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St Peter’s Catholic College

Year 8 Music Workbook

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SPCC Music 1


NOTICE ON MATERIAL COMMUNICATED UNDER PART VA LICENCE FORM OF NOTICE FOR PARAGRAPH 135KA (a) OF THE COPYRIGHT ACT 1968 COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969 WARNING This material has been copied and communicated to you by or on behalf of St Peter’s Catholic College, Tuggerah, pursuant to Part VA of the Copyright Act 1968 ( the Act ). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further copying or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice.

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Welcome to Music. This year you will continue your development as musicians—reading, writing and performing music of various kinds. The focus of this 20 week course is the development and history of Rock Music. Initially, we will focus on African Music, then the Blues and finally various Rock styles. Performance work will be very important in this course. You will work on guitar, keyboard, drums and voice and you will often work in groups to make your own music. A positive attitude and great teamwork are required. Reading through the course requirements below will help with your preparation for this course.

Stationery: The following equipment is required for each lesson: Blue &/or black pens, a red pen, a lead pencil, an eraser, a sharpener, coloured pencils, a ruler, glue and scissors. This workbook must be covered with plastic contact, and clearly labeled with your name, class, subject and teacher.

Bookwork: You are expected to take pride in the presentation of your work. Your Music Workbook is to come to all classes and to remain in good condition. There is not to be any graffiti or unnecessary writing in your Workbook. All handwriting in the Music Workbook is to be of a high standard and reflect care. Your work is to be neatly coloured and presented where required. All work is to be up to date at all times. If you are absent, you are required to catch up when you return.

Classroom Rules: Be on time for class. Assemble outside P Block with planner, workbook and writing equipment. When you enter the building, all bags are to be placed neatly in the hallway. Follow all teacher instruction. Take responsibility for your own learning by participating positively. Treat each other with respect at all times. Do not touch equipment (particularly musical instruments) without permission. Treat all equipment with respect and care - musical instruments and technology used in music is expensive. Return all equipment to its correct place after use and ensure the rooms are left tidy and clean. When participating in group work, be cooperative, remain on task and demonstrate a high level of teamwork.

The DML:

The Digital Media Laboratory is an expensive specialised facility. Please do not interfere with any of the equipment in this room, particularly cabling. You are not to repair or alter the setup of any equipment and you must always notify a teacher if there is a problem. Headphones are to be treated with extreme care - using them poorly will damage them and you may be asked to pay replacement costs.

Awards: Music Award stickers are issued during class for good work, positive participation in discussion and practical activities and for ongoing application to you work. The awarding of 3 Music Awards result in a College Commendation being issued by your classroom teacher. College Commendations and also given outright for outstanding positive progress, high achievement in assessment and a positive attitude. Sign below once this information has been read and discussed at home.

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Parent’s/guardian’s signature

Student’s signature


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Playing position of Djembe players. Hands are flat when striking the centre of the drum

Djembes - commonly used in West African music

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BACKGROUND: Africa is a large continent made up of many different nations, each with its own unique identity. Despite these differences, African music shares many similarities. Music plays an integral role in traditional African society. It helps to preserve the cultures of the different tribes, many of which have no written language. Stories of past events, as well as moral teachings and religious beliefs are passed down through generations through song and dance. Music is also used to accompany work, for entertainment and for ceremonial occasions of all kinds. In fact, music is linked to almost every aspect of African life.

Musical instruments in Africa are predominately either membranophones or idiophones. Membranophones which have skins.

are

percussion

instruments

Idiophones are instruments which are shaken or struck but do not have skins.

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The following terms are used often in reference to African music. It is important to understand these terms and to use them accurately in discussion and when responding to music in writing.

OSTINATO:

POLYRHYTHMS:

IMPROVISATION:

CALL AND RESPONSE:

QUESTION AND ANSWER:

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Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 Dorricott and Allan ‘ In Tune With Music, Book 1

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Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 Dorricott and Allan ‘ In Tune With Music, Book 1

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Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 Dorricott and Allan ‘ In Tune With Music, Book 1

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1.

On the staves below, write a percussion part of your own. Watch the note placement in each bar and aim to use a variety of note values. Clap your ideas first and see what works well for each type of instrument.

2.

Here is another example of a simple percussion score. Practice hand writing notation by neatly copying each part on the empty stave below. Watch note alignment between each part and think about where the note is placed in the bar. Place the beat numbers under the score to help with counting and note placement.

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Divide into groups and learn the parts below. You may need to complete the questions first so you have a good idea of what is required to perform this African piece. A vocalist can also be used on the Glockenspiel part if you wish.

Questions 1.

How many tuned instruments play this song? __________________________

2.

How many untuned instruments are used? _________________________

3.

means there are ______ beats in each bar.

4.

means ______________ and

______________ for one beat.

5.

The function of the xylophone is to play a ________________________ ostinato.

6.

The function of the untuned instruments is to play the ____________________________________

7.

The song ‘Obi Senya na’ uses 5 different pitches. That means it’s a _____________________ song.

8.

Write out the notes of the pentatonic scale on this stave.

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ABOUT THE DJEMBE: The Djembe (JEM-Bay), comes from Mali and Guinea in Africa. It can be used as a lead instrument or as an accompaniment to traditional dances. Traditionally you stand to play the djembe though you are able to sit to play as well. HOW TO PLAY THE DJEMBE: The Djembe produces three primary tones or sounds:  a BASS tone,  a MIDDLE tone  a HIGH tone. In Africa, each tone is given a particular name.  Bass tone syllables: gun (GOON) it is written below the single line on the stave.



Middle tone syllables: go (GO) it is written on the single line



High tone syllables: pa (PAH) it is written above the single line:

Below are three simple djembe exercises to get you reading and playing the three different tones. Grab a djembe and try them out! 1 Write in the time signature for each

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Put double dots on the final bar lines to create repeat signs

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Now, take a look at this Djembe rhythm:

How are the notes written down — describe what is happening on this stave? Are some notes higher on the stave than others? Try to chant the syllables whilst you are playing the pattern! What do you think this would mean? How do you think it would sound when played? Try clapping this one bar rhythm. Then, perform the rhythm on djembe taking into consideration the different way the note heads are placed on the stave. Work out the formula and you will get it! 13


This is an example of an African drumming ensemble. It contains many typical African music features. Listen to the piece and complete the questions below. Try also to follow the score of the opening section.

1. This piece is an example of traditional

music.

2. Some features of African music heard in this piece are:    

3. Some different instruments are heard in this piece. They are:    Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968

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4. The piece begins with:

and

5. This means that:

6. How many times is ’Call and Response’ heard at the beginning of the piece? 7. Following this, all the instruments play their own: 8. At this stage, there are many rhythm patterns happening at the same time. This is known as:

9. How many times do the instruments play their pattern before there is another change in the music?

10. What two instruments appear to have a solo in the next section?

11. In the space below, try to graphically notate the structure of the piece.

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MIND MAP

Using the map below, summarise the main features of African Music

FEATURES OF AFRICAN MUSIC

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LITERACY ACTIVITY You are to source information on the slave trade from the Carnegie Hall website: ‘Honor! A Celebration of the African American Cultural Legacy’. Your teacher will guide you through an activity reviewing and summarising information on the slave trade.

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DECADE

Task Description: (to be completed in the back of this book)  Identify and define the chosen style. Indicate from where the style emerged. What earlier styles influenced its development?  List the key musical features of the style  List the main musicians/performers who develop this style Print then paste the completed research into this workbook.

Using the resources from the website below, present a small summary of one of the musical styles on the timeline. More information and audio examples can be found at: http://www.carnegiehall.org/honor/history/index.aspx

&

Timeline of

African-American Musical Styles

Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 ‘A History of African Music’, accessed 21/01/2011 at http://www.carnegiehall.org/honor/history/index.aspx

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The Blues is the name given to both a musical style that originated in African-American communities—particularly those in the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century. The Blues developed from Negro spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants. The blues form has a specific chord progression called the ‘twelve-bar blues’ chord progression. The blues has other characteristics such as specific lyrics, bass lines and instruments. There are many different sub-styles of blues music including country blues, urban blues and bluesrock. The term "the blues" refers to the "blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness. Just three different chords can be used to create a 12 bar blues progression. They are chords, I, IV and V. The pattern below shows how they are organised. Chords of a twelve-bar Blues:

I I I IV IV I V IV I

Chords for a Blues in C:

I I I

Write down the chord pattern for a blues in the key of C

Triads are chords with only three notes/sounds. They are commonly used in music and are easily built. Generally the triads we use in the blues are built on the 1st 3rd and 5th note of the scale. If the Blues piece is in the key of C major, the three notes of each chord would be:

C:

F:

G:

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This exercise focuses on the 12 bars blues chord progression in the Key of C Major. Here is the progression using a single note only in the treble clef. Here is the same progression written on the bass stave.

Write the treble clef name under each note of the blues progression.

(This is what a bass guitarist would read in a rock band).

Try playing these notes on piano. Play the treble clef part with your right

Write the bass clef name under each note of the blues progression.

hand, then the bass clef part with your left. You can even play both at the same time if you want a challenge! Listen to the pattern that is produced and try to memorise it.

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Now lets attempt to write the chords used in the blues.

Write the chord name under each of the chords in the progression.

Practice writing out the chords of the 12 bar blues progression.

Finally, go to a piano or electric keyboard and play each chord. Use your right hand. If you want a challenge learn the left hand as well and then see if you can play both hands together!!

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The 12 Bar Blues chord progression can be played in other keys. So far we have focused on the C Blues (which is great for piano as it only uses the white notes). On guitar however, the chords used in the C Blues aren't the easiest to play. However, the blues is easy to play on guitar if you use the keys of G, D or A. Basically, if you follow the chord progression correctly (chords I, IV and V ) you will get it right! Practice writing out the chords of the 12 bar blues progression in different keys

Blues in G

I I I IV IV I V IV I

I I I

I = G etc. IV = V=

Blues in D

I I I IV IV I V IV I

I I I

I=

I I I

I=

IV = V=

Blues in A

I I I IV IV I V IV I

IV = V=

Here are the chords you need to play in each of these keys—good luck!

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ACTIVITIES 

Name the 3 chords used in this piece.



Complete the chord progression used throughout the 12 bars of this piece.

 

Practice playing this chord progression on guitar or keyboard. Working in pairs, add the bass/xylophone part and play this along with the guitar/keyboard chords. Learn to play the tune….it uses a very repetitive rhythm throughout. When you have mastered the tune, try playing all three parts in a group.

 

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Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 ‘Listen to the Music’ I Dorricott, 2011

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Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 ‘Listen to the Music’ I Dorricott, 2011

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Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 ‘Listen to the Music’ I Dorricott, 2011

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Copied under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 ‘Listen to the Music’ I Dorricott, 2011

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EXTENSION ACTIVITIES 

Find out which chords are used in ‘White Noise’ and write them above the lyrics. You can use ‘Ultimate Guitar Tab’ website or any other sites to find this information.



Work out how to play these chords.



Try playing your own arrangement of this song on guitar or keyboards. Consider adding in singers and drums to your arrangement. 34


The ‘drum set’, also commonly referred to as ‘drum kit’, is a collection of percussion instruments which is played by one musician. It usually includes a bass drum, a snare drum, several cymbals, and tom toms. Other percussion instruments such as cowbells and woodblocks are sometimes added to the kit. Bass Drum: This drum is the largest member of the kit and is played by using a foot pedal attached to a beater which then strikes the drum head. This drum produces a low, deep sound. Snare Drum: This shallow drum produces a sound that is very distinctive (higher in pitch than the bass drum). The snares (bands of metal wires, pulled across the bottom head of the drum) produce a buzzing or snapping sound when the drum is struck. Cymbals: Cymbals are made of various combinations of metals and are usually six to twenty-two inches in diameter. The most important cymbals in the drum kit are:  hi-hat- this horizontally mounted pair of cymbals can either be hit with a stick or closed on each other with a foot pedal.  crash cymbal and ride cymbal- two commonly used cymbals. Both are hit with sticks and, depending on their size, produce varied sounds. Tom-toms a drum set usually has three tom-toms. One is on the floor and the other the other two are mounted on the bass drum.

PARTS OF THE DRUM KIT

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The combination of instruments used in Rock music often varies depending on the style of rock being performed. However, more often than not, a rock ensemble will be a drum kit and different types of guitars. Probably the most important instrument of any rock group is the drum kit. It provides the backbone of the band and creates the strong beat and rhythmic interest which is evident in Rock. Of equal importance is the guitar. Rock groups generally consists of one electric guitar (though often two) and a bass guitar. Occasionally, an acoustic or semi acoustic guitar are added to provide greater variety. A vocalist is usually an important part of Rock styles. These are sometimes complemented with backing vocalists. Other important, though not essential, instruments are the saxophone, keyboards (electric pianos and synthesizers) the harmonica, trumpets and trombones and flutes. Some rock musicians have even been known to use orchestras as backing for their music. This diagram shows a typical set up for a rock ensemble.

Q. Name the musicians found in this particular group.      What other equipment is used by this group?       

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The 6 string electric guitar is the most popular rock instrument. It can be used as a lead or rhythm guitar in a rock band. The rhythm guitarist provides the:

The lead guitarist provides the:

The electric guitar is often responsible for playing RIFFS in a piece of music. A riff is:

Guitarists often use effects pedals to enhance the sound. Common types of effects are:

Jimmi Hendrix Guns n Roses

Bob Dillon

PARTS OF THE ELECTRIC GUI-

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Kurt Cobain

PARTS OF THE ACOUSTIC GUI-

Rock Musicians often use a semi acoustic guitar on stage. This is an acoustic guitar with a pickup installed inside the instrument. It is able to be plugged into an amplifier. Write down information on the guitar

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Write down information on the bass guitar here.

PARTS OF THE BASS GUITAR

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Write down information on vocals here.

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Write down information on other rock instruments here.

Label these instruments correctly.

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There are strings on an acoustic guitar. Name them here.

The guitar window is a diagrammatic way of representing where your fingers are placed to create chords.

Each dot on the diagram represents a finger. When the fingers are placed correctly the chord will sound accurately.

Here is a handy way of remembering the names of the

Elephants And Donkeys Grow Big The guitar window is a diagrammatic way of representing where your fingers are placed to create chords. Each dot represents a finger. When fingers are placed correctly the guitar will sound the chord.

Using these guitar windows, create a G chord (simple version) and a G chord (full version). Label each chord. 44


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The three symbols:

are called accidentals.

and

They are written beside certain musical notes to change the pitch in some way. The Sharp The

raises the pitch of a note by one step (a semitone)

Flat

lowers the pitch of a note by one step

The Natural The black relating to the called A

cancels out the effect of a sharp or flat. notes on a piano may be sharps or flats depending on whether they are note below or above them. For example, the note B flat can also be sharp and C sharp is also D flat.

C

C

A

D

B

D

A

B

On the keyboard however, it is the same

The same pitch is shown here written as two different notes on the stave

Label this keyboard with two alternative names for each black note

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The piano keyboard is made up of a series of black and white notes which have been arranged in a particular pattern. This pattern is repeated for the entire length of the instrument. The white notes represent the letters:

Label the 7 white notes on this keyboard

notes represent the

Label the 5 black notes on this keyboard

The black and

Mid-

dle C (offered referred to as C3) is generally in the centre of the keyboard. It marks the divide between the notes played by the left hand and those played by the right. Mark Middle (C3) on the long keyboard.

Label all of the white keys on this full keyboard. (Use C1, D1, E1 etc)

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Remembering the names of the lines

Remembering the names of the spaces

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Remembering the names of the lines

Remembering the names of the spaces

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Reading Notes in the Bass clef

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Year 8 Music Rock Instruments Research Activity Designing an information pamphlet You are required to select one of the following instruments and design an information pamphlet/sheet for this instrument. Choose from one of the following instruments: Electric Guitar Bass Guitar Fretless bass guitar Drum Kit Electric piano keyboards/synthesizers saxophone Your pamphlet should: describe the instrument – how it is made, what it is made from and how it is played. It should also outline its particular role in a rock band. In designing your pamphlet, include photos or diagrams of the instrument. You may be able to source a photo of the instrument being played within a rock performance. You are asked not to simply cut and paste blocks of information from the internet or other sources. Edit information and reword it so that it reflects your thoughts and ideas. MARKING CRITERIA: Marks will be awarded for:  The accuracy and quality of the information  The overall appearance and presentation of the information sheet The use of supporting images/diagrams/photos SUBMISSION: The pamphlet must be submitted as an email to your teacher when completed.

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INTRO: D

G

A

A (x2)

VERSE 1 D A All the small things G A True care, truth blinks D A I'll take one left G A You’re right, best trip D A Always I know G A That you'll be at my show D A Watching, waiting, G A Come misery-teen PRE-CHORUS D A Saying ain’t so I will not go G D Turn the lights off, carry me home. CHORUS D Nana nana nana nana na na A G Nana nana nana nana na na (x2) BRIDGE D D A

A (x2)

VERSE 2 D A Late night, come home G A Work sucks, I know D A She left me roses by the stairs G A Surprises let me know she cares

PRE-CHORUS D A Saying aint so, I will not go G D Turn the lights of, carry me home CHORUS D Nana nana nana nana na na A G Nana nana nana nana na na (x2) INTERLUDE D D G D D G D D G D D G

A A A A

CHORUS D A Say it ain’t so, I will not go G D Turn the lights off, carry me home D A Keep your head still, I'll be your thrill G D The night will go on, my little windmill CHORUS D A Say it ain’t so, I will not go G D Turn the lights off, carry me home D A Keep your head still, I'll be your thrill G G The night will go on, the night will go on D A little bit long… 61


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Listening Analysis

’Time Of Your Life’ By

DURATION: 1. What is the overall tempo of the excerpt? 2. Does it change or stay the same throughout? 3. Are there any times when the rhythms used become less complex? 4. What is the time signature of the song? PITCH: What instrument/s play the main melody? Is there an accompaniment? Who plays the accompaniment? Is the melody mainly ascending or descending? Is there a riff or repeated motif/idea? STRUCTURE How many sections are there in the piece? Graphically represent each section below. Label each section correctly.

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Explain what happens at the beginning of the introduction.

How is each section different?

TONE COLOUR What instruments are playing in each section of the excerpt? How is this song different from many rock songs?

DYNAMICS What is the overall volume of the excerpt? Does the volume change throughout the excerpt? Are any of the following used in the excerpt? Techniques Crescendo

Yes/No

Where is it used?

Decrescendo

Yes/No

Piano

Yes/No

mf

Yes/No

TEXTURE: How many different instruments are playing in this piece? Complete the following table by placing a tick in the appropriate box Instrument Drum Kit

Intro

Verse 1

Chorus

Verse 2

Chorus

Electric Guitar Keyboard Voice Bass Guitar Backing Vocals

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THINGS TO DO:

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What are the three chords used in Ob La Di Ob La Da?



Learn to play the three chords on a keyboard or guitar—or both!!



In what bar does the Verse start?



In what bar does the chorus start?



What is the time signature of this piece?



What does the time signature tell us?



In the table below, draw each note value used and give both its name and value in beats.

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Word

Meaning

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Yr 8 workbook 2013