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FROMthe vice chancellor


Open University Degrees: Stakeholders’ Perceptions

Regional Reach IGNOU 4 INFOCUS: takes another

pen Universities as a system of higher education in the country is almost 30 years old. Even before the first Open University was established in 1982, correspondence courses, postal classes and distance education were part of the regular University system for decades. Many established old Universities like Delhi, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Annamalai University, Mysore and Madurai have been offering higher education to a large number of people even before the emergence of the open university system as a separate stream. Private registration for regular class room-taught courses and then a common examination, for both full-time and private registration students, was also an established pattern in many affiliating universities. Candidates from all parts of the country and even People of Indian Origin (PIOs) from other countries used to appear in such examinations in large numbers and get qualified with under-graduate and post-graduate degrees. Many of such private registration candidates or correspondence students faired equally well or even better than regular full-time students. Such students have been gainfully employed or were successful in their career progression, reaching high positions in the public or private sector employments in the country and abroad. Many of theses practices continue even now in the regular established University education system. In fact, several newlyestablished Universities opt for starting distance education from the very beginning, even before they equip themselves for the regular classroom teaching. The degree certificates awarded by residential and campus-based universities to various types of distance learners and private registration candidates are in no way different from those given to the regular full-time students. This gives the distance learners in such universities an edge over the students of open universities. But the degrees offered by open universities are not really treated on par with the degrees of conventional universities. This mechanical way of looking at the quality of degrees offered by universities should go. There are thousands of cases of degrees offered by open universities much higher in quality and outcome than the degrees conferred by certain campus-based and residential universities. Some of the open universities in the country have faculty, infrastructure, state-of-the-art facilities and teaching-learning practices which excel the regular University system. But just because the word “open” is attached to the University’s name, their top quality graduates are not getting due recognition. There has to be a mechanism by which this glaring discrepancy is removed. The degrees offered by various universities whether it is open or regular, need to be assessed and accredited in terms of the course content, faculty support, delivery mechanism, knowledge acquisition and examination pattern. The degree certificates and the grade cards should also specifically reflect the accreditation status and specifically the mode of delivery — full-time, part-time, ODL, or the hybrid mode. This is necessary for giving a correct picture to the stakeholders about the awarded qualification and its quality. Internationally, there is no distinction between the degree offered by regular varsities and open universities. In fact, the UK Open University is in the top quality list in terms of recognition as per government and industry norms and student satisfaction survey. Considering the fact that in India, 20 percent of the student population are in the open university system, it is high time policy interventions are made to ensure appropriate recognition of high-quality degrees offered by open universities. At the same time, we should also check/curb low-quality programmes being offered through distance education in the conventional system as well as in the open universities. The recent recommendations of Prof. Madhava Menon Committee appointed by the Ministry of Human Resource Development may be implemented by the Central Government and State Governments to ensure quality, standards and acceptability of the distance education system.


step forward in decentralising its ODL system, as President Pratibha Patil lays the foundation stone of IGNOU’s Southern Regional Campus in Thiruvanathapuram

Signs of Future IGNOU, in collaboration 08 SPOTLIGHT: with the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, will establish the country’s first Indian Sign Language Research & Training Centre (ISLRTC) at the University

TOP RANKINGS............ 03 INDEPENDENCE DAY.13 NEWS UPDATES...... 09 MILESTONES..............16 IGNITE 2011.............11 GYAN DARSHAN..........16

IGNOU OPEN LETTER is Printed by Printek Grafix, 148-D, Pocket-F, GTB Enclave, Delhi-110093 and Published by Ravi Mohan, Chief Public Relations Officer, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Maidan Garhi. New Delhi 110068. Ph: +91-11-29571000 (30 lines); +91-11-29535924-29 Fax: +91-11-29535933; E-mail: openletter@ignou.ac.in Managing Editor: Ravi Mohan Editorial Advisor: Deepak Dwivedi Photos: Amlan Paliwal Photos provided by: Rajesh Sharma Advisory Council: Prof P.R. Ramanujam, Dr Latha Pillai Design and Production: IANS Publishing (www.ianspublishing.com)


V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai


IGNOU tops India’s distance learning charts Varsity bags top spot in Careers 360-Yahoo! India’s list of Best Distance Learning Institutes he Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has topped the Careers 360-Yahoo! India’s list of India’s Best Distance Learning Institutes 2011. According to the nationwide perception sur vey on distance learning by Careers 360 magazine and Yahoo! India, IGNOU sits at the top with over 500 programmes and four million students. The varsity is followed by Yashwantrao C. Maharashtra Open University, Nasik, at the second position, and IMT Distance and Open Learning Institute, Ghaziabad, at the third place. University of Delhi has been ranked 16th according to the survey. IGNOU has also topped the survey’s ‘Resources and Reach of the University’ cateIGNOU has topped the list with over 500 programmes and four million students. gory. The University caters to also in the public domain, shortlistGyan Vani, an educational FM Rank Name of the Institution Location Resources Learning Output Total & Reach Experience (300) 1000 ing top 50 institutions was done this radio network providing pro300 400 year on the basis of student enrollgrammes covering different 1 Indira Gandhi National Open University New Delhi 205.31 258.12 198.00 661.43 ment data. The logic being the popaspects and levels of educa145.20 239.54 233.16 617.90 ularity of the institutions, on the tion, including primar y and 2 Yashwantrao C. Maharashtra Open University Nasik 40.55 285.00 258.14 583.69 basis of their admissions.” secondar y education, adult 3 IMT Distance and Open Learning Institute Ghaziabad 4 Sikkim Manipal University Gangtok 65.40 279.91 200.85 546.16 “Careers360 then sent letters to education, technical and vocaMumbai 18.04 262.35 256.32 536.71 these 50 institutions, and based on tional education, higher edu- 5 University of Mumbai Hyderabad 59.71 215.91 249.17 524.79 the responses received as well as cation and extension 6 Maulana Azad National Urdu University Hyderabad 81.27 210.00 229.46 520.72 the data supplied by DEC, 32 instieducation. It also runs an ed- 7 Dr. B.R.Ambedkar Open University 8 Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning Pune 31.98 240.00 235.50 507.48 tutes were finally chosen for ranking ucationally dedicated TV chan9 Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University Ahmedabad 31.66 220.80 246.23 498.68 purpose. Further, visits were made nel called ‘Gyan Darshan’, 10 Annamalai University Annamalainagar 93.20 195.00 206.00 494.20 to all the institutes that responded which broadcasts lectures by as well as to select study centres of eminent faculty members of others to build a robust database.” 360 and Yahoo! India on the research and the University. “The input primarily looked at the reach, methodology procedure followed, “The UniYashwantrao C. Maharashtra Open Uniinfrastructure and diversity of the instituverse for Open and Distance Learning Instiversity stands second, followed by U.P. Rations in providing distance education. The tutes (ODLIs) in India comprises of 249 jarshi Tandon Open University at third, process emphasised on the quality of reinstitutes, out of which 188 institutes are Annamalai University at fourth and Dr. B.R. sources and deliver y mechanism, while currently offering Distance Education proAmbedkar Open University at fifth place. output focussed on the performance of the grammes. Given the nature of operations of University of Delhi is ranked at the sixth institute in facilitating the trained student ODLIs and the lack of adequate data with position in its resources and reach. in getting a better prospect.”■ the Distance Education Council (DEC), as According to a statement by Careers


...Ranks 16th amongst South Asian universities he Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has secured the 16th position in the Webometrics Ranking of Top Universities in South Asia. The top spots in the list belong to Indian Universities such as IIT Bombay, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, IIT Kanpur, IIT Madras bagging the first four positions; followed by Tata Institute of Fundamental Re-


search, IIT Delhi, University of Delhi, Birla Institute of Technology & Science Pilani, IIT Roorkee, Anna University Chennai, IIT Kharagpur, IIM Kozhikode, Jawaharlal Nehru University, among others. IGNOU serves the educational aspirations of over 4 million students in India and 40 other countries through 21 Schools of Studies and a network of 63 Regional Centres,

around 3,000 learner support centres and 67 overseas centres. The University offers about 445 Certificate, Diploma, Degree and Doctoral programmes, with a strength of nearly 420 faculty members and academic staff at the Headquarters and Regional Centres and about 36,000 academic counsellors. For the complete list, visit www.webometrics.info.■


President Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil addressing the gathering at the launch of IGNOU’s Southern campus in Thiruvananthapuram.

Bolstering Regional Reach INFocus With President Pratibha Patil laying the foundation stone of IGNOU’s Southern Regional Campus in Thiruvanathapuram, the University takes a giant step forward towards strengthening its field operations

he stor y unfolds like this: In December last year, the University decentralised the evaluation and examination administration processes at seven Regional Centres, under the super vision of a Deputy Registrar for each of this evaluation centres, and closely super vised by Registrar, Student Evaluation Division, and a team of senior University professors. The Student Evaluation Division (SED) of IGNOU created history in completing the evaluation and result declaration of over three lakh students, who appeared for the December 2010 examination, in less than 45 days! More than 97 percent results were declared and uploaded at the IGNOU website on 14th February, 2011. As on 23rd Februar y, nearly two percent results were processed.



In addition, the pending results of nearly 70,000 learners, with regard to various term examinations prior to December 2010 for want of completion of assignments, practicals and updating of marks were also successfully completed by the SED. The evaluation centres, under their supervision, tied up with the local reputed educational institutions/universities, for evaluating answer-scripts at their premises. This arrangement was done where there were a huge number of answerscripts to be taken care of. The experiences proved that IGNOU was on its way to create a robust, fool-proof decentralised system for all student support activities of the University. In addition to this, the University has already begun decentralising its printing and distribution operations for logistic conven-



Distance education and technology have close links. As am happy to be laying the foundation stone for the Regional communication technology advanced, the scope of distance Campus of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) learning correspondingly increased. Indeed, this has not only in Thiruvananthapuram. propelled IGNOU, but several other universities are also expanding ...In the last 25 years since its establishment in 1985, IGNOU their online programmes for improving access to education. Online has expanded exponentially with enrollments reaching close to 3.8 connectivity is a convenient means to provide educational material million. This speaks volumes about the success achieved and it to students in a timely manner... must continue with its outreach endeavour. The Regional Centres of IGNOU by coming I would also like to appreciate the Government close to the learning community they serve, can of Kerala for its positive and forthcoming attitude now structure courses that take into account local in supporting the establishment of the IGNOU requirements. Kerala does not only have a high Southern Regional Centre. literacy rate, but it is also a State where there is ...It is the flexibility in its approach that has enormous scope for tourism, IT and bio-technology contributed to the success of IGNOU. Mindful that among others. It also has plantations, agriculture most courses are for the working population of the and other traditional industries. These sectors can country, it has been innovative in putting together greatly benefit from technology and knowledge programmes that cater to a wide section of its inputs... users. In fact, this is also necessary, as apart from Education should impart values to the youth providing educational facilities, universities must that makes them sensitive to fellow human beings promote skill development. and the environs around them. It is a value system ...Speaking at the Silver Jubilee celebrations of that can prepare the younger generation to IGNOU in November 2009, I had pointed out to the become responsible citizens. Values provide an fact that only five percent of the workforce in India President Pratibha Patil. anchor in life, as well as the ability to take decisions, has some kind of certification. A system that however difficult. They make one strong and capable of addresses this lacuna is important for creating a proper skilled withstanding the trials and tribulations of life. Also, if students were workforce in the country and helping them to get better equipped with the right value base, along with the capabilities remuneration. I am glad that there have been attempts by IGNOU created by science and technology, they will serve society with to look at work integrated learning by setting up centres in devotion and commitment, creating prosperity and happiness. industrial establishments. Distance education offers a great ...I am confident that the Regional Centre being established, opportunity to those already in employment to upgrade their will promote the Open University system through the development, knowledge base, so that they can more effectively contribute to maintenance and monitoring of Study Centres and student support increasing productivity levels of their organisations. Studying, while services. With these words, I wish IGNOU the very best for the in employment, also offers opportunities for enhancement of future, and convey my good wishes to all present here. career opportunities.

KEY FACTS The Southern Regional Campus is going to be a boon to the society, particularly for the economically backward students. The campus will: l Be built on a 25 acre plot at Vithura, some 20 km from Thiruvanathapuram l Cater to the operations of the four southern states and Puducherry l Be completed in 19 months l Have a core faculty and staff of around 200 people l Have resident postgraduate and Ph.D scholars numbering 200 and Visiting research scholars and 600 professionals pursuing development programmes

ience and to strengthen its student support system. Six months later, on August 31, IGNOU added another feather to its cap, when President Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil laid the foundation stone for the Southern Regional Campus of IGNOU in Thiruvananthapuram – a giant step towards decentralising its core operations in the field of

1985, IGNOU has expanded exponentially Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system. with enrollments reaching close to 4 milIn the next two years, IGNOU plans to lion. This speaks volumes about the sucset up four more Regional Campuses, that cess achieved and it must continue with will take care of IGNOU’s administrative and its outreach endeavour. I would also like to academic functions right in their backyard. appreciate the Government of Kerala for its Hear it from the President: “I am happy positive and forthcoming attitude in supto be laying the foundation stone for the porting the establishment of the IGNOU Southern Regional Campus of IGNOU. This, Southern Regional Centre,” she stressed. I believe, is one of the five Regional CamExplaining the idea behind the setting puses proposed to be established for the up of the Southern Regional Centre, Vice purpose of providing Open and Distance Chancellor Prof V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai Learning services in a better way, via decensaid, “This zonal campus tralisation of administrative comes after the University and academic functions of “This zonal campus decided to decentralise its the University.” will prove to be a boon operations into five zones. “This is an important for the economically This south zone campus and incremental step forbackward students of would look after the operward in the mission of ations of the four southern IGNOU to make available south India, who are states and Puducherry.” good quality, low cost and desirous to acquire This zonal campus is relevant higher education good quality higher the first to be established opportunities, as widely education irrespective and would be completed in as possible, to a section 19 months, he added. To of our society outside the of age, religion, be spread across a 25formal education system,” gender, caste acre area on the outskirts she added. and creed.” here, the land for the cam“In the last 25 years — Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai pus has been given by the since its establishment in Vice Chancellor, IGNOU


President Pratibha Patil being felicitated by IGNOU Vice Chancellor Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai in Thiruvananthapuram on August 31. Kerala Chief Minister Oommen Chandy is also seen in the picture.

Kerala government. The new campus will have a core faculty and staff of around 200 people, resident postgraduate and Ph.D. scholars numbering 200, besides visiting research scholars and 600 professionals pursuing development programmes. “This zonal campus is going to be a boon to the society and also for economically backward students of south India who are desirous to acquire higher education of high quality, irrespective of age, religion, gender, caste and creed,” said Prof Pillai. The campus would house the administrative and academic complex, besides a guest house and a hostel. VC Prof Pillai was accompanied by Kerala Chief Minister Oommen Chandy, IGNOU Pro-VC Dr Latha Pillai, Assembly Speaker G. Karthikeyan, who represents the Assembly constituency Aruvikkara, where the new campus is coming up and A. Sampath, who represents the area in Parliament, among others. Smt Patil called on the Government and universities to work closely on socially relevant issues and reach out to a broad segment of society. “The country should cater to the educational requirements of its predominantly young population. After universalisation of primar y education, it is time to work towards universalisation of secondary education as well.”

in addition to providing edu“However, our ultimate cational facilities. “The link aim is to increase the enrollbetween learning and liveliment ratio of people receiving hood is important. Distance higher education. We need to learning, therefore, must give expand our educational infraweightage to enhancing structure. This, undoubtedly, knowledge that gives practiwill include the formal educacal and necessary know-how tion system, but we would for livelihood opportunities,” even need to reach out to she said. those who wish to seek She said distance eduhigher education but are cation offered a great opunable, due to a variety of “The Regional Centres portunity to those already reasons, to avail of opof IGNOU, by coming in employment to upgrade tions in the formal educaclose to the learning their knowledge base so tion sector,” she said. that they could effectively This categor y concommunity they contribute to increasing the sisted of a wide range of serve, can now production levels of their repeople from rural and structure courses spective organisations. tribal areas, disability that take into account Studying while in emgroups, jails and rehabiliployment also offered optation centres, governlocal requirements. ” ment and non- — Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil, portunities to enhance Hon’ble President of India their career. Pointing out governmental organisathat only five per cent of tions, parents, home-makIndia’s workforce had some kind of certifiers and also employers and employees. All cation, the President called for a system want to better their avenues for growth that would address the problem. and to do it in a manner that is suitable to “This is important for creating proper their specific circumstances, the President skilled workforce in the countr y and to said. help them get better remuneration,” she Complimenting IGNOU for flexibility in added. its approach in catering to wide sections The President highlighted the close of the population, the President advised links between distance education and universities to promote skill development


such centres that would bring in the technology and knowledge inputs. Patil called for an education system that should look at the holistic development of the youth. “Education is about knowledge. It pushes the frontiers of knowledge. It should be the aim of the youth to become intellectually competent and technically skilled. Knowledge without value is, however, incomplete. Education without values is like a flower without fragrance. Education should impart values to the youth that makes them sensitive to fellow human beings and the environs around them.” “It is a value system that can prepare the younger generation to become responsible citizens. Values provide an anchor in life, as well as the ability to take decisions, however difficult. They make one strong and capable of withstanding the trials and tribulations of life. Also, if students were equipped with the right value base, along

technology and how universities, including IGNOU, were leveraging the advances in communication technology by providing access to education through online programmes. “Online connectivity is a convenient means to provide education material to students in a timely manner. Distance Education can even serve the national development agenda by reaching out to farmers and health workers to provide them information that is relevant for them. There is need for Government and Universities to act in concert to work on socially relevant issues and to reach out to a broad segment of society,” she observed. The President said that Regional Centres, by coming close to the community they ser ved, can now structure courses that take into account local requirements. Kerala’s tourism, IT and biotechnology, plantation, agriculture and other traditional industrial sectors can benefit greatly from

— Oommen Chandy, Chief Minister, Kerala

IGNOU’s Regional Growth

Srinagar 50

Jammu 27 5 Udhampur Chandi mandir Khanna Shimla 48 15



Chandigarh 15 Dehradun Karnal 29

Delhi 1 1 161538 Noida Delhi 2 17 4 Delhi 3 Aligarh

Jaipur 6 26








Jorhat Guwahati Bhagalpur 31 Kohima Darbhanga 51 6 49 Siliguri 47 Shillong 1 40 Saharsa 43 Raghunathganj 53 22 Imphal 13 Patna Varanasi Deoghar 14




23 20

Jabalpur 2


19 34 3



Agartala 3 Aizwal


Rajkot 32 2






Pune 2

Mumbai 36


42 4

Bhubaneswar 33

Koraput 56





Bangalore Vatakara



Bijapur Panaji







Port Blair



4 12



IGNOU's Regional Reach Army Recognised Regional centers (For Army Persona only)

Trivandrum 52

Navy Recognised Regional Centres (For Navy personnel Only) Assam Rifles Recognised Regional Centres (For Assam rifles Personnel Only)

“I hope that Vithura soon becomes the hub of higher education with the IGNOU Centre, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology and the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research being located here.”

with the capabilities created by science and technology, they will ser ve society with devotion and commitment, creating prosperity and happiness,” she said. Conveying her best wishes to IGNOU, Smt. Patil concluded, “I am confident that the Regional Centre being established, will promote the Open University system through the development, maintenance and monitoring of Study Centres and student support services.” Chief Minister Chandy, in his keynote address, hoped that the work on the institute would be completed with the same speed with which the decision to allot land was made. The Chief Minister expressed hope that Vithura would soon become the hub of higher education with the IGNOU centre, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology and the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research being located here. Chandy said that he wants the three institutes to come together in setting up an international convention centre and promised the State Government’s support in this regard. A mini-university in itself, Southern Regional Campus will help millions of students in its respective area of functioning, says the Vice Chancellor. In the next two years, Prof Pillai hopes to have all five Zonal Campuses functioning, thus creating a niche example for the world to follow.■



India’s first Sign Language Research Centre soon he Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), in collaboration with the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India, will establish the country’s first Indian Sign Language Research & Training Centre (ISLRTC) at the University campus to promote the use of Indian Sign Language (ISL), Vice Chancellor Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai has announced. The Research Centre will start functioning with training programmes, making use of the existing facilities and availing national and international experts in the field with effect from September 1, 2011. Its broad objective is to carry out research in ISL and create linguistic record/analysis of the language, promote research on bilingual approach in education of deaf children, train persons in sign linguistics and other related areas at various levels. Thirty-five academic posts have been created for the Centre. It will be established with 100 percent funding from the Ministry and as per terms and conditions set out in this order. Estimated cost of construction of it’s building and equipment is Rs. 20 crore and Rs. 5 crore respectively. Administrative approval for construction of building and purchase of equipment will be accorded subject


Students of B.A. in Applied Sign Language Studies discussing a point at the IGNOU campus.

to the above ceilings, by IGNOU as per its procedure and by its authorities competent to accord such approval for IGNOU’s own projects. The Research Centre aims to design, promote and offer programmes in ISL, interpreting and bilingual education, at various levels through various modes

EMPOWERING THE HEaRING-IMPaIREd Prof. Shivaji Panda, Vice President, AIFD, Dr. he activities for the establishment of the Indian Sign Language Research and Training Centre Omkar Singh, Secretary, AIFD, Anuj Jain, Joint (ISLRTC) at IGNOU are taking a concrete Secretary, NAD and others representing the deaf shape, with the university planning to set up a sign association proposed that for the establishment of the ISLRTC, preference should be given to the deaf language institute for the hearing impaired. According to an IGNOU statement, the University candidates for the appointment of the staff, to which will organise seminars and workshops for the the VC agreed and said, “We shall appoint deaf staff on probationary basis for the proposed center.” empowerment of the deaf. “The deaf adults should be able to go to the highest level for which we will be conducting activities in different parts of the country,” said Vice Chancellor Prof V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai during a meeting with National Association of the Deaf (NAD) and All India Federation of Deaf (AIFD) for their views in setting up the institute. Prof Pillai also said that IGNOU will on regular basis conduct meetings with these associations. Prof. Shivaji Panda conducting a lecture at the IGNOU headquarters.



including the distance mode. It will develop and offer courses aimed at training teachers to teach ISL, develop and create resources for use in teaching of ISL to children, parents, teachers and the general public; facilitate educational use of ISL in special schools as the first language or medium of instruction and in mainstream schools as a second language or as interpreter mediated language of classroom communication. ISLRTC will also provide guidance in innovative education methodology for institutions providing education to the deaf. The Centre will collaborate with other institutions and organisations of the deaf to promote and propagate ISL and also with universities and other educational institutions in India and abroad in sign language research, deaf studies, and related areas. To produce and promote visual material in ISL story telling of both Indian and global literature and deafness related issues, it will create and promote literature in and about ISL to facilitate print and visual media in promoting the use of ISL. Such an activity will foster the development of Deaf identity and culture and to act as a clearing house of information on ISL, deafness, education of the hearing impaired and related areas. IGNOU has been offering programmes in Sign Language including a B.A. in Applied Sign Language sponsored by U.K-India Education Research Initiative (UKIERI) for the last 3-years. This is the first of its kind in the country.■


Anti-Human Trafficking course for cops he Indira Gandhi National Open University’s School of Law (SOL) has launched a six-month Certificate Programme in Anti-Human Trafficking for Police Personnel. The programme was launched by Vice Chancellor Prof V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai at the Haryana Police Academy (HPA) Madhuban on August 3. The University has specially designed the programme keeping in mind various aspects of human trafficking and ways to tackle the menace. Prof Pillai observed that considering the usefulness of the course to the Police, IGNOU has decided to reduce the fees by 50 percent for those policemen from Haryana who will enroll for the CAHT programme. Lauding the facilities and infrastructure at the Police Academy, Prof Pillai said IGNOU was keen to set up a centre at the Madhuban Police Academy for launching special courses such as cyber crime, forensic science, etc. Shri Sudhir Chaudhary, Director, Madhuban Police Academy, said Human Trafficking was emerging as the third biggest menace after drugs and arms trafficking in the world. Those police personnel who undergo this course successfully will definitely succeed in cracking this heinous crime, he added. Prof. K. Elumalai, Director, SOL, has made a brief presentation about the course


Vice Chancellor Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai, along with other dignitaries, at the launching of the Certificate Course in Anti-Human Trafficking at the IGNOU Headquarters.

content and curriculum and requested the participants to take advantage of this programme for the purpose of tackling Human Trafficking related crimes. Earlier, the School also conducted a sixday online training workshop for police personnel in collaboration with the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). The workshop, conducted at the IGNOU Headquarters on June 13-15 and June 16-18 for Hindi and English speaking states respec-

tively, was aimed at spreading awareness on human rights issues by sensitising and equipping the police personnel to apply it in their day-to-day interaction with the public. “IGNOU brings forth how technology can be efficiently utilised for creating awareness in human rights. The security forces are getting a unique opportunity in this workshop to gain the necessary hands on practice,” said Prof Pillai, while delivering his inaugural address at the IGNOU Headquarters.■

IGNOU, Ministry of Statistics train 37 ISS personnel chool of Social Sciences (SOSS) and the National Academy of Statistical Administration (NASA), under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, organised a training programme on ‘Micro & Macro Economics and its Interpretation for its Indian Statistical Service (ISS) Probationers’ at the Convention Centre in IGNOU Headquarters. Thirty-seven ISS Probationers (eight from 31st batch and 29 from 32nd batch) participated in the training programme. The inaugural session was chaired by ProVice Chancellor Prof. P.R. Ramanujam and was attended by the faculty members of the School of Social Sciences. The training was held keeping in view the high quality of the teaching and course


Pro-VC Prof. P.R. Ramanujam chaired the inaugural session at the Convention Centre.

structure of the M.Phil/Ph.D programme in Economics being offered in Face-to-Face mode by the Economics discipline at

SOSS, IGNOU. “It is for the first time that IGNOU was assigned this important training by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Needless to point out, this is a very prestigious programme and has been assigned earlier to reputed institutions like Delhi School of Economics, Indian Statistical Institute, etc. Economics discipline agreed to organise this programme,” said Prof Narayan Prasad, Professor of Economics, SOSS. During the training programme, 41 lectures (of 62-hour duration) were delivered. Apart from the faculty members of the Economics Discipline, senior economists like Prof K.L. Krishna, Prof B.B. Bhattacharya, Prof T.S. Papola, Prof T.C. Anant, among others, assisted the probationers during the training programme.■



IGNOU-UNICEF pilot project reaches MP he IGNOU-UNICEF pilot project on sensitising journalists on routine immunisation has reached its second stage. A 20 member team, comprising of national, state and district level media visited Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh to raise awareness among the media on the low rate of Routine Immunisation and high infant mortality in the state. The journalists got a first-hand experience about the micro-planning involved in handling cold chain equipment that maintains vaccines at right temperatures. “The vaccine stores make use of generators in case of power failure to protect the vaccines stored,” explained Dr Gagan Gupta, Health Specialist, UNICEF, Madhya Pradesh, who was accompanying the media team. The media persons were also given lessons on checking the expiry dates of vaccines through the vaccine vial monitor. Saroj Paraste, who conveys local news through mobiles from the remote Kundam block of MP, found the visit to village Sarrai, 30 km from Jabalpur, very informative. “Our village Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) personally visits us and ensures that mothers and children come to the Anganwadi centre on the last Tuesday of the month for vaccination.” The field visit to Jabalpur, one of IGNOU’s Regional Centres, followed the initial media


Dr. Gagan Gupta, UNICEF Health Specialist, explaining the vaccine storage process to journalists in Jabalpur.

engagement held through videoconference in Delhi. Over 80 media professionals from Delhi, Bhopal and Jabalpur had exchanged views on the subject of low routine immunisation. Under the IGNOU-UNICEF partnership, IGNOU is providing its strong videoconferencing network to reach out to national, state and district media. “Everyday around 5,000 children under the age of five die in India. A large number of these deaths are due to preventable causes. Vaccine preventable diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity, disability and mortality among children in many states of India,” informed Tania Gold-

ner, Chief of UNICEF Field Office for Madhya Pradesh. “It is here that we need media’s support to convey the need of immunisation as well as help to motivate parents for immunising their children,” added Goldner. The field visit started off with a visit to the special care newborn units, set-up by the Government’s National Rural Health Mission Programme and UNICEF, for saving newborns as well as the cold chain vaccine storage units in the district. The ASHAs and ANM (Auxillary Nurse Midwives) are the connecting link in the last mile for service delivery under NRHM.n

SMS Alerts Service

ERP a huge success

Chemistry meet in Oct

eeping in mind the huge numbers IGNOU caters to, the University has launched its second level of SMS Alerts Service, enabling present as well as prospective students to send their queries via SMS. Students can SMS their queries at 9223051616. The query should be prefixed with IGNOU followed by space. For example: IGNOU What is the last date for submission of examination form? “This development is significant as students need not access their e-mail accounts or postal services to send queries to IGNOU. The service will benefit students who are residing in remote areas,” said P.V. Suresh, Assistant Professor, School of Computer and Information Sciences and Convener, SMS Alerts Service.n


GNOU has become the first central University in the country to integrate all its business process in back office automation by implementing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) successfully at its headquarters in New Delhi, said Pro-Vice Chancellor Dr. Latha Pillai. To recognise the efforts put in extensively by the staff members of the University, Vice-Chancellor Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai felicitated the Directors of Schools, Finance Officer, Head of Computer Division and Registrar (Admin) by distributing Certificates of Recognition. The awardees were selected through an Award Committee. The selection was done based on some parameters decided by the committee.n





he Sir C.V. Raman Chair and School of Sciences (SOS), IGNOU, will organise a national conference on ‘Chemistry: Education and Research Frontiers’ on October 13-14. The national conference, to be held at the Convention Centre, is being organised to celebrate the International Year of Chemistry as proclaimed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and UNESCO. The conference aims to acknowledge the achievements of Chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of humankind, as well as to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the award of Nobel Prize to Madam Curie. Foe more details, visit www.ignou.ac.in.n


Record response to IGNITE’s southern leg record 150 school teams par ticipated in IGNITE 2011, a multicity, inter-school quiz contest organised by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) at Birla Planetarium in Hyderabad. P. Susant and Ishtmeet Singh of Delhi Public School-Hyderabad lifted the trophy, while Vasishta P. and Aakash P. of Gitanjali Senior School were the runners-up at the event, which was attended by over 150 teams representing various city schools. Some of the questions, posed by quizmaster Adittya Mobayi of Quizcraft, were answered without much difficulty by the par ticipating teams, but some made the par ticipants think hard. In Mysore, Nikhil Ravishanker of Class 10 and Leyander Lobo of Class 9 of St. Joseph’s lifted the trophy while Class 10 students Apur va P. Joshi and Gowri Tikoti of the same school were runners-up in the exciting contest. About 200 students from 75 schools across the state’s cultural capital par ticipated in the quiz programme held at Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering (SJCE) auditorium near the Mysore University campus. Beating rivals like Chinmaya International Residential School, Carmel Garden



The winning duo at IGNITE 2011’s Hyderabad leg. Quizmaster Adittya Nath Mobayi is seen at right.

students lifted the trophy at IGNITE’s Coimbatore leg at Coindia Auditorium on July 22. Over 70 school teams representing various city schools par ticipated in IGNITE 2011 quiz contest. Nihal S. and Protyiv Aditya S.K. of Carmel Garden won the contest, while K. Sathes Kumar and S. Shinetha of Angappa CBSE Senior Secondar y School were the runners-up in the event. The inter-school competition was conducted by quizmaster Adittya Nath

Mobayi of the New Delhi-based Quizcraft. A panel exhibition and a flash presentation were also organised at all the three venues to make the students aware of various programmes being offered by IGNOU. Coimbatore was the 11th city where IGNITE 2011 was organised. Before this, the quiz contest was held in Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati, Bangalore, Kochi, Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, Jammu, Hyderabad and Mysore.n


Winners of IGNITE 2011 Mysore leg with trophies.



The Carmel Garden students with their trophies at CoIndia Auditorium.

The Catholic BIshops’ Conference of India (CBCI) has instituted six awards to recognise outstanding students and research scholars who are pursuing various courses under the CBCI-IGNOU Chair.



Training of teachers for developing online courses he Inter University Consortium (IUC), IGNOU, organised a threeday workshop/training for teachers from varsities across the country in developing online courses. The objectives of the workshop on “How to Create/Develop Online Courses” were to explain and describe the Instructional Design for Online Courses, highlight some of the tools used to create online courses, show some examples of Online Courses offered by IGNOU, understand the Learning Management System, how to publish the course, create an online course using Moodle. The training programme was attended by 21 faculty members from State Open Universities, private universities like Jamia Hamdard (New Delhi), NIMS University (Jaipur), Anna University (Chennai), Karpagam University (Coimbatore), Dr. C.V. Raman University (Chhattisgarh), Institute of Advanced Studies in Education University (Rajasthan), Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth (Maharashtra), Lovely School of Open and Distance Learning (Jalandhar), Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University (Guwahati), Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Agra), Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan


The three-day workshop on “How to Create/Develop Online Courses” underway at the IGNOU Headquarters.

(New Delhi) and UP Rajarshi Tandon Open University (UP). The training included explaining and describing the instructional design for online courses, highlighting tools used to create such courses and so on. "There should be judicious use of multimedia, activities and interactivity among learners for effective online learning," said Prof Madhu Parhar, Director, IUC.

The workshop comprised of four sessions per day and started with an overview of online courses in IGNOU. Prof Uma Kanjilal, Director, School of Social Sciences, elaborated upon information and communication technology initiatives at eGyanKosh. “eGyanKosh has open access and has emerged as one of the world's largest educational resource repositories,” said Prof Kanjilal.n

IGNOU, MCIT join hands for IT awareness iming to enhance the use of Information Technology (IT) in areas of a citizen's interest, Indira Gandhi National Open University hosted a day-long brainstorming session on IT Mass Literacy programme to create awareness about IT and its utility in all walks of life. The session was organised in collaboration with the Human Resource Development Division of Department of Information Technology, Government of India, and DOEACC under the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (MCIT). While delivering his address, Chief Guest N. Ravi Shanker, Additional Secretar y, Department of IT, GOI, focussed on strategies and thoughts to take IT to the masses. “ICT plays a crucial role in skilling and empowering people; multilingualism is the way to reach maximum people. It is because of this reason that DOEACC’s Certificate Course in Computer Concepts (CCC) is available in Hindi, Tamil, Urdu,


VC Prof. Pillai speaking at the brainstorming session on IT Mass Literacy programme.

Punjabi, Marathi, Bengali, Assamese, Manipuri, Malayalam and English.” “We have chalked out an action plan involving participants from all over the country for a brainstorming session on IT Mass Literacy to make people IT literate. By


eliminating the digital divide, we are eliminating all sorts of divide. The programme would be available in e-learning mode and would aim to impart IT knowledge at different levels of IT literacy,” said Vice Chancellor Prof V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai. Dr. C. Muralikrishna Kumar, Senior Adviser (C& IT), Planning Commission, said “For the 12th Five Year Plan, one of the identified strategy is to enhance skills and faster generation of employment. Those who remained excluded need to be included; areas which are not covered need to be covered. We are working towards the inclusiveness agenda with an increase in the use of ICT for governance as well as for providing it to the citizens.” Pro-VC Prof K.R. Srivathsan brought forward his recommendations on the project, and said “It would work on promoting the local social networking, online open learning and access to e-governance & useful citizen services.”n


IGNOU’s gift to students: choose any subject


University to launch a unique scheme that will allow students to pursue any subject from any programme

he 65th Independence Day brought good news for the present as well as prospective students of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). The University would soon be offering students the opportunity to pursue any subject from any programme, Vice Chancellor V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai announced, while addressing the gathering at the Inde-


pendence Day celebrations on August 15. “A unique paper-wise registration scheme is under launch where anyone can take any number of subjects from IGNOU programmes without the restrictions of age, qualification, pre-knowledge and knowledge and education in the subject," Prof Pillai said. Citing an example, the VC said: "Now, if a student wants

to pursue only public relations from the Post-Graduate Diploma in Journalism and Mass Communication programme, which comprises of four papers, he can give the examination for just that paper." A feeling of patriotism swept the IGNOU Headquarters as Prof Pillai hoisted the national flag outside the newly inaugurated Vice Chancellor's office. The on-campus students per-

formed a street play dedicated to the theme of increasing corruption in independent India, while schoolchildren showcased various yoga forms. “Efforts are on for two-way teleconferencing, interactive radio counselling and for relaying educational programmes through FM radio,” Prof Pillai added.n




1 1. VC Prof. Pillai unfurling the National Flag at the IGNOU campus on August 15. 2. Prof. Pillai greeting children. 3. A section of the audience cheering the participants. 4. Children showcasing various forms of yoga. 5. On-campus students performing a street play dedicated to the theme of increasing corruption in independent India.



Stitching courses for the poor

VC Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai at the MoU signing ceremony.

GNOU has joined hands with the Aditya Birla Nuvo Limited’s wholly owned subsidiary Madura Fashion and Lifestyle Limited to impart necessary skills and training in garment stitching to the community members who are unemployed/underemployed and are residing mostly in the rural, suburban and disadvantaged locations. According to the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), both IGNOU and Madura Fashion and Lifestyle Limited will


launch three Shor t-Term, NonCredit (STNC) programmes namely: Basic Cer tificate in Garment Stitching for one month, Advance Certificate in Garment Stitching for two months and Advance Cer tificate in Garment Stitching & Quality Control for two-and-ahalf months. All these programmes will be coordinated by IGNOU’s Regional Centre Delhi-1 at Mohan Cooperative Estate. The MoU was signed by U.S. Tolia, IGNOU Registrar (Admin)

and R.S. Balasubramanyam, Head, Corporate Social Responsibility, Aditya Birla Group, in the presence of Vice Chancellor Prof V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai. “Many organisations are looking for trained human resources and are training them as a part of their Corporate Social Responsibility. They require a certification, which is provided by IGNOU. Learners may even want to pursue these courses at a certificate or diploma level, which may be provided to them in the later stages,” said Prof Pillai. Under the MoU, Madura F&L shall enroll at least 200 students per year as per IGNOU approved eligibility conditions and conduct programmes at approved learning centres only. Balasubramanyam announced a special Study Centre at Bangalore for the conduct of these courses. “Certificates for all STNC programmes would be issued by IGNOU RC Delhi- I as per its standardised process and format,” said Dr Sanjeev Pandey, Regional Director, RC Delhi-1.n

IGNOU ready to preserve traditional knowledge systems GNOU’s Centre for Traditional Knowledge Systems (CTKS) has inked a pact with Shruti Foundation, a non-profit organisation, to promote the country’s indigenous knowledge and traditions. The MoU between the two, signed by IGNOU Registrar U.S. Tolia and Dr Sudarshan Agarwal from Shruti


Dignitaries at the MoU signing ceremony.

Foundation, aims to develop certificate, diploma, degree and skill training programmes in the subjects of traditional knowledge systems, leadership and management, self-management, psychology and consciousness studies, faculty training and women’s empowerment.

IGNOU to offer courses in warehousing, accounting he Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) will soon be offering programmes in warehousing, financial accounting and office management in a bid to provide more job-oriented courses. The varsity’s Centre for Corporate Education Training and Consultancy (CCETC) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the National Centre for Business Education’s (NCBE) National Collateral Management Services Ltd. (NCMSL). “We want to certify and provide education training and capacity building so that the


learners can get a certification,” Vice Chancellor Prof V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai said. “The employment opportunities of the learners will increase with this MoU as its objective is

to make a commerce student job ready,” Mukund S. Annigeri, Director NCBE, said. “They have academic knowledge but not experience. We have structured the courses to

VC Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai at the MoU signing.


provide on-the-job-training to them,” he added. A post-graduate diploma in warehousing, logistics and supply chain management, diploma in advanced financial accounting and taxation and a certificate course in office management and human resource will be offered under the MoU. “When we looked for people with required skills in the field of warehousing, logistics and supplying or even in the agriculture business, we didn’t get them. A huge expertise in the skills sector is required to be bridged,” said NCMSL managing director Sanjay Kaul.n


Centre for Sindhi Language & Culture at IGNOU he Indira Gandhi National Open University’s (IGNOU’s) Academic Council’s Standing Committee has recommended starting a Centre for Sindhi Language & Culture in the University in response to the suggestions and special emphasis for the promotion of Sindhi language and culture by the Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD), Govt. of India. The Centre will be functional from this academic year onwards. The major objectives of the Centre are to promote and encourage Sindhi language, especially among the youth who are losing touch with their mother tongue. It also aims to make them conscious of the Sindhi literar y and cultural heritage and make them adequately articulate in Sindhi so


that they can write in Sindhi and translate into Sindhi from Hindi/English. The Centre would also help to organise such activities to the expert meetings and seminars/ workshops that would help the cause of Sindhi language. “The university’s action plan for the establishment of the Centre is to prepare and start a foundation course as part of the Bachelor Degree Programme (BDP) with various components like spoken language, literar y language, morphology and grammar (For Sindhi knowing students). It also plans to start different levels of Appreciation Courses in Sindhi for Beginners (For non-Sindhi knowing students),” said Vice Chancellor Prof V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai.

“Towards a later stage, the university will also be developing PG Certificate and Diploma Programmes and Post Graduate Degree Programmes followed by M.Phil. and Ph.D. Programme. It shall also launch translation courses in Hindi-Sindhi-Hindi and English-Sindhi-English and later between Sindhi and other major Indian languages,” he added. Sindhi is one of the major literar y languages of India, recognised in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of this country. It was included in the constitution on 10th April, 1967, after constant and justified demand of the Sindhi People, who migrated from Sindh due to partition of the country in 1947.n

FIRSTperson Research Methodology training at RC Madurai

From reminisces to transition get higher education. On the whole, I joined IGNOU as a student, and can say that the credit if its recogni15 years later, I entered the Unition and successful application as versity exactly from the other side well as assimilation can be given to of the fence, as a Teacher. A lot more its visionaries. The course structure changes have happened in these of several programmes run by the past years. I still remember when I University gives immense flexibility to had to come to the university from the students, which are generally not Chandigarh to update my assignavailable elsewhere. In these long ment marks for my MBA. It took a reyears, experience makes a person ally long time to reach IGNOU in more pragmatic and systematic. As a those days when the means of com- Dr. Parvesh Bubber. faculty, I can still make out the differmunication were very limited. It still takes as long, since one gets stuck on the IGNOU ence between IGNOU and other conventional universities. It is different indeed in its setup and road in spite of the arrival of the Delhi Metro. I can recall those times when it was hard to even functioning. The mode of Regional Centres, local tie-ups, make a call. Today, when I see things like the SMS facility for students, I realise that technology has rev- audio-video have added to the multiple dimensions olutionised the concept of teaching and its accessi- of education with direct reach to the people to make bility. The IGNOU campus has expanded a lot from IGNOU the People’s University. A whole new relaits earlier days. The staff, buildings and students tionship is beginning to emerge from the shadows of time to another lap of time. I hope to look forward have increased by leaps and bounds. I still remember that my friends used to dread to many more transitions of advanced technology while preparing for the exams, wondering on the and infrastructure in the University for the benefit of ever increasing standard of examinations being held all. A new journey has just begun and as someone at the centre. Now, IGNOU standards are widely ac- says well begun is half done. knowledged and well appreciated. — DR. PARVESH BUBBER (ASSOCIATE The idea of long distance education has caught PROFESSOR IN BIOCHEMISTRY, up with the masses and has proved to be a blessing SCHOOL OF SCIENCES, IGNOU) for working professionals to sharpen their skills or


Participants in a group photo at RC Madurai.

GNOU’s Madurai Regional Centre organised a three-day short-term Training Programme on Research Methodology and Data Analysis for Educational Research from August 12-14. The first batch consisted of 32 participants, who primarily included principals, teacher educators and Ph.D. scholars from Pondicherry University, Mother Teresa University, Madurai Kamaraj University and College of Education in Tamil Nadu. The programme was inaugurated by Prof. G. Pankajam, Former Vice Chancellor, Gandhigram Rural University. The objective of the training was to induce the research scholars to make use of statistical analysis using the SPSS package. According to the feedback received from participants, the training programme has been a source of inspiration to research scholars in pursuing their research work successfully.





Courses for nurses, teachers, parents

Diploma, Certificate in Chinese Language

he Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has launched three courses focussing on raising more educational avenues for medical, nursing and teaching personnel, as well as parents. The two certificate courses and one diploma programme will be offered by the varsity through distance education mode. “The first certificate course is for Auxiliar y Nurse Midwives which aims to provide quality care to patients undergoing treatment under ayur vedic system of medicine,” a University statement said. The Adolescent Health and Counselling course will prepare teachers and parents to help adolescents to develop a healthy lifestyle and handle stress. “It will help teachers and parents to strengthen their knowledge in understanding needs and concerns of adolescents; build knowledge on physical, cognitive, emotional and psychological changes,” the statement said. The diploma programme in Critical Care Nursing will ensure that critically ill patients are looked after by nurses who have advanced nursing care knowledge and skills.n

GNOU’s School of Foreign Languages (SOFL) has launched a Diploma and Certificate programme in Chinese Language. The Diploma course would be offered in both face-to-face and online mode, while the certificate programme would be available only through online mode for IGNOU’s July session. “This is for the first time in India that the teaching of Chinese language and culture will be imparted through online demonstration via IGNOU satellite,” said Prof G. Chaudhuri, Director, SOFL. “The programmes are specially meant for business schools while the study materials, teaching and examinations will be held through online mode,” he added. According to the varsity, admission to the one year diploma programme requires no entrance test. “Those scoring 80 percent and above in the final examination will be considered for undergoing further training in Chinese universities in China and successful candidates will also be exposed to the industries doing business with China,” Prof Chaudhuri said. For more details, visit www.ignou.ac.in.n






Gulistan-e-Urdu Session on Role of ICT April 2005: Shri K. Rahman Khan, Hon’ble Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha, inaugurates a teleconferencing session ‘Role of Information and Communication Technology in Reaching the Unreached.’ May 2005: IGNOU and British Open University (BOU) agree to constitute two expert groups to identify critical areas for collaboration. July 2005: Padma Shri Prof. (Dr.) N.R. Madhava Menon, Director, National Judicial Academy, Bhopal, delivers 10th Prof. G. Ram Reddy Memorial Lecture. November 2005: Hon’ble Minister for Human Resource Development Sh. Arjun Singh launches Gulistan-e-Urdu, an Urdu language programme for regular transmission on Gyan Darshan.

Upcoming Events 1. 24th Convocation -- September 5, New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Open University will confer Degree of Doctor of Letters to His Holiness the Dalai Lama at the University’s 24th Convocation at its Maidan Garhi campus in New Delhi.


Cultural Contributions of The Guptas, Part - B

Silk Cotton Tree : Kapok

Food Sampling and Analysis Techniques

What Einstein Never Knew

Performing Arts: Odissi

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed around 320 to 550 AD. The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture, sculptures and paintings. The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, et al.

It is a tropical tree found in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and in tropical west Africa. Kapok is the most used common name for the tree and may also refer to the fibre obtained from its seed pods. The tree is also known as the Java cotton.

Food sampling is a process for checking whether the food is safe and does not contain harmful contaminants. It is carried out by subjecting the product to chemical analysis. Analysis may be undertaken by or on behalf of a manufacturer regarding their own product.

Albert Einstein was a German-born physicist who developed the theory of general relativity. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human.

Odissi traces its origins to the ritual dances peformed in the temples of ancient northern India. Today the name Odissi refers to the dance style of the state of Orissa in eastern India.

State of Nutrition in India

Explorations Of Folk Traditions

Nutrition plays a very important role in one's health. It's deficiency may lead to malnutrition. A number of different nutrition disorders may arise, depending on which nutrients are under or overabundant in the diet.

India is a land of different cultures having different traditions. One of the popular form of communication continues to be the folk form. It has always been very popular among the masses in India.

For a complete schedule, log on to www.ignou.ac.in


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