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A

L

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By Iain Bicknell

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E


“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.� - Charles Darwin

ADAPT


STUDY I would like to take the opportunity to thank my friends and family for supporting me and making this dissertation possible. To my loving parents, Carol and Phillip Bicknell. Thank you so much for always being there when I needed you the most, while doing your very best to support me over the past 5 years of my architectural career. You never stopped believing in me and I sincerely appreciate your unwavering encouragement and generosity. To my dearest brother, Chris Bicknell. I can say without a shadow of doubt that you have been single-handedly my greatest ally, supporter and adviser over the past 5 years. From the bottom of my heart I would like to thank you, because without your endless sacrifices, my dreams would not have been achieved. You never batted an eyelid when I needed your help and I am forever grateful, much of my success can be accredited to your teachings and generosity. Thank you so much. To my dearest friend Denis Jakovljevic. Thank you for always being a fixed point in my life and someone I could always turn to when times were tough. Your friendship and words of wisdom have enabled me to keep my sanity multiple times over the past 5 years when I was almost ready to break. You are the best friend anyone could ask for.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS KNOWLEDGE

To my newly found friend Jack Colombera. Thanks for being a great friend throughout the course of this dissertation. Your constant support, jokes and ego stimulating ways, have made this semester highly entertaining. I look forward to our future adventures together. To my friend and thesis supervisor Khoa Do. Thank you for believing in me and providing me with the opportunity to be taken under your wing. Your teachings and mentoring have enabled me to reach heights that I never thought possible. You are a truly amazing person and I will be forever grateful for your friendship and the selfless effort you have given to each and every one one of us. I think I speak for everyone in saying that we wouldn’t be where we are today without you. Last but not least, to my friends Sohrab Anwari, Chris Leong and my eldest brother Wayne Bicknell. Your constant support over the course of this dissertation and my architectural career has been truly valued. Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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STUDY

ABSTRACT

The research began with an idea which preoccupied me for over four and a half years, a phenomenon which I cited as “implied movement� within architecture, which referred to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving. Upon further investigation into this notion I soon realised that these structures weren’t just manipulating visual perception, but were living, breathing, aging, manmade organisms that housed their own complex systems, whilst interacting with the urban ecology that surrounded them. It was evident after thorough investigation that the birthing of this form of architectural expression was directly connected to the rapid advancement of digital and non-digital technologies, clearly articulating that this new form of architecture was a response to our changing cultural and technological conditions. These findings presented an opportunity to further enhance our understanding of this type of architectural expression, whilst at the same time evolving it passed its current stage of evolution into an entirely new architectural species. The research has achieved this through a thorough analysis and testing of past and present non-static architectural systems whilst investigating the cognitive effects on human perception. As well as researching heavily into past, future and current developments within the often forgotten, scientific fields, the research puts forward a number of recommendations and findings into the design of a built proposition situated in Perth CBD area, focused around three key drivers: 1.

2. 3.

The development of new scientific technologies and their potential application and benefit to the architectural profession. Looking to nature as a reference for design in creating a more adaptive and responsive architectural typology. Adopting the principles of biology and the systems of the human body to create a new architectural species.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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CONTENTS Acknowledgements Abstract Introduction Glossary

5 7 11 13

Objectives Background

15 17

Existing Architectural Works The Mind as the Animator Evolution of Building Methodologies Advocates of ‘the Alive’ Science Ecologies

CONTENTS

Research Design Methodology Site Selection Significance Discussion Conclusion Where to.. References Appendix Research Map Wk 4 Interim Wk 11 Interim Final Panels Model Promotional Trailer Project Images Collaboration

19 39 47 51 55 57 59 65 69 71 105 107 109 117 119 121 123 135 137 147 167

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell


INTRODUCTION “That building is alive…”. A statement that this research has vigorously explored over the course of this dissertation, but what does this statement mean? What is this personification or evocation of architecture? How does the building come alive and how does it engage with its context? All relevant and intriguing questions which this research has explored through a design proposal situated within the heart of the Swan Canning River. The statement “that building is alive…” refers to a relatively new form of architectural response that this research will denote as ‘The Alive’. The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scientific terms. These types of buildings have their own complex ecology of moving parts, skins, organs and innovative technologies that bring them to life, harmonising a new form of external expression, gesturing and interacting with their surrounding context. All this is made possible by the introduction of innovative digital and non-digital technological instruments to facilitate new types of architectural experimentation and exploration into that which was not thought possible. Through the exploration of this statement the research has achieved a deeper understanding of ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the historical developments of non-static architectural systems, the rapid advancement of new scientific technologies plus nature itself as an endless resource of information and the systems of the human body to develop a design response shaped by the principles discovered around this notion. The research is significant as we are moving into a rapidly evolving technological age of free flowing information and technological advancement. Our urban environments are being left behind, stuck within the limitations of the Cartesian systems of old, where static forms stagnate our cities; which cities in their very nature are pulsing with life and activity, thus presenting an opportunity to create a new form of architectural species that better represents the culture of our time and forms a symbiotic relationship with its occupants.

BEGINNING

INSIGHT The research presents an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-acquaintance of architecture with the applied sciences. Architecture only needs to leverage off the technologies the applied scientific fields develop and apply it to the designs. Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007). Identifying a need for architecture to reorientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with that of the adaptive intelligence of nature. As Charles Darwin in his evolutionary theory identifies “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15). Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS Evocation refers to the association of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another (OED 2014). Personification is when you assign the qualities of a person to something that isn’t human or, in some cases, to something that isn’t even alive. Commonly used as a method of describing something so that others can understand (OED 2014). The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scientific terms. It is the personification and evocation of architectural form internally and externally.

Instrument may be referred to as an object or a tool to produce an outcome, whether it is music, a painting or a chair. But what an instrument signifies within this research is a way of feeling and discovering. A way to connect with the creation of the object, to become one with it as to fully understand its existence and what it means to exist. Animate is a term used to denote movement of an object and is defined in the dictionary as giving motion to; or to give life; make alive. For example “god animated the dust”, the dust isn’t alive but the way it implies or gestures movement invokes the feeling of life (OED 2014). Biology is essentially concerned with the study of life and the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin, and distribution (OED 2014).

DEFINITIONS

KEY TERMS Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment (Wikipedia 2014). Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, “beginning of the shape”) is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape. It is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation (Morphogenesis 2014). Alive typically refers to a living, breathing organism, with blood coursing through its veins, but the actual definition of what it means to be alive it’s a lot more complex and illusive. The dictionary defines alive as something in a state of action; in force or operation, something that is active, full of energy and spirit or having the quality of life, being vivid or vibrant (OED 2014). According to the 1969 American law dictionary, the American legal system defines life as “existing as an animate object”, meaning essentially anything that is perceived to be moving. This clearly enunciates that alive does not necessary mean a living breathing entity, but could be anything that harbours the fundamental qualities of life through its actions and gestural responses.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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MISSION 01. At the start of the research, the intention was to develop a deeper understanding of designing ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the past and current developments of nonstatic architectural systems, as well as its 3 sub-objectives: 01.1. To analyse the effects of ‘The Alive’ on the mind, people and space. 01.2. How these effects can be used to further enhance and manipulate people, places and forms. 01.3. To investigate the use of new digital technologies as an instrument and not a tool in understanding architectural expression.

OBJECTIVES

The Objectives presented an opportunity to enable further exploration into current and future scientific technological advancements in a varying array of disciplines which was more relevant and critical to the research outcome. This in turn put in motion a shift in focus towards the re-uniting of architecture with the sciences, and the thorough exploration of natural systems in order to create a more responsive and “alive” architectural species. 02. Objective 2 was to develop a design which was informed by the principles discovered around the notion of ‘The Alive’ and apply it to a built form within the Perth CBD area, thus resulting in its placement within the Swan Canning River, parallel to Riverside Drive.

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BACKGROUND “Implied movement” within architecture refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architecture has the ability to unleash chaos upon the mind’s senses, but in an ordered and manipulative fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this phenomenon within architecture is composed though a play of “forces” that push and pull the viewer around a space or facade creating a sense that either they or the object is moving even though it is essentially static. The engagement that these structures impose upon the viewer’s mind is the principle element that gives them their energy. These types of structures often evoke within the viewer (also described as evocation) associations of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another, moreover expressing itself as one thing, such as a building, but gesturing something else entirely. This investigation initially in the dissertation proposal resulted in the research of 4 key areas associated with this idea: Existing architectural works that facilitate this phenomenon, the mind as the animator, the evolution of building methodologies and advocates of ‘the Alive’.

DISCOVERY

JOURNEY

As the research progressed, the investigation into the sciences and nature around the notion of life and how nature and other living organisms have evolved over time to adapt and respond to their surrounding environmental conditions, became increasingly important within the research. This resulted in the exploration of new scientific technological advancements in fields such as bio-mimicry, bio-mechatronics, bio-engineering, bio-mimetics and many others, which in turn brought attention to the true meaning of what it means to be alive within architecture, and how nature and science are an endless source of information that must be leveraged and applied. The research into these two additional aspects underlined the importance of the ecologies within the Perth CBD area and allowed for a further investigation into the ecologies of air, land and water. The six areas of background that formed the basis of this research were as follows:

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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The study conducted resulted in a comprehensive set of 52 info-cards that was intended to be used to develop a series of 3d printed touch stones representative of the methods discovered in this study, which later was found to be unnecessary as the study progressed, due to the research identifying more critical pathways to explore. The 52 card set study resulted in the discovery of 12 implied movement methods that could be spliced together to create formal drivers for the project. These methods were as follows:

INFOCARDS

Iain Bicknell

A study conducted in (Bicknell, 2013), reviewed the notion of implied movement, and concluded with a series of precedent findings that assisted in the understanding of the mechanics that made structures feel as if they were alive. This resulted in a thorough analysis and extrapolation of techniques that was adopted in order to test these sensory effects. Projects such as Frank Gehrys New York Tower, Zaha Hadids Sheikh Zayed Bridge and Baroque sculpture were all explored, diagrammed and categorised according to their effects and their impact.

0401036162 iain-bk@hotmail.com

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

DISCOVERY As the initial study of the of effects created by the expression of movement and life within architecture to manipulate visual perception through implied movement only scratched the surface, further study into the formal drivers of this type of architectural expression was conducted through the visual data base in order to concrete the legitimacy of this research. These methods were then drawn, documented and applied to the research as an instrument to facilitate visual interactions between the surrounding urban ecology and the object. This in turn crafted a form of communication between the urban environment and the structure, awakening the city to its presence, evoking energy and life from its surrounding context.

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T H eorY

iM P reS S ionS

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.

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INFOCARDS I M P R E S S I oN S

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Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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.

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T H e B U iL dinG

A

L ineS

on T H e roof W H icH of force P roJ ecT inG

P A T T ernS

of T H e S iT e

H A L L S

in A

L ineA r fA S H ion A S

B Y

M A S S ive H A nG inG

circU L A T e T H e M U S eU M B odiL Y

of

of P eoP L e T rA ffic T H roU G H

M oveS

P eoP L e A re drA W n A roU nd iT S L oU verS

fL oW

for H er deS iG n. T H e P A T H S

T o creA T e T H e B A S iS

diS covered direcT

M oveM enT

.

A cT inG

deS iG n reM iniS cenT

>>>

>>>

>>>

of A

G iA nT

M A nT A rA Y

W A T er. T H e S T rU cT U re cA P T U reS M oT ion, A S G roW T H

A S

-

if iT

W A S

S W iM M inG

S A iL inG

T H e creA T U reS

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T H roU G H

T H e

U niQ U e forM

T H e oB S erver

-

A nd

S oU rce of

fL iG H T

INFOCARDS G eS T U reS

T A rG eT ed SW

inG

Ac ceL erA T ion

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G eS T U reS

B ridG e in eL evA T ion

rH Y T H M

reP eT iT ion A nd roT A T ion

G eS T U reS

G eS T U reS

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

25


M iL W A U K ee A rT

nA U T iL U S

eero SA

S H eL L

iM P reS S ionS

L oG A riT H M ic S P irA L

M U S eU M

Ar inen

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L A U renZ iA nA

S T A ir cA S e

H eL iX iT A L Y

S T A ir cA S e: T H e vA T icA n

M iL iT A rY

dA nieL L iB eS K ind

M U S eU M

Mi cH Ae L An G eL o

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

cA rP A rK

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

dY nAMi

forM S

fA cA de in W A veS

iT S

:

P roP erT ieS

T H e S iZ e of T H e

S P irA L increA S eS S H A Pe

>

eA cH

>

>>> >>>

iS

L iQ U id T H A T

reA cT S

T o T H e effecT S

of W ind

W ind T U rB U L ence

G eS T U reS

iS

S iM iL A riT Y

.

creA T inG

T H e

ST

fAMi

L veS

oU T W Ar d reL A T ive T o norMAL L A rvA

T H e ST fL oW inG

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W H icH

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BU

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L G e An d diST

in A Yo U

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A irS

,

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iS

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

1

2

3

eM erG ence

S ecT ionA L P rofiL e

G eoM eT rY

>>

>

A

of

>>

A S

B U T

So ciA T ion.

S U cceS S ive cU rve, A

P roP erT Y

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creA T U reS

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of M oT ion

AS

reMi niS cenT

dA nieL L iB eS K ind

T U rB U L ence A croS S

in nA T U re.

iT io n

T H roU G H

ofT en A P P eA rS

A d d

K ind of S P irA L cU rve W H icH

iT S

S P eciAL

iT io n

W ind

refL ecT inG

A

A d d

Mi cH Ae L An G eL oS

T o vA rY inG

S P eedS

S P irA L iS

>

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evocA T ion of Mo veM enT

reA cT S

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P roJ ecT ion

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,

A L oG A riT H M ic S P irA L

eQ U iA nG U L A r S P irA L or S T rU cT U reS

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H An ded H eL iX

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T H e riG H T

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-

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SU

T H roU G H

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of A noT H er

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S P irA L A nd G roW T H

oU T

S U cceS S ive cU rveS

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diS T riB U T ion of forceS

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oriG inA L S T rU cT U re H oriZ onT A L

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

iM P reS S ionS

>>>

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

n

iM P reS S ionS

iT io

iM P reS S ionS

A d d

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

G eS T U reS

B riS B A ne A irP orT U A P + ned K A H n

INFOCARDS G eS T U reS

evocA T ion of W inG S

oPe ninG

T o fL Y

reMi niS cenT

Bi rd

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G roW inG

S P irA L

-

riG H T

H A nded H eL iX

-

riS inG

force

G eS T U reS

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

27


iM P reS S ionS

M U S eU M

T oW er Y orK G eH rY frA nK

T H e neW

T oW er

A rcH iT ecT S S T U dio G A nG

T H eA Q U A

M U S eU M Z AH

ind’ S

M Me T rY

,

S

JU

A de’ S

S T

AS

vieW inG ST

U P on iT S erMAn A T forM

A

Mi L iT Ar Y

cerT Ai n Se nSe

eeL SL

vieW erS

oPe nneSS

G PL

in T H e oPP T H iS

enSi on T o dreSd en’ S

eXT

T enS ion) W iT H

concreT e An d ST

iM P oS inG fAÇ

(

iceS

T H roU G H

reP reSe nT inG

An d T rAn S P A rencY deMo crA cY Pr ovideS

PU

SH

ed AS

Br eA T H T AK

PU

H iST

of AG

orY

MU

G reSS

Se U M

eS

T H roU G H

ide T H e coU nT rY ’ S

inG

vieW S

An d PS

eM P H A Si Z inG

criT icAL

Pr oJe cT ion of forM

connecT ionS

W iT H

iT S

T icA L L Y

AU

of T H e ciT Y

1 3 5 -

AS

Yc H icA L Br U T AL

,

iT

iS

H Y

An d H iST

iT Y

An d riG idiT Y T odA Y

creA T inG

A

vieW erS

orY

2 0 0 -

T H e BU

.

.

’S

iL dinG

of W A r.

T

of T H e eXi ST

T ic SP

G eS T U reS

, riP P L eS

of

T H e fA cA de G L ide A croS S

of T H e S T rU cT U re

T H e W A T er creA T inG

W H icH

in T U rn diS P L A ceS

T H e A cT

S T one inT o S T iL L A

W A T er W H icH

droP P inG

reP reS enT S

A nd evoL ve

T H A T

A nd

G roW T H A T

P L A nT S

reM iniS cenT

P roJ ecT ion of forM iMAG

ined MU

Sc U L Ar

iMAG

ined MU

forceS

Sc U L Ar

forM : T H e SH

-

Ar P

9 9

forceS

edG ed ST

cH A rAc T eriST

icS

rU cT U re iS

of T H e SU

Pr oJe cT ion of forM

inT o

connecT ionS

ST

cK

eMPH

reeT inT o ST

drA W S

eY e BA

rU cT U re. MU

Sc U L Ar

cAMPU

of fAc Ad e rH Y T H M T enSi L e SK

AS

An

in

.

S

U rB An

T H roU G H inveST

,

conSi ST

iZ ed BY

An

T H eSe

inG

W H icH

reSU

L T

L A Yer

An d SH

Br inG S

cAMPU

S

orT cU T S

Y Si S

circU L A T ion P A T H S

BY

MAP

iS

A

direcT

of T H e T oPo G rAPH

reeT

T H e MAi

neT W orK

of P A T H S

An d cAMPU

.

S

n T rAf fic roU T eS

SU

T H iS

of connecT ion, W H icH

L T

P A T H W A Y S

of T oPo G rAPH Ar e T H eY

icAL

MAP

An d viSU iS

AL

T H en

rroU ndinG

Ar e T H en foL ded An d overL AP

T H e differenT

reSU

ic An d circU L A T orY

L ife on T H e norT H ern Si de of T H e G rAn d

G enerA T e A

Be T W een T H e ciT Y inG

An d connecT ionS

iL dinG

L ineS

Y Si S

W H icH

T oG eT H er An d neG oT iA T eS

T o define criT icAL

T H e enT ireT Y

deT Ai L ed An AL

Be T W een T H e ST

of An AL

An d Ar oU nd T H e Si T e. T H e BU

iG A T ionS

of A

Ar eA

of T H e U niverSi T Y

of fooT P A T H S

Ad diT ionAL

vAr ioU S

cAr Pe T

A

rroU ndinG

river A venU e An d T H e H eAr T

T H roU G H oU T BU

M icH iG A n

T H eorY

H e neW inG

of A rT

H Ad id

rU cT U re

inSi de T H e W edG e A

T o A T T rA cT

A

iM P reS S ionS

P roJ ecT ion of forM

creA T e T iG H T

T H e

ed T o creA T e

on W H icH

Pe oPL

e Mo ve

An d Si T e circU L A T ion

ed An d iMPL

eMen T ed

of T H e deSi G n

iL dinG fooT

W H iL e T H e W edG e iT Se L f Po inT S drAMA

Z AH

forceS

T on W edG e of

Ye A r- oL d oriG inA L ST

T H oriT Ar iA n P AST

T o iM P oS e U P on iT S

T Y Po G rAP

inT errU P T S

ive, five- S T orY

T H e oP Ac iT Y

oS iT e direcT ion, T oW Ar d T H e So U rce of T H e Bo MBS

rU cT U re T oo U S eS

MAS

T H e cenT er of T H e

T H e eM oT ionAL SH

drAMA

ion, iT S

oT H er orG A niS M S

.”

M ove, incL U dinG

the fate of the city are intertwineD

or T H inG S

T H roU G H how military history anD

M U S eU M

A ce for refL ecT ion. A T T enT ion W H iL e

reM iniS cence

of W A T er M iM icrY

reM iniS cence

violence anD

dA nieL L iBe S Ki nd

G L AS

evocA T ion

doU B L e H eL iX

an invisible eXt ension in the

interruPt ion, a funD amenta l D islocation, to Pe netrate the historic

erience. the architecture will engage the Pu blic in the D eeP est issue of

create a new eXP

how orga n iZ eD

-

ju st aD D

M icH iG A n

evocA T ion

A nd

G eS T U reS

arsenal anD

to create a bolD

of creA T U reS

. i wanteD

A S S ociA T ion: forM S

it was not my intention to Pr eserve the museum’ s faca D e anD

bacK

SY

T

S

Ki n: H e vAr ied direcT ionAL cH A nG eS cH A nG inG

foL dS

An d PL

eA T S

of T H iS

in direcT ion An d orienT A T ion of T H e SU AP

Pe Ar A nce Ar oU Si nG

cU rioSi T Y

,

Ye T

,

W eA T H er Pr oT ecT ion L A Yer rroU ndinG

L An dSc AP

never reveA L inG

iT S

e G ivinG conT enT

.

refL ecT T H e BU

T H e circU L A T orY

iL dinG

A

conST

An T L Y

INFOCARDS contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

evocA T ion of M oveM enT

forM : “

A nd evoL ve

T H A T

G roW orG A niS M S oT H er

T H A T

P L A nT S incL U dinG

M ove,

T H roU G H

T H inG S

reM iniS cenT forM S

or creA T U reS of

A S S ociA T ion:

evocA T ion of M oveM enT

G eS T U reS

roU T e.

S enS e

of oneS

A

T H e S P irA L inG

coU P L ed W iT H

A L onG B odY

of iM A G ined M oveM enT

rH Y T H M

A roU nd

,

fL oW inG

S P A ceS T H roU G H

,

conT inU oU S A

S U rfA ceS

W iT H

P L A neS

creA T eS

of eY e/ M ind A L onG

A croS S

,

T H e S T rU cT U reS

.

L ineS

L ifT

M oveM enT

creA T e A n A cceL erA T ed U P W A rd

forM ed

corK S creW inG

T oW er iS

T A T L in’ S

.

T W o H eL iX eS

of T H e G roU nd W H icH oU T

B Y

rU S S iA

T o T H e T H ird

inT ernA T ionA L in P eT erS B U rG

M onU M enT

vL A diM ir T A T L in’ S

P roP oS ed reM iniS cence

M U S eU M

dA nieL L iBe S Ki nd

L iBe SK

>>>

evocA T ion A nd cU rvA T U re

H iS T orY

of A rT

H Ad id

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T H eorY

M iL iT A rY

A

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

iM P reS S ionS

H iS T orY

dA nieL L iBe S Ki nd

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

iM P reS S ionS

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T oW er

S T U dioS A T M oS

T A T L inS

M iL iT A rY

T H eorY

MU

Sc U L Ar

T enSi on

ST

An dAr d forM

Pr oJe cT ion of forM

G eS T U reS

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T H eorY

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

29


water, winD

transforms with light as the D ay P rogresses. with gehry’ s iconic use of form anD

this P roje ct it has a sense of constant movement anD

surrounD

winD ows that eX tenD

change the P erceP tion of the new yorK

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com structure create a D ynamic eX terior that

the sun animates its facaD e throughout the D ay. this animateD

or riP P les into a facaD e with the aD D eD

D ay stanD ing out as a central P oint of attraction anD aP P ears as though it is blowing in the winD

vision for the structure; the re imagining of the bay winD ow, allowing them to P roje ct out of the

towers aP P earance as it riP P les anD

visual intrigue. material within

the riP P ling form is eviD ent on the insiD e as well where P rivate units feature curving walls anD

into the sK y. gehry achieves this effect by couP ling a evocateD as

the occuP ant with views high above the city sK yline.

animating effect of light to constantly alter anD

waves throughout the form such as

T H eorY

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS A

T H inG

INFOCARDS

W orK S

A P oL L o A nd dA P H ne

coL L A P S eS

iT

,

eX P reS S inG of A

S T A T e of

W orK S

feeL deeP L Y

A

T H e A rT L ife- S iZ e

M A K inG

T H e

A

dA vid

of G roW T H T oW A rdS

T H eS K Y

T eM P L e A S cendS

.

G eS T U reS

M A H A devA

S T A G eS

iS

eS

recoG niT ion of T H e

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T eMPL

recoG niZ ed T H roU G H

iM P reS S ionS

dA vid

B A roQ U e S cU L P T U re

B erniniS

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K A ndA riY A

S enS e of M oveM enT

G eS T U reS

A L ive.

T ereS A

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

of S A inT T H e B A roQ U e P eriod

ecS T A S Y

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T H e B A roQ U e P eriod

A P oL L o A nd dA P H ne

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

indiAn

indiA n T eM P L eS

.

B A cK

M oveM enT

of G roW T H

B ernini’ S

A n iM P endinG

A nd iS

H e

feeL deeP L Y

of A n A cT ion or

T H eorY

S T A G eS

T

T o fire, creA T inG

S L inG S H oT A B oU T

H iS

W H ere dA vid drA W S

S T A T e of M oT ion froM

cA P T U red in A

G oL iA T H S inG L e S T one.

K noW n A S

S T A T U e iS

W iT H

G iA nT

T H e

W H ere dA vid, A

S M A L L fA rM er S L A Y S

G oL iA T H

B A T T L e B eT W een dA vid A nd

T H e S T A T U e deP icT S

G iA n L orenZ o B ernini.

W H ere oB J ecT S

G eS T U reS

A L ive.

of A n A cT ion or

fiG U rA T ive P orT rA Y A L T H e cA P T U rinG W orK S

W H ere oB J ecT S

G eS T U reS

A L ive.

fiG U rA T ive P orT rA Y A L feeL deeP L Y

reP reS enT ed A T H roU G H

M A rB L e S cU L P T U re B Y

dA vid iS

M oM enT

of M oveM enT

W H ere oB J ecT S

G eS T U reS

if iT

dA rK neS S in on iT S eL f.

of A n A cT ion or

T H e B A roQ U e P eriod focU S ed on T H eA T ricS A nd S cU L P T U reS

H oL eS T H e M ind A nd

fiG U rA T ive P orT rA Y A L

T H e cA P T U rinG

froZ en in T iM e.

fiG U rA T ive P orT rA Y A L S cU L P T U re: B ernini

divine J oY

eQ U ivA L enT S

T H e fA ciA L A nd B odiL Y

ereS A

A nd S P iriT U A L P L eA S U re,

of S enS U A L

inT rU deS M eL dinG

B odY A

on A n eA rT H L Y

M oM enT

T H e A rT

W H ere diviniT Y

A

S T A T U e iL L U S T rA T eS

M A K inG

B erniniS

cU rvinG B L A cK

feeL A S

inT o iT S

B odY M A K inG

drA W S

W H icH

reP reS enT ed A T H roU G H M oM enT

of M oveM enT

H e

G rA viT A T ionA L S inG U L A riT Y

T H e B A roQ U e P eriod focU S ed on T H eA T ricS A nd S cU L P T U reS

T H iS S T rA iG H T T o creA T e A n

A nd S L oW L Y iL L U S ion of A

inW A rdS

U S inG T H eM

B Y L ineS

effecT

S iG nA L T oW er M iM icS

T

no M A T T er or

G rA viT A T ionA L fieL d S o

T H e cA P T U rinG

T H e

fiG U rA T ive P orT rA Y A L S cU L P T U re: B ernini

B ernini’ S

T rA nS forM A T ion

T H e S T A T U e cA P T U reS

T o

T H e T ree.

T o do iS T U rn H er inT o A

B eS T

rA P e. H e decideS

ineviT A B L e

S eeM inG L Y

for T o A void T H e

S oM e W A Y

P oS eidon, A nd B eG S

H er fA T H er, T H e G od

T o

.

P id’ S

oU T

cU

A rroW

W iT H dA P H ne cA L L S

H iT

M iS cH ievoU S

B einG

T H e

H er A fT er

cH A S ed B Y

P oL L o, W H o S eeK S T o P oS S eS S

G od

W H o iS

T H e A rT

W e H oL e: A

rA diA T ion cA n eS cA P e.

inT enS e T H A T

A

reP reS enT ed A T H roU G H

river nY M P H

M A K inG dA P H ne, A

M oM enT

of M oveM enT

A nd S cU L P T U reS

B L A cK

reG ion of S P A ce H A vinG

A

T H e B A roQ U e P eriod focU S ed on T H eA T ricS

facaD e also allows for gehrys other

T

the unD ulating P anels of the stainless steel claD cenT er of W H A T

eU ron

T oW er

fiG U rA T ive P orT rA Y A L S cU L P T U re: B ernini

forM :

A S

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com iM P reS S ionS

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

31


Balance by

complexity

a small complicated shape can balance a large simple shape. also a large simple shape if placed within a complicated area of many shapes can balance the shapes around it.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

Balance by direction

Balance by colour the eye is inherently more attracted to objects of colour

than it is monochromatic ones, especially if they are

vibrant and highly saturated. smaller objects with these properties also hold more visual weight than larger objects of adjacent duller colours.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

lines of force are powerful tools in guiding the eye. edges, shapes and a combination of dissimilar objects can

Position

as the eye is forced to focus on the lighter one. these directional effect can be further enhanced through the

use of lighting and shadows to enhance the edge condition

MASS

the perceived physical mass of an object automatically

be used to direct the eye away from a heavier area to a lighter area in turn balancing out the larger object

Balance by

Balance by if a larger heavy object rests on the centre line of a scene a smaller object set further away will automatically balance the larger objects mass.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

creates visual interest and gravity towards its mass.

the

gravitational pull and mass can draw attention away

from other dissimilar objects of less importance in turn balancing the scene.

Balance by contrast the human eye by nature is attracted to contrast. if a small shape is placed next to a larger shape with lower contrast, the smaller shape will automatically balance the larger shape of lower contrast.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

INFOCARDS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

33


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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

2

35


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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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INFOCARDS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

37


(B) MIND AS THE ANIMATOR As the mind is a very complicated and sophisticated organ, we are able to convert two dimensional sensations of our reality, (displayed onto our retina) into a three dimensional experiences of perception in turn triggering an emotional response from the brain. This is created by the mind using certain depth cues which allow the brain to reconstruct the information into a readable form (Rookes 2013, 37), moreover making us feel or react in a certain way to the events we are experiencing at the time. But what is it about our mind’s reading of ‘The Alive’, an object that is, in scientific terms, ‘static’, that gives the viewer the illusion that it is in fact moving, it is alive? As Roger Shepard, a human perception and cognitive scientist explains:

Balance by

texture

teX ture holD s the same values as balance by comP leX ity.

‘Visual illusions, ambiguous figures, and depictions of impossible objects are inherently fascinating. Their violations of our most inner grained and immediate interpretations of external reality grab us at a deep, unarticulated level. For every situation our perceptual system automatically applies its previously successful and now thoroughly entrenched methods of processing. If the situation is quite different from those encountered by our ancestors, however, this system may deliver up incorrect or conflicting interpretations.’ (Shepard 1990, 5)

a small object of high contrast anD

teX ture can balance

a larger smooth object as objects of comP leX ity are more inviting for the eye anD

D raw more attention.

effects can be further enhanceD animate the object.

CONTINUE...

these

through lighting to

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

Moreover, in simple terms, creating an illusion, creating a sense that the object is different or acting differently to what it actually is. This phenomenon has fascinated man throughout recorded history resulting in a profusion of theories as to their cause, two of these being The Gestalt Theory, and the effects of our Binocular Perception. The Gestalt Theory relates to the law of visual reconstruction. A series of laws based on how the mind reconstructs objects in groups based on their visual properties. These visual reconstructions have an inherent ability to orchestrate the way people move or interact with a space. These laws include Balance by Texture (Fig 1), Balance by Complexity (Fig 2), Balance by Colour (Fig 3), Balance by Direction (Fig 4), Balance by Position (Fig 5), Balance by Mass (Fig 6), Balance by Contrast (Fig 7).

FIGURE 1

ILLUSIONS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

39


(B) MIND AS THE ANIMATOR

Balance by

complexity

Balance by direction

Balance by colour

lines of force are powerful tools in guiding the eye. edges, shapes and a combination of dissimilar objects can

the eye is inherently more attracted to objects of colour

a small complicated shape can balance a large simple

than it is monochromatic ones, especially if they are

complicated area of many shapes can balance the shapes

properties also hold more visual weight than larger

be used to direct the eye away from a heavier area to

vibrant and highly saturated. smaller objects with these

shape. also a large simple shape if placed within a

a lighter area in turn balancing out the larger object as the eye is forced to focus on the lighter one. these

objects of adjacent duller colours.

around it.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

directional effect can be further enhanced through the use of lighting and shadows to enhance the edge condition

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FIGURE 2

FIGURE 3

FIGURE 4

ILLUSIONS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

41


(B) MIND AS THE ANIMATOR

Position Balance by

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the perceived physical mass of an object automatically

the

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from other dissimilar objects of less importance in turn balancing the scene.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FIGURE 5

small shape is placed next to a larger shape with lower

creates visual interest and gravity towards its mass.

if a larger heavy object rests on the centre line of a

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FIGURE 6

FIGURE 7

ILLUSIONS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

43


(B) MIND AS THE ANIMATOR Having identified these laws of visual reconstruction it is understandable how the mind can be easily manipulated through the alterations of simple shapes, but now let’s consider The Penrose Impossible Triangle (Figure 8). Its shape is seemingly infinite, turning back on itself and continuously changing, throwing the viewer’s mind into utter confusion and disarray. The mind is drawn to this image because it is a mathematical organism; and it is constantly trying to make sense of its form, recalculating its shape over and over again, in turn giving the object its energy, moreover bringing it to life (Desolneux 2008, 17). Another way the mind creates the illusion of an object feeling ‘Alive’ is through our Binocular Perception. Binocular Perception is dependent on the interaction between both eyes viewing the world equally, but this can sometimes cause ambiguity or illusions based on the fact that they don’t see entirely the same images. This is attributed to their separation, in turn making the images become distorted. This can be articulated by The Impossible Penrose Fork (Figure 9). As a result of Binocular Perception (two eyes) the eye can see two objects that don’t make sense. Just like The Penrose Impossible Triangle, it results in the mind constantly trying, over and over again to stabilise the image, creating a tension between both eyes. However if you hide one eye with one hand and then the other, the variation becomes apparent (Desolneux 2008, 17). FIGURE 8

ILLUSIONS

FIGURE 9

DISCOVERY It is clear to see that the human brain has evolved over time by finding patterns and relationships in information supplied by light to our eyes, and associating those relationships with a behavioural meaning by interacting with the world. From experiments like the Impossible Penrose Triangle and the Impossible Penrose Fork it is evident that the mind is bound by the laws of physics, constantly calculating shapes, lines and spaces (Lotto 2009) we see by continually redefining normality, clearly articulating how such complex and personified architectural forms can break down the mind’s systematic approach to geometry, challenging its sense of normality and throwing it into disarray. This in turn brings life and energy to the form which the mind is viewing, giving it the illusion that it is moving, it is alive. This research has developed a series of categorized built methods that replicate these very effects and others that were not initially discovered in the dissertation proposal.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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B erniniS

(C) BUILDING METHODOLOGIES BA

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Over the course of history many architectural methodologies and styles have come to pass, all having strong ties to the era in which they were created. After extensive research of these various architectural styles, an evolving trend became evidently apparent. The creation of optical illusions and extra sensory effects to instil the feeling of movement or ‘The Alive’, have been actively developing throughout history; strongly associated with cultural shifts and the advancement of technologies in use during the period. Four key periods were found to facilitate the use of these effects to trick the viewer’s cognitive perception, expressing these objects as one thing but gesturing another. These periods include, The Baroque Period, The Art Nouveau Period, The Gothic Period and The Classical Period, namely the Greeks.

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The Baroque Period was focused on a rhetorical display of theatrics whereby objects and sculptures represented a figurative portrayal of movement through the capturing of an action or moments, making the art works feel deeply alive (Figure 10). This technique was used to express the divine power of the Catholic Church and its absolutist state. Its architecture was characterised by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity (Wikipedia 2008), animating its spaces giving the architecture new life.

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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FIGURE 11

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CONTINUED... The Art Nouveau Period (1890 -1910), also known as “new art” in French, was motivated by natural forms and structures whereby artists attempted to synchronise themselves with the natural environment though design and creation (Figure 11). It was considered an all-encompassing style, embracing various mediums such as painting, sculpture, architecture and many others. It was characterised by its use of iron to create organic free flowing forms through what is known as the ‘whiplash curve’ described as a ‘long, sensitive curve, undulating, flowing, and interplaying with others, sprouting from corners and covering asymmetrically all available surfaces’ (David 1982, 251). This evolution of the arts to create free flowing organic forms out of iron and other materials, can be accredited to the advancement of new industrial technologies associated with the industrial revolution and a culture shift to what was fashionable at the time.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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(C) BUILDING METHODOLOGIES Gothic ecclesiastical architecture, like Classical architecture, represents a calculated geometrical system of proportions. But instead of disrupting its masses horizontally, it distributes them vertically, stacking one upon the other, accelerating the eye upwards, possessing a strong sense of upward movement (Eyre 2001). This effect was employed to empower the occupant with the presence of God and ascension towards the heavens, depicting a clearly manipulated sensory mechanic of the mind (Figure 13). This technique was used by the Catholic Church during the medieval period to express their celestial power as they ruled not only though conviction but affluence and hegemony. Greek architects of the classical period were apprised with visual illusions (Coren and Girgus 1978, 5). Their architecture was grounded on a system of proportions and optical effects to perfect the viewing of the building from all angles, centred on a complex mathematical progression known as the Golden Mean (golden ratio). They incorporated a series of correctional illusionary techniques to offset perspectival distortions (Figure 12). A prime example of this is the Parthenon where no line within the planning of the structure was ever straight. Their structures would curve and bulge to harmonize the perspectival view of their buildings (Banister 2001, 126). FIGURE 12

TIMELAPSE

FIGURE 13

DISCOVERY After a thorough analysis of the articulated periods, it is evident that architecture is undeniably tied to the period in which it is created. Cultural shifts, economic and technological advancements pave the way for architectural evolution grounded in this technological era of unparalleled creative and innovative freedom, and due to this fact a more thorough analysis of this progression was undertaken based on our current day and age, primarily focused on new technological advancements in the fields of science to fully understand their significance and relation to ‘The Alive’.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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(D) ADVOCATES OF THE ALIVE After a deeper understanding into the historic developments of non-static architectural systems was developed, this research sought to find clues with regard to the inaugurating of this architectural system in the post digital age of our time. It was found that the beginnings of a new form of architecture were already underway that facilitated some of the fundamental qualities of an organic expression of ‘The Alive’ known as Deconstructivism. Deconstructivism epitomises Anti-form, Antistructure and Anti-hierarchy; all that architecture typically is not (Bure 2008, 70). It is dominated by curvilinear shapes, which disturb and dislocate the skeleton of the object. The structures of these buildings express a strong feeling of controlled chaos, which stimulates unpredictability, and an accelerated form of motion. This motion and organic expression that is gestured in these structures is expressed by their complexity and the very fact they break the mind’s systematic approach to the laws of physics. These structures seem to defy gravity as their shapes do not correspond to anything the mind is used to calculating, in turn bring them to life and giving them energy. A series of architects were found to facilitate this approach in their own designs, seeking new ways to break the confines of the Cartesian box and express the life and energy that waits to be found through the use of new digital and non-digital technologies. This new era of architects is as follows: Zaha Hadid is well known for her free following organic forms that break the rigid conservative styles of the past. Her designs appear to be free and light, defying gravity with every sweeping curve (Figure 14). Zaha Hadid’s designs draw from nature in the way they evolve and deal with complexity. She is quoted as saying “let it be free, let it flow” signifying the natural progression of her work. She is also well known for her use of a technique known as Parametricism, which uses advanced computational design techniques to facilitate the generation of unique organic forms. Zaha Hadid has even gone as far as to coin her own work as Modern Baroque, Fluid Baroque (Figure 14), a style also well known for the expression of theatrics and life (Yentob 2013).

FIGURE 14

FIGURE 15

FORUNNERS

FIGURE 16

CONTINUED... Frank Gehry attempts to free his buildings from typological constraints into an unprecedented style of configuration (Figure 16). His works take up a process of transformation and evolution, where the form is never static it is always progressing. His methods are based on the principles of Deconstuctivism whereby he divorces the confines of normal architectural practice, searching for ways to constantly alter the perception of his structures as one moves around it, by creating complex shapes and structures that represent the time through sophisticated 3D modelling software (Dal Co 1998, 9).

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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(D) ADVOCATES OF THE ALIVE

FIGURE 17: Peter Eisenman

DISCOVERY

FIGURE 18: Asymptote

FIGURE 19: EMERGENT

Peter Eisenman uses a technique known as morphing or destabilisation which is used in contemporary cinema to transform the perception of two figures. Eisenman uses this technique in an attempt to destabilize the general notion of Cartesian space where each object has a clear and precise form. Eisenman achieves this through the use of digital virtualisation, also referred to as generative design, to break free from the geometric limitations and architectural proportional constraints of the architectural profession (Galofaro 1999, 41)(Figure 17). Eisenman states in the documentary Making Architecture Move by Michael Blackwood ‘architecture is a vehicle to investigate phenomena that seems to be fixed and static.’ ‘Architecture is the host organism’ (Blackwood 1997).

FIGURE 20: Biothing

FIGURE 21: LAVA

FORUNNERS

FIGURE 22: Morphosis

After a brief analysis of the above architects, a consistent focus on generative 3D technology as an explorative instrument was discovered, which enabled the architects to fully explore and conceive personified and organic structures. This at the time articulated the introduction of 3D digital technology as a definitive tool in the generation of the formal aspects of ‘The Alive’. But after identifying this discovery, further analysis of this theory via the visual database was conducted in order to authenticate these findings, which resulted in the discovery of many other key architects associated with this exploration such as Hani Rashid (Asymptote) (Figure 18), Daniel libeskind, Thom Mayne (Morphosis) (Figure 22), Santiago Calatrava, Bernard Tschumi, Emergent (Figure 19), Lars Suybroek, LAVA (Figure 21) / Greg Lynn / Ball Nogues / Biothing (Figure 20), Cloud 9, Evan Douglis, Krets, MADA Spam, Eleni Manfredi, Qua’Virach, R&Sie, Servo and many, many more. This clearly solidified the proposals’ initial findings of a distinct trend emerging around the use of 3D digital technologies to create a formal representation of ‘The Alive’, but not what actually makes a building come to life! That being said, the creation of this form of architecture is still closely tied to that of the sciences in terms of innovation and experimentation, which would have not been possible if such tools were not invented, and therefore should not be discounted as it is critical to the initial birthing of this type of architectural intervention. Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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(E) SCIENCE

Image Credit: Fernando Cruz (submicron.deviantart.com)

In the beginning of the research the intention was primarily to study the current and historic developments of non-static architectural systems on the premise that this would give the project grounding around what it means to be alive. However as the research progressed, it was evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the confines of the introverted architectural profession, and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed or have been developed by the multitude of scientific fields. This allowed the project to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to present a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the vital need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation.

INNOVATION Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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(F) ECOLOGIES After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that The Swan Canning River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan Rivers’ multiple environmental issues such as pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health.

ECOLOGIES Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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METHODOLOGY The methodology implemented within this research was initially framed around investigative studies into the historic development of non-static architectural systems, including current architectural practises that actively partake in this form of architecture. This analysis was also intended to be coupled with investigations into how the mind is affected by these systems and what cognitively distortive (illusionary) tools could be re-engineered to enhance this non-static form of expression. These studies were to lead into extensive experimentation and prototyping in the form of 3D printed extrapolations of principles discovered. The method of categorising these findings was to be borrowed from biological sciences and genetic engineering where each extrapolation would be laid out on a grid within a glass case of various architectural species, similar to the documenting of insects (Figure 23). This case was to be referred to as ‘the species case’. Each architect, building and cognitive effect extrapolated would have its own row with a multitude of columns showing its various evolutions over time. Through exemplars, this operational/physical analysis of ‘The Alive’ was intended to supply an opportunity to create a concise assessment as to the level of ‘Aliveness’ found within these works in order to comparatively scale/calibrate the results. Once a thorough analysis had been completed, cross pollination of these findings, a method adopted from genetic engineering, was to take place. The aim of cross pollinating these elements was to analyse the various ways in which ‘The Alive’ could be evolved and enhanced past its current stage of evolution. Each experiment was then documented in the same glass case displaying the various evolutionary stages possible for each category once it was cross pollinated with another. This method of analysis was projected to provide a visual interpretation of geometric study which articulates aspects of: proportion, scale, material, componentry, facets/facades and structural systems. The main objective of this method was to acknowledge and understand the current evolution of ‘The Alive’ and to then re-engineer and evolve it into an entirely new species, enriched with the strengths of the previous evolutions discovered within the study. These results would then be tested and translated into a built form.

APPROACH

FIGURE 23

CONTINUED... But as the research progressed it became clearer that this methodology was too limiting to the research endeavour as it focused more on the form of a structure and less on the biological, and therefore a shift in focus presented the opportunity to depart from this methodology to enable a vigorous exploration into the developments of new scientific technologies, and how these new innovations could be applied to architecture in the form of a sophisticated architectural typology based on the fundamentals of biology and the systems of the human body, in order to create a more responsive, adaptive and intelligent architectural species.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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METHODOLOGY BINOCULAR PERCEPTION

We are able to convert two dimensional sensations of a scene on our retina into a three dimensional experience of perception. This depends on using certain depth cues which allows our brain to reconstruct the information into a readable form. (Rookes 2013, 37)

VISUAL STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

THE MIND IS BOUND BY LAWS OF PHYSICS

When looking at an object the mind categorizes the objects into stable or instable objects, the simple rotation of an object compared to a flat object can make it feel unstable and instantly draw attention to itself. Which spills over to convey movement. This is why symmetry is so attractive to the human eye. (Deregowski 1984, 65)

The human brain evolved by finding patterns and relationships in information supplied by light to our eyes and associating those relationships with a behavioral meaning by interacting with the world. The mind is bound by the laws of physics constantly calculating, shapes, lines and spaces. (Lotto 2009) How we see is by continually redefining normality. Begging the question does this new contortion of space break down the minds systematic approach to geometry?

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The Baroque period was focused on a rhetorical display of theatrics whereby objects and sculptures represented a figurative portrayal of movement through the capturing of an action or moment making the art works feel deeply alive. This technique was used to express the devine power of the Catholic Church and its absolutist state . Its Architecture was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity (Wikipedia 2008), animating its spaces giving architecture new life.

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Anti-form, Anti-structure, Anti-hierarchy, all that architecture typically is not (Bernard 70) Dominated by curvilinear shapes, which disturb and dislocate the skeleton of the object. The structure of the building has a feeling of controlled chaos and stimulating unpredictability.

WHO IS ADVOCATING FOR THIS TYPE OF ARCHICTURE?

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DECONSTRUCTIVISM

As this methodology was found to be quite useful in consolidating data and ideas, it was applied to the week 11 interim submission. The is resulted in a programmatic representation of the intended design proposition through diagrams, indicating the varying technologies, systems and thinking behind the functions, adaptations and responses of the building, allowing the examiners to clearly follow the progression of research and the thought process behind design decisions (Appendix 121). This form of visual data mapping was critical in the design and resolution of its internal and external functions also acting as a blueprint for the formal composition of the building and final result.

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Art Nouveau was by characterized by its use of iron to create organic free flowing forms through what is known as the “whiplash curve” a “long, sensitive curve, undulating, flowing, and interplaying with others, sprouting from corners and covering asymmetrically all available surfaces” This ability to create free flowing organic forms out of iron can be accredited to the incorporation of new technologies of construction and mechanical system (Hanser 1982, 251)

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Vanishing Point - 3D interpritation of the mind (Desolneux 2008,17).

BAROQUE

ART NOUVEAU

Based on a system of proportions and optical illusions to perfect the viewing of the building from all angles. Based on a complex mathematical progression known as the golden mean (golden ratio). No line within the planning of the structure was ever straight. The structures curve and bulge to distort the visual perspective. (Fletcher 2001, 126)

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Is a scale of proportions created by architect Le Corbusier, to rectify the visual conflict between the incompatible Imperial and the Metric system.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE

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The animation or reanimation of a space or structure which has the ability to unleash chaos upon our senses, but in an ordered and orchestrated fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this animation within architecture is composed though a play of forces that push and pull you around a space or facade leading you on your own journey as it draws you closer into its grasp, creating a sense of implied movement within a structure even though it is not actually moving.

TRICKING THE MINDS PROGRAMMING. INHERENT TENSION IN ILLUSIONS AND DESTABILIZATION The Penrise Impossible Traingle. Its shape is infinite. Turning back on its self and continously changing. You mind is drawn to this because it is a mathmatically organism and is constantly trying to make sense of its form. (Desolneux 2008,17)

THE MODULAR MAN

System of proportions with same aspect ratio that can be repeated continuously creating an aesthetically balanced shape.

Gothic ecclesiastical architecture, like Classical architecture, represents a calculated geometrical system of proportions. But instead of disrupting its masses horizontally, it distributes them vertically, stacking one upon the other, accelerating the eye upwards. Possessing a strong sense of upward movement (Eyre 2001) This effect was employed to empower the occupant with the presence of god.

P L A n

This card set is a detailed analysis of the methods employed by various architects to create implied movement within architecture.

If our mind calculates what we see from experience and is rooted in the laws of physics and gravity, then buildings that blur the line between these two are challenging our minds sense of normality throwing our senses into disarray?

MODERN ARCHITECTURE IS AN ATTEMPT TO BREAK FREE OF THE VITRUVIAN BODY

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THE KNOWN

WITHIN ARCHITECTURE

DECONSTRUCTIVIST ARCHITECTURE AND FREEDOM OF DESIGN IN DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT REDEFINING WHAT OUR MINDS PERCEIVES AS NORMALITY?

Depth perception is the way the eye turns a two dimensional reading of a space into a 3D image for the brain.

(Hight 2008, 65)

The law of visual reconstruction. A series of laws based on how the mind reconstructs objects in groups based on their visual properties.

BUILDING METHODOLOGIES

IMPLIED MOVEMENT

We have no direct access to our physical world other than through our senses and the light that falls on our eyes is determined by multiple things in the world, not only by the colour of objects, but the colour of their illumination and the colour the space between us and those objects. You vary any one of those parameters and you’ll change the colour of the light that falls on the eye, this means that the same image can have an infinite number of rail road possibilities. Therefore meaning we can trick the eye into seeing multiple things in one space just through the adjustment of colour and illumination, animating the space (lotto 2009).

GESTALT THEORY

Described as being the principal source of proportion among the Classical orders of architecture and the ideal proportions for the human body.

Throughout the ages many various building techniques have been adopted. Each having strong ties to the era in which it was created. For example Vitruvius and his system of proportions during the Renaissance, The Greeks and their harmony of optical illusions to perfect their buildings and now in the 21st century we are presented with a rapidly emerging technique symbolic of our time. Implied movement within architecture, a symbol of our fast passed forever moving society.

WHAT IF WE DISTORT THE MINDS DEPTH PERCEPTION? WHAT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

WE HAVE NO DIRECT ACCESS TO OUR PHYSICAL WORLD OTHER THAN THROUGH OUR SENES

>>

The mind is an unusual and complicated organ. It transfers information from our eyes interprets it and sends it to our brain, making us feel or react differently to the events or objects we are witnessing. Within this section we will explore how the mind works and why does our mind react in this way when we lay on our eyes on a building that is actually static but gives off the impression that it is moving? Why does the line have so much power in our mind?

HOW DO WE PERCIEVE THE WORLD SO QUICKLY AND SO ACCURETLY?

Dependant on the interaction between both eyes to view the world, which can sometimes cause ambiguity or illusions based on the fact they don’t see entirely the same images due to their separation. The image is distorted.

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This research was achieved through consistent use of a virtual information database of catalogued illustrated media and data. This enabled the research the ability to cypher through extensive amounts of information quickly and easily in order to find relevant material to the topic. The initial findings of the research in regard to implied movement techniques that create the perception of movement and life through form, were primarily conducted through historical textual research and current contemporary projects that facilitated this quality. This was then applied to a 2500mm x 900mm research background map (Figure 24) to articulate the thought process and how it was discovered that the research showed the need to make architecture more ‘Alive’. As the research progressed the virtual database was exercised more extensively throughout the entirety of the research to find new scientific technologies in fields such as, mechanical engineering, biomechanics, biomimcry, bio-mimetics, nano-technology and many others that the project could leverage off and apply. These findings coupled with studies into systems of the human body and the adaptive characteristics of other organisms within nature where then applied to a research map presented at week 4 interim submission denoting the scope of the project coupled with a short promotional teaser trailer of the research idea to gain momentum around the study (Appendix 119).

THE MIND THE ANIMATOR

G eS T U reS

FRAGMENTATION

Originating from the avant-garde, Suprematist movement. Namely an Russian artist by the name of Kazimir Malevich who was a pioneer of abstract art, interested in Exploding compositions, how space might erupt from the ground and how planes might intersect, fragmenting geometry and essentioally breaking it releasing it from its constraints (Yentob 2013). A technique clearly adopted by the deconstructivist movement of fragmenting geometry and space.

ZAHA HADID

LEWIS.TSURUMAKI.LEWIS (LTL)

THOM MAYNE (MORPHOSIS)

DISCOVERY From the points discussed, architecture is clearly moving into a new direction. One that breaks the confines of the Cartesian box and the Vitruvian system of proportions and delves deep into the unknown world of limitless spacial diversity and creation. As technology has advanced, so has our understanding and manipulation of space. But why so much resistance? Why do we continue to design structures that follow rules set down in a time when the cultural challenges were entirely different to the ones we face now? Because architecture essentially is a product of its time, a response to the challenges of that era, so why are we using a solution that is almost 5 decades old?. It is evident that the old model of architecture it beginning to show its constraints when dealing with the post digital era of man and that new architectural systems and typologies are needed in order to embrace this cultural shift towards a fast paced society of free flowing information. The deconstructivist style is clearly an attempt to embrace this new shift. Implied movement within architecture is a by product of this new style, because as we start to break the geometric norm, our mind is thrown into disarray, as these shapes break the minds sense of normality, forcing it to constantly recalculate what it sees as what it is viewing does not fit any known order or proportion, in turn give the structures life and energy, moreover giving them the illusion of movement. This by product of deconstructivism is clearly under utilized in our cities today, as it has the potential to reactivate spaces and draw people into a space purely through its visual complexity as an attractor. Why design a city with static forms, when this city itself is free flowing and alive? A opportunity to create a new form of architectural typology that better represents the culture of our time is evidently upon the architectural profession.

BERNARD TSCHUMI

Within the practice of architecture their are many individuals who have discovered and exploited this highly under utilized technique. Within this section we shall be looking at who they are? What are their methodologies and why?

POST DIGITAL AGE

METHODOLOGIES

ELECTRIFIED CULTURE BECOMING A METHOD FOR ARCHITECTURAL EXPLORATION (Galofaro, 42)

IMPLIED MOVEMENT. RESEARCH MAP

SPACE ACTIVATION It is clear that implied movement within architecture can be used as an attracting device as our mind is instantly captured by its complexity and juxtaposition. Can these techniques that break the confines of perceptual reality bring life to dormant spaces within city scapes, reactivating the area and bring new purpose and social interaction?

CULTURAL SHIFT New cultural shift due large amounts of readily available information be transfered around the globe due to advancements in technology in this new technological age. Forcing architecture to rethink its condition. (Rackard 2013)

MISSED OPPORTUNITY BY IAIN BICKNELL | 14844784

A new frontier of architecture is upon us due to the freedom of the digital world, allowing us the literally defy the laws of physics and gravity, blurring the lines between floor, wall and roof, creating a new spatial typology which is constantly evolving. Yet architects prefer to criticise this new method of expression and hold onto the methods of the past just like they did during the Neoclassical period. There is an opportunity here for a new limitless spacial typologies of movement and expression that is being represented as little more than a sham.

FRENETICISM/PERCEPTION

DIGITIZATION Asymptote pursue formal and perceptual shifts that are now possible through digitization as well as the sociopolitical and phenomenological possibilities for new spatial conditions available due to these shifts. Their initiative is based on parameters of displacement and transfer, where architecture becomes action, space a relinquishment of control and the ever implicated body, either a shield or a force-field as opposed to a vector or a presence (Rashid 1999).

Frank Gehry attempts to free his buildings from typological constraints into an unprecedented kind of configuration. His works take up a process of transformation and evolution. Where the form is never static it is always progressing. His method is based on deconstuctivism where by he divorces the confines of normal architectural practice. Searching for ways to constantly alter the perception of his structures as one moves around it. Creating complex shapes and structure that represent the time through sophisticated 3D modeling software. (Franseco 1998, 9)

MORPHING/DESTABILIZATION Eisenman uses a technique known as morphing which is used in contemporary cinema, to transform the perception of two figures. Eisenman use this technique in an attempt to destabilize the general notion of cortesion space where each object has a clear and precise form. Breaking free from the geometric limitations and architectural proportions and constraints through the use of virtualisation. (Galofaro, 41)

FRAGMENT/DECONSTRUCTION

Libeskind is another deconstructivist at heart. He attempts to break the boundaries of the old Vitruvian constraints yet still pays tribute to them by attempting to create a melding of the two. He states that he wishes to build dynamic spaces that invite the visitor even before entering. This is done through the use of his distinct angular and complex non standard geometric shapes, typical of a deconstructivist architect (Goldberger 2008, 344)

TECHNOLOGY ALLOWING CREATIVE FREEDOM New advancements in CAD (computer aided design) architects are no longer constrained to the rules of the old world. A new world of endless possibilities has been opened to them through this new technology. No longer bound by the laws of physics and gravity, the rules can be bent and broken. Giving architects the ability to create organic and evolving forms in such complexity that the human mind could not of imagined without the aid of the digital software such as parametric tools.

EVERYTHING MOVES YET WE DESIGN EVERYTHING STATIC

The architecture once again is caught in the confines of what it knows and resists change into architectures new formation of limitless experimentation and possibility. It would rather hold onto the classical system of the old, then delve into a new frontier of expression, discovery and experimentation.

CURIOSITY/OPTICAL ILLUSIONS

Curiosity is a central component of LTL as it plays an consistent and operative role in their projects. Using constraints and limitations as reasons for design intervention and invention. Through out all their projects the play on the minds inability to resist the peculiar or the interesting is clearly evident as they creating optical paradoxes that seduce viewers and draw them around their spaces.

PARAMETRICISM/FLUIDITY/ FLOW Free following organic forms that break the rigid conservative styles of the past, free & light, defying gravity. taking its ques from nature in the way it evolves and deals with complexity. “let it be free, let it flow”. coined by Zaha as Modern Baroque, Fluid Baroque. ( Yentob 2013 )

TRANSFORMATION/JUXTAPOSED

Morphosis signifies a process of forming or being in formation. Reflecting a willingness to embrace sculptural shapes and the sensation of movement (arcspace). Morphosis is a deconsrtuctivist architect who utilizes platonic geometries which are attacked, fragmented, altered and juxtaposed. Conveying an implicit notion of future architecture and incompleteness of form (Mayne, 10).

CINEMATIC SUPERIMPOSITION Tschumis concept is based around the notion of “space, event and movement” resulting in a layering of superimposed points lines and planes reflecting a new concept of interacting layers. His deconstructivist style allowed for a new form of urbanism depicting theatrical spaces which accentuated the idea of movement. (Bure 2008, 48)

ARCHITECTURE IS A PRODUCT OF ITS TIME

Architecture is undeniably tied to the period in which it is created. The cultural shifts, economic and technological advancement pave the way for the architecture of its time. For example Baroque architecture speaks of the power of god and the church and is theatrical in nature, depicting acts of legend such as Hercules and Goliath frozen in motion but forever moving. Architecture today is faced with an era of rapid sharing of information and knowledge, highways and travel. A world surrounded by economic and technological advancement which presents new forms of cultural issues, that were not there in the past resulting in a new form of architectural solution. This architectural solution is now open to the tools of its time. The age of unparalleled creative freedom in the three dimension realm of digital design.

NEW ARCHITECTURAL HYBRID A Melding of the Vitruvian system of proportions and the freedom of spatial diversity in these new deconstructivist complex forms, is possible yet architects resist stepping into the unknown. Architects such has Hani Rashid, acknowledge this melding of the two schools of thought and turn it into a new form free flowing architectural expression.

APPROACH

FIGURE 24

CONTINUED... Evidently as research and adaptation into the systems of the human body advanced it became apparent that trying to hybridize all of the body’s systems, along with all of their complexities, was too ambitious in the time frame, therefore just 5 key systems were selected for implementation into the programmatic structure of the building. This selection consisted of: the brain, the immune system, the nervous system, the skeletal system and the skin, the largest organ of the human body. These systems were then studied and applied through the implementation of new scientific technologies to reflect their core functions.

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METHODOLOGY Orchestration of the final presentation drawings were adopted from the dissection of humans and other living organisms to accurately study and analyse their inner workings and complexities. It was decided that the analysis and illustrative study of the structure should follow the same premise, peeling layers off the structure’s façade and elevation in order to show its multiple levels of systemised intelligence. This was combined with the incorporation of programmatic diagrams portrayed in the programmatic map from the interim submission, in turn articulating the internal systems of the building. This sequentially assisted in illustrating the complexities of its leveraged and adopted technologies that were subsequently redesigned and applied at larger scales in order to best serve their appointed, intelligent, systematic adaptations.

APPROACH

FIGURE 25

The panels were finally finished with spatial depictions of the transportation tubes from the land to the building, the internal ecology within the structural diaphragm, the main diaphragm access way, the rejuvenated underwater ecology, and its presence within the Perth CBD context from Kings Park, allowing the viewer to experience just how immersive it would be to stand in the building’s wake. This highlights an endeavour to communicate that the design of a solution through research and technological application can be just as beautiful, if not more beautiful, than the design of a spatial experience, that architecture, more often than not, believes is its fundamental role. This way of design thinking is also highlighted by Buckminster Fuller, a neo futuristic architect and inventor when he stated “when I am working on a problem I never think about beauty but when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful I know it is wrong” (R. Buckminster Fuller Quotes 2014), once again signifying that sometimes the solution to the problem is more beautiful than designing with beauty in mind.

MODEL The model of the project represents a touch stone depiction of a single tower from the overall scheme, articulating the elaborate and beautiful crystal like polymer façade through a scribed illuminated acrylic face, etched with sectional, elevational and axonometrically exploded structural diagrams, whilst housing two articulated spines within its core, to denote the internal structural composition of the organism being facilitated around 2 unified spinal columns working harmoniously together (Figure 25).

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SITE SELECTION When selecting a site, this research aimed to find a particular set of characteristics in which to interact with that were found to enhance the result of the overall study at the time. These were as follows: 01. Located within or surrounding the city centre: This allows the architecture to act as a facilitator of its surrounding and internalised ecology, expressing and interacting with the surrounding city environment. 02. High visibility to allow for engagement of surrounding context: This allows the structure to visually interact with people, engaging the mechanics of their mind to evoke the feeling of life. 03. High amounts of pedestrian traffic and flow (optional). This can be induced or enhanced. Some of the best examples of architecture which are perceived to be alive are situated in densely populated areas where a high amount of pedestrian traffic exists. These areas include airports, bus stations, train stations or museums. This enables the structure to reflect and interact with this movement. 04. Static environments within the heart of the city centre that require activation (optional). In a lot of instances, particular areas of the city become dead or static as there is nothing to spark the interest of its surrounding ecology. The implementation of ‘The Alive’ will act as a catalyst for space activation using the principles discovered within this study to bring life to the area.

LOCATION

CONTINUED... At the time, 3 potential sites were pinpointed for further assessment: 1.Perth Kings Square Development: a) Creates a link between two major cultural centres. b) High amounts of Pedestrian Traffic. c) Major infrastructure. 2.Perth Train Station: a) Centre of pedestrian flow and traffic. b) Connection to all major areas of Perth. 3.Perth Elizabeth Quay: a) Newly developed centre of cultural development and focus. b) Highly visible from all angles due to its location. c) Maximum exposure to surrounding urban and natural ecologies. d) High amounts of pedestrian traffic. e) Major tourist location.

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SITE SELECTION As discussed in the initial dissertation proposal, selecting a site was always about the maximum level exposure in order to awaken, promote and evoke the surrounding context to its presence. The above 3 sites at that point were conducive to that outcome, but as the research progressed it was identified that the study needed the support of exploration into the ecologies in order to reach its full potential, communicating that the new location should not only deal with the land and air ecologies of the Perth CBD area, but the river ecology as well. Consequently this requirement determined that the project was to be situated in the centre of the Swan Canning River, parallel to Riverside Drive and the South Perth Foreshore (Figure 26), in order for the proposal to:

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01.Have the maximum level of exposure to the elements in order for the design to accurately test its intelligence to imposed site conditions in the form on systematic adaptations to change.

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02.To have the maximum level of exposure to its surrounding context in order to awaken the city to this new form of architectural typology and to build momentum and energy around its philosophies.

Anzac Monument

03.Have the ability for the structure to engage with all 3, land, air and water ecologies located within the Perth CBD area.

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Focal Centre

LOCATION FIGURE 26

South Perth Foreshore

PERTH CBD LEGEND

MAJOR CBD DEVELOPMENTS

PRIMARY INFRASTRUCTURE

SITE LINES TENSION ZONES LINKAGES FLIGHT PATH

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SIGNIFICANCE As discussed in the background this “rapid change” requires appropriate response. Thus the significance is in the response: 1. Presenting an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-amalgamation of architecture with the sciences, and the potential of what could be achieved if architecture only leveraged off the technologies. These scientific fields are developed and applied to their own designs, as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology quotes ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), identifying an evident need for architecture to re-orientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with adaptive prowess of nature. As Charles Darwin, an English naturalist best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory, cleverly identifies “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15)

2. Submitting a proposition that not only looks inwards, but outwards as well, borrowing, leveraging and harnessing intelligence from nature and science, taking advantage of the best technologies and intellect on offer in order to provide a highly responsive and adaptable design solution. 3. Putting forth a building that is not only high tech, but is attributed with an abundance of abilities, from monitoring and self-regulation, to a high level of intelligence, responsiveness and adaptability to change. A structure that, like the human body, is constantly regenerating itself, learning and adapting to its surrounding environment. 4. Presenting a design proposition that contributes to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the Swan River and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation.

5. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, not only to itself but also its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies, that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people. This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analysis of ‘The Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

4.Presenting a design proposition that gives back to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the swan river and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. 5. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, to not only itself but its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A Proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

IMPLICATION

ITS TIME TO FLICK THE SWITCH

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analyse of ‘the Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

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DISCUSSION This section takes the opportunity to document and present the content/ coverage outlined in my 20 minute final. Point 1 To set the scene for the project giving it context to how it began… The background of this research began with the notion of a phenomenon which preoccupied me for over four and a half years, which I cited as “implied movement” within architecture, which refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architectural expression is most commonly used by architects such as Zaha Hadid, Emergent, Hani Rashid and Thom Mayne. But as the research progressed it became evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the confines of the introverted architectural profession and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed, or have been developed

by the multitude of scientific fields. This allowed the project to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies, with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to put forward a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the pressing need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the lowend of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation.

As discussed in point 1 the exploration of the fields of applied science paved the way to the adaptation of many newly developed innovative technologies that the project could harness and apply at varying scales. It later became evident that the research needed to study and adopt particular human organic systems in which to apply these technologies, primarily focusing on the “Skin System” over the other adopted human systems such as the brain system, nervous system, immune system and skeletal system. The technologies which were identified, studied and adopted included the following:

Point 2 to look at how the research has applied new scientific technologies into the spatial program…

‘a thin layer of pure carbon; it is a single, tightly packed layer of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. It is the thinnest compound known to man at one atom thick, the lightest material known

Graphene Graphene as described by Graphenea, a company set up in 2010 primary to accelerate the advancement of this technology, is:

INQUEST

(with 1 square meter coming in at 0.77 the strongest compound 4.Presenti ngmilligrams), a design propositi on that gives back to its discovered (between 100-300 times stronger than steel), the best ng conductor surrounding environment by rejuvenati the swan river and of heat and also the best conductor electricity man.’ (Fuente creating a interacting of with the land,known air andtoriver ecologies, 2014) (Figure 27) diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. The material is also 100%5. recyclable and highly flexible. Graphene is paving the way in the development highly intelligent Creating aof building that actsand as sophisti a city cated making device, technologies representing one of the greatest innovati ons in terms of material drawing energy and people from all over the world, to not development of the 21st century, with but Professors Andre Geim andand Konstanti n ecologies. only itself its surrounding urban natural Novoselov, from the University of Manchester, winning the physics Nobel Prize A Proposition that awakens the city to this new form of in 2010 for the new technology while also being made Knights the Realm forand energy architectural typology and buildsofmomentum their discovery (Singh 2012).around This newly developed, highly innovate material its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws constitutes for the entire structural mass of the project in order to reach its energy to itself but gives energy back to its people. size, scale, flexibility and feasibility.

Graphene This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analyse of ‘the Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs ofFIGURE our ever 27 advancing society.

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DISCUSSION Sensory E-Skin

Liquid Solar Cells

Electro Active Polymers (EAPs)

Sensory E-Skin is a newly developed technology by engineers at UC Berkeley research team led by Ali Javey, Associate Professor of electrical engineering and computer science (Figure 28). The technology represents a paper thin electronic skin that responds to touch and pressure. Researchers from the University of California claim that the e-skin could be used to ‘restore feeling for people with prosthetic limbs, in smartphone displays, car dashboards or used to give robots a sense of touch’ (Woollaston 2013). Representing a highly sophisticated technology that was applied to the structures sensory skin system in order for it to respond much in the same way as a living organism’s skin would, actuating appropriate responses to imposed environmental conditions.

Liquid Solar Cells are a technology currently in development by researchers at University of Southern California, that falls into the scientific realm of nanotechnology where nanocrystals are used in order to produce cheap stable solar cells that can be printed onto any surface or even made to exist in liquid ink format (Figure 29). The solar cells measure at only 4 nanometres in size, being able to fit 250,000,000,000 of them onto the head of pin (Perkins 2012). This represents a revolutionary breakthrough for solar technology and has been applied as a polymer layer to the skins structural composition to aid in the absorption of the suns energy.

Electro active polymers (EAPs) are a relatively new type of smart material which acts much the same way as the skin and muscles of the human body, demonstrating the ability to withstand incredibly large deformations while sustaining large forces, also exhibiting the capacity to sustain up to 380% strain, validating it as a highly flexibly and robust material (Electroactive Polymers 2014). EAPs are used for a large number of applications such as artificial muscles, micro fluidics and tactile display systems. The new EAP system named ‘skin’ currently in development by a Portuguese company called Displax, can turn any non-metal surface flat or curved into an interactive touch screen display (Figure 30). This new interactive EAP display technology is a mere 100 microns thick (approximately the size of a single human hair) laced with a grid

4.Presenting a design proposition that gives back to its of nanowires which allow thesurrounding user to interact with the by screen through environment rejuvenati ng pressure the swan river and sensitivity. The new polymerinteracti film is able to bethe applied theand back faceecologies, of almostcreating a ng with land,toair river any surface of varied thickness and architectural still be able todynamic track the interacti on as well diverse foruser’s spatial experience with its interface through theasmaterial 2010). are quicklyon. becoming scientifi(Gajitz c research andEAPs experimentati a very promising material with 5. NASA both sponsoring and holding a yearly competition for an EAP powered arm can defeat a human opponent arm device, Creati ng that a building that acts as a city at making wrestling in order to help innovate the highly ducti le technology (Deyle 2009). drawing energy and people from all over the world, to not This technology composes enti relyitself of this on’s interacti veand skinnatural system,ecologies. only butdissertati its surrounding urban harbouring both EAPs visual interface technology as well as its robust A Proposition that awakens the city to this and new form of flexible material attributes in order for it typology to withstand ons imposed architectural and deformati builds momentum and energy on it by the spine and site conditi ons. around its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

INQUEST

FIGURE 28

FIGURE 29

FIGURE 30

FIGURE 31

research has created an new architectural species based ThermochromicThisPolymer

on the principles developed through systematic analyse Thermochromic and Thermotropic are represents essentially an ve which of ‘thematerials Alive’ that andadditi interacts with the life if applied to a polymer base have the ability to change their opti cal properti that surrounds its being, forming a symbioticesrelationship (Figure 31) as in reflectance, absorptipeople on, transmitt light scattering between and itsance builtand form, where people interact properties through changes with in temperature (Seeboth and Lötzsch 2014). it and it interacts with them. This in turnThis will create an technology has been harnessed andnew applied to the design of the entirely architectural dynamic forstructures future professionals skin systems in order to adapt the sun’s UV rays. toto follow that harmful can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

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DISCUSSION Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Shape memory alloy (SMA), commonly known as muscle wire, belongs to a group of materials known as shape memory materials (SMM) which have the unique ability of being able to memorise and return to their original shape or size when deformed. SMAs are commonly used as actuators which are materials that ‘change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields’ (Rogers 1995, 155). These materials are commonly used in the automotive, robotic (Figure 32), aerospace and biomedical industries. Proving itself as a highly ductile material which follows the same characteristics as the tendons and fibers of the human muscular system and was used in a robotic experiment named ECCEROBOT to help researchers better understand how the human body moves (Figure 33). This technology represents the ligaments and connection joints of the skeletal structure.

DISCOVERY It is without doubt that advanced technologies such as IBMs Watson and EAPS, are significant agents for the evolution of the architectural profession, and society can greatly benefit from the implementation of these technologies into intelligent design solutions. Due to these advancements the structure has adopted the core function of being a research facility, accommodating disciplines

such as Nano-Technology, Bio-Mimicry, Bio-Mimetics , Bio-Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Genetic Engineering, Hydrology, Biology, Geology, BioMechatronics, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Structural Engineering, Quantum Computing, Molecular Biology, Robotics, Bionics and every other scientific discipline currently in existence. The structure’s multidisciplinary research program follows a collaborative structure where all aid in the accelerated development of areas in their respected fields, using the structure as a test bed for their research and findings. All this information and discovery is then relayed back to the structure’s brain, where data is analysed in order to find potentially new design solutions. Once a new technology is developed it is then applied to the building for field testing, where the brain will monitor its effectiveness against its designated function. Once the technology is installed, information is then relayed back to the brain via the structure’s integrated nervous system and fed back into the research facility so further development of these technologies can continue to evolve. This system represents the structure’s responsive immune system allowing the structure to defend, heal, evolve and grow.Conspicuously it is apparent how this type of integrated programme provides the necessary collaborative environment to facilitate creative thinking and process for the future development of every scientific discipline and the benefit of both man and the environment.

FIGURE 32

FIGURE 33

INQUEST

4.Presenting a design proposition that gives back to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the swan river and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. 5. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, to not only itself but its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A Proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy ECCERobot around its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws Is a based on energy to itself but gives energy back to its robot people. the human body

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analyse of ‘the Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

Image Credit: Fastcodesign (fastcodesign.com)

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DISCUSSION

To give an example of the power of the IBM Watsons cognitive system, Baylor College of Medicine approached the IBM team to help advance the understanding of disease biology in order to develop safe and effective treatments in the fight against cancer. Watson quickly evaluated and analysed over 70,000 articles related to the p53 cancer protein and identified 6 potential proteins that could theoretically, based on evidence, act as an on off switch for the cancer gene. This denotes for a 600% increase in medical advancement in the area of potential proteins to aid in the fight against cancer, from the average 1 protein being discovered per year by

Watson’s human counterparts (IBM Watson 2014). Watson is fed information and learns like a human how that information can be applied. It is able to disseminate that information and find critical personalised solutions to problems. IBM Watson has been incorporated into the Memorial Sloan Kitting’s Cancer Centre in America in order to help the fight against cancer and aid in the effective diagnosis and treatment of its patients. At West Med medical group New York, Watson’s effectiveness to diagnose a patient with a rare form of lung cancer was tested, with her medical information being injected into Watson’s database for diagnosis. It took Watson a mere 17 seconds to analyse over 3,500 text books and 400,000 other pieces of data to discover what type of cancer she has, what had caused the cancer as well as offering 3 potential treatment options ranked according to their effectiveness . Watson was even harnessing relatively new drug information from other fields that may be highly effective in treating her condition and recommending it to the physician (Bloomberg News. 2013). This clearly articulates the power of Watson as a revolutionary/evolutionary step towards cognitive learning to further innovate the future of mankind. This system due to its high level of intelligence and ability to understand language, solve problems and invent new solutions, has been applied to the dissertation’s proposed Brain system in order to aid the scientific program and run the structures internal and external organs.

FIGURE 34

IBM Watson (Artificial Intelligence) (Figure 34) as described by IBM is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer—by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. Watson “gets smarter” by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information (IBM Watson 2014). IBM Watson has the ability to formulate hypothesis based on past and present data and provides alternate solutions to global problems, learning from its own successes and failures as its intelligence grows. Watson is making ground breaking advancements in the fields of science and medicine, while recently beating the world’s best Jeopardy champions (Figure 35). Watson while conducting the game was not connected to the internet and merely learnt from its mistakes and responses, decimating its human opponents at the game (IBM Research 2013)

FIGURE 35

IBM Watson (Artificial Intelligence)

INQUEST

Image Credit: IBM (ibm.com)

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Image Credit: Iain Bicknell

DISCUSSION CIRCULATION SYSTEM Point 7 to demonstrate the design and intelligence behind the structure’s vascular transportation system… The circulation system of the building is a hybridisation of the nervous and vascular system of the human body while borrowing its structural composition from the human trachea (wind pipe) which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments, which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and flexibility. The vascular system of the human body works by transferring blood containing oxygen and nutrients around the body via the heart (Bianco, Carl. 2000). Like most of the systems within the human body, the vascular system is one of the most important. The building’s own internal circulation system works in much the same way. The system works on a nonlinear rail through contained tubes which run from the land and base of the organism, up through the spine and into the rib structures for entry into the diaphragm or spinal canal. The people who work and come to the building are essentially its life blood. The structure forms a symbiotic relationship with people

where neither one can live without the other. The building relies on people to keep it growing, evolving and alive (nutrients, oxygen), while we can’t live without it, as it facilitates the future advancement and salvation of the human race through scientific endeavour. The structural makeup of this transportation as previously mentioned is derived from the human trachea commonly referred to as the wind pipe. The tubes are composed of structural graphene rings joined together with a thickened electro active polymer similar to the composition of the land skin system, lining the interior of the tubes in order to reinforce the anterior and lateral sides of the structure in turn protecting and maintaining the opening, giving it resilience and flexibility. These tubes also stream visual information back and forth from where they are located allowing users to interact with it while they approach or leave the structure. These tubes also allow people to experience the rejuvenated underwater ecology by submerging themselves in the water temporarily then remerging into the structure’s internal diaphragm.

Transport Veins

Cell Diagram Structural Rib Transport Cell Gyroscopic Rail

Structural Rings

Polymer Ligament Perth CBD

South Perth

Tube Section 1

Polymer Membrane/ Visual Interface

1 2

1

1

1. Pedestrain 2. Large Objects Cargo/supply Spinal Structure Transport System

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Image Credit: Iain Bicknell

DISCUSSION NERVOUS SYSTEM

Point three to reaffirm the use of the nervous system within the structures composition…

3 Research Research Facility

The nervous system of the human body comprises of fibres that essentially act as the body’s communication device, transmitting electrical impulses back and forth to the brain and other internal organs. The human body consists of two primary nervous system divisions; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal nerve, transmitting motor functions around the body while regulating our internal organs (Editors of Consumer Guide 2006). This highly sophisticated system has be analyzed and integrated into the entirety of the project’s body through application of E-Skin sensory technology. Every element of the structure is laced with this sensory material allowing the brain of the structure to consistently monitor, adapt and evolve its mass. The transfer and analysis of this information is also made visually accessible to its occupants through the integration of Displax’s EAP technology within the structure’s skin system.

Analysis

2 Memory Brain

1 Visual Display

VISUAL INFORMATION INTERFACE

Skin Interface

Point 4 to look at the importance of the visual data interface on the skin (internal and external)… The skin system of the building acts as an interactive visual information interface which is constantly streaming visual data via the nervous system from various organs and locations from all around the structure’s body, collating data from people, the environment, its water, land and air ecologies as well as local and global scientific advancements. This allows users to become part of the building’s information ecology as it streams data all over its skin towards the brain and science divisions in the form of text, images, questions, interactions and statics. Users can interact with the skin interface by uploading data to the brain, asking it questions, catching passing data streams or simply gestural movements on the skin to activate the user interface. This visual information system creates a sense of human data space occupation where by the users of the building can visually and physically interact with its learning process, becoming one with the structure’s scientific endeavor, allowing the public to embrace this new form of architectural ecology through educational experiences.

Data Transfer

User Interactions

User Data

Organ Responses

Uploads

Skin

Downloads

Skeleton

Questions

Circulation

Gestures

Immune

Ecological Data

River

Land

Statistics Air

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Image Credit: IBM (ibm.com)

DISCUSSION BRAIN SYSTEM Point 8 to articulate the incorporation of the IBM Watson technology into the structure as its brain system… Every animal on earth has a brain. But the human brain is unique in comparison, as it allows us the capacity to speak, problem solve and imagine. The human brain represents one of the most highly sophisticated and intelligent organs of the human body, and performs an astonishing amount of tasks including the following: 1. It controls the motor functions of your body, allowing the body to walk, stand, talk and sit. 2. It allows you the capacity for abstract thought, imagination, reasoning, dreaming, and the experience of emotions. 3. The ability to analyse and absorb an endless amount of information about the world around you through hearing, taste, touch, smell and sight. 4. It also controls without dependent thought, your blood pressure, breathing, heart rate and body temperature as well all the other internal systems of your body. (Freudenrich and Boyd 2001) These unique functions of the human brain have allowed man to develop his intellect progressively throughout the years, with man’s advancement multiplying at astounding rates. But man’s intelligence is also his greatest downfall, as the emotional wiring of the human condition gives way to greed, selfishness and

Imposed site condition

System response

naivety. All factors which have allowed man to turn a blind eye to a multitude of issues, evidently resulting in this dissertation’s manifestation. That being said, a technology that does not suffer from the emotional instability of the human mind is a technology developed by IBM named Watson. As previously mentioned in the scientific analysis of current technologies, Watson is a cognitive computer that can learn, understand language and hypothesise on questions and data based on its previous failures and successes, similar to that of a human. This technology was integrated into the structure in order to adopt the functions of the human brain while following these five programmatic principles. Watson will implement these principles as follows: 1. Act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and invention 2. Record all climatic and sensory data, internally and externally recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to imposed conditions. 3. Interact and learn from the building’s occupants and develop its intelligence over time 4. Collaborate and aid in all scientific and non-scientific endeavours by its counterparts around the globe 5. Aid in the betterment, advancement, innovation and prolonging of the human race and the environment

Data received and stored

Data analysed Brain

Hypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

WATSON

Data analysed & implemented

R - Facility

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

Brain Artificial Intelligence

Bio-Mimicry

Genetic Engineering

Bio-Mimetics

Research Facility

Nano Technology

Bionics Robotics

Bio Engineering

REPRODUCTION Development of new tech based on acquired data and research LIVING Field testing

SYSTEMS

ECDYSIS Removal of redundant tech

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech

OCTOPUS MECHANIC Watson’s distribution through the building is closely associated with the distribution of the brain within the octopus, where three-fifths of the octopus’ nerves are distributed throughout its eight arms (Horton 2008). Like the octopus, Watson’s intelligence is distributed over the entirety of the structure instead of being located in one central location. The brain of an octopus only has to send a single move command to one of its eight armatures, and the arm itself will decide the best way to approach the task without direction from the central brain. This natural ability represents one of the core motor functions of the brain system within the building; distributed intelligence.

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DISCUSSION Skin Systems Point 5 to discuss the articulation of the technologies into the structure… Our skin represents the largest organ of the human body and potentially one of the most important as it protects us from an abundance of external conditions and hosts a number of critical functions. These functions include: 1. A protective covering that shields us from germs and disease 2. It is filled with white blood cells, programmed to attack invading bacteria 3. It acts as the body’s alarm system signalling the immune system into action when a harmful bacteria has made entry. 4. The skin acts as an insulating device regulating the body’s temperature 5. The skins contracts and expands based on external temperatures in an attempt to keep the body’s blood at a consistent temperature. If the temperature is exceeded the body will activate our sweat glands to cool the skin via evaporation 6. The skin accommodates an abundance of nerve endings which allow us to experience touch, communicating sensations such as hot and cold back to the brain. (Oswald, Rachel 2009) Not only does it host a number of critical functions to the human body, it also comprises of a very sophisticated arrangement of layers in order to carry out these functions: These layers include:

1. The skin consists of a supple membrane composed of three layers - the Epidermis, the Dermis and the Hypodermis, that all work in support of one another. 2. The Epidermis is the thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one, serving as the body’s armour against infectious diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its colour, darkening in response to harmful UV rays to protect the skin, commonly referred to as a ‘tan’. 3. The Dermis layer is full of collagen, which gives the skin its firmness, containing sweat glands and hair follicles. It also contains nerve endings that allow us to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is the body’s alarm system, signalling the immune system into action. 4. The innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, which connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue that insulates our body and controls its temperature. 5. Sebum is an oily substance that the body excretes to coat the skin to shield the Epidermis from the elements.

Hair Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis

Muscle Oil Gland Sweat Gland Nerve Blood Vessel

6. The skin also consists of cells called Keratinocytes which determine people’s skin colour – These skin cells absorb harmful UV rays. People with dark skin have an abundance of keratinocytes and are less susceptible to sunburn. 7. Unlike snakes, humans shed their skin gradually, shedding old skin cells to make room for the new ones that lie beneath them (Oswald, Rachel 2009).

INQUEST

Image Credit: Fitness Diet Tips (fitnessidettips.com)

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DISCUSSION Skin Systems Evidently based on this research the skin of the building was found to be one of the most critical design challenges of the research and was specifically designed based on the 3 separate ecologies found on site. The skin reflects these 3 separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to unavoidable site conditions such as light, wind, rain, water currents and touch, also facilitating the ability to harvest solar energy throughout the day through the implementations of liquid solar cell technology. The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton (Figure 40, 36, 37, 41, 42). This allowed the car’s skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch (Figure 38,39), adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions (BMW Web TV 2008).

FIGURE 41: Skin Stationary

This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structure’s skeletal system without deformations imposed onto it by the spine causing any damage. The composition of the skin’s structure was designed to reflect the functions of the human skin as close as possible with other adaptations from other organisms, such as sharks and snakes, and being applied as an extra level of protection across the three ecological conditions (water, land, air).

FIGURE 40: Skin Fold/Door Transition

FIGURE 36: Hood Closed

FIGURE 38: Skin Stationary

FIGURE 37: Hood Opening

FIGURE 39: Skin in Action

FIGURE 42: Skin in Action

Image Credit: BMW (bmwusa.com)

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DISCUSSION

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

WATER SKIN

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer

1.The skin applied to the water ecology consists of an external translucent polymer layer designed based on the unique properties of shark skin. Shark skin has the unique quality of having specially designed denticles that give the shark a hydrodynamic advantage over other aquatic life. In recent studies shark denticles have been found to reduce drag and turbulence on the surface of the skin by creating miniature vortices. This propels the shark forward allowing for a 6% increase in speed and a 5% reduction in energy consumption, while at the same time being incredibly quiet (Wyss Institute 2012). This highly sophisticated skin is currently in development by scientists at Harvard Universities bio mechanics research division by Ph.D. George Lauder, and has been adopted and applied to the structure’s water skin membrane in an attempt to reduce drag from the two separate water currents operating within the Swan Canning River. This will in turn reduce stress on the lower lumber spine of the building while allowing for a quiet underwater environment within the structure.

H 2O

2.The second layer of the skin reflects the Dermis layer of the skin system, constructed from a thicker form of EAP to withstand extreme forces imposed by the depth of the ecology. This layer is also laced with a Sensory E-skin Polymer in order to relay messages back to the central nervous system.

Indigo Snake Scales

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer Interface: Electro-Active Polymer Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Water Turbulence: 20% Reduction

Water Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

3.The third layer of the skin reflects the Hypo-Dermis layer of the skin system, constructed from a silicon based insulation polymer in order to stop the transmittance of heat. 4.The forth layer of the skin reflects the Epidermis, a pre-stressed polymer acting as the structures inner support layer and internal barrier in case of external failure or rupture. 5.The fifth layer of the skin reflects the melatonin properties of human skin, made from a thermochromic Polymer which allows the structure to protect itself from harmful UV rays, by changing its transparency to a blackened tint in order to reflect UV rays and stop transmittance. 6.The sixth layer of the skin reflects the visual interactive interface of the structure, made from an electro active polymer technology developed by Displax. Actuating the ability for people to watch and interact with new scientific data and information sourced from the structure’s nervous system.

Turbulence Reduction

Weather/Water Turbulence

Less Stress on Spine Silent Flow Armor Barrier

7.The seventh layer of the skin allows for an extra level of protection while assisting in motor functions of the skins’ membrane. 8.The eighth layer of the skin reflects a second Hypo-Dermis insulation layer to stop transmittance from inside the structural body.

Lines of Force

Smooth Flow

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DISCUSSION

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Lines of Force Ability: Turbulence Reduction

M E L AT O N I N S Y S T E M

LAND SKIN The land skin developed for the building follows the same structural composition as the water skin ecology with 2 select differences. The external layer of the skin system is designed around the scale system of the Eastern Indigo Snake, native to Eastern United States. It received its name from its glossy iridescent ventral scales which are known to animate a blackish purple in bright light (Eastern Indigo Snake 2014). The snake’s scales were chosen not only due to their unique patterning and iridescent properties but due the fact that the unique structural composition of these scales reduces surface friction on the skin. This much like the water skin, reduces turbulence on the surface of the skin imposed by wind loads on the structure and alleviates stress on the structures internal spine. The extra layer also aids as a barrier protection layer opening and closing depending on external climatic conditions. For example if the structure detects an incoming storm, the scales on the outer skin will close in attempt to defend the structure from the harsh external environment. The unique shape of these scales is also designed around the implied movement technique, lines of force, in order to follow the fluid geometry of the land structure in order to project occupants around the space. The Dermis support layer of the skin also facilitates another unique quality that the water dermis layer does not, which is the application of nano-film liquid solar cells to its surface in order to harness energy from the sun and aid in the structures self-efficiency protocols.

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano ďŹ lm Solar Cells Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer Interface: Electro-Active Polymer Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

EXTREME UV Tint Adaptation

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

O2

Air Filtration: 10%

Indigo Snake Scales

COMFORT RANGE Translucent

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

Land Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

Extreme Weather Protective Armor SKIN TRANSITION

Smooth Surface Reduction in surface air friction

S TA G E 1 30% UV

S TA G E 2 50% UV

S TA G E 3 60% UV

S TA G E 4 80% UV

Lines of Force

Closing Scale

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DISCUSSION Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

AIR SKIN

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano ďŹ lm Solar Cells

The Air skin of the structure is based on the same fundamental systems as the land skin but with a slight difference as its scales function in a slightly different way, opening up like a flower and following more honestly to the formal composition of the Indigo snake scale arrangement. This aids in the increased environmental risks at higher altitudes and also visually signifies the change from land to air skin systems.

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer Interface: Electro-Active Polymer Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

SKIN DETAIL

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

O2

1

Air Filtration: 10%

Indigo Snake Scales

Air Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

5 3

2

Extreme Weather Protective Armor Smooth Surface

4

1. E-Skin Sensor 2. EAP 3. Dermis Support

Reduction in surface air friction

4. Reactive Scales 5. Filtration Membrane Scale Assembly

Closing Scale

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DISCUSSION SKELETAL SYSTEM The human spine and skeletal system, much like many other vertebrates, is one of the body’s most highly intelligent and sophisticated natural systems that aids in a number of important bodily functions. The skeletal system constitutes for the entire structural support system of the human body, possessing incredible durability and giving the body the ability to take its unique shape, move, protect internal organs as well as provide an attachment base for our muscles, tendons and skin. ‘Every time the body carries out an action the bones, joints muscles and tendons are working in perfect synchronization to make this effort possible’ (Scheve, Tom 2009). The skeletal system comprises of a number of elements in order to make movement possible. These elements include: skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, synovial membranes and the bursa. The human skeletal system is known as an endoskeleton, which denotes as an internalised skeletal system whereas insects and other invertebrates have an exo-skeleton which supports and protects the animal’s body. The spine is the primary element of the human skeletal system located at the centre of the body’s axial skeleton, facilitating the body’s ability to move while supporting the weight of the body and protecting the body’s spinal nerve and nerve roots. The spinal column is the body,s main support structure, comprising of 36 bones called vertebra, which are categorised into 5 regions as follows:

1.

The Cervical region consists of 7 vertebra which allows the head to rotate

2.

The Thoracic region consists of 12 vertebra which serve as attachment points for the ribcage

3.

The Lumbar region consists of 5 vertebra which act at the main weight bearing section of the spinal column

4.

The Sacral region consists of 5 fused vertebra which provides the attachment point for the pelvis

5.

The Coccygeal region consists of 4 small vertebras also known as the coccyx which acts as an attachment point for various muscles and tendons. (Anatomy of the Spine 2014)

Each vertebra of the spine has a very unique composition and consists of the following structural components for actuating specific functions: •

The Vertebral Body: is the main structure of the vertebra consisting of a large mass of bone.

The Spinal Canal: sits behind the vertebral column housing the spinal nerve that connects to the brain.

The Pedicle Bones: either side of the spinal canal are the pedicle bones which connect the vertebral body to the lamina and also act as exit points for the nerve branches of the main spinal nerve.

The Lamina: creates the outer wall of the vertebral canal protecting the spinal nerve.

The Spinous Process: protrudes out from the lamina acting as an attachment point for various muscles and ligaments that move and stabilise the vertebra

Superior and Inferior Articular Facets: form the joint between the vertebra above to the vertebra below. These joints are connected by a small amount of cartilage that allow for movement.

Vertebral Disc: is a tough elastic disc which acts as a cushion between the two vertebral bodies allowing the vertebra to bend and twist. (Anatomy of the Spine 2014)

INQUEST

Image Credit: GraceBeforeMedicince (gracebeforemedicine.wordpress.com)

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DISCUSSION SKELETAL SYSTEM The dissertation’s design proposal has taken the intelligence and sophistication of the human skeletal system and applied its characteristics to its own structural composition, while merging its intelligence with that of an exo skeleton in order to create a ductile skeletal hybrid. When required this can be removed and upgraded without the building collapsing, as the science team develop new skeletal technologies for implementation. The adaptation of the spine to the building was used to empower the structure’s formal composition while allowing the building to flex, twist and brace against external environmental conditions similar to that of a human being. This allows the structure to move with the elements instead of resisting their imposed loads, also acting as a main fixing point for the endo and exo skeletal systems. The two spines within the 3 towers not only have the capacity to moderate themselves according to structural loads, but also protect the main transport and nervous system canals that transport the building’s occupants around its body. The incorporation of two spines was used to reduce structural loads and aid in the protection of incoming and outgoing transport tubes while allowing for increased mobility. The ductile programming of the spinal arrangements allows for any part of the skeletal system to be upgraded, as all elements of the system work together as a whole and independently should they need to support the load of a redundant system that is in the process of being upgraded.

TRANSPORT NERVE

Superior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

COMPLETE SECTION

Inferior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

Transverse Process Muscle Connection

FRONT STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY

EXO MEMBER

Rib Facet Rib Connection Spinal Column Structural Body

EXO SKELETON

SIDE

REACTION 1

REACTION 2

Intervertebral Disc Compression flexibility

ENDO SKELETON

RIB STRUCTURE

REACTION 3

WIND Structure reacts to strong wind loads flexing and bracing taking in air

ENDO MEMBER

Lamina Spinal Nerve Exit

Spinal Canal Nerve System

Transverse Process Rib connection Muscle Connection

PLAN

STORM

BRACING

Extreme Environmental Conditions

Structure braces itself by locking spinal cords into a fixed position

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DISCUSSION ECOLOGIES Point 10 looks to express the importance of the separate ecologies and the Swan River site… After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that the Swan River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan River’s multiple environmental issues which include pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health. The river suffers from these issues due to several reasons, these include the following: 1.

2.

The Swan River has two separate currents running both up and down stream. Fresh water flows downstream into the ocean over the top of the denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom. This makes the lower waters of the Swan River hypoxic and even sometimes anoxic – which means little to no oxygen is available on the river bed for aquatic fauna or life to flourish, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter and the releasing of nutrients which cause blue green algae bloom.

3.

This creates vicious cycle creating Algae in the summer months which kills any aquatic fauna attempting to grow by starving them of oxygen.

4.

High levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae usually a result of decomposing aquatic fauna at the bottom of the sea bed.

These factors have resulted in the Swan River we know today; a polluted environment that we tell our children not to play in and are even reluctant to venture in ourselves. With this in mind, the opportunity was seized to rehabilitate the Swan River by dredging out the decayed/ polluted river bed and pumping it full of micro-nutrients and re-oxygenated water. This in turn would create an entirely rejuvenated natural habitat around the structure’s base that could be studied and maintained for the future enjoyment of the city and the varied natural aquatic species of the Swan River ecology.

PROBLEM

Muddy Polluted water

Toxic blue green algae bloom

No aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

Destruction of Natural Aquatic life

SOLUTION

Aeration of water around site

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

Allows for growth of natural fauna

Allows for public enjoyment of the Swan River

Image Credit: Iain Bicknell Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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DISCUSSION PROGRAM

80%

• Educational facility • Civic centre/public access

• • • • •

Restrictive program Linear arrangement Small to medium structure Low pedestrian traffic Basic technological req.

• • • •

High level of activity Facilitator of movement Public facility Cultural necessity Node structure Increases infrastructure

Restrictive program Linear typology Small to medium structure Large land area req.

Pa

on vili

rce

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • •

Restrictive program Linear typology Small Structure Basic technological req.

c ite

ture

70%

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • • • •

Tourist location Iconic building Expressive form Civic Centre/ Public access High activity (on event)

40%

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • •

• Restrictive program • Linear typology • Basic technological req.

Creates Infrastructure Iconic Structure High Population Density Symbiosis

um di

10%

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • •

• • • • •

Medium to large structure High activity level (time based) Technology Rich Increases infrastructure

Not publicly accessible Not a tourist location Linear typology Basic program Activity based on working hours

s Art al/

80%

Favourable High level of activity Facilitator of movement Public facility Cultural necessity Node Structure

o

• • • • • •

me m

Office /C

Non-Favourable

US

E

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Small to medium structure Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req.

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

Tourist Location Cultural centre Facilitator of movement High activity (on event) Medium to large structure Civic Centre/ Public access

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req. Linear typology

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • •

Expressive form Creativity focused Civic centre/ Public access Iconic building Tourist location

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Basic technological req. Small to medium structure

al pit

Non-Favourable

• • • •

• • • •

Facilitator of movement Low complexity Mobile Arc typology

Basic program Basic technological req. Linear typology Small structure

on

t cer

70%

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• Complex external program • Complex internal program

Facilitate an abundance of uses Activated throughout the week Technology Rich Flexible Site activator

ca

tio

n

50%

ea es

rch

Non-Favourable

• • • • • • •

• • • • • •

Arts facility Expressive form Civic Centre/ Public access Tourist location Cultural centre Facilitator of movement High activity (on event)

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req. Small to medium structure

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • •

Large structure Biologically focused Increases infrastructure Technology rich Diverse spacial req.

Restrictive program Highly complex Ethical Issues Fixed codes

er

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • • •

• • • • •

Highly complex program Abundance of technologies Actuator of structures philosophy Diverse spacial requirements Large demographic of people Increases infrastructure

Favourable • • • •

90%

Favourable

Favourable

20%

60%

Favourable

Favourable

100%

s

Non-Favourable

Tourist Location • Basic program High population capacity • Basic technological req. Glorified internally and externally • Linear typology Small to large structure

80%

Favourable

D

Ho

• • • •

er ow lT

Restrictive program Linear typology Noise Pollution Major commercial

u

Favourable

St a

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

Transport node High level of activity Increased infrastructure Large structure

60%

70%

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • •

Ed

el ot

Favourable

MIX E

P

Amph ibi

t

Scien ce /R

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Small to medium structure Basic technological req. Linear Typology

Ar ch

ort n sp ra

Pu b lic

T

10%

or

Hydro po w

• • • • •

Ship

Ai r

rt

• Program specific • Complexity issues

Iconic Structure Dual typology Complex program Varied scales Dual Site

Exp o

Non-Favourable

• • • • • •

30%

po

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

Cu lt u r

Legend Optimal Performance Moderate Performance Limited Performance

Favourable

80%

Favourable Expressive form Creativity focused Civic Centre/ Public access Iconic building Tourist location High activity (on event)

h Arc

/C

ry ra

• Hierarchy issues • Exposed to all elements

Highly complex program Abundance of technologies Alive city model Diverse spacial requirements Large demographic of people Self sufficient Iconic

us

Thea tre

50%

• • • • • • •

H

m eu

Non-Favourable

en tia

Mu s

100%

Favourable

Resid

ity

Flo at i

C ng

Lib

A number of studies were conducted into the types of programs that were best suited for integration into the building’s fabric. In terms of performance, these findings were categorised by favourable and non-favourable variables and were graded accordingly, using a percentage value as to which programs would be the most favourable to apply to the structure’s existing programmatic strategies. These studies resulted in a number of programs being integrated into the structure’s existing programmatic strategies as in research facility, port, public transport, mixed use, floating city, amphibious, office/commercial, residential, hotel and cultural programs, all boasting a 60% -100% success rate and favourability if incorporated. The combining of public and private programs into the structure presented the opportunity for the building to become a city making device, drawing people in from all over the world, while awakening its surrounding context and community to rally around its philosophies.

o

Point 9 aims to articulate how the structures program was established…

nt Pla

• • • •

Standardised learning spaces Small to medium structure Generally not a tourist attraction Not iconic Not public facility

Non-Favourable

Technology rich • Not publicly accessible Complex program • Safety issues Actuator of structures philosophy • Varied activity levels Enables building to be used for ongoing experiments Maintains/heals buildings ecology Increased life expectancy Innovator of technology Small to large structure

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • •

High level of activity Self Sufficient Sustainable Facilitates reproduction Increases infrastructure

Restrictive program Linear typology Major commercial Noise

70%

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DISCUSSION IMPLIED MOVEMENT (FORM) Point 11 aims to articulate the key drivers behind the formal expression of the project and how its unique shape originated…

Behaviour: Is based on a sensory response to conditions imposed upon the body, forcing a change or response.

The design of the building followed two specific laws, as well as implied movement techniques. These were based on two engrossing quotes by Neri Oxman , an Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, best known for her work in environmental design and digital morphogenesis, that reads ‘Design behaviour rather than form’ and ‘forget about how the design looks, think about how it behaves’ (Vinnitskaya 2012). These quotes then lead the research to define its versions of form and behaviour which concluded with the following definitions:

Form: Is beyond just geometric shapes and representative constructs, but is expressive of life, its behaviour and responses to imposed conditions.

ELASTICITY Elasticity is similar to the muscular tension technique but has a more fluid composition, such as the separating of two sheets coated with glue or the separation of a gel like substance. This technique is commonly associated with organic material.

The structure was also designed around a series of implied movement techniques that were discovered in a study conducted in the initial stages of the research in order to facilitate the feeling of life within its manifestation. These techniques were as follows:

EVOCATION

Evocation is an implied movement technique based on associations with characteristics reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve.

VIRUS

MEMBRANE

Virus represents the armature like mechanics of virus cells that reach out to grapple other cells to assimilate them into its body.

Membrane refers to a biomorphic technique which represent forms found in nature.

PROJECTION

LINES OF FORCE

Projection is a technique where the form is projected into the viewer’s field of vision, seizing their attention, leading the eye back into the structure.

Lines of force represent one of the most power implied movement techniques whereby the natural mechanics of the brain force the viewer to trace the lines of any object in order to understand its geometric construct. This technique is used to create visual energy through stimuli or visual projection into a space.

MUSCULAR TENSION

RESOLUTION

Muscular tension reflects the push and pull spring motion of a sling shot or rubber band whereby the form of the structure is tensioned to spring into action through its formal composition. This technique is commonly found in cable stayed bridge designs.

GEOMETRIC TRANSCENDENCE

The overall design of the structure was an attempt to awaken the city and build energy around itself and its context, acting as a place making device. It interacts with river ecologies then rising up out of the water spreading its roots while pulling back into itself in an ascent towards the sky. A poetic play of the forces of growth, in much the same way as a tree’s form is dictated by its functions and environmental condition. These implied movement techniques and laws coupled with the incorporated intelligent technological and organic systems dictated the structure’s morphogenesis. As stated by the great Buckminster Fuller ‘When I am working on a problem, I never think about beauty but when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful, I know it is wrong.’ (R. Buckminster Fuller Quotes 2014). Articulating this project’s form was a response to a critical design problem and not a formal endeavour of spatial justification like so many architects believe is their primary concern.

Geometric Transcendence is another technique considered to be one of the most powerful as it creates juxtaposition between the transitions of standard geometric object to organic life form. A technique that adopts a variety of other implied movement techniques such as evocation and virus.

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CONCLUSION The complexities of our natural world continue to intrigue, challenge and reveal to us lessons that have greatly advanced our understanding of its intelligence. Civilisation has come at a great price on our natural environment. The constructed environment has been quite unsympathetic to the important balance of ecologies of: water, land and sky. The discipline of architecture has a significant part to play as it seeks to balance the sustainability equation (social, cultural, economic and environmental). Our constructed built forms must “EVOLVE” and “ADAPT” and to be an agent of change – responsively intelligent and at the same time humane places that support the advancement in the quality to human society. The so call bricks and mortars of the buildings of the future are strongly receptive to the application of intelligent materials and systems.

Image Credit: Telusers (telusers.com)

OUTCOME

The research was always ambitious since the very beginning to scope widely and at all times taking advantage of knowledge from past, current and immediate future from discoveries – research that have been innovatively applied in the automotive, robotic, aerospace, information technology and biomedical industries . Notwithstanding also that nature holds many secrets where by animals and plants have physical attributes that allow them to survive and thrive under extreme conditions. The final project is in no way meant to be a resolved design; rather the outcomes presented a kind of “armature-platform” in which the project continues to be a test-bed. A design to debate architecture themes around: generative design, form, typology, technological systems, ecologies, education, sustainability, responsive and adaptive design solutions. The applied sciences identified, explored and adopted in this research have and will continue to significantly challenge the discipline of architecture to re-imaging the “buildings as ecologies” - Alive and thriving. The harmonious balance of the natural and the built environment in a coexisting relationship – where both are living “beings” – is where I would consider devoting my future practice. Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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WHERE TO... Future aspirations for myself and this discourse would be to put into practice some of these ideas. To push and apply, as I strongly believe that some of these concepts, even though in reflection were quite large scale, have elements which could even be applied to the resident scale.

DIRECTION

I believe that it’s not a case of if, but a case of when! As this type of architectural intervention begins to unfold, our buildings will become more and more advanced, not in terms of aesthetics, but in terms of their ability to communicate, adapt, change and evolve to suit our needs and our ever changing environmental conditions. I believe that in time the common house, ship, city, tower and car will be as indispensable as the common household family pet, due to the fact that as the structures starts to interact with its environment, it will become acquainted with its occupants, growing and forming a deep relationship with them over time as its intellect expands. This is where I see the future of architecture and the progression of my career, towards the blurring of architecture between the fields of science, where not one or the other are dissimilar to each other, but constitute as one body of knowledge and creation for the betterment of mankind and the environment, as the world is currently in a discussion around sustainability and the rejuvenation of the global ecology.

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Seeboth, Arno and Lötzsch, Detlef. 2014. Thermochromic and Thermotropic Materials. Pan Stanford Publishing Pty.Ltd., Singapore. Shepard, R. N. (1990). Mind sights : original visual illusions, ambiguities, and other anomalies, with a commentary on the play of mind in perception and art. New York, W.H. Freeman and Co. Singh, Timon. 2012. “Inventors of Stronger than Steel Graphene Paper Receive Nobel Prize and Knighthoods”. Inhabitat.com. Accessed 01 October 2014, http:// inhabitat.com/inventors-of-stronger-than-steel-graphene-paper-receive-nobel- prize-and-knighthoods/ Spuybroek, Lars. 2007. “MORPHO-ECOLOGIES.” The Architectural Review 221 (1321): 93. Accessed 17 August 2014, http://search.proquest.com/docview/201139142 ?accountid=10382.

surrounding environment by rejuvenating the swan river and

diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and Wilkinson, C. and J. Eyre 2001. Movement and geometry. In experimentation. Bridging art & science. 5. 56-62 .London, Booth-Clibborn. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, Woollaston, Victoria. 2013. “Scientists create paper-thin electronic SKIN drawing energy and people from all that over the world, to not - andbut could feeling to prosthetic limbs”. responds to touch and pressure ecologies. only itself itsgive surrounding urban and natural Daily Mail Australia. Accessed 12 October 2014, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/ A Proposition that awakens the city to this new form of sciencetech/article-2375893/Scientists-create-paper-electronic-SKIN-responds- architectural typology and builds momentum and energy touch-pressure--feeling-prosthetic-limbs.html around its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws energy to itself but gives energytoback to itsthe people. Wyss Institute. 2012. “Researchers use multi-material 3D printing fabricate first

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Yentob, A. 2013. Who Dares Wins: Zaha Hadid. BBCOne Imagine Video. 75:00. Accessed 29 March 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b037yx1l OED. 2014. Oxford English Dictionary. Accessed 18 August 2014, http://www.oed.com/

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analyse of ‘the Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

Tandon, Nina. 2012. Could tissue engineering mean personalized medicine? Streaming Video. http://www.ted.com/talks/nina_tandon_could_tissue_ engineering_mean_personalized_medicine?language=en Vinnitskaya, Irina. 2012. “Neri Oxman: On Designing Form”. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 November 2014. http://www.archdaily.com/?p=238362

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IMAGE REFERENCES Adapt. 2011. Butterfly on Green Leaf. Wallpapers Builder. http://www. wallpapersbuilder.com/wallpaper/butterfly-on-green-leaf-1920x1200_ w963.html

Figure 18 – Asymptote. 2010. Kaohsiung Port Terminal. Arch Daily. http:// www.archdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/1292336481--c- asymptote-architecture---kaohsiung-port-terminal---aerial-night.jpg

Figure 29 – Liquid Solar Cell. 2014. Technology. Pinterest. http://media-cache- ec0.pinimg.com/736x/f1/5a/4a/ f15a4a132822e80ebd4eb6e86fe14de7.jpg

Figure 38 – Gina. 2014. Skin. Car and Driver. http://media.caranddriver.com/ images/media/204944/bmw-gina-light-visionary-model-close-up- sideview-photo-204957-s-1280x782.jpg

BMW Gina. 2014. Wallpaper. Net Car Show. http://www.netcarshow.com/BMW- GINA_Light_Visionary_Model_Concept-2008-wallpaper.jpg

Figure 19 – Emergent. 2014. Tom Wiscombe. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest. com/pin/348958671100785531/

Figure 30 – EAP. 2010. Shape Shift 05. Architerials. http://www.architerials.com/ wp-content/uploads/2010/10/shapeshift05.jpg

Conclusion. 2013. Earth from Space Wallpaper. Telusers. http://telusers.com/ earth-from-space-wallpaper-1920x1200-19276-hd-wallpapers.html

Figure 20 – Biothing. 2011. Turing Pavillion. Plethora Project. http://plethora- project.com/completeworks/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/COMP.jpg

ECCERobot. 2014. Fastcompany. http://b.fastcompany.net/multisite_files/ codesign/imagecache/1280/article_feature/1280-robot-12097692- gvgdjf-1.jpg

Figure 21 – lava. 2011. Beijing Future Home Pavilion. Lava architects. http:// www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/beijing-future-home-pavilion/

Figure 30 – EAP. 2014. Shape Shift. Api. http://api.ning.com/ files/7YGWxuQRU6olYLgxScv--rAjubCiY1lSQg2deK*KNtnkSidfKrlj6vs lab6jzrU0Io-ZTDI2PAinYDe0nV6SGXqnenxl7hghKHIlW9zN21M_/ shapeshift008.jpg?width=737&height=493

Figure 39 – Gina. 2014. BMW Gina Material Folds. Car and Driver. http://media. caranddriver.com/images/media/204944/bmw-gina-light-visionary- model-special-fabric-with-accurate-reproduction-of-material-folds- photo-204968-s-1280x782.jpg

Ecologies. 2014. Branch with Green Leaves. Wallpapers Wide. http:// wallpaperswide.com/branch_with_green_leaves_21-wallpapers.html Figure 1-7,10,11 - Bicknell, Iain. 2013. Info Cards. Curtin University. Perth Australia. Figure 8,9 - Gestalt Diagrams. 1984. Distortion in art : the eye and the mind / J.B. Deregowski. London, London : Routledge & K. Paul. Figure 12 - Parthenon. 2011. The Perfect Imperfections of the Parthenon. https:// s3.amazonaws.com/suite101.com.prod/article_images/ large/2932100_COM_pantheon2.jpg Figure 13 - Wells Cathedral. 2012. Sally Haycocks Photography. http:// sallyhaycocks.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/wells-cathedral-a4-lens- corrected-jpg.jpg?w=1280 Figure 14 - Zaha Hadid. 2013. Heydar Center. Designboom. http://www. designboom.com/architecture/new-images-of-heydar-aliyev-center- by-zahahadid-11-14-2013/ Figure 15 - Zaha Hadid. 2013. Heyder Aliyev Center. Bustler. https://encrypted- tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS3kKc9lRsW8LQvpB5SArZ0m OebuM6WENTH_MvpCOkcd1AuG2WN Figure 16 - Frank Gehry. Nd. Walt Disney Concert Hall. Wikipedia. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walt_Disney_Concert_Hall Figure 17 - Eisenman. 2010. Chiesa a tor tre Teste, Roma. Lunachen. http:// lunachen.wordpress.com/2010/08/17/piegature/

Figure 22 – Morphosis. 2009. Four Towers in One Competition. Arch Daily. http:// ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/ siteaerialperspective-l.jpg Figure 23 - Insect Taxidermy. 2014. Framed butterflys,moths and insects. Bugsdirect. http://www.bugsdirect.com/category/framed-butterflies- butterfly-taxidermy Figure 24 - Bicknell, Iain. 2013. Implied Movement Background. Curtin University. Perth Australia. Figure 25 - Bicknell, Iain. 2013. Touchstone Model. Curtin University. Perth Australia. Figure 26 - Bicknell, Iain. 2013. Site Analysis. Curtin University. Perth Australia. Figure 27 - Graphene. 2014. Graphene. Wikipedia. http://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Graphen.jpg

Figure 31 – Thermochromic. 2014. Archello. http://www.archello.com/sites/ default/files/imagecache/header_detail_large/story/media/COA022- (4).jpg Figure 31 - Thermochromic. 2014. Athenna. http://www.athenna.com/ thermochromic-table/athenna/web_design/teoria-de-design/ Figure 32 – ECCERobot. 2014. Shoulder. Tum. https://www.tum.de/typo3temp/ pics/69b9ae0de0.jpg Figure 33 – ECCERobot. 2014. Blogspot. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-pG4- KUEMIgQ/T5ADZDYZxII/AAAAAAAAI3A/aXm42tB1duk/ s1600/12112349-j6rcfr-4.jpg Figure 34 – IBM Watson. 2014. Protoware. http://protoware.net/wp-content/ uploads/2014/07/ibm-watson.jpg

Figure 28 – Sensory E-Skin. 2014. Bioskin. Spectrum. http://spectrum.ieee.org/ img/bioskin03-1376933149590.jpg

Figure 35 – IBM Watson. 2014. Jeopardy. IBM. http://www.ibm.com/ smarterplanet/us/en/ibmwatson/assets/img/tech/img-video- jeopardy.jpg

Figure 28 –Sensory E-Skin.2014. Gstatic. https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/ images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQIoGB6eijVj- L81jvZrSGOsYWNPui6eYIXsJTpNddOzaLzfpUBnw

Figure 36 – Gina. 2008. Opening Engine Cover. Serious Wheels. http://www. seriouswheels.com/pics-2008/bc/2008-BMW-Gina-Light-Visionary- Model-Engine-Cover-Opens-up-1280x960.jpg

Figure 29 - Electro Active Polymer. 2014. Ultra Slim Corning Glass. Corning. http://www.corning.com/uploadedImages/Corporate/ww/Assets/Images/ Flexible_Bend.jpg

Figure 37 – Gina. 201. Engine Cover. Car and Driver. http://media.caranddriver. com/images/media/204944/bmw-gina-light-visionary-model- moveable-character-lines-on-the-engine-cover-photo-204951-s- 1280x782.jpg

Figure 29 – Liquid Solar Cell. 2014. Gizmag. http://images.gizmag.com/hero/ liquid_solar_cell.jpg

Figure 40 – Gina. 2014. Door Opening. Car and Driver. http://media.caranddriver. com/images/media/204944/bmw-gina-light-visionary-model- character-line-up-head-lights-opened-opening-door-photo-204956-s- 1280x782.jpg Figure 41 – Gina. 2014. BMW Gina Wide. Carxy. http://www.carxy.com/view/ bmw_gina_2-wide.html Figure 42 – Gina. 2014. Door Opening. BMW. https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic. com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRVYegMPgEW2z_YY8v9nZRbH9aSxmvk_ wOvIo8m7YHy-cx4Z19u-A IBM Watson. 2014. Hero Video. IBM. http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/ en/ibmwatson/assets/img/home/hero-video.jpg Innovation. 2014. Nano Schematic Infra Lapis. Submicron Deviantart. http:// canadian-fast-food.deviantart.com/art/NanoSchematic- InfraLapis-279061768 Skeletal System. 2011. Human Back and Spine. Basing Stoke Chiropractor. http:// www.basingstokechiropractor.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/ Human-back-and-spine1.jpg Skin System. 2014. How to take care of your skin. Fitness Diet Tips. http:// fitnessdiettips.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/how-to-take-care-of- tour-skin.jpg

Figure 37 – Gina. 2014. Hood Opening. Blogspot. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_ FoXyvaPSnVk/SE4jpWQoltI/AAAAAAAAuH4/OjLsO5aK2q8/s1600-h/

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TEASER TRAILER REFERENCES Aerial View of New York. 2014. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100856364/ Blender, Yeus. 2013. Incredible 24h rotation of Earth 24h with nightlights in 4K. YouTube video. 2:00. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzxYumjbOMY Dean, Stew. 2014. Flickr. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100857493/ GOmotion. 2009. Flowering 2009 HD (touched by strangers). YouTube video. 3:24. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvI90EKY8lg

The Jungian. 2012. Prometheus - God Is An Astronaut - Suicide By Star - Unofficial Music Video. YouTube video. 4:32. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=8tPRPKfZwNM Travel Links Directory. 2013. Rainfall Slow Motion HD Heavy Rain Drops Falling in Slow Mo Video View of Droplets Hitting Water. YouTube video. 0:13. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIJQkR-ofFo X-Ray. 2014. Human Hand X-Ray. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100858351/

Howard, Sainte. 2014. In Transit. Vimeo video. 4:45. https://vimeo.com/80111983 Hybrid Medical Animation. 2011. Anatomy Reveal. Vimeo video. 1:30. https://vimeo. com/22664444 Jenkins, Dylan. 2014. Transformium-transformers: age of extinction. YouTube. video. 1:58. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-LRRqRK3Ew Lomas, Andy. 2014. Cellular Forms. YouTube video. 6:04. https://vimeo. com/83294152 New York Skyline. 2014. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100856387/ New Your Buildings Wallpaper. 2013. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100857762/ Salerno, Leandro. 2008. CG – Cells. Vimeo video. 0:20. https://vimeo.com/863268 Scott, Ridley. 2011. Prometheus - Official Trailer [TRUE HD]. YouTube video. 1:09. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sftuxbvGwiU Serkis, Andy. 2014. Dawn Of The Planet Of The Apes Official Clip - Prepare for Dawn (2014) Andy Serkis HD. YouTube video. 1:46. https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=cP8l2s9okAs Sisman, Candas. 2010. Flux. Vimeo video. 4:45. https://vimeo.com/15395471 Skull X-Ray. 2014. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/pin/348958671100858347/ The Best Slow Motions. 2014. Slow Motion Smoke Swirl. YouTube video. 1:27. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79tcBQlgIqE

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APPENDIX Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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BINOCULAR PERCEPTION Dependant on the interaction between both eyes to view the world, which can sometimes cause ambiguity or illusions based on the fact they don’t see entirely the same images due to their separation. The image is distorted.

VISUAL STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

THE MIND IS BOUND BY LAWS OF PHYSICS

When looking at an object the mind categorizes the objects into stable or instable objects, the simple rotation of an object compared to a flat object can make it feel unstable and instantly draw attention to itself. Which spills over to convey movement. This is why symmetry is so attractive to the human eye. (Deregowski 1984, 65)

The human brain evolved by finding patterns and relationships in information supplied by light to our eyes and associating those relationships with a behavioral meaning by interacting with the world. The mind is bound by the laws of physics constantly calculating, shapes, lines and spaces. (Lotto 2009) How we see is by continually redefining normality. Begging the question does this new contortion of space break down the minds systematic approach to geometry?

The law of visual reconstruction. A series of laws based on how the mind reconstructs objects in groups based on their visual properties.

BUILDING METHODOLOGIES

THE VITRUVIAN MAN

THE GOLDEN SECTION

The Penrise Impossible Traingle. Its shape is infinite. Turning back on its self and continously changing. You mind is drawn to this because it is a mathmatically organism and is constantly trying to make sense of its form. (Desolneux 2008,17)

THE MODULAR MAN

System of proportions with same aspect ratio that can be repeated continuously creating an aesthetically balanced shape.

Is a scale of proportions created by architect Le Corbusier, to rectify the visual conflict between the incompatible Imperial and the Metric system.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE

ART NOUVEAU

BAROQUE

Based on a system of proportions and optical illusions to perfect the viewing of the building from all angles. Based on a complex mathematical progression known as the golden mean (golden ratio). No line within the planning of the structure was ever straight. The structures curve and bulge to distort the visual perspective. (Fletcher 2001, 126)

Art Nouveau was by characterized by its use of iron to create organic free flowing forms through what is known as the “whiplash curve” a “long, sensitive curve, undulating, flowing, and interplaying with others, sprouting from corners and covering asymmetrically all available surfaces” This ability to create free flowing organic forms out of iron can be accredited to the incorporation of new technologies of construction and mechanical system (Hanser 1982, 251)

The Baroque period was focused on a rhetorical display of theatrics whereby objects and sculptures represented a figurative portrayal of movement through the capturing of an action or moment making the art works feel deeply alive. This technique was used to express the devine power of the Catholic Church and its absolutist state . Its Architecture was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity (Wikipedia 2008), animating its spaces giving architecture new life.

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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shaD ows to enhance the eD ge conD ition

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

MASS

P hysical mass of an object automatically

creates visual interest anD

if a larger heavy object rests on the centre line of a

gravitational P ull anD

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A cT ion cA rdS

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T

H iS

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G eS T U reS

B ridG e in eL evA T ion

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DECONSTRUCTIVISM

iM P reS S ionS

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

iM P reS S ionS

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

HANI RASHID (ASYMPTOTE)

FRANK GEHRY

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

iM P reS S ionS

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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diS covered direcT T H e B U iL dinG

P eoP L e A re drA W n A roU nd iT S L oU verS

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DANIEL LIBESKIND

PETER EISENMAN

cL A S S ic vS

of force

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GEOMETRIC STRUCTURE DESTABILIZATION

Anti-form, Anti-structure, Anti-hierarchy, all that architecture typically is not (Bernard 70) Dominated by curvilinear shapes, which disturb and dislocate the skeleton of the object. The structure of the building has a feeling of controlled chaos and stimulating unpredictability.

WHO IS ADVOCATING FOR THIS TYPE OF ARCHICTURE?

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

>>>

of force

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W H ere dA vid, A

A NEW ERA OF SPATIAL DIVERSITY

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

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The animation or reanimation of a space or structure which has the ability to unleash chaos upon our senses, but in an ordered and orchestrated fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this animation within architecture is composed though a play of forces that push and pull you around a space or facade leading you on your own journey as it draws you closer into its grasp, creating a sense of implied movement within a structure even though it is not actually moving.

TRICKING THE MINDS PROGRAMMING. INHERENT TENSION IN ILLUSIONS AND DESTABILIZATION

GOTHIC

P roJ ecT inG

This card set is a detailed analysis of the methods employed by various architects to create implied movement within architecture.

If our mind calculates what we see from experience and is rooted in the laws of physics and gravity, then buildings that blur the line between these two are challenging our minds sense of normality throwing our senses into disarray?

MODERN ARCHITECTURE IS AN ATTEMPT TO BREAK FREE OF THE VITRUVIAN BODY

Gothic ecclesiastical architecture, like Classical architecture, represents a calculated geometrical system of proportions. But instead of disrupting its masses horizontally, it distributes them vertically, stacking one upon the other, accelerating the eye upwards. Possessing a strong sense of upward movement (Eyre 2001) This effect was employed to empower the occupant with the presence of god.

B odY

WITHIN ARCHITECTURE

DECONSTRUCTIVIST ARCHITECTURE AND FREEDOM OF DESIGN IN DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT REDEFINING WHAT OUR MINDS PERCEIVES AS NORMALITY?

Depth perception is the way the eye turns a two dimensional reading of a space into a 3D image for the brain.

(Hight 2008, 65)

THE KNOWN

IMPLIED MOVEMENT

We have no direct access to our physical world other than through our senses and the light that falls on our eyes is determined by multiple things in the world, not only by the colour of objects, but the colour of their illumination and the colour the space between us and those objects. You vary any one of those parameters and you’ll change the colour of the light that falls on the eye, this means that the same image can have an infinite number of rail road possibilities. Therefore meaning we can trick the eye into seeing multiple things in one space just through the adjustment of colour and illumination, animating the space (lotto 2009).

GESTALT THEORY

Described as being the principal source of proportion among the Classical orders of architecture and the ideal proportions for the human body.

Throughout the ages many various building techniques have been adopted. Each having strong ties to the era in which it was created. For example Vitruvius and his system of proportions during the Renaissance, The Greeks and their harmony of optical illusions to perfect their buildings and now in the 21st century we are presented with a rapidly emerging technique symbolic of our time. Implied movement within architecture, a symbol of our fast passed forever moving society.

WHAT IF WE DISTORT THE MINDS DEPTH PERCEPTION? WHAT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

WE HAVE NO DIRECT ACCESS TO OUR PHYSICAL WORLD OTHER THAN THROUGH OUR SENES

>>

The mind is an unusual and complicated organ. It transfers information from our eyes interprets it and sends it to our brain, making us feel or react differently to the events or objects we are witnessing. Within this section we will explore how the mind works and why does our mind react in this way when we lay on our eyes on a building that is actually static but gives off the impression that it is moving? Why does the line have so much power in our mind?

We are able to convert two dimensional sensations of a scene on our retina into a three dimensional experience of perception. This depends on using certain depth cues which allows our brain to reconstruct the information into a readable form. (Rookes 2013, 37)

>>

THE MIND THE ANIMATOR

HOW DO WE PERCIEVE THE WORLD SO QUICKLY AND SO ACCURETLY?

G eS T U reS

FRAGMENTATION

Originating from the avant-garde, Suprematist movement. Namely an Russian artist by the name of Kazimir Malevich who was a pioneer of abstract art, interested in Exploding compositions, how space might erupt from the ground and how planes might intersect, fragmenting geometry and essentioally breaking it releasing it from its constraints (Yentob 2013). A technique clearly adopted by the deconstructivist movement of fragmenting geometry and space.

ZAHA HADID

LEWIS.TSURUMAKI.LEWIS (LTL)

THOM MAYNE (MORPHOSIS)

DISCOVERY From the points discussed, architecture is clearly moving into a new direction. One that breaks the confines of the Cartesian box and the Vitruvian system of proportions and delves deep into the unknown world of limitless spacial diversity and creation. As technology has advanced, so has our understanding and manipulation of space. But why so much resistance? Why do we continue to design structures that follow rules set down in a time when the cultural challenges were entirely different to the ones we face now? Because architecture essentially is a product of its time, a response to the challenges of that era, so why are we using a solution that is almost 5 decades old?. It is evident that the old model of architecture it beginning to show its constraints when dealing with the post digital era of man and that new architectural systems and typologies are needed in order to embrace this cultural shift towards a fast paced society of free flowing information. The deconstructivist style is clearly an attempt to embrace this new shift. Implied movement within architecture is a by product of this new style, because as we start to break the geometric norm, our mind is thrown into disarray, as these shapes break the minds sense of normality, forcing it to constantly recalculate what it sees as what it is viewing does not fit any known order or proportion, in turn give the structures life and energy, moreover giving them the illusion of movement. This by product of deconstructivism is clearly under utilized in our cities today, as it has the potential to reactivate spaces and draw people into a space purely through its visual complexity as an attractor. Why design a city with static forms, when this city itself is free flowing and alive? A opportunity to create a new form of architectural typology that better represents the culture of our time is evidently upon the architectural profession.

BERNARD TSCHUMI

Within the practice of architecture their are many individuals who have discovered and exploited this highly under utilized technique. Within this section we shall be looking at who they are? What are their methodologies and why?

POST DIGITAL AGE

METHODOLOGIES

ELECTRIFIED CULTURE BECOMING A METHOD FOR ARCHITECTURAL EXPLORATION (Galofaro, 42)

IMPLIED MOVEMENT. RESEARCH MAP

SPACE ACTIVATION It is clear that implied movement within architecture can be used as an attracting device as our mind is instantly captured by its complexity and juxtaposition. Can these techniques that break the confines of perceptual reality bring life to dormant spaces within city scapes, reactivating the area and bring new purpose and social interaction?

CULTURAL SHIFT New cultural shift due large amounts of readily available information be transfered around the globe due to advancements in technology in this new technological age. Forcing architecture to rethink its condition. (Rackard 2013)

MISSED OPPORTUNITY BY IAIN BICKNELL | 14844784

A new frontier of architecture is upon us due to the freedom of the digital world, allowing us the literally defy the laws of physics and gravity, blurring the lines between floor, wall and roof, creating a new spatial typology which is constantly evolving. Yet architects prefer to criticise this new method of expression and hold onto the methods of the past just like they did during the Neoclassical period. There is an opportunity here for a new limitless spacial typologies of movement and expression that is being represented as little more than a sham.

FRENETICISM/PERCEPTION

DIGITIZATION Asymptote pursue formal and perceptual shifts that are now possible through digitization as well as the sociopolitical and phenomenological possibilities for new spatial conditions available due to these shifts. Their initiative is based on parameters of displacement and transfer, where architecture becomes action, space a relinquishment of control and the ever implicated body, either a shield or a force-field as opposed to a vector or a presence (Rashid 1999).

Frank Gehry attempts to free his buildings from typological constraints into an unprecedented kind of configuration. His works take up a process of transformation and evolution. Where the form is never static it is always progressing. His method is based on deconstuctivism where by he divorces the confines of normal architectural practice. Searching for ways to constantly alter the perception of his structures as one moves around it. Creating complex shapes and structure that represent the time through sophisticated 3D modeling software. (Franseco 1998, 9)

MORPHING/DESTABILIZATION Eisenman uses a technique known as morphing which is used in contemporary cinema, to transform the perception of two figures. Eisenman use this technique in an attempt to destabilize the general notion of cortesion space where each object has a clear and precise form. Breaking free from the geometric limitations and architectural proportions and constraints through the use of virtualisation. (Galofaro, 41)

TECHNOLOGY ALLOWING CREATIVE FREEDOM New advancements in CAD (computer aided design) architects are no longer constrained to the rules of the old world. A new world of endless possibilities has been opened to them through this new technology. No longer bound by the laws of physics and gravity, the rules can be bent and broken. Giving architects the ability to create organic and evolving forms in such complexity that the human mind could not of imagined without the aid of the digital software such as parametric tools.

EVERYTHING MOVES YET WE DESIGN EVERYTHING STATIC

The architecture once again is caught in the confines of what it knows and resists change into architectures new formation of limitless experimentation and possibility. It would rather hold onto the classical system of the old, then delve into a new frontier of expression, discovery and experimentation.

FRAGMENT/DECONSTRUCTION

Libeskind is another deconstructivist at heart. He attempts to break the boundaries of the old Vitruvian constraints yet still pays tribute to them by attempting to create a melding of the two. He states that he wishes to build dynamic spaces that invite the visitor even before entering. This is done through the use of his distinct angular and complex non standard geometric shapes, typical of a deconstructivist architect (Goldberger 2008, 344)

CURIOSITY/OPTICAL ILLUSIONS

Curiosity is a central component of LTL as it plays an consistent and operative role in their projects. Using constraints and limitations as reasons for design intervention and invention. Through out all their projects the play on the minds inability to resist the peculiar or the interesting is clearly evident as they creating optical paradoxes that seduce viewers and draw them around their spaces.

PARAMETRICISM/FLUIDITY/ FLOW Free following organic forms that break the rigid conservative styles of the past, free & light, defying gravity. taking its ques from nature in the way it evolves and deals with complexity. “let it be free, let it flow”. coined by Zaha as Modern Baroque, Fluid Baroque. ( Yentob 2013 )

TRANSFORMATION/JUXTAPOSED

Morphosis signifies a process of forming or being in formation. Reflecting a willingness to embrace sculptural shapes and the sensation of movement (arcspace). Morphosis is a deconsrtuctivist architect who utilizes platonic geometries which are attacked, fragmented, altered and juxtaposed. Conveying an implicit notion of future architecture and incompleteness of form (Mayne, 10).

CINEMATIC SUPERIMPOSITION Tschumis concept is based around the notion of “space, event and movement” resulting in a layering of superimposed points lines and planes reflecting a new concept of interacting layers. His deconstructivist style allowed for a new form of urbanism depicting theatrical spaces which accentuated the idea of movement. (Bure 2008, 48)

ARCHITECTURE IS A PRODUCT OF ITS TIME Architecture is undeniably tied to the period in which it is created. The cultural shifts, economic and technological advancement pave the way for the architecture of its time. For example Baroque architecture speaks of the power of god and the church and is theatrical in nature, depicting acts of legend such as Hercules and Goliath frozen in motion but forever moving. Architecture today is faced with an era of rapid sharing of information and knowledge, highways and travel. A world surrounded by economic and technological advancement which presents new forms of cultural issues, that were not there in the past resulting in a new form of architectural solution. This architectural solution is now open to the tools of its time. The age of unparalleled creative freedom in the three dimension realm of digital design.

NEW ARCHITECTURAL HYBRID A Melding of the Vitruvian system of proportions and the freedom of spatial diversity in these new deconstructivist complex forms, is possible yet architects resist stepping into the unknown. Architects such has Hani Rashid, acknowledge this melding of the two schools of thought and turn it into a new form free flowing architectural expression.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

117


rt

80%

10%

30%

50%

ort nsp ra

po

ry ra

igh level of activity Facilitator of movement Public facility Cultural necessity ode Structure

Favourable

igh level of activity Facilitator of movement Public facility Cultural necessity ode structure Increases infrastructure

Favourable

Educational facility Civic centre public access

Favourable

Expressive form Creativity focused Civic Centre Public access Iconic building Tourist location igh activity (on event)

Favourable

ptimal Performance Moderate Performance imited Performance

Restrictive program inear typology Small Structure Basic technological req.

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program inear typology Small to medium structure arge land area req.

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program inear arrangement Small to medium structure ow pedestrian traffic Basic technological req.

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Small to medium structure Basic technological req. inear Typology

Non-Favourable

t

e

ity

Us

rch

C ng

d

A us

or

100%

100%

80%

60%

E-Skin Researchers from the University of California have created the first ‘electronic skin’ that responds to touch and pressure. The bendy e-skin could be used to give robots a sense of touch.

m eu

ROBOTICS

RELATED DISCIPLINES

- NERI OXMAN (MIT)

GENETIC ENGINEERING

Legend

TE SI

SEEKS ATTENTIONS FOR ALL ANGLES EXPOSED TO ALL POSSIBLE CONDITIONS LANDMARK STYLED LOCATION MAXIMISED LINES OF SITE

ES AG T AN V AD

Anzac Monument

NS O ITI FIN

ierarchy issues Exposed to all elements

Non-Favourable

Complex external program Complex internal program

Non-Favourable

Program specific Complexity issues

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program inear typology oise Pollution Ma or commercial

Non-Favourable

W LO

GH HI

MP CO

Y XIT

ITY

LE

NS TE IN

c ite

rce

ture

me m

er ow lT

el ot

70%

80%

80%

70%

St

Perth

Focal Centre

le

ast

South Perth Foreshore

y

Qua

e

dg

bri

rth

No

rganisation Metabolism Growth Adaptation Response Reproduction omeostasis

7 Laws of Biology

ATTRIBUTES

Facilitator of movement ow complexity Mobile Arc typology

Favourable

Medium to large structure igh activity level (time based) Technology Rich Increases infrastructure

Favourable

Creates Infrastructure Iconic Structure igh Population Density Symbiosis

Favourable

Tourist ocation igh population capacity Glorified internally and externally Small to large structure

Favourable

. . 3. . . . 7.

Wat erba nk

Power Plant

V

LAR

SK E

LE

RE

TA L

Basic program Basic technological req. inear typology Small structure

Non-Favourable

ot publicly accessible ot a tourist location inear typology Basic program Activity based on working hours

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program inear typology Basic technological req.

Non-Favourable

Basic program Basic technological req. inear typology

Non-Favourable

EX O

GE ST RU CT U

VERTICA L LA ND SC AP E

CBD

Site Location: Swan River centre of vision axis

beth

Eliza

k

Lin

‘Alive’ Architecture An Sophisticated Architectural Typology

City

wc

Ne

I

C on vili

t cer

s Art

on

al

um di

Pa

70%

60%

10%

40%

wind

liver reproductive system

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

skin

brain

I AL

ST SY

EM

Arts facility Expressive form Civic Centre Public access Tourist location Cultural centre Facilitator of movement igh activity (on event)

Favourable

Expressive form Creativity focused Civic centre Public access Iconic building Tourist location

Favourable

Tourist ocation Cultural centre Facilitator of movement igh activity (on event) Medium to large structure Civic Centre Public access

Favourable

Tourist location Iconic building Expressive form Civic Centre Public access igh activity (on event)

Favourable

AN RG O VE

nervous system

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req. Small to medium structure

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Basic technological req. Small to medium structure

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req. inear typology

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Small to medium structure Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req.

Non-Favourable

R CBD DEVE

F IG T PAT

I KAGES

TE SI

SITE I ES

ventilation apparatuses

lungs

muscles

skin tensile response

storms

PME TS

blood

eyes

response to stimuli (site, eco)

Evocation

Muscular Tension

rch

nt Pla

ea es

er

t ca

ion

al pit

70%

90%

50%

20%

Restrictive program inear typology Ma or commercial oise

Non-Favourable

ot publicly accessible Safety issues Varied activity levels

Non-Favourable

Standardised learning spaces Small to medium structure Generally not a tourist attraction ot iconic ot public facility

Non-Favourable

Restrictive program ighly complex Ethical Issues Fixed codes

Non-Favourable

IAIN BICKNELL | 14844784

igh level of activity Self Sufficient Sustainable Facilitates reproduction Increases infrastructure

Favourable

Technology rich Complex program Actuator of structures philosophy Enables building to be used for ongoing experiments Maintains heals buildings ecology Increased life expectancy Innovator of technology Small to large structure

Favourable

ighly complex program Abundance of technologies Actuator of structures philosophy Diverse spacial requirements arge demographic of people Increases infrastructure

Favourable

arge structure Biologically focused Increases infrastructure Technology rich Diverse spacial req.

Favourable

Elasticity

Virus

Projection

Membrane

Line Force

internal circulation system

heart

stomach

nutrient production processing

river ecology

boat

walking

swimming

ferry

helicopter

diving

bike

et ski

kayak

car

Iconic Building andmark ocation pportunity

information symbiotic nutrient relationship absorption

intestines

ears

metadata learning network

land ecology

Geometric Transcendence

exo structure

skeletal system

endo structure

tidal changes

ES

PRIMARY I FRASTRUCTURE

MA

LEGEND

varying speeds

‘ALIVENESS’ SAMPLES

adaptation production barrier.filter. self sufficient storage of contract.expand. energy vital nutrients adapt.breath. respond reproduction energy

immune system

kidneys

response to stimuli (site, eco)

rain

TRANSPORT OPPORTUNITIES

E

waste science prog. cerebral recycling heal. replace. neural net re-use system upgrade (info adapt)

sun exposure

Stadium

WEEK 4 INTERIM PRESENTATION

ighly complex program Abundance of technologies Alive city model Diverse spacial requirements arge demographic of people Self sufficient Iconic

Favourable

Facilitate an abundance of uses Activated throughout the week Technology Rich Flexible Site activator

Favourable

Iconic Structure Dual typology Complex program Varied scales Dual Site

Favourable

Transport node igh level of activity Increased infrastructure arge structure

Favourable

. To give motion to . To give life make alive god animated the dust

Definition of Animate

. egal Existence as an animate ob ect . In a state of action in force or operation active 3. aving the quality of life vivid, vibrant

Definition of Life/Alive

DE

T

- IAIN BICKNELL

Behaviour: Is based on a sensory response to conditions imposed upon the body forcing a change or response. Form: Is beyond just geometric shapes and representative constructs, but is expressive of life, its behaviour and responses to imposed conditions.

“Design behaviour rather than form”

. FACILITIES MULTITUDE OF TRANSPORT OPTIONS ENGAGES WITH URBAN,LAND & WATER ECOLOGIES ADVANCED TYPOLOGY AND PROGRAM GLOBAL RECOGNITION

Cyborg Flesh Bio-engineers at arvard University have created the first examples of cyborg tissue eurons, heart cells, muscle, and blood vessels that are interwoven by nano wires and transistors

IBM Watson - Cognitive System Watson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Liquid Solar Cells Researchers at USC developed technology utili ing nanochristals to produce cheap and stable solar cells that may be printed on clear surfaces or stay as liquid ink.

Nano-Particles A nanoparticle wrapped in a red blood cell membrane can remove toxins from the body and could be used to fight bacterial infections,

Graphene Carbon based material x stronger than steel with a multitude of applications such as ero energy filtration devices and flexible hardware.

NANO-TECHNOLOGY

Organ Growth from own Stem Cells annah Warren is the youngest person in history to receive a bioengineered organ transplant, a new windpipe made of a synthetic scaffold and her own stem cells.

BIO-ENGINEERING

Nano Imprinting Natures Textures Moth eye textures printed directly onto a film producing x better anti reflective films than that of commercial chemically produced ones.

BIO-MIMETICS

Healing Plastics And Circuitry new materials are being manufactured that heal themselves based on the bodies ability to heal scratches and cuts.

BIO-MIMICRY

Underwater

Incoming outgoing Freeway

An ac Memorial

Riverside Drive

Incoming outgoing Air Traffic

ERSIBLE LANDSCAPE SUBM

South Perth Foreshore

VISUAL STIMULI

C

IN SE

Bali Memorial

P

LETAL SKE ENDO

Kings Park Perth

PERTH CBD NARRATIVE TENSION ANALYSIS SCA E

Subiaco Link

L

os

VANTAGE POINTS

Mu s

ib

Ai r

T

Pu b lic

en tia Resid

Co ffi c e

Ar ch

Amph ibi o

Mi xe

Flo at i

NC E

MAM MAL

INTE LLI GE Ship

Exp o

St a

Cu lt u r

IDEAL TYPOLOGIES BASED ON SITE C

H Thea tre

HI G u

ITY EX PL

A

M

ALIVE ARCHITECTURE

AM PH IB Ed

NISM ORGA R

LO

ENSITY W INT

N IA

O

IES

SITE CONDITIONS RID Scien ce

TURE

H YB ydro po w

S TR U C

ED IFI UN

OG OL EC

A LL SM

SITE CONDITIONS

119


“COMPLEXITY THAT CALLS FOR SIMPLICITY. ITS LIKE MAGIC, EVERYONE EXPECTS IT TO BE COMPLEX BUT THE ILLUSION IS DISTRACTION”

Artificial Intelligence

Bio-Mimicry

Nano Film Solar Cells

Bio-Mimetics

Genetic Engineering

Shape Memory Alloy

“All the problems of the world could be settled easily if men were only willing to think.”

ano Technology

Research Facility

HUMAN ANATOMY

DISCIPLINES NANO-TECHNOLOGY BIO-MIMICRY BIO-MIMETICS BIO-ENGINEERING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE GENETIC ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY ROBOTICS/BIONICS

cerebral waste science prog. recycling heal. replace. neural net (info adapt) re-use system upgrade

response to stimuli (site, eco)

skin tensile response

metadata learning network

endo structure

BRAIN response to stimuli (site, eco)

PROGRAM

Imposed site condition

. Wilson will act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and discoveries . Wilson will record all climatic and sensory data recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to external conditions 3. Wilson will evaluate best systematic response to all external and internal conditions over time

nutrient production processing

System response

Data received and stored

Data analy ed Brain

OCTOPUS

ypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

TRANSFORMABLE DESIGN Data Analysed implemented

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

R - Facility

REFERENCE

THIS PROVIDES THE COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT TO FACILITATE CREATIVE THINKING AND PROCESS

PROGRAM

MATERIALS

EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION CHANGE ITS SIZE, COLOUR AND TEXTURE 8 LEGS WITH MINDS OF THEIR OWN

IBM WATSON

Electro Active Polymer

kidneys

immune system

brain

reproductive system

liver

skin

REPRODUCTION Development of new tech based on acquired data and research

Thermochromic Polymer

Watson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. And learn it does. Watson “gets smarter” in three ways: by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information

Bionics Robotics

Bio Engineering

LIVING Field testing

ECDYSIS Removal of redundant tech

SYSTEMS

muscles

nervous system

lungs

skeletal system

ears

eyes

stomach

intestines

blood

heart

CIRCULATION

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech Sensory E-Skin

Graphene

The multi-disciplinary research facility will follow a collaborative program where all will aid in the accelerated development of areas in their respected elds using the structure as a test bed for their research and ndings. Acting as the structures responsive immune system. It will heal, it will grow, it will evolve, it will age.

adaptation production barrier.filter. self sufficient storage of contract.expand. energy vital nutrients adapt.breath. respond reproduction energy

ventilation Apparatuses

exo structure

information symbiotic relationship nutrient absorption

THE IMPLICATION IS THAT THE BRAIN ONLY HAS TO SEND A SINGLE MOVE COMMAND TO THE ARM, AND THE ARM WILL DO THE REST.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE MIND

PROGRAM

Structure transportation system work on non linear rail system through contained tubes like the vascular system and trachea of the human body that run from the land and the base of the organism up through the spine and into the rib structures for entry into the diaphragm

internal circulation system

Structural Rib Vessel Gyroscopic Rail

SELECTED FOCUS

Polymer ligament

science prog. heal. replace. upgrade

RIVER . .

storms

tidal changes

land ecology

river ecology

sun exposure

wind

rain

algae

Spinal Structure

WEEK 11 INTERIM PRESENTATION

SKIN LAWS Behavior: Is based on a sensory response to conditions imposed upon the body forcing a change or response.

barrier.filter. contract.expand. adapt.breath. respond

PROGRAM CURRENT SITUATION

ALL RESPONSES + INFO RELAYED TO THE BRAIN

Transport System

ow waters are hypoxic - low oxygen meaning very little life sometimes even anoxic meaning no oxygen - no life, This decomposes organic matter releasing nutrients causing toxic blue green algae bloom. River was named after the famous Black Swan River has two currents fresh water flowing over the top and denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom Algae comes in the summer months killing aquatic fauna and forna by starving them of oxygen. igh levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae. Parts of the river were reclaimed and dredged due to flooding and marshy mosquito infested land.

skin

Form: Is beyond just geometric shapes and representative constructs, but is expressive of life, its behavior and responses to imposed conditions.

PROPOSED SOLUTION

Ductile Skeletal System

BODY’S LARGEST ORGAN nervous system

skeletal system

exo structure Muddy Polluted water

Toxic blue green algae bloom

Aeration of water around site

PROGRAM

ADAPTABLE SKIN HYBRID Scales: Barrier Protection Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Melatonin: Thermochromic ayer Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

SKIN VARIATIONS TO REFLECT DIFFERENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

HUMAN SKIN . supple membrane composed of three layers -- the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis -- that work in support of one another . The epidermis thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one. serves as our armor against infections and diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its color 3. oldest skin cells are shed to make room for the younger ones that lie beneath them. But unlike snakes, we shed our skin gradually . The dermis is full of collagen, which gives your skin its firmness, contains sweat glands and hair follicles. contains nerve endings that allow you to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is body’s own smoke detector . innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue, wonderful stuff that insulates our body and controls its temperature. . sebum a substance that shields our epidermis from the elements. oils and secrets that coat the skin. 7. Skin cells called keratinocytes determine skin colour - absorbs harmful UV raise. Dark skin is less susceptible to burning.

Dermis: Sensory Support ayer

“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” AIR CELL MEMBRANE

LAND CELL MEMBRANE

A L I V E “Design behavior rather than form”

WATER CELL MEMBRANE

BMW GINA MOVEABLE SKIN MADE OF POLYURETHANE COATED LYCRA WITH INTERNAL MOVING ENDO SKELETON

ECOLOGIES

Compress

Wrinkle

Bend

Stretch

Front

GENERAL PROGRAM

Polymer ayer

W

OFFICE

HOTEL

CULTURAL CENTRE

RESEARCH FACILITY

GEOTHERMAL POWER WIND POWER BIO FUEL (ALGAE) SOLAR ENERGY

TRANSPORT

Front

Side

COMFORT RANGE Translucent

TRANSLUCENT MEMBRANE DETAIL

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

EXPANDED DIAPHRAGM Breath In

Moves on spinal axis creating multitude of spaces also purging heat and air

3 Separate modules independent of the central spine

Separate modules independent of the central spine. Spine exposed

Moves on spinal axis creating multitude of spaces also purging heat and air

SPINE PROGRAM

E

form works with tidal and air flows, acting with and not against. opening in structure for cross ventilation. possible gaps in form (large scale)

DUCTILE SKELETAL PROGRAM

Closed spine formation

Can take on multiple forms

Ductile Expansion

Expanded Diaphragm

Summer - Sea Up Stream

helicopter

car

walking

ferry

kayak

boat

swimming

et ski

diving

Form is driven by the tension between the two opposing forces of wind and water currents on site. The structures form will use implied movement techniques to re ect these converging forces while the structures responsive program will animate the structures as a whole. Smooth transitions will take place between both land, air and water ecologies, creating a uni ed response between the 3.

openings in higher levels to release heat like termite mound

STORM

TWO CURRENT Salt water on bottom (dense) Fresh Water Above - down

4 MAIN VANTAGE POINTS

Reactive Scales Side

CONTRACTED DIAPHRAGM Breath ut

Winter - Fresh Down Stream

Dermus Support

Front

CONTRACTED DIAPHRAGM Breath ut

SW

TRANSPORT HUB/PORT

E-Skin Sensor

storms

OPTION 2

EXPANDED DIAPHRAGM Breath In

E

ENERGY

Side

MEMBRANE REMOVAL

Diaphragm/Floor Plates

IMPLIED MOVEMENT

tension between wind and river currents apparent in the form.

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

SPINE REMOVAL

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

Membrane

FORM

MIXED USE

RETAIL

EXTREME UV White Tint Reflector

ENDO REMOVAL

OPTION 1

SMOOTH TRANSITIONS MUSCLE TO TENDON TENDON TO BONE

RESILIENT SKIN

EXO REMOVAL

NERVOUS SYSTEM RUNS THROUGH THE SPINAL CORD OF THE BUILDING AND TO THE SKIN AND BRAIN. BRAIN RECORDS STIMULI AND ACTUATES APPROPRIATE RESPONSE.

1. LAND ECOLOGY 2. AIR ECOLOGY 3. RIVER ECOLOGY

SCALE MOTION

TRANSITIONAL SKIN

- Charles Darwin

REFERENCE

SKIN REMOVAL

Rib Structure

INCORPORATES BOTH SKELETAL SYSTEMS WITH AN INTERNAL SPINE

NERVOUS SYSYEM

COMPLETE SYSTEM

Spinal Structure Skin

Allows for public en oyment of the Swan River

Energy: ano film Solar Cells

The skin of the building replicates the functions of human skin which consists of 5 distinct programs with speci c functions. The skin re ects the 3 separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to imposed conditions such as light, wind, rain and touch. The skin will also act as the buildings solar energy source, harvesting energy throughout the day. The skin when in a static position of rest should re ect the principles of implied movement actively animating the structure. As the skin is polymer based it will stretch and crease just like human skin once stress is applied to it from the internal structure reacting to wind conditions.

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

endo structure

Endo Skeleton

Aeration System

Destruction of atural Aquatic life

Exo skeleton connects to internal endo skeleton which connects to core spine. This will allow the Endo Skeleton to hold up the structure while the facade is changed by the science facility. If exo skeleton needs changing, the Endo Skeleton will hold up structure. All core functions ow through the spine to the brain.

Allows for growth of natural fauna

Structure

ack of aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

PROGRAM

INTERRELATED SYSTEMS

VANTAGE POINTS

. 3.

Conditions in which structure must respond

South Perth

perth

bike freeway kings park

east perth

south perth

Structure closes form and links back together bracing itself

IMPLIED MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES

Line Force

Projection

Virus

Membrane

Evocation

Elasticity

WIND

Structure reacts to strong wind loads flexing and bracing taking in air

Geometric Transcendence

RIVER REHABILITATION Due to the lack of oxygen on the river bed resulting in mercy waters and lack of vegetation and aquatic life, air will be pumped into the water around the structure in turn aerating the water and providing a sound environment for flora and fauna to grow. This will inturn create a new habitat around the structure. Some where to view this beautiful underwater ecology as well as support river life

SITE CONDITIONS

Perth CBD

Muscular Tension

.

cerebral neural net (info adapt)

Structure based on the Trachea which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and exibility.

121


S K I N M E L AT O N I N SY S T E M

S P I N A L SY S T E M S

ea es

R

S TAT U S

+500.0

rch

Scien ce

SITE CONDITIONS

+490.0 90%

+480.0 Storms

+470.0

+460.0

Tidal EXTREME UV Tint Adaptation

Iconic Building Landmark Location

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

+450.0

Wind

RE A C T I O N 1

RE A C T I O N 2

+440.0

RE A C T I O N 3

ACCESS

Rain

+430.0

Car

Helicopter

Kayak

Ferry

Structure reacts to strong wind loads exing and bracing taking in air

Jet Ski

Swimming

Bike

Walking

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

Us

d

Mi xe

COMFORT RANGE Translucent

Sun Exposure

+420.0

WIND

Land Ecology

+410.0

e

+400.0 100%

Algae

SKIN TRANSITION

S T O RM

Boat

Diving

+390.0

B RA C I N G

Extreme Environmental Conditions

Structure braces itself by locking spinal cords into a xed position

+380.0

River Ecology

S TA G E 1 30% UV

Perth Site Plan | Scale 1:20000

S TA G E 2 50% UV

S TA G E 3 60% UV

S TA G E 4 80% UV

+370.0

+360.0

+350.0 Superior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

+340.0 Inferior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

+330.0

Transverse Process Muscle Connection

me m

+320.0

rce

ffi c e

Co

F RO N T

80%

Spinal Column Structural Body

+300.0

Intervertebral Disc Compression exibility

SIDE

FINAL PRESENTATION LAYOUT

+310.0

Rib Facet Rib Connection

+290.0

+280.0

+270.0 Lamina Spinal Nerve Exit

Spinal Canal Nerve System

+260.0

Transverse Process Rib connection Muscle Connection

+250.0

V I S U A L I N F O R M AT I O N I N T E R FA C E

C I R C U L AT I O N SY S T E M 3

Structural Rib Transport Cell

8

1

u

90%

+210.0

+200.0

Polymer Ligament

+190.0

3

Structure based on the Trachea which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and exibility.

Research

9

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

7

T RA N S P O RT N E RV E

Research Facility

Legend 5

6

+180.0

+170.0

Skin Spine Spinal Canal Exo Skeleton Endo Skeleton Rib Structure Floor Diaphragm Void Vascular Transport Floor plate

Transport Veins

Analysis

+160.0

COMPLETE SECTION

2 Memory

+150.0

Brain Structural Rings 1

1 2

1

1

Legend 1. Pedestrain 2. Large Objects Cargo/supply

S T RU C T U RA L A S S E M B LY

1 Visual Display

EXO MEMBER

+140.0

el ot

+130.0

Skin Interface

70%

Polymer Membrane/ Visual Interface

4

User Data

rgan Responses

Uploads

Skin

Downloads

Skeleton

uestions

Ecological Data

Immune

+110.0

t

+100.0

ENDO SKELETON

60%

+90.0

River

Circulation

Gestures

or

P

User Interactions

+120.0

EXO SKELETON

Data Transfer

1

RI B S T RU C T U RE

and

ENDO MEMBER

C ng

+80.0

ity

Flo at i

1

Statistics

+70.0

Air

Typical Floor Plan | Scale NTS

Tower Ecology Plan | Scale NTS Scale Bar

0

5 10

20

TRANSPORT VASCULAR SYSTEM

+230.0

n

Ed

tio

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4

Legend 1. Tower 2. Membrane 3. Skin 4. Rib Cage

+240.0

ca

STRUCTURAL SY S T E M S

Gyroscopic Rail

2 3

PLAN

The skin system of the building acts as an interactive visual information interface which is constantly streaming visual data via the nervous system from various organs and locations from all around the structure’s body, collating data from people, the environment, its water, land and air ecologies as well as local and global scienti c advancements. This allows users to become part of the building’s information ecology as it streams data all over its skin towards the brain and science divisions in the form of text, images, questions, interactions and statics. Users can interact with the skin interface by uploading data to the brain, asking it questions, catching passing data streams or simply gestural movements on the skin to activate the user interface. This visual information system creates a sense of human data space occupation where by the users of the building can visually and physically interact with its learning process, becoming one with the structure’s scienti c endeavor, allowing the public to embrace this new form of architectural ecology through educational experiences.

The system is based on the nervous and vascular systems of the human body running on a non-linear rail through contained tubes which runs from the land and base of the organism up through the spine and into the rib structures for for entry into the diaphragm and spinal canal.

1

50

Scale Bar

0

5

10

Perth CBD

South Perth

100%

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20

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Cu lt u r

a

rts lA

Spinal Structure

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Transport System 60%

+20.0

Pu b lic

T

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ort n sp ra

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Arc

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h

Amph ibi

o

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us

INTERNAL ECOLOGY

-20.0 80%

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S WA N R I V E R R E J U V E N AT I O N

-60.0

rce

ffi c e

Co

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me m

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-80.0

5

1

Due to the below factors the result is the Swan River we know today; a polluted environment that we tell our children not to play in and are even reluctant to venture in ourselves. With this in mind, the opportunity was seized to rehabilitate the Swan River by dredging out the decayed/ polluted river bed and pumping it full of micro-nutrients and re-oxygenated water. This in turn would create an entirely rejuvenated natural habitat around the structure’s base that could be studied and maintained for the future enjoyment of the city and the varied natural aquatic species of the Swan River ecology.

5

1

-90.0

-100.0

Mi xe

5

d

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e Us

-120.0

4

4

100%

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5

5 2

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2 Structure

-150.0

Aeration System

4

PROBLEM

4 •

• •

River has two distinct currents running both up and down stream. Fresh water ows downstream into the ocean over the top of the denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom. This makes the Lower waters of the swan river hypoxic and even sometimes anoxic – which means little to no oxygen is available on the river bed for aquatic fauna or life to ourish, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter and the releasing of nutrients which cause blue green algae bloom. This creates vicious cycle creating Algae in the summer months which kills any aquatic fauna attempting to grow by starving them of oxygen. High levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae usually a result of decomposing aquatic fauna at the bottom of the sea bed.

-170.0 70%

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Summer - Sea Up Stream

1

ea es

-220.0

TWO CURRENTS Salt water on bottom (dense) Fresh Water Above - down

1

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rch

Scien ce

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Winter - Fresh Down Stream

3

-160.0

el ot

90%

-230.0

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5

V

E

-250.0

u

I

Toxic blue green algae bloom

c

io at

No aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

-270.0

Destruction of Natural Aquatic life

90%

-280.0

SOLUTION

-290.0

“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”

-300.0

- Charles Darwin Allows for growth of natural fauna

INTRODUCTION “That building is alive…”. A statement that this research has vigorously explored over the course of this dissertation, but what does this statement mean? What is this personi cation or evocation of architecture? How does the building come alive and how does it engage with its context? All relevant and intriguing questions which this research has explored through a design proposal situated within the heart of the Swan Canning River.

1

4

The statement “that building is alive…” refers to a relatively new form of architectural response that this research will denote as ‘The Alive’. The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scienti c terms. These types of buildings have their own complex ecology of moving parts, skins, organs and innovative technologies that bring them to life, harmonising a new form of external expression, gesturing and interacting with their surrounding context. All this is made possible by the introduction of innovative digital and non-digital technological instruments to facilitate new types of architectural experimentation and exploration into that which was not thought possible.

4 2

Aerial Floor Plan | Scale 1:5000

Legend

The research presents an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-acquaintance of architecture with the applied sciences. Architecture only needs to leverage off the technologies the applied scienti c elds develop and apply it to the designs. Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007). Identifying a need for architecture to reorientate itself with the multitude of scienti c disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with that of the adaptive intelligence of nature. As Charles Darwin in his evolutionary theory identi es “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15).

1. Port 2. Ship Entry 3. Internal ecology 4. Main Hall Diaphragm 5. Vascular Connection

5

Through the exploration of this statement the research has achieved a deeper understanding of ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the historical developments of non-static architectural systems, the rapid advancement of new scienti c technologies plus nature itself as an endless resource of information and the systems of the human body to develop a design response shaped by the principles discovered around this notion. The research is signi cant as we are moving into a rapidly evolving technological age of free owing information and technological advancement. Our urban environments are being left behind, stuck within the limitations of the Cartesian systems of old, where static forms stagnate our cities; which cities in their very nature are pulsing with life and activity, thus presenting an opportunity to create a new form of architectural species that better represents the culture of our time and forms a symbiotic relationship with its occupants.

5

BACKGROUND “Implied movement” within architecture refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architecture has the ability to unleash chaos upon the mind’s senses, but in an ordered and manipulative fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this phenomenon within architecture is composed though a play of “forces” that push and pull the viewer around a space or facade creating a sense that either they or the object is moving even though it is essentially static. The engagement that these structures impose upon the viewer’s mind is the principle element that gives them their energy. These types of structures often evoke within the viewer (also described as evocation) associations of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another, moreover expressing itself as one thing, such as a building, but gesturing something else entirely.

This investigation initially in the dissertation proposal resulted in the research of 4 key areas associated with this idea: Existing architectural works that facilitate this phenomenon, the mind as the animator, the evolution of building methodologies and advocates of ‘the Alive’. As the research progressed, the investigation into the sciences and nature around the notion of life and how nature and other living organisms have evolved over time to adapt and respond to their surrounding environmental conditions, became increasingly important within the research. This resulted in the exploration of new scienti c technological advancements in elds such as bio-mimicry, bio-mechatronics, bio-engineering, bio-mimetics and many others, which in turn brought attention to the true meaning of what it means to be alive within architecture, and how nature and science are an endless source of information that must be leveraged and applied. The research into these two additional aspects underlined the importance of the ecologies within the Perth CBD area and allowed for a further investigation into the ecologies of air, land and water. SCIENCES In the beginning of the research the intention was primarily to study the current and historic developments of non-static architectural systems on the premise that this would give the project grounding around what it means to be alive. However as the research progressed, it was evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the con nes of the introverted architectural profession, and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed or have been developed by the multitude of scienti c elds. This allowed the project to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to present a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the vital need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation. ECOLOGIES After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that The Swan Canning River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan Rivers’ multiple environmental issues such as pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health. SIGNIFICANCE As discussed in the background this “rapid change” requires appropriate response. Thus the signi cance is in the response: 1. Presenting an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through

the re-amalgamation of architecture with the sciences, and the potential of what could be achieved if architecture only leveraged off the technologies. These scienti c elds are developed and applied to their own designs, as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology quotes ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), identifying an evident need for architecture to re-orientate itself with the multitude of scienti c disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession,

2.

3.

4.

5.

but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with adaptive prowess of nature. As Charles Darwin, an English naturalist best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory, cleverly identi es “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15) Submitting a proposition that not only looks inwards, but outwards as well, borrowing, leveraging and harnessing intelligence from nature and science, taking advantage of the best technologies and intellect on offer in order to provide a highly responsive and adaptable design solution. Putting forth a building that is not only high tech, but is attributed with an abundance of abilities, from monitoring and self-regulation, to a high level of intelligence, responsiveness and adaptability to change. A structure that, like the human body, is constantly regenerating itself, learning and adapting to its surrounding environment. Presenting a design proposition that contributes to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the Swan River and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scienti c research and experimentation. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, not only to itself but also its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies, that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

Endo Skeleton Skin

The adaptation of the spine to the building was used to empower the structures formal composition while allowing the building to flex, twist and brace against external environmental conditions like that of a human being. The ductile programming of the spinal arrangements allows for any part of the skeletal system to be upgraded, as all elements of the system work together as a whole and independently in the instance they may need to support the load of a redundant system that is in the process of being upgraded.

immune system

Spinal Structure

nervous system

skeletal system

Watson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. And learn it does. Watson gets smarter in three ways by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information. This technology was integrated into the structure in order to adopt the functions of the human brain while following these five programmatic principles. Watson will implement these principles as follows

Rib Structure Membrane Diaphragm Floor Plates

ine Force

Pro ection

Membrane

Evocation

Brain

endo structure

COMPLETE SYSTEM

SKIN REMOVAL

EXO REMOVAL

ENDO REMOVAL

Bio-Mimicry

Bio-Mimetics

Imposed site condition Genetic Engineering

Research Facility

. Act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and invention . Record all climatic and sensory data, internally and externally recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to imposed conditions. 3. Interact and learn from the building’s occupants and develop its intelligence over time . Collaborate and aid in all scientific and non-scientific endeavours by its counterparts around the globe . Aid in the betterment, advancement, innovation and prolonging of the human race and the environment

LIVING Field testing

Elasticity

Virus

Data analysed implemented

Bionics Robotics

SYSTEMS

Data received and stored

Data analysed Brain

ypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

ano Technology

REPRODUCTION Development of new tech based on acquired data and research

MEMBRANE REMOVAL

System response

ECDYSIS Removal of redundant tech

R - Facility

-320.0 90%

Allows for public enjoyment of the Swan River

-330.0

PANELS 1-4 @ 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM PANEL 5 @ 1980X600 SATURN 190GSM

CONCLUSION The complexities of our natural world continue to intrigue, challenge and reveal to us lessons that have greatly advanced our understanding of its intelligence. Civilisation has come at a great price on our natural environment. The constructed environment has been quite unsympathetic to the important balance of ecologies of: water, land and sky. The discipline of architecture has a signi cant part to play as it seeks to balance the sustainability equation (social, cultural, economic and environmental). Our constructed built forms must “EVOLVE” and “ADAPT” and to be an agent of change – responsively intelligent and at the same time humane places that support the advancement in the quality to human society. The so call bricks and mortars of the buildings of the future are strongly receptive to the application of intelligent materials and systems. The research was always ambitious since the very beginning to scope widely and at all times taking advantage of knowledge from past, current and immediate future from discoveries – research that have been innovatively applied in the automotive, robotic, aerospace, information technology and biomedical industries . Notwithstanding also that nature holds many secrets where by animals and plants have physical attributes that allow them to survive and thrive under extreme conditions. The nal project is in no way meant to be a resolved design; rather the outcomes presented a kind of “armatureplatform” in which the project continues to be a test-bed. A design to debate architecture themes around: generative design, form, typology, technological systems, ecologies, education, sustainability, responsive and adaptive design solutions. The applied sciences identi ed, explored and adopted in this research have and will continue to signi cantly challenge the discipline of architecture to re-imaging the “buildings as ecologies” - Alive and thriving. The harmonious balance of the natural and the built environment in a coexisting relationship – where both are living “beings” – is where I would consider devoting my future practice.

BICK

E

7

AIR SKIN SYSTEM

LAND SKIN SYSTEM Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: ines of Force Ability: Turbulence Reduction

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

Dermis: Sensory Support ayer Energy: ano film Solar Cells

Dermis: Sensory Support ayer Energy: ano film Solar Cells

Dermis: Sensory Support ayer

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Melatonin: Thermochromic ayer

Melatonin: Thermochromic ayer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

MOVEABLE SKIN MADE OF POLYURETHANE COATED LYCRA WITH INTERNAL MOVING ENDO SKELETON

RESILIENT SKIN

H 2O

Air Filtration

E-Skin Sensor

Melatonin: Thermochromic ayer

Electro Active Polymer

Water Turbulence

Dermis Support

Compress

Wrinkle

Bend

Stretch

Indigo Snake Scales

Protective Armor

Air Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Extreme Weather

Indigo Snake Scales

Land Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Extreme Weather Protective Armor

Smooth Surface

Smooth Surface

Reduction in surface air friction

Reduction in surface air friction

Indigo Snake Scales

Turbulence Reduction

Water Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Weather Water Turbulence

Human Skin Structure

ess Stress on Spine

Silent Flow Armor Barrier

• •

PANEL 2

Closing Scale

ines of Force

Closing Scale

PANEL 3

ines of Force

Nano Film Solar Cells

Electro Active Polymer

The skin reflects these 3 separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to imposed site conditions such as light, wind, rain, water currents and touch, also facilitating the ability to harvest solar energy throughout the day through the implementations of liquid solar cell technology. The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the cars skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions. (Youtube, Gina) This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structures structural skeleton without deformations imposed onto it by the skeletal structure causing any damage. The composition of the skins structural was designed to reflect the functions of the human skin as close as possible with other adaptations from other organisms such as sharks and snakes being applied as an extra protective layer, which human skin lacks.

• • Scale Assembly

Shape Memory Alloy

Thermochromic Polymer

Graphene

Filtration Membrane

Reduction

Structures Skin Functions

The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the car’s skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions (BMW Web TV ). This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structure’s skeletal system without deformations imposed onto it by the spine causing any damage.

TECHNOLOGY

Reactive Scales

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

O2

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Air Filtration

REJUVENATED WATER ECOLOGY

SKIN DETAIL

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

O2

WATER SKIN SYSTEM

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech

PANEL 1

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

BMW GINA SKIN REACTIONS

Artificial Intelligence

exo structure

INTERRELATED SYSTEMS

SPINE REMOVAL

BRAIN PROGRAM IBM WATSON

THIS PROVIDES THE COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT TO FACILITATE CREATIVE THINKING AND PROCESS

Bio Engineering

skin system

IMPLIED MOVEMENT

Geometric Transcendence

UNIFIED SKELETAL SYSTEMS WITH AN INTERNAL SPINE

RESEARCH FACILITY IMMUNE SYSTEM

Muscular Tension

ALL RESPONSES + INFO RELAYED TO THE BRAIN

DUCTILE SKELETAL SYSTEM

-310.0

rch

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analysis of ‘The Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

IAI

FOCUS

ea es

Scien ce

R

Aeration of water around site

1

MAIN HALL DIAPHRAGM

-260.0

n

Ed

A

5

Muddy Polluted water

Smooth Flow

The skin consists of a supple membrane composed of three layers -- the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis that all work in support of one another. The epidermis is the thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one. Serving as the body’s armour against infectious diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its colour, darkening in response to harmful UV rays in order to protect the skin. Commonly referred to as a ‘Tan’. The Dermis layer is full of collagen, which gives the skin its firmness, containing sweat glands and hair follicles. It also contains nerve endings that allow us to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is body’s the body’s alarm system, signalling it into action. The innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, which connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue that insulates our body and controls its temperature. Sebum is an oily substance that the body excretes to coat the skin to shield the epidermis from the elements. The skin also consists of cells called Keratinocytes which determine peoples skin colour – These skin cells absorb harmful UV rays. People with dark skin due to this cell are less susceptible to burning. 7. Unlike snakes humans shed their skin gradually, shedding old skin cells to make room for the new ones that lie beneath them.

Shark Skin Technology

PANEL 4

Sensory E-Skin

PANEL 5


5

5

River Ecology

Algae

Sun Exposure

Land Ecology

Rain

Wind

Tidal

Storms

FOCUS

4

2

nervous system

1

4

Scale Bar

skeletal system

INTERRELATED SYSTEMS

skin system

4

1

0

5 10

5

20

Tower Ecology Plan | Scale NTS

ALL RESPONSES + INFO RELAYED TO THE BRAIN

1

immune system

3

SITE CONDITIONS

50

1

1

2

5

2

3

5

5

4

endo structure

MEMBRANE REMOVAL

ENDO REMOVAL

SKIN REMOVAL

exo structure

Diaphragm Floor Plates

Membrane

Rib Structure

Skin

Endo Skeleton

Spinal Structure

PANEL 1

SPINE REMOVAL

EXO REMOVAL

COMPLETE SYSTEM

The adaptation of the spine to the building was used to empower the structures formal composition while allowing the building to flex, twist and brace against external environmental conditions like that of a human being. The ductile programming of the spinal arrangements allows for any part of the skeletal system to be upgraded, as all elements of the system work together as a whole and independently in the instance they may need to support the load of a redundant system that is in the process of being upgraded.

UNIFIED SKELETAL SYSTEMS WITH AN INTERNAL SPINE

DUCTILE SKELETAL SYSTEM

4

Tower Membrane Skin Rib Cage 6

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

1

1. 2. 3. 4.

Legend

4

5

1

1

8

7

2

3

0

5

4

1

20

2

4

9

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Port Ship Entry Internal ecology Main Hall Diaphragm Vascular Connection

Legend

Aerial Floor Plan | Scale 1:5000

10

1

5

Boat Diving

LIVING Field testing

Bio Engineering

Genetic Engineering

Bio-Mimicry

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech

SYSTEMS

REPRODUCTION Development of new tech based on acquired data and research

Research Facility

Artificial Intelligence

Brain

ECDYSIS Removal of redundant tech

Bionics Robotics

ano Technology

Bio-Mimetics

THIS PROVIDES THE COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT TO FACILITATE CREATIVE THINKING AND PROCESS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

5

Skin Spine Spinal Canal Exo Skeleton Endo Skeleton Rib Structure Floor Diaphragm Void Vascular Transport Floor plate

Legend

Walking

RESEARCH FACILITY IMMUNE SYSTEM

5

Scale Bar

Typical Floor Plan | Scale NTS

Perth Site Plan | Scale 1:20000

Swimming

Bike

Ferry

Helicopter

Jet Ski

Kayak

Car

ACCESS

Iconic Building Landmark Location

S TAT U S


2 1

1

Perth CBD

1. Pedestrain 2. Large Objects Cargo/supply

Transport System

Spinal Structure

Polymer Membrane/ Visual Interface

Structural Rings

Transport Veins

South Perth

Structure based on the Trachea which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and exibility.

Polymer Ligament

Gyroscopic Rail

Transport Cell

Structural Rib

The system is based on the nervous and vascular systems of the human body running on a non-linear rail through contained tubes which runs from the land and base of the organism up through the spine and into the rib structures for for entry into the diaphragm and spinal canal.

A

Pro ection

Evocation

Virus

ine Force

Membrane

Elasticity

IMPLIED MOVEMENT

The engagement that these structures impose upon the viewer’s mind is the principle element that gives them their energy. These types of structures often evoke within the viewer (also described as evocation) associations of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another, moreover expressing itself as one thing, such as a building, but gesturing something else entirely.

BACKGROUND “Implied movement” within architecture refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architecture has the ability to unleash chaos upon the mind’s senses, but in an ordered and manipulative fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this phenomenon within architecture is composed though a play of “forces” that push and pull the viewer around a space or facade creating a sense that either they or the object is moving even though it is essentially static.

The research presents an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-acquaintance of architecture with the applied sciences. Architecture only needs to leverage off the technologies the applied scienti c elds develop and apply it to the designs. Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007). Identifying a need for architecture to reorientate itself with the multitude of scienti c disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with that of the adaptive intelligence of nature. As Charles Darwin in his evolutionary theory identi es “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15).

Through the exploration of this statement the research has achieved a deeper understanding of ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the historical developments of non-static architectural systems, the rapid advancement of new scienti c technologies plus nature itself as an endless resource of information and the systems of the human body to develop a design response shaped by the principles discovered around this notion. The research is signi cant as we are moving into a rapidly evolving technological age of free owing information and technological advancement. Our urban environments are being left behind, stuck within the limitations of the Cartesian systems of old, where static forms stagnate our cities; which cities in their very nature are pulsing with life and activity, thus presenting an opportunity to create a new form of architectural species that better represents the culture of our time and forms a symbiotic relationship with its occupants.

The statement “that building is alive…” refers to a relatively new form of architectural response that this research will denote as ‘The Alive’. The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scienti c terms. These types of buildings have their own complex ecology of moving parts, skins, organs and innovative technologies that bring them to life, harmonising a new form of external expression, gesturing and interacting with their surrounding context. All this is made possible by the introduction of innovative digital and non-digital technological instruments to facilitate new types of architectural experimentation and exploration into that which was not thought possible.

Muscular Tension

I

S TA G E 2 50% UV

V

Data analysed implemented

System response

R - Facility

Brain

Data analysed

PANEL 2

Data received and stored

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

ypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

. Act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and invention . Record all climatic and sensory data, internally and externally recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to imposed conditions. 3. Interact and learn from the building’s occupants and develop its intelligence over time . Collaborate and aid in all scientific and non-scientific endeavours by its counterparts around the globe . Aid in the betterment, advancement, innovation and prolonging of the human race and the environment

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

Imposed site condition

Watson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. And learn it does. Watson gets smarter in three ways by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information. This technology was integrated into the structure in order to adopt the functions of the human brain while following these five programmatic principles. Watson will implement these principles as follows

BRAIN PROGRAM IBM WATSON

the re-amalgamation of architecture with the sciences, and the potential of what could be achieved if architecture only leveraged off the technologies. These scienti c elds are developed and applied to their own designs, as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology quotes ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), identifying an evident need for architecture to re-orientate itself with the multitude of scienti c disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession,

1. Presenting an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through

SIGNIFICANCE As discussed in the background this “rapid change” requires appropriate response. Thus the signi cance is in the response:

ECOLOGIES After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that The Swan Canning River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan Rivers’ multiple environmental issues such as pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health.

SCIENCES In the beginning of the research the intention was primarily to study the current and historic developments of non-static architectural systems on the premise that this would give the project grounding around what it means to be alive. However as the research progressed, it was evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the con nes of the introverted architectural profession, and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed or have been developed by the multitude of scienti c elds. This allowed the project to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to present a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the vital need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation.

As the research progressed, the investigation into the sciences and nature around the notion of life and how nature and other living organisms have evolved over time to adapt and respond to their surrounding environmental conditions, became increasingly important within the research. This resulted in the exploration of new scienti c technological advancements in elds such as bio-mimicry, bio-mechatronics, bio-engineering, bio-mimetics and many others, which in turn brought attention to the true meaning of what it means to be alive within architecture, and how nature and science are an endless source of information that must be leveraged and applied. The research into these two additional aspects underlined the importance of the ecologies within the Perth CBD area and allowed for a further investigation into the ecologies of air, land and water.

This investigation initially in the dissertation proposal resulted in the research of 4 key areas associated with this idea: Existing architectural works that facilitate this phenomenon, the mind as the animator, the evolution of building methodologies and advocates of ‘the Alive’.

- Charles Darwin

“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”

S TA G E 1 30% UV

INTRODUCTION “That building is alive…”. A statement that this research has vigorously explored over the course of this dissertation, but what does this statement mean? What is this personi cation or evocation of architecture? How does the building come alive and how does it engage with its context? All relevant and intriguing questions which this research has explored through a design proposal situated within the heart of the Swan Canning River.

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ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

SKIN TRANSITION

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

C I R C U L AT I O N SYSTEM

COMFORT RANGE Translucent

EXTREME UV Tint Adaptation

S K I N M E L AT O N I N SYSTEM

Geometric Transcendence

Immune

uestions Gestures Statistics

Skin Skeleton Circulation

Uploads

rgan Responses

Data Transfer

Skin Interface

Brain

Analysis

Research Facility

Downloads

User Data

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The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the car’s skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions (BMW Web TV ). This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structure’s skeletal system without deformations imposed onto it by the spine causing any damage.

Bend

Compress

RESILIENT SKIN

MOVEABLE SKIN MADE OF POLYURETHANE COATED LYCRA WITH INTERNAL MOVING ENDO SKELETON

BMW GINA SKIN REACTIONS

IAI

7

The applied sciences identi ed, explored and adopted in this research have and will continue to signi cantly challenge the discipline of architecture to re-imaging the “buildings as ecologies” - Alive and thriving. The harmonious balance of the natural and the built environment in a coexisting relationship – where both are living “beings” – is where I would consider devoting my future practice.

The nal project is in no way meant to be a resolved design; rather the outcomes presented a kind of “armatureplatform” in which the project continues to be a test-bed. A design to debate architecture themes around: generative design, form, typology, technological systems, ecologies, education, sustainability, responsive and adaptive design solutions.

The research was always ambitious since the very beginning to scope widely and at all times taking advantage of knowledge from past, current and immediate future from discoveries – research that have been innovatively applied in the automotive, robotic, aerospace, information technology and biomedical industries . Notwithstanding also that nature holds many secrets where by animals and plants have physical attributes that allow them to survive and thrive under extreme conditions.

The discipline of architecture has a signi cant part to play as it seeks to balance the sustainability equation (social, cultural, economic and environmental). Our constructed built forms must “EVOLVE” and “ADAPT” and to be an agent of change – responsively intelligent and at the same time humane places that support the advancement in the quality to human society. The so call bricks and mortars of the buildings of the future are strongly receptive to the application of intelligent materials and systems.

CONCLUSION The complexities of our natural world continue to intrigue, challenge and reveal to us lessons that have greatly advanced our understanding of its intelligence. Civilisation has come at a great price on our natural environment. The constructed environment has been quite unsympathetic to the important balance of ecologies of: water, land and sky.

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analysis of ‘The Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

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User Interactions

Visual Display

Research

The skin system of the building acts as an interactive visual information interface which is constantly streaming visual data via the nervous system from various organs and locations from all around the structure’s body, collating data from people, the environment, its water, land and air ecologies as well as local and global scienti c advancements. This allows users to become part of the building’s information ecology as it streams data all over its skin towards the brain and science divisions in the form of text, images, questions, interactions and statics. Users can interact with the skin interface by uploading data to the brain, asking it questions, catching passing data streams or simply gestural movements on the skin to activate the user interface. This visual information system creates a sense of human data space occupation where by the users of the building can visually and physically interact with its learning process, becoming one with the structure’s scienti c endeavor, allowing the public to embrace this new form of architectural ecology through educational experiences.

V I S U A L I N F O R M AT I O N I N T E R FA C E

S TA G E 4 80% UV

but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with adaptive prowess of nature. As Charles Darwin, an English naturalist best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory, cleverly identi es “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15) Submitting a proposition that not only looks inwards, but outwards as well, borrowing, leveraging and harnessing intelligence from nature and science, taking advantage of the best technologies and intellect on offer in order to provide a highly responsive and adaptable design solution. Putting forth a building that is not only high tech, but is attributed with an abundance of abilities, from monitoring and self-regulation, to a high level of intelligence, responsiveness and adaptability to change. A structure that, like the human body, is constantly regenerating itself, learning and adapting to its surrounding environment. Presenting a design proposition that contributes to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the Swan River and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scienti c research and experimentation. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, not only to itself but also its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies, that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

S TA G E 3 60% UV


P L AN

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Structure braces itself by locking spinal cords into a fixed position

BR A C I N G

EN DO MEMBER

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Spinal Canal Nerve System

Intervertebral Disc Compression flexibility

Spinal Column Structural Body

Rib Facet Rib Connection

Inferior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

REACTION 3

Air Filtration: 10%

Destruction of Natural Aquatic life

No aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

Allows for growth of natural fauna

Allows for public enjoyment of the Swan River

Aeration of water around site

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

SOLUTION

Toxic blue green algae bloom

Muddy Polluted water

TWO CURRENTS Salt water on bottom (dense) Fresh Water Above - down

Summer - Sea Up Stream

Winter - Fresh Down Stream

Land Adaptive Membrane

PANEL 3

Closing Scale

Extreme Weather

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

Lines of Force

Scale Assembly

Closing Scale

Reduction in surface air friction

Protective Armor

Reduction in surface air friction

Extreme Weather

Barrier Defence

Lines of Force

Armor Barrier

Silent Flow

Less Stress on Spine

Turbulence Reduction

Indigo Snake Scales

Water Adaptive Membrane

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Indigo Snake Scales

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Barrier Defence

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Water Turbulence: 20% Reduction

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Smooth Flow

Weather/Water Turbulence

Barrier Defence

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

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Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar Cells

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Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar Cells

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Lines of Force Ability: Turbulence Reduction

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

LAND SKIN SYSTEM

Smooth Surface

Protective Armor

PROBLEM River has two distinct currents running both up and down stream. Fresh water flows downstream into the ocean over the top of the denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom. This makes the Lower waters of the swan river hypoxic and even sometimes anoxic – which means little to no oxygen is available on the river bed for aquatic fauna or life to flourish, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter and the releasing of nutrients which cause blue green algae bloom. This creates vicious cycle creating Algae in the summer months which kills any aquatic fauna attempting to grow by starving them of oxygen. High levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae usually a result of decomposing aquatic fauna at the bottom of the sea bed.

AIR SKIN SYSTEM

Aeration System

Structure

Due to the below factors the result is the Swan River we know today; a polluted environment that we tell our children not to play in and are even reluctant to venture in ourselves. With this in mind, the opportunity was seized to rehabilitate the Swan River by dredging out the decayed/ polluted river bed and pumping it full of micro-nutrients and re-oxygenated water. This in turn would create an entirely rejuvenated natural habitat around the structure’s base that could be studied and maintained for the future enjoyment of the city and the varied natural aquatic species of the Swan River ecology.

S WA N R I V E R R E J U V E N AT I O N

RIB S T R U CT U R E

ENDO SKELETON

Indigo Snake Scales

O2

S T R U CT U R A L A S S E M B LY

C OM P L E T E S E C T I ON

T R A N S P OR T NERVE

EXO SKELETON

Extreme Environmental Conditions

S T OR M

Structure reacts to strong wind loads flexing and bracing taking in air

WIND

REACTION 2

STRUCTURAL SY S T E M S

Transverse Process Rib connection Muscle Connection

Lamina Spinal Nerve Exit

Transverse Process Muscle Connection

Superior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

RE A CT IO N 1

SPINAL SYSTEMS Scien ce /R

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Filtration Membrane

Reactive Scales

Dermis Support

Electro Active Polymer

E-Skin Sensor

• •

The skin consists of a supple membrane composed of three layers -- the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis that all work in support of one another. The epidermis is the thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one. Serving as the body’s armour against infectious diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its colour, darkening in response to harmful UV rays in order to protect the skin. Commonly referred to as a ‘Tan’. The Dermis layer is full of collagen, which gives the skin its firmness, containing sweat glands and hair follicles. It also contains nerve endings that allow us to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is body’s the body’s alarm system, signalling it into action. The innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, which connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue that insulates our body and controls its temperature. Sebum is an oily substance that the body excretes to coat the skin to shield the epidermis from the elements. The skin also consists of cells called Keratinocytes which determine peoples skin colour – These skin cells absorb harmful UV rays. People with dark skin due to this cell are less susceptible to burning. 7. Unlike snakes humans shed their skin gradually, shedding old skin cells to make room for the new ones that lie beneath them.

Human Skin Structure

The skin reflects these 3 separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to imposed site conditions such as light, wind, rain, water currents and touch, also facilitating the ability to harvest solar energy throughout the day through the implementations of liquid solar cell technology. The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the cars skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions. (Youtube, Gina) This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structures structural skeleton without deformations imposed onto it by the skeletal structure causing any damage. The composition of the skins structural was designed to reflect the functions of the human skin as close as possible with other adaptations from other organisms such as sharks and snakes being applied as an extra protective layer, which human skin lacks.

Structures Skin Functions

SKIN DETAIL

Shark Skin Technology

Electro Active Polymer

Nano Film Solar Cells

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

PANEL 4

Thermochromic Polymer

Shape Memory Alloy

REJUVENATED WATER ECOLOGY

MAIN HALL DIAPHRAGM

INTERNAL ECOLOGY

TRANSPORT VASCULAR SYSTEM

Sensory E-Skin

Graphene

TECHNOLOGY


PANEL 5 ORIGINAL: 1980X650 SATURN 190GSM


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BACK FACE

FRONT FACE

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TOUCHSTONE MODEL

LEFT FACE

RIGHT FACE


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TRANSPORT VASCULAR SYSTEM ORIGINAL: 425X900 SATURN 190GSM


INTERNAL ECOLOGY ORIGINAL: 425X900 SATURN 190GSM


MAIN HALL DIAPHRAGM ORIGINAL: 425X900 SATURN 190GSM


REJUVENATED UNDERWATER ECOLOGY ORIGINAL: 425X900 SATURN 190GSM


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ORGANISM FRONT ELEVATION


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ORGANISM DISSECTION


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TEAM WORK Unlike traditional attribution undertook in previous dissertation papers, this thesis was conducted through a series of collaborative efforts between myself and 2 other like-minded individuals in the span of 17 weeks. Such effort essentially allows constant sharing of knowledge, skills and ideas whereby each member has greatly benefitted. Meanwhile, it also allows rapid progression and refinement of the project through constant analysis and discussion between the group. Thus pushing the research to a higher level of refinement, one that goes beyond the capability of one self’s achievement as an individual researcher. The constant collaboration between myself and two fellow colleagues, resulted in the following thesis’.

COLLABORATION

Jack Colombera Edge: An Uncertain Terrain for an Uncertain Future Chris Leong Exploring Design Concepts: Knowledge in the Making. These 2 thesis projects articulates the immense effort and culture of collaboration between like-minded individuals.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

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EXPLORING DESIGN CONCEPTS KNOWLEDGE IN THE MAKING

THE DISCIPLINE OF ARCHITECTURE IS CURRENTLY UNDERGOING AN IMMENSE CHANGE, PARTICULARLY IN THE FIELDS OF DESIGN SCHEMES AND APPROACHES WITH GREAT DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE DIGITAL PRACTICES. THIS HAS BEEN AT THE FOREFRONT AND DRIVERS OF AMAZING GENERATIVE DESIGNS BY GREAT MASTERS RANGING FROM ZAHA HADID, REM KOOLHAAS TO MORPHOSIS. EACH PLAYED A VITAL ROLE IN EXTENDING AND PUSHING THE LIMITATIONS AND BOUNDARIES OF DESIGN EXPERIMENTATION AND EXPLORATION.

CARVING

MOULDING

ENVELOPING

PUNCTURE

SUBTRACT

DISINTEGRATE

KEYWORDS: #CARVE #SCULPT #PATTERN #MATERIAL #SURFACE #CREATE #CUT #PRECISION #CHISEL #ENGRAVE #ETCH

KEYWORDS: #CAVITY #DEFINE #FORM #CASTING #PLIABLE #FRAME #SHAPE #MOULD #MALLEABLE #MATERIAL

KEYWORDS: #ENVELOP #ENCLOSE #WRAP-UP #COVER #SURROUND #COMPLETE #PARTIAL #TANGENT # MEMBRANE #SURFACE #CURVES

KEYWORDS: #PIERCING #PERFORATING #SURFACE # PENETRATE #PERFORATION #PUNCTURE #OPENINGS #APERTURES

KEYWORDS: #SUBTRACT #WITHDRAW #TAKE-AWAY #WHOLE #SHIFT #PULL #FORCE #EXTRACT #ABSTRACT

KEYWORDS: #DISINTEGRATE #DETERIORATE #BREAKING #IMPACT #FRAGMENTS #COMPONENTS #DECAY #PARTS #COHESION #UNITY #DIMINISH #DECOMPOSE

TO MAKE SOMETHING (A SCULPTURE OR DESIGN) BY CUTTING OFF PIECES OF THE MATERIAL IT IS MADE OF. TO CUT OR CREATE (A PATTERN OR DESIGN) INTO A SURFACE WITH CARE AND PRECISION. CREATE A THREE-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATION OF AN IDEA USING SOLID MATERIAL.

A SHAPED CAVITY USED TO GIVE A DEFINITE FORM TO FLUID OR PLASTIC MATERIAL. A FRAME ON WHICH SOMETHING MAY BE CONSTRUCTED. GIVE A SHAPE TO OR FORM (AN OBJECT) OUT OF MALLEABLE MATERIAL. ABLE TO BE HAMMERED OR PRESSED INTO SHAPE WITHOUT BREAKING OR CRACKING. EASILY INFLUENCE / PLIABLE

WRAP UP, COVER, OR SURROUND COMPLETELY. A SURROUNDING OR ENCLOSING STRUCTURE, AS A COROLLA OR AN OUTER MEMBRANE. A CURVE OR SURFACE TANGENT TO EACH MEMBER OF A SET OF CURVES OR SURFACES.

A HOLE MADE BY BORING OR PIERCING. THE ACT OF PIERCING OR PERFORATING, AS WITH A POINTED INSTRUMENT OR OBJECT. TO PIERCE/ PENETRATE THROUGH OR MAKE WAY INTO THE INTERIOR OF A SPACE.

SURFACE ENGRAVING

III. ENVELOPE

IV . PUNCTURE

DEFINITION: WRAP UP, COVER, OR SURROUND COMPLETELY. A SURROUNDING OR ENCLOSING STRUCTURE, AS A COROLLA OR AN OUTER MEMBRANE. A CURVE OR SURFACE TANGENT TO EACH MEMBER OF A SET OF CURVES OR SURFACES.

DEFINITION: A HOLE MADE BY BORING OR PIERCING. THE ACT OF PIERCING OR PERFORATING, AS WITH A POINTED INSTRUMENT OR OBJECT. TO PIERCE/ PENETRATE THROUGH OR MAKE WAY INTO THE INTERIOR OF A SPACE.

V. SUBTRACT

VI. DISINTEGRATE

DEFINITION: TO WITHDRAW OR TAKE AWAY, AS A PART FROM A WHOLE. TO TAKE (ONE NUMBER OR QUANTITY) FROM ANOTHER. TAKE (SOMETHING) AWAY OR OFF FROM THE POSITION OCCUPIED. EXERT FORCE ONTO SOMETHING SO AS TO CAUSE ‘REMOVE’ MOVEMENT

DEFINITION: TO BECOME REDUCED TO COMPONENTS, FRAGMENTS, OR PARTICLES. BREAK UP INTO SMALL PARTS AS THE RESULT OF IMPACT OR DECAY. LOSE STRENGTH OR COHESION AND GRADUALLY FAIL. TO BRING DOWN, AS IN EXTENT, AMOUNT, OR DEGREE; DIMINISH.

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STRUCTURES

“Learning is an active process. We learn by doing.. Only knowledge that is used sticks in your mind.” - Dale Carnegie

INSERT PUNCTURED SYSTEMS (CORE STRUCTURE) Scene #03 -Progress Charter F | Records and capture process S | Adapts to develop a process data interface of information A | Allows team to re-visit, re-engage and re-evaluate

TESSELATED FLOOR PLATES ON THE EDGE

Interchangeable molding plates

DEFINITION: A SHAPED CAVITY USED TO GIVE A DEFINITE FORM TO FLUID OR PLASTIC MATERIAL. A FRAME ON WHICH SOMETHING MAY BE CONSTRUCTED. GIVE A SHAPE TO OR FORM (AN OBJECT) OUT OF MALLEABLE MATERIAL. ABLE TO BE HAMMERED OR PRESSED INTO SHAPE WITHOUT BREAKING OR CRACKING. EASILY INFLUENCE / PLIABLE

CHRIS LEONG: PANEL 1 Scene #02 -Generative Integration F | Generative simulation charter S | Adapts to develop an application pallette A | Allows team to visualise and apply simulation to physical objects

THE METHOD ADOPTED IN THIS RESEARCH USES 6 CASE STUDIES. WHEREBY 6 THEMES WHICH HAVE BEEN PREOCCUPIED BY MY ARCHITECTURAL EXPLORATION. THEY ARE: II. MOULDING

Scene #01 - Scoping of ideas F | Scoping of ideas S | Adapts to develop a research reference pallette A | Allows team brainstorming

APERTURE SKINS

THE FOUR KEY AREAS / STUDY ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF MAKING 2. THE RELEVANCE OF MAKING 3. THE SHIFT FROM MAKING TO DIGITAL 4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MAKING TO ARCHITECTURE.

DEFINITION: TO MAKE SOMETHING (A SCULPTURE OR DESIGN) BY CUTTING OFF PIECES OF THE MATERIAL IT IS MADE OF. TO CUT OR CREATE (A PATTERN OR DESIGN) INTO A SURFACE WITH CARE AND PRECISION. CREATE A THREE-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATION OF AN IDEA USING SOLID MATERIAL.

EXPLORING DESIGN CONCEPTS: KNOWLEDGE IN THE MAKING

TO BECOME REDUCED TO COMPONENTS, FRAGMENTS, OR PARTICLES. BREAK UP INTO SMALL PARTS AS THE RESULT OF IMPACT OR DECAY. LOSE STRENGTH OR COHESION AND GRADUALLY FAIL. TO BRING DOWN, AS IN EXTENT, AMOUNT, OR DEGREE; DIMINISH.

ADDITION + SUBTRACTION

HOWEVER, WITH SUCH IMMENSE DEVELOPMENT AND AFFLIATIONS TOWARDS THE DIGITAL PRACTICE, THERE HAS BEEN AN ADVERT EFFECT WITH RESPECT TO THE MAKING, CRAFTING AND DESIGNING OF PROJECTS THROUGH THE TACTILE EXPLORATION AND EXPERIMENTATION. THIS SHIFT FROM TACIT TO EXPLICIT PROCESS OF MAKING IS WHAT THIS THESIS IS FUNDAMENTALLY SEEK TO INVESTIGATE.

1. CARVING

TO WITHDRAW OR TAKE AWAY, AS A PART FROM A WHOLE. TO TAKE (ONE NUMBER OR QUANTITY) FROM ANOTHER. TAKE (SOMETHING) AWAY OR OFF FROM THE POSITION OCCUPIED. EXERT FORCE ONTO SOMETHING SO AS TO CAUSE ‘REMOVE’ MOVEMENT

VIEW POINTS Scene #05 - Interactive process dialogues F | Interactive simulation and demonstration S | Adapts to immediate demonstration and experimentation A | Allows quick tangible demonstration and experimentations

VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURES VOIDS / VOLUME ADJACENT

Scene #06 - Interactive idea pallette F | Pool of ideas, thoughts and designs S | Adapts to collect, categorise and chart ideas and approaches A | Allows practice to visualise the skill and idea development capacity within the practice. Built linkages, multi disciplinary

GRIDS

WITH CONSTANT PRESSURE OF TIME, PRACTICE AND ECONOMIC CONSTRAINS, THIS HAS MADE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT TOWARDS THE DESIGN APPROACH PRACTICES. THE DISSERTATION RESEARCH AREA SEEKS TO CRITICALLY ENGAGE A DIALOGUE BETWEEN PRACTIONERS AND DESIGNERS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF MAKING AND ITS RELEVANCE WITHIN THE DISCIPLINE. FORESEEING THAT THE DISTANT FUTURE WOULD BECOME MORE DRIVEN BY DIGITAL AND FABRICATION METHODS OF EXPLORATION, IT IS TO MY CONCERN AND DESIRE IN THIS DISSERTATION TO INSPIRE THE IMPORTANCE OF EXPLORE DESIGN CONCEPTS WHERE KNOWLEDGE IS BUILT, SHAPED AND APPLIED THROUGH THE TACTILE MEANS OF EXPLORATION.

The dissertation seeks to encourage the study of architecture and support ideas and concepts through an interactive process of testing, questioning and considering. Allowing acts of capture, record and explore design concepts to stimulate ways of thinking into fields of action and development. Inspire and critically engage a dialogue between practitioners and designers on the importance of making and its relevance within the discipline. Developing a form of knowledge that can be built, shaped and applied through the tactile means of exploration.

INTERLOCKS

Scene #07 - Interactive reflect critique F | Collection of experts within the study field. S | Adapts to reflect development and critiques A | Allows designers to retract, revise, re-engage and develop ideas

THE PROCESS OF MAKING. CHISEL

RM TG SP SI ST

RESEARCH MAP TOUCHSTONE GRAMMAR STIPULATE

Specify a prescribed condition

Crystallisation is described as a mental synthesis in order to pursue clarity and definition within fragmented ideas not yet distilled in the mind. In addition to an act of synthesis and consideration, it describes the process of forming something that is intangible into being. (Wordnet n.d.) CARVING QUALITIES

By reversing the order of the ‘Idea – plan – concrete object’ , our old images can only help us find new ones

A good piece of architecture is one that is conceived not only as a human inhabited environment but the importance of spatial quality that evokes the human perception.

(Zumthor 2006, 17). MOLDING QUALITIES

‘Reading a place, becoming involved with it, working out the purpose, meaning and goal of a brief, drafting, planning and de design a piece of architecture is therefore a convoluted process that does not follow a straightforward linear path.’ (Zumthor, 2005, 7)

ENVELOPE QUALITIES

PUNCTURE QUALITIES

“The hand grasps the physicality and materiality of thought and turns it into a concrete image. In the arduous processes of designing, the hand often takes the lead in probing for a vision, a vague inkling... and eventually...a materialisation of an idea.” (Pallasmaa 2009, 16) SUBTRACT QUALITIES

While drawing, a mature designer and architect is not focused on the lines of the drawing, as he is envisioning the object itself and in his mind holding the object in his hands or occupying the spaces being designed. (Pallasmaa, 2009, 58) DISINTEGRATE QUALITIES

SIMULATE

Imitate the appearance or character of

STIMULATE

Excite, provoke or invigorate

Yau Sing Leong 14120507 Chrislys88@gmail.com

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MODEL EXPLORATION COLLABORATION 169


EDGE: A NEW HOPE FOR AN UNCERTAIN TERRAIN JACK COLOMBERA: PANEL 4 ORIGINAL: 1900X900 SATURN 190GSM

“If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up people together to collect wood and don’t assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long to for the endless immensity of the sea” - Antoine Sainte-Exupery This thesis explores the possibilities of an uncertain future and terrain, using the precarious nature of the coastal edge as a means to envisage an architectural possibility whilst questioning the role the architectural discipline could provide in an ever-changing terrain. This thesis does not seek to offer a solution, or enforce a stance on ethical or controversial issues but seeks to offer a discussion, an alternative and a vision to shape the terrain and time beyond. The future is not in our control or predictable with certainty and we cannot continue to follow the path we do. The time for change is now.

COLLABORATION 171


ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

JACK COLOMBERA: PANEL 1


ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

JACK COLOMBERA: PANEL 2


ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

JACK COLOMBERA: PANEL 3


Iain Bicknell Thesis 'ALIVE'  

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