a man and he always helps man, Prayer is very important for Rumi As in the book of Diwan e Shamse Tabrizi he said:

‫چندان بنال اندر شبان‬،‫چندان دعا کن در نهان‬ )13‫غزل‬،3‫در گوش تو آید هفت صدا(کلیات شمس ج‬،‫کز گنبد هفت آسمان‬ “So pray in secret, so whine at night, that the dome of the heavens sky, Comes in your ear Seven Sound” Rumi knows the humility and modesty base of pray and believes so when man torn not clothes of selfishness and pride , Can not pray sincerely.

‫چون ترا ذکر و دعا دستور شد‬ ‫زآن دعا کردن دلت مغرور شد‬ ‫هم سخن دیدی تو خود را با خدا‬ )391‫ص‬،‫دفتر دوم‬، ‫ای بسا کاو این گمان افتد جدا(مثنوی‬ “Forasmuch as praise and prayer were vouchsafed to you , through making that prayer your heart became vainglorious. You regarded yourself as speaking (confidentially) with God, Oh, (there is) many a one that becomes separated (from God)by this opinion.” IV. Time Emily knows that time has not any joking with someone, He knows no time for the carriage to stop moving, And goes, And will not ever go back. She has dominance about this issue, Many people do not feel the passage of time and do not care to this low chance, Emily lamented that cannot prevent this damage because there is no way back. “We never know we go When we are going – We jest and shut the door – Fate – following – Behind us bolts it – And we accost no more” Rumi believed that humans should not regret so that about the past that they forget present time In fact, the correct use of the present tense, Avoids many regrets. God respites human to return to its original position. It is the responsibility of human, How use about this opportunity. Sometimes people caught in the vortex of themself and constantly by telling “still not too late and “Tomorrow .. Let ...” ignore many of works That should do their deadline ,In fact, the ego and the Sensuality hide passing of time for us . Many of the incompetent, Makes it beautiful and we lose track of time and We don’t enjoy it.

‫گفت دیگر بر گذشته غم مخور‬ )416‫ص‬،‫ دفتر چهارم‬،‫چون ز تو بگذشت ز آن حسرت مبر(مثنوی معنوی‬ “ and said : the second is , do not grieve over (what is) past ; when it has passed from thee do not feel regret for it”

‫ور دهندش مهلت اندر قعر گور‬ ‫البد آن پیدا شود یوم النشور‬ ‫هر نبات و شکری را در جهان‬ )334 ‫ص‬،‫ دفتر اول‬، ‫مهلتی است پیدا از دور زمان(مثنوی معنوی‬ “ and if he be given a respite in the depth of the grave (then) it will inevitably become manifest on the day of resurrection. Every piece of candy and sugar (desirable thing) in the world manifestly has a period granted to it from the revolution of time” V. God Spiritual connection that can be seen in Dickinson’s work is admirable .Following Emily’s poetry speaks about God that he is closer than our jugular vein .He says that God at all in our thoughts and the way to know him is to love .Here Emily points basis of mystical East , especially the Iranian mysticism .Allah says in the Quran :"Whoever is blind in this world , will be blind in the other world. " Emily with her poetic language gives us a knowledge that to perception of God, we should see good and hear nice and The whole world know the beauty and heaven Because there aren’t ugliness and evil and this is made up by the human mind ; If we look at the universe and beings with kindness , We've found heaven on earth . “W HO has not found the heaven below Will fail of it above.

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God’s residence is next to mine, His furniture is love.” Rumi believed the essence of religion is metaphysical and cosmic feeling that can not be easily expressed, except with the language of love, that it is a means of escape from religion. If the love of God to reach its ultimate it melted Religion in itself.

‫ملت عشق از همه دین ها جداست‬ )311‫ص‬، ‫دفتر دوم‬،‫عاشقان را ملت و مذهب خداست(مثنوی معنوی‬ “the religion of love is apart from all religions : for lover the (only)religion and creed is God” He also believes that as long as the man is not from the heart and he does not benefit it and can not achieve the true love and understand it.

‫هرکه را خواهد همنشینی خدا‬ ‫تا نشیند در حضور اولیا‬ ‫از حضور اولیا گر بسکلی‬ )371‫ص‬،‫ دفتر دوم‬، ‫تو هالکی از آن که جزوی بی کلی (مثنوی‬ “whoever wishes to site with God , let him sit in the presence of the saints. If you are broken off (divided) from the presence of the saints, you are in perdition, because you are a part without the whole” VI. Munificence Dickinson believes that many people still do not believe themself and are unaware of their exalted. Sometimes these people's lives are affected by leaps and bounds that the flip side is that more knowledge and if they pay attention it carefully, can be put in the way of exploring his dignity and in this way they will not be bored and to continue and they will achieve amazing results. “We never know how high we are Till we are asked to rise‫؛‬ And then, if we are true to plan, Our statures touch the skies.” One reason for Rumi's popularity in the West is unique place of humans in Rumi's thoughts and the works If Rumi s works be carefully considered, These effects can be called human-letter. Maulana respect for human certain dignity. It is enough to refer to his Masnawi. We find that it is written in the human centered.

‫پس به صورت عالم اصغر تویی‬ )179‫ص‬،‫ دفتر چهارم‬، ‫پس به معنی عالم اکبر تویی(مثنوی معنوی‬ “ therefore in form thou art the microcosm therefore in reality thou art the macrocosm” Rumi believes that man is a great creature and on condition that he finds and recognizes himself. He believes reason of creation of the world is man and God created man for his own and other creatures of the universe are for the human to make proper use of it to reach God.

‫باده در جوشش گدای جوش ماست‬ ‫چرخ در گردش گدای هوش ماست‬ ‫باده از ما مست شد نی ما از او‬ )33‫ص‬، ‫دفتر اول‬،‫قالب از ما هست شد نی ما از او (مثنوی معنوی‬ “wine in ferment is a beggar suing for our ferment ; heaven in revolution is beggar suing for our consciousness Wine became intoxicated with us, not we with it, the body came in to being from us, not we from it” VII. Result In this study, Be provided sights of Rumi and Emily Dickinson about God, hope, prayer, dignity and then we analyze Common points of both thinkers to becomes more prominent about hope; They knows hope as driver of human spirit to in the most difficult living conditions this driver prop again and proceed a man . Munificence is another case also that Dickinson and Rumi believe that If the Man finds the straw of inside and believe his greatness ,he can go to ultraviolet and become far from the emptiness and helplessness . Rumi and Dickinson know God is very close, closer than thought and believe Except with love can not be reached God and the purpose , As Dickinson appeals to Christ sincerely that he hears her prayers ;Rumi knows modesty and humility and stay away from arrogance base of prayers and finally, both of them about The time and the passing days and nights insist on the belief that time hasn’t any joking for someone and if it passed it is impossible to back .they know correct use of the present tense is the best way to give up longing and regret . Although successive centuries Put distance between Dickinson and Rumi but they have thought of similarities are very striking and admirable that has prompted wonders of the world. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

R. W. Franklin, 1999. The Poems of Emily Dickinson Harvard University Press R.A.Nicholson.2011.the Masnawi of jalalud din Rumi.Cambridge University pree Heginbotham,E. 2003. Reading The Fascicles of Emily Dickinson, The Ohio State University press. Cody, John. 1971, After Great Pain: The Inner Life of Emily Dickinson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Habeggar, Alfred. 2001. My Wars are Laid Away in Books: The Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Random House

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[6] Longsworth, Polly. , 1990 The World of Emily Dickinson. New York: Norton. [7] Ward, Theodora. 1961 The Capsule of the Mind: Chapters in the Life of Emily Dickinson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, [8] Forouzanfar, b. (1364) Mathnawi Sharif (sixth edition), published by pilgrims. [9] Rumi. 1373 Masnwi (Fifth Edition), published glance. [10] Rumi. 1355 Diwane Shams e Tabrizi (eleventh edition), Kabir publication. [11]http://en.wikipedia.org

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American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences

Available online at http://www.iasir.net

ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Relationship between Hardiness, Self-efficacy and Coping responses among IT employees U.Vijayabanu* - Asst. Prof., Dept. of Counseling Psychology, Madras School of Social Work, Chennai, India 600 008. Jhanani Venkatasubramaniam**- M.Sc., HRD Psychology,Chennai. Abstract: Positive organizational behaviour refers to ‘the study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance improvement in today’s workplace (Luthans,2002). The present study aimed at finding out the relationship between positive traits such as hardiness, self-efficacy and coping responses among IT employees. A survey method was used whereby the questionnaires were disturbed in three information technology organization. Using convenient sampling method 111 data was collected among which 53 of them were females and 58 of them were males. The mean age of this sample is 33 years. The age ranges between 22-53 years. Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS) – 30 item scale by Bartone, Ursano, Wright & Ingraham (1989), Self-efficacy- 10 item by Jerusalem and Schwarzer (1995), Coping Response Inventory by Moos (1993) were used to collect the data. Pearson’s product moment correlation was used to find out the relationship between the variables. The findings of this study showed that employees in the IT industry had high levels of hardiness and self-efficacy. They also used approach coping responses predominantly. Thus, they were highly committed in their work and took challenges at ease by taking control of the whole situation. Key Words: hardiness, self-efficacy, coping, employees, organization I. Introduction Over the past several decades, India has developed into an important location in the global software industry. Thousands of new jobs have been created as multinational software firms have established Indian branch operations. As part of this process, an increasing number of Indian women have entered the labour market. The workplace brings together people from different backgrounds, philosophies, cultures and personalities. Diverse workplaces can encourage cooperation, teamwork and creative thinking. Personality differences can mean that individuals take varying approaches to work style and interacting with other employees, managers, clients and competitors. Understanding how personality affects behaviour in the workplace can determine what might be motivating workers to perform or behave in certain ways. The study of organizational behaviour relates to the expected behaviour of an individual in the organization. No two individuals are likely to behave in the same manner in a particular work situation. In social cognitive theory, individual differences in patterns of behaviour across situations reflect such underlying personal variables as the individual’s encoding or construal of their experiences, and their expectations, values, goals and self-regulatory strategies. These relatively enduring person variables within the individual interact with situational characteristics to generate stable but discriminative patterns of behaviour. It is the predictability of a manager about the expected behaviour of an individual. There are no absolutes in human behaviour. It is the human factor that is contributory to the productivity hence, the study of human behaviour is important. The workplace is filled with stress, anxiety, deadlines, pressure, success and failure. The highest individual and organisational performers are able to cope with the fast-changing environment to succeed and achieve high performing results. The individuals play an important role in the functioning of the organization. People tend to identify themselves with the organization in which they participate. In recent times, there is a focus on harnessing the internal strengths and capacity of individuals to face any demands of the work environment. Everyday people experience situations that have the potential to be stressful. This is particularly true in the workplace with turbulent financial times and ever increasing rates of workplace change. However, people react very differently to situations such as these. While some people physically and mentally fall apart when facing major change, others have been shown to flourish in this type of situation. (Kobasa , 1979). Some of the key internal factors such as hardiness, self esteem, self efficacy, optimism etc., are found to have positive impact on protecting psychological health by withstanding occupational stress. Ciarrochi, Chan and Caputi (2000)highlighted that internal resources may protect people from stress and lead to better adaptation.

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II. Need for the study: Positive organizational behaviour refers to ‘the study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance improvement in today’s workplace (Luthans,2002). Positive Organizational Behaviour capacities are open to development and should be something that one can measure, develop, and use to improve performance. Positive Organizational Behaviour may contribute to positive organizational outcomes. Positive Organizational Behaviour has been mainly concerned with individual psychological qualities and their impact on performance improvement. Positive Organizational Behaviour has tended to develop in an inductive way from individual to group to organizational levels of analysis. Thus, understanding the association among hardiness, self-efficacy and coping strategies could prove beneficial to employees of the IT industry. Many undergraduate and graduate students are placed in the technical and non-technical branches of the software industry within a short time after graduation. Increasing hardiness and efficacy levels and enhancing coping abilities of the young joiners in the industry would benefit them as well as the organisation that employ them after graduation. The findings may prove beneficial to organizations that are proactively refining or creating employee development programs. For instance, conclusions drawn from this study may assist HR professionals and practitioners plan or design effective training, policy, or assistance programs that help employees develop the ability to remain productive in a threatening and ever-changing work environment. This is especially important when coupled with the knowledge that hardiness and efficacy can be learned. Hardiness: Kobasa (1982) defined hardiness as “a constellation of personality characteristics that function as a resistance in the encounter with stressful events”. Bartone (2006) defined hardiness as “a broad personality style or generalized mode of functioning that includes cognitive, emotional and behavioural qualities.” The personality possessing hardiness is marked by a way of perceiving and responding to stressful life events that prevents or minimizes the strain that can follow stress and that, in turn, can lead to mental and physical illness. Hardy characteristics are important in occupational settings due to the origins of the construct in Kierkegaard’s existential philosophy (Heidegger, 1962). It appeared that conceptually, the sense of commitment, control and challenge underlying hardiness are important cognitions that appear to moderate the impact of daily work and life stress on well-being (Nowack 1988). Hardy people tend to see change as an opportunity for personal growth. Rather than trying to preserve the status quo, hardy individuals strive for new challenges (Kobasa, 1979; Maddi&Kobasa, 1984).Judkins (2005) conducted a study on hardiness, stress and coping strategies among midlevel nurse managers and found that the study supported the theoretical suppositions of lower stress if hardiness and specific coping strategies are high. Also, the study showed that the potential exists for work related stress could be reduced by increasing hardiness and adaptive coping strategies. Hypothesis 1: Hardiness would be significantly related to various coping responses such as logical analysis, positive appraisal, problem solving, seeking guidance and support, cognitive avoidance, acceptance or resignation, seeking alternative rewards, emotional discharge. Self-efficacy Bandura’s theory describes self-efficacy, which plays a central role in stress reactions, as “a belief in one’s own competence in handling the demands of a situation successfully in order to achieve a desired outcome”. Jerusalem (2009) defined self-efficacy as “beliefs in their capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments”.Operating as a cognitive mechanism through which controllability affects stress reactions, self-efficacy impacts the resulting coping response (Bandura, 1988). Inherent in selfefficacy theory is one’s perception of the ability to exercise control over potentially threatening events. It is therefore the perception of environmental threats as exceeding one’s coping abilities that become the primary source of stress (Wiedenfeld, O’Leary, Bandura, Brown, Levine,&Raska 1990). Koeske and Koeske (1989) also argue that self-efficacy is a way of coping that moderates the effects of exhaustion on mental distancing. Hence, low levels of self-efficacy are indicative of burnout. Those who are self-efficacious are also more likely to reject negative thoughts about themselves or their abilities than those with a sense of personal inefficacy.Andrews, Ainley and Frydenberg (2004) conducted a study on the role of coping style, self-efficacy and emotions among adolescents. They found that self-efficacy is positively related to coping styles of the individual. Hypothesis 2: Self-efficacy would be significantly related to various coping responses such as logical analysis, positive appraisal, problem solving, seeking guidance and support, cognitive avoidance, acceptance or resignation, seeking alternative rewards, emotional discharge. Kittredge (2010) conducted a study to predict work and organizational engagement with work and personal factors which included hardiness and self-efficacy. She found that self-efficacy was significantly correlated with overall hardiness. Hypothesis 3: Hardiness would be significantly related to self-efficacy Coping responses: Coping is defined as “constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of a person” (Lazarus &Folkman,

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1984). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) model of psychological stress takes a cognitive view of how we engage the world. Although the areas of appraisal and coping processes are rather complex, there is a striking congruence in much of the literature. This congruence is based on two basic orientations toward coping with stressful work and life events, approach and avoidance (Roth and Cohen, 1986). But approach and avoidance refer to cognitive, emotional and behavioural activity that is oriented either toward or away from perceived harm, threat, or challenge. III. Procedure, participants and methodology The present study is an ex-post facto research. Using Convenience sampling procedure, data were collected from 130 individuals among whom 111 questionnaires were only completely filled and used for the study, among which 53 of them were females and 58 of them were males. The mean age of this sample was 33 years. Measures: 1. The dispositional resilience scale was developed by Bartone et al (1989) is a 45 item instrument designed to measure dispositional resilience. It is based on a four point Likert format scale. A short version of the DRS of 30 items was used which has demonstrated strong correlation with scores on the 45-item version (Bartone, et al., 1989). The hardiness construct is composed of three subscales: commitment, control, and challenge. Associations can be computed with subscale individually and/or collectively. Reliability alpha coefficients have been demonstrated by Bartone, et al. (1989) at .62, .66 and .82 for the challenge, control and commitment subscales respectively. Principal component factor analysis supported the three subscales. Scores are sensitive to measuring change due to levels of stressful events. 2. This tool was developed by Jerusalem and Schwarzer (1995) consists of 10 items to measure the selfefficacy level of the individuals. Each item refers to successful coping and implies an internal-stable attribution of success. The author established reliability on samples from 23 nations, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from .76 to .90, with the majority in the high .80s. Criterion-related validity is documented in numerous correlation studies where positive coefficients were found with favourable emotions, dispositional optimism, and work satisfaction. 3. The coping response inventory – Adult Form (CRI-Adult) is a measure of eight different types of coping responses to stressful life circumstances. These responses are measured by eight scales- Logical Analysis (LA), Positive Reappraisal (PR), Seeking Guidance and Support (SG), Problem Solving (PS), Cognitive Avoidance (CA), Acceptance or Resignation (AR), Seeking Alternative Rewards (SR) and Emotional Discharge (ED). The reliability coefficients of the CRI-Adult range from .58 to .74, indicating moderate to high internal consistency for the test. Content and face validity were established by formulating definitions for each specific domain. Items were then prepared to fit the construct definitions. IV. Results Table 1: correlational matrix – hardiness, self-efficacy and coping responses variable

Mean

SD

S-E

LA

PR

SGS

PS

CA

AR

SAR

ED

Hardiness

84.73

7.18

0.63**

0.26**

0.14

0.04

0.26**

-0.28**

-.21*

-0.10

-.27**

S-E

30.21

4.61

0.16

0.27**

-0.40

0.25*

-0.26**

-0.25*

0.01

-0.24*

*0.05 level of significance;**0.01 level of significance S-E – Self-Efficacy LA – Logical analysis PR – Positive reappraisal SGS – seeking guidance and support PS – problem solving CA – cognitive avoidance AR – acceptance/resignation SAR – seeking alternative avoidance ED – emotional discharge V. Discussion In the present study, we found that hardiness was positively related to few coping responses. As we know, hardiness contributes to potentially demanding situations and thus generates personal growth and development. It was found that there was a positive relationship between hardiness and logical analysis as a coping response. As we know that hardy individuals are highly challenged, they define events as stimulating and analyse the whole thing to transform and grow for the better. In the IT industry, the raw material for production is the individual himself. So they have to analyse things logically and deal with it. There was no relationship between

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hardiness and positive reappraisal. This may be due to the fact that hardy individuals tend to take the situation as a challenge and deal with the stressor directly rather than restructuring the whole thing and positively attempting to accept it. There was a no relationship between hardiness and seeking guidance and support as a coping response. Hardy individuals believe that they can control and influence the events of their experience. Hardy people rely on their own resources when facing challenging situations, perhaps considering the use of social support as a failure or weakness (Kobasa, 1982) There was a positive relationship between hardiness and problem solving as a coping response. This may be due to the fact that high hardy individuals usually deal with the stressor directly and resolve issues. Analysing the relationship between hardiness and the avoidance coping responses, it was found that there was a negative relationship between hardiness and cognitive avoidance. Hardy individuals in the IT industry tend to deal with the stressor directly by challenging the situation and they do not try to avoid thinking about the issue. There was a negative relationship between hardiness and acceptance or resignation. Hardy individuals do not try to accept the situation immediately or take it as threatening. They challenge the situation and take control of it. IT industry is at a rapid development and it is essential for the employees to take control of the situation when the demands are too high. Also, they try to be committed to the action plan and work it through. There was no relationship between hardiness and seeking alternative rewards. Hardy individuals are highly committed in their work. They do not try to avoid doing things that deal in solving the problem. Their control perceptually indicates that the consequence of any state is due to their actions. The negative implies that hardy individuals do not compromise their responsibility and seek other rewards. Thus, it shows that high hardy individuals seek low alternative rewards. As the work load and time constraint exists more in this industry, there would not have enough time to seek other rewards from other activities. Finally, hardiness had a negative relationship with emotional discharge as a coping response. The competition is high in the industry, so the hardy individuals cannot afford to explicitly show their negativity to the co workers and the superiors. They generally take control of the situation in a calm manner. The personality style of hardiness is proposed to have a moderating effect on this process by encouraging effective mental and behavioural coping. (Maddi, 2004). Hence hypothesis 1 is partially accepted. The next analysis in the present study was the relationship between self-efficacy and the coping responses. Operating as a cognitive mechanism through which controllability affects stress reactions, self-efficacy impacts the resulting coping response (Bandura, 1988). It was found that self-efficacy has no relationship with logical analysis. There is no need that highly efficacious individuals should be logical in their thinking. There was a positive relationship between self-efficacy and positive reappraisal. When faced with adverse events, highly efficacious individuals tend to restructure the whole the situation and be positive about it. They retain the belief that they will be able to exert control over their thoughts and deal with the situation positively. Especially in the IT industry where multitasking is essential and too many programmes to prepare by the technical workers, they tend to be positive and reframe the whole thing from the beginning with a different perspective. There was no relationship between self-efficacy and seeking guidance and support. Only when there is a need to seek support from others do individuals do it. Being high or low in self-efficacy does not influence if they have to seek support from others or not. There was a positive relationship between self-efficacy and problem solving as an approach coping response. Highly selfefficacious individuals are capable of self-regulation. They have the ability to anticipate and develop expectancies to use past knowledge and experience and deal with the problems. Analysing the relationship between self-efficacy and the avoidance coping responses, it was found that there existed a negative relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive avoidance. Those who are self-efficacious are also more likely to reject negative thoughts about themselves or their abilities than those with a sense of personal inefficacy. Thoughts and beliefs that are directly related to self-efficacy, known as “efficacy beliefs� are positive in highly efficacious people. So they do not tend to avoid thinking of issues and deal with them directly. Individuals in the IT industry, as mentioned earlier, do not have the time to avoid thinking about the issue as they usually have less time to solve them and move on to the next programme. So these individuals believe that they can do it and restructure the thoughts rather than avoiding it. There existed a negative relationship between self-efficacy and accepting or resignation as a coping response. Self-efficacious individuals in the IT industry tend to take up work as a challenge and control the situation through actions influenced by their past experiences. They do not accept or reject the problem quickly but instead believe in themselves that they can take control and resolve the problem. There existed no relationship between self-efficacy and seeking alternative rewards. IT employees get good salary, good working conditions and promotions even though tend to experience high amount of work pressure and deadline target of the assignments may or may not let them take a break and seek rewards from other activities even if they want to. There was a negative relationship between self-efficacy and emotional discharge. Individuals low in self-efficacy could be associated with negatively biased thinking and irrational thoughts (Beck, Rush, Shaw & Emery, 1979). People working in IT industry who are high in self-efficacy are low in emotional discharge. They tend to have rational thoughts and deal with the situations with more positivity. Hence the hypothesis 2 is partially accepted. In the study, it has been revealed that hardiness was highly correlated with self-efficacy. Individuals who are highly efficacious are also highly hardy in nature. Individuals high in both hardiness and efficacy can cope and adapt with organizational changes quickly. With the rise of

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demands due to technological changes and globalization has resulted in people to be more committed to their work and take things as a challenge to bring in better results for further personal growth and development. This finding was supported by earlier studies, which indicated that hardiness and self-efficacy were positively related to each other. (Azar, Vasudeva, and Abdollahi , 2006). Hence hypothesis 3 is accepted. VI. Conclusion The purpose of the present study was to gain insight about relationship between hardiness, self-efficacy and the coping responses among the employees of the IT industry. There has been increasing interest in individuals’ responses in managing life’s adversities. The findings of this study showed that employees in the IT industry had high levels of hardiness and self-efficacy. They also used approach coping responses predominantly. Thus, they were highly committed in their work and took challenges at ease by taking control of the whole situation. It was revealed that the level of hardiness and efficacy tend to moderate the adoption of types of coping strategies significantly. Limitations of the study: 1. Self-report questionnaires are susceptible to answers tinged with social desirability. Results of this study should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. 2. Also the data presented here are correlational and a causal link between hardiness, self-efficacy and coping responses cannot be concluded from this study. 3. The study did not include other positive psychological variables like optimism, hope, self-esteem etc. 4. The study did not find out the level of stress experienced by the IT employees. 5. The study did not find out the psychological well-being among the IT employees. Implications: Implementing suitable interventions early in the developmental stage, particularly at primary and secondary school level will help build adequate internal resources like hardiness and self-efficacy and in turn enrich these cognitive self-regulatory and interpersonal capacities, which may help to promote the development of more adaptive coping strategies. Organizations may benefit by including hardiness, self-efficacy and coping concepts in training and assimilation programs for employees and supervisors. Even during the recruitment of middle level and top level management, measuring these internal resources will aid the organization to select the appropriate candidate as their work involves handling various problematic situations. Recognizing hardiness, self-efficacy and coping as potential targets for intervention raises the issue of whether it is possible to change an individual’s general tendencies, which are by nature difficult to change. It is possible to modify such characteristic responses through increasing awareness of those that are maladaptive and training individuals in alternate patterns of responding that are more effective. References Andrews,M., Ainley,M., Frydenberg,E. (2004) The role of Coping Style, Self- efficacy, Emotions.Published conference proceedings of the Australian Association for Research in Education. Azar,I.A.S., Vasudeva, P. &Abdollahi, A.(2006).Relationship between Quality of Life, Hardiness, Self-efficacy and Self-esteem amongst Employed and Unemployed Married Women in Zabol. Iran Journal of Psychiatry, (1), 104–111. Bandura, A. (1988). Organizational Application of Social Cognitive Theory. Australian Journal of Management, 13(2), 275–302. Bartone, P.T., Ursano, R.J., Wright, K,M., & Ingraham, L.H. (1989). The Impact of a Military air disaster on the Health of Assistance Workers: A Prospective study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 317-328. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979).Cognitive therapy of depression.New York: Guilford Press. Ciarrochi,J., Chan,A., &Caputi,P. (2000). A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 539-561 Heidegger, M. (1962).Being and Time. New York: Harper and Row. Jerusalem,M. (2009) Mental health promotion in schools by strengthening Self-efficacy, Health Education, 109 (4), 329 – 341. Jerusalem, M. &Schwarzer, R. (1995).Generalized Self-efficacy Scale. In Wadder, S.&Aminavabhi, V. (2000). Self-efficacy and emotional intelligence of the PG students.Journal of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 36 (2), 339 – 345. Judkins,S.K.(2001)Hardiness , stress and coping strategies among mid-level nurse managers: Implications for continuing higher education.(Master’s Thesis) University of North Texas, Texas. Kittredge, A. (2010). Predicting work and organizational engagement with work and personal factors.(Master’s thesis).San Jose State University. California. Kobasa,S.C. (1979). Stressful life events, Personality and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1). Kobasa, S.C. (1982). Commitment and Coping in stress resistance among lawyers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 707717. Kobasa, S.C., Maddi,S.R, Puccetti, M.C., & Zola, M.A. (1985). Effectiveness of Hardiness, Exercise, and Social Support as Resources against Illness.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 525-533. Koeske, G.F., &Koeske, R.D. (1989). Construct validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: A critical review and re-conceptualization. Journal of Applied Behavioural Sciences, 25, 131-132. Lazarus, R, S., &Folkman, S. (1984).Stress, appraisal and coping.New York: Springer. Luthans, F. (2002). The Need for and Meaning of Positive Organizational Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 6, 695-706. Maddi, S.R., &Kobasa, S.C. (1984).The Hardy Executive: Health under stress. Illinois: Dow Jones-Irwin. Moos, R.H. (1993).Coping Response Inventory: CRI Adult Form.Professional Manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Nowack,K.M.( 1988)Coping style, Cognitive Hardiness and Health Status. California: Plenum Publishing Corporation. Roth,S., & Cohen, L. (1986). Approach , Avoidance, and Coping with Stress. American psychology Journal, 41,813-819. Wiedenfeld,S,A., O’Leary,A., Bandura,A., Brown,S., Levine,S., Raska,K. (1990) Impact of perceived Self-efficacy in Coping with Stressors on Components of the Immune System. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.Vol 59(5), 1082-1094.

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Occupational Stress, Burnout and Coping in Police Personnel: Findings from a Systematic Review 1

Prof. Poonam Kapade-Nikam, 2Prof. Mohsin Shaikh, Associate Professor, STES, Sinhgad Institute of Business Administration and Research, Kondhwa, Pune-411048, India 2 Professor, Head Department of Management Studies, STES, Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Engineering, Vadgaon, Pune-411041, India 1

Abstract: There is extensive research carried out at international level in the area of occupational stress of police and its impact on personal and professional life of police officers. The occupational stress of police officers has activist impact on the organizational performance and that is most hazardous obsession for police organization. The objective of this study was to review the literature on police stress with emphasis on manifestations as well as the symptoms of strain that facilitate recognition of problem, identification and delineation of the stressors experienced by law enforcement agents and coping behavior among law enforcers. It has been observed that occupational stress has leads to the development of negative outcomes for the individual employee and the employing organization. Degradation of general well-being as well as levels of satisfaction and commitment to the organization has each been identified as a result of the employee experiencing occupational stress. The results of stress are harmful to people, society and organizations. High levels of stress will cause negative effect on employees physical and mental well being ultimately shows effect on performance. Keywords: Occupational Stress, Burnout, law enforcement, job demands, coping I. INTRODUCTION Stress is considered as “the invisible” sickness which affects all people; therefore we cannot afford or ignore it. Stress refers to the dynamic state caused by the physical, psychological, and social demands which are assumed to be threatening to an individual and leads to exceed in his or her coping resources. This can result in ‘strain’ which can be physical, mental, or behavioral response or manifestation. Occupation of police is highly stressful as they always have to face challenges to their life by taking risk in their daily work. A study by Johnson et al. (2005) found that police was one of the six professions where the high stress led to maximum impact in terms of poor health and low job satisfaction. Traumatic stress is well known stress cause by physical hazards and is common in police. This kind of stress arises due to Police organizational structures and hierarchies tend to be rigidly stratified and unresponsive to individual needs. The incidence of suicide and fratricide has been rising over the years due to the physical and psychological problems faced by the police force. The high rate of suicides is just due to higher stress levels in Indian police, which is also a matter of serious concern. Stress is a complex phenomenon with multiple variables. The role played by psychologists and government in relation to coping mechanisms at every stage of service for police in India in comparison with other countries like USA, Australia etc. is negligible in spite of the fact that there is a need to alleviate stress in India has been recognized . The present study aims to fulfill these gaps. II. OBJECTIVE The first objective of the study was systematically to review the current evidence on job stress, burnout, and mental health for the effectiveness of study on occupational stress of police. The second objective of this study was to review the literature on police stress with emphasis on manifestations as well as the symptoms of strain that facilitate recognition of problem, identification and delineation of the stressors experienced by law enforcement agents and coping behavior among law enforcers. III. METHODOLOGY The systematic review was conducted over a one-year period, and was completed March 2014.The study was based on the University of Pune guidelines for conducting systematic literature reviews. This review was conducted in two parts. The first part was focused on identifing sources of job stress and notice symptoms of sever job stress in police by reviewing research papers on stress, mental health and job performance. The second part of the review retrieved papers on job stress, burnout, coping measures that evaluated signs of stress at work, on performance and high risk associated with job stress. Studies included were research articles dating from 1972 to 2013 undertaken in different journals, conferences at national and international level by psychiatrists, psychologist, researchers and social science professors.

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IV. OBSERVATION Stress is an essential part of everybody’s life. All Stress is not always inevitable, but some time it is good. For example, the physical stress (i.e exercise) improves cardiovascular system, and feeling pressure of exam causes to study harder for results with high score. However Police stress refers to the negative pressures related to their work. Police officers are one of the common man. In many research study researcher exposed that police are affected by their everyday exposure to human offensiveness and pain; and that when the shift changes, the long periods of boredom, and the continuous danger that are part of police work do cause serious job stress. Dr. Hans Selye’s in his book “The Stress of Life” described the effect of long-term “stressors.” Dr. Selye maintains that the unrelieved effort to cope with stressors can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure, ulcers, digestive disorders, and headaches. Stressors in police work fall into four categories: 1. Stresses inherent in police work. 2. Stresses arising internally from police department practices and policies. 3. External stresses stemming from the criminal justice system and the society at large. 4. Internal stresses confronting individual officers. Dr. Martin published the first study of police officer stress in 1972 in the American Journal of Psychoanalysis based on Selye's work, describing psychological effects of stress in police officers proposed by Dr. Martin (1972), which divides the sources of police stress into two broad categories: (1) the nature of police work; and (2) the nature of police organizations. In the first category of stressors, Symonds includes constant exposure to danger, facing the unknown, confronting hostility, and making judgments in rapidly changing, unpredictab1e situations. In his second category, Dr. Martin includes the quasi-military structure of police organizations, competition for promotional opportunities, disagreeable job assignments, and varying tours of duty. The utility of S Dr. Martins' model as a framework for understanding police stress has been demonstrated in the work of William H. Kroes and his associates.[18] However, the first empirical study of police officer stress was conducted by Dr. William Kroes in 1974 and his study is the foundation for the formation of modern police stress awareness. Dr. Kroes Interviewed 100 Cincinnati police officers using an obtrusive semi-structured interview technique, categorizing primary Job stressors into equipment, courts, administration, and community relations areas. His research’s result clearly indicates organizational stressors, identified in the administration category, were the main sources of line officers’ concern.[25] Dr. Terry Elsenberg followed Kroes in 1975 with exploratory research based on his experiences as a psychologist and police officer, placing 33 implied sources of stress into six categories: intra-organizational practices and characteristics; Inter-organizational practices and characteristics; criminal Justice system practices and characteristics; public practices and characteristics; police work itself; and the police officer. The intra organizational practices and characteristics category contains features within an organization which may provoke or encourage stress development of stress such as poor supervision, absence or lack of career development opportunities, inadequate reward system, offensive policies, excessive paperwork, and poor equipment.[24] In a study sponsored by National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda conducted by Beehr, Terry A. and team on “Occupational Stress: Coping of Police and Their Spouses” (1991) suggest that coping activities of one might affect the strains of other. The activities in which the spouse is engaging will cause employee’s own coping attempt less effective (or more). A study through questionnaires including large city police department in the Eastern US and a suburban country department in the same state who provided the voluntary participants. A unique subset of the married officers and their spouses were indulged in this study. The questionnaires were anonymous in order to assure security of the officer’s identities and there were no direct way of matching each officer’s questionnaire with her or his spouse’s questionnaire. Its appeared to be five coping activities in which the police and their spouses engage when they experience stress: problem-focused coping, rugged individualism, avoidance, religion and self-blame. By studying the stress among the officer and their spouses, it enlightens the divorce potential as it is strongly correlated by the officer and his/her spouse. No coping strategy had an apparent effect on the divorce among the officer except for self-blame and its effect was deleterious. In the marriage life of officer and spouse blaming is a major factor cause trouble. Due to close bond between religion and marriage in our culture religion is also somewhat an affecting factor.[3] According to Mathur P study on “Stress in police personnel: A preliminary survey, NPA magazines, 1993:45, he found that there are few job related factors among Indian police personnel those are acting as specific stressors, for example inadequate equipment, fear of severe injury, working conditions, anti-terrorist operations, lack of recognition, being killed on duty, work overload shooting someone in the line of duty, tackle with the public, lack of job satisfaction and police hierarchy.[17] A study by Storch and Panzarella on “Police Stress: State-Trait Anxiety in Relation to Occupational Stress and Personal Stressors” (1996) finds that organizational factors and relationships with outsiders are major negative stressors, rather than potential violence or exposure to human misery. They find that the amount of stress or anxiety experienced by police officers is similar to other profession. The Police officers who enjoy job

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excitement, offense skirmishing experienced more stress than the Police officers who just focused on job compensation. Police officers who were facing changes at their work front or at family front are with more stress. The most objectionable feature in job of police officer is work schedule.[23] In another study according to Carson and Kuipers (1998), he divided the process of stress into three levels. The first level which contains stressors coming from external sources, e.g. high job demands, a lack of resources and lack of support from supervisors and colleagues etc., the second level suggest coping strategies those are acting as buffer against negative impact of stressors on individuals. The third level consists of the stress impact on individual which can be positive or negative.[4] According to Schaufeli and Enzmann (1998) study organizational stressors are divided into two groups: job demands and a lack of resources, where job demands tip to the required constant physical or mental exertion characteristic of the job and can consequently be associated with certain physiological and psychological costs, like excessive paper work, shift work, working over time, meeting deadlines and handling crisis situations. And job resources are part of the job that may be efficient in achieving work goals, reducing job demands and the probable physiological and psychological costs, and motivating personal development, e.g. sufficient equipment, excellent management, an ample salary, appreciation and adequate human resources.[21] Anshel (2000) highlighted three underlying postulates in stress research with police officers. Firstly, excessive or strange external stimuli that are professed as threatening will be traumatic and cause major changes in psychological, physiological and behavioral responses. The second stress postulate is that the failure to cope successfully with temporary unexpected stress which leads to long-standing, chronic stress, which might in turn restrain the body's resistant system, And then it leads to an array of medical illnesses and diseases. And lastly, sources of police stress that are ongoing and long-term will result in burnout, reduced motivation, poor performance, and eventual dropout from the police profession[1] A National Institute of Justice (NIJ) report published in 2000 summarized the causes and effects of job-related stress on law enforcement officers and their families. The exposure to violence, suffering, and death are the source of the stress among police officers. Due to rotating shifts of work of police officers unable to spend enough time with their families annoying these stressors. Report also highlighted few more stress causing incidence like high levels of violent offense, greater public scrutiny, unfavorable publicity, and changes in law enforcement such as the advent of community policing.[14] One more study conducted by Sergeant Corey Haines, Madison Heights Police Department in 2003 on “Police Stress and The Effect on The Family”. The objective of this research Paper was to identify the effects of stress on the Police Officer as it relate to his professional and family life and to identify how the department can assist to the officer in stress management . Another objective is to identify stressors and find the correct ways to handle the situation of stress before they become uncontrollable and cause negative impact on the officer and his/her family. Developing a counseling training program to the officers which will result in increased efficiency of the organizations has been proved by the research. The counseling process will add stress if it is conducted publically so it should be confidential. The study was concluded with the fact that there should be counseling programs for officer to balance their personal life and professional life, so that the divorce cases would reduce at an extent. The officers should be counseled time to time so that they relieve their stress and maintain a healthy relationship with not only organization but also with the family.[9] Pienaar and Rothmann conducted a study on South African Police Service in 2006. They found that 2145 police officers had a noteworthy impact on the occurrence of occupational stress in the SAPS. All the different groups experienced higher levels of stress due to lack of support, salary, promotion and recognition as compared to other occupational stressors. While considering rank in police department it was reported to have also impacted significantly on the experience of occupational stress in the police. Constables experienced stress less frequently because of job demands, crime-related stressors and lack of support in comparison to other ranked police officers.[16] A survey research conducted by Buker and Wiecko (2007) on civilian officers, police officers, and mid-level supervisors around 811 respondents working for the Turkish National Police Organization in which they founded the organizational factors are the most stressful as compared to other stressors.[10] A study carried out by Gul (2008) examined the stressors in policing and law enforcement officers’ depression on their profession. He also found that officers on duty of violent arrests feel more negative and depressed about their work. In addition to that officers who attended a police funeral were more likely to feel negative and depressed about their profession.[8] A study conducted by Martin Gachter and his team in 2009 on “Gender Variation of Physiological and Psychological Stress among Police Officers” with main objective is to analyze the effect of gender on reported and perceived level of stress through examination of both the physiological and physiological indicators.Data were taken for analysis from the study “SHIELD”(Study to Help, Identify, Evaluate and Limit department Stress) conducted by [7] Gerrshon(1999) in Baltimore, Maryland. Several indices were constructed to measure different aspects and outcomes of stress for the purpose of study. Initially, t-test was ran to control whether the mean level of perceived stress levels differ significantly between males and females. After then regression was

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ran to explore the partial effects rather than just the raw effects. A large set of explanatory variables were taken. There was no significant difference were found between males and females concerning physiological stress but the observation shows that female officers have higher level of physical stress (covering also somatization and overall health). Furthermore, stress mitigation factors overall like social capital, and perceptions of fairness (Individual) are affecting the male officers but not helps in reducing physical stress among female officers. For both gender groups, only work-life balance and home stability show the tendency to be statistically significant. The requirement of implication of important policy for stress-reducing programs among female police officers with the aim of reducing gender gaps leads to the conclusion of research. For the police officers to find a sane difference between their tasks, both at home and the job such program should focus on overcoming stereotype about job profiles and on allowing a reasonable work-life balance. And this also leads to an environment in which female officers work have significantly hindered their stress coping abilities.[19] The study conducted with The Campbell Collaboration by George T. Patterson and team on “The Effects of Stress Management intervention among Police Officers and Recruits”(2012) with the objective to identify, recover, assess and produce the available facts about effects of stress management involvement offered to veteran police officers and recruits. The research arrives with conclusion that stress management interventions had no significant effect on psychological, behavioral or physiological outcomes. The 12 primary studies examined psychological stress outcomes with stress can be contribute to negative psychological and physiological outcomes. To support the efficacy of stress management interventions for police officers or recruits, the result does not provide evidence. [14] According to Sergio Garbarino, Giovanni Cuomo, Carlo Chiorri, and Nicola Magnavita , in their study “Association of Work-Related Stress with Mental Health Problems on A Special Police Force(SPF) Unit”2013, Law and order enforcement tasks exposes special police officers to major psychological risk factors. The research team worked on to examine the correlation among job stress and the occurrence of mental health warning sign while scheming socio-demographical, occupational and personality variables among SPF. At various time points, 292 of 294 members of SPF completed questionnaire for the evaluation of personality traits, work-related stress and mental health problem such as depression, burnout, anxiety by using Demand-ControlSupport (DCS) and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance(ERI) models. While regression analysis showed that officers with higher levels of effort and over commitment getting less support and inappropriate reward were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. A noticeable increase in the risk of depression of employee those are unable to cope in stress situation. The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress play a important part in growth of mental health problems in police officers. The result of this study suggests that preventive measures should be implemented by department avoid distress and recover the mental well-being of SPF as they have to carry out sensitive tasks for which a strong psychological performance is required.[22] V. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION The occupational stress has leads to the development of negative outcomes for the individual employee and the employing organization. Degradation of general well-being as well as levels of satisfaction and commitment to the organization has each been identified as a result of the employee experiencing occupational stress. The results of stress are harmful to people, society and organizations. High levels of stress will cause negative effect on employees physical and mental well being ultimately shows effect on performance. Many studies shows that organizational factors are more responsible for stress than to physical hazards on the job. To take corrective measure police administration must take efforts to within organization and also by improving training programs, counseling session for police officers and family, good compensation and rewards policy and transparency at work place. Observations from intensive literature review are as follows: Sources of Job Stress Work Overload Staff Shortages Insufficient Resources Lack of Consultation Boring Administration Financial Crisis Organizational Structures Organizational Climate Non-Grant of Leaves Job/Task Conflicts Long Hours Political Pressure Neglected Family Life Handling Communal Riots Violent arrest Police Funeral etc.

Symptoms of Sever Stress in Police Poor job performance Suicidal thoughts or plans Crying Depression Irritability Short temper Excessive indigestion or heartburn Substance abuse or increased drinking Increased use of sick time Marital problems Sleeping too much or too little Loss of sexual drive Nightmares Isolation loss of interest in social activities Startling easily Changes in weight or appetite etc.

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Signs of Stress in the Work Place Increasing lateness Going home early Working excessive hours Absenteeism Withdrawal from social contacts Frequent mistakes Forgetting appointments or deadlines Long lunch breaks Increased smoking or drinking Inability to manage time Frequent accidents Conflict with colleagues etc.

High Risk in police due to stress High blood pressure Heart problems Insomnia Suicide Post-traumatic stress disorder Depression Anxiety disorders Infection caused by immune dysfunction Panic attacks etc.

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Anshel, M.H. (2000, June). A conceptual model and implications for coping with stressful events in police work. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27,375-400 Bushara Bano, “Job Stress among Police Personnel”, 2011 International Conference on Economics and Finance Research, IPEDR vol.4 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore Beehr Terry, et al; “Occupational Stress: Coping of Police and Their Spouses”, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago. Carson J. & Kuipers E. (1998) Stress management interventions in Occupational Stress: Personal and Professional Approaches (eds Handy S., Carson J. & Thomas B.), pp. 157–174, Stanley Thrones, Cheltenham. Daniel C. Ganster et al; “Organizational and Interpersonal Sources of Stress in the Slovenian Police Force”1996, Policing in Central and Eastern Europe. Gautam, D.N.(1993). The Indian Police: A Study in Fundamentals. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. Gershon, Robyn, (2000), “Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, MARYLAND, 1997-1999” [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University [producer], 1999. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for political and Social Research [distributor] Gul, Serdar Kenan, (2008), “Police Job Stress in the USA”, Turkish Journal of Police Studies (Polis Bilimleri Dergisi), V.10, I.1, pp.1-13. Haines, Sergant corey, “Police stress and the effects on the family”, research report submitted to School of Police Staff and Command Program, Madison, Sep, 2013. Hasan Buker, Filip Wiecko, (2007) "Are causes of police stress global?: Testing the effects of common police stressors on the Turkish National Police", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 30 Iss: 2, pp.291 - 309 J. E. Storch and R. Panzarella, "Police Stress: State-Trait Anxiety in Relation to Occupational Stress and Personal Stressors," Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 24, no. 2 (1996): 99-107. Jisu Ketan Pattanaik, Vidisha Worley, “Job expectation, adjustment, and coping mechanisms among women in two police forces in India”, working paper-April-2011,International Police Executive Symposium. Joel Samaha, book: Criminal Justice published by Thomson/Wadsworth-2005, ISBN: 0534645577, 978053464557. Patterson, George T., Irene W. Chung, “The Effects of Stress Management Interventions among Police Officers and Recruits” Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012:7 DOI:10.4073/csr.2012.7 Peter Finn, "On-the-Job Stress: Reducing It and Preventing It," National Institute of Justice Journal (January 2000): 18-24. Pienaar, J. & Rothmann, S. 2006. Job stress in the South African Police Service. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 32(3): 72‐ 78. Mathur, Pragya (1993). Stress in Police Personnel: A preliminary Survey. NPA Magazine, 45 (2), July-Dec Martin Reiser, "Some Organizational Stresses on Policemen," Journal of Police Science and Administration no. 2 (1972): 157. Martin Gachter, David Savage, Benno Torgler, “Gender Variations of Physiological and Psychological Stress among Police Officers”,working paper-2009-27. William Patrick, “The Role of Leadership in Police Organizational Stress”, 1990, Master thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Schaufeli, W.B., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis. Sergio Garbarino, Giovanni Cuomo, Chiorri C, et al. “Association of work-related stress with mental health problems in a special police force unit”, BMJ Open 2013; 3:e002791. Doi:10.1136 Storch, J.E.,Panzarella, R. “Police stress: state-trait anxiety in relation to occupational and personal stressors” Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 24, Number 2, 1996 , pp. 99-107(9) Terry Elsenberg, "Labor-Management Relations and Psychological Stress -- View from the Bottom," The Police Chief 42, no. 11 (1975): 54. William H. Kroes, Bruce L. Margolis, and Joseph J.Hurrell, Jr., "Job Stress in Policemen," Journal of Police Science and Administration 2,no. 2 (1974): 147 - 149.

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE, JOB SATISFACTION AND HAPPINESS OF THE EMPLOYEES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 1

Dr. Santosh Meena, 2 Ms. Mahima Agarwal 1 Assistant Professor, 2Student (M.A.) Department of Psychology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan, India Abstract: The organisations in the 21st century are faced with more challenges than ever before. These challenges are not unique to any specific organisation or industry, but affect all organisations, regardless of their structure and size. Organisational climate or environment of a workplace is one of the factors that explicitly or implicitly influence the level of performance of its employees, their level of job satisfaction and thus their happiness level. To understand the relation among organisational climate, job satisfaction and happiness, this study is being conducted. Organisational climate is a set of measurable properties of the work environment that is perceived directly or indirectly by the people who influence their motivation and behaviour. Job satisfaction can be defined as the attitude or feeling that one has about one’s job that is either positive or negative. Happiness is a state of well-being characterized by emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. This study was conducted on a sample of 90 employees (45 males, 45 female) of different educational institutions. The tools- organisational climate inventory (Chattopadhyay & Agarwal, 1976), job satisfaction scale (Singh & Sharma, 1984) and the happiness measure scale (Fordyce,1988) were used for the study. The data was analysed using correlational design and t-test. It was found in the study that there is positive correlation between organisational climate and job satisfaction, and organisational climate and happiness. It is also found that job satisfaction and happiness are negatively correlated to each other. Organisational climate of males and females is found to be significantly different and there is insignificant difference in job satisfaction and happiness of males and females. I. Introduction These days’ people are more inclined towards their profession. They prefer working in a comfortable environment and want to attain maximum satisfaction with the job they pursue. And this might affect their level of happiness. Organisations that are able to create environments that employees perceive to be benign and in which they are able to achieve their full potential are regarded as a key source of competitive advantage. Organisational climate can therefore be considered a key variable in successful organisations. One of the earliest and most widely accepted definitions of organisational climate is that organisational climate is a set of characteristics that describes an organisation, distinguishes it from other organisations, is relatively enduring over time and can influence the behaviour of people in it. (James & Jones, 1974; Johannesson, 1973; Moran & Volkwein, 1992; Woodman & King, 1978). According to Gray (2007), a supportive work environment is related to employees’ performance. He argues that a positive environment will result in motivated employees who enjoy their work. It therefore comes as no surprise that work climate is an excellent predictor of organisational and employee performance. According to Gruneberg (1979), the popularity of job satisfaction stems from the fact that it affects so many people as most of their time is spent at work. Job satisfaction can be defined as the attitude or feeling that one has about one’s job that is either positive or negative. Hence someone who has a high level of job satisfaction will have a positive feeling about his/her job, while someone who is dissatisfied will have negative feelings. Tenure refers to the number of years an employee has spent working (Oshagbemi, 2003). According to Bedeian, Ferris and Kacmar (1992) tenure and job satisfaction is positively related. Organisational variables are believed to have a moderating influence on the satisfaction-performance relationship, the most important being rewards. If individuals receive rewards for good performance and these rewards are considered equitable for the work done, the individual is likely to be satisfied, which is likely to result in improved performance (Luthans, 2005). It should be noted, however, that when the job satisfaction-job performance relationship is considered from an organisational perspective, it appears that those organisations with more satisfied employees are generally more effective than those with less satisfied employees (Luthans, 2005 & Robbins, S. P., Odendaal, A. & Roodt, G.,

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2003). According to these authors, the reason for this is that studies have focused on the individual and not the organisation and as a result, complex work processes and interactions have not been taken into account. Locke (1976) found increased job satisfaction to be associated with lower levels of turnover and higher levels of morale and productivity. Kopelman, R. E., Brief, A. P., & Guzzo, R. A. (1990, p. 303) in their considerable research indicated that organizational climate is associated with job satisfaction. Litwin and Stringer (1968) concluded that climates which result in “high job satisfaction create (a) the arousal of some positive motivational tendency, (b) attitudes appropriate to (and opportunities for) motivated behavior, and (c) appropriate reward for such behavior” (p.138). Spector (1997) states that individuals who dislike their jobs could experience negative health effects that are either psychological or physical. On the other hand, Luthans (2002) mentions that employees with high levels of job satisfaction tend to experience better mental and physical health. Happiness is a key component of wellbeing but there is little consensus on its definition or cause. Happiness is defined by Argyle (1997) as a positive inner experience. Happiness is very much a subjective construct. There are two broad concepts of happiness; hedonic and eudaimonic. The hedonic concept focuses on subjective wellbeing and is defined as more positive effect, less negative effect, and greater life satisfaction (Diener& Lucas, 1999); in contrast the eudaimonic concept focuses on psychological well-being and is defined as meaningfulness (McGregor & Little, 1998). Blanchflower and Oswald (2004) found that happiness was “U-shaped in age,” with well-being reaching “a minimum, other things held constant, around the age of 40”. Helliwell and Putnam (2004) claim that there is “no strong and straightforward” relationship between gender and subjective well-being. They did find that men reported slightly higher levels of life satisfaction than women, and that “a gender effect sometimes arises and sometimes does not, depending on the specification of the model” (p. 1440). Thus, they hint that there may be a complex relationship between gender and subjective well-being and gender, possibly moderated by other variables. II. Objectives • To examine the correlation among organisational climate, job satisfaction and happiness. • To find out difference in organisational climate, job satisfaction and happiness in males and females. III. Hypotheses • Organisational climate would be positively correlated to job satisfaction and happiness. • There would be a positive correlation between job satisfaction and happiness. • Organisational climate of males would be significantly different from the organisational climate of females. • There would be significant difference in job satisfaction of male and female. • Happiness of male and happiness of female would have significant difference between each other. IV. Methodology Sample: The research was conducted on a sample of 90 (45 Males, 45 Females), age ranging from 25 to 60 years, teaching and non-teaching staff members from various educational institutions- Banasthali University (Rajasthan), Poddar Senior Secondary School (Jaipur), Rukmini Devi Public School (Delhi), Delhi Kannada School (Delhi) and B.I.T. (Meerut). Tools Employed: The materials required for this research included three different assessments • Organisational Climate Inventory (OCI-B): developed by Chattopadhyay and Agarwal (1976). It is a 70 item inventory. The validity of the inventory is .001 and the reliability is .89. • Job Satisfaction Scale: developed by Singh and Sharma (1984). It is a 30 statement scale. The reliability is 0.97 and validity is 0.81. • The Happiness Measures: developed by Fordyce (1988) with the test retest reliability of 0.85 and validity as 0.70. Procedure After the grant of permission to collect data from the above mentioned institutions the questionnaires were given to the subjects. Participants were given the instructions before handing over the questionnaires. Data was analysed in terms of t-ratio and coefficients of correlation in accordance with the objectives. V. Results TABLE1. CORRELATION BETWEEN VARIABLES VARIABLES Organisational climate & job satisfaction Organisational climate & happiness Job satisfaction & happiness

PEARSON CORRELATION

SIGNIFICANCE

.56 .00 -.02

.00 .99 .85

TABLE1 gives a glance to the correlation among three variables- organisational climate, job satisfaction and happiness. There is positive and significant correlation between organisational climate and job satisfaction

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(t(88)= 0.56, p<0.01), and the correlation between organisational climate and happiness is found positive but insignificant (t(88)= 0, p>0.05). Table also reveals that job satisfaction and happiness have negative and insignificant correlation with each other (t(88)= -0.02, p> 0.05). TABLE 2. T-VALUE OF MALES AND FEMALES VARIABLES Organisational climate Job satisfaction Happiness

MEAN Male= 240.22 Female= 215.44 Male= 74.96 Female= 70.04 Male= 36.53 Female= 39.78

T

DF

SIGNIFICANCE

3.33

88

.00

1.95

88

.05

0.46

88

.65

TABLE 2 indicates that there is highly significant difference between the organisational climate of male and organisational climate of female. (t(88)= 3.33, p<.01). According to the table, the average scores of males for organisational climate are 240.22 and that of females for organisational climate are 215.44. Hence, males have better organisational climate than females. It is also shown in the table that there is insignificant difference between the two- job satisfaction of male and job satisfaction of female. (t(88)= 1.95, p>.05). According to the table, the average scores of males for job satisfaction are 74.96 and that of females for job satisfaction are 70.04. Hence males are more satisfied with their job than females. Table also shows insignificant difference between the two- happiness of male and happiness of female. (t(88)= -.46, p>.05) The average scores of males for happiness are 36.53 and females for happiness are 39.78. It is evident that females are happier than males. VI. DISCUSSION The present study is aimed at exploring the relation among organisational climate, job satisfaction and happiness of the employees of educational institutions. On the basis of literature review it was hypothesized that organisational climate would be positively correlated to job satisfaction and happiness (as shown in Table 1) and results partially support the hypothesis. There is significant correlation between organisational climate and job satisfaction. Patterson, Warr and West (2004) conducted studies on the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between global organisational climate and productivity at 39 manufacturing companies containing 4503 employees in total. They found a positive significant correlation between 5 of the 17 climate dimensions and company productivity. Correlation is insignificant for organisational climate and happiness. Because happiness is a feeling, it also depends on various factors that could be intrinsic or extrinsic. Happiness is based on individual differences. Happiness varies from person to person and is based on individual differences. Different people attribute different reasons to their happiness, for example, spending quality time with family, having an understanding relationship with spouse, having a luxurious life, being with friends, etc. these might collectively give happiness to people. Thus, organisational climate can be one moderating factor for happiness but not solely responsible for it. There is insignificant negative correlation between job satisfaction and happiness (as shown in Table 1) thus rejecting the hypothesis 2 that there would be a positive correlation between job satisfaction and happiness. The reason is very much related to human’s basic tendency- the more we get, the more we crave for. All humans have inclination towards materialistic life and this leads to dissatisfaction for whatever we have. Thus, whatever we get we try to acquire more which when not done so affects our happiness. The third hypothesis is accepted with the results showing significant difference in organisational climate of males and females (Table 2). The probable reason for this result could be that there are gender biases experienced by females. Being a male dominant society more preferences are given to males than females and this affects the organisational climate provided to both. Males are more comfortable while due to gender stereotypical behaviour of colleagues females do not find their organisational climate apt for them. Also because of this they are not able to form good interpersonal relationships with their colleagues, which is also one of the factors contributing to the organisational climate. Results have found that there is insignificant difference in job satisfaction and happiness of males and females (Table 2), rejecting the last hypothesis. Previous studies are also found to be in accordance with this finding. Robbins et al. (2003) argue that no evidence exists suggesting that gender impacts on an employee’s job satisfaction. The authors are of the opinion that gender differences can have an effect on the relationship between job dimensions and job satisfaction, but that it does not have a direct impact on job satisfaction. Happiness varies from person to person. Helliwell and Putnam (2004) claim that there is “no strong and straightforward” relationship between gender and subjective well-being. Thus, they hint that there may be a

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complex relationship between gender and subjective well-being and gender, possibly moderated by other variables, but do not elaborate. Limitations • Research was conducted on a relatively small sample size (N=90). • The research was limited to educational institutions only. • VII. Conclusion From this study it can be concluded that organisational climate is one of the most important factors responsible for an individual’s level of satisfaction towards his/her job, but only a moderating factor in determining his/her happiness. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

[8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

Argyle, M. (1997). Is happiness a cause of health, Psychology & Health, 12(6), 769-781. Bedeian, A., Ferris, G., & Kacmar, K. (1992). Age, tenure, and job satisfaction: A tale of two perspective. Journal of Vocational behavior, 40, 33-48. Blanchflower D. G. & A. J. Oswald. 2004. Well-being over time in Britain and the USA. Journal of Public Economics 88: 1359-1386. Brief, A. P., &Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial organisational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 710-725. Chattopadhyay, S. & Agarwal, K. G. (1976). Class, culture and organisation, New Delhi: National Labor Institute. Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (1999). Personality and subjective well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology. In Kahneman, D.,Diener, E. & Schwarz, N. (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology, (pp. 213-229). New York, NY, US: Russell Sage Foundation. Fordyce, M. W. (1988). A review of research on the happiness measures: A sixty second index of happiness and mental health. Social Indicators Research, 20, 63-89. Gray, R. (2007). A climate of success: Creating the right organizational climate for high performance. Amsterdam. Elsevier Gruneberg, M.M. (1979). Understanding job satisfaction. London: MacMillan. Helliwell, J.F., & Putnam, R.D. (2004). The social context of well-being. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 359, 1435-1446. James, L.R., & Jones, A.P. (1974). Organisational climate: A review of theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 81(12), 1096-1112. Johannesson, R.E. (1973). Some problems in the measurement of organisational climate. Organisational Behavior and Human Performance, 10, 118-144. Kopelman, R. E., Brief, A. P., &Guzzo, R. A. (1990). The role of climate and culture in productivity. In B. Schneider (Eds.), Organisational climate and culture. (pp.282-318). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Litwin, G.H., & Stringer, R.A. Jr. (1968). Motivation and Organisational Climate. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press. Locke, E. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. Dunnett (Ed.).Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. (pp. 1297-1349). Chicago: Rand McNally. Luthans, F. (2002). Organizational behavior (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. th Luthans, F. (2005). Organisational Behavior(10 ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin. McGregor, I., & Little, B. R. (1998). Personal projects, happiness, and meaning: on doing well and being yourself. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 494-512. Moran, E.T., &Volkwein, J.F. (1992). The cultural approach to the formation of organisational climate. Human Relations, 45(1), 19-47. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organisational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Oshagbemi, T. (2003). Is length of service related to the level of job satisfaction? International Journal of Social Economics,27(3), 213-226. Patterson, M., Warr, P., West, M. (2004). Organisational climate and company productivity: The role of employee affect and employee level. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology,77(2), 193-216. Robbins, S. P., Odendaal, A. &Roodt, G. (2003). Organisational Behaviour – Global and Southern African perspective. Pretoria: Pearson Education. Singh, A. & Sharma, T. R (1984). Job satisfaction scale. National Psychological Corporation, Agra. Spector, P.E. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, causes and consequences. New York: Harper & Row. Woodman, R.W., & King, D.C. (1978). Organisational climate: Science of folklore? Academy of Management Review, 3(4), 816826.

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

A View – Real Democratic India Towards Superpower (Phase I) DHARANE S.S. SVERI’S College of Engineering Pandharpur, Maharashtra, India Abstract: The India, Real democratic India, Non corrupt India, Happy India can be made more powerful by adopting following steps. Following steps are interconnected so, if these steps are implemented at a time and as an earliest then it is very effective. Keywords: Democracy, democratic, aaddhar, voting, population, human resource, funds, gold. Step 1. Bank accounts:- Is it possible to my Govt. to open the bank accounts of each student studying from first standard? Ans:- Yes……….…… (open the bank accounts with zero balance in beginning) Step 2. Aaddhhar:- Is it possible to my Govt. to give the Aaddhhar Id Facility to each student from first standard ? Ans:_- Yes………..…… Step 3. Voting Right:- Is it possible to my Govt. to give the Voting right to all students from first standard ( above 5 years age) Ans:- Yes…………… If answer is – No, then why in my nation the evidence of child is considered more strong in law and order? and I do have one more question that if voting right depends on age , then let us take the example of president of the India and assume that he/she is from every village, then whom he/she will vote? In my View , my all new C. B. I. Officers (all students from first standard) can decide it far better. And because of this all govt., political parties/persons will love to all C.B.I. officers (all students) and will interact with them to solve the problems of nation and nation will get new innovative ideas , also it makes law and order more smooth. Unnecessary there is a fear between students and political peoples, which neither any political person wants nor any student. Also there is a big misunderstanding among the peoples/students about who is govt.? Because of voting rights to the students, from childhood every student will accept that he/ she is the govt. ultimately it makes more happy, non corrupt and real democratic nation. Step 4. C. B. I. officers:- Is it possible to my Govt. to openly declare that all students from first standard as C.B.I. officers and pay for them every month to their bank accounts. Ans:- Yes…..………… Thinking of Corruption will stop from childhood. As there may not be unnecessary fear between students and political peoples, which neither any political person wants nor any student, this unwanted fear will automatically stop. And parents will also not unnecessarily worry about the futures of their wards/ nation. And because of this real pillars of my nation will become stronger. Step 5. Funds:- Is it possible to my govt. to generate and Utilize the funds more effectively for one and all in my India by paying monthly on regular basis to my new Citizens, C.B.I. officers(all students from first standard )?, Ans:- Yes……….……. Then funds can be generated by increasing tax at drastic rate on unwanted things and at the same time openly declare that my govt. is going to ban the use and storage of these unwanted things, such as gold, diamond, silver etc. etc. except sentimental things like mangalsutra etc.(every day Tax should be increased by 1%.) Also Indian Military May be made alert of this thing. Because of this decision in first phase peoples will start to sell the gold, diamond, etc. i. e. unwanted things. ( after one year) In second phase Indian military will collect the gold , silver , diamond etc from people without paying any money. (except sentimental things like mangalsutra etc.) And will Submit/ deposit to government. In third and fourth phase collection and deposition of gold, diamond etc may be along with mild and heavy punishment. There are so many reasons and views to generate the funds and from these funds payment of the new C.B. I. officers (all students from first standard) can be made. So that all human resources can be used more effectively. (e.g. Humans are working very hard and at the end of day they are wasting their money in such unwanted things ).

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So by this small principle we can generate the sufficient funds, and whole Indian military could not able to lift that much of funds can be made available by such simple principle, and can be saved and Utilized more effectively. Also human recourse can be effectively used for their development and National development. Step 6. Elections:- Is it possible to my govt. to conduct the elections every year? (Election period can be reduced gradually to one year.) Ans :- Yes…………… Is it possible? Ans:- Yes……………. Step 7. Political Parties: - In my democratic country there are so many political parties. Now I do have one question that who is ruling in my democratic country. In my view directly/ indirectly political parties are ruling in my democratic country. To achieve real democracy it is necessary that either there should be only one political party or it is necessary that make political parties equal to population, I mean demolish all political parties. So that everyone is political party and government. Why is it so? Because every political party is facing the problems of deserving candidates, indirectly nation is facing the problem of deserving candidates.by demolishing all political parties or making one man – one political party automatically deserving candidates will come up and nation will not get the problem of deserving political leaders. And the purpose of real democracy will achieve. Step 8. Voting system: - I do have big question that how much current voting system is feasible to achieve the real democracy. If we ask this question to our president (president of India), In my view the answer is not more than 10% . As all political parties are facing the problem of deserving candidates and even because of current voting system, the % of voting is also less. The voting system should be like positive and negative points basis. Say maximum 10 positive points and maximum 10 negative points can be vote to the candidates who have applied for particular post. Every person can decide the suitability of candidates for particular post in points. (+10, +9,+8,+….,0,-1,-2,-3,..-10) At last candidate who gets maximum positive points can declare as elected for that particular post for one year. This is very easy because of technology. Also it creates lot of awareness in people about the democratic nation (above five years old citizens/childhood) Also, the election should not be conducted on only one day but sufficient time should be given to study and vote, say one month. And voting should be made mandatory. Step 9:- One step action:-The ministry should not be formed from elected candidates in steps but it should be in one step. At the time of filling forms itself candidates have to decide that for which post he wants to apply.(one candidate can give maximum three options) Step 10:- Population:-Human resource plays very important role and now it is possible for my country and it’s a need to increase the population. All above steps are interconnected, so to get its more effect, apply it at a time and as an earliest. *Also if this is adopted by other nations then very soon world will go towards love and peace. SALIENT FEATURES AND COCLUSION 1. Real pillars of my nation will become stronger. 2. Real democratic country. 3. Utilization of funds in proper direction. 4. Utilization of human resource in proper direction. 5. Smooth law and order. 6. No corruption. 7. Love and peace. 8. Happy India and Happy world.

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

MISSION STATEMENT ANALYSIS OF SELECTED PUBLIC SECTOR AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS IN INDIA 1

RAJANI K G, 2VIJAY LAKSHMY K V 1,2 Assistant Professor Department of Commerce and Management Amrita School of Arts and Sciences Kochi, Kerala, INDIA Abstract: The need to win over competitors in business world brings the relevance of application of certain tactics and strategies and thus came the subject, Strategic Management. All the strategists design strategies for their concern based on business vision and mission. This shows the relevance of the topic. A well designed; correctly worded mission statement explains the reason and the unique purpose of a concern’s existence. A mission statement shows “what is the business of a firm” and also gives the stakeholder’s an idea that their claims will be taken care of. In the field of cut throat competition, every business has to set strategies and for the formulation of strategies, mission statements are to be evaluated and analysed. Constant evaluation and revisions are needed for mission statements and such an evaluation is a beginning to the process of assessing its overall effectiveness. The present study done on the mission statements of 5 public sector banks and 5 private sector banks is a component based analysis and it reveals that on a whole, all of them gave prime importance to their customers and least importance to the technology which actually they are making use of to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing environment. Key Terms: Modern Banking, Strategy, Mission, Mission statement __________________________________________________________________________________________ I. Introduction Present is a competitive world for all forms of inhabitants on this mother earth. Things become much more competitive among those in the business world, never the matter which stream of business, one is involved in. Competitions lead to innovations, be it in relation to products manufactured or services rendered. The same is applicable to banking field as well. Banks have become part and parcel of our life. Banking in the modern sense does much more than what banks did a few decades ago. Banks have come much ahead of their activities of mere acceptance of deposits and lending of loans. According to the opinion of banking experts in developed countries, Banks are defined as profit- oriented financial institutions. The earlier definitions of Banking have become obsolete. Every banker is running behind the customer with a wide range of innovative packages, be it with regard to product mix offered or with regard to the services rendered. All banks make use of most modern technologies to the maximum and try to be with the customers every moment. Cash at account holder’s finger tips at the swipe of a card 24x7x365, knowing account balance at the same finger tip, fulfilling needs even with zero account balances, booking tickets taking comforts of home and not in queues, thanks to the modern banks who have very well made use of most of the technological advancements of the day. Strategic Management is all about possessing and maintaining competitive advantages and setting strategies to win over competitors. When a firm has some competencies that the rivals do not possess, those can be converted into strategies. While doing strategic planning for a concern, strategists have to analyse on their vision and mission statements, evaluate if there are existing ones or set them. Vision of an organization tells what the business firm wants to become in the long run. Mission tells about how the firm can reach there, that is about the firm’s operations and details on how one firm is different from the other. Mission statement, as explained by experts lays down the concept of the company and answers the question, “Why a firm exists?” II. Significance of the study Peter F Drucker, Father of Modern Management, has clearly shown the importance of business mission as “A business is not defined by its name, statutes, or articles of incorporation. Only a clear definition of the mission 1

1

Fred R David, Strategic Management_ Concepts and Cases (A Competitive advantage approach), 14th edition, 2014, PHI Learning Pvt Ltd; Pg.no: 42

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and purpose of the organization makes possible, clear and realistic business objectives.” 2Dr. Bob Williams (Williams & Co) rightly identified the importance of mission statement analysis which goes like “Mission statement becomes the road map to the company’s success or failure. Therefore it must be done first, it must be constantly reviewed and updated and it must be kept current and alive. It is the company. It will be your mirror image, so it must be right.”The mission statement helps a concern to find out their path to move through from among that of their competitors. A neatly worded mission statement helps the employees and other stakeholders of a concern to know what the business of the concern is and to discover that each of them are given importance by the concern in their journey towards achieving the goals. There is no mission statement that can be called as a perfect one, says expert strategists. But there are certain characteristic features and components expected in these statements. Mission statements are to be evaluated at regular intervals based on these characteristics. The mission statement in addition to identifying products or services of a company, the technology applied for that, and about the markets, it embodies the values and beliefs of a company. Whether a firm is developing its line of business in pace with the speed of current competition, whether they are reformulating direction for an ongoing process, and changing their basic goals keeping their basic philosophies firm, and attaining a strategic posture, all these are to be embodied in the form of a legible statement and that is Mission statement. A fairly good mission statement, experts opine that, they should clearly narrate on the firm’s products/ services, their customers, their targeted market, the technology applied by them, their concern for growth, profitability and survival, their self concept and philosophies, their concern for employees and for creating a public image. Many studies reveal that business firms set nice mission statements but whether essential components are included, whether frequent evaluations are done on it, whether those statements reflect the claims of stakeholders and whether they are timely revised, all are matters less bothered about. That shows the relevance of the study. III. Objectives To do a component wise analysis of mission statements of selected public sector and private sector banks. IV. Methodology The particular study analyses mission statements of randomly selected 5 public sector banks and 5 private sector banks, on the basis of a “9-component base” developed by strategists from their experience. The components are as under: 1 Customers 2 Products/ Services 3 Market 4 Technology 5 Concern for profitability, growth and survival 6 Philosophy 7 Self Concept 8 Concern for Public Image 9 Concern for employees The banks were chosen on random sampling basis. The mission statements were collected from the bank’s websites. The component wise analysis was done with respect to all mission statements and the presence of components in the mission statements was analysed on an average-score basis and also individual bank’s basis to check on their adoption of these components to their statements in the form of percentages. A comparative analysis of the selected public sector and private sector banks is also done. The analysis results are presented in tables and graphs. Table 1.1: Sorted Result of Mission Statement Analysis of selected Public Sector Banks Component No:

Bank of Baroda

SBI

IDBI Bank

Canara Bank

Syndicate Bank

Average score

1 1 1

2 1 1

3 4 3

2 2 1

1 1 2

1.8 1.8 1.6

7 2

Customers Philosophy Concern for survival, growth and profitability Self Concept Products/Services

2 0

2 1

1 3

1 1

2 1

1.6 1.2

3 8

Markets Concern for public image

1 1

2 0

2 2

0 2

1 1

1.2 1.2

9

Concern for employees

1

0

1

1

1

0.8

4

Technology

0

1

1

0

1

0.6

1 6 5

Components

Source: Table 1 in Appendix 2

www.mlmia.com- Article: The Mission Statement- Why, How and its importance,

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Graph- 1 Sorted Result of Mission Statement Analysis of selected Public Sector Banks Average score 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Average score

Source: Table 1.1 Interpretation The component wise analysis of selected public sector banks reveals that the components- Customer and Philosophy are given most importance while drafting their mission statements and they have given least importance to the component- Technology. Table 2.2: Sorted Result of Mission Statement Analysis of selected Private Sector Banks Component No:

Components

South Indian Bank

Dhanlaxmi Bank

Federal Bank

ICICI Bank

HDFC Bank

Average score

1 6 8 7 3

Customers Philosophy Concern for public image Self Concept Markets

3 2 1 2 0

1 0 2 1 0

1 1 1 2 0

3 4 4 2 4

2 2 1 1 2

2 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.2

9 5

1 0

1 1

1 1

2 2

1 1

1.2 1

2

Concern for employees Concern for survival, growth and profitability Products/Services

0

0

1

1

2

0.8

4

Technology

1

0

0

1

1

0.6

Source: Table 2.1 in Appendix Graph-2 Sorted Result of Mission Statement Analysis of selected Private Sector Banks Average score 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Average score

Source: Table 2.2

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Interpretation The component wise analysis of selected private sector banks reveals that the component- Customer is given most importance while drafting their mission statements and they also have given least importance to the component- Technology. Table 3.2: The presence of components in the mission statements (Public Sector Banks) Bank

Presence of Component (Score out of 9)

Percentage

Bank of Baroda

7

77 %

SBI

7

77 %

IDBI Bank

9

100 %

Canara Bank

7

77 %

Syndicate Bank

9

100 %

Bank of Baroda

7

77 %

Source: Table 3.1 in Appendix Graph- 3 The presence of components in the mission statements (Public Sector Banks) Percentage 120% 100% 80% 60% Percentage 40% 20% 0% Bank of Baroda

SBI

IDBI Bank

Canara Bank

Syndicate Bank

Bank of Baroda

Source: Table 3.2 Interpretation: On a whole, one can find that, it is IDBI bank and Syndicate bank who have used all the components while drafting the mission statement while others have excluded 2 components each, which leaves a scope for their further revising the mission statements including these left out components. Table 4.2- The presence of components in the mission statements (Private Sector Banks) Bank

Presence of Component (Score out of 9)

Percentage

South Indian Bank

6

66 %

Dhanlaxmi bank

5

55 %

Federal bank

7

77 %

ICICI bank

9

100%

HDFC bank

9

100%

Source: Table 4.1 in Appendix

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Graph- 4 The presence of components in the mission statements (Private Sector Banks) Percentage 120% 100% 80% 60% Percentage 40% 20% 0% South Indian Bank

Dhanlaxmi bank

Federal bank

ICICI bank

HDFC bank

Source: Table 4.2 Interpretation On a whole, one can find that, ICICI Bank and HDFC bank have used all the components while drafting the mission statement while others have not, which leaves a scope for their further revising the mission statements including these left out components. Table- 5 Comparison based on Average Score Component No: 1

Components

Average score of public sector banks 1.8

Customers

Average score of private sector banks 2

2

Products/Services

1.2

0.8

3

Markets

1.2

1.2

4

Technology

0.6

0.6

5

Concern for survival, growth and profitability

1.6

1

6

Philosophy

1.8

1.8

7

Self Concept

1.6

1.6

8

Concern for public image

1.2

1.8

9

Concern for employees

0.8

1.2

Source: Tables 1.2 and 2.2 Interpretation: The comparison of Average Scores of Component Wise Analysis reveals that both Private as well as Public Sector Banks has given maximum importance to the component- Customers and they have given least importance to the component- Technology. Table- 6 Comparison based on the presence of Components in Mission Statements Public Sector Banks

Percentage

Private Sector Banks

Percentage

Bank of Baroda

77 %

South Indian Bank

66 %

SBI

77 %

Dhanlaxmi Bank

55 %

IDBI Bank

100 %

Federal Bank

77 %

Canara Bank

77 %

ICICI Bank

100%

100 %

HDFC Bank

100%

Syndicate Bank

Source: Tables- 3.2 and 4.2

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Interpretation: The table reveals that 2 banks in both sectors have included all the components. A general analysis shows that the public sector banks have included the maximum components and private sector banks have not bothered that much to include maximum components. V. Suggestions Banks now a day make maximum use of computer technology. Most of the innovations that they have made are purely depended on Technology. Banks are increasingly taking advantage of most modern technologies. So, including that component in the mission statement also demands much attention. Most of the banks are coming up with innovative products every now and then. Even that component was not given importance. That has to be corrected and the presence of products and services must be made in the mission statements. On a whole, it can be advised that the left out components, mainly Technology and Products/ Services must be taken into consideration and the mission statements are to be revised and stated. The mission statements, as they are supposed to reflect true picture on the business of a firm, it would be appreciable if these suggestions be considered and followed up. VI. Conclusion “Innovation in Banking for future growth” is a statement that states about one of the strategies that banks adopt in the present competitive world to win over competitors, that is product strategies. When discussions are conducted about these strategies, this study provides an add on to it by giving a bird’s eye view on some specific matters that need attention, i.e, the drafting, evaluation and revision of Mission statements, which are mostly overlooked by most organizations. A mission statement reflects what the organization is? ; And therefore much attention is to be given for it so that the contented stakeholders would lead the concern to success indirectly. A good mission statement is a declaration of attitude and outlook of a business firm. It needs to indicate the relative attention that an organization will devote to meeting the claims of various stakeholders. In that connection, these banks that were studied gave maximum importance to their main stakeholders, the CUSTOMERS. It is a positive sign. The customer is the foundation of any organization and keeps it existence. It is the customer whose willingness to pay for goods and services converts a firm’s economic resources into wealth. In that sense, these mission statements very well succeed. But the element TECHNOLOGY (which if present shows whether the business is technologically current) must definitely be given its place in the mission statements of modern banks and also much importance must be given to the component PRODUCTS/SERVICES (which gives an idea on firm’s products and services) which present bankers have in abundance, with them. Mission statements are to be carefully prepared and are to be tested and subjected to revisions. Organizations (doing all forms of businesses) have to re examine their Vision and Mission annually and only effective mission statements stand the test of time. Appendix Table 1.1: Component wise Mission statements' analysis of selected Public Sector Banks Component No: 1 2 3 4 5

Components Customers Products/Services Markets Technology Concern for survival, growth and profitability Philosophy Self Concept Concern for public image Concern for employees

6 7 8 9

Bank of Baroda 1 0 1 0 1

SBI 2 1 2 1 1

IDBI bank 3 3 2 1 3

Canara Bank 2 1 0 0 1

Syndicate Bank 1 1 1 1 2

Average score 1.8 1.2 1.2 0.6 1.6

1 2 1 1

1 2 0 0

4 1 2 1

2 1 2 1

1 2 1 1

1.8 1.6 1.2 0.8

Source: Mission statements in websites of banks Table 2.2: Component wise Mission statements' analysis of selected Private Sector Banks Component No:

Private Sector Banks

South Indian Bank

Dhanlaxmi bank

Federal bank

ICICI bank

HDFC bank

Average score

Components 1

Customers

3

1

1

3

2

2

2

Products/Services

0

0

1

1

2

0.8

3

Markets

0

0

0

4

2

1.2

4

Technology

1

0

0

1

1

0.6

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5

Concern for survival, growth and profitability

0

1

1

2

1

1

6

Philosophy

2

0

1

4

2

1.8

7

Self Concept

2

1

2

2

1

1.6

8

Concern for public image

1

2

1

4

1

1.8

9

Concern for employees

1

1

1

2

1

1.2

Source: Mission statements in websites of banks Table 3.1: Checking the presence of components in Mission Statements in case of Public Sector Banks Sl. No:

Component No: Banks South Indian Bank

1

2

3

4

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

5

6

7

8

9

Total

%

6

66

5

55

7

77

ICICI bank

9

100

HDFC bank

9

100

X

1 Dhanlaxmi bank 2 Federal bank 3 4

X

5

Source: Mission statements in websites of banks Table 4.1: Checking the presence of components in Mission Statements in case of Private Sector Banks Component No: Banks Bank of Baroda

1

2

3

X

4

6

7

8

9

X

IDBI Bank

Total

7

X

SBI

Canara Bank

5

X

7 9

X

X

Syndicate Bank

7 9

% 77 77 100 77 100

Source: Mission statements in websites of banks References TEXT BOOKS 1. David R Fred, Strategic Management- Concepts and Cases, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, 13th Edition, ISBN-978-81-203-4338-2 2. John A Pearce II and Richard B Robinson Jr., Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation and Control, 9th edition, Tata McGraw Hill WEB SITES 1. http://www.bankofbaroda.co.in/ 2. http://www.sbi.co.in/ 3. http://www.idbi.com/ 4. https://www.canarabank.in/ 5. http://www.syndicatebank.in/ 6. http://www.southindianbank.com/ 7. http://www.dhanbank.com/ 8. http://www.federalbank.co.in/ 9. http://www.icicibank.com/ 10. http://www.hdfcbank.com/

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Travelling through Cultural Spaces: R.K.Narayan – the Indian Vs the Writer in My Dateless Diary: an American Journey Bibhudatta Dash Research Scholar in English Literature Dept. of Humanities, Social Sciences & Management National Institute of Technology Karnataka (NITK) Mangalore – 575025, INDIA Abstract: In the later years of his writing career, as R.K.Narayan discovers the unchartered territories of America, we uncover the two minds which function simultaneously: Narayan- the Indian, and Narayan- the writer. The cultural differences which he faces surprise him at times; and at times land him into uncalled for situations. Narayan carries with him an India to America and returns back with an America, which juxtaposes in different ways to his India. Several perspectives come out as we move though the narrative. What were the situations Narayan had to face? Was he able to dwell in the dual consciousness of playing two different roles and living between two different identities at the same time in a foreign land? And finally was he able to connect with the cultural spaces around him? The aim of this paper would be to find answers to these questions by discussing the above two channels of thought (R.K.Narayan – the Indian Vs the Writer) one after another that contribute to the essence Narayan’s autobiographical essays in My Dateless Diary: an American Journey. Keywords: American, Indian, Cultural space, Dual consciousness, Writer, Identity

I. Introduction “At the age of fifty, when most people have settled for the safety of routine, R.K.Narayan left India for the first time to travel through America.” [1] My Dateless Diary records the memories of R.K.Narayan’s American Journey where he connects with the western sphere of the world. His astonishments, alienation, encounters with life, and growth as a writer, all have been elaborately narrated in this book. Narayan carries with him an India to America and returns back with an America, which juxtaposes in different ways to his India. As Narayan discovers the unchartered territories of America we uncover the two minds which function simultaneously: Narayan- the Indian, and Narayan- the writer. Several perspectives come out as we move though the narrative. This paper shall discuss the above two channels of thought one after another that contribute to the essence of the book. II. R.K.Narayan- the Indian The Indian in Narayan looks at the West with a very different perspective. He keeps on comparing the West with the East. He always tries to see his India in the West and see how things are different in both places and how his India is better in comparison to America. We may take a simple example from the text: When I approached for coffee and was asked, 'Black or white?' 'Neither', I said haughtily. The server looked up rather puzzled. 'What do you mean?' he asked. 'I want it neither black nor white, but brown which ought to be the colour of honest coffee – that's how we make it in South India where devotees of perfection in coffee assemble from all over the world'. [2] Donald L. Fixico makes this more explicit with his observation, “Collectively the urban Indian experience is shared by native people who have visited and lived in large cities, often bewildering experience involving encounters with the strange ways of a different culture, stories of what happened to urban Indians from sad instances to funny situations.” [3] Narayan has always retained the desi way of thinking and writing. His style is full of cultural analogies. He is less a tourist and more an Indian, travelling through America. He keeps leaning on the memory lane and getting nostalgic about India. His response to the western stimuli (food, people, music, movies, encounters, and situations) is as amusing as his lament for the eastern ambience. Through his writing we see how America becomes an interesting laboratory where he experiments with life and turns out to be a person of diverse experiences. Being a vegetarian makes him land into situations where he is unable to get food to eat. “As one immigrant put it, “For Americans, vegetarianism is fad, like a new age sort of thing, which you delve into

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periods of time. They ask, ‘How long have you been a vegetarian?’ and are shocked to find that I haven’t eaten meat all my life.”” [4] Narayan faces difficulty in explaining the waiter what he needs because he is unable to believe that a person can be fully vegetarian (herbivorous). The following lines can be quoted from the text as an example: “Felt hungry and slipped into a shop and asked for food, explaining that I was a vegetarian. I uttered the word ‘vegetarian’ with greatest caution since it stirred people in all unexpected ways; and dismayed them as if I had said I was a ‘Man-eater’. So I generally softened the blow by asking ‘Can you give me a lunch, please?’” [5] Madhulika S. Khandelwal adds to this thought, “Although some Hindu immigrants in the United States have abandoned pure vegetarianism, many others conform to tradition. Some immigrants who have become more religious here are also dedicated vegetarians. Indian immigrants, however, find it difficult to explain their food habits to Americans. “They think that we must be eating grass and boiled vegetables only, and many feel sorry for us. If only they knew the variety of vegetarian foods available in India, they would envy us.””[6]. Narayan’s constant reference to South Indian food like Idli, Rasam, Sambhar, Masala Dosai, etc, lends not only Indian words to his English writing but also gives us an account of the writer’s longing for good vegetarian food in the foreign land. Narayan tries his best to adjust and absorb himself into the atmosphere. But still in many ways he remains the Indian trying to find his ways in America, which is very relevant from the narrative and tone of the read. He feels the transformation that affects thousands of Indians living abroad. Fixico puts it aptly, “They are undergoing a transformation from their Indian background to mainstream assimilation, and they are caught in a vortex as they perceive themselves as a suppressed minority.” [7]. Narayan exists somewhere in a cocoon which tosses between Eastern and Western ethics. He bears a very compassionate and humanistic approach towards others. We can well experience it from the incidents where he deals with the publishers and people. He counsels Mrs X just like a close friend, deals with her problems, and takes care of her emotions. He includes anecdotes like the story of Govind which are very Indian by texture. He well portrays the situation of a beef eating Indian married to a white skinned girl in America who is abandoned by his kins in India. On a similar note, D.N.Jha writes, “Most Hindus today are guided by a religious concern for cow protection. Therefore an average Indian, rooted in what appears to him as his traditional Hindu religious heritage, carries the load of the misconception that his ancestors, especially the Vedic Aryans, attached great importance to the cow on account of its inherent sacredness.” [8]. The perceived feelings of being treated as an outcaste and the inherent nostalgia of home comes in a very touching way through Narayan’s narrative. Narayan in a witty narrative suggests how “More importantly, the cow has tended to become a political instrument in the hands of rulers over time.” [8]. His Indian-ness is also reflected in several situations where he becomes the centre of attention because of his lack of speaking skills. J.C.Wells asserts, “There are Indians educated at British public schools whose accent is unquestionably RP. There are Indians with a fair knowledge of English whose accent is nevertheless so impenetrable that English people can understand them, if at all, only with the greatest difficulty.” [9] We can take example of the situation which he faced due to his lack of proper pronunciation capabilities of English words, “All Indians say develop, committee; instead of De-Vellop, and ‘Committee’-‘Does Pneumonia develop?’ she said, which I found very irritating. I merely replied, ‘So much of an accent seems to me a waste of good breath... ” [10] There were many accounts where Narayan is being sought for to answer questions regarding India’s political scenario, Gandhi’s freedom fight, Nehru’s socialist temperament, etc. But he always chose to remain not silent but neutral. This shows how unbiased yet careful he is while representing his country in the foreign land. Narayan’s experience with an Indian who wanted him to carry a load of condiment to New York for his daughter and son-in-law is a much well known experience that almost every Indian has to face in their trip to a foreign land. He mentions explicitly the pain and trauma that such approaches carry with them. Though this was a very unpleasant experience which he faced, there were several other instances where he actually was being ill treated because of being an Indian by race. Fixico states, “Indian people learn to adjust, altering their family structure and personality, and simultaneously threatening their distinct culture, forcing them to deal with society’s problems such as racial differences in an urban setting.” [11] His tenure at Tennessee made him encounter with one such experience while he was in a bus going to Nashville, where there were separate reservations for ‘white’ and ‘coloured’ people. The following lines may be quoted from the text to justify the stance: “The conductor manoeuvres in such a manner that the coloured men can get in only after the whites are seated... White passengers blink unhappily when I get in. Each tries to cover a vacant seat next to him with an overcoat or hat for fear that I may attempt to occupy a prohibited seat and create a ‘situation’.” [12] Thus from the style, content, and the richness of Narayan’s experiences, ooze a cadence of Indian aura which make his writing not only an enchanting read but also gives us experiences which enrich our perceptions.

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III. R.K.Narayan- the Writer R.K.Narayan, travelling through America was not only an ‘Indian’ but also a ‘writer’. He had been to the foreign land on a Rockefeller Fellowship. My Dateless Diary was the output of a daily journal that he maintained during this visit. Narayan was an established writer in those days and his books formed an important part of the syllabus of many western universities. His perception of America as a ‘writer’ is a different from his perception of America as an ‘Indian’. As a writer he is humorous, objective, realistic, and detached. He observes his situations from a distance and counts them from the impressions which they frame on his mind. May it be an encounter with a great writer or a common barber, each encounter earns an equal stand on his journal. He writes more from the experiences than the encounters. Narayan started his career as a news reporter. His beginnings form a great impact on his writing style. His writing conceives the style of a working reporter in the hurry of recording events. His sentences are short and often epigrammatic. According to J.A. Cuddon, Epigram is, “As a rule a short, witty statement in verse or prose which may be complimentary, satiric or aphoristic. Coleridge defined it as: A dwarfish whole, its body brevity, and wit its soul. Originally an inscription on a monument or statue, the epigram developed into a literary genre.” [13] Narayan’s epigrammatic use often leads to multiple interpretations and diverse meanings. He squeezes the essence of a long overt sentence into a few words or sometimes one word, which adds to the effect. “Tuesday. Arrive Berkeley. We decide to get down here rather than go up to San Francisco.” [14] He often uses the reportorial style of writing: ‘It is Pat’s,’ Said his friend. ‘Who is Pat?’ ‘His wife,’ he said. ‘What does she do now to know the time?’ I asked. [15] His style is adorned with frequent use of apt similes. His comparisons do not form before us a network of images which turn and twist to frame a complicated jargon of meaning; rather he prefers to make his writing simple by drawing images from the common sphere of life, that turn out to be astounding with the writer’s craftsmanship. As Ross Murfin puts it, simile is “A figure of speech (more specifically a trope) that compares two distinct things by using words such as like or as to link the vehicle and the tenor.” [16]. Narayan uses beautiful similes in his writing. His similes are homely and strong- “Human beings get knit up in all fantastic unbelievable ways, complex and unexpected links like the wiring at the back of a radio panel.” [17] “Having a living author on hand may be like a live lobster on your plate.” [18] In Westward Bound, the fourth section of the book, Narayan presents a whole chapter which deals with the style of advertising. According to Jen Green, “Advertising is a form of communication paid for by individuals or companies, with the aim of influencing people to think or act in a particular way or providing information. The aim of most ads is to persuade us to buy goods or services offered by the advertiser.” [19] In Westward Bound, the sub chapter named One Continuous Mood represents the writer at his most humorous, dramatic yet journalistic mood of writing. This gives us an insight into the flexibility of R.K.Narayan as a writer of various genres. We can quote a passage from the book as an exampleVoice: By the way, I can hear you drinking your soup. Remember one thing. XYZ soup is reinforcing with vitamin B14. It is the only soup with vitamin B14. Remember it. B14 will knock the years out of your age. ... O.W: ... My hands are soft because I use only Gopi Flakes for laundering my linen. Gopi also can wash your silks, your sink, your utensils, your walls, your furniture, floor, carpet, shoes, or automobile. In fact Gopi is right for any cleaning job. Gopi cleans twenty-five times faster than any other detergent and costs five times less. Remember Gopi is the only one which has Blimol in it. [20] His writing is lucid and gathers momentum from its free flow nature moulded with first person narrative, simple language, and jargon free sentences. As a writer he bears an eye for the details and captures the whole experience of his visit to United States in a travelogue style of writing. Another important aspect of his personality is that he keeps on drawing similitude between the people he encounters in real life with his own fictional characters. The Chandaran of U.S. serves as a good example. There were several other occasions where he had to meet the students of universities and answer back the questions fired on him about the characters and contexts of his novels. This marks a very uncomfortable Narayan who is perplexed for being trapped somewhere within the space that exists in between a detached reader and a grossly involved writer. His encounter and bonding with the popular personalities of the West like Aldous Huxley, Greta Garbo, Martha Graham, Milton Singer, Edward G. Robinson, and Cartier Bresson enrich him as a human being and as a writer. What better than this statement coming from the publishers of the country of his visit- “William Faulkner, Hemingway, and Narayan are the world’s three greatest living writers.” [21].

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IV. Conclusion My Dateless Diary though sounds to be a book, written with no time bounds, still it falls into a time period as every ‘datelessness’ has a limit of its own. Throughout the book we find scattered instances of the making of the novel The Guide, which gives us the clue to guess the time scale of this travelogue. Rather than an adjective, here the word ‘dateless’ suffices more as a metaphor -- a metaphor of the eternity of art, experience, and journey -- which makes him re-discover the Indian as well as the writer in him. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]

R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, Blurb. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, p.12. Donald L. Fixico, The Urban Indian Experience in America, USA: University of New Mexico Press, 2000, p.173. Madhulika Shankar Khandelwal,. Becoming American, Being Indian: An Immigrant Community in New York, New York: Cornell University Press, 2002, p. 38. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, p.19. Madhulika Shankar Khandelwal, Becoming American, Being Indian: An Immigrant Community in New York, New York: Cornell University Press, 2002, p. 138. Donald L. Fixico, The Urban Indian Experience in America, USA: University of New Mexico Press, 2000, p.176. D.N. Jha, The Myth of the Holy Cow, New York: Verso, 2002, p.18. J.C. Wells, Accents of English 3 beyond the British Isles, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982, p. 624. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, p.62. Donald L. Fixico, The Urban Indian Experience in America, USA: University of New Mexico Press, 2000, p.174. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, pp.153-154. J.A. Cuddon, A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory, New Delhi: Maya Blackwell, 1998, pp. 275. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, p.83. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt., Ltd. 1988, p.91. Ross Murfin and Supriya M. Ray, The Bedford Glossary of Critical and Literary Terms, New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003, p.447. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, p.139. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, p.65. Jen Green, Advertising, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group Inc., 2012, p.6. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, p.107. R.K. Narayan, My Dateless Diary: an American Journey, New Delhi: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd., 1988, p.164.

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American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

The effectiveness of the aesthetic entrance to the development of skill mapping for fifth-grade students in primary and inclination towards Social Studies Dr. Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed (Phd). Assistant professor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction College of Education / University of Helwan. Arab Republic of Egypt Abstract: The goal of this research is to develop the skill of mapping in Social Studies at the fifth-grade students in primary, and through the design of a proposed program in geography based on different activities and strategies, modern, and sample consisted of (30), a pupil of the fifth-grade students in primary, and that school Republic primary education management Maadi. Researcher prepared a list of the skills sub-skill mapping that should be on the students Adarkha so that they can draw a map, designed a proposed program in Social Studies (a branch of geography) confirmed it to use the entrance aesthetic presentation of lessons and the content of the maps in terms of use and painted, and also have been prepared in a measure of skill to draw a map to the fifth-grade students in primary and note card for the performance of students during the mapping and also a measure of the tendency of students towards the study of social studies material was Tgimam and ensure suitability after presenting them to the gentlemen of the arbitrators. The research found the following results: - Increase in the average scores of students in post application for their grades in the pre application to measure the skills of drawing the map, it has got students in the post application on the average (61.33) and the standard deviation of (2.88), while his pupils in the application Tribal average (38.53) and the standard deviation of (2.97). -There is a statistically significant difference at the level (0.01) between the average grades of the same group in two applications for pre and post card note the performance of the pupils to draw a map and skill for the benefit of post application. -There is a statistically significant difference at the level (0.01) between the average grades of the same group in the two applications prior and subsequent to gauge sentiment towards pupils study material and social studies for the benefit of post application. Keywords: the aesthetic entrance / skill mapping/ Social Studies. I. Introduction Characterized by social studies course, especially in that it connects between the two dimensions temporal and spatial, it is also distinguished from the rest of the subjects the nature of the social, as is evident from the labeled, all of this to make it an effective environment in contributing to a greater role in the preparation of a generation of juveniles to be individuals Merit in the community who live in it , and he knew the realities of social and economic developments and cultural environments different civilizations within their community and other communities around the world. If all subjects some of the educational goals of the dye, but the social nature of the social studies Social imposed doing front-lion in achieving those goals, and this is due to the special importance of the social studies of various subjects, particularly at the elementary level. Among the most important of these educational goals for the material social studies as it helps the teacher to foresight by putting in time (through the study of history), and the place (through the study of geography) in which they live, and to study the present in the past, near and distant intent to touch the indicators and the contributions of the past in shaping the present and seek to benefit from the past and present together in foreseeing the future by making it more acceptable and sophisticated and come through the existence of clear maps and modern, are employed scientifically sound within the course content. It is suggested that this research input in the implementation of the decision of social studies emphasizes the aesthetic character of all that happens in the universe of phenomena , and interpretation , including offers of pupil broad areas beyond explanation Dry phenomena of the natural / human to enjoy the study of these phenomena , including elements of aesthetic lead to become the educational process process fun and mature and called on this portal " entrance aesthetic " ; which entrance is trying to plan and implement the decision of social AIJRHASS 14-382; Š 2014, AIJRHASS All Rights Reserved

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studies in order to achieve the objectives of that article and leads at the same time to Tgasd such phenomena in the form of geographical maps and also enjoy aspects of aesthetic and artistic in various tracks scheduled and Zepehrth without prejudice aspects of objectivity and processes that characterize science and achieves addition confirm aspects of emotional and appreciation of the multiple aspects and improve the orientation toward the study of social studies material. II. Background of the Problem Been inferred the existence of the problem of searching through the following: First, the analysis of the content of the decision social studies for students in fifth grade (the geographical side): The researcher analyzed the content of social studies for decision-graders yesterday's primary, in order to know the extent of the presence and clarity of geographical maps. The results of the analysis showed the following: 1- Identify existing maps social studies decision to fifth grade in primary geographical aspect. 2- ensure the decision Social Studies for students in fifth grade a number of geographical maps, but a number of them is not clear and the colors are not employing them accurately. Secondly, the survey : The researcher conducted a prospective study to know the reality of geographical maps are included in the decision of social studies for students in fifth grade, and this study included the following questionnaire: 1- a questionnaire for mentors and teachers : Researcher prepared a questionnaire , has been applied to a number ( 5) of the mentors , and the number (15) of those who teach the teachers decision social studies for students in fifth grade Helwan Educational Management and Maadi Educational Management , in order to identify the following: A - the extent of the coverage decision Social Studies on geographical maps. b - the extent of the distribution of geographical maps decision social studies fifth grade primary school. The researcher reached after an application of this questionnaire to the following results: A - confirmed percentage ( 85.01 %) of the sample of the study on the lack of clarity of geographical maps in the book of social studies. B - confirmed percentage ( 90.50 %) of the study sample to the scarcity of the coverage decision Social Studies on geographical maps in the geographical aspect of the book. 2- personal interview with the students : The researcher conducted a personal interview open with a number (50) pupils , an average of two students and two classes of pupils from the fifth grade in primary Badarty Helwan and Maadi education , in order to know how to enable them to skill mapping existing textured social studies and their adequacy to illustrate lessons included the book. The interview took place on the following questions: A - How many maps included with the book Social Studies ( side geographic the book)? B - What is the value of geographical maps in the extent of absorption of the lessons of Social Studies ( side geographic the book)? C - To what extent you want in mapping the geographic whether existing or non-existent social studies decision , which can help you to understand the lessons of Social Studies ( side geographic the book)? It is during that interview questions researcher reached the following conclusions: A - confirmed percentage ( 25.00% ) of the study sample that maps the existing geographical aspect of social studies book enough. B - confirmed percentage ( 90.50 %) of the study sample their desire to draw maps in social studies decision will help them accommodate subject. Third, the results of previous research studies: Many studies have confirmed the importance of the skill of drawing the map, including: Study Faihaa Nasser Hussain (2003): The impact of teaching skill mapping in the collection of fifth-grade students in the primary substance of history, Teachers College , University of Babylon , Master Thesis ( unpublished). This study aimed to investigate the effect of teaching the skill of mapping in the collection of fifth-grade students in the primary material of history. To achieve the target was a set of lesson plans , which focused on teaching skills mapping and another group did not focus the skills mapping , and achievement test consisted of 40 items , has been the use of the experimental design is the same group , has been applied to the experiment and after the completion of which was the application of the achievement test. The results showed the superiority of the experimental group in the post application for tribal application in academic achievement, which proves the effect of teaching skill mapping in academic achievement among fifthgrade students in primary.

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Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed , American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences,6(2), March-May 2014, pp166-177

Ahmed Abdel- Hamid Ahmed Sayed (2013): This study aimed to develop some of the skills of reflective thinking using the entrance aesthetic in the teaching of social studies middle school , and to achieve this , select the researcher foundations of the entrance aesthetic , and that in their light has been recast unit in social studies for first-grade secondary , and have been prepared in Student's Book and teacher's guide for that unit , and then develop tools study questionnaire the views of teachers on the extent of interest in the skills of reflective thinking , and teaching strategies used in the teaching of social studies , and test the skills of reflective thinking , and has been applied to test the skills of reflective thinking preset to students two sets of search ( control and experimental ) tribal and Uday. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the average scores of students in the results of the post application for the experimental group at the level of significance (0.01) , as well as the presence of statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the students study sample to test the skills of reflective thinking for the post test at the level of significance (0.01) , which proves the effectiveness of aesthetic entrance to the development of reflective thinking skills among the pupils of the first intermediate , as well as the enjoyment and study unit. -The researcher found in the recommendations of the previous research has confirmed the development of skill mapping because of their importance in the elements of the content of the lessons and understand. Through previous procedures conducted by the researcher make sure the importance of having a problem in mapping skill and inclination towards studying social studies course for students in fifth grade. III. Problem of the Study: The problem of the research are as follows: Deficiencies in the skill of drawing a map with fifth-grade students in primary and inclination towards studying social studies material. Questions of the Study: This research tried to answer the following questions: 1- What skills sub-skill for drawing the map, which should be developed at the fifth-grade students in primary? 2- How effective is the entrance to the development of aesthetic skill mapping and the tendency of students towards the study of social studies material? Hypotheses of the Study: Try this search to validate the following hypotheses: 1-There is a statistically significant difference at the level (0.01) between the average scores of students in the two applications for pre and post measure of skill to draw a map for the post application. 2-There is a statistically significant difference at the level (0.01) between the average scores of students in the two applications for pre and post card note performance for the benefit of post application. 3-There is a statistically significant difference at the level (0.01) between the average scores of students in the two applications for pre and post measure of orientation toward the study of material and social studies for the benefit of post application. Aims of the Study: The goal of this research is to achieve the following: 1- the design of a proposed program in geography for students fifth grade. 2-Development of skill mapping study material during social studies students at fifth grade. 3-Verification of the effectiveness of the proposed program in geography to social studies course in the development of skill to draw a map and a tendency toward the study of material social studies students at the fifth grade. IV. Significance of the Study: Present research may be useful as follows: 1-Take advantage of the proposed program is to develop decision social studies for students in fifth grade so that it works on the development of other skills they have. 2-The framers of benefit plans and programs of study in primary education evaluation methods proposed research (skill mapping) in the evaluation of fifth grade students. 3-to reach a definitive list of sub-skills for skill mapping necessary to fifth grade students. V. Delimitationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s of the Study: This research committed to the following limitations: 1-Sample of fifth grade elementary school, elementary Republic of the Department of Education Maadi in Cairo. 2-the design of the proposed program decision Social Studies (Geography Branch) for students in fifth grade. 3-workout program in the proposed decision geography social studies for students in fifth grade and measure its effectiveness in the development of skill to draw a map and a tendency toward the study of social studies material.

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Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed , American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences,6(2), March-May 2014, pp166-177

VI. Terminology of the Study Search terms are defined procedurally according to the following: 1- entrance aesthetic: Can be defined as the proposed educational program procedurally as : scheme designer ( or educational system ) includes a set of modules / tutorials designed in accordance with the concepts of geography that have been reached, and includes learning objectives , content, activities and teaching aids , and teaching methods , and assessment tools for submission to the second prep students in Social Studies (a branch of geography). 2- Skill mapping: As translating phrases and words to symbols in the maps and put them on the maps in the form of lines and shape, symbols and tool, making students more understanding of the meaning of the map, and symbols and their use and usefulness. Definition of procedural skill mapping: Process carried out by the fifth grade of primary representation of the information contained and terminology in the form of symbols and forms through transfer from other maps in Social Studies (geographical side). 3- the tendency to subject: Is the willingness of the person calling attention to his conscience â&#x20AC;Śâ&#x20AC;Ś. . VII. Method of the Study Follow this search descriptive method and experimental method, as follows: Descriptive approach: It is used where previous studies and theoretical framework and derivation of the concepts of search terms, and a list of sources of knowledge skills sub-skill for drawing the map, scale and design skill to draw a map and measure tendencies toward substance Social Studies students at the fifth grade. Experimental method: It is used when selecting the research sample, and the application of research tools tribal and Uday, as well as in the application of the search experience. Procedures of the Study: First, the study and analysis of research and studies related to the subject matter , and through the following themes: 1- Skill mapping decision and social studies to fifth grade primary school. 2- Entrance aesthetic and teaching social studies . Second, prepare a list of skills to draw a map , and displayed in the image on the initial group of arbitrators to make sure of the sincerity , and make adjustments in the light of their views to arrive at the final list. Third: The general layout of the proposed program decision of social studies for students in fifth grade , was done according to the following steps: 1-Determine the philosophy underlying the proposed program in social studies. 2- set the bases for the proposed program in social studies. 3- Determine the goals of the proposed program in social studies. 4-determine the content and the time of the proposed program in social studies. 5- to identify activities of teaching / learning. 6- Identify teaching strategies. 7 - determining the means and sources of learning . 8 -Identify methods of evaluation. 9-adjust the proposed program in social studies , and so by submitting it in the image of the initial group of arbitrators to make sure of the sincerity and validity , and make adjustments in the light of their views to arrive at the final image of the proposed program in social studies. Fourthly: the preparation of research tools 1- Preparation of research tools , and is in the (scale mapping skills , note card performance of pupils in the skills mapping study material during social studies , measure the tendencies toward the study of social studies material). 2- Show search tools in the image on the initial group of arbitrators to make-sure of the sincerity , and make adjustments in the light of their views to reach research tools in its final form. 3- calculate the reliability and validity research tools. Fifth: the experience of the exploratory program proposed decision of social studies for students in fifth grade and the two tools search. Sixth: workout program proposed decision social studies for students in fifth grade and the application of the two tools search. 1-Identify the experimental design : This research adopted the experimental design ever one group. 2- Find randomly select a sample of fifth grade elementary school, the Republic of primary education management Maadi in Cairo. 3- the application of research tools to tribal students research sample. 4 - application of research tools to students Uday research sample. Seventh: data collection and statistical analysis and draw conclusions.

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Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed , American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences,6(2), March-May 2014, pp166-177

Eighth: The interpretation of the results of research and discussion. Ninth: recommendations of the research and proposed research in light of the search results. First, the theoretical framework: Entrance aesthetic: an attempt to make the material fun social studies: Since the look of pupils for Social Studies as material filled with texts and maps, resulting in a reluctance to study it is imperative to make efforts to help pupils in primary education , in particular to change this perception and help them enjoy the study and take advantage of the expertise that can be employed in their daily life and subjected her many times Life in various positions , Fried Social Studies with a lot of aspects of beauty that must be exploited at the present time , and this could be the study of material social studies exciting to enjoy using the entrance aesthetic , which seeks to achieve this. Aesthetic Approach: Is a proposal for the construction and implementation of material social studies in order to achieve the objectives of the study and performed at the same time to enjoy aspects of the aesthetic in various subjects Social Studies including without prejudice to the aspects of objectivity and processes that characterize the material social studies investigating in addition to the confirmation of aspects of emotional and aspects appreciation multiple that is often neglected on despite its importance. Beauty: (concept and foundations). The concept of beauty: the beauty his definitions from multiple angles, including philosophical and artistic Among these definitions: - Defined by the German philosopher Bomadjartin Baumagarten: “It is different from the logic of science and scientific thinking, and put him utter Aesthetics, and select themes in studies that revolve around a sense of logic and artistic imagination”. -And knew William Stalinj: Francis Anderson Stalling & Anderson: By saying “that a child with a sense of beauty has the ability to distinguish between good thing and the thing abhorrent, and has the ability to regulate the shapes so that lead to the form of harmonic as well as the colors used in harmony”. And he knew Tharwat Abdel Moneim : "It representation in the expression of the individual and his tendency to what is beautiful in terms of shape or compatibility or coordination , and is therefore seen as the world around him look estimating his hand configuration and uniformity , precision and organization and jealous of aesthetic elements”. Plato believes that “beauty qualities or characteristics independent of the kind of objective mind which perceives , where they went to the beauty counter in the case of a beautiful thing , and accompanies it , even if you did not mind the no Badrakha”. -Richard sees: that the value of the thing is beautiful in a relationship between the beautiful thing itself and between the mind realize that, when we judge something as beautiful means dropping feelings and emotions to the outside world, and that 's what we call beautiful is only emotionally satisfying. -The concept of beauty in terminology: Beauty Beauty: recipe notes in things and send in self- pleasure and be pleased. -And knows Kant Kant: the beautiful "is what is admired Liked entirely of non- perception of any of the noninterference of understanding. - And knows Krochh aesthetics : that science in linguistics , because the flag GOES his attention to the means of expression which is also a philosophical science , and that the philosophy of language , and Laqqany Ahmed Hussein Ali Ahmad Jamal (2006). - Through the above we see that the definitions varied according to the different points of view , it addresses some of the concept in terms of philosophical , and some of the hand art , and others through the adoption of a specific theory , and adopts the researcher the following definition is related to the subject of research and objective : " character , which launches on what is happy or full senses or mind through maps , colors , shape, lines , geometric shapes , symbols or pictures ..... etc”. The foundations of beauty: There are several trends of thought dealt with the interpretation of beauty are as follows: The first trend: the substantive position: According to this position that beauty exists objectively and has the qualities or characteristics of an objective independent of the mind that perceives, and depending on your point of view, this school , people all agree to savor beautiful thing , and enjoy it in all the time or place and at the head of this school of Plato. The second trend: the position of self: Considered the owners of this position meaning self- only , and is not a recipe in what keeps you apart from the insight to him , because beauty is not an objective phenomenon but is subject to the influence wrought in the hearts of viewers , and respect the character of the individual and the level of culture and civilization which is not the years, never does not adhere to time and place , and represents this school, " Tolstoy”.

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Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed , American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences,6(2), March-May 2014, pp166-177

The third trend: the substantive position â&#x20AC;&#x201C; self: Some argue that beauty is a connection between what is nice and mind , who realize , and governance aesthetic requires the intervention of the self- feelings and emotions , so the judgment of aesthetic self and objective at the same time , and the basis of this objective is that there is the subject tilted in front of our understanding his qualities formalism , which can not be ignored , and this qualities that are reflected in our souls and raised on the impact left by the beautiful Rossetto, T. (2013). It takes Find the current in-line third: For the judgment on the fact that the thing beautiful or not , and at the same time we can not overlook the relative beauty , what I see beautiful may not see the other beautiful , as judged on the beauty of the map to see its beauty to interpret scientific manner taking into account the clarification by the beauty , and the interpretation of phenomenon on the map will be in the framework of its unity as a phenomenon and through being a part of the world ocean , Mohammed Abu Ali Ryan (1985). Entrance aesthetic: Approach the entrance known as "a set of postulates or premises and assumptions Muslim validity between specialists in teaching, which correlate with each other close relationship , some of them linked to the nature of the material educated , some of them linked to the processes of teaching / learning. The entrance of a broader teaching method ; since it includes more than one way of linking them all together a set of principles and concepts and principles , that with these methods comprising the single entry. For the entrance of the foundations underpinning which specifies its objectives , content and methods of teaching and the means of implementation and means of evaluation, ie, that the entrance is reflected on the system 's full curriculum , and it can be said that apart from the pictures curriculum and types , Xioa, H. (2006) , each approach the entrance to address its content , which determines general framework and basic themes , however that there are multiple entries for this approach , however, does not negate the overlap between these approaches. The entrance aesthetic one entrances proposed in the teaching of social studies and seeks significantly to the development of the emotional pupils' When enjoying student studying Social Studies and taught and research methods in which, it is composed has trends and positive values towards the study of Social Studies and maximize the capacity of the Almighty Creator in creativity to his creation (Girod Mark, Rau, Cheryl. 2002). Aesthetic reasons to use the entrance in the teaching of social studies: Confirmed in the recent phenomenon of the reluctance of students for the study of Social Studies , has been concerned some of the studies in the field of curriculum and teaching methods to study this phenomenon in order to touch the causes ; spite of the multiplicity of causes of this phenomenon as reported by quite a few of the results of these studies , however, there is almost agreement on the two main reasons for this phenomenon ; first : relation to bad organization of the content of social studies curriculum , where the focus of this content on offer constructive cognitive Ldrasat social, according to the organization of the traditional -based narrative of a body of knowledge dysfunctional , and focus on the show phenomena apart from its importance in the lives of the students , explaining that a small number of maps is obvious , (Michael Muller (2005, and the second : Go back to traditional teaching methods used in the implementation of the social studies curriculum primary school which confirmed many of the studies that most of these methods focus on the speech and debate and away from the presentation interesting content including attracts attention students , and students away from the post in the positions of Education , which loses pupils learning fun. Philosophy of aesthetic entrance: the entrance stems from the philosophy of aesthetic effect: Beauty lies in the recipe each geographic phenomena, and to help students recognize this beauty during their studies of these phenomena for pupils to achieve geographical understanding and deeper learning for these phenomena at the same time bring enjoyment to study the material social studies, and this philosophy stems from a set of points: 1-Aesthetic entrance is the entrance to keep pace with the logic of science and philosophy in the interpretation of geographic phenomena addition adds the idea of studying the material to enjoy social studies, and this is what makes it different from other entry points, Yusuf Khalifa Crow (1979). 2-Entrance aesthetic underscores the idea of motor rhythm in the geographical phenomena, all phenomena geographical her kinetic rhythm as in the Earth's rotation, movement and put the map and GPS and so on. The entrance aesthetic also emphasizes the importance of clarifying the consistency and proportionality in clarifying the beauty of the geographical phenomenon, When we see the consistency and harmony between the components of the phenomenon highlights the beauty, hope, Zuhair Ahmed Sharabasy ( 2013). Entrance aesthetic strategies: Know the teaching strategy as: " the context of instructional methods private and public overlapping and appropriate to the goals of the position of teaching with the ability to optimize the use of tools and educational materials available in order to achieve better learning outcomes are possible ," ( Hassan Hussein olive 2003.4 ) and also known as " a set of procedures teaching selected by the teacher or designer teaching , and may include

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Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed , American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences,6(2), March-May 2014, pp166-177

more than one method of teaching , which is planned to be used during the implementation of the teaching , so as to achieve the desired goals of teaching as effectively as possible , and in the light of available resources. Due to the special nature enjoyed by the entrance aesthetic terms is characterized by the nature of the private and in an attempt to identify teaching strategies that achieve the philosophy of this approach and objectives were reviewed several previous studies and projects to develop social studies curriculum and methods of teaching , Mohammed Amin Atwa (2009) , has been reached on a set of teaching strategies to suit the nature of the material and social studies investigating the same time, the philosophy and objectives of the entrance aesthetic and consistent with procedures and perhaps the most important of these strategies include: Analogies Strategy: Teaching by analogies, is a method of teaching is to clarify and explain the phenomena by comparing them Bzepehrt and other concepts familiar and there are different models for teaching Balmichabhatt , but these models are almost gathered on the broad lines which provide the concept you want to impart to students and then provide a similar appropriate to this concept and then identify common traits and common The comparisons between the concept and the like , and finally the work of a summary of what has been taught , and when using any form of teaching Balmchabhatt should note three main elements : the knowledge of the background of the pupils to choose analogies familiar to the largest number of students , as well as to determine the characteristics and qualities of the joint sets by the teacher or the students , or both Finally, determine the qualities uncorrelated Palmchaph Rossetto, T. (2013). Pomposities Strategy: Strategy is based on highlighting the beauty of the geographical phenomenon by highlighting the antonyms. Examples include: The phenomenon of the lack of water , including the student recognize the concept of water shortages and provide an example of him at the same time to counter example such as the Nile River , where flooding waters and wealth to countries that pass by . Co-operative Learning strategy: This is done in accordance with the strategy of the following stages The initialization phase of incentive: where are attracting the attention of the students towards the subject matter of good and exciting motivation to learn. Stage to clarify the cooperative tasks: and which are illustrative of the students completed the tasks required of them and review the requirements of prior learning related to those functions and differing criteria for success in the performance of the task. Aalmrahlh Transition and working to create a collaborative work of the students and to facilitate their transition to their groups is Tdhuadhm guidance and collaborative work. Stage work groups and the inspection and intervention : This is where students learn through collaborative work, accomplish tasks and receive instruction and guidance of the teacher. Classroom discussion stage: The aim of the groups to exchange ideas and results which improves the learning process. The last stage: brevity and focus on the content of the lesson and put homework and rewards , Mohammed Amin Atwa (2009). Teaching steps to achieve aesthetic understanding: The first step: Crafting Content Re Beauty text , and restructuring and filmed Jamali , adding that maps necessary and obvious , which encourages students to think and understand aesthetic and realize the relationship of this text or concept of the world in which they live and to improve their orientation towards the study of Social Studies , Mohammed Saber Salim (2001). Step Two: Crafting dispositions This is done by encouraging them to imagination and creativity using the strategy question, â&#x20AC;&#x153;What if .......?â&#x20AC;? Then the teacher will stimulate and activate the ideas that exist among students and re- crystallize their understanding of the texts and maps. Step three: Emphasis on the artistic expansion of perception Simple operation between closing and opening our eyes , an individual can enter information and address and the depiction , and imagine things that are not there and re- imagine things differently from reality and draw pictures unrealistic and then could imagine or understand our world differently through thinking and imagination and a sense of meditation. Step Four: Model aesthetic understanding Must embody the teacher modeling or aesthetic ideas Ki students can realized. Girod Mark (2001).

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Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed , American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences,6(2), March-May 2014, pp166-177

VIII. Mapping Mapping is the transfer of natural phenomena and human resources on the subject of the map at an appropriate scale , and more a method used to train students on the mapping is drawn by quoting another map , not to be drawn by a goal in itself , but a means of learning and stimulate interest and activity, as the mapping back pupils to solve symbols map and understand their meanings , and this requires the teacher to simplify semantics representation idiomatic maps and transport signs and symbols contained in the sheen of sound in the mind of the learner through the gradient in the information and facts perceived learners to explain symbolic characterized by the map, and the most important of these symbols idiomatic Maitalq scale drawing and trends , websites and colors , Doaa Mohamed Sayed (2007). Stages of mapping: The mapping Aakhalo of rules and principles to be followed in the form of going through the stages of the map until they are ready to take advantage of them: 1- Know the goal of drawing the map, select any topic that will represent . 2-to collect information that will be represented on the map, draw a simple outline of the shape of the year. 3- Selection of an appropriate scale drawing of the paper that will shape the map. 4- Conduct initial planning for the transfer of the border map and locations of the phenomena of the other map ready and accurate , and prefers to follow the following sequence: A - drawing topographic features characterized by length and importance (rivers, political boundaries , etc). B - set locations of major cities and medium-sized villages if necessary. C - set places mountain ranges , mountains and plateaus important and do not represent the heights of contour lines if the existing process of drawing a beginner drawing , and put in writing the name of the high altitude and the amount next to it. 5- coloring the map, and the colors used in the map to show the different parts , including rivers and mountains. 6- Write the name of the phenomenon that has been identified in the map as well as the title , who writes within the framework of the key or in the upper part of them , which represents what is addressed in the map of the site and subject. 7- Drawing key map , which shows the interpretation of symbols that are placed within the map , which represents a method of translating information map, a guide to understanding the map. 8- Drawing a map frame that surrounds the map and which usually draws a line single or double , Ahmed Mahmoud Hamdy (2005). Mapping steps: The most important steps in training on mapping as follows: 1- Training on the demarcation of public , rivers and political boundaries , and to highlight the topographic features , and to remind the students in the course of drawing the geometry that is the closest thing to the form of a map or drawing . 2- repeating several times , and have a fairly fast . 3- Drawing the general features of the map , from rivers or mountains or seas and so on. 4- adjust the positioning and proportions in parts of the map or drawing . 5 -Install the details , such as cities and branches of rivers. 6- coloring, and knowing Matnih colors of the map. 7- draw a map key and clarification , Majdi Khairuddin Full (2003). Things that take into account in mapping: And taken into account in mapping the following matters: 1- precision work . 2- scientific accuracy in the information. 3- The map identifies distinctive framework. 4- to have a certain scale of the map drawing . 5- to write the names and data clearly , and of different sizes depending on. the importance of illustrations 6- to be the guide for symbols and conventions used 7 - to use the colors to use and functionally in clarification and discrimination and be consistent. 8- to avoid congestion map names and data and intersecting lines , ( Salah al-Din Mahmoud Arafa, 2005). Second, the search results: - Test the first hypothesis : To test the validity of first hypothesis, which states that "no statistically significant difference at the level (0.01) between the average scores of students in the two applications prior and subsequent to gauge the skill of drawing a map for the post application." Has been Treatment data for this hypothesis using (T-test) for the two

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Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed , American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences,6(2), March-May 2014, pp166-177

samples linked (Fouad gorgeous (2005) and then calculate the effect size (satisfaction Massad, 2003), as in Hdol (1) Next: Table (1) The values of "T" and the level of significance of the difference between the average grades of the research group Two applications in the tribal and post test to measure the skill of mapping Group Pilot Control

Number of pupils

SMA

The standard deviation

Degrees of freedom

30

38.53 61.33

2..7 2.88

2.

Value (T) Calculated 28.87

Tabulated 2.46

Statistical significance D. at 7.71

The scale of the impact 2 d 7..7 11.37

Seen from the table (1 ) Previous following: - Higher average grades of the experimental group which studied topics entrance aesthetic than the average grades of the control group , which did not examine the issues in this hallway and that in the post application to measure the skill of the map, it has got the group 's application Tribal average ( 38.53 ) and the standard deviation of ( 2.97 ), while Group got in the post application on the average ( 61.33 ) and the standard deviation of ( 2.88). -The value (v) calculated for significance difference between the average grades in the two applications prior and subsequent to gauge the skill of drawing the map, which amounted to ( 28.87 ) is greater than the value of (v) spreadsheet , which amounted to ( 2.46 ) at the level of significance (0.01) degree of freedom (58) , and this indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between the average scores of students in the two applications pre and post it for the benefit of post application to measure the skill of drawing the map, and this refers to check first hypothesis of the research hypotheses. - The value of 2 is equal to 0.97 and this shows that (97%) of the variation that has occurred in the growth of skill mapping I have fifth-grade students in primary return the effect of the independent variable and is teaching using the entrance aesthetic as that value (d) = 11.37 which reflect the size of the effect large independent variable (the entrance aesthetic) on the dependent variable (skill mapping) because the value of (d) is greater than 0.8. - These findings are consistent with research findings and subsequent studies , ( Amani Mohamed Abdel Hamid (2009 ) , ( Iman Mohamed Mahmoud (2012) , ( Amal Ahmed Zuhair (.2013). Test the validity of the second hypothesis: To test the hypothesis II, which stipulates that "- no statistically significant difference at the level (0.01) between the average scores of students in the two applications pre and post a note card performance for the benefit of post application .." has been Treatment data for this hypothesis using (T-test) for the two samples It also linked in Hdol (2) Next: Table (2) The values of "T" and the level of significance of the difference between the average grades of the research group Two applications in the tribal card Note performance Group Pilot Control

Number of pupils

SMA

The standard deviation

Degrees of freedom

30

35.77 5..1

3..4 4.52

2.

Value (T) Calculated 21.73

Tabulated 2.46

Statistical significance D. at 7.71

The scale of the impact 2 d 7..4 7..2

Seen from the Table ( 2) the former following: - Higher average grades of the group in the post application on the average scores of students in the application tribal card note performance for skill mapping , it has got the experimental group in the post application on the average ( 59.1 ) and the standard deviation of ( 4.52 ), while the Group obtained Experimental in the application Tribal average ( 35.77 ) and the standard deviation of ( 3.94). - The value (v) calculated for significance difference between the average grades of the experimental group in the two applications tribal / post test card performance of students in the skill of drawing the map, which amounted to ( 21.03 ) is greater than the value of (v) spreadsheet , which amounted to ( 2.46 ) at the level of significance ( 0.01 ) degree of freedom (29), and this indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between the average grades of the experimental group in the two applications tribal / post test card Note the performance of pupils in the skill to draw a map for the benefit of dimensional application , and this points to verify the hypothesis second research hypotheses. - The value of 2 is equal to 0.94 and this shows that ( 98% ) of the variation that has occurred in the growth of skill mapping I have fifth-grade students in primary due to the effect of the independent variable and the value

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(d) = 7.92 which reflect the size of the large impact of the independent variable ( the entrance Gamaly ) on the dependent variable (skill mapping ) because the value of (d) is greater than 0.8. - And those results are consistent with the results of research and studies of the following : ( Ahmed Abdul Hamid Ahmad 0.2013 ) , ( Doaa Mohamed Sayed , 2007), (Michael Muller,( 2005). Test the validity of the third hypothesis: To test the validity of third hypothesis, which states that "no statistically significant difference at the level (0.01) between the average scores of students in the two applications prior and subsequent to measure the tendencies toward the study of material social studies for the benefit of post application." Has been Treatment data for this hypothesis using (T-test ) for the two samples as in Hdol (3) follows: Table (3) The values of "T" and the level of significance of the difference between the average grades of the research group in the two applications tribal and post test to measure the tendencies toward the study of Social Studies Group Pilot Control

Number of pupils

SMA

The standard deviation

Degrees of freedom

30

46.83 72.23

4.24 5.74

2.

Value (T) Calculated 1...6

Tabulated 2.46

Statistical significance D. at 7.71

The scale of the impact 2 d 7..3 7.2.

- Seen from the Table ( 3) the former following : - Higher average grades of the experimental group which studied subjects Social Studies entrance aesthetic than the average grades of the experimental group , which has not been studied entrance aesthetic and that in the post application to measure Preference students about study material Social Studies , has received the experimental group in the post application on the average ( 72.23 ) and a standard deviation of ( 5.74 ), while the group got in Experimental application tribal average ( 46.83 ) and the standard deviation of ( 4.24). - The value (v) calculated for significance difference between the average grades of the experimental group in the two applications tribal / post test to measure Preference students towards the study of Social Studies , which amounted to ( 19.96 ) is greater than the value of (v) spreadsheet , which amounted to ( 2.46 ) at the level of significance ( 0.01) degree of freedom (29), and this indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between the average grades of the experimental group in the two applications tribal / post test to measure the tendencies toward the study of Social Studies for the post application , and this points to verify the hypothesis second research hypotheses. - The value of 2 is equal to 0.93 and this shows that (97%) of the variation that has occurred in the growth of tendencies toward the study of material social studies have fifth-grade students in primary due to the effect of the independent variable which is the study of subjects Social Studies entrance aesthetic as that value (d) = 7.29 which reflects the size of the large impact of the independent variable ( the entrance aesthetic ) on the dependent variable ( the tendency to study social studies material ) because the value of (d) is greater than 0.8. - And those results are consistent with the results of research and the following studies : Michael Muller, 2005), ( Doaa Mohamed Sayed , 2007), (Sandra l. Bryan & Marsha M., 2001). IX. Recommendations of the research In light of the present research, can provide a set of recommendations including: - Draw the attention of those in charge of the preparation of the social studies curriculum and implementation of the necessity of using interest entrances check enjoy teaching pupils to study the material social studies with an emphasis on skills and concepts of geography. - Interest entrance aesthetic teacher preparation programs for teaching social studies teaching the other side of the entrances because of its contribution in achieving the goals of social studies material. - Strengthen in-service teacher programs , and those programs that include allowing for social studies teachers how teaching according to the aesthetic foundations of the entrance. - Re-examine the entire system of public education with regard to the teaching of social studies. - Emphasis on highlighting the aesthetic principles contained in the material and social studies, in particular during the stage of basic education. - Altakidaly included exercises to draw and read a map approach to all social studies classroom. - Interest in the emotional aspects of the educational process, including the development of positive attitudes toward the study of social studies material. - Training sessions for teachers in service in order to introduce them to the entrance aesthetic principles, founded and appropriate strategies to be implemented during the teaching of social studies.

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- Development of the decisions of the educational preparation for students of colleges of education and include entrance aesthetic them. X. Proposals An update of the current search researcher suggested a number of future research, including; - The development of academic preparation program for teachers of social studies program faculties of education in the light of the entrance aesthetic. - The development of academic preparation program for teachers of social studies education colleges in the light of the various geographical skills. - The effectiveness of the workout entrance aesthetic in teaching other units in various subjects at the elementary level. - Preparation of curriculum proposal based on aesthetic entrance to prep school pupils and secondary school students and find out its effectiveness. - Preparation of a proposed training program for teachers during the service entrance to the definition of aesthetic and strategies. - Measuring the effectiveness of the entrance aesthetic achieve the other goals for the teaching of social studies. - The preparation of social studies curriculum in the light of the entrance to the aesthetic stage prep. - Comparison between the aesthetic and the entrance doorways teaching other in achieving the goals of teaching social studies in the various stages of education. References - Ahmed Hussein Laqqany and Ali Ahmad Jamal (2006) . Glossary of educational knowledge in curriculum and teaching methods , 2nd Floor , Cairo , the world of books. - Amani Mohamed Abdel Hamid Abu Zeid (2009) . The effectiveness of the entrance aesthetic diversity in teaching for the development of some of the major scientific concepts, and opinions of students and teachers at secondary schools about using it, Master Thesis (unpublished) , the Faculty of Education , Ain Shams University . - Amal Ahmed Zuhair Sharabasy (2013) . The effectiveness of the entrance to the development of aesthetic concepts and skills of health material science students at the sixth grade theme Gaza, Master Thesis (unpublished ) , the College of Education , Islamic University of Gaza. - American Association for the advancement of science (AAAS) (1993) . Benchmarks for Science Literacy, Project 2061 , Washington Retreived on (4/2/2014 ). www. aaas . org / project 206112061 main . htm . - Ahmed Abdel- Hamid Syed Ahmad ( 2013 ) . Effectiveness of using the entrance aesthetic in teaching social studies in the development of reflective thinking skills among school students prep , Master Thesis ( unpublished ) , the Faculty of Education , Ain Shams University. - Determine the effectiveness -based approach to aesthetic entrance to the development of skills in the aesthetic sense of nature at the junior high school students. - Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) (1993) . Developing Biological Literacy.Aguide to Developing Secondary & postsecondary Biology Curricula . Colorado Springs , Colorado. - Carroll , M., et al ., ( 2003 ) . The Human Genome Project : A Scientific And Ethical Overview. Retreived on ( 23/9/2013 ) From : www . actionbioscience.org/genomeic/carroll-ciaffa.htm - Bernard Myers (1966) . Fine Arts and how Ntdhugaha , translation ( Saad Al Mansouri, Massad judge ) , Egyptian Renaissance Library . - Doaa Mohamed Sayed (2007) . The use of multiple entries in the teaching of social studies for the development of some of the concepts and tendencies among students deaf sixth grade elementary , ( unpublished Ph.D. thesis ) , Faculty of Education , Ain Shams University . - Daniel C. Edeson ( 2001 ) . Learning – for – use : A frame work for the design of technonlogy – supported inquiry activities , Journal of Research in Science Teaching , Volume 38 , Issue 3 , pp : 355 – 385 . - Eli Sieqel(2002). “ The Aesthetic Realism Teaching Method “ , Aesthetic Realism Foundation , On Line Library In the Press . Retrieved on ( 5 / 12 / 2013 ). From : http : //www.aestheticrealism.net/Education- Solution – Hs – A.htm . - Girod . Mark , A ( 2001 ) . “Teaching 5th grade science for aesthetic understandin”, Michigan – state – university : ph – D. htm . Retrieved on ( 7/10/2013 ). From : www . nea . org / Teachexperiance / art html - Girod Mark , Rau , Cheryl ( 2002 ) . “Appreciating the Beauty of science Ideas : Teaching for Aesthetic understanding” , the annual meeting of The American Educational Research Association . - Grace, Cathy ( 2007 ) . “ The Portfolio and Its Use: Development Appropriate Assessment of Young Children . Retrieved on ( 5/11/2013) . From: file://F:\NewFolder\ grace 92.html - Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud (2005) . Effectiveness of the program in the development of multimedia my skills to read and understand a map with first-grade students and their attitudes towards secondary geography, Master Thesis ( unpublished ) , the Faculty of Education , Helwan University. - Hussein Zaiton ( 2003) . Model teaching trip : a new vision for the development of methods of teaching and learning in our schools , Cairo , the world of books. - Iman Mohamed Mahmoud Muhammad Yunus (2012) . Proposed curriculum in science preparatory school in the light of the entrance aesthetic and effectiveness in the development of the collection of knowledge and values and the trend towards the study of science, Ph.D. thesis ( unpublished ) , the Faculty of Education , Ain Shams University. - Kenny , Caroltn Bereznak ( 1999 ) . “ Beyond This Point there Be Dragons” : Developing General Theory in Music Therapy. Nordic Tournal of Music Therapy ( 8 ) , 2,137 – 142 . - Kenny , Carolyn Bereznak ( 1989 ) : “ The field of play : Aguide for the theory and Practice of Music Therapy . Atascadero “ : Ridgeview Rublishing Company . - Kiess , H . o .( 1989 ) . “Statistical Concepts for the Behavioral Science” , London : Toronto , Allyn and Bacon .

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Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed , American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences,6(2), March-May 2014, pp166-177 - Magdi Khair Din Kamel (2003) . A proposed program in social studies to develop the skills of maps and spatial ability among junior high school students , Ph.D. thesis ( unpublished ) , the Faculty of Education , University of Assiut . - Michael Muller ( 2005 ) . “ An Aesthetic Approach to Teaching Middle School Science” , TAMS Journal – The Official Journal of the Tennesee Association of Middle Schools , volume 33 . - Sandra l. Bryan & Marsha M. ( 2001 ) . “ Weaving Aesthetic Experiences into the classroom “ , National Education Association . Retrieved on 13/11/2013. From : NEA Weaving Aesthetic Experiences into the classroom .htm - Mohamed Amin Atwa (2009) .Teaching social studies theory and practice, a contemporary vision , Cairo , Dar Al –Sahab. - Mr. Fouad gorgeous (2005) . Psychology and statistical measurement of the human mind , Cairo , Dar Arab Thought. - Reza Massad Al-Said (2005) . Effect size : statistical methods to measure the practical significance of the results of educational research , scientific conference XV : education curricula and the setting of contemporary life , Volume II, Egyptian Society of curricula and teaching methods , the guesthouse - Ain Shams University July 21 to 22. - Roseemary (2001) . lesson on blood , Aesthetic Realism Teaching Method , Aesthetic Realism Foundation online Library , Philippine Post Magazine , March . Retreived on ( 19/01/2014 ) . From : www . Aesthetic Realism . org . - Rossetto,T.(2013). Learning and teaching with outdoor cartographic displays:avisual approach , journal of research and didactics in geography (J-READING),2,2,Dec.,2013,pp.69-83. - Saber Mohammed Salim (2001) . Entrance aesthetic education process, the Egyptian Association for Science Education , vol (3) , (p 4). - Muhammad Ali Abu Ryan (1985) . Philosophy of beauty , knowledge Dar University , Alexandria . - Salah al-Din Mahmoud Arafa (2005) . Geography teaching and learning in the information age , Cairo , the world of books. - Salah al-Din Mahmoud Allam (2006) . Measurement and Evaluation Alterboay and psychological , Cairo , Dar Arab Thought. - The right of aesthetic realism to be known (1998) . Aesthetic Realism Foundation From: www.AestheticRealism.org - Thomas, Walter, & Brownell, Chriss, T, Mary Bonnie Jones ( 2001 ) . “Using Student Portfolio Effectively”. Intervention in School & Clinic, Mar 2001, Vol. 36 Issue 4, p225. - Webster NewWorld Dictionary : 3 rd College edition , Prentice Hall , p. 122 - Tiago de Almida Moreira (2012). Geography teaching using films in Brazil, journal of geography department – USP ,Issue 23,P.55-82. - Winzer, W ( 2002 ) . “ Portfolio Use in Undergraduate Special Education Introductory Offerings “ , International Journal of Special Education. Vol 17, No. 1 . -Xioa, H. ,(2006).Study Aesthetic Education of Geography Teaching in High School. From: http://www.dissertationtopic.net/doc/1091160 - Yusuf Khalifa (1986) . Entrance Educational aesthetic, the printing press of Islamic Cairo. - Yusuf Khalifa (1979) . Philosophy of aesthetic education , library Saad , Cairo .

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

An Analysis of Theories of Diffusion 1

Pankaj Kumar, 2Dr. Prabhjot Kaur, 1 Ph.D. Student, 2Professor Dept. of Ext. Edu., Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Abstract: Diffusion is a special type of communication concerned with new ideas and is very important to bring about development in the society. For the proper dissemination of innovations, knowledge of the various theories is very important. There are many theories of diffusion which are applicable in the fields of agriculture, sociology and marketing. Among them the four theories given by Rogers are of prime importance in general and field of agriculture in particular. These theories are innovation decision process theory, individual innovativeness theory, rate of adoption theory and perceived attributes theory. Although every theory has a distinct rationale behind it but the universality of every theory is challengeable except the rate of adoption theory. This theory states that innovations are diffused over time in a pattern that resembles an s-shaped curve only universal. Key words: Diffusion, innovation decision process, individual innovativeness, rate of adoption, perceived attributes theory I. Introduction Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. It is a special type of communication, in which the messages are concerned with new ideas. Diffusion is a kind of social change, defined as the process by which alteration occurs in the structure and function of a social system. When new ideas are invented, diffused, and are adopted or rejected, leading to certain consequences, social change occurs. Some authors restrict the term "diffusion" to the spontaneous, unplanned spread of new ideas, and use the concept of dissemination for diffusion that is directed and managed. (Rogers, 1983) The original diffusion research was done as early as 1903 by the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde who plotted the original S-shaped diffusion curve and by German and Austrian anthropologists such as Friedrich Ratzel and Leo Frobenius. Theories of innovation diffusion have been used to increase the adoption of innovative products and practices by a number of professionals. These professionals belong mainly to the disciplines of agriculture, sociology and marketing. Because it is realized that most of the innovations are not being utilized or were utilized to full extent. A. Theories of diffusion 1. Laws of Imitation Probably the first theory of adoption was given by Gabriel Tarde who was one of the forefathers of sociology and social psychology. Tarde observed certain generalizations about the diffusion of innovations that he called "the laws of imitation”. According to Laws of Imitation 1. The more similar an innovation is to those ideas that have already been accepted; the more likely the innovation is to be adopted 2. Rate of adoption of a new idea usually followed an s-shaped curve over time. At first, only a few individuals adopt a new idea, then the rate of adoption spurts as a large number of individuals accept the innovation, and finally the adoption rate slackens. 3. An innovation is first adopted by an individual who is socially closest to the source of the new idea, and that it then spreads gradually from higher-status to lower-status individuals Tardes' (1903) S-shaped curve is of current importance because "most innovations have an S-shaped rate of adoption". (Rogers, 1983) The variance lies in the slope of the "S". Some innovations diffuse rapidly creating a steep S-curve; other innovations have a slower rate of adoption, creating a more gradual slope of the S-curve. The rate of adoption, or diffusion rate has become an important area of research to sociologists, and more specifically, to advertisers. 2. The British and German-Austrian Diffusionists’ Theory Another root in the ancestry of diffusion research was a group of early anthropologists that evolved in England and in Germany-Austria soon after the time of Gabriel Tarde in France. These anthropologists are called the "British diffusionists" and the "German-Austrian diffusionists." The viewpoint of each group was similar.

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Diffusionism was the point of view in anthropology that explained change in a given society as a result of the introduction of innovations from another society. The diffusionists claimed that all innovations spread from one original source, which, of course, argued against the existence of parallel invention. They proposed that all social change could be explained by diffusion alone. The dominant viewpoint now is that social change is caused by both invention and diffusion, which usually occur sequentially. (Rogers, 1983) Rogers is considered as mentor of “Diffusion and Adoption” field who contributed with four theories of diffusion/ adoption. These are: Innovation Decision Process theory Individual Innovativeness theory Rate of Adoption theory Perceived Attributes theory (Kumar and Singh, 2012) 3. Innovation Decision Process Theory. Adoption is essentially a decision making process. Decision making is a process comprising a sequence of stages with a distinct type of activity occurring during each stage. Ryan and Gross (1943) were probably the first to recognize that the adoption of new idea consisted of stages. They distinguished between awareness of hybrid seed corn, conviction of its usefulness, trial acceptance and complete adoption of the innovation. Wilkening (1953) identified four adoption stages – awareness, obtaining information, conviction and trial, and adoption. (Rogers, 1983). Johnson and Haver (1955) gave the following steps of decision-making: (i) Observing the problem (ii) Making analysis of it (iii) Deciding the available course of action (iv) Taking one course (v) Accepting the consequences of the decision The North Central Rural Sociology Subcommittee identified five stages of the adoption process, which received world-wide attention. These are: (i) Awareness (ii) Interest (iii) Evaluation (iv) Trial (v) Adoption (Ray, 2006). Rogers initially abide by these five stages in his early work. But in later editions of the Diffusion of Innovations, he changed the terminology of the five stages to: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. He described the innovation-decision process as “an information-seeking and informationprocessing activity, where an individual is motivated to reduce uncertainty about the advantages and disadvantages of an innovation”. According to him the innovation-decision process involves five steps: (1) knowledge, (2) persuasion, (3) decision, (4) implementation, and (5) confirmation. These stages typically follow each other in a time-ordered manner.

Fig. 1: Steps in adoption-diffusion process Knowledge Stage: The innovation-decision process starts with the knowledge stage. In this step, an individual learns about the existence of innovation and seeks information about the innovation. “What?,” “how?,” and “why?” are the critical questions in the knowledge phase. During this phase, the individual attempts to determine “what the innovation is and how and why it works”. Three types of knowledge is there: (1) awareness-knowledge, (2) how-to-knowledge, and (3) principles-knowledge. Persuasion Stage: The persuasion step occurs when the individual has a negative or positive attitude toward the innovation, but the formation of a favourable or unfavourable attitude toward an innovation does not always lead directly or indirectly to an adoption or rejection. The individual shapes, attitude after knowing about the innovation, so the persuasion stage follows the knowledge stage in the innovation-decision process. Decision Stage: At the decision stage in the innovation-decision process, the individual chooses to adopt or reject the innovation. While adoption refers to full use of an innovation as the best course of action available, rejection means not to adopt an innovation. However, rejection is possible in every stage of the innovationdecision process.

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Implementation Stage: At the implementation stage, an innovation is put into practice. However, an innovation brings the newness in which some degree of uncertainty is involved in diffusion. Uncertainty about the outcomes of the innovation still can be a problem at this stage. Thus, the implementer may need technical assistance from change agents and others to reduce the degree of uncertainty about the consequences. Confirmation Stage: The innovation-decision already has been made, but at the confirmation stage the individual looks for support for decision. This decision can be reversed if the individual is exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation. However, the individual tends to stay away from these messages and seeks supportive messages that confirm the decision. Thus, attitudes become more crucial at the confirmation stage. Depending on the support for adoption of the innovation and the attitude of the individual, later adoption or discontinuance happens during this stage (Rogers, 1983). According to Singh (1965), the stages of adoption are dynamic and not static. The same five stages do not occur with all the adopters and all the practices. Sequence is not always the same. Sometimes one stage appears more than once. In some cases some stages are too short as to be imperceptible, and in other cases some stages seem to be skipped. There are no clear-cut differences and sometimes the whole process is capsuled and look like a unit act. He gave the following stages: (i) Need (ii) Awareness (iii) Interest (iv) Deliberation (v) Trial (vi) Evaluation (vii) Adoption. Dodgson and Bessant (1996) recognize that `success' in innovation is not simply a matter of moving a resource from A to B, but "the capability on the part of the recipient to do something useful with that resource", in other words, to innovate effectively. Dodgson and Bessant acknowledge that innovation is not an "instantaneous event, but a time-based process involving several stages". They have identified these stages as: (i) Initial recognition of opportunity or need (ii) Search (iii) Comparison (iv) Selection (v) Acquisition (vi) Implementation (vii) Longterm use (involving learning and development) 4. Individual Innovativeness Theory In this theory the individuals are classified into different categories according to their innovativeness. This classification includes innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. In each adopter category, individuals are similar in terms of their innovativeness: Innovativeness is the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than other members of a system (Rogers, 1983). Braak (2001) described innovativeness as a relatively-stable, socially-constructed, innovationdependent characteristic that indicates an individual’s willingness to change his or her familiar practices. Rogers categorized the adopters based on innovativeness as (i) innovators (ii) early adopters (iii) early majority (iv) late majority and (v) laggards.(fig. 2)Although this is a widely accepted theory but perhaps the most criticized also. If we talk about the consistency in innovativeness of an individual towards all the innovation, then Roger himself said that there is no clear-cut evidence as to whether or not innovating behaviour is completely consistent. He postulated however that it is doubtful whether and individual who is innovative in one aspect is laggard for another idea. But contrary to this we can find many examples where innovator of one aspect falls in other categories for other e.g. in package “programmes” in India, innovative behaviour was not shown towards all practices recommended in a package of practices for the given crop by the so-called innovators or early adopters of seed and fertilizer. Further the adopter categories also change over time as adopter categorization is similar to a snap-shot that pictures an individual at one time. He does not necessarily remain in the same position in a social structure at later point in time. So there is no general innovator or universal laggard for all innovations and over period of time as is often implicitly assumed by some diffusion researchers. (Chamala et al 1980). Based upon their research on different innovations, Siddaramaiah and Nithyashree (2005) give a new adopters’ categories and nomenclature. They divided the adopters into four groups named as: (i) Pioneers (ii) Rationalists (iii) Imitators (iv) Murmurers. As this model has identified two groups of adopter categories on either side of the mean, the distribution is said to be in equilibrium. Hence, the model is called as PRIM (E) model of adopter categories in which E means equilibrium. The first group, Pioneers consists of 15 per cent of adopters. They are venturesome and originators in testing and adopting any new idea they come across. The second group rationalists constitute a highest of 35 per cent is sensible and try to explain everything by reasoning. The imitators and murmurers are 32 and 18 per cent respectively. But there is nothing new in this model except the merging of first two categories given by Rogers i.e. innovators and early adopters.

Fig 2: Adopter categories

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Gill (1967) categorized adopters on the basis of speed (time taken) and extent (area put under practice) of the innovation. He found on this basis the innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards were in the percentage of 3.12, 7.03, 18.75, 56.25 and 14.85 respectively. 5. Rate of Adoption Theory. The third widely-used diffusion theory discussed by Rogers (1983) is the theory of Rate of Adoption. Rate of Adoption theory states that innovations are diffused over time in a pattern that resembles an s-shaped curve. Rate of Adoption theorizes that an innovation goes through a period of slow, gradual growth before experiencing a period of relatively dramatic and rapid growth. The theory also states that following the period of rapid growth, the innovation's rate of adoption will gradually stabilize and eventually decline. He defined the rate of adoption as the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system. For instance, the number of individuals who adopted the innovation for a period of time can be measured as the rate of adoption of the innovation. The perceived attributes of an innovation are significant predictors of the rate of adoption. In addition to these attributes, the innovation-decision type (optional, collective, or authority), communication channels (mass media or interpersonal channels), social system (norms or network interconnectedness), and change agents may increase the predictability of the rate of adoption of innovations. 6. Perceived Attributes Theory According to this theory there are five attributes upon which an innovation is judged: (1) relative advantage, (2) compatibility, (3) complexity, (4) trialability, and (5) observability. Rogers (1983) stated that individuals’ perceptions of these characteristics predict the rate of adoption of innovations. Relative Advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes. The cost and social status motivation aspects of innovations are elements of relative advantage. However Burkman's theory of a useroriented instructional development (UOID) rejects the idea that technological superiority is a sufficient condition for the adoption of an instructional product. In UOID, the opinions, needs, and perceptions of the potential adopters are seen as the primary forces that influence adoption. (Burkman, 1987). Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use. As Rogers stated, opposite to the other attributes, complexity is negatively correlated with the rate of adoption. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. In addition to these characteristics of innovation, Napier (1991) has given one additional attribute “predictability”. It refers to the degree of certainty of receiving expected benefits from the adoption of an innovation. Singh (1968) gave the following characteristics of innovation: (i) Cost (ii) Relative advantage (iii) Compatibility (iv) Complexity and (v) Risk. Supe (2011) mentioned that the innate characteristics of innovation are: (i) Cost (ii) Complexity (iii) Visibility (iv) Divisibility (v) Compatibility (vi) Utility and (vii) Group action However every author has logic for their ideas, but the most widely adopted characterization given by Rogers. But in practice many strange situations arise where in addition to these attributes we have to find other responsible characteristics of innovation. One such situation is when people encounter two or more innovations at a time which are perceived as similar as a whole. Let us say that three varieties of a crop are released at same time by different agencies or one agency or so. These were named as var A, var B and var C. Now some innovator farmers evaluated all the three on the mentioned attributes and these comes to be similar or perceived as equal in every aspect. Then to which variety one farmer will prefer? Either they will go on the trial of three or two or will choose one. Here what attribute does the innovation have which lures the innovator of a one variety. This is simply the “chance selection” of the innovation. We can define chance selection of an innovation as the probability of selecting an innovation among the set of equally perceptible innovations by the people. So in this way we can have one more factor associated with innovations i.e. chance selection. 7. Theory of Cultural lag The term cultural lag refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag. The term was coined by sociologist William F. Ogburn in his 1922. According to Ogburn, cultural lag is a common societal phenomenon due to the tendency of material culture to evolve and change rapidly and voluminously while non-material culture tends to resist change and remain fixed for a far longer period of time. Due to the opposing nature of these two aspects of culture, adaptation of new technology becomes rather difficult. Dr. James W. Woodward explained that when the material conditions change, changes are occasioned in the adaptive culture, but these changes in the adaptive culture do not synchronize exactly with the change in the material culture, this delay is the culture lag. Cultural Lag Theory suggests that a period of maladjustment occurs when the non-material culture is struggling to adapt to new material conditions (anonymous, 2014a). Cultural Lag theory resonates with the ideas of Technological Determinism, in that it assumes that technology has independent effects on society at large. Ogburn posited four stages of technical development: invention, accumulation, diffusion, and adjustment. (i) Invention is the process by which new forms of technology are created.

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(ii) Accumulation is the growth of technology. (iii) Diffusion is the spread of an idea from one cultural group to another, or from one field of activity to another. (iv) Adjustment is the process by which the non-technical aspects of a culture respond to invention.

Fig 3: Adjustment in Cultural Lag Theory Cultural lag creates problems for a society in a multitude of ways. The issue of cultural lag tends to permeate any discussion in which the implementation of some new technology is a topic. For example, the advent of bioengineering research has given rise to many new, potentially beneficial medical technologies; however these new technologies have also raised serious ethical questions about the use of bioengineering in medicine (anonymous, 2014 b). 8. Bass Theory This theory was given by Bass (1969). The Bass model is the most popular model in the field of marketing. It is a mathematical model of diffusion. Bass model assumes that potential adopters of an innovation are influenced by two means of communication-mass media and word of mouth. In its development, it further assumes that the adopters of an innovation comprise two groups. One group is influenced only by the mass-media communication (external influence) and the other group is influenced only by the word-of-mouth communication (internal influence). Bass termed the first group "Innovators" and the second group "Imitators." There are certain assumptions of this model as under: • Diffusion process is binary (consumer either adopts, or waits to adopt) • Constant maximum potential number of buyers (N) • Eventually, all N will buy the product • No repeat purchase, or replacement purchase • The impact of the word-of-mouth is independent of adoption time • Innovation is considered independent of substitutes • The marketing strategies supporting the innovation are not explicitly included The Bass model proposes that the likelihood of purchase of a product at time ‘t’ denoted by L (t) is a linear function: q L(t) = p + –– N(t) N Where p = Coefficient of innovation (or coefficient of external influence) q = Coefficient of imitation (or coefficient of internal influence) N(t) = Total number of adopters of the product up to time t N = Total number of potential buyers of the new product

Fig. 4 The Bass model 9. Model of Eastlick and Lotz Gatignon and Robertson’s model (1985) was constructed to explain the process of diffusion of innovations. This model assumes that the variables related to the intrinsic characteristics of each individual influence the process

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of adopting innovation. Eastlick and Lotz (1999) given a improved version of that model. It was designed to investigate the personal characteristics, attitudes and habits of innovators facing adoption of new technologies.

Fig. 5 Model of Eastlick and Lotz ( 1999) The model of Eastlick and Lotz (1999) shows that the elements, which have a direct influence on the decision of adopting or non-adopting a new technique or technology, are:  Attitude towards innovation. This attitude can be positive or negative depending on an assessment of innovation attributes made by the individual in question.  Habits which, up till now, involve some usage behaviour and which should change as consequence of adopting a new system. Theory states that the more the new behaviour is close to old habits, its adoption becomes easier. This model takes into account the interrelation between attitude and perceived risk. On the one hand, there are attitudes that people manage more easily felt risks than others and proceed with the adoption of an innovation. On the other hand, a high perceived risk may deter some individuals from adopting this innovation. This model also implies that attitude is formed under the influence of three factors: old habits, the innovative features of the person and the intrinsic characteristics of the innovation. (Gazbar, 2013) 10. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) The technology acceptance model (TAM) was developed by Davis (1989) to study intentions of adopting an information system. To the theory of innovation diffusion of Gatignon and Robertson, Davis has included two new factors: ease of use and perceived usefulness of the system. According to Taylor and Todd (1995), the practical usefulness of this model lies in the fact that the constructs "Perceived usefulness" and "ease of use" are the key factors for future adoption and use and on which the system designers have some degree of control. Ajzen and Fishbein (1977) consider that intent is the only determinant of the future use of the studied technology. Davis (1989) justifies this new feature referring to workplace reality where an employee may develop a negative attitude vis-à-vis a given technology but uses it anyway because he/she believes that it is advantageous in terms of performance. Perceived usefulness

Control

Attitude

Intention of adopting

Use

Fig. 6 Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1993) According to Taylor and Todd (1995), the more technology is easy to use, the more useful it will be and more positive the attitude and intention to use it later are. The main feature of this model is that it brings about a small number of factors to explain the use of a technology and which are easy to understand and handle. These factors are specific but generalizable. (Gazbar, 2013) 11. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB): The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was developed by Ajzen (1991) which considers intention as a combination of three variables:  The attitude adopted by a person before opting for a behaviour or action.  The subjective norms imposed by social pressure which each individual faces in social environment and which dictate some course of action.  The perception of control that each individual has on the adopted system and this in terms of their own abilities and available resources. Attitude Intention

Subjective Norms

Adoption

Control

Fig.7 Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991)

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B. A retrospective analysis of the studies on theories of diffusion The process of diffusion has been the main concern of all the extension professionals which is evident from number of adoption and diffusion researches being carried out across the world (Kumar and Singh, 2001). Diffusion research was started in Punjab during the year 1963, when Dhaiwal studied some important factors affecting the adoption of a few selected agricultural practices by the cultivators. Incidentally it was the first ever research study of the Department of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana on record. He reported that practices even comparatively complex in nature and involving a high capital outlay, but showing an immediate and reasonable profit are adopted more readily than merely simple but otherwise less advantageous practices. Age of farmers, distance between village of residence from block headquarters was inversely associated to adoption, whereas economic status, farm size, education, social participation and extension contacts are positively associated with adoption. Adding to this, physical and economic factors were found to be the most important factors influencing the adoption of the improved practices (Bhasin, 1966). After this Gill (1967) categorized first time the adopters on the basis of speed (time taken) and extent (area put under practice) of the innovation. Previously only the speed was considered to categorize the adopters. He found on this basis the innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards were in the percentage of 3.12, 7.03, 18.75, 56.25 and 14.85 respectively. It was also tried to categorize the adopters on the basis of rationality and a study suggested that among the adopters there were four categories on the basis of rationality i.e. least rational, somewhat rational, rational and most rational. These categories existed in the percentage of 10, 40, 40 and 10 respectively. But it did not find relationship between adoptersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; categories and rational categories (Hansra, 1968). Then a study pertaining to active adoption and active rejection which evolved that depending upon the nature of the innovation, there was existence of active adoption or active rejection or both in any community. The overall percentage of active adoption and active rejection was 19.8 % and 2.7% respectively. However the active adoption and active rejection was not uniform in different villages. Size of the village also did not affect the active adoption and active rejection. Some farmers were active adopter or active rejecter of one practice only whereas other were active adopter or active rejecter of group of practices. Further some active adopters were also active rejecter of some other practices concurrently (Khosla, 1968). Adding to the innovation characteristics theory, Singh (1968) given that the Cost, relative advantage, compatibility, complexity and the risk as the characteristics of innovation that affect the adoption. Risk was turned out to be most important and cost was least important characteristic of an innovation. Then it was observed that the extent of adoption of all of eight selected practices (method of application of fertilizers, dose of fertilizers, seed rate, method of sowing, use of micronutrients, wheat threshing, wheat varieties, and seed treatment) is significantly associated with the level of motivation of the farmers. Farmers having higher level of motivation were found to have higher level of adoption (Jassi, 1972). Adoption of innovation was a function of rational (urban) values. A farmer who is predisposed to rational values is more likely to adopt innovations in farming. Emphasis upon individualism, activism, futurism and scientism were likely to be more conducive to change. In mechanized farmers the education level, size of holding, higher extension contacts, social participation, material possession, socio-economic status were higher than their counterparts (Singh, 1972). After this, Grewal (1976) found that among the adopters of high yielding wheat technology, 24 per cent were high adopters, 49 per cent medium and 27 per cent low adopters. Further the farm size, availability of production credits, level of knowledge, extension contacts, mass media behaviour and wheat enterprise efficiency index were found to be conspicuously associated with the adoption of high yielding wheat technology. One more study asserted that the knowledge about selected improved practices was having a highly significant and negative relationship with their perceived uncertainty in the adoption. Perceived uncertainty in the adoption of selected farm practices was positively associated with their perceived risk in the adoption. So the knowledge of farmers about improved farm practices plays a significant role in minimizing their perceptual uncertainty in the adoption of the improved farm practices (Verma, 1977). One astonishing fact was found by Nanda (1998) that there was no significant relationship between the age of adopters and non-adopters of the agroforestry. Recent study on diffusion theory revealed that although almost all of the adopters had passed through all the stages of adoption but the evaluation and trial stage was missed by 10 per cent and 15 per cent respectively in case of adoption of happy seeder in wheat crop. Whereas none of the non-adopter passed through all the stages and only 12.5 per cent reached up to trial stage and further they take more time than the adopters at each stage of adoption. (Singh, 2011) II. Conclusion Diffusion is a very important phenomenon which brings about the development in the society. All innovations donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t diffuse in the social system due to one or other factors. The diffusion of innovations can be studied by different theories, but there is not a single theory which could explain the process meticulously. Every theory has its own identity and importance but also have many shortcomings. It is due to the fact that diffusion of innovations is a very complicated process which is affected by so many variables like time, innovativeness, cost, individual preferences etc. Research concerning the diffusion of innovation process has increased significantly

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the past several decades due to its versatility. Despite so many differences a universality or similarity found amongst the various research studies on the diffusion of innovation process is that the adoption process or the rate of diffusion can be charted on an S-shaped curve. Apart from this commonality, exceptions are there for all of the theories. References Abrahamson E (1991) Managerial fads and fashions: the diffusion and rejection of innovation. California Management Review 16: 586– 612. Ajzen I and Fishbein M (1977) Attitude-behaviour relations: a theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin 84:888-918. Ajzen I and Fishbein M (1991) The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational behaviour and human decision process 50: 179-211. Anonymous (2014a). Cultural lag. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_lag on 31.3.2014 Anonymous (2014b). The Cultural Lag Theory. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/ site/etec511/the-cultural-lag-theory on 31.3.2014 Bass F (1969) A New Product Growth Model for Consumer Durables. Management Science 15: 15-21. Bhasin HS (1966) An investigation into some factors influencing the low adoption of selected farm practices in Samana block of Patiala, Punjab. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Braak J V (2001) Individual characteristics influencing teachers’ class use of computers. Journal of Educational Computing Research 25: 141-157. Burkman E (1987) Factors Affecting Utilization. In R. M. Gagne (ed.) Instructional technology: Foundations. pp 91-101, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersy Chamala S, Van Den Ban A W and Roling Niels (1980) A new look at adopter categories and an alternative proposal for target grouping of farm community. Ind J of Ext Edu 16: 1-18 Davis F D, Bagozzi R P and Warshaw R (1989) User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoritical models. Management Science 35: 982-1003. Dhaliwal AJS (1963) A study of some important factors affecting the adoption of a few selected agricultural practices by the cultivators of Ludhiana community development block. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Dodgson M and Besssant J (1996) Effective Innovation Policy: A New Approach. pp 15-19. International Thompson Business Press, London Eastlick M A and Lotz S (1999) Profiling potential adopters and non-adopters of an interactive medium. International Journal of Management 27: 209-223. Gazbar Y (2013) Models of diffusion, adoption, innovation and acceptance of new technology, and social communication. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 4: 811-813 Gill G S (1967) A study of various categories of adopters of improved agricultural practices in Ludhiana block. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Grewal I S (1965) Differential characteristics of farmers of a predominantly refugee, a native and a mixed village, affecting the adoption of improved agricultural practices in a block in Ludhiana Distt. of the Punjab state. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Grewal I S (1976) Multivariate analysis of adoption of high yielding wheat technology in arid, central and wet zones of Punjab state. Ph. D. dissertation, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Hansra B S (1968) Rationality index of farmers’ decision making with respect to adoption of selected agricultural innovations. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Jassi B S (1972) Retro-active measurement of the role of motivation in the adoption of agricultural innovations by the farmers of Ludhiana Distt. Ph.D. dissertation. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Johnson G L and Haver C B (1995) Decision making principles in farm management. Bulletin 593, pp 25-30. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington (USA). Khosla A K (1968) A correlated study of the differential characteristics of active adopters and active rejectors of some selected improved agricultural practices in Sirhind block of Patiala Distt., Punjab. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Kumar D and Singh Khajan (2012) Agricultural extension: innovations and dimensions. pp 141-142. Satish Serial Publishing House, Delhi. Kumar G A K and Sing Y P (2001) Development of diffusion models. Ind J of Ext Edu 37: 105-115 Nanda R (1998) A comparative study of adopters and non-adopters of poplar based agroforestry in Punjab. Ph. D. dissertation, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Ray G L (2006) Extension communication and management. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana. pp 178-207 Rogers E M (1983) Diffusion of innovations. pp 1-268. The Free Press, New York Segal H P (1994) Future imperfect: The mixed blessing of technology in America. pp 2. The University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst. Siddaramaiah B S and Nithyashree D A (2005) A new method of adopter categorization – PRIM(E) Model. Ind J of Ext Edu 41: 1-6 Singh Y P (1965) A study of communication networks in sequential adoption and key communicators. Ph.D. dissertation. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India Singh G (1968) A study of the effect of the nature of the agricultural innovations on its adoption by the farmers of Shahkot block, Distt. Jalandhar. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Singh R (1972) A study of socio-psychological values and some biographical characteristics in relation to adoption of farm mechanization by the farmers of Ludhiana (Punjab). Ph.D. dissertation. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Singh S (1994) An analysis of adopter categories of dairy innovations in relation to their socio-economic and psychological characteristics. Ph.D. thesis, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India Singh S (2011) Discriminating analysis of adopters and non-adopters of happy seeder in wheat crop. M. Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Supe S V (2011) Integrated extension education. pp 307-325 Agrotech publishing academy, Udaipur. Taylor S and Todd P A (1995). Understanding information technology usage: a test of competing models. Information Systems Research 6: 144-176. Tessmer M (1990) Environmental analysis: a neglected stage of instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development 38: 55-64. Verma M R (1977) A study of relationship between farm knowledge, perceived risk and uncertainty in the adoption of agricultural innovations by the farmers of Distt. Kangra. M.Sc. thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

TESTING THE MEDIATION EFFECT USING COVARIANCE BASED STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING WITH AMOS 1

Wan Mohamad Asyraf Bin Wan Afthanorhan, 2Sabri Ahmad, 3Ibrahim Mamat 1 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Technology, 2,3 Center of Socioeconomic Development (CSD), 1,2 University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

Abstract: Nowadays, most of the researchers prefer to perform their research using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Further, this application has been extended to enhance the powerful and momentous of the empirical study in order to let the scholars build probe in deeper. Previously, the introduction to mediator variable in statistical analysis already ensure the scholars to provide their research to enlighten concerning on selected variables besides to create a new phenomenon for researchers. However, most of them are rare to take into account on the type of mediator effect once complete the final stage of analysis. In reality, this application manages to determine the strength of mediator variable in analysis by following step by step approach suggested. Hence, this paper intends to illuminate the conditions of type mediator effect whereby Barrier, Benefit, and Challenges factors as well as steps to perform it on Sobel test prevail. The findings suggest Benefits factor to be a partially mediator effect whereas Barrier and Challenges factors to be nonmediation effect. Keyword: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), Mediator Variable, Type of Mediator Effect, Sobel Test I. INTRODUCTION Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is the one of the prominent method to fulfill the requirement of the necessary for most of the researchers nowadays. This method is performed to overcome the limitation of the previous method whereby are old version that initially are false assumption. According to (Afthanorhan, 2013) this application is the integrating of regression analysis and exploratory factor analysis to ascertain scholar provide surveys in a factual assumption. For an example, some of the scholars often use the computation of mean for each variable to analyze their empirical research and of course totally violate the assumption in which the mean of error should be zero. In the nature of social science, the type of mediation effect is able to let the scholars identify the strength of each mediator variables and competent to capture an attention of scholars to implement particular method for their empirical study. In other words, type of mediator has become enjoyed for some researchers nowadays since this skill probable to expand the contribution of the research paper to present a good knowledge to the readers from a variety of fields and countries across the whole region. The founder namely Cohen (1998) allegation the strength of mediator variable is relies on correlation of coefficient or square multiple correlation (R2) in the model developed. A square multiple correlation is exist once this variable has been exerted by other variables whereby independent or exogenous variables. In particular, the result provided in mediator variable comes upon the independent variable has a causal effect on the particular variables. In the accordance of Daniel Soper (2010), square multiple correlations (R2) higher than 0.80 consider high total variation. In addition, there are three types concerning on testing mediated effect beginning by Aronian (1944) followed of Goodman (1960) and has been improve by Sobel test (1982). All of these types use the z-score or z-test to indicate the significant level for their theory. Apparently, the researchers currently interest to perform their mediated effect on the Sobel test that has been supposed a best and precise according to discover of decline error associated with product distribution problem. In furthers, this work paper practice of the volunteerism subject to execute the testing mediating effect using Sobel test whereby comprise of five variables including of three mediator variables. The three mediators variables is emanating from the discovery of previous empirical research wherein these particular variables is conformity to take account the double explanation in such events. Unambiguously, three mediators variable presume Benefits, Challenges and Barrier. Dingle (2001) ordains the Governments is better informed about the people who volunteer, it is likely to become more aware of how policy legislation it introduces can affect, both directly and indirectly , people giving of their time. Of this report prove to justify Benefits factor should be treat as a mediator variable due competency to elucidate two vital roles in one time event. Moreover, the same author which expertise on this area of Dingle (2001) also describe three factors that challenges volunteering which can be indirectly among people to involve the volunteerism program and eventually this particular variable should be implement for the required research. In the accordance of Marlene Wilson (1976) and Eva Schindler-Rainman (1987) explores the barrier is the early

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mainstream (i.e. not about supported volunteering specifically) volunteer program management literature contains encouraging messages about broadening the base of volunteering. To be reasoning that three mediators variables drive to fulfill the proposing paper to justify the statistical power test using Sobel test regardless of whether these three mediators variable are full, partial or non-mediation. In specifically, this objective paper is stress on the testing mediated effect using covariance based structural equation modeling with Amos graphic 18.0. Thus, the author skips of regression coefficient to the subsequent step as the aforementioned. This step approach is quietly effortless to provide a better understanding and meant to the readers as well arouse awareness pertaining to mediation effect. II. MODELLING MEDIATING EFFECT/ INTERVENING EFFECT Mediation effect can be called as an intervening effect. A mediator is a predictor link in the relationships between two other variables. Normally, a mediator variable can become an exogenous and endogenous variable at same time. By testing for meditational effects, a researcher can explore to examine the influences between these variables. According to (Zainudin Awang, 2010) the mediation have three types mediator which is full mediation, partial mediation, and non-mediation. For full mediation: 1) The regression coefficient of X1 on Y (or B1) is not significant. 2) The regression coefficient of X1 on X2 (or B3) is significant. 3) The regression coefficient of X2 on Y (or B2) is significant. For partial mediation: 1) The regression coefficient of X1 on Y (or B1) is significant. 2) The regression coefficient of X1 on X2 (or B3) is significant. 3) The regression coefficient of X2 on Y (or B2) is significant. 4) The value B1 is lower than the product of (B3 multiply B2) For non-mediation: 1) The regression coefficient of X1 on Y (or B1) is not significant. 2) The regression coefficient of X1 on X2 (or B3) is not significant. 3) Both regression coefficient (B1 and B2) are significant but B1 is higher than B3*B2. III. MEDIATORS Mediation analysis or intervening effect permits examination process, allowing the researcher to examine by what means X exerts its effect on Y (MacKinnon, 2000). These hypothesized structural effects led to a proposal of a partially mediated model in which barrier, challenges, and benefits were modeled as the mediator between the predictor variable and the ultimate dependent variable. This partially mediated model was proposed based on Baron and Kennyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (1986) three required conditions are required for mediation effects. The independent variable must affect the mediating variable. In this instance, the government support predictor must affect the barrier, challenges, and benefits. 1. The independent variable must affect the dependent variable. In this model, government support constructs must have effect on the outcome variable (i.e., motivation) 2. The mediator must have effect on the dependent variable. In this case, the barrier, benefits, and challenges must affect motivation. 3. When these conditions for mediation proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986) were examined, it appeared that the three conditions were met. Testing mediation effect using SEM requires significant correlations between independent variable, mediating variable, and the ultimate dependent variable (Hair et al. 2006). IV. FINDINGS This study interest to identify the types of mediator variable based on structural model of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). We have discussed that this study apply for three mediators which is Barrier, Benefits, and Challenges. There are several steps that should be address to test the mediating effect using structural equation modeling. 1. Construct for each variable with latent construct grounded on the number of items. [e.g.: Benefits factor have 14 items, thus the latent construct should consists of 14 manifest variable (enclosed on rectangular shape)] 2. The first part ensure of each variable endures Confirmatory Factor Analysis [To delete insignificant items (usually lower than 0.60 of items should be drop)] 3. The deletion items should be drop at a one time in order to obtain the minimize loadings. The deletion items at simultaneously prone to gain inaccurate result 4. The required level likely Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA), Baseline comparison, and parsimonious fit should be achieved. Unfit of measurement model fail to proceed the subsequent analysis

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5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) can be performed in the pattern of multidimensionality (whole measurement in one default diagram) or unidimensionality (one measurement model) practice. Afterwards, probing the required level of reliability, validity and fitness of measurement model likely Cronbach Alpha, Composite reliability and Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The process of confirmatory factor analysis can be view by Afthanorhan (2013). Then, reframe the path of each variable regarding on pedagogical theoretical framework. In this case, five variables are performed including three mediators variable. As usual, execute the structural model. In this case, this paper liking to use maximum likelihood estimator that has been recognizes as a best formal estimator. Ultimately, obtain the standardized regression weight and the probability values which indicate the significant path.

Government Support → Barrier Government Support → Challenge Government Support → Benefits Government Support → Motivation Barrier → Motivation Challenge → Motivation Benefits → Motivation

Estimate 0.260 0.286 0.400 0.115 0.069 0.015 0.658

Figure 1 Critical Ratio 4.389 4.953 7.034 2.261 1.576 0.338 10.982

Probability Value 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.024 0.115 0.735 0.000

Result Significant Significant Significant Significant Insignificant Insignificant Significant

Exhibit 1: The Procedure for Testing Mediation in a Complex Model Figure 1 present the structural model with fitness indexes at the edge of image to prove the fitness that required in structural equation model has been triumph as the laid out. Now, the findings is emphasized once achieve the required level for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using covariance based structural equation modeling. Exhibit 1 demonstrates the path coefficient of standardized regression weight for causal effect of exogenous variables on endogenous variables perpetrated in AMOS report. Standardized regression weight is the correlation between variables and has been used for scholars to execute comparison for each group. By inspecting through for each row, the Benefits factor is expected to be the highest correlation on Motivation. On the other hands, the Challenge factor is defined as the lowest correlation on Motivation. Means that, Challenge factor has less correlation on Motivation though primarily this particular factor has a tremendous relationship for the previous empirical research. This result might be suspicious due to the vary perception or view of respondents across distinct the targeted population. Neverthless, the main objective paper is not to argue the proficiency of each mediator variables but to ascertain the readers learn on how to extend their analysis to be more remarkable aside avert to apply the cumbersome technique that totally amended the wish of scholars to resulting of worth research. The first things are certify which one of the mediator variables is to be interested to apply for the subsequent analysis. In this case, Benefits factor is to be selected first to proceed of testing the statistical power analysis using Sobel test technique. Next, the author reframe for each construct using the findings appear once execute the maximum likelihood estimator as presented in Figure 2, Figure 3, and Figure 4. All of these figures are designed to strengthen the explanation of Sobel test technique for the readers in a modest way.

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Our findings of standardised regression weight and probability values (P-value) will be implement in a new framework as a laid out. Firstly, the indirect effect should be taking into account of Independent variable→ Mediator variable→ Dependent variable of which value of standardized regression weight for both path should be multiplied (e.g.: value of Independent and Mediator * value of Mediator and Dependent). In the accordance of Baron & Kenny (1986) which inherits the Sobel (1982) technique, indirect effect should be higher than direct effect to indicate the mediation effect is occurs in a structural modeling. Means that, anything value related on mediator variable should be higher than causal effect. Logically, the mediation variable is deemed has an influenced to increase or decrease the causal effect of independent on dependent variable. However, if some of the sort cases judges the presence of mediator variable (P-value > 0.05) does not give any shift to affect on the main factor can be defined as non-mediation occurs. Thus, this variables probable might be appropriate to perform as independent variable since does not give any contribution that can give a tremendous advantages in analysis. Of overwhelming techniques has been spread among researchers recently, the non-mediation effect suppose to preserve for the future research. Indeed, we should drawing the deduction based on our findings but it does not mean we should neglect the significant of this variable. Verily, the researchers should be more knowledgable to form a good presentation to let the outsider interest to apply this technique though non mediation is attained. In other words, the researchers should address the probability value as a first step followed on value of Independent and Mediator * value of Mediator and Dependent calculated. In order to fulfill the requirement of the mediation effect occurs, probability value should be significant (P-value < 0.05) or confidence interval 95%. If either one or both path is insignificant presented stating that the mediation effect is not supposed to be occurs. Subsequently, we press on the calculation between indirect and direct effect as aforementioned. Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4 explained deeper understanding to let the scholar comprehend the flow or process of procedure that has been conducted. Barrier

   

Figure 2 The indirect effect = 0.260 x 0.069 = 0.01794 The direct effect = 0.115 (Government to Barrier) is significant and (Barrier to Motivation) is no significant Non mediation occurs

Benefits

    

   

   

Challenge

Figure 4 Figure 3 The indirect effect = 0.400 x 0.658 =  The indirect effect = 0.286 x 0.015 = 0.2632 0.00429 The direct effect = 0.115  The direct effect = 0.115 Both indirect effect (Government to  (Government to Challenge) is significant Benefit) and (Benefit to Motivation) is and (Challenge to Motivation) is no significant significant Since indirect effect > direct effect, the  Non mediation occurs mediation occurs Type of mediation here is Partial Mediation since the direct effect is still significant after mediator enters the model. Benefits factors plays a fundamental character as a mediator effect since achieve the

In this case, the findings suggest the assumption of statistical power proposed Barrier and Challenge factors does not meet the condition to be mediator variable. Both of these variable is fail at the beginning once the mediator variable having insignificant path on endogenous construct Full mediation occurs once all the path coefficient presented are significant (Baron & Kenny, 1986) If indirect effect is lower than direct effect even the mediator variables devouring significant path, the mediator variable should be exclude first to gain the result of direct effect. Subsequently, include the mediator variable in a model to gain the outcome. Once the direct effect is drop presented, one can be conclude that the mediation effect is occurs. This condition is very rare to happen for the empirical research. If the result of direct effect is unchanged once include a mediator variable, thus, the mediation effect is not occurs. If the result of direct effect is suddenly increase once include a mediator variable when all path coefficient are significant, calculate the result of indirect effect. If value of direct effect is higher than indirect effect, the non-mediation effect is not occur. Non mediation effect cannot be presume as a fail findings or analysis but can be elaborate as no effect on endogenous construct. This might be happen due to less correlation with endogenous construct or view of respondent at the targeted population that deem this factor is unnecessary to be addressed. Indisputably some of the researchers currently show their findings depend on the significant path solely without do the checking of calculation of effect standardized regression weight. However, this procedure is incorrectly to justify their proof.

V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION To be drawing the conclusion based on the findings revealed, Benefits factor is the only one of mediator variable that meet the requirement to have an influential on Motivation factor using the Sobel technique. The procedure applied in this paper is ease to proper understanding in order to help the scholars probing their

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research with more comprehensive. In the nature of social sciences, the explanation should be easier to understanding without the use of the conceptual of mathematics theory. Initially, this proposing works paper was to identify the type of mediator in a structural model using the particular technique. To date, the researchers could know when to use this factor since the mediator variable is also crucial to examine the contribution of Government Support towards the level of involvement in volunteerism program. In this case, Benefits are the only one could give an impact on Motivation. Thus, we can conclude that this factor tends to increase or decrease an impact of research subject and of course this factor can be used for the future research. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Special thanks, tribute and appreciation to all those their names do not appear here who have contributed to the successful completion of this study. Finally, I’m forever indebted to my beloved parents, Mr. Wan Afthanorhan and Mrs. Parhayati who understanding the importance of this work suffered my hectic working hours. AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY Wan Mohamad Asyraf Bin Wan Afthanorhan is a postgraduate student in mathematical science (statistics) in the Department of Mathematics, University Malaysia Terengganu. He ever holds bachelor in statistics within 3 years in the Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics, UiTM Kelantan. His main area of consultancy is statistical modeling especially the structural equation modeling (SEM) by using AMOS, SPSS, and SmartPLS. He has been published several articles in his are specialization. He also interested in t-test, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, logistic regression, factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, modeling the mediating and moderating effect, Bayesian SEM, Multitrait Multimethod, Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Forecasting. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173. Bentler, P.M. and Bonnet, D.C. (1980), "Significance Tests and Goodness of Fit in the Analysis of Covariance Structures," Psychological Bulletin, 88 (3), 588-606. Bollen, K.A. (1990), "Overall Fit in Covariance Structure Models: Two Types of Sample Size Effects," Psychological Bulletin, 107 (2), 256-59. Brackney, W.H. (1997). Christian Volunterism: Theology and Praxis. Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co. In Press Browne, M. W., MacCallum, R. C., Kim, C., Andersen, B. L., & Glaser, R. (2002). When fit indices and residuals are incompatible. Psychological Methods, 7, 403-421. Byrne, (1998). Structural Equation Modeling With Lisrel, Prelis, and Simplis: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. Byrne, (2010). Structural Equation Modeling With Amos: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming.In Press Christen, R. P., Rhyne, E., & Vogel, R. C. (1995). Maximizing the outreach of microenterprise finance: The emerging lessons of successful programs. Harvard Institute for International Development. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334. Dingle, T. (1984) The Victorians: Settling (Sydney: Fairfax, Syme and Weldon). Dingle, T. (1995) People and places in post-war Melbourne. In: G.Davison, T.Dingle, and S.O'Hanlon, eds. The Cream Brick Dingle, T. (2009) MacRobertson's Chocolate Factory: from industry to industrial chic. Urban Policy and Research (forthcoming). Farrell, J.M., Johnston, M.E. and Twynam, G.D. (1998). Volunteer motivation, satisfaction, and management at an elite sporting competition. Journal of Sport Management, 12(4) 288 300. Gerbing, D.W. and Anderson, J.C. (1984), "On the Meaning of Within-Factor Correlated Measurement Errors," Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (June), 572-80. Hair, J. F. (2009). Multivariate data analysis. Holmes-Smith, P. (2006). School socio-economic density and its effect on school performance. MCEETYA. Hu, L.T. and Bentler, P.M. (1999), "Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives," Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1), 1-55. Jöreskog, K. and Long, J.S. (1993), "Introduction," in Testing Structural Equation Models, Kenneth A. Bollen and J. Scott Long, Eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Jöreskog, K. and Sörbom, D. (1993), LISREL 8: Structural Equation Modeling with the SIMPLIS Command Language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc. Jöreskog, K. and Sörbom, D. (1996), LISREL 8: User’s Reference Guide. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc. Kenny, D.A. and McCoach, D.B. (2003), "Effect of the Number of Variables on Measures of Fit inStructural Equation Modeling," Structural Equation Modeling, 10 (3), 333-51. MacCallum, R. C., & Hong, S. (1997). Power analysis in covariance structure modeling using GFI and AGFI. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32, 193-210. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological methodology, 13(1982), 290-312. Wan Mohamad Asyraf Bin Wan Afthanorhan, Sabri Ahmad. (2013). Modelling A High Reliability And Validity By Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis On Five Latent Construct: Volunteerism Program. International Research Journal Advanced Engineer and Scientific Technology (IRJAEST), 1(1), 7. Wan Mohamad Asyraf Bin Wan Afthanorhan, Sabri Ahmad. (2013). Modelling The Multimediator On Motivation Among Youth In Higher Education Institution Towards Volunteerism Program Mathematical Theory and Modeling (MTM), 3(7), 7. Wan Mohamad Asyraf Bin Wan Afthanorhan, Sabri Ahmad. (2013). Modelling-The-Multigroup-Moderator-Mediator-OnMotivation-Among-Youth-In-Higher Education Institution towards Volunteerism Program. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research (IJSER), 4(7), 5. Zainudin, A. (2010). Research Methodology for Business and Social Science. Shah Alam: Universiti Teknologi Mara Publication Centre (UPENA). Zainudin, A. (2012). Structural Equation Modeling Using Amos Graphic. Shah Alam: Universiti Teknologi Mara Publication Centre (UPENA).

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Mass media campaign to improve infant and young child feeding practices amongst tribal mothers of Chikhli taluka, Gujarat Shriya A.Seksaria1 and Dr. Mini K.Sheth 1 Research Scholar, 2Associate Professor Department of Foods and Nutrition, Faculty of Family and Community Sciences, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, INDIA Abstract Objective: The objective involved evaluating the impact of mass media campaign (MMC) in improving the breastfeeding (BF) and complementary feeding (CF) knowledge and practices of the mothers. Methods: BF and CF Knowledge and practices of 89 tribal mothers with children between 6-30 months was evaluated before and after the MMC in the form of nutrition health education (NHE). Participants were interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Nutritional assessment of children was done using standard anthropometric methods before and after NHE. Findings: Post intervention the mean composite BF knowledge scores increased by almost 100%. After the education mothers knew that prelactals were harmful for the child and the benefits of feeding colostrums. Mean knowledge and practices composite scores for CF increased by 44.78% and 26.56% respectively. Post intervention mothers know the benefits and correct age of initiating complementary feeds. More mothers started preparing special foods for their child ensuring incorporation of foods from all the food groups. The nutritional status of children also showed a significant decrease in the number of children classified as underweight (x2=20.4, p<0.001) and wasted (x 2=22.7, p<0.001). Conclusion: MMC can produce positive changes in health-related behaviors across populations. . Keywords: Nutrition health education, tribal mothers. I.

Introduction

Over the past few decades, media campaigns have been used in an attempt to affect various health behaviors in mass populations. Huge amounts are spent annually for materials and salaries that have gone into the production and distribution of booklets, pamphlets, exhibits, newspaper articles, and radio and television programs. The mass media campaigns may also be used to convey behavior-change messages that aim to change the publics’ knowledge, attitudes and practices [1]. Communication campaigns involving diverse topics and target audiences have been conducted for decades. Mass media interventions have proven effectiveness in changing individuals’ behavior [2-6] and healthcare utilization [7], reducing stigma [8], breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices [9] and raising awareness of the signs and symptoms of other diseases [10]. One of the health issues that have been continuously addressed at grass root levels is malnutrition among children. Scientific evidence reveals that malnutrition has been responsible directly and indirectly for 60% of all deaths among children under five years annually. Over 2/3 of these deaths are often associated with inappropriate feeding practices and occur during the first year of life. The government of India has always been promoting at the national and international for an exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and introduction of complementary foods thereafter with continued breastfeeding upto two years which is consistent with the Indian tradition of prolonged breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods from six months of age [11]. In the past studies have been conducted among the masses to promote breastfeeding (BF) and complementary feeding (CF) practices among women which have demonstrated to have a positive impact [12, 13]. The present study was undertaken with an objective to evaluate the impact of nutrition health education imparted through massmedia campaign in improving the existing knowledge and practices of mothers with respect to BF and CF and to study its effect on the nutritional status of the children.

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II.

METHODS

Sampling: The present study was a community based effectiveness trial conducted in the tribal villages of Navsari district of Gujarat. Gujarat has 33 districts and Navsari district comprises of 6 talukas which includes 389 urban, rural and tribal villages. Chikhli a tribal taluka of Navasari district has 88 villages [14]. To identify the villages for the study a map of Chikhli taluka was taken. With Chikhli village as the center point a circle of 15 cm was drawn. The area was divided into 4 zones. Two villages were conveniently selected from two zones. From each village 25 mothers with children between 6-30 months were conveniently sampled making a sample of 100 mothers. However out of 100, 11 dropped out (due to migration, post-partum condition etc), hence data of 89 mothers was considered for analysis. Data Collection Baseline data was collected by trained investigator using pretested structured questionnaire. Informed consent was taken from the mothers and they were explained the purpose of the study. The questionnaire included close ended questions related to mother’s knowledge and practices on BF and CF. The questionnaire was developed according to international and national guidelines on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) [15,16]. Each desirable response was given a score of 1, 2 or 3 (different weight for different questions) and an undesirable response was given a score of 0. A composite score was calculated for each aspect and the mothers were ranked into four categories i.e excellent (with a score of 91-100%), very good (76-90%), fair (61-75%) and poor (≤ 60%). The questionnaire was developed in English but was translated to the local language (Gujarati) during administration. To assess the nutritional status of the children a standardized digital balance (100 g sensitivity) and flexitape was used to measure the weight and height of the children respectively. WHO growth standards 2007 [17] were used to classify children under different grades of nutritional status w.r.t weight for age (WFA) and weight for length/height (WFL/H). Weight and heights of individual children were taken every month for 5 months to monitor the nutritional status of the children. Nutrition health education Reviewing the baseline responses of the mothers, an assessment of prevailing knowledge levels and practices with respect to BF and CF was done to determine the existing gaps when compared with the national and international guidelines on IYCF. A short film in local language was developed to impart education to mothers in small groups of 8-10 mothers. Mothers were invited at the anganwadi center for viewing the film on a pre decided day. For better viewing of the film by the mothers, use of LCD projector and a big screen was done. The information was disseminated in the form of short messages. Leaflets were also distributed as ready reckoners for reinforcing the messages. The investigator conducted monthly home visits and had interpersonal interaction with the mother on issues of BF and CF. Post data was collected after a period of 5 months as per the base line. Statistical test: Chi square analysis using EpiInfo2000 package was done to determine the shifts in number of children in different grades of undernutrition and the change in BF and CF knowledge and practices of the mothers. Paired “t’ test analysis was carried out to determine the significant changes in the mean scores of the parameters assessed before and after the intervention using SPSS, version 16.0. III.

RESULTS

The mean scores of the mothers before and after the intervention are summarized in table 1. Table 2 summarizes the baseline and the post intervention data with respect to the number of mothers ranked in different categories on the basis of scores obtained for the three parameters assessed. As indicated a highly significant increase of 100% was observed in the mean knowledge scores of BF post intervention. After the NHE mothers knew the importance of colstrum and that it was undesirable to give prelactals to child after birth. Number of mothers categorized to have excellent BF knowledge scores increased from 2 to 25 after the NHE. Similarly for knowledge and practices for CF also the number of mothers having excellent scores increased significantly from 13 to 38 and 17 to 55 respectively. After the NHE all the mothers knew about the right age of initiating complementary feeds. Majority of mothers started preparing special complementary feeds for their children incorporating foods from all the food groups. The nutritional status of the children before and after the intervention is summarized in Figure 1. As evident the number of children classified for normal weight for age increased from 17 to 44 after the follow up period and this increase was found to be statistically significant ((x2=20.4, p<0.001). Similarly children classified as

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severely wasted decreased from 10 to 1. Children having normal weight for height increased significantly from 47 to 76 post intervention. Table 1: Mean scores of the mothers Knowledge on breastfeeding S.No

After

Mean score ± SD Awareness about colostrum 1 0.73 ± 0.45 1.0 ± 0.0 Special name for first milk 1 0.11 ± 0.32 0.82 ± 0.39 Is colostrums good for child 1 0.60 ± 0.50 0.93 ± 0.25 Benefits of colostrum 1 0.14 ± 0.34 0.34 ± 0.48 Duration of exclusive breastfeeding 1 0.63 ± 0.49 0.98 ± 0.15 Are prelactals good for the child 1 0.26 ± 0.44 0.84 ± 0.37 6 2.46 ± 1.43 4.91 ± 0.81 Total Knowledge on complementary feeding (CF) Age of initiation of CF 1 0.58 ± 0.50 1.0 ± 0.00 Benefits of CF 1 0.77 ± 0.43 0.93 ± 0.25 Foods that can be feed during initial months 3 1.61 ± 0.91 2.37 ± 0.59 5 2.97 ± 1.33 4.30 ± 0.68 Total Practices for complementary feeding Is the child forcefed 1 0.46 ± 0.50 0.81 ± 0.40 How is the child fed (self or by elders) 1 0.87 ± 0.34 0.92 ± 0.27 Are all the food groups included in the CF 2 1.80 ± 0.50 1.92 ± 0.27 Does the mother prepare any special foods for the 1 0.47 ± 0.50 0.98 ± 0.15 child 5 3.05 ± 1.23 3.86 ± 0.96 Total

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1. 2. 3.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Table 2: Ranking of mothers as per the scores obtained BF knowledge CF Knowledge No. (%) No. (%) Before After Before After 2 (2.25) 25 (28.09) 13 (14.61) 38 (42.7) 3 (3.37) 45 (50.56) 10 (11.24) 25 (28.09) 16 (17.98) 27 (30.34) 14 (15.73) 15 (16.85) 68 (76.4) 3 (3.370 52 (58.43) 11 (12.36) 110*** 45.4***

Grades Excellent Very Good Fair Poor Chi square vslue (x2) ***

Before

Max. Score

Question

% increase

t value

36.99% 645.46% 55.00% 142.86% 55.55% 223.08% 99.59%

5.7*** 14.6*** 6.69*** 4.43*** 6.68*** 11.12*** 15.64***

72.41% 20.78% 47.20 % 44.78%

7.91*** 4.05*** 7.97*** 10.63***

76.09% 5.75% 6.67% 108.51%

64*** 64*** 64*** 64***

26.56%

10.95***

CF Practices No. (%) Before After 17 (19.10) 55 (61.80) 25 (28.09) 20 (22.47) 31 (34.83) 7 (7.87) 16 (17.98) 7 (7.87) 39.3***

: p<0.001

Fig 1 : Nutritional status of the children before and after NHE 80 76 70 60 47

50 44 40

Before

30 20

25

24 17

15

10

10

After

22

23

20

8

10

10 4

1

0 Normal

-1

-2

-2

Weight for age (chi sq=20.4***)

Normal

-1

-2

-2

Weight for Height (chi sq=22.7***)

IV CONCLUSION Mass media, due to its wide reach, cost-effectiveness and appeal, has been used globally to disseminate information and promote healthy behaviors. Behavior change communication (BCC) strategies involves understanding people’s situations and influences, developing messages that respond to the concerns within those situations, and using communication processes and media to persuade people to increase their knowledge and

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change the behaviors and practices that place them at risk. Studies demonstrate that BCC is effective when the media and the message are context based, tailored to the needs of the audience, designed to be interactive and motivates the audience to take action [18, 19]. The present study was undertaken with the objective to bring about behavioral changes of mothers with young children (6-30 months) with respect to BF and CF and to bring about an improvement in the nutritional status of the children. Results showed a significant increase in the mean scores on knowledge and practices of the mothers with respect to BF and CF along with the nutritional status of children. Results of a similar study conducted in slums of Delhi using different methods of imparting NHE showed improvement in IYCF practices and nutritional status of children[20]. Similar findings have been reported by study carried out by other investigators in different parts of the country [21, 22] Gujarat governments has taken up various initiatives like Chiranjeevi Yojana, Bal Bhog Yojana, Vitamin Yukta Poshan Ahar, Nirogi Balak Yojna which are aimed at improving children’s nutritional status. These programs are supported by various mass media materials, developed to disseminate useful messages to the target population. In addition the work force of integrated child development scheme (ICDS) comprising of ASHA worker, anganwadi workers etc are supposed to have one to one interaction with mothers. The mamta card provided to expecting mothers, itself is a source of information for pre-post natal care along with BF and CF. In spite of all these efforts malnutrition in the state continues to persist. According to NFHS 3 reports 41.1% of children under 3 were underweight which dropped only by one percent from NFHS-1[23]. Gujarat government’s latest Comptroller and Auditor General(CAG) reported that despite the government’s claim of “providing supplementary nutrition to the targeted children between the year 2007 and 2012, every third child in the state is underweight”[24]. The high prevalence of undernutrition can be attributed to fewer number of functional anganwadis than the number sanctioned by the government and required for full coverage of the targeted population. Hence on one hand the benefits are not reaching the beneficiaries due to poor coverage and on the other the quality of the messages imparted on IYCF practices may not be effective enough to bring about the desired outcomes. Hence the need of the hour is to make use of modules which have proven its efficacy at the field level study and study its success at the larger scale. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge the support given by the mothers during the study. Conflict of interest: None declared Source of Funding: Nil Ethical clearance The study was passed by the university ethical committee. References [1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. [11]. [12]. [13]. [14]. [15]. [16].

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ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3688 AIJRHASS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research)

Teaching language through Mnemonics Programme in pre-school Children with Hearing Impairment Dr. Sita Ram Pal (Asst. Prof.) Department of special education Dr. BabasahebAmbedkar Open University R. C. Technical Institute campus, S.G. Highway, Sola Road, Ahmedabad-380060, India Dr. Arun Banik (Reader), AYJNIHH, K C Marg Bandra Reclamation, Bandra (W) Mumbai, India Abstract: Learning is depending upon the intelligence, external / internal motivation and sensory capabilities. Hearing impairment is a hidden disability which adversely affects speech, language, communication and shows poor performance in academic, social and cultural areas. As per psychological theory each child is unique and learns through some specific method, technique, and approaches but due to extrinsic and intrinsic cause the teachers/ therapist/parents and caregivers are not able to change desirable behavior of the child. To keep in mind Thompson (1987), has developed ‘Mnemonics programme’Mnemonics programme is an adaptive package of methods, techniques and strategies by which a pre-school deaf child can enhance the language skills very easily with the minimum support. Key words: Hearing impairment, Language and Mnemonic programme. I. Introduction Language is a tool that humans use to communicate or share thoughts, ideas, and emotions. Language is the set of rules, shared by the individuals who are communicating, that allows them to exchange those thoughts, ideas, or emotions. Each language includes its own set of rules for phonology (phonemes or speech sounds or, in the case of signed language, hand shapes), morphology (word formation), syntax (sentence formation), semantics (word and sentence meaning), prosody (intonation and rhythm of speech), and pragmatics (effective use of language). “To teach language to deaf children and youths." I believe that linguistic Competence is not at bottom something that can be taught; rather, it must be learned (Chomsky, 1965). II. Theoretical Challenges In attempting to provide an integration of the empirical evidence relevant to language development among children who are deaf, we have to recognize that what might seem to be dichotomies in language development often represent two ends of a continuum. This is sometimes distinct from the mode of expressive or receptive communication that parents or school staff/teachers would prefer for the child. Typically, sign language will be the primary mode for deaf children who have deaf parents, whereas spoken language is more likely to be the primary mode for deaf children of hearing parents independent of each child’s degree of hearing loss. Particular deaf parents and deaf children with some residual hearing also benefit from spoken language while still using sign language in some contexts. Similarly, even when deaf children are educated in spoken language environments, systems of gestural communication may develop between parents and children (e.g. Greenberg, Calderon, &Kusché, 1984). II. Practical Challenges children who are deaf are a heterogeneous group in terms of degree of hearing loss and age at which hearing loss occurred. It is also difficult to make comparisons between educational programs emphasizing spoken language and those emphasizing sign language (Everhart&Marschark, 1988). III. Definition of language Chomsky (1985), “Language primarily as the mental facility that allows humans to undertake linguistic behavior, to learn languages and produce and understand utterances.”

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Ferdinand de saussure (1990),“Language as a formal system of symbols governed by grammatical rules combining particular signs with particular meanings. This definition stresses the fact that human languages can be described as closed structural system consisting of rules that relate particular signs to particular meanings”. IV. Objective of the study The objective of the study are as follows: 1. To know the various teaching methods for the language development in children with hearing impairment. 2. To understand the various teaching techniques for the language development in children with hearing impairment. 3. To understand the various teaching approaches for the language development in children with hearing impairment. V. Justification of Review Mnemonic devices supports to enhancing vocabulary as well as speech intelligibility of language (Richards &Renandya, 2002). Hunt, (2008) suggest that a specific combination of processes is necessary for the effectiveness of mnemonic instruction and use. The use of certain devices entails a certain level of language proficiency. Students with different levels of proficiency may need different techniques. High- level students may benefit more from verbal than visual devices. There are, however, a few studies done on mnemonic devices, those focused on mnemonic devices have consistently indicated that the use of mnemonic devices substantially enhances higher levels of retention in immediate and delayed recall of second language vocabulary words in comparison with other learning strategies. Pressly et al (1981) studied on children 3 to 6 years of age learning simple Spanish vocabulary items through keyword method. The results showed that children who used the keyword method remembered more vocabulary than children who were not instructed in keyword method usage. Another study by Roediger (1980) looked at the method of loci along with three other well-known mnemonic methods. Results of the study revealed that all four mnemonic groups recalled the 20-word list better than the control group. VI. Meaning of Mnemonics The word mnemonic is derived from the Greek word Mnemosyne, referring to the ancient Greek goddess of memory. The use of mnemonic dates back to 500B.C (Yates, 1966). The first used mnemonic device was an earlier form of the modern day method of loci and since then, numerous other devices have been developed (Higbee, 1987). Classification of Mnemonics: Mnemonic programmes have been differently classified by different scholars. Thompson (1987), arranges mnemonic strategies into five classes; linguistics, spatial, visual, physical and verbal methods etc. VII. Types of Mnemonics A.Linguistics Mnemonics: 1. Peg word method: Through peg word method unrelated items can be remembered easily by relating them to easily memorizable items which act as pegs or hooks. Peg word method has two stages. At first students are asked to remember 10 number-rhyme pairs like one is bun , two is shoe, three is tree ( in my classes I usually continue it in this way: four is door, five is hive, six is cheeks, seven is heaven, eight is gate, nine is pine, ten is hen). Second stage the students are asked to visualize the word and try to link it to rhyming words. The words are, therefore, learned in a composite picture of the given word and the peg (Mirhassani and Eghtesadei, 2007).E, G. Second one is "feature", its peg according to the rhyme pairs can be “shoe” and the students can form a mental picture in which some people are talking about the features of a kind of shoe. 2.The key word method: Key word method according to Hulstijn (1997) requires three stages. At first An L1 or L2 word that has acoustic similarity to the target word is given to the learner to act as the key word, second phrase and third sentence. B. Spatial Mnemonics: 1. The loci method: Loci method is actually the oldest mnemonic device. Using this method entails imagining a very familiar place like a room or a house and then associating each new word to a part of it to be remembered (Eysenck, 1994; Mirhassani and Eghtesadei, 2007). 2. Spatial grouping: The idea behind this method is that instead of writing words in a column, students can be asked to form patterns like a triangle with them. Writing words in the form of patterns help them recall the words better (Holden, 1999). 3.Through this method student can be asked to associate each word with a finger. This method is especially useful with children to learn numbers, days of the week and month of the year (Holden, 1999). 3. The finger method: Through this method students can be asked to associate each word with a finger. This method is especially useful with children to learn numbers, days of the week and month of the year (Holden, 1999).

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C. Visual Mnemonics: 1. Pictures: New words are usually paired with their definitions or equivalents. They can be, however, better, learned if they are paired with pictures (Thompson, 1987). Gians and Redman (1986) believe that objects and pictures can facilitate recall. Wright (1989) also believes that meaning cannot be derived only from verbal language. 2. Visualize: It is merely a tool for the understanding of spoken language in relation to situations, people and things. Instead of using real pictures, this method allows a word to be visualized. The learner imagines a picture or a scene which is associated with the target word. Abstract words can be learned.Through this method by relating them to a visual picture (Mirhassani and Eghtesadei, 2007). D.The Verbal Mnemonics: 1. Grouping or semantic organization: As organized materials are easier to store in and retrieve from long-term memory, to organize the words in some fashion will enhance their recall (Anderson, 2000; Thomson, 1987). 2. Story-telling or the narrative chain: In this method the learner links the words together by a story. At first he should associate the target words with a topic or some topics, and then he should connect them by making up a story containing the words (Mirhassani and Eghtesadei, 2007). 3- Play/Drama: According to Piaget, “Play consists of responses for pure pleasure” and similarly the preschool play way method is considered the most fun and effective methodology along with the project method and lesson plans The attitude towards play is shifted, as scientist studies have shown the importance of play and how play way methods can help child’s development when in kindergarten and preschool in India and around world E. Physical Mnemonics: According to this method the learner should move his body or parts of his body in a certain way that illustrates the meaning of the word. If the target word is tiptoe, for example, the student can get up on his tiptoe and move across the room. It can be imaginary too. It means that he can imagine the action of moving on his tiptoe (Thompson, 1987; Holden, 1999). F- Sensory Mnemonics: Sense is a means of expression and of developing the ability to concentrate, observe and think is a language experience. In tactile method Children enjoy feeling materials and matching them. The child is given an opportunity to match the material through touch and sight. G- Developmental Mnemonics: The child’s creative effort is part of developmental process of early childhood. The activities provided for through busy hands and colourful media offer many opportunities for expression, and for causal training in lip reading, speech and language development. H-Synergy mnemonics : Creative cooperation is needed among the Director, Principal, Teacher, caregiver and parents to achieve the optimum goal of the child. “Parents don't realize that unless children hear they will not talk. Often doctors don't inform them about the importance of the first three years in acquiring verbal language skills”. VIII. Effectiveness of Mnemonics A lot of studies have focused on the recognition and instruction of language learning strategies in general and vocabulary in particular. Mnemonic devices can be very effective and can make the students motivated and the classroom more interesting (Georger, 1997). IX. Limitations of Mnemonic There are, however, some points that interested teachers should consider: 1) Learners themselves should be encouraged to find their mnemonic devices. 2) It is not often possible to use certain mnemonic devices with certain words. 3) The use of certain devices entails a certain level of proficiency. 4) Students should be encouraged to evaluate their own techniques and finally 5) When certain strategies are agreed up on, the teacher should instruct the strategy and its importance and effectiveness (Mirhassani and Eghtesadei, 2007). X. Conclusion Research on the effectiveness of mnemonic strategies has consistently proved their usefulness, it, however, recommends language teachers not to present words in isolation, but rather use these devices in contextual vocabulary learning. The choice of strategies, however, depends on the students’ proficiency and learning style (Coady and Huckin, 1997; Thompson, 1987; Holden, 1999; Mirhassani and Eghtesadei, 2007). REFERENCES [1] [2]

Anderson (2000). Language development in children who are deaf: A research synthesis, 31, 45-47. Chomsky (1965). Mnemonic instruction with a focus on transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 783–790.

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