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Improvement and Development of Date Palm in the oasis of Al Jufrah

DATE PALM CULTIVATION IN AL JUFRAH OASIS Best Practices and Pomological Cards Edited by Bashir Gshera, Massimo Battaglia, Sergio Mugnai, Carlo Bergesio


The Project This publication has been produced as part of the Miglioramento e valorizzazione della palma da dattero nelle Oasi di Al Jufrah in Libia program for improving and promoting date palms in the oases of Al Jufrah in Libya, funded by the Directorate General for Development Cooperation of the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs and coordinated by the Istituto Agronomico per l'Oltremare (IAO) in Florence in collaboration with the Libyan Board of Improving and Developing Olive and Palm Trees. The project’s origins lie in the commitments made between Italy and Libya to strengthen and develop relationships between the two countries. The central government and local authorities in Libya share an interest in improving agricultural, forestry and pastoral systems. As part of the effort to support the agricultural improvement of land cleared of Second World War surplus, the Italian government has begun providing assistance and collaboration in the agro-zootechnical and environmental sector. In Al Jufrah, activities agreed on by the two countries began in May 2009. They are aimed at encouraging local economic development through coordinated actions to support producers of quality dates, whether individuals or associations. The strategy is led by two guiding principles: identifying and guaranteeing quality dates through production protocols that will ensure the consistency and quality of the final product; and protecting the agrobiodiversity of Al Jufrah by promoting the local palm varieties and strengthening traditional oasis-management systems. The initiative involves all the actors in the date production chain, reinforcing associations and relationships between producers, processors and traders; encouraging the protection of the environment and raising awareness about quality dates among consumers. This last objective will draw on experiences in Italy promoting typical local products using the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) systems, closely linking a product and its place of origin. The aims of the Italo-Libyan technical and scientific collaboration are to increase the quantity and quality of date production through the selection and genetic improvement of local varieties; to introduce cultivation systems able to optimize the use of water and energy resources and reduce negative external effects; and to improve processing systems and marketing domestically and abroad.


Pomological Description Phoenix dactylifera


TREE Trunk shape - cylindrical (1) - cone shaped (2) - other

Foliage shape - erected (1) - spherical (2) - falling (3)

Crown shape - loose - moderately dense - dense

Bunch type - erected (1) - oblique (2) - falling (3)

Bunch density - very dense - dense - moderately dense - loose Bunch colour -

greenish yellow yellow-orange orange dark orange other


FRUIT Shape -

spherical (1) sub-spherical (2) ovate (3) sub-cylindrical (4) cylindrical (5) pear-shaped (6) curved (7)

-

round off (1) pointed (2) elongated (3) oval (4) oval and oblique (5)

-

round off (1) flat and oblique (2) flat (3) oval (4) oval and oblique (5) oblique (6)

-

yellow amber honey dark brown black greenish red

Apex shape

Base shape

Colour


Skin appearance -

smooth (1) pleated (2) corrugated (3) blistered (4) tattooed (5)

Alteration of skin colour - no - collar - marbled Fruit Texture - soft - half-soft - dry Perianth - absent - flattened (1) - prominent (2 and 3) Flesh Texture - soft - firm (honeyed) - fibrous Mean flesh thickness The width is measured at the middle zone of the section. - thin - medium - thick

(<3,5 mm) (3,5-4,5 mm) (> 4,5 mm)

Presence of fibres - not much (0-50%) - medium (51-80%) - much (81-100%) Flesh to seed adhesion - not much (0-50%) - medium (51-80%) - much (81-100%)


Mean length The measure includes all kind of protuberances at the apex but excludes the perianth. -

very short short medium long very long

(<30 mm) (30-40 mm) (41-50 mm) (51-60 mm) (>60 mm)

-

narrow medium large very large

(<10 mm) (10-20 mm) (21-30 mm) (>30 mm)

Mean max width

Mean length/width ratio - low - medium - high

Mean weight of 20 fruits (g) Mean flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

(<1,6) (1,6-2,0) (>2,0)


SEED Shape -

ovate (1) cone-shaped (2) spindle-shaped (3) sub-cylindrical (4) pear-shaped (5)

Colour - gray - beige - brown Surface -

smooth rough bumpy striated

Presence of Mucro (apex) or fibrous type (base) -

no mucro fibrous type both

Micropyle position - towards the base (1) - at the middle (2) - towards the apex (3)


Ventral furrow shape - not prominent (1) - prominent (2 and 3)

Mean Length The measure includes the mucro at the apex but excludes the fibrous type at the base. -

very short short medium long very long

(<10 mm) (11-20 mm) (21-30 mm) (31-40 mm) (>40 mm)

Mean max Width The measure excludes any crest and fin. - narrow - medium - large

(<9 mm) (9-11 mm) (>11 mm)

- low - medium - high

(<2,5) (2,4-3,1) (>3,1)

Mean length/width ratio

Mean weight of 20 seeds (g) Mean seed/fruit length ratio - low - medium - high

(<1/2) (1/2-2/3) (>2/3)

Mean seed/fruit weight ratio - low - medium - high

(<0,12) (0,12-0,18) (>0,18)


INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape - lanceolate (1) - spindle-shaped (2) - swollen (3)

Mean spathe length (mm) - short - medium - long

(<400) (400-700) (>700)

Mean max spathe width (mm) - narrow - medium - large

(<70) (70-90) (>90)

N째 of spathes/tree Considering both open and close spathes. - not much (<7) - medium (7-12) - much (>12)

N째 of spikelets in the spike - not much (<60) - medium (60-110) - much (>110)

N째 of flowers in one spikelet - not much (<30) - medium (30-50) - much (>50)


Passport Origin and distribution: well-adapted to Al Jufrah area. One of the most widespread variety in Sokna, Hun, Waddan and few in Zellah. Not present in Al Fugha Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 9 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 75-100 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: slow growth of the plant. Sensible to pests. High productivity. Very good offshoot capacity Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Tamar Harvest period: from September to October by removing of bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: sweet but astringent flavor. Easy to harvest, store and transport. Good market value Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical Bunch type spherical Bunch density moderately dense - dense Bunch colour

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

ovate - sub-cylindrical oval flat honey tattooed collar half-soft absent firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

medium much not much short large medium 174 147

sub-cylindrical - ovate brown - beige rough

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium medium medium

oblique very dense orange - dark orange

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape

both

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

27

towards the base prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

lanceolate medium medium

N째 of spathes/tree N째 of spikelets in the spike N째 of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content high content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: rare variety, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only present in Waddan and few in Hun Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 0,1 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 60 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: reasonable offshoots capacity Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: from August to September by selection of dates and removing of bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: trade and commercial value for daily consumption and when get to dry Tamar stage used for animal feed Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical Bunch type erected - spherical Bunch density moderately dense - dense Bunch colour

oblique dense yellow-orange

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

sub-cylindrical oval flat – flat and oblique honey – sometime red pleated - blistered collar half-soft absent soft - firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thin medium not much short medium medium 160 137

sub-cylindrical brown - beige smooth - rough

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow medium

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape

no

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

23

at the middle prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

lanceolate medium medium

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: rare variety exists in Sokna, Hun and Waddan. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not present in Zellah and Al Fugha Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 0,5 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 50 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: reasonable offshoots capacity Flowering period: from the end of February to the end of March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: from September to October by selection of dates and removing of bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: fresh fruits consumption and past Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour

Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

cylindrical erected Moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

sub-cylindrical oval flat honey - amber from smooth to blistered

oblique very dense - dense orange

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width usually no, sometime marbled Length/width ratio soft Main weight of 20 fruits (g) absent Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g) soft - firm (honeyed)

medium medium not much medium large medium 241 214

sub-cylindrical beige – brown smooth

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow high

mucro

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

27

at the middle not prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium low

lanceolate - spindle-shaped N° of spathes/tree medium N° of spikelets in the spike large N° of flowers in one spikelet

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc

not much medium medium


Passport Origin and distribution: common variety of Waddan, Sokna and Hun. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s one of the most widespread variety in Al Fugha and Zellah Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 3 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 65 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: rapid growth of the plant with quick ageing process. High productivity, sensitive to pests and water salinity, good rooting capacity in bad soil situation. Good offshoot capacity, with high percentage of offshoot developing during plantation Flowering period: February - March Commercial maturity stage: Tamar Harvest period: in October by removing of bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: with a low sugar content, this is the date variety most recommended for diabetes sufferers. Good for postharvest processing and other uses for animal feed Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical erected moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

oblique dense yellow-orange

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

sub-cylindrical oval flat – flat and oblique honey corrugated sometime collar half-soft - soft Absent or flattened firm (honeyed) - soft

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thin much not much medium medium high 151 121

sub-cylindrical beige rough - bumpy

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium medium medium

sometime fibrous type

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

30

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape

towards the apex - middle Seed/Fruit length ratio prominent Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium high

INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

lanceolate Medium - short medium - narrow

medium medium medium

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content low content Glucose Fructose

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: the most valuable date variety in Libya, with Algerian origin. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s one of the most widespread variety in Sokna, Hun and Waddan Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 25 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 80-100 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: rapid growth of the plant. Sensitive to pests. Excellent offshoots capacity Flowering period: February - March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: from September to October by selection of dates and later removing the bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: shiny skin. Mild sweet taste. Very suitable for long-period conservation and highly acceptable for consumption Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical Bunch type erected Bunch density moderately dense - dense Bunch colour

falling - oblique dense yellow

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

ovate - sub-cylindrical elongated flat amber smooth usually collar half-soft absent soft

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thick medium not much medium large medium 215 197

spindle-shaped brown smooth

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow high

fibrous type

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

18

at the middle not prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium low

lanceolate long medium

N째 of spathes/tree N째 of spikelets in the spike N째 of flowers in one spikelet

medium not much much

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: rare variety of Sokna, Hun and Waddan. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not present in Zellah and Al Fugha Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 0,1 % (started to expanded) Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 60 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: Low offshoot production, with poor rooting ability Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: in September by selection of dates Fruit and trade characteristics: very soft and larger than average and pleasantly sweet without being cloying. Low productive, with a high storability. Considered a rare delicacy, represents the top quality of date with an excellent market value Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical erected - spherical moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

erected moderately dense orange

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

ovate round off flat honey corrugated sometime collar half-soft absent soft - firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thick much not much short - medium large low 265 243

ovate brown rough

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium medium low

sometime mucro

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

22

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

towards the base - middle Seed/Fruit length ratio not prominent Seed/Fruit weight ratio

low low

lanceolate medium medium

medium medium medium

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

N째 of spathes/tree N째 of spikelets in the spike N째 of flowers in one spikelet Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: very abundant in Al Jufrah Oasis, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s one of the most widespread variety in Zellah and Al Fugha Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 4 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 50 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: suitable for dry farming system and also for production of animal feed and other things Flowering period: depends on the weather conditions. Started from the 15th of February to the end of March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: in October by removing of bunches Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical spherical - erected mod. dense - dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

erected - oblique dense orange - yellow

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

ovate pointed - round off flat - flat and oblique honey tattooed - corrugated no soft - half-soft absent soft - firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thin much not much short large low 163 135

ovate - sub-cylindrical beige smooth - rough

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow low

no – sometime mucro

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

28

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

at the middle - towards the base Seed/Fruit length ratio

prominent spindle-shaped medium medium

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Etymology: Kathari in Arabic means “green colour” Origin and distribution: well-adapted to the Al Jufrah area. It’s one of the most widespread variety in Sokna, Hun and Waddan Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 20 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 70-80 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: slow growth of the plant. Resistant to soil and water salinity. High offshoot capacity and rooting, with high quality offshoots Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: from September to October by selection of dates and later removing the bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: Highly esteemed, though slightly astringent; stays soft throughout the year. Reasonable market value Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

usually cylindrical spherical - erected moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

ovate - sub-cylindrical round off - oval flat – flat and oblique greenish - honey corrugated no soft prominent firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

medium much not much short large medium 178 154

ovate - sub-cylindrical beige rough

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow medium

mucro

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

24

at the middle not prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

lanceolate medium medium

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc

oblique moderately dense orange - dark orange


Passport Origin and distribution: rare variety, exists in Waddan and few in Sokna and Hun. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not present in Zellah and Al Fugha Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 0,3 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 50 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: very good offshoots capacity Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: from September to October by selection of dates Fruit and trade characteristics: daily human consumption and when get to dry Tamar stage used for animal feed Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical spherical loose - moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

falling dense yellow

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

ovate round off flat – flat and oblique honey- dark brown smooth no half-soft absent soft

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thick medium not much short large medium 250 220

ovate beige smooth

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium medium low

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape

usually mucro

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

30

at the middle prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

lanceolate short medium

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Etymology: Omglaib in Arabic means “mother of small heart” Origin and distribution: rare variety, exists in Sokna, Hun and Waddan. It’s not present in Zellah and Al Fugha Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 0,3 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 50 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: well adapted for both dry farming and irrigated farming. Reasonable offshoots capacity Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: in September and October by removing of bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: daily consumption. Fruit quality useful for cake or past and for storing Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical erected moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

erected very dense yellow-orange

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

sub-cylindrical - ovate oval flat honey – sometime red blistered - pleated sometime collar half-soft - soft absent soft - firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thin much not much short large medium 137 114

ovate - sub-cylindrical beige bumpy

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow medium

both

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

23

towards the apex usually not prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

lanceolate medium narrow

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: of ancient Egyptian origin, but now considered one of Libya’s most important varieties. It’s one of the most widespread variety in Sokna, Hun, Waddan and Zellah. It’s not present in Al Fugha Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 3 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 70 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: Palms quickly grow, resist to pests and are very productive, producing a regular yield each year Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: from September to October by selection of dates. Easy to harvest Fruit and trade characteristics: The fruits have good market value due to their pleasant flavor and suitable to storage and transport Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

cylindrical spherical moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

ovate round off flat – flat and oblique honey smooth - corrugated sometime collar or marbled soft absent firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width

ovate beige – brown rough

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium medium low

Length/width ratio

falling mod. dense - dense orange

thick not much not much short large low

Main weight of 20 fruits (g) 270 Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g) 236

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape

sometime mucro

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

34

at the middle prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

lanceolate medium medium

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

medium not much not much

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s present only in Sokna and Hun Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 0,2 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 50 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: reasonable offshoots capacity Flowering period: February - March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab Harvest period: August - September Fruit and trade characteristics: not highly commercial and use for daily fresh consumption Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical spherical - erected moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

oblique - falling dense usually orange

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

ovate round off - oval flat – flat and oblique honey corrugated - tattoed no soft - half-soft absent firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thin medium not much short large low 156 135

sub-cylindrical beige smooth - rough

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow medium

sometime fibrous type

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

21

at the middle usually prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

high medium

lanceolate medium medium

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

much medium much

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: common variety of Sokna, also exists in Hun and Waddan Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 1 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 50 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: reasonable offshoots capacity Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Balah and Tamar Harvest period: from October to November by cut of bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: one of the best variety to product vinegar and date syrup Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical erected moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

oblique - falling dense greenish - yellow

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

ovate - sub-cylindrical oval flat honey corrugated - tattooed sometime marbled half-soft - dry usually absent usually fibrous

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

thin much not much short large medium 154 129

sub-cylindrical - ovate beige – brown smooth - bumpy

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium medium medium

no

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

25

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

Seed/Fruit weight ratio

high medium

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

at the middle - towards the base Seed/Fruit length ratio

usually prominent lanceolate medium medium

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: one of the most widespread variety in whole locality of Al Jufrah Oasis Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 20 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 80 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: rapid growth of the plant. High and constant production every year. Good offshoots capacity. Moderately resistant to pests. Very good offshoot capacity Flowering period: February - March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar. maturity stages of the fruit can be use.

All the

Harvest period: early and prolonged harvest period from August to October by selection of dates and removing of bunches Fruit and trade characteristics: the best variety to prepare the past using Tamar stage Quality



Curiosity: A popular old saying claims that hunting dogs run fast because they eat Tagiat dates.


TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical erected moderately dense

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

sub-cylindrical elongated flat - flat and oblique dark brown blistered - corrugated no half-soft absent firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

medium medium not much medium large medium 171 144

sub-cylindrical beige - brown smooth

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow high

usually fibrous type

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

27

towards the base not prominent

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

high medium

lanceolate medium medium

N째 of spathes/tree N째 of spikelets in the spike N째 of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc

erected - oblique dense - very dense orange - yellow


Passport Origin and distribution: not present in Al Fugha, but a variety exists in Zellah and also in Sokna, Hun and Waddan Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 1 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 50 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: very adaptable variety under both dry and irrigated farming. Very good offshoots capacity Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab and Tamar Harvest period: October Fruit and trade characteristics: fresh consumption and for cake Quality 


TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape

cylindrical Bunch type erected Bunch density moderately dense - dense Bunch colour

oblique dense orange

FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture

sub-cylindrical oval flat honey pleated – corrugated sometimes collar soft - half-soft absent firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g) Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

medium medium medium medium large medium 192 169

SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape

sub-cylindrical beige smooth - bumpy both –sometime only mucro towards the apex prominent

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow medium

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

23

Seed/Fruit length ratio Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

lanceolate medium medium

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet

medium medium medium

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc


Passport Origin and distribution: rare variety exists in Sokna, Hun and Waddan. itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not present in Al Fugha Productive area in Al Jufrah Oasis: 1 % Mean Production in Al Jufrah Oasis: 50 Kg/tree Agronomic characteristics: the best variety to obtain the fibre for the rope and daily fruit consumption. Good offshoots capacity Flowering period: March Commercial maturity stage: Rutab Harvest period: from August to September by selection of dates Fruit and trade characteristics: daily consumption Quality




TREE Trunk shape Foliage shape Crown shape FRUIT Shape Apex Base Color Skin appearance Alteration of skin colour Fruit texture Perianth Flesh texture SEED Shape Colour Surface Presence of mucro or fibrous type Micropyle position Ventral furrow shape INFLORESCENCE Spathe Shape Spathe length Spathe width

cylindrical erected moderately dense - loose

Bunch type Bunch density Bunch colour

falling dense – very dense orange - yellow

sub-cylindrical oval flat – flat and oblique honey pleated - corrugated no soft - half-soft prominent (usually present) firm (honeyed)

Flesh thickness Presence of fibres Flesh to seed adhesion Length Width Length/width ratio Main weight of 20 fruits (g)

sub-cylindrical beige smooth - rough

Length Width Length/width ratio

medium narrow medium

usually no

Main weight of 20 seeds (g)

26

Main flesh weight of 20 fruits (g)

medium medium medium medium large medium 185 159

towards the base - middle Seed/Fruit length ratio usually prominent Seed/Fruit weight ratio

medium medium

lanceolate medium medium

medium medium much

QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS Total sugar content Glucose Fructose

N° of spathes/tree N° of spikelets in the spike N° of flowers in one spikelet Potassium Magnesium Iron Zinc

Al Jufrah Libyan dates Pomological Cards  

This publication describes the Al Jufrah Palm Date parameters suitable for the verification of production systems and for a morphological de...

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