make brand communities something significant in their own right.
Knowledge and understanding of the Brand Strategy concepts and theories – CW1 Ian Adams 21028547
(Muniz & Guinn 2001) Kits Kat is a very unique brand it has a number of big communities, after the partnership of with Google (JWT, 2013) to use Kit Kat as the name of the next android operating system. The brand has seen a change in its once traditional community. This new tech audience that spans across ages and regions is tech savvy so they ill be using social media. To relate to the concepts above Kit Kat, has lead the brands towards a more community driven approach, if the community has an issue with the product they can complain as an entity and be responded to. Brand Identity The idea that consumers use brands to express their identities has led many companies to reposition their products from focusing on functional attributes to focusing on how they fit into a consumer’s lifestyle. However (Chernev et al. 2011) depicts that brand identity
Abstract Have the core fundamentals changed within brands, how have new media changed how consumers see brands. This report explores how a modern brand has developed not its products but how it represents its self as a brand. The report will look at the following brand concepts; brand
has deeper meanings then functional attributes It is about the ethos, aims and values that present a sense of individuality differentiating the brand. (de Chernatony 1999) Also reference to (see Appendix 1) shows the components of brand identity; that are Presentation, positioning, personality, Brand vision/culture and relationships that drives towards a brands desired positioning and identity. (de Chernatony 1999)
community, brand identity, brand architecture, brand personality, emotional aspects to a brand, brand awareness, brand meaning,
Kit Kat brand differentiates itself from other chocolate bars
brand associations, brand loyalty and Brand experience.
because it places itself within a situation within the consumer life, ‘take a brake’ and ‘have a brake, have a Kit Kat.’ The many
advertisements that Kit Kat shows a range of different audiences
The report will comparing definitions of branding concepts
within busy lifestyles and need escapism.
mentioned above by a range of academic authors. These concepts will then be applied to the brand Kit Kat by Nestle. Brand Community A brand community is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand. (Muniz & Guinn 2001) The new postpostmodern branding proposed, suggests that as marketers are no longer omnipotent, brands have become citizen-artists and that brands are cultural artifacts through which consumers assert themselves as individuals in society. (Quinton 2013) The brand communities are social entities that reflect the situated embeddedness of brands in the day-to-day lives of consumers and the ways in which brands connect consumer to brand, and consumer to consumer. Three essential markers of community (conscious- ness of kind, rituals and traditions, and moral responsibility) are present, but differences in their expression
Brand Architecture (Devlin 2003) explains brand architecture refers to an organization’s approach to the design and management of its brand portfolio and the relationship between such brands. However (Douglas et al. 2012) explains It should clearly define deeper importance and role of each level of branding, as, for example, at the corporate, product division, or product brand level, as well as the interrelation or overlap of branding at each level. (Petromilli et al. 2002) places structure with the two types of architecture “house of brands” has a master brand like IBM, Virgin and “branded house” groups of stand along brands proper and gamble. Kit Kat has mix between the two architecture “house of brands” and “branded house”. Kit Kat is owned by Nestle that has brand
groups, then within these groups are a collection of brand extension. Kit Kat has its ‘4 finger’ ‘2 finger’ and ‘Chunky’ range.
All nestle products have the logo on the packaging to portray the
Brand awareness indicates customer ’s capability to recall or
relationship between each products endorsed values.
recognize a brand. (Aaker & Joachimsthaler 2000) Brand awareness according (Aaker, 1996) is the first step in the overall
customer experience. It is the first step to understanding the
Brand personality is a vehicle of consumer self-expression and
brand, at this stage it is merely being aware that is exists. This can
can be instrumental in helping a consumer express different
be seen at (see Appendix 8). As explained earlier brand
aspects of his or her self (Aaker 2005). Yet Brand personality
architecture can help to further expose the brand if a ‘Branded
defined by (Azoulay & Kapferer 2003) is certainly a key facet of a
house’ approach has been taken. (Aaker & Joachimsthaler 2000)
brand identity, the current scales of brand personality do not in
explains further, every exposure of the brand in one context
fact measure brand personality, but merge a number of
provides visibility that enhances brand awareness in all contexts.
dimensions of brand identity. This is shown within (see Appendix 5) with Kapferer brand identity prism (Aaker 2005) further in study
The significant positive effects of both brand identity and
states humanizing a brand empowers it to play a more central role
identification suggest that companies should invest on brand
in the consumer’s life, potentially enabling the consumer to project
identity and consumer identification. Instead of merely
an aspect of his or her self that might be desirable for relationships
communicating brands for the purpose of brand awareness, brand
he or she seeks.
investment should focus on according strong ‘identity’ meaning to consumers, so that it facilitates consumer search for consumer–
Kit Kat personality is portrayed through its marketing
brand bond. (He et al. 2012)
commination’s, the content shared throughout social media sites like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are technology focused,
Based on this customer based brand equity conceptualization, the
showing the product in a comedic manner. This lighthearted spirit
essential dimensions of brand equity are brand awareness, brand
reflects in their direct response to people commenting and
associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty (Aaker &
tweeting the brand. (see Appendix 9) is a good example of a tweet
that shows of personality, this makes the brand relatable and likeable.
Kit Kat is a mass-market product and well known within the UK market even if it isn’t the front of mind chocolate bar like Cadbury’s
or Galaxy. However with effective marketing communications the
If involvement can be characterized by mild affect, brand
brand has positioned itself as a quick snack. Awareness is high
attachment refers to a strong emotional bond (i.e., “hot affect”)
and partners with technology companies are only going to further
between a consumer and a brand, as evidenced by its three
increase this awareness across markets.
dimensions—affection, passion, and connection. To be clear emotional aspects are qualities of brand attachment, brand
experience is not an emotional relationship concept it’s the
This meaning can be defined by a number of attributes that means
interaction between customer and product. Experiences are
most to a consumer of the brand. History is just one aspect of the
sensations, feelings, cognitions, and behavioral responses evoked
consumer's brand experience. There is a process of interplay
by brand-related stimuli. Over time, brand experiences may result
between the past and the present in contextualizing brand
in emotional bonds, but emotions are only one internal outcome of
meaning, just as there is between managerial intent and consumer
the stimulation that evokes experiences. (Brakus et al. 2009)
action. In choosing to consume a particular product or specific brand, consumers have the right to construct what a brand means.
Kit Kat is a chocolate bar so the sensation is the taste; the treat of
At this fundamental level, therefore, the co-construction of brand
the moment develops a passion and an individual connection with
experience directs brand management (Schembri 2009)
the product. The bar is targeted towards having a brake from the customer’s busy lifestyle. Because the product fits easily into
Kit Kat branding meaning for a consumer can vary from customer
consumers day-to-day life and also can find within their friends life
to customer as they will have different symbols experiences and
style as the product can be shared.
depending on how successful or strong they where it will mean
stronger deeper meaning. If a customer for example if a group of
and loyalty. Consumer satisfaction affects loyalty. When a
customers experienced an outdoor campaign where they won a
consumer feels good about the relationship and appreciates the
free nexus phone they would have a better experience, this would
product or brand, a high level of commitment and loyalty results
help them relate this these different values intern developing a
deeper meaning. Campaign can be seen at this reference (Yong, 2013)
Self-image congruence is found to enhance brand loyalty for consumers who are motivated to conform, but not for those who
are driven to escape. Alternatively, product knowledge is found to
Models of associations in memory attempt to explain two cognitive
enhance brand loyalty for escapism-motivated consumers, but
events. Two types of models can be distinguished within the HAM
inhibits brand loyalty for consumers who are bound to conform.
tradition, connectionist models and Bayesian models. Human
(Labrecque et al. 2011)
Associative Memory (HAM) models and adaptive learning models describe two unique approaches to teach the brand associations
Kit Kat is a within both confectionery and biscuit market, there are
that are subsequently used to make predictions about
a wide range substitutes so loyalty is low. After all the rich
consumption benefit. Both types of models represent declarative
experience and history with the brand, customers still question do
knowledge as a network of concept nodes connected by
they need a chocolate bar? Also Mintel reports (Soininen, 2013)
associative links. These models assume that the learning of
states that loyalty is low across the Biscuit market as people
associations between one cue and an outcome is not dependent
during economic times tend to go towards the promotions and
on the presence of other cues and their associations with the
supermarket own brands because of the price incentives.
same outcome. That is, learning is cue independent. Connectionist models employ a simple Hebbian or “coincident
activation” learning, each connection is strengthened whenever a
Brand experiences vary in strength and intensity; that is some
cue and an outcome co-occur(Janiszewski 2002)
brand experiences are stronger or more intense than others. As with product experiences, brand experiences also vary in valence;
As seen in (Aaker, 1996) model of Customer Experience Brand
more positive than others or even negative. (Brakus et al. 2009)
association is seen to be set two in the journey after Brand
Moreover some brand experiences occur spontaneously without
awareness, this is when the customer understands the brand on a
much reflection and are short-lived. Over time, these long-lasting
cognitive level taking into account associated stimuli to build a
brand experiences, stored in consumer memory, should affect
perception of the brand, this leads to ‘Perceived Quality’.
consumer satisfaction and loyalty (Oliver, 1980) Brand experience based on the affection to a brand this can be triggered by Stimuli
Kit Kat still relies on nostalgia, because it is well knit to British
may include; “touch and feel,” “appeal to different senses, smells
society. But with new Google partnership is consumers will build
nice and is visually warm” fun,” “refreshed,” “inspired,” “nostalgia”.
associations with android long after the next update comes out of
(Brakus et al. 2009) as seen in (see Appendix 7) shows the
operating system. According to Adweek ‘Andriod Kit Kat’ will
outputs of a brand experience; Sensory, Affective, Intellectual and
appear on 50million bars (Heine, 2013) Other connotations are
behavioral this can all be effected differently from the above
colour red, two/four fingers, unwrapping tin foil and for some it
stimuli that will have a direct impact on the satisfaction a customer
might be the brand extensions like the during Easter with special
editions. Brand loyalty (Aaker, 1996) explains that the last step of the costumers experience is brand loyalty (see Appendix 8). This step indicates that the customer has understood all what the brand means down to the core values, relates to the brand. With this there are two key behavioral outcomes; customer satisfaction and loyalty (Chandrashekaran et al. 2007; Oliver 1993) Brand personality can provide differentiation, increases preference, and enhances trust
Kit Kat had a lack of brand experience because there is no instore or extended periods with the product. The one area the brand has invested in with JWT the creative agency is online with the use of social media platforms. With competitions where customers who have bought a chocolate bar have a chance to win a free phone. (See Appendix 10) This is good because it drives interaction within the brand and the community. If they win they share with the their friends on twitter further adding different emotional stimuli associated with the brand.
Conclusion Overall Kit Kat is a small biscuit chocolate bar, but still has a range
Douglas, S.P., Craig, C.S. & Nijssen, E.J., 2012. Executive Insights : Integrating Branding Strategy Across Markets : Building International Brand Architecture. , 9(2), pp.97–114.
of interesting dynamics to the brand. Key finding are each individual has a say, communities drive change and it up to the brand to use this data to improve and adapt. Identity is key within a crowded marketplace; going back to the core product function is key. The brand architecture needs to incorporate cross brand integration to use the core values of each brand. People believe people so brand personality can be used to add value, good example is the use if twitter and interacting with other brands and people. Kit Kat is using the emotional aspects, for example escapism from everyday life; this shows they understand the modern person. The partnership with Google has given Kit Kat the opportunity to change its brand meaning with its new tech savvy consumers. It also lets the brand build new associations with android that will have strong long connections even when a new update is released. Loyalty is low because of economic times, however by adding extra value to a chocolate bar away from price incentives, this can build an overall better brand experience. Kit Kat has started its journey towards new media ventures, the only
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(Petromilli et al. 2002) Appendix 5
Soininen, K. (2013, 7 01). Mintel. Retrieved 11 20, 2013, from Biscuits, Cookies and Crackers - UK - March 2013: http://academic.mintel.com/display/637989/ Yong, J. (2013, 9 20). Youtube. Retrieved 11 20, 2013, from Taxi: http://designtaxi.com/news/360795/Kit-Kat-Rewards-People-WithFree-Nexus-7-Tablets-For-Taking-A-Break/
Appendixes Appendix 1
(Kapferer 1992, 1998) Appendix 6
(de Chernatony 1999) Appendix 4
(Brakus et al. 2009)
(KitKat, 2013) Appendix 8
(Aaker, 1996 ) Appendix 9