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make brand communities something significant in their own right.

Knowledge and understanding of the Brand Strategy concepts and theories – CW1 Ian Adams   21028547  

(Muniz & Guinn 2001) Kits Kat is a very unique brand it has a number of big communities, after the partnership of with Google (JWT, 2013) to use Kit Kat as the name of the next android operating system. The brand has seen a change in its once traditional community. This new tech audience that spans across ages and regions is tech savvy so they ill be using social media. To relate to the concepts above Kit Kat, has lead the brands towards a more community driven approach, if the community has an issue with the product they can complain as an entity and be responded to. Brand Identity The idea that consumers use brands to express their identities has led many companies to reposition their products from focusing on functional attributes to focusing on how they fit into a consumer’s lifestyle. However (Chernev et al. 2011) depicts that brand identity

Abstract Have the core fundamentals changed within brands, how have new media changed how consumers see brands. This report explores how a modern brand has developed not its products but how it represents its self as a brand. The report will look at the following brand concepts; brand

has deeper meanings then functional attributes It is about the ethos, aims and values that present a sense of individuality differentiating the brand. (de Chernatony 1999) Also reference to (see Appendix 1) shows the components of brand identity; that are Presentation, positioning, personality, Brand vision/culture and relationships that drives towards a brands desired positioning and identity. (de Chernatony 1999)

community, brand identity, brand architecture, brand personality, emotional aspects to a brand, brand awareness, brand meaning,

Kit Kat brand differentiates itself from other chocolate bars

brand associations, brand loyalty and Brand experience.

because it places itself within a situation within the consumer life, ‘take a brake’ and ‘have a brake, have a Kit Kat.’ The many

Introduction

advertisements that Kit Kat shows a range of different audiences

The report will comparing definitions of branding concepts

within busy lifestyles and need escapism.

mentioned above by a range of academic authors. These concepts will then be applied to the brand Kit Kat by Nestle. Brand Community A brand community is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand. (Muniz & Guinn 2001) The new postpostmodern branding proposed, suggests that as marketers are no longer omnipotent, brands have become citizen-artists and that brands are cultural artifacts through which consumers assert themselves as individuals in society. (Quinton 2013) The brand communities are social entities that reflect the situated embeddedness of brands in the day-to-day lives of consumers and the ways in which brands connect consumer to brand, and consumer to consumer. Three essential markers of community (conscious- ness of kind, rituals and traditions, and moral responsibility) are present, but differences in their expression

Brand Architecture (Devlin 2003) explains brand architecture refers to an organization’s approach to the design and management of its brand portfolio and the relationship between such brands. However (Douglas et al. 2012) explains It should clearly define deeper importance and role of each level of branding, as, for example, at the corporate, product division, or product brand level, as well as the interrelation or overlap of branding at each level. (Petromilli et al. 2002) places structure with the two types of architecture “house of brands” has a master brand like IBM, Virgin and “branded house” groups of stand along brands proper and gamble. Kit Kat has mix between the two architecture “house of brands” and “branded house”. Kit Kat is owned by Nestle that has brand


groups, then within these groups are a collection of brand extension. Kit Kat has its ‘4 finger’ ‘2 finger’ and ‘Chunky’ range.

Brand awareness

All nestle products have the logo on the packaging to portray the

Brand awareness indicates customer ’s capability to recall or

relationship between each products endorsed values.

recognize a brand. (Aaker & Joachimsthaler 2000) Brand awareness according (Aaker, 1996) is the first step in the overall

Brand personality

customer experience. It is the first step to understanding the

Brand personality is a vehicle of consumer self-expression and

brand, at this stage it is merely being aware that is exists. This can

can be instrumental in helping a consumer express different

be seen at (see Appendix 8). As explained earlier brand

aspects of his or her self (Aaker 2005). Yet Brand personality

architecture can help to further expose the brand if a ‘Branded

defined by (Azoulay & Kapferer 2003) is certainly a key facet of a

house’ approach has been taken. (Aaker & Joachimsthaler 2000)

brand identity, the current scales of brand personality do not in

explains further, every exposure of the brand in one context

fact measure brand personality, but merge a number of

provides visibility that enhances brand awareness in all contexts.

dimensions of brand identity. This is shown within (see Appendix 5) with Kapferer brand identity prism (Aaker 2005) further in study

The significant positive effects of both brand identity and

states humanizing a brand empowers it to play a more central role

identification suggest that companies should invest on brand

in the consumer’s life, potentially enabling the consumer to project

identity and consumer identification. Instead of merely

an aspect of his or her self that might be desirable for relationships

communicating brands for the purpose of brand awareness, brand

he or she seeks.

investment should focus on according strong ‘identity’ meaning to consumers, so that it facilitates consumer search for consumer–

Kit Kat personality is portrayed through its marketing

brand bond. (He et al. 2012)

commination’s, the content shared throughout social media sites like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are technology focused,

Based on this customer based brand equity conceptualization, the

showing the product in a comedic manner. This lighthearted spirit

essential dimensions of brand equity are brand awareness, brand

reflects in their direct response to people commenting and

associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty (Aaker &

tweeting the brand. (see Appendix 9) is a good example of a tweet

Joachimsthaler 2000)

that shows of personality, this makes the brand relatable and likeable.

Kit Kat is a mass-market product and well known within the UK market even if it isn’t the front of mind chocolate bar like Cadbury’s

Emotional aspects

or Galaxy. However with effective marketing communications the

If involvement can be characterized by mild affect, brand

brand has positioned itself as a quick snack. Awareness is high

attachment refers to a strong emotional bond (i.e., “hot affect”)

and partners with technology companies are only going to further

between a consumer and a brand, as evidenced by its three

increase this awareness across markets.

dimensions—affection, passion, and connection. To be clear emotional aspects are qualities of brand attachment, brand

Brand meaning

experience is not an emotional relationship concept it’s the

This meaning can be defined by a number of attributes that means

interaction between customer and product. Experiences are

most to a consumer of the brand. History is just one aspect of the

sensations, feelings, cognitions, and behavioral responses evoked

consumer's brand experience. There is a process of interplay

by brand-related stimuli. Over time, brand experiences may result

between the past and the present in contextualizing brand

in emotional bonds, but emotions are only one internal outcome of

meaning, just as there is between managerial intent and consumer

the stimulation that evokes experiences. (Brakus et al. 2009)

action. In choosing to consume a particular product or specific brand, consumers have the right to construct what a brand means.

Kit Kat is a chocolate bar so the sensation is the taste; the treat of

At this fundamental level, therefore, the co-construction of brand

the moment develops a passion and an individual connection with

experience directs brand management (Schembri 2009)

the product. The bar is targeted towards having a brake from the customer’s busy lifestyle. Because the product fits easily into

Kit Kat branding meaning for a consumer can vary from customer

consumers day-to-day life and also can find within their friends life

to customer as they will have different symbols experiences and

style as the product can be shared.

depending on how successful or strong they where it will mean


stronger deeper meaning. If a customer for example if a group of

and loyalty. Consumer satisfaction affects loyalty. When a

customers experienced an outdoor campaign where they won a

consumer feels good about the relationship and appreciates the

free nexus phone they would have a better experience, this would

product or brand, a high level of commitment and loyalty results

help them relate this these different values intern developing a

(Anderson 1993)

deeper meaning. Campaign can be seen at this reference (Yong, 2013)

Self-image congruence is found to enhance brand loyalty for consumers who are motivated to conform, but not for those who

Brand associations

are driven to escape. Alternatively, product knowledge is found to

Models of associations in memory attempt to explain two cognitive

enhance brand loyalty for escapism-motivated consumers, but

events. Two types of models can be distinguished within the HAM

inhibits brand loyalty for consumers who are bound to conform.

tradition, connectionist models and Bayesian models. Human

(Labrecque et al. 2011)

Associative Memory (HAM) models and adaptive learning models describe two unique approaches to teach the brand associations

Kit Kat is a within both confectionery and biscuit market, there are

that are subsequently used to make predictions about

a wide range substitutes so loyalty is low. After all the rich

consumption benefit. Both types of models represent declarative

experience and history with the brand, customers still question do

knowledge as a network of concept nodes connected by

they need a chocolate bar? Also Mintel reports (Soininen, 2013)

associative links. These models assume that the learning of

states that loyalty is low across the Biscuit market as people

associations between one cue and an outcome is not dependent

during economic times tend to go towards the promotions and

on the presence of other cues and their associations with the

supermarket own brands because of the price incentives.

same outcome. That is, learning is cue independent. Connectionist models employ a simple Hebbian or “coincident

Brand experience

activation” learning, each connection is strengthened whenever a

Brand experiences vary in strength and intensity; that is some

cue and an outcome co-occur(Janiszewski 2002)

brand experiences are stronger or more intense than others. As with product experiences, brand experiences also vary in valence;

As seen in (Aaker, 1996) model of Customer Experience Brand

more positive than others or even negative. (Brakus et al. 2009)

association is seen to be set two in the journey after Brand

Moreover some brand experiences occur spontaneously without

awareness, this is when the customer understands the brand on a

much reflection and are short-lived. Over time, these long-lasting

cognitive level taking into account associated stimuli to build a

brand experiences, stored in consumer memory, should affect

perception of the brand, this leads to ‘Perceived Quality’.

consumer satisfaction and loyalty (Oliver, 1980) Brand experience based on the affection to a brand this can be triggered by Stimuli

Kit Kat still relies on nostalgia, because it is well knit to British

may include; “touch and feel,” “appeal to different senses, smells

society. But with new Google partnership is consumers will build

nice and is visually warm” fun,” “refreshed,” “inspired,” “nostalgia”.

associations with android long after the next update comes out of

(Brakus et al. 2009) as seen in (see Appendix 7) shows the

operating system. According to Adweek ‘Andriod Kit Kat’ will

outputs of a brand experience; Sensory, Affective, Intellectual and

appear on 50million bars (Heine, 2013) Other connotations are

behavioral this can all be effected differently from the above

colour red, two/four fingers, unwrapping tin foil and for some it

stimuli that will have a direct impact on the satisfaction a customer

might be the brand extensions like the during Easter with special

will have.

editions. Brand loyalty (Aaker, 1996) explains that the last step of the costumers experience is brand loyalty (see Appendix 8). This step indicates that the customer has understood all what the brand means down to the core values, relates to the brand. With this there are two key behavioral outcomes; customer satisfaction and loyalty (Chandrashekaran et al. 2007; Oliver 1993) Brand personality can provide differentiation, increases preference, and enhances trust

Kit Kat had a lack of brand experience because there is no instore or extended periods with the product. The one area the brand has invested in with JWT the creative agency is online with the use of social media platforms. With competitions where customers who have bought a chocolate bar have a chance to win a free phone. (See Appendix 10) This is good because it drives interaction within the brand and the community. If they win they share with the their friends on twitter further adding different emotional stimuli associated with the brand.


Conclusion Overall Kit Kat is a small biscuit chocolate bar, but still has a range

Douglas, S.P., Craig, C.S. & Nijssen, E.J., 2012. Executive Insights  : Integrating Branding Strategy Across Markets  : Building International Brand Architecture. , 9(2), pp.97–114.

of interesting dynamics to the brand. Key finding are each individual has a say, communities drive change and it up to the brand to use this data to improve and adapt. Identity is key within a crowded marketplace; going back to the core product function is key. The brand architecture needs to incorporate cross brand integration to use the core values of each brand. People believe people so brand personality can be used to add value, good example is the use if twitter and interacting with other brands and people. Kit Kat is using the emotional aspects, for example escapism from everyday life; this shows they understand the modern person. The partnership with Google has given Kit Kat the opportunity to change its brand meaning with its new tech savvy consumers. It also lets the brand build new associations with android that will have strong long connections even when a new update is released. Loyalty is low because of economic times, however by adding extra value to a chocolate bar away from price incentives, this can build an overall better brand experience. Kit Kat has started its journey towards new media ventures, the only

He, H., Li, Y. & Harris, L., 2012. Social identity perspective on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 65(5), pp.648– 657. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01482963110010 20 [Accessed November 12, 2013]. Janiszewski, C., 2002. Two Ways of Learning Brand Associations. , 28(September 2001), pp.202–223. Labrecque, L.I., Krishen, A.S. & Grzeskowiak, S., 2011. Exploring social motivations for brand loyalty: Conformity versus escapism. Journal of Brand Management, 18(7), pp.457– 472. Available at: http://www.palgravejournals.com/doifinder/10.1057/bm.2011.12 [Accessed November 22, 2013]. Muniz, A.M. & Guinn, T.C.O., 2001. Brand Community. , 27(March), pp.412–432. Petromilli, M., Morrison, D. & Million, M., 2002. Brand architecture: building brand portfolio value. Strategy & Leadership, 30(5), pp.22–28. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/1087857021044252 4 [Accessed November 22, 2013].

issue is that the focus is off the chocolate and towards using the Google platform. Have Google got the better end of the deal. References Aaker, D.A. & Joachimsthaler, E., 2000. The Brand Relationship Spectrum: , 42(4). Azoulay, A. & Kapferer, J.-N., 2003. Do brand personality scales really measure brand personality? Journal of Brand Management, 11(2), pp.143–155. Available at: http://www.palgravejournals.com/doifinder/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540162. Brakus, J.J., Schmitt, B.H. & Zarantonello, L., 2009. Brand Experience: What Is It? How Is It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(3), pp.52–68. Available at: http://journals.ama.org/doi/abs/10.1509/jmkg.73.3.52. De Chernatony, L., 1999. Brand Management Through Narrowing the Gap Between Brand Identity and Brand Reputation. Journal of Marketing Management, 15(1-3), pp.157–179. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1362/026725799784 870432 [Accessed November 11, 2013].

Quinton, S., 2013. The community brand paradigm: A response to brand management’s dilemma in the digital era. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(7-8), pp.912–932. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0267257X.2012 .729072 [Accessed November 8, 2013]. Schembri, S., 2009. Reframing brand experience: The experiential meaning of Harley–Davidson. Journal of Business Research, 62(12), pp.1299–1310. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01482963080025 92 [Accessed November 14, 2013]. Aaker , D . A . ( 1996 ) Measuring brand equity across products and markets . California Management Review 38 (3) : 102 – 119 . Aaker, Jennifer L. (1997), “Dimensions of Brand Personality,” Journal of Marketing Research, 34 (3), 347–56 Anderson, Eugene W. and Mary W. Sullivan (1993), “The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction for Firms,” Marketing Science, 12 (2), 125–43. Holt, D.B. (2002).Why do brands cause trouble? A dialectical

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Heine, C. (2013, 10 3). Adweek. Retrieved 11 20, 2013, from Adweek: http://www.adweek.com/news/technology/googlesandroid-kitkat-will-appear-50-million-candy-bars-152173 JWT. (2013, 5 4). KITKAT and Google. Retrieved 11 20, 2013, from JWT: http://jwt.co.uk/work/android-kitkat-unveiled-jwtlaunches-global-campaigns-behind-nestle-google-partnership.html KitKat. (2013, 11 20). Kit kat. Retrieved 11 20, 2013, from Android: https://www.kitkat.co.uk/android/default.aspx

(Petromilli et al. 2002) Appendix 5

Soininen, K. (2013, 7 01). Mintel. Retrieved 11 20, 2013, from Biscuits, Cookies and Crackers - UK - March 2013: http://academic.mintel.com/display/637989/ Yong, J. (2013, 9 20). Youtube. Retrieved 11 20, 2013, from Taxi: http://designtaxi.com/news/360795/Kit-Kat-Rewards-People-WithFree-Nexus-7-Tablets-For-Taking-A-Break/

Appendixes Appendix 1

(Kapferer 1992, 1998) Appendix 6

(de Chernatony 1999) Appendix 4


Appendix 7

Appendix 10

(Brakus et al. 2009)

(KitKat, 2013) Appendix 8

(Aaker, 1996 ) Appendix 9

Knowledge and understanding of the brand strategy concepts and theories - CW1 - Branding Stratgry