Issuu on Google+

A

L

I

By Iain Bicknell

V

E


ADAPT


“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.� - Charles Darwin


ACKNOWLEDG KNOWLEDG


GEMENTS GE

STUDY I would like to take the opportunity to thank my friends and family for supporting me and making this dissertation possible. To my loving parents, Carol and Phillip Bicknell. Thank you so much for always being there when I needed you the most, while doing your very best to support me over the past 5 years of my architectural career. You never stopped believing in me and I sincerely appreciate your unwavering encouragement and generosity. To my dearest brother, Chris Bicknell. I can say without a shadow of doubt that you have been single-handedly my greatest ally, supporter and adviser over the past 5 years. From the bottom of my heart I would like to thank you, because without your endless sacrifices, my dreams would not have been achieved. You never batted an eyelid when I needed your help and I am forever grateful, much of my success can be accredited to your teachings and generosity. Thank you so much. To my dearest friend Denis Jakovljevic. Thank you for always being a fixed point in my life and someone I could always turn to when times were tough. Your friendship and words of wisdom have enabled me to keep my sanity multiple times over the past 5 years when I was almost ready to break. You are the best friend anyone could ask for. To my newly found friend Jack Colombera. Thanks for being a great friend throughout the course of this dissertation. Your constant support, jokes and ego stimulating ways, have made this semester highly entertaining. I look forward to our future adventures together. To my friend and thesis supervisor Khoa Do. Thank you for believing in me and providing me with the opportunity to be taken under your wing. Your teachings and mentoring have enabled me to reach heights that I never thought possible. You are a truly amazing person and I will be forever grateful for your friendship and the selfless effort you have given to each and every one one of us. I think I speak for everyone in saying that we wouldn’t be where we are today without you. Last but not least, to my friends Sohrab Anwari, Chris Leong and my eldest brother Wayne Bicknell. Your constant support over the course of this dissertation and my architectural career has been truly valued. Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

5


ABST


TRACT

STUDY The research began with an idea which preoccupied me for over four and a half years, a phenomenon which I cited as “implied movement� within architecture, which referred to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving. Upon further investigation into this notion I soon realised that these structures weren’t just manipulating visual perception, but were living, breathing, aging, manmade organisms that housed their own complex systems, whilst interacting with the urban ecology that surrounded them. It was evident after thorough investigation that the birthing of this form of architectural expression was directly connected to the rapid advancement of digital and non-digital technologies, clearly articulating that this new form of architecture was a response to our changing cultural and technological conditions. These findings presented an opportunity to further enhance our understanding of this type of architectural expression, whilst at the same time evolving it passed its current stage of evolution into an entirely new architectural species. The research has achieved this through a thorough analysis and testing of past and present non-static architectural systems whilst investigating the cognitive effects on human perception. As well as researching heavily into past, future and current developments within the often forgotten, scientific fields, the research puts forward a number of recommendations and findings into the design of a built proposition situated in Perth CBD area, focused around three key drivers: 1.

2. 3.

The development of new scientific technologies and their potential application and benefit to the architectural profession. Looking to nature as a reference for design in creating a more adaptive and responsive architectural typology. Adopting the principles of biology and the systems of the human body to create a new architectural species.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

7


CONT


TENTS

CONTENTS Acknowledgements Abstract Introduction Glossary

5 7 11 13

Objectives Background

15 17

Existing Architectural Works The Mind as the Animator Evolution of Building Methodologies Advocates of ‘the Alive’ Science Ecologies Research Design Methodology Site Selection Significance Discussion Conclusion Where to.. References Appendix Research Map Wk 4 Interim Wk 11 Interim Final Panels Model Promotional Trailer Project Images Collaboration

19 39 47 51 55 57 59 65 69 71 105 107 109 117 119 121 123 135 137 147 167

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell


INTRODUCTION “That building is alive…”. A statement that this research has vigorously explored over the course of this dissertation, but what does this statement mean? What is this personification or evocation of architecture? How does the building come alive and how does it engage with its context? All relevant and intriguing questions which this research has explored through a design proposal situated within the heart of the Swan Canning River. The statement “that building is alive…” refers to a relatively new form of architectural response that this research will denote as ‘The Alive’. The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scientific terms. These types of buildings have their own complex ecology of moving parts, skins, organs and innovative technologies that bring them to life, harmonising a new form of external expression, gesturing and interacting with their surrounding context. All this is made possible by the introduction of innovative digital and non-digital technological instruments to facilitate new types of architectural experimentation and exploration into that which was not thought possible. Through the exploration of this statement the research has achieved a deeper understanding of ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the historical developments of non-static architectural systems, the rapid advancement of new scientific technologies plus nature itself as an endless resource of information and the systems of the human body to develop a design response shaped by the principles discovered around this notion. The research is significant as we are moving into a rapidly evolving technological age of free flowing information and technological advancement. Our urban environments are being left behind, stuck within the limitations of the Cartesian systems of old, where static forms stagnate our cities; which cities in their very nature are pulsing with life and activity, thus presenting an opportunity to create a new form of architectural species that better represents the culture of our time and forms a symbiotic relationship with its occupants.

BEGIN


NNING

INSIGHT The research presents an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-acquaintance of architecture with the applied sciences. Architecture only needs to leverage off the technologies the applied scientific fields develop and apply it to the designs. Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007). Identifying a need for architecture to reorientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with that of the adaptive intelligence of nature. As Charles Darwin in his evolutionary theory identifies “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15). Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

11


GLOSSARY OF TERMS Evocation refers to the association of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another (OED 2014). Personification is when you assign the qualities of a person to something that isn’t human or, in some cases, to something that isn’t even alive. Commonly used as a method of describing something so that others can understand (OED 2014). The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scientific terms. It is the personification and evocation of architectural form internally and externally.

Instrument may be referred to as an object or a tool to produce an outcome, whether it is music, a painting or a chair. But what an instrument signifies within this research is a way of feeling and discovering. A way to connect with the creation of the object, to become one with it as to fully understand its existence and what it means to exist. Animate is a term used to denote movement of an object and is defined in the dictionary as giving motion to; or to give life; make alive. For example “god animated the dust”, the dust isn’t alive but the way it implies or gestures movement invokes the feeling of life (OED 2014). Biology is essentially concerned with the study of life and the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin, and distribution (OED 2014).

DEFINIT


TIONS

KEY TERMS Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment (Wikipedia 2014). Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, “beginning of the shape”) is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape. It is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation (Morphogenesis 2014). Alive typically refers to a living, breathing organism, with blood coursing through its veins, but the actual definition of what it means to be alive it’s a lot more complex and illusive. The dictionary defines alive as something in a state of action; in force or operation, something that is active, full of energy and spirit or having the quality of life, being vivid or vibrant (OED 2014). According to the 1969 American law dictionary, the American legal system defines life as “existing as an animate object”, meaning essentially anything that is perceived to be moving. This clearly enunciates that alive does not necessary mean a living breathing entity, but could be anything that harbours the fundamental qualities of life through its actions and gestural responses.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

13


OBJEC


MISSION 01. At the start of the research, the intention was to develop a deeper understanding of designing ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the past and current developments of nonstatic architectural systems, as well as its 3 sub-objectives: 01.1. To analyse the effects of ‘The Alive’ on the mind, people and space. 01.2. How these effects can be used to further enhance and manipulate people, places and forms. 01.3. To investigate the use of new digital technologies as an instrument and not a tool in understanding architectural expression.

CTIVES

The Objectives presented an opportunity to enable further exploration into current and future scientific technological advancements in a varying array of disciplines which was more relevant and critical to the research outcome. This in turn put in motion a shift in focus towards the re-uniting of architecture with the sciences, and the thorough exploration of natural systems in order to create a more responsive and “alive” architectural species. 02. Objective 2 was to develop a design which was informed by the principles discovered around the notion of ‘The Alive’ and apply it to a built form within the Perth CBD area, thus resulting in its placement within the Swan Canning River, parallel to Riverside Drive.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

15


BACKGROUND “Implied movement” within architecture refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architecture has the ability to unleash chaos upon the mind’s senses, but in an ordered and manipulative fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this phenomenon within architecture is composed though a play of “forces” that push and pull the viewer around a space or facade creating a sense that either they or the object is moving even though it is essentially static. The engagement that these structures impose upon the viewer’s mind is the principle element that gives them their energy. These types of structures often evoke within the viewer (also described as evocation) associations of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another, moreover expressing itself as one thing, such as a building, but gesturing something else entirely. This investigation initially in the dissertation proposal resulted in the research of 4 key areas associated with this idea: Existing architectural works that facilitate this phenomenon, the mind as the animator, the evolution of building methodologies and advocates of ‘the Alive’.

JOUR


RNEY

DISCOVERY As the research progressed, the investigation into the sciences and nature around the notion of life and how nature and other living organisms have evolved over time to adapt and respond to their surrounding environmental conditions, became increasingly important within the research. This resulted in the exploration of new scientific technological advancements in fields such as bio-mimicry, bio-mechatronics, bio-engineering, bio-mimetics and many others, which in turn brought attention to the true meaning of what it means to be alive within architecture, and how nature and science are an endless source of information that must be leveraged and applied. The research into these two additional aspects underlined the importance of the ecologies within the Perth CBD area and allowed for a further investigation into the ecologies of air, land and water. The six areas of background that formed the basis of this research were as follows:

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

17


(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS A study conducted in (Bicknell, 2013), reviewed the notion of implied movement, and concluded with a series of precedent findings that assisted in the understanding of the mechanics that made structures feel as if they were alive. This resulted in a thorough analysis and extrapolation of techniques that was adopted in order to test these sensory effects. Projects such as Frank Gehrys New York Tower, Zaha Hadids Sheikh Zayed Bridge and Baroque sculpture were all explored, diagrammed and categorised according to their effects and their impact. The study conducted resulted in a comprehensive set of 52 info-cards that was intended to be used to develop a series of 3d printed touch stones representative of the methods discovered in this study, which later was found to be unnecessary as the study progressed, due to the research identifying more critical pathways to explore. The 52 card set study resulted in the discovery of 12 implied movement methods that could be spliced together to create formal drivers for the project. These methods were as follows:

INFOCA


ARDS

Iain Bicknell

0401036162 iain-bk@hotmail.com

DISCOVERY As the initial study of the of effects created by the expression of movement and life within architecture to manipulate visual perception through implied movement only scratched the surface, further study into the formal drivers of this type of architectural expression was conducted through the visual data base in order to concrete the legitimacy of this research. These methods were then drawn, documented and applied to the research as an instrument to facilitate visual interactions between the surrounding urban ecology and the object. This in turn crafted a form of communication between the urban environment and the structure, awakening the city to its presence, evoking energy and life from its surrounding context.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

19


T H eorY

inT roD U C T ion: impL ieD A nimA T ion oF

A rC H iT eC T U re

T H e mosT

C ompeL L inG

B e inT riG U inG U T iL iseD H A D iD

.

meT H oD

A nD

eX pL oiT eD

W H A T

A nD

F or me, W iT H in A rC H iT eC T U re, is T H A T sT rU C T U re H A s T H e A B iL iT Y F A sH ion, A s T o noT

orC H esT rA T eD

A roU nD

A

spA C e or F A C A D e L eA D inG

moV inG

.

T H is C A rD

A

sense oF seT

oU r iniT iA L impressions A re oF

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A

impL ieD

Y oU

A ims T o D eC onsT rU C T W H A T

H iG H L Y

T H oU G H

W iT H in A

A

pL A Y

oF

C H A os

B U T

,

“An idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone. F ormed w ithout conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence”

F orC es T H A T

A s iT

A rT iC U L A T inG

sT rU C T U re A C T U A L L Y

T o

Z A H A

D rA W s Y oU

sT rU C T U re eV en T H oU G H

T H is meT H oD A

T H e

U nD er

A s T H e L iK es oF

on Y oU r oW n Jo U rneY

moV emenT

sT rU C T U re A nD

eY es is A

emoT iV e D esiG ns.

T H is A nimA T ion W iT H in A rC H iT eC T U re is C omposeD

pU L L Y oU

A C T U A L L Y

A nD

oF

T o U nL eA sH

B e U npL eA sA nT

A rC H iT eC T s sU C H

T H is T eC H niQ U e in T H eir F L U iD

C L oser inT o iT s G rA sp, C reA T inG is noT

,

spA C e or sT rU C T U re. A

T eC H niQ U e in T H e A rC H iT eC T U rA L proF ession A nD

T H e eL eG A nC e oF pU sH

i H A V e D isC oV ereD A

in A n orD ereD

T H e G rA V iT A T ionA L pU L L T H ese sT rU C T U res posses, in mY

H A V e C L eA rL Y

gestures

moV emenT

A nimA T ion or reA nimA T ion oF U pon oU r senses, B U T

impressions

iT

iT

- an effect produced on someone

“A motion of hands or body to emphasize or help to express a thought or feeling “so much is conveyed by gesture” - a movement or expression

T H roU G H

G esT U res.

T H eorY

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

INF I M P ressI O N s

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

gestures


T H e minD

,

P sych oki nesis: ou r minds way of animating b u ilding s that are not physi cally movi ng

T H e A nimA T or

“W hen I say that a line is a force, I make an entirely factu al statement: the line b orrows its energ y from the person who traced it” - H enry V an D e V elde

P sych oki nesis: from the G reek word ψυχή, “psyche”, meaning mind, soul, spirit, heart, or breath; and κίνησις, “kinesis”, meaning motion, movement; literally “mind-movement”

C onC eiV eD

F orC e

“lines of force exist in the mind as well as in the space or landscape we create”

- move ment of an ob j ect with the mind

FOCARDS contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

tH O ugH t

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

P sY C H O K I N esI s

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

tH O ugH t

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

2 1


sY sT em oF C L A ssiC

D U omo C A T H eD rA L iT A L Y

proporT ions

V s G oT H iC

miL A n

T H e L A nG U A G e

impressions

impressions

sY sT em oF

proporT ions

V s G oT H iC

G oT H iC

>>> C A L C U L A T eD

T H roU G H

D eL ineA T inG

V erT iC A L A C C eL erA T ion.

proG ressiV e G roW T H W eiG H T eD siG niF ieD

>>>

A rC H iT eC T U re G esT U res

Y oU r eY e T o T H e H eA V ens A

>>> >>>

>>> >>> >>> >>> >>> >>>

>>>

G eomeT riC

sY sT em oF

D isT riB U T ion oF

proporT ions

T ensionA L F orC es

oF

F orm inT o T H e C L oU D s B Y

impL ieD

>>>

C L A ssiC

>>>

A rC H iT eC T U re

>>>

G oT H iC

>>>

V erT iC A L A C C eL erA T ion

moV emenT

W iT H in T H e sT rU C T U res D esiG n.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

G esT U res

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

U nD U L A T ion

W A V e

W H irL

reC oiL

roT A T ion

G rA V iT Y

T eC T oniC

reT rA C T ion

C onV erG enC e

L oC omoT ion

sU rG e

F orC e

G L iD e

J oL T

L ine

V A C iL L A T ion

sW eep

G esT U re

F L oW

pU L se

pU sH

D ispL A C emenT

A C enD inG

pU L L

A C C eL erA T ion

D eC enD inG

G roW T H

proL iF erA T ion

D eF L eC T ion

proJ eC T ion

sW inG

T U rn

rH Y T H m

eU rY T H mY

W oB B L e

F rA G menT A T ion

INF G esT U res

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

M O V eM eN t


miL W A U K ee A rT

mU seU m

roY A L onT A rio mU seU m

eero sA A rinen

miL W A U K ee A rT

nA T U re, F eA T U rinG

T H e F orm oF

A

sA iL B oA T

A nD

A

C U rV inG

A L L T H ese eL emenT s F A L L U nD er T H e T eC H niQ U e oF eiT H er moV e or A re B A seD F or T H is proJe C T

T H e C riT iC A L L ines oF W isC onsin A V enU e A nD oF

sT ipU L A T eD

T H e mU seU m’ s iD enT iT Y

reD eF iniT ion oF

reminisC enT

on oB Je C T s T H A T

A

C onneC T ion W iT H T H e mA in sT reeT

sH ip A nD

memoriA L D riV e on T H e B riD G e A nD A nD

neW

;

A

orienT A T eD

reminisC enT

oF

sT ronG

A A

oB Je C T s

F ooT B riD G e, peD esT riA ns mA Y

-

A nD A nD

moV emenT A

G eomeT rY

oF

A

oU T

-

A

A noT H er

L ines oF

F orC e C onV erG e in C onF L iC T

A L so mA ppeD

T o

C onC reT e F orm is

oriG inA L

mA T eriA L s. L inK eD

C ross B U sY moV emenT

“ rder comes out o apparent chaos - lines of force, axiality , arrang ement”

T H roU G H C ompL eX

meC H A niC A L mU sC U L A r

nA T U re, W H iC H

A C C orD inG L Y

G eomeT rY

impL ieD

emerG enC e oF oF

imA G e. C A L A T rA V A

H is B U iL D inG

impL ieD

.

soA rinG

W A V e.

orienT A T ion F or V isiT ors, A nD

C enT rA L miL W A U K ee. T H e W H iT e sT eeL ensemB L e in B oT H

oF

A rC H iT eC T U re W H ere B Y

moV emenT

poinT A

C onT inU e inT o T H e pA V iL ion U sinG

inT riG U e.

peD esT riA n B riD G e W iT H G A L L eriA

K ineT iC

enT rA nC e, A

T H e C reA T ion oF

T H e siT e A nD

C A B L e- sT A Y

A

C A B L eD

B irD

sinG L e- sT orY

eV oC A T ion A nD

G rA nD

T H roU G H oF

mA riT ime eL emenT s in C A L A T rA V A ’ s D esiG n

A

oU r minD s A ssoC iA T e W iT H

C onT rA sT s T H e eX isT inG

T o W isC onsin A V enU e V iA

C reA T e V isU A L iD enT iT Y

A

T H e mA nY

n

B Y

T H e W inG s oF

A D D iT io

inspireD

F orms A nD

mU seU m eX pA nsion inC orporA T es mU L T ipL e eL emenT s

L oC A T ion. A monG B Y

orG A niC

>>>

T H e mU seU m’ s L A K eF ronT

C omB inA T ion oF

>

B Y

A re: moV A B L e sT eeL L oU V ers inspireD

A

>>

B Y

T eC H noL oG iC A L innoV A T ion. T H e miL W A U K ee A rT

D ireC T L Y

C H A os

emerG enC e

C A L A T rA V A ’ s D esiG ns A re inspireD

T H e B rieF

orG A niseD

impressions

V isU A L C ompL eX iT Y

orm:

mA sT

ornA menT

mU seU m

eero sA A rinen

inspireD

orG A niC

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T H eorY

F

L oU is sU L L iV A n

D A nieL L iB esK inD

L inC oL n

A D D iT ion

oriG inA L

T eC H niQ U es T o

A D D iT ion

V isU A L C ompL eX iT Y

>

T H eorY

>>

FOCARDS contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

G esT U res

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

tH O ugH t

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

2 3


Y inC H U A n A rT

sH eiK H

mU seU m

C H inA

A B U

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

V isU A L C ompression L ines oF

G A T esH eA D enG L A nD

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

L ines oF

miL L enniU m B riD G e

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

F orm

F orC e

sprinG

T ension

pU sH

pU L L

A nD

impressions

inT o A

L oC A T ion impL ieD

C reA T es V isU A L C ompression A nD

A nD

reG ion. C ommA nD inG B oD iL Y

T U rninG

inC reA sinG

T H e

D U A L T ension sY sT em:

moT ion T H roU G H

C onT orT ion oF

G rA V iT Y

T oW A rD s T H e C enT rA L eY e A nD

B riD G e

F orC e

C onV erG inG C enT rA L

Z A Y eD

C onT orT ion oF

F orC e

L ines oF

D H A B i

F orm T W isT inG

A roU nD A nD

sprinG

oB Je C T s

A

D eC reA sinG

A C C eL erA T ion

moV emenT

T ension C reA T inG

sH eA rinG C oU pL eD

F orC e

W iT H

moT ion oF

sW inG inG

D ireC T ionA L

V isU A L C ompression

L ines normA L

>

> >>> G esT U res

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

sT one A C ross W A T er

-

>>> C U rV A T U re

V eL oC iT Y

>

>>>

>>>

>>

>

>

>

>>>

>>> >>>

>>> >

>>>

>>>

>>>

A C C eL erA T ion

INF G esT U res

T A rG eT eD

sW inG

A C C eL erA T ion

sprinG

T ension

G esT U res


T H e mA X X ii mU seU m

H iG H

H A D iD

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

proJ eC T eD moV emenT

B oD iL Y

T H roU G H

imA G ineD moV emenT A

or inT o A roU T e.

T resT L e T rA iL B riD G e

sA A rinens T W A eero sA A rinen

D es moines riV er

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

moV emenT

repeT iT ion A nD

spA C e

A C C eL erA T eD

G roW T H

C H A nG e oF

A nD F L oW oU T

H A D iD s H A s mA ppeD U seD

iT

T H e eX isT inG

T H e B U iL D inG

.

D ireC T

T H e F L oW

T H e B U iL D inG

peopL e A re D rA W n A roU nD L oU V ers on T H e rooF A

L ines oF

F L oW

W H iC H

F orC e proJ eC T inG

oF

rH Y T H m:

T H A T

iT s H A L L s B Y moV emenT

oF

A

G iA nT

mA nT A rA Y

sA iL inG

T H roU G H

T H e

W A T er. T H e sT rU C T U re C A pT U res T H e C reA T U res U niQ U e F orm A nD moT ion, A s iF

mA ssiV e H A nG inG

.

moV e

D esiG n reminisC enT

L ineA r F A sH ion A s

C irC U L A T e T H e mU seU m A C T inG

oF

C reA T U res or T H inG s

moV emenT

T H roU G H

moV emenT

A ssoC iA T ion.

F orms reminisC enT

pA T T erns oF T H e siT e

peopL e T rA F F iC

moV es in A

B oD iL Y

T H roU G H

G rA D U A L

T o C reA T e T H e B A sis F or H er D esiG n. T H e pA T H s oF

D isC oV ereD

eV oC A T ion oF

repeT iT iV e

W iT H

A C C eL erA T eD

Z A H A

reminisC enC e

moV emenT

T H roU G H

T H roU G H spA C e A L onG

impressions

eV oC A T ion

F orC e

impL ieD

or G esT U reD

rH Y T H m

T erminA L

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

>>>

Z A H A

G roW T H

A s

-

iT

W A s sW imminG

T oW A rD s T H e oB serV er

-

soU rC e oF

F L iG H T

FOCARDS G esT U res

B riD G e in eL eV A T ion

rH Y T H m repeT iT ion A nD

roT A T ion

G esT U res

G esT U res

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

2 5


B risB A ne A irporT U A p + neD K A H n

C A rpA rK

L oG A riT H miC

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

K ineT iC

spirA L

miL W A U K ee A rT

nA U T iL U s sH eL L

impressions

A rC H iT eC T U re

eV oC A T ion

mU seU m

eero sA A rinen

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

sU C C essiV e C U rV es

eV oC A T ion

spirA L A nD

K ineT iC

G roW T H

A L oG A riT H miC

impressions

A rC H iT eC T U re

,

spirA L

eQ U iA nG U L A r spirA L or sT rU C T U res U niQ U e F A C A D e

G roW T H

reA C T s T o V A rY inG

W inD

K inD

speeD s reF L eC T inG

iT s

T U rB U L enC e A C ross iT s F A C A D e in W A V es oF

oF

spirA L is A

F orms reminisC enT

U niQ U e mA T H emA T iC A L

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T

spirA L inC reA ses B U T sH A pe is U nA L T ereD

>

eA C H

>

>>> >>>

simiL A riT Y

L iQ U iD

T H A T

reA C T s T o T H e eF F eC T s oF

W inD

W inD

T U rB U L enC e

G esT U res

.

iT s

W iT H

K noW n A s seL F C reA T inG

impression oF G roW T H

.

-

T H e

moV emenT

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

oF

moV e or moV e T H emseL V es

T H e

sU C C essiV e C U rV e, A

properT Y

A nD

F A C A D eA C T sA sA

moV emenT

A ssoC iA T ion.

T H roU G H

spirA L C U rV e W H iC H

oF T en A ppeA rs in nA T U re. properT ies: T H e siZ e oF

moT ion

eV oC A T ion oF

speC iA L

1

2

3

INF G esT U res

eV oC A T ion oF

W inG s openinG

T oF L Y

reminisC enT

B irD

G esT U res


H eL iX

sT A ir C A se: T H e V A T iC A n

miL iT A rY

D A nieL L iB esK inD

mU seU m

iT A L Y

impressions

sT A ir C A se

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

L A U renZ iA nA

miC H A eL A nG eL o

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

F L oW inG

T oW A rD s Y oU

W A Y

.

D isT orT

proJe C T s A W A Y

F rom T H e

oB serV er T H roU G H

represenT

T H e

C enT rA L A X is

B U L G e

emerG enC e

seC T ionA L proF iL e

F orm

G eomeT rY

A D D iT ion

A D D iT ion

F orC es

proJ eC T ion oF

C onF L iC T inG

-

T H roU G H

B Y

A noT H er

>>>

moT ion W H iC H

oF

B U L G e A nD

reL A T iV e T o normA L sT A irs,

T H e sT A ir C A se in A

is impL ieD

sC reW inG

>>

>

>>

>

oriG inA L

L A rV A

sT eps W H iC H

sU rG e

oriG inA L

mA K inG

D oW nW A rD

moV emenT

B Y

oU T W A rD

A

oU T

C reA T eD

B Y

moV emenT

T H e H eL iX ’ s C L oC K W ise

F A miL iA r sT A irC A se W H iC H

D A nieL L iB esK inD

A

is C ompL emenT eD

proJ eC T ion

D Y nA miC s oF

T orsion

H eL iX

perC epT ion oF

miC H A eL A nG eL os sT A ir C A se C onT A ins T H e

H A nD eD

D isT riB U T ion oF

T H e riG H T

F L oW

oriG inA L sT rU C T U re H oriZ onT A L

C U rV A T U re A nD

sU rG e A nD

>>>

V isU A L D isT orT ion

impressions

n

impressions

A D D iT io

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

G esT U res

B iB L ioT eC A

FOCARDS G esT U res

G roW inG

spirA L

-

riG H T

H A nD eD

H eL iX

-

risinG

F orC e

G esT U res

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

2 7


impressions

H isT orY

mU seU m

D A nieL L iB esKi nD

sT U D io G A nG

T H eA Q U A

T oW er

A rC H iT eC T s

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A T mos sT U D ios

T A T L ins T oW er

miL iT A rY

F

It W A s N O t M Y

A nD

G esT U res

B A C K

eV oL V e

mU seU m

orm:

.

I W A N teD

A rseN A L A N D H O W

-

A nD

T H A T

G roW orG A nisms oT H er

T H A T

pL A nT s inC L U D inG

moV e,

T H roU G H

T H inG s or

moV emenT

F orms reminisC enT

C reA T U res

A ssoC iA T ion:

eV oC A T ion oF

oF

G esT U res

ones roU T e.

O rgAN

I N teN tI O N tO

I Z eD

W A T er oF mimiC rY

reminisC enC e

tO

B O L D

I N terruP tI O N

,

A

A C AD

eA N D

F uN D A M eN tAL

Ju st A D D

A N

D I sL O C A tI O N

,

I N V I sI B L e eX teN sI O N tO

V I O L eN C e A N D

H O W

M I L I tA rY

H I stO rY

A N D

tH e F A te O F

tH e C I tY

IN

tH e

P eN etrA te tH e H I stO rI C

eX P erI eN C e. tH e A rC H I teC ture W I L L eN gA ge tH e P uB L I C

N eW

IN

tH e D eeP est I ssue O F

A re I N tertW I N eD

.”

D A nieL L iB esKi nD

’ s eX T ension T o D ( T ension) W iT H A

imposinG JU

sT

A s

V ieW inG

C erT Ai n sense oF

U pon iT s V ieW ers represenT inG

A D e’ s openness A nD

F AÇ

resD en’ s miL iT A rY

sT eeL sL iC es T H roU G H

G

T rA nspA renC Y

ermA n D emoC rA C Y

pL A T F orm proV iD es B reA T H T AK

in T H e opposiT e D ireC T ion, T oW Ar D

mU seU m D rA mA T iC A L L Y

T H e emoT ionA L A nD

T H e

1 3 5 -

Y eA r- oL D

iT Y

A nD

inG

V ieW s oF

T H e soU rC e oF

C riT iC A L C onneC T ions W iT H

T H e C iT Y

A s iT

riG iD iT Y

is T oD A Y

T H e B omB s, C reA T inG

A

2 0 0 -

.

oF oF

W A r.

A nD

H isT orY

.

T

H e neW

T H e eX isT inG

B U iL D inG

insiD e T H e W eD G e A

W H iL e T H e W eD G e iT seL F D rA mA T iC

9 9

F ooT

poinT s

spA C e F or reF L eC T ion.

F orm T o impose U pon iT s V ieW ers T o A T T rA C T iT s T Y poG rA pH Y

T on W eD G e oF

oriG inA L sT rU C T U re

psY C H iC A L B rU T A L iT Y

T H e opAC

’s

inT errU pT s T H e B U iL D inG

A G G ression, iT s mA ssiV e, F iV e- sT orY

pU sH es T H roU G H

T H is sT rU C T U re T oo U ses proJe C T ion oF empH A siZ inG

H isT orY

T H e C enT er oF

A siD e T H e C oU nT rY ’ s A U T H oriT A riA n pA sT

pU sH eD

A T T enT ion W H iL e

INF contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

’sF

P reserV e tH e M useuM

C reA te A

C reA te A

G L A ss, C onC reT e A nD

eV oC A T ion

sense

oF

A W iT H

moV emenT

T H e spirA L inG A L onG

imA G ineD

B oD Y

oF

rH Y T H m C oU pL eD

A roU nD

,

spA C es

C onT inU oU s F L oW inG A W iT H

sU rF A C es, T H roU G H

L ines, A C ross pL A nes

U pW A rD

A L onG

eY e/ minD oF moV emenT

W H iC H T H e G roU nD

T H e sT rU C T U res C reA T es

oF

. L iF T

T W o H eL iX es C orK sC reW inG

C reA T e A n A C C eL erA T eD

oU T

B Y

T o T H e T H irD

T A T L in’ s T oW er is F ormeD rU ssiA

.

inT ernA T ionA L in peT ersB U rG

monU menT

V L A D imir T A T L in’ s proposeD

H isT orY

D A nieL L iB esKi nD

sY mmeT rY

D oU B L e H eL iX

reminisC enC e

eV oC A T ion A nD

miL iT A rY

L iB esK inD

>>>

C U rV A T U re

T H eorY

T H eorY


Z A H A

A rT

miC H iG A n

mU seU m oF

H A D iD

Z A H A

A rT

miC H iG A n

H A D iD

F rA nK

T H e neW

G eH rY

Y orK

T oW er

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

mU seU m oF

G esT U res

rippL es,

G L iD e A C ross T H e F A C A D e

T H e sT rU C T U re oF

W H iC H

T H e W A T er C reA T inG

oF

in T U rn D ispL A C es

sT one inT o sT iL L A

W A T er W H iC H

D roppinG

represenT s T H e A C T

pL A nT s A nD

G roW eV oL V e A nD

oT H er orG A nisms T H A T

T H roU G H moV emenT

moV e, inC L U D inG

oF

A ssoC iA T ion: F orms reminisC enT

eV oC A T ion oF

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

T H eorY

proJ eC T ion oF proJ eC T ion oF imA G ineD

imA G ineD

F orm

mU sC U L A r F orC es

F

F orm

mU sC U L A r F orC es

orm:

T H e sH A rp- eD G eD

sT rU C T U re is A

C H A rA C T erisT iC s oF riV er A V enU e A nD proJe C T ion oF sT reeT

C onneC T ions, C onsisT inG

F orm inT o

D rA W s eY e B A C K

empH A siZ eD

inT o sT rU C T U re. mU sC U L A r F orC es oF

F A C A D e rH Y T H m

C reA T e T iG H T

T ensiL e sK in

B Y

resU L T

T H e sU rroU nD inG

T H e H eA rT oF

A n A D D iT ionAL

oF

oF

F ooT pA T H s A nD L A Y er oF

T H e T opoG rA pH iC

sH orT C U T s B eT W een T H e C iT Y mA ppinG

neT W orK

T H e mA in T rA F F iC

C onneC T ions A re T H en F oL D eD

A nD

A roU nD

B rinG s T oG eT H er A nD

T H e siT e. T H e B U iL D inG

sK

T H e enT ireT Y

oF

is A

C H A nG inG

resU L T

C irC U L A T orY

oF

V isU A L

roU T es sU rroU nD inG A nD

oV erL A ppeD

pA T H W A Y s on W H iC H

T opoG rA pH iC A L A nD

A re T H eY

T H e G rA nD

pA T H s A nD

mA ppeD

A nD

T H e

T o C reA T e peopL e moV e

siT e C irC U L A T ion

impL emenT eD

T H e D esiG n

in:

H e V A rieD

D ireC T ionA L F oL D s A nD

C H A nG es in D ireC T ion A nD

D ireC T

C onneC T ion, W H iC H

oF

C A mpU s. T H is is T H en

A nD

neG oT iA T es T H e D iF F erenT

W H iC H

A nD

L iF e on T H e norT H ern siD e oF

G enerA T e A

A n U rB A n C A rpeT

T H roU G H oU T

reminisC enC e

A nA L Y sis oF

C A mpU s W H iC H

A nA L Y sis B Y

inV esT iG A T ions T o D eF ine C riT iC A L L ines oF

eV oC A T ion

D eT Ai L eD

B eT W een T H e sT reeT

C A mpU s. T H ese V A rioU s C irC U L A T ion pA T H s A nD T H roU G H

T

A

A reA

T H e U niV ersiT Y

pL eA T s oF

orienT A T ion oF

A ppeA rA nC e A roU sinG

C U riosiT Y

T H is W eA T H er proT eC T ion L A Y er, reF L eC T

T H e sU rroU nD inG

,

Y eT

L A nD sC A pe G iV inG

neV er reV eA L inG

iT s C onT enT

.

T H e C irC U L A T orY

T H e B U iL D inG

A

C onsT An T L Y

FOCARDS mU sC U L A r T ension

sT A nD A rD

F orm

proJe C T ion oF

F orm

G esT U res

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T H eorY

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

2 9


impressions T H e B A roQ U e perioD

D A pH ne

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

siG nA L B oX H erZ oG & D e meU

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T oW er

A poL L o A nD

Y orK

G eH rY

ron

F rA nK

impressions

T H e neW

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T H eorY

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

G esT U res

A n A C T ion or

D A pH ne B ernini’ s A poL L o A nD

T ree.

T H inG

T U rn H er inT o A

T rA nsF ormA T ion

T o D o is T o B esT

T H e

rA pe. H e D eC iD es T H e

ineV iT A B L e seeminG L Y

B eG s F or

T o A V oiD some W A Y

poseiD on, A nD

H er F A T H er, T H e G oD

’s .

T o

U piD

C W iT H H iT

T H e B Y

T H e sT A T U e C A pT U res T H e

A L iV e.

oF

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L A

on T H eA T riC s W H ere oB J eC T s

T H e C A pT U rinG

A nD

G esT U res

. C oL L A pses in on iT seL F

iT F eeL A s iF iT

inT o iT s D A rK ness

mA K inG

B oD Y

H oL es

D rA W s T H e minD W H iC H

G rA V iT A T ionA L sinG U L A riT Y

C U rV inG

B L A C K

sL oW L Y

A iL L U sion oF

T H em inW A rD s T o C reA T e A n

L ines A nD

H e

T

sT rA iG H T U sinG B Y eF F eC T

siG nA L T oW er mimiC s T H is

so

no mA T T er or

G rA V iT A T ionA L F ieL D

rA D iA T ion C A n esC A pe.

H oL e: A

W H A T

spA C e H A V inG

inT ense T H A T

A

W orK s F eeL D eepL Y

D A pH ne C A L L s oU T

A s

A L ter A N D

misC H ieV oU s A rroW

V I suA L I N trI gue.

suC H

B einG

A N D

F O rM

C O N stA N tL Y

W A V es tH rO ugH O ut tH e

T o possess H er A F T er

A ttrA C tI O N

eV O C A teD

L I gH t tO

riV er nY mpH

C O uP L I N g A

A N I M A tI N g eF F eC t O F

poL L o, W H o seeK s

tH e A D D eD

A

C eN trA L P O I N t O F

A C H I eV es tH I s eF F eC t B Y

tO W ers A P P eA rA N C e A s I t rI P P L es A N D

G oD

Y O rK

W H o is C H A seD

geH rY

T H e A rT

sK Y L I N e.

tH e

D A pH ne, A

.

F A C A D e W I tH

tH e N eW

reG ion oF

A s

A

tH e W I N D

P rO Je C t O ut O F

mA K inG

A B O V e tH e C I tY

tO

F oC U seD

A L L O W I N g tH eM

T H roU G H

,

M A terI A L W I tH I N

A L L O W s F O r geH rY s O tH er

tH e I N sI D e A s W eL L W H ere P rI V A te uN I ts F eA ture C urV I N g W A L L s A N D

tH e sK Y A

V I eW s H I gH

W IN D O W

F A C A D e A L sO

momenT

stA N D I N g O ut A s A

O F

tH e B A Y

A N D

It Is B L O W IN g IN

sC U L pT U res represenT eD

I N tO

O r rI P P L es I N tO

C H A N ge tH e P erC eP tI O N

tH I s A N I M A teD

eX terI O r tH A t

F O rM

moV emenT

W I N D O W s tH A t eX teN D W A ter, W I N D

tH e O C C uP A N t W I tH

I s eV I D eN t O N

.

D Y N A M IC

use O F

A P P eA rs A s tH O ugH

oF

surrO uN D

geH rY ’ s I C O N I C

A nD

F O r tH e struC ture; tH e re I M A gI N I N g O F

tH e rI P P L I N g F O rM

struC ture C reA te A

T H e B A roQ U e perioD

A N I M A tes I ts F A C A D e tH rO ugH O ut tH e D A Y

F A C A D eA N D

D A Y

P rO gresses. W I tH

C O N stA N t M O V eM eN t A N D

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L sC U L pT U re: B ernini

V I sI O N

seN se O F

sinG U L A riT Y

tH e suN

tH e stA I N L ess steeL C L A D

L I gH t A s tH e D A Y

tH I s P rO Je C t I t H A s A

G rA V iT A T ionA L moV emenT

trA N sF O rM s W I tH

B L A C K

is T H e

orm: tH e uN D uL A tI N g P A N eL s O F

C enT er oF

sinG U L A riT Y

F

A sA

T oW er

K noW

Y orK

G eH rY

sinG U L A riT Y

F rA nK

B L A C K

T H e neW

W e

T H eorY

INF


FOCARDS ,

A

is A

T H e A rT L iF e- siZ e

mA K inG

W H ere D A V iD

, A

A

A nD

is

G roW T H T oW A rD s T H e sK Y

T empL e A sC enD s

sT A G es oF

.

T H e

T H roU G H

oF

G esT U res

G esT U res

A n A C T ion or A L iV e.

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L

sA inT

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

B A roQ U e sC U L pT U re

impressions

B erninis D A V iD

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T eresA

mA H A D eV A

reC oG niT ion oF

reC oG niZ eD

moV emenT

G roW T H

.

A

oF

T H e B A roQ U e perioD

eC sT A sY

inD iA n T empL es

sense oF

inD iA n T empL es

sT A G es oF

is

moV emenT

B ernini’ s D A V iD

A n impenD inG

H e

D rA W s B A C K T o F ire, C reA T inG

H is sL inG sH oT A B oU T

T

moT ion F rom W H ere D A V iD

sT A T e oF

in A

sinG L e sT one.

K noW n A s G oL iA T H sT A T U e is C A pT U reD

W iT H

G iA nT

G esT U res

A n A C T ion or

A L iV e.

on T H eA T riC s W H ere oB J eC T s T H e C A pT U rinG

W orK s F eeL D eepL Y

A nD smA L L F A rmer sL A Y s T H e

G oL iA T H

B A T T L e B eT W een D A V iD

T H e sT A T U e D epiC T s T H e

G iA n L orenZ o B ernini.

mA rB L e sC U L pT U re B Y

D A V iD

F oC U seD T H roU G H

sC U L pT U res represenT eD moV emenT momenT

oF

A nD

oF

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L

W orK s F eeL D eepL Y

F roZ en in T ime.

T H e B A roQ U e perioD

A

on T H eA T riC s W H ere oB J eC T s

T H e C A pT U rinG

sT A T e oF

B oD iL Y

eQ U iV A L enT s oF D iV ine J oY

T H e F A C iA L A nD

eX pressinG

sensU A L

spiriT U A L pL eA sU re,

eresA

A nD

oF

inT rU D es

meL D inG

B oD Y

A

on A n eA rT H L Y

momenT

T H e A rT

W H ere D iV iniT Y

iL L U sT rA T es A

B erninis sT A T U e

mA K inG

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L sC U L pT U re: B ernini

T

F oC U seD

T H roU G H

sC U L pT U res represenT eD moV emenT

momenT

oF

A nD

T H e B A roQ U e perioD

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L sC U L pT U re: B ernini

K A nD A riY A T empL e

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com impressions

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

3 1


Balance by

complexity

Balance by direction

Balance by colour the eye is inherently more attracted to objects of colour

a small complicated shape can balance a large simple

than it is monochromatic ones, especially if they are

complicated area of many shapes can balance the shapes

properties also hold more visual weight than larger

shape. also a large simple shape if placed within a around it.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

vibrant and highly saturated. smaller objects with these objects of adjacent duller colours.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

lines of force are powerful tools in guiding the eye. edges, shapes and a combination of dissimilar objects can

be used to direct the eye away from a heavier area to a lighter area in turn balancing out the larger object as the eye is forced to focus on the lighter one. these directional effect can be further enhanced through the use of lighting and shadows to enhance the edge condition

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

INF


Position

Balance by

Balance by

MASS

the perceived physical mass of an object automatically if a larger heavy object rests on the centre line of a scene a smaller object set further away will automatically balance the larger objects mass.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

creates visual interest and gravity towards its mass.

the

gravitational pull and mass can draw attention away

from other dissimilar objects of less importance in turn balancing the scene.

Balance by contrast the human eye by nature is attracted to contrast. if a small shape is placed next to a larger shape with lower contrast, the smaller shape will automatically balance the larger shape of lower contrast.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FOCARDS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

33


eX H iB iT ion Z A H A

H A D iD

Z U riC H

A rT

A T mos sT U D ios

noU V eA U

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

G A L erie G mU rZ Y nsK A

A

eF F eC ts C A N

D rA W

B e F urtH er eN H A N C eD

A N I M A te tH e O B J eC t.

tH rO ugH

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

. tH

A re ese

L I gH tI N g tO

F orms.

G esT U res

oF

orG A niC eV oC A T ion T H roU G H

impL ieD

F orC e, C U rV A T U re A nD L ines oF

inC orporA T es

H ese C onsisT

. T moV emenT

is T H e A T mos

seV erA L prinC ipL es oF

in T H eir W orK

W orK

sT A ir C A se W H iC H

one sU C H

A rT iC U L A T eD

T o

W A s C L eA rL Y

T H e nA T U rA L

W H iC H enV ironmenT

A L so in C U rV eD

H A rmoniZ e W iT H

L ines. A rC H iT eC T s T rieD

pL A nT s B U T

B Y

sT rU C T U res,

in F L oW ers A nD onL Y noT

eV oL V e. A rT

W A s inspireD

A nD G roW

nA T U rA L F orms A nD

noU V eA U

C reA T U res or

oT H er orG A nisms

moV e, inC L U D inG

oF

moV emenT

C O M P L eX I tY

M O re A tteN tI O N

T H A T

O B J eC t A s O B J eC ts O F

.

B A L A N C e

pL A nT s A nD

L A rger sM O O tH

M O re I N V I tI N g F O r tH e eY e A N D

C O M P L eX I tY

teX ture C A N

T H inG s T H A T

C O N trA st A N D

reminisC enT

H I gH

T H roU G H

sM A L L O B J eC t O F

C U rV A T U re

A

reminisC enC e

teX ture H O L D s tH e sA M e V A L ues A s B A L A N C e B Y

eV oC A T ion oF

te x tu re

eV oC A T ion A nD

B alance by

A ssoC iA T ion: F orms

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

perspeC T iV A L D isT orT ion moV emenT

oF

L ines oF

eY e A nD

minD

F orC e F U seD

W iT H

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT T o C reA T e A noT H er V isU A L D imension onT o A n eX isT inG

D imensionA L pL A ne

INF D imension

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

impressions

1

D imension

2

F U seD

D imension

G esT U res


U F F iZ i G A L L erY iT A L Y

F L orenC e

D A nC inG H oU se prA G U e F rA nK G eH rY

L ine oF

:

enQ U irY

A nimA T ion oF

C onC L U sion

mY

A rC H iT eC T U re

L ine oF

enQ U irY

is siT U A T eD

W iT H in T H e proF ession oF oF

A roU nD A

nU mB er oF

T ensionAL

sH A pes or A rrA nG emenT s oF A ssA U L T

□ □ □ □ □ □

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT

morpH oL oG Y

moV emenT

roT A T ion A nD

oF

eY e A nD

minD

D rA W inG

L ine oF

enQ U irY

pU sH inG

A nD

rH Y T H miC

:

enQ U irY

T H ese A re B U T is noT

neW

,

L ines oF

C oU pL eD

morpH s iT

inT o A

F L U iD

U nD erU T iL iseD

A n

W H ere B Y

B oT H

A nD

roU T e proJe C T

roT A T e inW A rD s C reA T inG

minD

sinG U L A riT Y

A nD

A

T riC K

eF F eC T

□ □ □ □ □ □

>>>

B oD Y

>>>

□ □ □ □ □ □

sensA T ions

moV emenT

V isU A L

eL emenT s C A n C reA T e:

T rA nsF ormA T ion F rA G menT A T ion propA G A T ion emerG enC e eV oC A T ion A C C eL erA T ion

1

C onC L U sion

C onC L U sion

A

F eW

oF

T H e eF F eC T s C reA T eD

A s A rC H iT eC T s sU C H

T H roU G H oU T

eL onG A T eD

F As H ion. T H is F U sion oF

orD ereD

reV oL V es

eL emenT s C reA T es A

A rC H iT eC T U re

sT rU C T U re sT rU C T U res

pU L L inG

moV emenT

W H en pA rT iC U L A r rH Y T H ms,

T oG eT H er. T H is F U sion oF

F A C A D es

perC eiV eD

C ompression oF

T oG eT H er A L onG

B U T

or impL ieD

T H e A nimA T ion or reA nimA T ion A ppeAr s T o B e moV inG

ensU e W iT H in oU r minD

repeT iT ion

A nimA T ion oF

sT A T e

sT rU C T U re T H A T

F orC e

L ines oF

repeT iT iV e rH Y T H m A nD F orC eD

A

F orC es T H A T C H A oT iC

moV emenT

T eC H niQ U e i C oineD

oF

sH A pes A re F U seD

U pon oU r senses in A A

T H e noT ion oF

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

C ompression

A roU nD

A rC H iT eC T U re. A

sT rU C T U re or spA C e. T H e C onC epT

A

T H eir proJe C T s. B U T meT H oD

Q U esT ion: W H A T T H e minD

A nD

H A D iD

in L iG H T

T o see?

F ooD

L ines

C onT orT ion repeT iT ion rH Y T H m perC eiV eD moV emenT T rA nsF ormA T ion

oF

B Y

T H is A rC H iT eC T U rA L T eC H niQ U e. T H is D isC oV erY

A nD

D A nieL L iB esK inD

F or T H oU G H T

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

W iT H in T H e pL A Y

(

H A V e U seD

iT

eX T ensiV eL Y

T H is, i D o B eL ieV e T H ere is more T o L eA rn A B oU T

T o pU rsU e T H e perC epT ion oF

eL se C A n T H e enerG Y

F orC e G U iD inG

W isH

A sZ A H A

K eY W orD s)

:

oF

W H A T

F rA G menT A T ion propA G A T ion impL ieD

moV emenT

T ension G rA V iT Y momenT U m V eL oC iT Y sH iF T inG

T H is

A rC H iT eC T U rA L A nimA T ion F U rT H er,

F orC es C reA T e?

W H A T

eL se C A n W e

A re T H eir possiB iL iT ies W iT H in D esiG n?

□ □ □ □ □ □ □

C onF iG U rA T ions C onF L iC T eX pL osion sU spension D issoL U T ion F L oW speeD A C C eL erA T ion

FOCARDS perspeC T iV e

pL A n

eL eV A T ion: rH Y T H m repeT iT ion

G esT U res

sinG U L A riT Y

C ompression oF

F orm

impL oD inG

mA sses

G esT U res

C onC L U sion

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

2

3 5


V erT iC L e A C C eL erA T ion

sprinG

T ension

sY sT em oF

pU sH

pU L L

A nD

proJ eC T ion emerG enC e

sense oF C reA T eD oF

G roW T H

.

A L T ernA T inG

-

sT A G es

-

A sC enD s

T oW A rD s T H e sK Y normA L

-

moV emenT T H roU G H

:

in

:

reF erenC e proJe C T

eY e T rA C es sT A G es

G oT H iC

D rA W s A T T enT ion U pW A rD s

inD iA n T empL es

>

resU L T

D eF iniT ion:

>>

D eF iniT ion:

>>

>

G roW T H

C A T H eD rA L s

oB Je C T G oinG A pA rT

C reA T es V erT iC L e

.

pU sH inG

pU L L inG

A C C eL erA T ion T H roU G H

proporT ions

F eeL s A siF T o L A U nC H

T enT ion.

perspeC T iV A L D isT orT ion

iT

-

is

-

or pU L L A W A Y

-

or

F orC e

L ines oF

B oD iL Y

L onD on G A T es B riD G e

F eeL inG

D eF iniT ion:

zzz

D one B Y

!

C onF L iC T B einG

-

F orm inT o

D rA W s eY e B A C K

T iG H T

sT reeT

oF

A

B U iL D inG

D eF iniT ion:

normA L

L ines oF

F orC e C reA T e

V isU A L G rA V iT Y A

D ireC T eD C ommA nD inG B oD iL Y

-

resU L T

-

T oW A rD s

reG ion.

T H e eY e A nD

moV emenT

-

-

:

reF erenC e proJe C T

eY e T rA C es T H e L ine

sH eiK H

sense oF

Y inC H U A n A rT

D ireC T ion

empH A sises reG ions D rA W inG

Z A Y eD

:

B riD G e

s

represenT D eF iniT ion: normA L

V isU A L A C C eL erA T ion

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

imA G ineD A

s

A C T ion C A rD s

(A) EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

oF L ine oF F orC e

T H roU G H

spA C e A L onG G U iD eD

-

or G esT U reD

moV emenT

mU seU m

T H e mA X X ii mU seU m

F orC e

L iB esKi nD

inT o sT rU C T U re

A rT

miL iT A rY

D enV er A rT

C reA T es D ireC T ionA L

miC H iG A n mU seU m

mU seU m

L Y ons reseA rC H

A C C eL erA T ion

B U iL D inG

C ommA nD s A T T enT ion

eV oC A T ion

F orC e

?

roY A L onT A rio mU seU m

eY e B A C K

-

:

reF erenC e proJe C T F orm C A pT U res

mU seU m oF

-

proJe C T ion inT o A or oU T

:

imposinG

V ieW ers A T T enT ion D rA W inG

inT o

sT rU C T U re. T H is C A n B e

sense oF

oF

resU L T

proJe C T ion oF V ieW

F orC e in

D ireC T ion oF

moV emenT

?

D ireC T ion

sU spenT ion B riD G es

pU L L s V ieW ers in

or riG iD

proJ eC T eD

C ompression D ireC T ion

C ompression

inT ernA L C onF L iC T

proJe C T eD

-

:

reF erenC e proJe C T

C reA T es A

T oo. A L W A Y s in

G roW T H

L ines oF

:

resU L T

B Y

F orC e

A

resU L T

-

reF erenC e proJe C T

-

-

T sT H A T

moV e D eF iniT ion:

:

T H e mA X X ii mU seU m

eV oC A T ion oF

pin B A L L eF F eC T

G A L erie G mU rZ Y nsK A

T H roU G H

impL ies D ireC T ion

Z U riC H

eY e T rA C es T H e L ine

or inT o

roU T e

C onT inoU s L ine

:

oB JeC

D rA W inG

rippL es

F orC e

proJe C T s B oD Y

moV emenT

A ssoC iA T ion:

F orms reminisC enT

A nD

A C T ion C A rD s

oF

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T moV e, inC L U D inG

inT o spA C e

G roW

resU L T

-

minD

-

-

: A ssoC iA T es W iT H

reF erenC e proJe C T oB JeC

T

F rA nK

G eH rY

nY

:

T oW er

A C T iV A T es memorY

T H eA Q U A

impL ies moV emenT

miL W A U Ke e A rT

mU seU m

minD

sA A rinens T W A

T erminA L

A nimA T es T H e sT A T iC

B U iL D inG

pL A nT s

oT H er orG A nisms T H A T A nD

eV oL V e

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A C T ion C A rD s

INF


perspectival distortion

repitition rotation

movement of eye and mind

a powerful combination definition: lines of force fused with perspectival movement to create another visual dimension onto an existing

result:

- visual confusion - gravitational pull - 2 dimensional plane - focal point of attention

reference project:

definition:

galerie gmurzynska zurich

implied movement through

art installation reframe

repetitive growth with gradual change of static

dimensional plane normal

& rhythm

rotation

repitition rhythm

rhythm: accelerated movement to focal point

fused

perspectival movement

polarities of light and dark

proximity and length

gravitational force

definition: long tight spaces due to the eyes perspective create lines of force projecting the eye and body through the space

- eye traces the line - projects vision

reference project: uffizi galerie milan

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

definition: in light spaces we are in dark spaces we are

attracted to the light. like a beacon it draws the viewer in.

perspective

action cards

reference project:

definition:

- visual harmony nautilus shell dancing house prague - gravitational pull high trestle trail bridge - 2 dimensional plane - focal point of attention art installation reframe - singularity effect - projected bodily movement

the perceived physical mass or size of an object or material automatically creates visual interest and gravity towards itself

result: - balances other objects - creates a drawing force - locating tool - demands attention - projects bodily movement

reference project: schaulager basel rainier tower seattle

muscular tension lines in conflict

attracted to the dark.

down the space

- implies direction - drawing force - projects body into space

mass result:

result: reference project: - implies direction tadao ando herzog signal box - drawing force - projects bodily movement - acts as an attractor - focal point - spikes curiosity

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

action cards

hh

definition: visual complexity can create tension within the mind as it tries to map it. pushing and pulling like

static

the fibers of a muscle >

plan

result:

gravitational movement

>

conflict

>

lines are in tention or conflict with each other

result: - mind gives it energy - balances larger objects - creates visual intrigue - drawing force - animates object in variable

reference project: starbucks stick cafe federation square prostho museum sheikh zayed bridge

directions

- demands mental attention

action cards

FOCARDS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

37


(B) MIND AS THE ANIMATOR As the mind is a very complicated and sophisticated organ, we are able to convert two dimensional sensations of our reality, (displayed onto our retina) into a three dimensional experiences of perception in turn triggering an emotional response from the brain. This is created by the mind using certain depth cues which allow the brain to reconstruct the information into a readable form (Rookes 2013, 37), moreover making us feel or react in a certain way to the events we are experiencing at the time. But what is it about our mind’s reading of ‘The Alive’, an object that is, in scientific terms, ‘static’, that gives the viewer the illusion that it is in fact moving, it is alive? As Roger Shepard, a human perception and cognitive scientist explains: ‘Visual illusions, ambiguous figures, and depictions of impossible objects are inherently fascinating. Their violations of our most inner grained and immediate interpretations of external reality grab us at a deep, unarticulated level. For every situation our perceptual system automatically applies its previously successful and now thoroughly entrenched methods of processing. If the situation is quite different from those encountered by our ancestors, however, this system may deliver up incorrect or conflicting interpretations.’ (Shepard 1990, 5) Moreover, in simple terms, creating an illusion, creating a sense that the object is different or acting differently to what it actually is. This phenomenon has fascinated man throughout recorded history resulting in a profusion of theories as to their cause, two of these being The Gestalt Theory, and the effects of our Binocular Perception. The Gestalt Theory relates to the law of visual reconstruction. A series of laws based on how the mind reconstructs objects in groups based on their visual properties. These visual reconstructions have an inherent ability to orchestrate the way people move or interact with a space. These laws include Balance by Texture (Fig 1), Balance by Complexity (Fig 2), Balance by Colour (Fig 3), Balance by Direction (Fig 4), Balance by Position (Fig 5), Balance by Mass (Fig 6), Balance by Contrast (Fig 7).

ILLUS


B alance by

te x tu re

teX ture H O L D s tH e sA M e V A L ues A s B A L A N C e B Y

A

A

sM A L L O B J eC t O F

H I gH

C O N trA st A N D

L A rger sM O O tH

O B J eC t A s O B J eC ts O F

M O re I N V I tI N g F O r tH e eY e A N D eF F eC ts C A N

D rA W

B e F urtH er eN H A N C eD

A N I M A te tH e O B J eC t.

C O M P L eX I tY

teX ture C A N

C O M P L eX I tY

M O re A tteN tI O N tH rO ugH

.

B A L A N C e

. tH

A re

CONTINUE...

ese

L I gH tI N g tO

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FIGURE 1

SIONS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

3 9


(B) MIND AS THE ANIMATOR

Balance by

complexity

a small complicated shape can balance a large simple shape. also a large simple shape if placed within a complicated area of many shapes can balance the shapes around it.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FIGURE 2

FIGURE 3

ILLUS


Balance by direction

Balance by colour

lines of force are powerful tools in guiding the eye. edges, shapes and a combination of dissimilar objects can

the eye is inherently more attracted to objects of colour

than it is monochromatic ones, especially if they are

be used to direct the eye away from a heavier area to

vibrant and highly saturated. smaller objects with these

a lighter area in turn balancing out the larger object as the eye is forced to focus on the lighter one. these

properties also hold more visual weight than larger objects of adjacent duller colours.

directional effect can be further enhanced through the use of lighting and shadows to enhance the edge condition

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FIGURE 4

SIONS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

41


(B) MIND AS THE ANIMATOR

Position Balance by if a larger heavy object rests on the centre line of a scene a smaller object set further away will automatically balance the larger objects mass.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FIGURE 5

FIGURE 6

ILLUS


Balance by

MASS

Balance by contrast the human eye by nature is attracted to contrast. if a

the perceived physical mass of an object automatically

small shape is placed next to a larger shape with lower

creates visual interest and gravity towards its mass.

the

contrast, the smaller shape will automatically balance

gravitational pull and mass can draw attention away

the larger shape of lower contrast.

from other dissimilar objects of less importance in turn balancing the scene.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

FIGURE 7

SIONS Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

43


(B) MIND AS THE ANIMATOR Having identified these laws of visual reconstruction it is understandable how the mind can be easily manipulated through the alterations of simple shapes, but now let’s consider The Penrose Impossible Triangle (Figure 8). Its shape is seemingly infinite, turning back on itself and continuously changing, throwing the viewer’s mind into utter confusion and disarray. The mind is drawn to this image because it is a mathematical organism; and it is constantly trying to make sense of its form, recalculating its shape over and over again, in turn giving the object its energy, moreover bringing it to life (Desolneux 2008, 17). Another way the mind creates the illusion of an object feeling ‘Alive’ is through our Binocular Perception. Binocular Perception is dependent on the interaction between both eyes viewing the world equally, but this can sometimes cause ambiguity or illusions based on the fact that they don’t see entirely the same images. This is attributed to their separation, in turn making the images become distorted. This can be articulated by The Impossible Penrose Fork (Figure 9). As a result of Binocular Perception (two eyes) the eye can see two objects that don’t make sense. Just like The Penrose Impossible Triangle, it results in the mind constantly trying, over and over again to stabilise the image, creating a tension between both eyes. However if you hide one eye with one hand and then the other, the variation becomes apparent (Desolneux 2008, 17).

ILLUS


FIGURE 8

SIONS

FIGURE 9

DISCOVERY It is clear to see that the human brain has evolved over time by finding patterns and relationships in information supplied by light to our eyes, and associating those relationships with a behavioural meaning by interacting with the world. From experiments like the Impossible Penrose Triangle and the Impossible Penrose Fork it is evident that the mind is bound by the laws of physics, constantly calculating shapes, lines and spaces (Lotto 2009) we see by continually redefining normality, clearly articulating how such complex and personified architectural forms can break down the mind’s systematic approach to geometry, challenging its sense of normality and throwing it into disarray. This in turn brings life and energy to the form which the mind is viewing, giving it the illusion that it is moving, it is alive. This research has developed a series of categorized built methods that replicate these very eects and others that were not initially discovered in the dissertation proposal.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

45


(C) BUILDING METHODOLOGIES Over the course of history many architectural methodologies and styles have come to pass, all having strong ties to the era in which they were created. After extensive research of these various architectural styles, an evolving trend became evidently apparent. The creation of optical illusions and extra sensory effects to instil the feeling of movement or ‘The Alive’, have been actively developing throughout history; strongly associated with cultural shifts and the advancement of technologies in use during the period. Four key periods were found to facilitate the use of these effects to trick the viewer’s cognitive perception, expressing these objects as one thing but gesturing another. These periods include, The Baroque Period, The Art Nouveau Period, The Gothic Period and The Classical Period, namely the Greeks. The Baroque Period was focused on a rhetorical display of theatrics whereby objects and sculptures represented a figurative portrayal of movement through the capturing of an action or moments, making the art works feel deeply alive (Figure 10). This technique was used to express the divine power of the Catholic Church and its absolutist state. Its architecture was characterised by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity (Wikipedia 2008), animating its spaces giving the architecture new life.

TIMELA


B erninis D A V iD

B A roQ U e sC U L pT U re

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L sC U L pT U re: B ernini

T H e B A roQ U e perioD A nD oF

A rT

F oC U seD

on T H eA T riC s W H ere oB Je C T s

sC U L pT U res represenT eD moV emenT

momenT

D A V iD

T H roU G H

mA K inG

is A

noU V eA U

A T mos sT U D ios

A

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L

T H e C A pT U rinG

T H e A rT

oF

W orK s F eeL D eepL Y

A n A C T ion or

A L iV e.

L iF e- siZ e

mA rB L e sC U L pT U re B Y

G iA n L orenZ o B ernini. T H e sT A T U e D epiC T s T H e B A T T L e B eT W een D A V iD G oL iA T H

W H ere D A V iD

A nD

, A

smA L L F A rmer sL A Y s T H e W iT H

K noW n A s G oL iA T H A

sinG L e sT one.

sT A T U e is C A pT U reD sT A T e oF

W H ere D A V iD H is sL inG sH oT A B oU T

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

H e

D rA W s B A C K A nD

is

T o F ire, C reA T inG

A n impenD inG

impressions

T

in A

moT ion F rom

moV emenT

B ernini’ s D A V iD

.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com G esT U res

APSE

impressions

FIGURE 11

G iA nT

FIGURE 10

CONTINUED... The Art Nouveau Period (1890 -1910), also known as “new art” in French, was motivated by natural forms and structures whereby artists attempted to synchronise themselves with the natural environment though design and creation (Figure 11). It was considered an all-encompassing style, embracing various mediums such as painting, sculpture, architecture and many others. It was characterised by its use of iron to create organic free flowing forms through what is known as the ‘whiplash curve’ described as a ‘long, sensitive curve, undulating, flowing, and interplaying with others, sprouting from corners and covering asymmetrically all available surfaces’ (David 1982, 251). This evolution of the arts to create free flowing organic forms out of iron and other materials, can be accredited to the advancement of new industrial technologies associated with the industrial revolution and a culture shift to what was fashionable at the time.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

4 7


(C) BUILDING METHODOLOGIES Gothic ecclesiastical architecture, like Classical architecture, represents a calculated geometrical system of proportions. But instead of disrupting its masses horizontally, it distributes them vertically, stacking one upon the other, accelerating the eye upwards, possessing a strong sense of upward movement (Eyre 2001). This effect was employed to empower the occupant with the presence of God and ascension towards the heavens, depicting a clearly manipulated sensory mechanic of the mind (Figure 13). This technique was used by the Catholic Church during the medieval period to express their celestial power as they ruled not only though conviction but affluence and hegemony. Greek architects of the classical period were apprised with visual illusions (Coren and Girgus 1978, 5). Their architecture was grounded on a system of proportions and optical effects to perfect the viewing of the building from all angles, centred on a complex mathematical progression known as the Golden Mean (golden ratio). They incorporated a series of correctional illusionary techniques to offset perspectival distortions (Figure 12). A prime example of this is the Parthenon where no line within the planning of the structure was ever straight. Their structures would curve and bulge to harmonize the perspectival view of their buildings (Banister 2001, 126).

TIMELA


FIGURE 12

APSE

FIGURE 13

DISCOVERY After a thorough analysis of the articulated periods, it is evident that architecture is undeniably tied to the period in which it is created. Cultural shifts, economic and technological advancements pave the way for architectural evolution grounded in this technological era of unparalleled creative and innovative freedom, and due to this fact a more thorough analysis of this progression was undertaken based on our current day and age, primarily focused on new technological advancements in the fields of science to fully understand their significance and relation to ‘The Alive’.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

49


(D) ADVOCATES OF THE ALIVE After a deeper understanding into the historic developments of non-static architectural systems was developed, this research sought to find clues with regard to the inaugurating of this architectural system in the post digital age of our time. It was found that the beginnings of a new form of architecture were already underway that facilitated some of the fundamental qualities of an organic expression of ‘The Alive’ known as Deconstructivism. Deconstructivism epitomises Anti-form, Antistructure and Anti-hierarchy; all that architecture typically is not (Bure 2008, 70). It is dominated by curvilinear shapes, which disturb and dislocate the skeleton of the object. The structures of these buildings express a strong feeling of controlled chaos, which stimulates unpredictability, and an accelerated form of motion. This motion and organic expression that is gestured in these structures is expressed by their complexity and the very fact they break the mind’s systematic approach to the laws of physics. These structures seem to defy gravity as their shapes do not correspond to anything the mind is used to calculating, in turn bring them to life and giving them energy. A series of architects were found to facilitate this approach in their own designs, seeking new ways to break the confines of the Cartesian box and express the life and energy that waits to be found through the use of new digital and non-digital technologies. This new era of architects is as follows: Zaha Hadid is well known for her free following organic forms that break the rigid conservative styles of the past. Her designs appear to be free and light, defying gravity with every sweeping curve (Figure 14). Zaha Hadid’s designs draw from nature in the way they evolve and deal with complexity. She is quoted as saying “let it be free, let it flow” signifying the natural progression of her work. She is also well known for her use of a technique known as Parametricism, which uses advanced computational design techniques to facilitate the generation of unique organic forms. Zaha Hadid has even gone as far as to coin her own work as Modern Baroque, Fluid Baroque (Figure 14), a style also well known for the expression of theatrics and life (Yentob 2013).

FORUNN


FIGURE 14

FIGURE 15

NERS

FIGURE 16

CONTINUED... Frank Gehry attempts to free his buildings from typological constraints into an unprecedented style of configuration (Figure 16). His works take up a process of transformation and evolution, where the form is never static it is always progressing. His methods are based on the principles of Deconstuctivism whereby he divorces the confines of normal architectural practice, searching for ways to constantly alter the perception of his structures as one moves around it, by creating complex shapes and structures that represent the time through sophisticated 3D modelling software (Dal Co 1998, 9).

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

51


(D) ADVOCATES OF THE ALIVE

FIGURE 17: Peter Eisenman

FIGURE 18: Asymptote

FIGURE 19: EMERGENT

Peter Eisenman uses a technique known as morphing or destabilisation which is used in contemporary cinema to transform the perception of two figures. Eisenman uses this technique in an attempt to destabilize the general notion of Cartesian space where each object has a clear and precise form. Eisenman achieves this through the use of digital virtualisation, also referred to as generative design, to break free from the geometric limitations and architectural proportional constraints of the architectural profession (Galofaro 1999, 41)(Figure 17). Eisenman states in the documentary Making Architecture Move by Michael Blackwood ‘architecture is a vehicle to investigate phenomena that seems to be fixed and static.’ ‘Architecture is the host organism’ (Blackwood 1997).

FORUNN


DISCOVERY

FIGURE 20: Biothing

FIGURE 21: LAVA

NERS

FIGURE 22: Morphosis

After a brief analysis of the above architects, a consistent focus on generative 3D technology as an explorative instrument was discovered, which enabled the architects to fully explore and conceive personified and organic structures. This at the time articulated the introduction of 3D digital technology as a definitive tool in the generation of the formal aspects of ‘The Alive’. But after identifying this discovery, further analysis of this theory via the visual database was conducted in order to authenticate these findings, which resulted in the discovery of many other key architects associated with this exploration such as Hani Rashid (Asymptote) (Figure 18), Daniel libeskind, Thom Mayne (Morphosis) (Figure 22), Santiago Calatrava, Bernard Tschumi, Emergent (Figure 19), Lars Suybroek, LAVA (Figure 21) / Greg Lynn / Ball Nogues / Biothing (Figure 20), Cloud 9, Evan Douglis, Krets, MADA Spam, Eleni Manfredi, Qua’Virach, R&Sie, Servo and many, many more. This clearly solidified the proposals’ initial findings of a distinct trend emerging around the use of 3D digital technologies to create a formal representation of ‘The Alive’, but not what actually makes a building come to life! That being said, the creation of this form of architecture is still closely tied to that of the sciences in terms of innovation and experimentation, which would have not been possible if such tools were not invented, and therefore should not be discounted as it is critical to the initial birthing of this type of architectural intervention. Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

53


(E) SCIENCE In the beginning of the research the intention was primarily to study the current and historic developments of non-static architectural systems on the premise that this would give the project grounding around what it means to be alive. However as the research progressed, it was evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the confines of the introverted architectural profession, and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed or have been developed by the multitude of scientific fields. This allowed the project to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to present a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the vital need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation.

INNOVA


Image Credit: Fernando Cruz (submicron.deviantart.com)

ATION Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

55


(F) ECOLOGIES After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that The Swan Canning River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan Rivers’ multiple environmental issues such as pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health.

ECOLO


OGIES Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

57


METHODOLOGY The methodology implemented within this research was initially framed around investigative studies into the historic development of non-static architectural systems, including current architectural practises that actively partake in this form of architecture. This analysis was also intended to be coupled with investigations into how the mind is affected by these systems and what cognitively distortive (illusionary) tools could be re-engineered to enhance this non-static form of expression. These studies were to lead into extensive experimentation and prototyping in the form of 3D printed extrapolations of principles discovered. The method of categorising these findings was to be borrowed from biological sciences and genetic engineering where each extrapolation would be laid out on a grid within a glass case of various architectural species, similar to the documenting of insects (Figure 23). This case was to be referred to as ‘the species case’. Each architect, building and cognitive effect extrapolated would have its own row with a multitude of columns showing its various evolutions over time. Through exemplars, this operational/physical analysis of ‘The Alive’ was intended to supply an opportunity to create a concise assessment as to the level of ‘Aliveness’ found within these works in order to comparatively scale/calibrate the results. Once a thorough analysis had been completed, cross pollination of these findings, a method adopted from genetic engineering, was to take place. The aim of cross pollinating these elements was to analyse the various ways in which ‘The Alive’ could be evolved and enhanced past its current stage of evolution. Each experiment was then documented in the same glass case displaying the various evolutionary stages possible for each category once it was cross pollinated with another. This method of analysis was projected to provide a visual interpretation of geometric study which articulates aspects of: proportion, scale, material, componentry, facets/facades and structural systems. The main objective of this method was to acknowledge and understand the current evolution of ‘The Alive’ and to then re-engineer and evolve it into an entirely new species, enriched with the strengths of the previous evolutions discovered within the study. These results would then be tested and translated into a built form.

APPRO


OACH

FIGURE 23

CONTINUED... But as the research progressed it became clearer that this methodology was too limiting to the research endeavour as it focused more on the form of a structure and less on the biological, and therefore a shift in focus presented the opportunity to depart from this methodology to enable a vigorous exploration into the developments of new scientific technologies, and how these new innovations could be applied to architecture in the form of a sophisticated architectural typology based on the fundamentals of biology and the systems of the human body, in order to create a more responsive, adaptive and intelligent architectural species.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

59


METHODOLOGY This research was achieved through consistent use of a virtual information database of catalogued illustrated media and data. This enabled the research the ability to cypher through extensive amounts of information quickly and easily in order to find relevant material to the topic. The initial findings of the research in regard to implied movement techniques that create the perception of movement and life through form, were primarily conducted through historical textual research and current contemporary projects that facilitated this quality. This was then applied to a 2500mm x 900mm research background map (Figure 24) to articulate the thought process and how it was discovered that the research showed the need to make architecture more ‘Alive’. As the research progressed the virtual database was exercised more extensively throughout the entirety of the research to find new scientific technologies in fields such as, mechanical engineering, biomechanics, biomimcry, bio-mimetics, nano-technology and many others that the project could leverage off and apply. These findings coupled with studies into systems of the human body and the adaptive characteristics of other organisms within nature where then applied to a research map presented at week 4 interim submission denoting the scope of the project coupled with a short promotional teaser trailer of the research idea to gain momentum around the study (Appendix 119). As this methodology was found to be quite useful in consolidating data and ideas, it was applied to the week 11 interim submission. The is resulted in a programmatic representation of the intended design proposition through diagrams, indicating the varying technologies, systems and thinking behind the functions, adaptations and responses of the building, allowing the examiners to clearly follow the progression of research and the thought process behind design decisions (Appendix 121). This form of visual data mapping was critical in the design and resolution of its internal and external functions also acting as a blueprint for the formal composition of the building and final result.

APPRO


B IN O C U L A R P E R C E P T IO N

P E R C IE V E T H E W O R L D A N D S O A C C U R E T L Y ?

V IS U A L

S T A B IL IT Y

e are able to convert tw o dimensional sensations of a scene on our retina into a three dimensional experience of perception. T his depends on using certain depth cues w hich allow s our brain to reconstruct the information into a readable form. ( R ookes 2 0 1 3 , 3 7 )

T H E

M IN D

IS

B O U N D

B Y

L A W

S

O F

W

E H A V E N O O U R S E N E S

P H Y S IC S

T he human brain evolved by finding patterns and relationships in information supplied by light to our eyes and associating those relationships w ith a behavioral meaning by interacting w ith the w orld. T he mind is bound by the law s of physics constantly calculating, shapes, lines and spaces. ( L otto 2 0 0 9 ) H ow w e see is by continually redefining normality. B egging the q uestion does this new contortion of space break dow n the minds systematic approach to geometry?

T H E

K N O W

N

V IT R U V IA N

M A N

T H E

G O T H IC

G R E E K

perspeC T iV A L D isT orT ion moV emenT

oF

eY e A nD

F orC e F U seD

:

V isU A L C onF U sion

-

G A L erie G mU rZ Y nsK A A rT

G rA V iT A T ionA L pU L L

- 2 -

proX imiT Y

A nD

D eF iniT ion:

Z U riC H

T H e perC eiV eD

insT A L L A T ion reF rA me

oF

C reA T es V isU A L inT eresT G rA V iT Y

-

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

C reA T es A L oC A T inG

-

spA C es D U e

resU L T

-

T H e spA C e

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

eY e T rA C es T H e L ine

-

:

U F F iZ i G A L erie miL A n

proJ eC T s V ision

F orC e

T H e eY e A nD

D oW n T H e spA C e

-

D rA W inG

proJ eC T s B oD iL Y

F orC e

>

miL W A U K ee A rT

A s iT

resU L T

-

C A n

T ries T o mA p iT

A nD

pU L L inG A

minD

-

C onF L iC T

C onF L iC T

W iT H

-

eA C H

oT H er

:

A

D eF iniT ion: V ieW

resU L T

-

F orm inT o

D rA W s eY e B A C K

or oU T

oF

A

:

-

enerG Y

sT A rB U C K s sT iC K

prosT H o mU seU m sH eiK H

F orC e

B U iL D inG

inT o sT rU C T U re

-

Z A Y eD

B riD G e

mU seU m oF

A rT

poW erF U L C omB inA T ion

moV emenT

A ssoC iA T ion: oF

resU L T

-

minD

-

:

moV emenT

sT A T iC

roT A T ion

moV emenT

rH Y T H m

L iG H T

A nD

A nD

eV oL V e

oB J eC T

F rA nK

G eH rY

nY

D A nC inG

D imensionA L pL A ne

F oC A L poinT

-

sinG U L A riT Y

-

proJ eC T eD

oF

A T T enT ion

H iG H A rT

mU seU m

sA A rinens T W A

T erminA L

pU sH

D eF iniT ion: sense oF

H oU se prA G U e

C reA T eD

T resT L e T rA iL B riD G e

oF

insT A L L A T ion reF rA me

.

normA L

-

-

sT A G es

-

A sC enD s

A L T ernA T inG

moV emenT

:

spA C es W e A re

A T T rA C T eD in D A rK

T o T H e D A rK

spA C es W e A re

A T T rA C T eD L iK e A

T o T H e L iG H T

B eA C on iT

T H e V ieW er in.

D rA W s

.

resU L T

-

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

impL ies D ireC T ion

T A D A o A nD o

D rA W inG

H erZ oG

F orC e

proJ eC T s B oD iL Y

.

eY e T rA C es sT A G es

G oT H iC

D rA W s A T T enT ion U pW A rD s

inD iA n T empL es

A C T s A s A n A T T rA C T or spiK es C U riosiT Y

A nD

D eF iniT ion: oB J eC T G oinG A pA rT

:

W

H A T IF W E D IS T O R T T H E M IN D S D E P T H P E R C E P T IO N ? W H A T C A N A C H IE V E D ?

T H R O U G H

D E C O N S T R U C T IV IS T A R C H IT E C T U R E A N D F R E E D O M O F D E S IG N IN D IG IT A L E N V IR O N M E N T R E D E F IN IN G W H A T O U R M IN D S P E R C E IV E S A S N O R M A L IT Y ?

B E

I f our mind calculates w hat w e see from experience and is rooted in the law s of physics and gravity, then buildings that blur the line betw een these tw o are challenging our minds sense of normality throw ing our senses into disarray?

D epth perception is the w ay the eye turns a tw o dimensional reading of a space into a 3 D image for the brain.

T R IC K IN G T H E M IN D S P R O G R A M M IN G . IN H E R E N T T E N S IO N IN IL L U S IO N S A N D D E S T A B IL IZ A T IO N

pU sH inG

iT

-

is

inT ernA L C onF L iC T

-

or pU L L A W A Y

C reA T es A

L onD on G A T es B riD G e

sense oF

proJ eC T eD

F orC e in

D ireC T ion oF

-

F eeL inG

B alance by d i r e c t i o n

sU spenT ion B riD G es

pU L L s V ieW ers in

-

or

T oo. A L W A Y s in

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

resU L T

F eeL s A siF T o L A U nC H

T enT ion.

perspeC T iV A L D isT orT ion

L I N es O F

C onF L iC T

oF

B einG

L ines oF

B oD iL Y

-

T oW A rD s

reG ion.

-

T H e eY e A nD

-

moV emenT

-

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

eY e T rA C es T H e L ine

sH eiK H

sense oF

Y inC H U A n A rT

D ireC T ion

empH A sises reG ions D rA W inG

Z A Y eD

:

s

B riD G e

?

A

imA G ineD

T H roU G H

spA C e A L onG oF

B Y

A

-

reF erenC e proJ eC T

eY e T rA C es T H e L ine

-

pin B A L L eF F eC T impL ies D ireC T ion

-

proJ eC T s B oD Y

or inT o

roU T e

C onT inoU s L ine

F orC e

L ine oF

:

resU L T

-

or G esT U reD

moV emenT A

G U iD eD s

D rA W inG

tO

D I reC tI O N A L

:

A

IN

turN tO

O F

V anishing P oint - 3 D interpritation of the mind ( D esolneux 2 0 0 8 , 1 7 ) .

F O C us O N

A

H eA V I er A reA

A

tO

tH rO ugH

sM A L L

sH A P e.

tH e L I gH ter O N e. tH ese

C O M P L I C A teD A L sO

C O M P L I C A teD A rO uN D

tH e

I t.

A

sH A P e C A N

B A L A N C e A

L A rge sI M P L e sH A P e I F

A reA

O F

M A N Y

sH A P es C A N

P o s itio n

F L orenC e

H iG H

W I tH I N

tH e P erC eI V eD

A

IF

G eH rY

Y orK

eV oC A T ion

T oW er

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L

proJ eC T ion

sC U L pT U re: B ernini

reminisC enC e

eV oC A T ion oF

A nD

moV emenT

A

L A rger H eA V Y

O B J eC t rests O N

T H e B A roQ U e perioD

T H roU G H

A nD

moV emenT

momenT

pL A nT s A nD

D A V iD

miL iT A rY

D A nieL L iB esK inD

T H roU G H

mA K inG

G roW

eV oL V e

F oC U seD

tH

P H Y sI C A L

M A S S M A ss O F

I N terest A N D

e grA V I tA tI O N A L

F rO M

P uL L

A N D

A N

O B J eC t A utO M A tI C A L L Y

tO W A rD s I ts M A ss.

grA V I tY

M A ss C A N

O tH er D I ssI M I L A r O B J eC ts O F

B A L A N C I N g tH e sC eN e.

A tteN tI O N

A W A Y

L ess I M P O rtA N C e I N

D rA W

turN

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A

B iB L ioT eC A

mU seU m

L A U renZ iA nA

sT A ir C A se

miC H A eL A nG eL o

T H e mA X X ii mU seU m Z A H A

H eL iX

H A D iD

iT A L Y

G A L erie G mU rZ Y nsK A eX H iB iT ion Z A H A

sT A ir C A se: T H e V A T iC A n

H A D iD

Z U riC H sH eiK H A B U

D H A B i

Z A Y eD

sY sT em oF

B riD G e

C L A ssiC

proporT ions

V s G oT H iC

D A nieL L iB esK inD

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L

T H e C A pT U rinG

T H e A rT

oF

W orK s F eeL D eepL Y

A n A C T ion or

A L iV e.

L iF e- siZ e

is A

mA rB L e sC U L pT U re B Y

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

oriG inA L sT rU C T U re H oriZ onT A L

T H e sT A T U e D epiC T s T H e

impressions

B A T T L e B eT W een D A V iD G oL iA T H

W H ere D A V iD

D isT riB U T ion oF

A nD

,

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

F orC es

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

impressions

A N E W E R A O F S P A T IA L D IV E R S IT Y

A

smA L L F A rmer sL A Y s T H e

repeT iT ion A nD A C C eL erA T eD

oF

eY e A nD

minD

represenT s T H e A C T

rH Y T H m

D roppinG

F orC e

A

W A T er W H iC H

repeT iT iV e rH Y T H m A nD L ines oF

oF

F orC eD

T oG eT H er A L onG

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T

eL onG A T eD

moV e or moV e T H emseL V es

B oD Y

A nD

impL ieD

C oU pL eD

W H iC H

moV emenT

T H roU G H

A n

G roW T H

roU T e proJ eC T

oF

repeT iT iV e

W iT H

C H A nG e oF

minD

A C C eL erA T eD

K noW n A s G oL iA T H A

sinG L e sT one.

sT A T U e is C A pT U reD

oF

sT A T e oF

sT one inT o sT iL L

H is sL inG sH oT

rippL es,

A B oU T

T

H e

in A

V isU A L D isT orT ion

moT ion F rom

W H ere D A V iD

in T U rn D ispL A C es

G L iD e A C ross T H e F A C A D e

sU rG e A nD

D rA W s B A C K A nD

moV emenT

perC epT ion oF

.

moV emenT oU T

moV emenT

oF

T H roU G H

A noT H er

-

proJ eC T ion oF

C onF L iC T inG

>>>

1

2 eV oC A T ion oF

W inG s openinG

3 T oF L Y

reminisC enT

B irD

G esT U res

perspeC T iV e

eL eV A T ion: rH Y T H m repeT iT ion

pL A n

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com G esT U res

B riD G e in eL eV A T ion

rH Y T H m repeT iT ion A nD

roT A T ion

impressions

G esT U res

G esT U res

D E C O N S T R U C T IV IS M

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

B ernini’ s D A V iD

G E O M E T R IC

G esT U res

imA G ineD

F A miL iA r sT A irC A se W H iC H B Y

A

D oW nW A rD B U L G e A nD W A Y

T oW A rD s Y oU

.

moV emenT

sU rG e

or inT o A

D isT orT A

roU T e.

moV emenT

C U rV A T U re A nD

spA C e

T H e riG H T

or G esT U reD

H A nD eD

perspeC T iV A L D isT orT ion

T orsion

H eL iX

moV emenT

oF

L ines oF

B Y

eY e A nD

C onT orT ion oF

minD

F orC e F U seD

L ines oF

W iT H

H A D iD s H A s mA ppeD U seD

iT

T H e eX isT inG

.

D ireC T

T H e F L oW

T H e B U iL D inG

peopL e A re D rA W n A roU nD

seC T ionA L proF iL e

L oU V ers on T H e rooF A

L ines oF

F L oW

T H e

A D V O C A T IN G F O R T Y P E O F A R C H IC T U R E ?

H A N I R A S H ID

C L A ssiC

proporT ions

V s G oT H iC

A nD

inC reA sinG

eX isT inG

A C C eL erA T ion

D imensionA L pL A ne

W H iC H

F orC e proJ eC T inG

oF

peopL e T rA F F iC

moV es in A

T U rninG

F orm T W isT inG

A roU nD A nD

oB J eC T s

D eC reA sinG

>>>

iT s H A L L s B Y

T H roU G H

mA ssiV e H A nG inG

C irC U L A T e T H e mU seU m A C T inG B oD iL Y

moV emenT

C A L C U L A T eD

L ineA r F A sH ion A s

.

>

>

A s

G esT U res

G esT U res

impressions

>>>

moT ion T H roU G H

C onT orT ion oF

T o C reA T e A noT H er V isU A L D imension onT o A n

D IS C O V E R Y F rom the points discussed, architecture is clearly moving into a new direction. O ne that breaks the confines of the C artesian box and the V itruvian system of proportions and delves deep into the unknow n w orld of limitless spacial diversity and creation. As technology has advanced, so has our understanding and manipulation of space. B ut w hy so much resistance? W h y d o w e c o n t i n u e t o d e s i g n s t r u c t u r e s t h a t f o l l o w r u l e s s e t d o w n i n a t im e w h e n t h e c u lt u r a l c h a lle n g e s w e r e e n t ir e ly d if f e r e n t t o t h e o n e s w e f a c e n o w ? B ecause architecture essentially is a product of its time, a response to the challenges of that era, so w hy are w e using a solution that is almost 5 decades old? . I t is evident that the old model of architecture it beginning to show its constraints w hen dealing w ith the post digital era of man and that new architectural systems and typologies are needed in order to embrace this cultural shift tow ards a fast paced society of free flow ing information. T he deconstructivist style is clearly an attempt to embrace this new shift. I mplied movement w ithin architecture is a by product of this new style, because as w e start to break the geometric norm, our mind is throw n into disarray, as these shapes break the minds sense of normality, forcing it to constantly recalculate w hat it sees as w hat it is view ing does not fit any know n order or proportion, in turn give the structures life and energy, moreover giving them the illusion of movement. T his by product of deconstructivism is clearly under utilized in our cities today, as it has the potential to reactivate spaces and draw people into a space purely through its visual complexity as an attractor. W h y d e s i g n a c i t y w i t h s t a t i c f o r m s , w h e n t h i s c i t y i t s e l f i s f r e e f l o w i n g a n d a l i v e ? A opportunity to create a new form of architectural typology that better represents the culture of our time is evidently upon the architectural profession.

>>>

pA T T erns oF T H e siT e

T o C reA T e T H e B A sis F or H er D esiG n. T H e pA T H s oF

D isC oV ereD T H e B U iL D inG

G roW inG

spirA L

-

riG H T

H A nD eD

H eL iX

-

risinG

F orC e

G esT U res

D imension

1

D imension

2

>>> F U seD

D imension

D E S T A B IL IZ A T IO N

D eL ineA T inG

G esT U res

sT one A C ross W A T er

-

>>> C U rV A T U re

V eL oC iT Y

>

G esT U res

G eomeT riC

sY sT em oF

D isT riB U T ion oF

proporT ions

T ensionA L F orC es

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

G esT U res

F R A G M E N T A T IO N

Anti-form, Anti-structure, Anti-hierarchy, all that architecture typically is not ( B ernard 7 0 ) D ominated by curvilinear shapes, w hich disturb and dislocate the skeleton of the obj ect. T he structure of the building has a feeling of controlled chaos and stimulating unpredictability.

IS

sY sT em oF

F orm

F orC e

impL ieD

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT

F rom T H e

oB serV er T H roU G H C enT rA L A X is

emerG enC e

S T R U C T U R E

is impL ieD

moT ion W H iC H

proJ eC T s A W A Y

Z A H A A nD F L oW oU T

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

moV emenT sC reW inG

T H e H eL iX ’ s C L oC K W ise

T H roU G H spA C e A L onG

represenT

B U L G e

G esT U res

>

G esT U res

A

sT eps W H iC H

reL A T iV e T o normA L sT A irs,

T H e sT A ir C A se in A F L oW inG

>

>>>

L ines normA L

A D D iT ion

>>

>>>

B oD iL Y

T H roU G H

>>>

B Y

oU T W A rD mA K inG L A rV A

oriG inA L

V isU A L C ompression

moV emenT

miC H A eL A nG eL os sT A ir C A se C onT A ins T H e D Y nA miC s oF

is C ompL emenT eD C reA T eD

A D D iT ion

>>>

>>>

>>>

proJ eC T eD

F orm

G eomeT rY

oriG inA L

>>>

F L oW

is

T o F ire, C reA T inG

A n impenD inG

T H e sT rU C T U re

G rA D U A L

rH Y T H m:

>

moV emenT

A ssoC iA T ion.

T H roU G H

F orms reminisC enT T H e

>>>

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT moV emenT

T H e W A T er C reA T inG eV oC A T ion oF G rA V iT Y

moV emenT

>>>

A rC H iT eC T U re

inT o A

L oC A T ion

B oD iL Y

>>>

K ineT iC

F orC e

reG ion. C ommA nD inG

>>>

eV oC A T ion

F orC e

L ines oF

C onV erG inG C enT rA L

C reA T es V isU A L C ompression A nD

>>>

G iA nT W iT H

V isU A L C ompression L ines oF

eY e A nD

H O T H IS

C reA tes V I suA L A

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

on T H eA T riC s W H ere oB J eC T s

sC U L pT U res represenT eD

oF

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T

G iA n L orenZ o B ernini.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

T oW A rD s T H e C enT rA L

W

tH e C eN tre L I N e O F

sC eN e A sM A L L er O B J eC t set F urtH er A W A Y W I L L A utO M A tI C A L L Y

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A C T ion C A rD s

B A roQ U e sC U L pT U re

T resT L e T rA iL B riD G e

D es moines riV er

B alance by

B alance by

L A rge sI M P L e

P L A C eD

B A L A N C e tH e sH A P es

B A L A N C e tH e L A rger O B J eC ts M A ss.

eN H A N C e tH e eD ge C O N D I tI O N

G A L erie G mU rZ Y nsK A

inT o spA C e

A C T ion C A rD s

B erninis D A V iD U F F iZ i G A L L erY iT A L Y

T he I mpossible P enrose F ork. D ue to our B inocular P erception ( tw o eyes) our vision is slightly distorted and the eye can see tw o obj ects that dont make sense. C onstantly trying over and over again to stabalise the image, creating a tention betw een both eyes. H ide one side w ith one hand and then the other to see the variation ( D esolneux 2 0 0 8 ,1 7 ) .

D I ssI M I L A r O B J eC ts C A N

F rO M

B A L A N C I N g O ut tH e L A rger O B J eC t B e F urtH er eN H A N C eD

sH A D O W s tO

complexity

B alance by

guI D I N g tH e eY e.

tO O L s I N

C O M B I N A tI O N

D I reC t tH e eY e A W A Y

eF F eC t C A N

use O F L I gH tI N g A N D

T H e mA X X ii mU seU m Z U riC H

F orC e

F orC e

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

L I gH ter A reA

A s tH e eY e I s F O rC eD D eF iniT ion: normA L

mU seU m

T H e mA X X ii mU seU m

F orC e

V isU A L A C C eL erA T ion

B e useD

moV emenT

F orC e

? resU L T

-

F orC e C reA T e

D ireC T eD

F O rC e A re P O W erF uL

eD ges, sH A P es A N D

T iG H T

or riG iD

proJ eC T eD

L ines oF

V isU A L G rA V iT Y A

C ommA nD inG B oD iL Y

D ireC T ion

A C T ion C A rD s

.

pU L L inG

A C C eL erA T ion T H roU G H

D eF iniT ion:

normA L

C ompression

F oC A L poinT

mU seU m

T H e neW

I A L R E A D Y K N O W S E T A N A L Y S IS

T his card set is a detailed analysis of the methods employed by various architects to create implied movement w ithin architecture.

T H A N

pU L L

C A T H eD rA L s

C reA T es V erT iC L e

in

proporT ions

F orC e

:

siG nA L B oX

moV emenT

-

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A C T ion C A rD s

A ssoC iA T ion: F orms reminisC enT

A R C H IT E C T U R E

O T H E R

T he B aroq ue period w as focused on a rhetorical display of theatrics w hereby obj ects and sculptures represented a figurative portrayal of movement through the capturing of an action or moment making the art w orks feel deeply alive. T his techniq ue w as used to express the devine pow er of the C atholic C hurch and its absolutist state . I ts Architecture w as characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity ( W ikipedia 2 0 0 8 ) , animating its spaces giving architecture new life.

G roW T H

L ines oF

D eF iniT ion: in L iG H T

B U iL D inG

oF

IT H IN

O R L D

T ension

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

resU L T

moV emenT T H roU G H

G roW T H

T oW A rD s T H e sK Y

eF F eC T B oD iL Y

D A rK

C ompression D ireC T ion

:

T oW er

T H eA Q U A

miL W A U K ee A rT

A nimA T es T H e sT A T iC

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

G roW T H

nA U T iL U s sH eL L

G rA V iT A T ionA L pU L L

- 2 -

T o F oC A L poinT

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

V isU A L H A rmonY

-

W iT H

rH Y T H m: A C C eL erA T eD

repiT iT ion

B U iL D inG

:

resU L T

-

T H roU G H

G rA D U A L C H A nG e oF

mU seU m

mU seU m

reF erenC e proJ eC T

A ssoC iA T es W iT H

A C T iV A T es memorY impL ies moV emenT minD

pL A nT s

oT H er orG A nisms T H A T

G roW

A C T ion C A rD s

sY sT em oF D eF iniT ion: impL ieD

repeT iT iV e G roW T H

miC H iG A n

miL iT A rY

L Y ons reseA rC H

G rA V iT A T ionA L F orC e

D eF iniT ion: eV oC A T ion oF T H roU G H

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T moV e, inC L U D inG A nD

D emA nD s menT A L A T T enT ion

moV e, inC L U D inG

T he animation or reanimation of a space or structure w hich has the ability to unleash chaos upon our senses, but in an ordered and orchestrated fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. T he elegance of this animation w ithin architecture is composed though a play of forces that push and pull you around a space or facade leading you on your ow n j ourney as it draw s you closer into its grasp, creating a sense of implied movement w ithin a structure even though it is not actually moving.

W

B A R O Q U E

sprinG

oT H er orG A nisms T H A T

W

P H Y S IC A L

T he P enrise I mpossible T raingle. I ts shape is infinite. T urning back on its self and continously changing. Y ou mind is draw n to this because it is a mathmatically organism and is constantly trying to make sense of its form. ( D esolneux 2 0 0 8 , 1 7 )

N O U V E A U

V erT iC L e A C C eL erA T ion

C ommA nD s A T T enT ion

moV e

F orms reminisC enT

rippL es

in V A riA B L e

D ireC T ions

F rA nK

H A T C A R D

O U R

M A N

Art N ouveau w as by characterized by its use of iron to create organic free flow ing forms through w hat is know n as the “w hiplash curve” a “long, sensitive curve, undulating, flow ing, and interplaying w ith others, sprouting from corners and covering asymmetrically all available surfaces” T his ability to create free flow ing organic forms out of iron can be accredited to the incorporation of new technologies of construction and mechanical system ( H anser 1 9 8 2 , 2 5 1 )

rH Y T H m

roY A L onT A rio mU seU m L iB esK inD

D enV er A rT

C reA T es D ireC T ionA L A C C eL erA T ion

poL A riT ies oF

oB J eC T s T H A T

:

C A F e

F eD erA T ion sQ U A re

C reA T es V isU A L inT riG U e D rA W inG

A nimA T es oB J eC T

-

&

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T F orm C A pT U res

V ieW ers A T T enT ion D rA W inG eY e B A C K

-

proJ eC T ion inT o A

sT reeT

imposinG

inT o

sT rU C T U re. T H is C A n B e D one B Y

!

reF erenC e proJ eC T

G iV es iT

B A L A nC es L A rG er oB J eC T s

.

L iK e

mU sC L e

L ines A re in T enT ion or

>

>

A C T ion C A rD s

proJ eC T ion oF

rA inier T oW er seA T T L e

eV oC A T ion D eF iniT ion: V isU A L C ompL eX iT Y

C reA T e T ension W iT H in T H e minD

pU sH inG

T H e F iB ers oF

inT o spA C e

M O D U L A R

A R T

repiT iT ion roT A T ion

zzz

sC H A U L A G er B A seL

moV emenT

represenT

H sT A T iC

F orC e

proJ eC T s B oD Y

eero sA A rinen

mU seU m

H

impL ies D ireC T ion D rA W inG

-

A R C H IT E C T U R E

T ooL

D emA nD s A T T enT ion

mU sC U L A r T ension

T iG H T

T H roU G H

perspeC T iV e

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

Y inC H U A n A rT

-

A nD

T oW A rD s iT seL F

:

B A L A nC es oT H er oB J eC T s

-

A n oB J eC T

or mA T eriA L A U T omA T iC A L L Y

A T T enT ion

L ines in C onF L iC T D eF iniT ion: L onG

T o T H e eY es perspeC T iV e C reA T e L ines oF proJ eC T inG

C H inA

resU L T

-

pH Y siC A L

mA ss or siZ e oF

D imensionA L pL A ne

F oC A L poinT

L enG T H

B oD Y

W

T O

I s a scale of proportions created by architect L e C orbusier, to rectify the visual conflict betw een the incompatible I mperial and the M etric system.

emerG enC e

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

resU L T

-

W iT H

F U seD

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT

T H E

proJ eC T ion

mA ss D eF iniT ion: L ines oF

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT T o C reA T e A noT H er V isU A L D imension onT o A n eX isT inG

normA L

F O U N D

S E C T IO N

B ased on a system of proportions and optical illusions to perfect the view ing of the building from all angles. B ased on a complex mathematical progression know n as the golden mean ( golden ratio) . N o line w ithin the planning of the structure w as ever straight. T he structures curve and bulge to distort the visual perspective. ( F letcher 2 0 0 1 , 1 2 6 )

G rA V iT A T ionA L moV emenT

minD

D imensionA L pL A ne

T H E

G O L D E N

S ystem of proportions w ith same aspect ratio that can be repeated continuously creating an aesthetically balanced shape.

G othic ecclesiastical architecture, like C lassical architecture, represents a calculated geometrical system of proportions. B ut instead of disrupting its masses horizontally, it distributes them vertically, stacking one upon the other, accelerating the eye upw ards. P ossessing a strong sense of upw ard movement ( E yre 2 0 0 1 ) T his effect w as employed to empow er the occupant w ith the presence of god.

pL A n

M O V E M E N T

A C C E S S

e have no direct access to our physical w orld other than through our senses and the light that falls on our eyes is determined by multiple things in the w orld, not only by the colour of obj ects, but the colour of their illumination and the colour the space betw een us and those obj ects. Y ou vary any one of those parameters and you’ ll change the colour of the light that falls on the eye, this means that the same image can have an infinite number of rail road possibilities. T herefore meaning w e can trick the eye into seeing multiple things in one space j ust through the adj ustment of colour and illumination, animating the space ( lotto 2 0 0 9 ) .

T H E O R Y

T he law of visual reconstruction. A series of law s based on how the mind reconstructs obj ects in groups based on their visual properties.

T H E

IM P L IE D

D IR E C T

W

( H ight 2 0 0 8 , 6 5 )

G E S T A L T

M E T H O D O L O G IE S

T hroughout the ages many various building techniq ues have been adopted. E ach having strong ties to the era in w hich it w as created. F or example V itruvius and his system of proportions during the R enaissance, T he G reeks and their harmony of optical illusions to perfect their buildings and now in the 2 1 st century w e are presented w ith a rapidly emerging techniq ue symbolic of our time. I mplied movement w ithin architecture, a symbol of our fast passed forever moving society.

IN S T A B IL IT Y

M O D E R N A R C H IT E C T U R E IS A N A T T E M P T T O B R E A K F R E E O F T H E V IT R U V IA N B O D Y

D escribed as being the principal source of proportion among the C lassical orders of architecture and the ideal proportions for the human body.

B U IL D IN G

A N D

W hen looking at an obj ect the mind categorizes the obj ects into stable or instable obj ects, the simple rotation of an obj ect compared to a flat obj ect can make it feel unstable and instantly draw attention to itself. W hich spills over to convey movement. T his is w hy symmetry is so attractive to the human eye. ( D eregow ski 1 9 8 4 , 6 5 )

W

>>>

T he mind is an unusual and complicated organ. I t transfers information from our eyes interprets it and sends it to our brain, making us feel or react differently to the events or obj ects w e are w itnessing. W ithin this section w e w ill explore how the mind w orks and w hy does our mind react in this w ay w hen w e lay on our eyes on a building that is actually static but gives off the impression that it is moving? W hy does the line have so much pow er in our mind?

H O W D O W E S O Q U IC K L Y

D ependant on the interaction betw een both eyes to view the w orld, w hich can sometimes cause ambiguity or illusions based on the fact they don’ t see entirely the same images due to their separation. T he image is distorted.

>>>

A N IM A T O R

A D D iT ion

T H E

>>> >>>

M IN D

>>

T H E

O riginating from the avant-garde, S uprematist movement. N amely an R ussian artist by the name of K azimir M alevich w ho w as a pioneer of abstract art, interested in E xploding compositions, how space might erupt from the ground and how planes might intersect, fragmenting geometry and essentioally breaking it releasing it from its constraints ( Y entob 2 0 1 3 ) . A techniq ue clearly adopted by the deconstructivist movement of fragmenting geometry and space.

( A S Y M P T O T E )

F R A N K

P E T E R

G E H R Y

D A N IE L

E IS E N M A N

L IB E S K IN D

L E W

IS .T S U R U M A K I.L E W

IS

Z A H A

( L T L )

H A D ID

T H O M

M A Y N E

B E R N A R D

( M O R P H O S IS )

T S C H U M I

W

ithin the practice of architecture their are many individuals w ho have discovered and exploited this highly under utilized techniq ue. W ithin this section w e shall be looking at w ho they are? W hat are their methodologies and w hy?

P O S T

D IG IT A L A G E

M E T H O D O L O G IE S

E L E C T R IF IE D C U L T U R E B E C O M IN G A M E T H O D F O R A R C H IT E C T U R A L E X P L O R A T IO N ( G alofaro, 4 2 )

S P A C E

IMPLIED MOVEMENT. R E S E AR C H

M AP

A C T IV A T IO N

I t is clear that implied movement w ithin architecture can be used as an attracting device as our mind is instantly captured by its complexity and j uxtaposition. C an these techniq ues that break the confines of perceptual reality bring life to dormant spaces w ithin city scapes, reactivating the area and bring new purpose and social interaction?

C U L T U R A L

M IS S E D B Y I AI N

B IC K N E L L

| 1 4 8 4 4 7 8 4

S H IF T

N ew cultural shift due large amounts of readily available information be transfered around the globe due to advancements in technology in this new technological age. F orcing architecture to rethink its condition. ( R ackard 2 0 1 3 )

O P P O R T U N IT Y

A new frontier of architecture is upon us due to the freedom of the digital w orld, allow ing us the literally defy the law s of physics and gravity, blurring the lines betw een floor, w all and roof, creating a new spatial typology w hich is constantly evolving. Y et architects prefer to criticise this new method of expression and hold onto the methods of the past j ust like they did during the N eoclassical period. T here is an opportunity here for a new limitless spacial typologies of movement and expression that is being represented as little more than a sham.

F

D IG IT IZ A T IO N Asymptote pursue formal and perceptual shifts that are now possible through digitization as w ell as the sociopolitical and phenomenological possibilities for new spatial conditions available due to these shifts. T heir initiative is based on parameters of displacement and transfer, w here architecture becomes action, space a relinq uishment of control and the ever implicated body, either a shield or a force-field as opposed to a vector or a presence ( R ashid 1 9 9 9 ) .

R

E

N

E

T

I C

I S

M

/ P

E

R

C

E

P

T

I O

N

F rank G ehry attempts to free his buildings from typological constraints into an unprecedented kind of configuration. H is w orks take up a process of transformation and evolution. W here the form is never static it is alw ays progressing. H is method is based on deconstuctivism w here by he divorces the confines of normal architectural practice. S earching for w ays to constantly alter the perception of his structures as one moves around it. C reating complex shapes and structure that represent the time through sophisticated 3 D modeling softw are. ( F ranseco 1 9 9 8 , 9 )

T E C H N O L O G Y

A L L O W

IN G

M O R P H IN G /D E S T A B IL IZ A T IO N E isenman uses a techniq ue know n as morphing w hich is used in contemporary cinema, to transform the perception of tw o figures. E isenman use this techniq ue in an attempt to destabilize the general notion of cortesion space w here each obj ect has a clear and precise form. B reaking free from the geometric limitations and architectural proportions and constraints through the use of virtualisation. ( G alofaro, 4 1 )

C R E A T IV E

F R A G M E N T /D E C O N S T R U C T IO N

L ibeskind is another deconstructivist at heart. H e attempts to break the boundaries of the old V itruvian constraints yet still pays tribute to them by attempting to create a melding of the tw o. H e states that he w ishes to build dynamic spaces that invite the visitor even before entering. T his is done through the use of his distinct angular and complex non standard geometric shapes, typical of a deconstructivist architect ( G oldberger 2 0 0 8 , 3 4 4 )

F R E E D O M

N ew advancements in C AD ( computer aided design) architects are no longer constrained to the rules of the old w orld. A new w orld of endless possibilities has been opened to them through this new technology. N o longer bound by the law s of physics and gravity, the rules can be bent and broken. G iving architects the ability to create organic and evolving forms in such complexity that the human mind could not of imagined w ithout the aid of the digital softw are such as parametric tools.

E V E R Y T H IN G M O V E S Y E T W E D E S IG N E V E R Y T H IN G S T A T IC T he architecture once again is caught in the confines of w hat it know s and resists change into architectures new formation of limitless experimentation and possibility. I t w ould rather hold onto the classical system of the old, then delve into a new frontier of expression, discovery and experimentation.

N E W

A R C H IT E C T U R A L

C U R IO S IT Y /O P T IC A L

IL L U S IO N S

C uriosity is a central component of L T L as it plays an consistent and operative role in their proj ects. U sing constraints and limitations as reasons for design intervention and invention. T hrough out all their proj ects the play on the minds inability to resist the peculiar or the interesting is clearly evident as they creating optical paradoxes that seduce view ers and draw them around their spaces.

P A R A M E T R IC IS M /F L U ID IT Y / F L O W F ree follow ing organic forms that break the rigid conservative styles of the past, free & light, defying gravity. taking its q ues from nature in the w ay it evolves and deals w ith complexity. “ let it b e free, let it flow”. coined by Z aha as M odern B aroq ue, F luid B aroq ue. ( Y entob 2 0 1 3 )

A R C H IT E C T U R E

IS

A

P R O D U C T

T R A N S F O R M A T IO N /J U X T A P O S E D

M orphosis signifies a process of forming or being in formation. R eflecting a w illingness to embrace sculptural shapes and the sensation of movement ( arcspace) . M orphosis is a deconsrtuctivist architect w ho utilizes platonic geometries w hich are attacked, fragmented, altered and j uxtaposed. C onveying an implicit notion of future architecture and incompleteness of form ( M ayne, 1 0 ) .

O F

IT S

C IN E M A T IC

S U P E R IM P O S IT IO N

T schumis concept is based around the notion of “space, event and movement” resulting in a layering of superimposed points lines and planes reflecting a new concept of interacting layers. H is deconstructivist style allow ed for a new form of urbanism depicting theatrical spaces w hich accentuated the idea of movement. ( B ure 2 0 0 8 , 4 8 )

T IM E

Architecture is undeniably tied to the period in w hich it is created. T he cultural shifts, economic and technological advancement pave the w ay for the architecture of its time. F or example B aroq ue architecture speaks of the pow er of god and the church and is theatrical in nature, depicting acts of legend such as H ercules and G oliath frozen in motion but forever moving. Architecture today is faced w ith an era of rapid sharing of information and know ledge, highw ays and travel. A w orld surrounded by economic and technological advancement w hich presents new forms of cultural issues, that w ere not there in the past resulting in a new form of architectural solution. T his architectural solution is now open to the tools of its time. T he age of unparalleled creative freedom in the three dimension realm of digital design.

H Y B R ID

A M elding of the V itruvian system of proportions and the freedom of spatial diversity in these new deconstructivist complex forms, is possible yet architects resist stepping into the unknow n. Architects such has H ani R ashid, acknow ledge this melding of the tw o schools of thought and turn it into a new form free flow ing architectural expression.

OACH

FIGURE 24

CONTINUED... Evidently as research and adaptation into the systems of the human body advanced it became apparent that trying to hybridize all of the body’s systems, along with all of their complexities, was too ambitious in the time frame, therefore just 5 key systems were selected for implementation into the programmatic structure of the building. This selection consisted of: the brain, the immune system, the nervous system, the skeletal system and the skin, the largest organ of the human body. These systems were then studied and applied through the implementation of new scientific technologies to reflect their core functions.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

6 1


METHODOLOGY Orchestration of the final presentation drawings were adopted from the dissection of humans and other living organisms to accurately study and analyse their inner workings and complexities. It was decided that the analysis and illustrative study of the structure should follow the same premise, peeling layers off the structure’s façade and elevation in order to show its multiple levels of systemised intelligence. This was combined with the incorporation of programmatic diagrams portrayed in the programmatic map from the interim submission, in turn articulating the internal systems of the building. This sequentially assisted in illustrating the complexities of its leveraged and adopted technologies that were subsequently redesigned and applied at larger scales in order to best serve their appointed, intelligent, systematic adaptations. The panels were finally finished with spatial depictions of the transportation tubes from the land to the building, the internal ecology within the structural diaphragm, the main diaphragm access way, the rejuvenated underwater ecology, and its presence within the Perth CBD context from Kings Park, allowing the viewer to experience just how immersive it would be to stand in the building’s wake. This highlights an endeavour to communicate that the design of a solution through research and technological application can be just as beautiful, if not more beautiful, than the design of a spatial experience, that architecture, more often than not, believes is its fundamental role. This way of design thinking is also highlighted by Buckminster Fuller, a neo futuristic architect and inventor when he stated “when I am working on a problem I never think about beauty but when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful I know it is wrong” (R. Buckminster Fuller Quotes 2014), once again signifying that sometimes the solution to the problem is more beautiful than designing with beauty in mind.

APPRO


FIGURE 25

OACH

MODEL The model of the project represents a touch stone depiction of a single tower from the overall scheme, articulating the elaborate and beautiful crystal like polymer faรงade through a scribed illuminated acrylic face, etched with sectional, elevational and axonometrically exploded structural diagrams, whilst housing two articulated spines within its core, to denote the internal structural composition of the organism being facilitated around 2 unified spinal columns working harmoniously together (Figure 25).

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

63


SITE SELECTION When selecting a site, this research aimed to find a particular set of characteristics in which to interact with that were found to enhance the result of the overall study at the time. These were as follows: 01. Located within or surrounding the city centre: This allows the architecture to act as a facilitator of its surrounding and internalised ecology, expressing and interacting with the surrounding city environment. 02. High visibility to allow for engagement of surrounding context: This allows the structure to visually interact with people, engaging the mechanics of their mind to evoke the feeling of life. 03. High amounts of pedestrian traffic and flow (optional). This can be induced or enhanced. Some of the best examples of architecture which are perceived to be alive are situated in densely populated areas where a high amount of pedestrian traffic exists. These areas include airports, bus stations, train stations or museums. This enables the structure to reflect and interact with this movement. 04. Static environments within the heart of the city centre that require activation (optional). In a lot of instances, particular areas of the city become dead or static as there is nothing to spark the interest of its surrounding ecology. The implementation of ‘The Alive’ will act as a catalyst for space activation using the principles discovered within this study to bring life to the area.

LOCAT


TION

CONTINUED... At the time, 3 potential sites were pinpointed for further assessment: 1.Perth Kings Square Development: a) Creates a link between two major cultural centres. b) High amounts of Pedestrian Traffic. c) Major infrastructure. 2.Perth Train Station: a) Centre of pedestrian flow and traffic. b) Connection to all major areas of Perth. 3.Perth Elizabeth Quay: a) Newly developed centre of cultural development and focus. b) Highly visible from all angles due to its location. c) Maximum exposure to surrounding urban and natural ecologies. d) High amounts of pedestrian traffic. e) Major tourist location.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

65


SITE SELECTION As discussed in the initial dissertation proposal, selecting a site was always about the maximum level exposure in order to awaken, promote and evoke the surrounding context to its presence. The above 3 sites at that point were conducive to that outcome, but as the research progressed it was identified that the study needed the support of exploration into the ecologies in order to reach its full potential, communicating that the new location should not only deal with the land and air ecologies of the Perth CBD area, but the river ecology as well. Consequently this requirement determined that the project was to be situated in the centre of the Swan Canning River, parallel to Riverside Drive and the South Perth Foreshore (Figure 26), in order for the proposal to:

01.Have the maximum level of exposure to the elements in order for the design to accurately test its intelligence to imposed site conditions in the form on systematic adaptations to change. 02.To have the maximum level of exposure to its surrounding context in order to awaken the city to this new form of architectural typology and to build momentum and energy around its philosophies. 03.Have the ability for the structure to engage with all 3, land, air and water ecologies located within the Perth CBD area.

LOCAT


le S

rth

Subiaco Link

City

Power Plant

Ne wc ast

No

bri

t

dge

Link Stadium

Pert h

Anzac Monument

Eliza

beth

CBD

Wat erba

nk

Qua y

Focal Centre

TION FIGURE 26

South Perth Foreshore

PERTH CBD LEGEND MAJOR CBD DEVELOPMENTS

PRIMARY INFRASTRUCTURE

SITE LINES TENSION ZONES LINKAGES FLIGHT PATH

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

67


SIGNIFICANCE As discussed in the background this “rapid change” requires appropriate response. Thus the significance is in the response: 1. Presenting an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-amalgamation of architecture with the sciences, and the potential of what could be achieved if architecture only leveraged off the technologies. These scientific fields are developed and applied to their own designs, as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology quotes ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), identifying an evident need for architecture to re-orientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with adaptive prowess of nature. As Charles Darwin, an English naturalist best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory, cleverly identifies “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15)

2. Submitting a proposition that not only looks inwards, but outwards as well, borrowing, leveraging and harnessing intelligence from nature and science, taking advantage of the best technologies and intellect on offer in order to provide a highly responsive and adaptable design solution. 3. Putting forth a building that is not only high tech, but is attributed with an abundance of abilities, from monitoring and self-regulation, to a high level of intelligence, responsiveness and adaptability to change. A structure that, like the human body, is constantly regenerating itself, learning and adapting to its surrounding environment. 4. Presenting a design proposition that contributes to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the Swan River and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation.

IMPLIC


5. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, not only to itself but also its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies, that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people. This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analysis of ‘The Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

4.Presenting a design proposition that gives back to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the swan river and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. 5. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, to not only itself but its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A Proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

CATION

ITS TIME TO FLICK THE SWITCH

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analyse of ‘the Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

69


DISCUSSION This section takes the opportunity to document and present the content/ coverage outlined in my 20 minute final. Point 1 To set the scene for the project giving it context to how it began… The background of this research began with the notion of a phenomenon which preoccupied me for over four and a half years, which I cited as “implied movement” within architecture, which refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architectural expression is most commonly used by architects such as Zaha Hadid, Emergent, Hani Rashid and Thom Mayne. But as the research progressed it became evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the confines of the introverted architectural profession and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed, or have been developed

by the multitude of scientific fields. This allowed the project to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies, with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to put forward a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the pressing need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the lowend of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation. Point 2 to look at how the research has applied new scientific technologies into the spatial program…

INQU


As discussed in point 1 the exploration of the fields of applied science paved the way to the adaptation of many newly developed innovative technologies that the project could harness and apply at varying scales. It later became evident that the research needed to study and adopt particular human organic systems in which to apply these technologies, primarily focusing on the “Skin System” over the other adopted human systems such as the brain system, nervous system, immune system and skeletal system. The technologies which were identified, studied and adopted included the following:

Graphene Graphene as described by Graphenea, a company set up in 2010 primary to accelerate the advancement of this technology, is: ‘a thin layer of pure carbon; it is a single, tightly packed layer of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. It is the thinnest compound known to man at one atom thick, the lightest material known

UEST

(with 1 square meter coming in at 0.77 the strongest compound 4.Presenti ngmilligrams), a design propositi on that gives back to its discovered (between 100-300 times stronger than steel), the best ng conductor surrounding environment by rejuvenati the swan river and of heat and also the best conductor electricity man.’ (Fuente creating a interacting of with the land,known air andtoriver ecologies, 2014) (Figure 27) diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. The material is also 100%5. recyclable and highly flexible. Graphene is paving the way in the development highly intelligent Creating aof building that actsand as sophisti a city cated making device, technologies representing one of the greatest innovati ons in terms of material drawing energy and people from all over the world, to not development of the 21st century, with but Professors Andre Geim andand Konstanti n ecologies. only itself its surrounding urban natural Novoselov, from the University of Manchester, winning the physics Nobel Prize A Proposition that awakens the city to this new form of in 2010 for the new technology while also being made Knights the Realm forand energy architectural typology and buildsofmomentum their discovery (Singh 2012).around This newly developed, highly innovate material its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws constitutes for the entire structural mass of the project in order to reach its energy to itself but gives energy back to its people. size, scale, flexibility and feasibility.

Graphene This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analyse of ‘the Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs ofFIGURE our ever 27 advancing society.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

71


DISCUSSION Sensory E-Skin

Liquid Solar Cells

Sensory E-Skin is a newly developed technology by engineers at UC Berkeley research team led by Ali Javey, Associate Professor of electrical engineering and computer science (Figure 28). The technology represents a paper thin electronic skin that responds to touch and pressure. Researchers from the University of California claim that the e-skin could be used to ‘restore feeling for people with prosthetic limbs, in smartphone displays, car dashboards or used to give robots a sense of touch’ (Woollaston 2013). Representing a highly sophisticated technology that was applied to the structures sensory skin system in order for it to respond much in the same way as a living organism’s skin would, actuating appropriate responses to imposed environmental conditions.

Liquid Solar Cells are a technology currently in development by researchers at University of Southern California, that falls into the scientific realm of nanotechnology where nanocrystals are used in order to produce cheap stable solar cells that can be printed onto any surface or even made to exist in liquid ink format (Figure 29). The solar cells measure at only 4 nanometres in size, being able to fit 250,000,000,000 of them onto the head of pin (Perkins 2012). This represents a revolutionary breakthrough for solar technology and has been applied as a polymer layer to the skins structural composition to aid in the absorption of the suns energy.

INQU

FIGURE 28

FIGURE 29


Electro Active Polymers (EAPs) Electro active polymers (EAPs) are a relatively new type of smart material which acts much the same way as the skin and muscles of the human body, demonstrating the ability to withstand incredibly large deformations while sustaining large forces, also exhibiting the capacity to sustain up to 380% strain, validating it as a highly flexibly and robust material (Electroactive Polymers 2014). EAPs are used for a large number of applications such as artificial muscles, micro fluidics and tactile display systems. The new EAP system named ‘skin’ currently in development by a Portuguese company called Displax, can turn any non-metal surface flat or curved into an interactive touch screen display (Figure 30). This new interactive EAP display technology is a mere 100 microns thick (approximately the size of a single human hair) laced with a grid

4.Presenting a design proposition that gives back to its of nanowires which allow thesurrounding user to interact with the by screen through environment rejuvenati ng pressure the swan river and sensitivity. The new polymerinteracti film is able to bethe applied theand back faceecologies, of almostcreating a ng with land,toair river any surface of varied thickness and architectural still be able todynamic track the interacti on as well diverse foruser’s spatial experience with its interface through theasmaterial 2010). are quicklyon. becoming scientifi(Gajitz c research andEAPs experimentati a very promising material with 5. NASA both sponsoring and holding a yearly competition for an EAP powered arm can defeat a human opponent arm device, Creati ng that a building that acts as a city at making wrestling in order to help innovate the highly ducti le technology (Deyle 2009). drawing energy and people from all over the world, to not This technology composes enti relyitself of this on’s interacti veand skinnatural system,ecologies. only butdissertati its surrounding urban harbouring both EAPs visual interface technology as well as its robust A Proposition that awakens the city to this and new form of flexible material attributes in order for it typology to withstand ons imposed architectural and deformati builds momentum and energy on it by the spine and site conditi ons. around its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

UEST

FIGURE 30

FIGURE 31

research has created an new architectural species based ThermochromicThisPolymer

on the principles developed through systematic analyse Thermochromic and Thermotropic are represents essentially an ve which of ‘thematerials Alive’ that andadditi interacts with the life if applied to a polymer base have the ability to change their opti cal properti that surrounds its being, forming a symbioticesrelationship (Figure 31) as in reflectance, absorptipeople on, transmitt light scattering between and itsance builtand form, where people interact properties through changes with in temperature (Seeboth and Lötzsch 2014). it and it interacts with them. This in turnThis will create an technology has been harnessed andnew applied to the design of the entirely architectural dynamic forstructures future professionals skin systems in order to adapt the sun’s UV rays. toto follow that harmful can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

73


DISCUSSION Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Shape memory alloy (SMA), commonly known as muscle wire, belongs to a group of materials known as shape memory materials (SMM) which have the unique ability of being able to memorise and return to their original shape or size when deformed. SMAs are commonly used as actuators which are materials that ‘change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields’ (Rogers 1995, 155). These materials are commonly used in the automotive, robotic (Figure 32), aerospace and biomedical industries. Proving itself as a highly ductile material which follows the same characteristics as the tendons and fibers of the human muscular system and was used in a robotic experiment named ECCEROBOT to help researchers better understand how the human body moves (Figure 33). This technology represents the ligaments and connection joints of the skeletal structure.

DISCOVERY It is without doubt that advanced technologies such as IBMs Watson and EAPS, are significant agents for the evolution of the architectural profession, and society can greatly benefit from the implementation of these technologies into intelligent design solutions. Due to these advancements the structure has adopted the core function of being a research facility, accommodating disciplines

such as Nano-Technology, Bio-Mimicry, Bio-Mimetics , Bio-Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Genetic Engineering, Hydrology, Biology, Geology, BioMechatronics, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Structural Engineering, Quantum Computing, Molecular Biology, Robotics, Bionics and every other scientific discipline currently in existence. The structure’s multidisciplinary research program follows a collaborative structure where all aid in the accelerated development of areas in their respected fields, using the structure as a test bed for their research and findings. All this information and discovery is then relayed back to the structure’s brain, where data is analysed in order to find potentially new design solutions. Once a new technology is developed it is then applied to the building for field testing, where the brain will monitor its effectiveness against its designated function. Once the technology is installed, information is then relayed back to the brain via the structure’s integrated nervous system and fed back into the research facility so further development of these technologies can continue to evolve. This system represents the structure’s responsive immune system allowing the structure to defend, heal, evolve and grow.Conspicuously it is apparent how this type of integrated programme provides the necessary collaborative environment to facilitate creative thinking and process for the future development of every scientific discipline and the benefit of both man and the environment.

INQU


FIGURE 32

FIGURE 33

UEST

4.Presenting a design proposition that gives back to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the swan river and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. 5. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, to not only itself but its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A Proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy ECCERobot around its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws Is a based on energy to itself but gives energy back to its robot people. the human body

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analyse of ‘the Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

Image Credit: Fastcodesign (fastcodesign.com)

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

75


DISCUSSION IBM Watson (Artificial Intelligence) IBM Watson (Artificial Intelligence) (Figure 34) as described by IBM is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer—by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. Watson “gets smarter” by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information (IBM Watson 2014). IBM Watson has the ability to formulate hypothesis based on past and present data and provides alternate solutions to global problems, learning from its own successes and failures as its intelligence grows. Watson is making ground breaking advancements in the fields of science and medicine, while recently beating the world’s best Jeopardy champions (Figure 35). Watson while conducting the game was not connected to the internet and merely learnt from its mistakes and responses, decimating its human opponents at the game (IBM Research 2013) To give an example of the power of the IBM Watsons cognitive system, Baylor College of Medicine approached the IBM team to help advance the understanding of disease biology in order to develop safe and effective treatments in the fight against cancer. Watson quickly evaluated and analysed over 70,000 articles related to the p53 cancer protein and identified 6 potential proteins that could theoretically, based on evidence, act as an on off switch for the cancer gene. This denotes for a 600% increase in medical advancement in the area of potential proteins to aid in the fight against cancer, from the average 1 protein being discovered per year by

Watson’s human counterparts (IBM Watson 2014). Watson is fed information and learns like a human how that information can be applied. It is able to disseminate that information and find critical personalised solutions to problems. IBM Watson has been incorporated into the Memorial Sloan Kitting’s Cancer Centre in America in order to help the fight against cancer and aid in the effective diagnosis and treatment of its patients. At West Med medical group New York, Watson’s effectiveness to diagnose a patient with a rare form of lung cancer was tested, with her medical information being injected into Watson’s database for diagnosis. It took Watson a mere 17 seconds to analyse over 3,500 text books and 400,000 other pieces of data to discover what type of cancer she has, what had caused the cancer as well as offering 3 potential treatment options ranked according to their effectiveness . Watson was even harnessing relatively new drug information from other fields that may be highly effective in treating her condition and recommending it to the physician (Bloomberg News. 2013). This clearly articulates the power of Watson as a revolutionary/evolutionary step towards cognitive learning to further innovate the future of mankind. This system due to its high level of intelligence and ability to understand language, solve problems and invent new solutions, has been applied to the dissertation’s proposed Brain system in order to aid the scientific program and run the structures internal and external organs.

INQU


FIGURE 35 FIGURE 34

UEST

Image Credit: IBM (ibm.com)

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

77


DISCUSSION CIRCULATION SYSTEM Point 7 to demonstrate the design and intelligence behind the structure’s vascular transportation system… The circulation system of the building is a hybridisation of the nervous and vascular system of the human body while borrowing its structural composition from the human trachea (wind pipe) which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments, which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and flexibility. The vascular system of the human body works by transferring blood containing oxygen and nutrients around the body via the heart (Bianco, Carl. 2000). Like most of the systems within the human body, the vascular system is one of the most important. The building’s own internal circulation system works in much the same way. The system works on a nonlinear rail through contained tubes which run from the land and base of the organism, up through the spine and into the rib structures for entry into the diaphragm or spinal canal. The people who work and come to the building are essentially its life blood. The structure forms a symbiotic relationship with people

where neither one can live without the other. The building relies on people to keep it growing, evolving and alive (nutrients, oxygen), while we can’t live without it, as it facilitates the future advancement and salvation of the human race through scientific endeavour. The structural makeup of this transportation as previously mentioned is derived from the human trachea commonly referred to as the wind pipe. The tubes are composed of structural graphene rings joined together with a thickened electro active polymer similar to the composition of the land skin system, lining the interior of the tubes in order to reinforce the anterior and lateral sides of the structure in turn protecting and maintaining the opening, giving it resilience and flexibility. These tubes also stream visual information back and forth from where they are located allowing users to interact with it while they approach or leave the structure. These tubes also allow people to experience the rejuvenated underwater ecology by submerging themselves in the water temporarily then remerging into the structure’s internal diaphragm.

Transport Veins

Cell Diagram Structural Rib Transport Cell Gyroscopic Rail

Structural Rings

Polymer Ligament Perth CBD

South Perth

Tube Section 1

Polymer Membrane/ Visual Interface

1 2

1

1

1. Pedestrain 2. Large Objects Cargo/supply Spinal Structure Transport System


Image Credit: Iain Bicknell

79


DISCUSSION NERVOUS SYSTEM

Point three to reaffirm the use of the nervous system within the structures composition…

3 Research

The nervous system of the human body comprises of fibres that essentially act as the body’s communication device, transmitting electrical impulses back and forth to the brain and other internal organs. The human body consists of two primary nervous system divisions; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal nerve, transmitting motor functions around the body while regulating our internal organs (Editors of Consumer Guide 2006). This highly sophisticated system has be analyzed and integrated into the entirety of the project’s body through application of E-Skin sensory technology. Every element of the structure is laced with this sensory material allowing the brain of the structure to consistently monitor, adapt and evolve its mass. The transfer and analysis of this information is also made visually accessible to its occupants through the integration of Displax’s EAP technology within the structure’s skin system.

Analysis

2 Memory Brain

1 Visual Display

VISUAL INFORMATION INTERFACE Point 4 to look at the importance of the visual data interface on the skin (internal and external)… The skin system of the building acts as an interactive visual information interface which is constantly streaming visual data via the nervous system from various organs and locations from all around the structure’s body, collating data from people, the environment, its water, land and air ecologies as well as local and global scientific advancements. This allows users to become part of the building’s information ecology as it streams data all over its skin towards the brain and science divisions in the form of text, images, questions, interactions and statics. Users can interact with the skin interface by uploading data to the brain, asking it questions, catching passing data streams or simply gestural movements on the skin to activate the user interface. This visual information system creates a sense of human data space occupation where by the users of the building can visually and physically interact with its learning process, becoming one with the structure’s scientific endeavor, allowing the public to embrace this new form of architectural ecology through educational experiences.

Research Facility

Skin Interface

Data Transfer

User Interactions

User Data

Organ Responses

Uploads

Skin

Downloads

Skeleton

Questions

Circulation

Gestures

Immune

Ecological Data

River

Land

Statistics Air


Image Credit: Iain Bicknell

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

81


DISCUSSION BRAIN SYSTEM Point 8 to articulate the incorporation of the IBM Watson technology into the structure as its brain system… Every animal on earth has a brain. But the human brain is unique in comparison, as it allows us the capacity to speak, problem solve and imagine. The human brain represents one of the most highly sophisticated and intelligent organs of the human body, and performs an astonishing amount of tasks including the following: 1. It controls the motor functions of your body, allowing the body to walk, stand, talk and sit. 2. It allows you the capacity for abstract thought, imagination, reasoning, dreaming, and the experience of emotions. 3. The ability to analyse and absorb an endless amount of information about the world around you through hearing, taste, touch, smell and sight. 4. It also controls without dependent thought, your blood pressure, breathing, heart rate and body temperature as well all the other internal systems of your body. (Freudenrich and Boyd 2001) These unique functions of the human brain have allowed man to develop his intellect progressively throughout the years, with man’s advancement multiplying at astounding rates. But man’s intelligence is also his greatest downfall, as the emotional wiring of the human condition gives way to greed, selfishness and

Imposed site condition

System response

naivety. All factors which have allowed man to turn a blind eye to a multitude of issues, evidently resulting in this dissertation’s manifestation. That being said, a technology that does not suffer from the emotional instability of the human mind is a technology developed by IBM named Watson. As previously mentioned in the scientific analysis of current technologies, Watson is a cognitive computer that can learn, understand language and hypothesise on questions and data based on its previous failures and successes, similar to that of a human. This technology was integrated into the structure in order to adopt the functions of the human brain while following these five programmatic principles. Watson will implement these principles as follows: 1. Act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and invention 2. Record all climatic and sensory data, internally and externally recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to imposed conditions. 3. Interact and learn from the building’s occupants and develop its intelligence over time 4. Collaborate and aid in all scientific and non-scientific endeavours by its counterparts around the globe 5. Aid in the betterment, advancement, innovation and prolonging of the human race and the environment

Data received and stored

Brain

Hypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

R - Facility

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

Data analysed

WATSON

Data analysed & implemented


Image Credit: IBM (ibm.com)

Brain Artificial Intelligence

Bio-Mimicry

Genetic Engineering

Bio-Mimetics

Research Facility

Nano Technology

Bionics Robotics

Bio Engineering

REPRODUCTION Development of new tech based on acquired data and research LIVING Field testing

SYSTEMS

ECDYSIS Removal of redundant tech

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech

OCTOPUS MECHANIC Watson’s distribution through the building is closely associated with the distribution of the brain within the octopus, where three-fifths of the octopus’ nerves are distributed throughout its eight arms (Horton 2008). Like the octopus, Watson’s intelligence is distributed over the entirety of the structure instead of being located in one central location. The brain of an octopus only has to send a single move command to one of its eight armatures, and the arm itself will decide the best way to approach the task without direction from the central brain. This natural ability represents one of the core motor functions of the brain system within the building; distributed intelligence.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

83


DISCUSSION Skin Systems Point 5 to discuss the articulation of the technologies into the structure… Our skin represents the largest organ of the human body and potentially one of the most important as it protects us from an abundance of external conditions and hosts a number of critical functions. These functions include: 1. A protective covering that shields us from germs and disease 2. It is filled with white blood cells, programmed to attack invading bacteria 3. It acts as the body’s alarm system signalling the immune system into action when a harmful bacteria has made entry. 4. The skin acts as an insulating device regulating the body’s temperature 5. The skins contracts and expands based on external temperatures in an attempt to keep the body’s blood at a consistent temperature. If the temperature is exceeded the body will activate our sweat glands to cool the skin via evaporation 6. The skin accommodates an abundance of nerve endings which allow us to experience touch, communicating sensations such as hot and cold back to the brain. (Oswald, Rachel 2009) Not only does it host a number of critical functions to the human body, it also comprises of a very sophisticated arrangement of layers in order to carry out these functions: These layers include:

1. The skin consists of a supple membrane composed of three layers - the Epidermis, the Dermis and the Hypodermis, that all work in support of one another. 2. The Epidermis is the thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one, serving as the body’s armour against infectious diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its colour, darkening in response to harmful UV rays to protect the skin, commonly referred to as a ‘tan’. 3. The Dermis layer is full of collagen, which gives the skin its firmness, containing sweat glands and hair follicles. It also contains nerve endings that allow us to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is the body’s alarm system, signalling the immune system into action. 4. The innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, which connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue that insulates our body and controls its temperature. 5. Sebum is an oily substance that the body excretes to coat the skin to shield the Epidermis from the elements. 6. The skin also consists of cells called Keratinocytes which determine people’s skin colour – These skin cells absorb harmful UV rays. People with dark skin have an abundance of keratinocytes and are less susceptible to sunburn. 7. Unlike snakes, humans shed their skin gradually, shedding old skin cells to make room for the new ones that lie beneath them (Oswald, Rachel 2009).

INQU


Hair Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis

Muscle Oil Gland Sweat Gland Nerve Blood Vessel

UEST

Image Credit: Fitness Diet Tips (fitnessidettips.com)

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

85


DISCUSSION Skin Systems Evidently based on this research the skin of the building was found to be one of the most critical design challenges of the research and was specifically designed based on the 3 separate ecologies found on site. The skin reflects these 3 separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to unavoidable site conditions such as light, wind, rain, water currents and touch, also facilitating the ability to harvest solar energy throughout the day through the implementations of liquid solar cell technology. The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton (Figure 40, 36, 37, 41, 42). This allowed the car’s skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch (Figure 38,39), adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions (BMW Web TV 2008). This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structure’s skeletal system without deformations imposed onto it by the spine causing any damage. The composition of the skin’s structure was designed to reflect the functions of the human skin as close as possible with other adaptations from other organisms, such as sharks and snakes, and being applied as an extra level of protection across the three ecological conditions (water, land, air).

FIGURE 40: Skin Fold/Door Transition

FIGURE 36: Hood Closed

FIGURE 38: Skin Stationary

FIGURE 37: Hood Opening

FIGURE 39: Skin in Action


FIGURE 41: Skin Stationary

FIGURE 42: Skin in Action

Image Credit: BMW (bmwusa.com)

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

87


DISCUSSION WATER SKIN 1.The skin applied to the water ecology consists of an external translucent polymer layer designed based on the unique properties of shark skin. Shark skin has the unique quality of having specially designed denticles that give the shark a hydrodynamic advantage over other aquatic life. In recent studies shark denticles have been found to reduce drag and turbulence on the surface of the skin by creating miniature vortices. This propels the shark forward allowing for a 6% increase in speed and a 5% reduction in energy consumption, while at the same time being incredibly quiet (Wyss Institute 2012). This highly sophisticated skin is currently in development by scientists at Harvard Universities bio mechanics research division by Ph.D. George Lauder, and has been adopted and applied to the structure’s water skin membrane in an attempt to reduce drag from the two separate water currents operating within the Swan Canning River. This will in turn reduce stress on the lower lumber spine of the building while allowing for a quiet underwater environment within the structure. 2.The second layer of the skin reflects the Dermis layer of the skin system, constructed from a thicker form of EAP to withstand extreme forces imposed by the depth of the ecology. This layer is also laced with a Sensory E-skin Polymer in order to relay messages back to the central nervous system. 3.The third layer of the skin reflects the Hypo-Dermis layer of the skin system, constructed from a silicon based insulation polymer in order to stop the transmittance of heat. 4.The forth layer of the skin reflects the Epidermis, a pre-stressed polymer acting as the structures inner support layer and internal barrier in case of external failure or rupture. 5.The fifth layer of the skin reflects the melatonin properties of human skin, made from a thermochromic Polymer which allows the structure to protect itself from harmful UV rays, by changing its transparency to a blackened tint in order to reflect UV rays and stop transmittance. 6.The sixth layer of the skin reflects the visual interactive interface of the structure, made from an electro active polymer technology developed by Displax. Actuating the ability for people to watch and interact with new scientific data and information sourced from the structure’s nervous system. 7.The seventh layer of the skin allows for an extra level of protection while assisting in motor functions of the skins’ membrane. 8.The eighth layer of the skin reflects a second Hypo-Dermis insulation layer to stop transmittance from inside the structural body.


Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer Interface: Electro-Active Polymer Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

H 2O

Water Turbulence: 20% Reduction

Indigo Snake Scales

Turbulence Reduction

Water Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Weather/Water Turbulence

Less Stress on Spine Silent Flow Armor Barrier

Lines of Force

Smooth Flow

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

89


DISCUSSION M E L AT O N I N S Y S T E M

LAND SKIN The land skin developed for the building follows the same structural composition as the water skin ecology with 2 select differences. The external layer of the skin system is designed around the scale system of the Eastern Indigo Snake, native to Eastern United States. It received its name from its glossy iridescent ventral scales which are known to animate a blackish purple in bright light (Eastern Indigo Snake 2014). The snake’s scales were chosen not only due to their unique patterning and iridescent properties but due the fact that the unique structural composition of these scales reduces surface friction on the skin. This much like the water skin, reduces turbulence on the surface of the skin imposed by wind loads on the structure and alleviates stress on the structures internal spine. The extra layer also aids as a barrier protection layer opening and closing depending on external climatic conditions. For example if the structure detects an incoming storm, the scales on the outer skin will close in attempt to defend the structure from the harsh external environment. The unique shape of these scales is also designed around the implied movement technique, lines of force, in order to follow the fluid geometry of the land structure in order to project occupants around the space. The Dermis support layer of the skin also facilitates another unique quality that the water dermis layer does not, which is the application of nano-film liquid solar cells to its surface in order to harness energy from the sun and aid in the structures self-efficiency protocols.

EXTREME UV Tint Adaptation

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

COMFORT RANGE Translucent

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

SKIN TRANSITION

S TA G E 1 30% UV

S TA G E 2 50% UV

S TA G E 3 60% UV

S TA G E 4 80% UV


Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Lines of Force Ability: Turbulence Reduction Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar Cells Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer Interface: Electro-Active Polymer Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

O2

Air Filtration: 10%

Indigo Snake Scales

Land Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Extreme Weather Protective Armor Smooth Surface Reduction in surface air friction

Lines of Force

Closing Scale

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

91


DISCUSSION AIR SKIN The Air skin of the structure is based on the same fundamental systems as the land skin but with a slight difference as its scales function in a slightly different way, opening up like a flower and following more honestly to the formal composition of the Indigo snake scale arrangement. This aids in the increased environmental risks at higher altitudes and also visually signifies the change from land to air skin systems.

SKIN DETAIL

1

5 3

4

1. E-Skin Sensor 2. EAP 3. Dermis Support

4. Reactive Scales 5. Filtration Membrane

2


Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar Cells Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer Interface: Electro-Active Polymer Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

O2

Air Filtration: 10%

Indigo Snake Scales

Air Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Extreme Weather Protective Armor Smooth Surface Reduction in surface air friction

Scale Assembly

Closing Scale

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

93


DISCUSSION SKELETAL SYSTEM The human spine and skeletal system, much like many other vertebrates, is one of the body’s most highly intelligent and sophisticated natural systems that aids in a number of important bodily functions. The skeletal system constitutes for the entire structural support system of the human body, possessing incredible durability and giving the body the ability to take its unique shape, move, protect internal organs as well as provide an attachment base for our muscles, tendons and skin. ‘Every time the body carries out an action the bones, joints muscles and tendons are working in perfect synchronization to make this effort possible’ (Scheve, Tom 2009). The skeletal system comprises of a number of elements in order to make movement possible. These elements include: skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, synovial membranes and the bursa. The human skeletal system is known as an endoskeleton, which denotes as an internalised skeletal system whereas insects and other invertebrates have an exo-skeleton which supports and protects the animal’s body. The spine is the primary element of the human skeletal system located at the centre of the body’s axial skeleton, facilitating the body’s ability to move while supporting the weight of the body and protecting the body’s spinal nerve and nerve roots. The spinal column is the body,s main support structure, comprising of 36 bones called vertebra, which are categorised into 5 regions as follows:

1.

The Cervical region consists of 7 vertebra which allows the head to rotate

2.

The Thoracic region consists of 12 vertebra which serve as attachment points for the ribcage

3.

The Lumbar region consists of 5 vertebra which act at the main weight bearing section of the spinal column

4.

The Sacral region consists of 5 fused vertebra which provides the attachment point for the pelvis

5.

The Coccygeal region consists of 4 small vertebras also known as the coccyx which acts as an attachment point for various muscles and tendons. (Anatomy of the Spine 2014)

Each vertebra of the spine has a very unique composition and consists of the following structural components for actuating specific functions: •

The Vertebral Body: is the main structure of the vertebra consisting of a large mass of bone.

The Spinal Canal: sits behind the vertebral column housing the spinal nerve that connects to the brain.

INQU


The Pedicle Bones: either side of the spinal canal are the pedicle bones which connect the vertebral body to the lamina and also act as exit points for the nerve branches of the main spinal nerve.

The Lamina: creates the outer wall of the vertebral canal protecting the spinal nerve.

The Spinous Process: protrudes out from the lamina acting as an attachment point for various muscles and ligaments that move and stabilise the vertebra

Superior and Inferior Articular Facets: form the joint between the vertebra above to the vertebra below. These joints are connected by a small amount of cartilage that allow for movement.

Vertebral Disc: is a tough elastic disc which acts as a cushion between the two vertebral bodies allowing the vertebra to bend and twist. (Anatomy of the Spine 2014)

UEST

Image Credit: GraceBeforeMedicince (gracebeforemedicine.wordpress.com)

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

95


DISCUSSION SKELETAL SYSTEM

TRANSPORT NERVE

The dissertation’s design proposal has taken the intelligence and sophistication of the human skeletal system and applied its characteristics to its own structural composition, while merging its intelligence with that of an exo skeleton in order to create a ductile skeletal hybrid. When required this can be removed and upgraded without the building collapsing, as the science team develop new skeletal technologies for implementation. The adaptation of the spine to the building was used to empower the structure’s formal composition while allowing the building to flex, twist and brace against external environmental conditions similar to that of a human being.

COMPLETE SECTION

This allows the structure to move with the elements instead of resisting their imposed loads, also acting as a main fixing point for the endo and exo skeletal systems. The two spines within the 3 towers not only have the capacity to moderate themselves according to structural loads, but also protect the main transport and nervous system canals that transport the building’s occupants around its body. The incorporation of two spines was used to reduce structural loads and aid in the protection of incoming and outgoing transport tubes while allowing for increased mobility. The ductile programming of the spinal arrangements allows for any part of the skeletal system to be upgraded, as all elements of the system work together as a whole and independently should they need to support the load of a redundant system that is in the process of being upgraded.

STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY

EXO MEMBER

EXO SKELETON

ENDO SKELETON

RIB STRUCTURE

ENDO MEMBER


Superior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

Inferior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

Transverse Process Muscle Connection

FRONT

Rib Facet Rib Connection Spinal Column Structural Body

SIDE

REACTION 1

REACTION 2

REACTION 3

Intervertebral Disc Compression flexibility

WIND Structure reacts to strong wind loads flexing and bracing taking in air

Lamina Spinal Nerve Exit

Spinal Canal Nerve System

Transverse Process Rib connection Muscle Connection

PLAN

STORM

BRACING

Extreme Environmental Conditions

Structure braces itself by locking spinal cords into a fixed position

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

97


DISCUSSION ECOLOGIES Point 10 looks to express the importance of the separate ecologies and the Swan River site… After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that the Swan River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan River’s multiple environmental issues which include pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health. The river suffers from these issues due to several reasons, these include the following: 1.

2.

The Swan River has two separate currents running both up and down stream. Fresh water flows downstream into the ocean over the top of the denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom. This makes the lower waters of the Swan River hypoxic and even sometimes anoxic – which means little to no oxygen is available on the river bed for aquatic fauna or life to flourish, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter and the releasing of nutrients which cause blue green algae bloom.

3.

This creates vicious cycle creating Algae in the summer months which kills any aquatic fauna attempting to grow by starving them of oxygen.

4.

High levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae usually a result of decomposing aquatic fauna at the bottom of the sea bed.

These factors have resulted in the Swan River we know today; a polluted environment that we tell our children not to play in and are even reluctant to venture in ourselves. With this in mind, the opportunity was seized to rehabilitate the Swan River by dredging out the decayed/ polluted river bed and pumping it full of micro-nutrients and re-oxygenated water. This in turn would create an entirely rejuvenated natural habitat around the structure’s base that could be studied and maintained for the future enjoyment of the city and the varied natural aquatic species of the Swan River ecology.

PROBLEM

Muddy Polluted water

Toxic blue green algae bloom

No aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

Destruction of Natural Aquatic life

SOLUTION

Aeration of water around site

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

Allows for growth of natural fauna

Allows for public enjoyment of the Swan River


Image Credit: Iain Bicknell Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

99


DISCUSSION PROGRAM Point 9 aims to articulate how the structures program was established… ity

Flo at i

C ng

Mu s

100%

m eu

50%

Lib

A number of studies were conducted into the types of programs that were best suited for integration into the building’s fabric. In terms of performance, these findings were categorised by favourable and non-favourable variables and were graded accordingly, using a percentage value as to which programs would be the most favourable to apply to the structure’s existing programmatic strategies. These studies resulted in a number of programs being integrated into the structure’s existing programmatic strategies as in research facility, port, public transport, mixed use, floating city, amphibious, office/commercial, residential, hotel and cultural programs, all boasting a 60% -100% success rate and favourability if incorporated. The combining of public and private programs into the structure presented the opportunity for the building to become a city making device, drawing people in from all over the world, while awakening its surrounding context and community to rally around its philosophies.

ry ra

Legend Optimal Performance Moderate Performance Limited Performance

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • • • •

• Hierarchy issues • Exposed to all elements

Highly complex program Abundance of technologies Alive city model Diverse spacial requirements Large demographic of people Self sufficient Iconic

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • • •

• • • • •

Expressive form Creativity focused Civic Centre/ Public access Iconic building Tourist location High activity (on event)

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Small to medium structure Basic technological req. Linear Typology

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• Educational facility • Civic centre/public access

• • • • •

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • • •

• • • •

Restrictive program Linear arrangement Small to medium structure Low pedestrian traffic Basic technological req.

Ai r

30%

po

rt

ort n sp ra

Pu b lic

T

10%

80%

High level of activity Facilitator of movement Public facility Cultural necessity Node structure Increases infrastructure

Restrictive program Linear typology Small to medium structure Large land area req.

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • •

High level of activity Facilitator of movement Public facility Cultural necessity Node Structure

Restrictive program Linear typology Small Structure Basic technological req.


Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• Program specific • Complexity issues

Iconic Structure Dual typology Complex program Varied scales Dual Site

or

t

70%

E

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • •

• Restrictive program • Linear typology • Basic technological req.

Creates Infrastructure Iconic Structure High Population Density Symbiosis

um di

10%

Non-Favourable

• • • •

• • • • •

Medium to large structure High activity level (time based) Technology Rich Increases infrastructure

Not publicly accessible Not a tourist location Linear typology Basic program Activity based on working hours

Cu lt u r

Favourable

s Art al/

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • • • •

Tourist location Iconic building Expressive form Civic Centre/ Public access High activity (on event)

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Small to medium structure Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req.

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

Tourist Location Cultural centre Facilitator of movement High activity (on event) Medium to large structure Civic Centre/ Public access

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req. Linear typology

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • •

Expressive form Creativity focused Civic centre/ Public access Iconic building Tourist location

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Basic technological req. Small to medium structure

s

Favourable

al pit

ca

tio

n

50%

ea es

rch

Basic program Basic technological req. Linear typology Small structure

t cer

70%

• Complex external program • Complex internal program

Facilitate an abundance of uses Activated throughout the week Technology Rich Flexible Site activator

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • • • •

• • • • • •

Arts facility Expressive form Civic Centre/ Public access Tourist location Cultural centre Facilitator of movement High activity (on event)

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req. Small to medium structure

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • •

Large structure Biologically focused Increases infrastructure Technology rich Diverse spacial req.

Restrictive program Highly complex Ethical Issues Fixed codes

er

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • • •

• • • • •

Highly complex program Abundance of technologies Actuator of structures philosophy Diverse spacial requirements Large demographic of people Increases infrastructure

Favourable • • • •

90%

Hydro po w

• • • •

Facilitator of movement Low complexity Mobile Arc typology

/C

• • • •

on

Thea tre

Non-Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

20%

60%

Favourable

Favourable

100%

40%

St a

en tia Resid

o

Office /C Ar ch Ship

ture

US

Ho

on vili

80%

c ite

D

u

Pa

80%

rce

Restrictive program Linear typology Noise Pollution Major commercial

Ed

Non-Favourable

Tourist Location • Basic program High population capacity • Basic technological req. Glorified internally and externally • Linear typology Small to large structure

70%

me m

• • • • •

Transport node High level of activity Increased infrastructure Large structure

Scien ce /R

• • • •

Exp o

H

Favourable

er ow lT

Non-Favourable

• • • •

60%

80%

el ot

Favourable

MIX E

Favourable

P

o

h Arc

Amph ibi

us

nt Pla

• • • •

Standardised learning spaces Small to medium structure Generally not a tourist attraction Not iconic Not public facility

Non-Favourable

Technology rich • Not publicly accessible Complex program • Safety issues Actuator of structures philosophy • Varied activity levels Enables building to be used for ongoing experiments Maintains/heals buildings ecology Increased life expectancy Innovator of technology Small to large structure

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• • • • •

• • • •

High level of activity Self Sufficient Sustainable Facilitates reproduction Increases infrastructure

Restrictive program Linear typology Major commercial Noise

70%

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

101


DISCUSSION IMPLIED MOVEMENT (FORM) Point 11 aims to articulate the key drivers behind the formal expression of the project and how its unique shape originated…

Behaviour: Is based on a sensory response to conditions imposed upon the body, forcing a change or response.

The design of the building followed two specific laws, as well as implied movement techniques. These were based on two engrossing quotes by Neri Oxman , an Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, best known for her work in environmental design and digital morphogenesis, that reads ‘Design behaviour rather than form’ and ‘forget about how the design looks, think about how it behaves’ (Vinnitskaya 2012). These quotes then lead the research to define its versions of form and behaviour which concluded with the following definitions:

Form: Is beyond just geometric shapes and representative constructs, but is expressive of life, its behaviour and responses to imposed conditions.

The structure was also designed around a series of implied movement techniques that were discovered in a study conducted in the initial stages of the research in order to facilitate the feeling of life within its manifestation. These techniques were as follows:

VIRUS

MEMBRANE

Virus represents the armature like mechanics of virus cells that reach out to grapple other cells to assimilate them into its body.

Membrane refers to a biomorphic technique which represent forms found in nature.

PROJECTION

LINES OF FORCE

Projection is a technique where the form is projected into the viewer’s field of vision, seizing their attention, leading the eye back into the structure.

Lines of force represent one of the most power implied movement techniques whereby the natural mechanics of the brain force the viewer to trace the lines of any object in order to understand its geometric construct. This technique is used to create visual energy through stimuli or visual projection into a space.


ELASTICITY

MUSCULAR TENSION

Elasticity is similar to the muscular tension technique but has a more fluid composition, such as the separating of two sheets coated with glue or the separation of a gel like substance. This technique is commonly associated with organic material.

EVOCATION

Evocation is an implied movement technique based on associations with characteristics reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve.

RESOLUTION

Muscular tension reflects the push and pull spring motion of a sling shot or rubber band whereby the form of the structure is tensioned to spring into action through its formal composition. This technique is commonly found in cable stayed bridge designs.

GEOMETRIC TRANSCENDENCE

The overall design of the structure was an attempt to awaken the city and build energy around itself and its context, acting as a place making device. It interacts with river ecologies then rising up out of the water spreading its roots while pulling back into itself in an ascent towards the sky. A poetic play of the forces of growth, in much the same way as a tree’s form is dictated by its functions and environmental condition. These implied movement techniques and laws coupled with the incorporated intelligent technological and organic systems dictated the structure’s morphogenesis. As stated by the great Buckminster Fuller ‘When I am working on a problem, I never think about beauty but when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful, I know it is wrong.’ (R. Buckminster Fuller Quotes 2014). Articulating this project’s form was a response to a critical design problem and not a formal endeavour of spatial justification like so many architects believe is their primary concern.

Geometric Transcendence is another technique considered to be one of the most powerful as it creates juxtaposition between the transitions of standard geometric object to organic life form. A technique that adopts a variety of other implied movement techniques such as evocation and virus.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

103


Image Credit: Telusers (telusers.com)

OUTC


COME

CONCLUSION The complexities of our natural world continue to intrigue, challenge and reveal to us lessons that have greatly advanced our understanding of its intelligence. Civilisation has come at a great price on our natural environment. The constructed environment has been quite unsympathetic to the important balance of ecologies of: water, land and sky. The discipline of architecture has a significant part to play as it seeks to balance the sustainability equation (social, cultural, economic and environmental). Our constructed built forms must “EVOLVE” and “ADAPT” and to be an agent of change – responsively intelligent and at the same time humane places that support the advancement in the quality to human society. The so call bricks and mortars of the buildings of the future are strongly receptive to the application of intelligent materials and systems. The research was always ambitious since the very beginning to scope widely and at all times taking advantage of knowledge from past, current and immediate future from discoveries – research that have been innovatively applied in the automotive, robotic, aerospace, information technology and biomedical industries . Notwithstanding also that nature holds many secrets where by animals and plants have physical attributes that allow them to survive and thrive under extreme conditions. The final project is in no way meant to be a resolved design; rather the outcomes presented a kind of “armature-platform” in which the project continues to be a test-bed. A design to debate architecture themes around: generative design, form, typology, technological systems, ecologies, education, sustainability, responsive and adaptive design solutions. The applied sciences identified, explored and adopted in this research have and will continue to significantly challenge the discipline of architecture to re-imaging the “buildings as ecologies” - Alive and thriving. The harmonious balance of the natural and the built environment in a coexisting relationship – where both are living “beings” – is where I would consider devoting my future practice. Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

105


DIREC


CTION

WHERE TO... Future aspirations for myself and this discourse would be to put into practice some of these ideas. To push and apply, as I strongly believe that some of these concepts, even though in reflection were quite large scale, have elements which could even be applied to the resident scale. I believe that it’s not a case of if, but a case of when! As this type of architectural intervention begins to unfold, our buildings will become more and more advanced, not in terms of aesthetics, but in terms of their ability to communicate, adapt, change and evolve to suit our needs and our ever changing environmental conditions. I believe that in time the common house, ship, city, tower and car will be as indispensable as the common household family pet, due to the fact that as the structures starts to interact with its environment, it will become acquainted with its occupants, growing and forming a deep relationship with them over time as its intellect expands. This is where I see the future of architecture and the progression of my career, towards the blurring of architecture between the fields of science, where not one or the other are dissimilar to each other, but constitute as one body of knowledge and creation for the betterment of mankind and the environment, as the world is currently in a discussion around sustainability and the rejuvenation of the global ecology.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

107


REFERENCES Anatomy of the Spine. 2014. “Spine Anatomy Interactive Video”. Spine Health. Accessed 15 October 2014, http://www.spine-health.com/video/spine- anatomy-interactive-video Banister, F. 2001. A History of Architecture on the Comparative method. Elsevier Science & Technology. Bianco, Carl. 2000. “How Your Heart Works”. HowStuffWorks.com. Accessed 09 November 2014, http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/ systems/circulatory/heart.htm Blackwood, Michael. 1997. Peter Eisenman – making architecture move.VHS. Michael Blackwood Production Inc. Bloomberg News. 2013. IBM’s Breakthrough: Watson May Help Beat Cancer. Streaming Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HkEOJnn_zlg BMW Web TV. 2008. BMW GINA Light Visionary Model: Premiere. Streaming Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTYiEkQYhWY Bure, G. d. 2008. Bernard Tschumi / Gilles de Bure. Basel : London, Basel : Birkhäuser London : Springer [distributor]. Coren, S. and J. S. Girgus (1978). Seeing is deceiving : the psychology of visual illusions. Hillsdale, N.J. New York, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ; distributed by Halsted Press. Dal Co, F. 1998. Frank O. Gehry : the complete works / Francesco Dal Co, Kurt W. Forster building descriptions by Hadley Arnold. New York, New York : Monacelli Press. David A. 1982. Hanser Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 41, No. 3 pp. 250-252. University of California Press. Desolneux, A. (2008). From Gestalt Theory to Image Analysis : A Probabilistic Approach / by Agnés Desolneux, Lionel Moisan, Jean-Michel Morel. New York, NY, New York, NY :Springer New York. Deyle, Travis. 2009. “Electroactive Polymers (EAP) as Artificial Muscles (EPAM) for Robot Applications”. Hizook.com. Accessed 14 October 2014, http://www.hizook.com/blog/2009/12/28/electroactive-polymers-eap- artificial-muscles-epam-robot-applications

Eastern Indigo Snake. 2014. Wikipedia. Accessed 30 October 2014, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_indigo_snake Editors of Consumer Guide. 2006. “The Brain and Nervous System”. HowStuffWorks.com. Accessed 09 November 2014, http://health. howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/brain- nervous-system-ga.htm Electroactive Polymers. 2014. Wikipedia. Accessed 09 November 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroactive_polymers Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig, and Robynne Boyd. 2001. “How Your Brain Works”. HowStuffWorks.com. Accessed 09 November 2014, http:// science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/brain. htm Fuente, Jesus De La. 2014. “Graphene”. Graphenea.com. Accessed 01 October 2014, http://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene#.VF4VoPmUd8E Gajitz. 2010. “Paper-Thin Film Turns Any Surface Into a Touch Screen”. Gajitz. Accessed 20 October 2014, http://gajitz.com/paper-thin-film-turns-any-surface- into-a-touch-screen/ Garofalo, L. 1999. Digital Eisenman : an office of an electronic era. Basel, Switzerland, Basel, Switzerland : Birkhauser-Publishers for Architecture. Horton, Jennifer. 2008. “How Octopuses Work”. HowStuffWorks.com. Accessed 09 November 2014, http://animals.howstuffworks.com/marine-life/octopus.htm IBM Research. 2013. Watson and the Jeopardy! Challenge. Streaming Video. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=P18EdAKuC1U IBM Watson. 2014. Discovery Advisor at Work. IBM.com. Accessed 05 October 2014, http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/ibmwatson/discovery-advisor.html Ingels, Bjarke. 2009. Yes Is More: An Archi comic on Architectural Evolution. Taschen, Denmark. Morphogenesis. 2014. Wikipedia. Accessed 09 November 2014, http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Morphogenesis Oswald, Rachel. 2009. “How Your Skin Works”. HowStuffWorks.com. Accessed 09


November 2014, http://health.howstuffworks.com/skin-care/information/anatomy/ skin.htm

Wikipedia. 2008. Baroque Architecture. Accessed 31 March 2014, http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Baroque_architecture 4.Presenting a design proposition that gives back to its

Perkins, Robert. 2012. “Researchers Develop A Path To Liquid Solar Cells That Can Be Printed Onto Surfaces”. Press Room University of Southern California. Accessed 02 October 2014, http://pressroom.usc.edu/researchers-develop-a-path-to- liquid-solar-cells-that-can-be-printed-onto-surfaces/

Wikipedia. 2014. Ecology. Accessed 14 May 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a Ecology

R. Buckminster Fuller Quotes. 2014. Brainy Quote. Accessed 08 November, http:// www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/r/r_buckminster_fuller.html Rogers, Craig. 1995. “Intelligent Materials”. Scientific American Sept. 1995: 154-157. Rookes, P. 2013. Perception : Theory, Development and Organisation. Hoboken, Hoboken : Taylor and Francis. Søberg, M. Scheve, Tom. 2009. “How Bones Work”. HowStuffWorks.com. Accessed 09 November 2014, http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/ musculoskeletal/bone.htm Seeboth, Arno and Lötzsch, Detlef. 2014. Thermochromic and Thermotropic Materials. Pan Stanford Publishing Pty.Ltd., Singapore. Shepard, R. N. (1990). Mind sights : original visual illusions, ambiguities, and other anomalies, with a commentary on the play of mind in perception and art. New York, W.H. Freeman and Co. Singh, Timon. 2012. “Inventors of Stronger than Steel Graphene Paper Receive Nobel Prize and Knighthoods”. Inhabitat.com. Accessed 01 October 2014, http:// inhabitat.com/inventors-of-stronger-than-steel-graphene-paper-receive-nobel- prize-and-knighthoods/ Spuybroek, Lars. 2007. “MORPHO-ECOLOGIES.” The Architectural Review 221 (1321): 93. Accessed 17 August 2014, http://search.proquest.com/docview/201139142 ?accountid=10382.

surrounding environment by rejuvenating the swan river and

diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and Wilkinson, C. and J. Eyre 2001. Movement and geometry. In experimentation. Bridging art & science. 5. 56-62 .London, Booth-Clibborn. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, Woollaston, Victoria. 2013. “Scientists create paper-thin electronic SKIN drawing energy and people from all that over the world, to not responds to touch and pressure - andbut could feeling to prosthetic limbs”. ecologies. only itself itsgive surrounding urban and natural Daily Mail Australia. Accessed 12 October 2014, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/ A Proposition that awakens the city to this new form of sciencetech/article-2375893/Scientists-create-paper-electronic-SKIN-responds- architectural typology and builds momentum and energy touch-pressure--feeling-prosthetic-limbs.html around its philosophies. A proposition that not only draws energy to itself but gives energytoback to itsthe people. Wyss Institute. 2012. “Researchers use multi-material 3D printing fabricate first

biomimetic shark skin”. Harvard University. Accessed 30 October 2014, http:// wyss.harvard.edu/viewpage/537/

Yentob, A. 2013. Who Dares Wins: Zaha Hadid. BBCOne Imagine Video. 75:00. Accessed 29 March 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b037yx1l OED. 2014. Oxford English Dictionary. Accessed 18 August 2014, http://www.oed.com/

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analyse of ‘the Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

Tandon, Nina. 2012. Could tissue engineering mean personalized medicine? Streaming Video. http://www.ted.com/talks/nina_tandon_could_tissue_ engineering_mean_personalized_medicine?language=en Vinnitskaya, Irina. 2012. “Neri Oxman: On Designing Form”. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 November 2014. http://www.archdaily.com/?p=238362

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

109


IMAGE REFERENCES Adapt. 2011. Butterfly on Green Leaf. Wallpapers Builder. http://www. wallpapersbuilder.com/wallpaper/butterfly-on-green-leaf-1920x1200_ w963.html

Figure 18 – Asymptote. 2010. Kaohsiung Port Terminal. Arch Daily. http:// www.archdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/1292336481--c- asymptote-architecture---kaohsiung-port-terminal---aerial-night.jpg

BMW Gina. 2014. Wallpaper. Net Car Show. http://www.netcarshow.com/BMW- GINA_Light_Visionary_Model_Concept-2008-wallpaper.jpg

Figure 19 – Emergent. 2014. Tom Wiscombe. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest. com/pin/348958671100785531/

Conclusion. 2013. Earth from Space Wallpaper. Telusers. http://telusers.com/ earth-from-space-wallpaper-1920x1200-19276-hd-wallpapers.html

Figure 20 – Biothing. 2011. Turing Pavillion. Plethora Project. http://plethora- project.com/completeworks/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/COMP.jpg

ECCERobot. 2014. Fastcompany. http://b.fastcompany.net/multisite_files/ codesign/imagecache/1280/article_feature/1280-robot-12097692- gvgdjf-1.jpg

Figure 21 – lava. 2011. Beijing Future Home Pavilion. Lava architects. http:// www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/beijing-future-home-pavilion/

Ecologies. 2014. Branch with Green Leaves. Wallpapers Wide. http:// wallpaperswide.com/branch_with_green_leaves_21-wallpapers.html Figure 1-7,10,11 - Bicknell, Iain. 2013. Info Cards. Curtin University. Perth Australia. Figure 8,9 - Gestalt Diagrams. 1984. Distortion in art : the eye and the mind / J.B. Deregowski. London, London : Routledge & K. Paul. Figure 12 - Parthenon. 2011. The Perfect Imperfections of the Parthenon. https:// s3.amazonaws.com/suite101.com.prod/article_images/ large/2932100_COM_pantheon2.jpg Figure 13 - Wells Cathedral. 2012. Sally Haycocks Photography. http:// sallyhaycocks.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/wells-cathedral-a4-lens- corrected-jpg.jpg?w=1280 Figure 14 - Zaha Hadid. 2013. Heydar Center. Designboom. http://www. designboom.com/architecture/new-images-of-heydar-aliyev-center- by-zahahadid-11-14-2013/ Figure 15 - Zaha Hadid. 2013. Heyder Aliyev Center. Bustler. https://encrypted- tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS3kKc9lRsW8LQvpB5SArZ0m OebuM6WENTH_MvpCOkcd1AuG2WN Figure 16 - Frank Gehry. Nd. Walt Disney Concert Hall. Wikipedia. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walt_Disney_Concert_Hall Figure 17 - Eisenman. 2010. Chiesa a tor tre Teste, Roma. Lunachen. http:// lunachen.wordpress.com/2010/08/17/piegature/

Figure 22 – Morphosis. 2009. Four Towers in One Competition. Arch Daily. http:// ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/ siteaerialperspective-l.jpg Figure 23 - Insect Taxidermy. 2014. Framed butterflys,moths and insects. Bugsdirect. http://www.bugsdirect.com/category/framed-butterflies- butterfly-taxidermy Figure 24 - Bicknell, Iain. 2013. Implied Movement Background. Curtin University. Perth Australia. Figure 25 - Bicknell, Iain. 2013. Touchstone Model. Curtin University. Perth Australia. Figure 26 - Bicknell, Iain. 2013. Site Analysis. Curtin University. Perth Australia. Figure 27 - Graphene. 2014. Graphene. Wikipedia. http://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Graphen.jpg Figure 28 – Sensory E-Skin. 2014. Bioskin. Spectrum. http://spectrum.ieee.org/ img/bioskin03-1376933149590.jpg Figure 28 –Sensory E-Skin.2014. Gstatic. https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/ images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQIoGB6eijVj- L81jvZrSGOsYWNPui6eYIXsJTpNddOzaLzfpUBnw Figure 29 - Electro Active Polymer. 2014. Ultra Slim Corning Glass. Corning. http://www.corning.com/uploadedImages/Corporate/ww/Assets/Images/ Flexible_Bend.jpg Figure 29 – Liquid Solar Cell. 2014. Gizmag. http://images.gizmag.com/hero/ liquid_solar_cell.jpg


Figure 29 – Liquid Solar Cell. 2014. Technology. Pinterest. http://media-cache- ec0.pinimg.com/736x/f1/5a/4a/ f15a4a132822e80ebd4eb6e86fe14de7.jpg

Figure 38 – Gina. 2014. Skin. Car and Driver. http://media.caranddriver.com/ images/media/204944/bmw-gina-light-visionary-model-close-up- sideview-photo-204957-s-1280x782.jpg

Figure 30 – EAP. 2010. Shape Shift 05. Architerials. http://www.architerials.com/ wp-content/uploads/2010/10/shapeshift05.jpg

Figure 39 – Gina. 2014. BMW Gina Material Folds. Car and Driver. http://media. caranddriver.com/images/media/204944/bmw-gina-light-visionary- model-special-fabric-with-accurate-reproduction-of-material-folds- photo-204968-s-1280x782.jpg

Figure 30 – EAP. 2014. Shape Shift. Api. http://api.ning.com/ files/7YGWxuQRU6olYLgxScv--rAjubCiY1lSQg2deK*KNtnkSidfKrlj6vs lab6jzrU0Io-ZTDI2PAinYDe0nV6SGXqnenxl7hghKHIlW9zN21M_/ shapeshift008.jpg?width=737&height=493 Figure 31 – Thermochromic. 2014. Archello. http://www.archello.com/sites/ default/files/imagecache/header_detail_large/story/media/COA022- (4).jpg Figure 31 - Thermochromic. 2014. Athenna. http://www.athenna.com/ thermochromic-table/athenna/web_design/teoria-de-design/ Figure 32 – ECCERobot. 2014. Shoulder. Tum. https://www.tum.de/typo3temp/ pics/69b9ae0de0.jpg Figure 33 – ECCERobot. 2014. Blogspot. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-pG4- KUEMIgQ/T5ADZDYZxII/AAAAAAAAI3A/aXm42tB1duk/ s1600/12112349-j6rcfr-4.jpg Figure 34 – IBM Watson. 2014. Protoware. http://protoware.net/wp-content/ uploads/2014/07/ibm-watson.jpg Figure 35 – IBM Watson. 2014. Jeopardy. IBM. http://www.ibm.com/ smarterplanet/us/en/ibmwatson/assets/img/tech/img-video- jeopardy.jpg Figure 36 – Gina. 2008. Opening Engine Cover. Serious Wheels. http://www. seriouswheels.com/pics-2008/bc/2008-BMW-Gina-Light-Visionary- Model-Engine-Cover-Opens-up-1280x960.jpg

Figure 40 – Gina. 2014. Door Opening. Car and Driver. http://media.caranddriver. com/images/media/204944/bmw-gina-light-visionary-model- character-line-up-head-lights-opened-opening-door-photo-204956-s- 1280x782.jpg Figure 41 – Gina. 2014. BMW Gina Wide. Carxy. http://www.carxy.com/view/ bmw_gina_2-wide.html Figure 42 – Gina. 2014. Door Opening. BMW. https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic. com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRVYegMPgEW2z_YY8v9nZRbH9aSxmvk_ wOvIo8m7YHy-cx4Z19u-A IBM Watson. 2014. Hero Video. IBM. http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/ en/ibmwatson/assets/img/home/hero-video.jpg Innovation. 2014. Nano Schematic Infra Lapis. Submicron Deviantart. http:// canadian-fast-food.deviantart.com/art/NanoSchematic- InfraLapis-279061768 Skeletal System. 2011. Human Back and Spine. Basing Stoke Chiropractor. http:// www.basingstokechiropractor.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/ Human-back-and-spine1.jpg Skin System. 2014. How to take care of your skin. Fitness Diet Tips. http:// fitnessdiettips.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/how-to-take-care-of- tour-skin.jpg

Figure 37 – Gina. 201. Engine Cover. Car and Driver. http://media.caranddriver. com/images/media/204944/bmw-gina-light-visionary-model- moveable-character-lines-on-the-engine-cover-photo-204951-s- 1280x782.jpg Figure 37 – Gina. 2014. Hood Opening. Blogspot. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_ FoXyvaPSnVk/SE4jpWQoltI/AAAAAAAAuH4/OjLsO5aK2q8/s1600-h/

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

111


TEASER TRAILER REFERENCES Aerial View of New York. 2014. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100856364/ Blender, Yeus. 2013. Incredible 24h rotation of Earth 24h with nightlights in 4K. YouTube video. 2:00. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzxYumjbOMY Dean, Stew. 2014. Flickr. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100857493/ GOmotion. 2009. Flowering 2009 HD (touched by strangers). YouTube video. 3:24. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvI90EKY8lg Howard, Sainte. 2014. In Transit. Vimeo video. 4:45. https://vimeo.com/80111983 Hybrid Medical Animation. 2011. Anatomy Reveal. Vimeo video. 1:30. https://vimeo. com/22664444 Jenkins, Dylan. 2014. Transformium-transformers: age of extinction. YouTube. video. 1:58. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-LRRqRK3Ew Lomas, Andy. 2014. Cellular Forms. YouTube video. 6:04. https://vimeo. com/83294152 New York Skyline. 2014. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100856387/ New Your Buildings Wallpaper. 2013. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100857762/ Salerno, Leandro. 2008. CG – Cells. Vimeo video. 0:20. https://vimeo.com/863268 Scott, Ridley. 2011. Prometheus - Official Trailer [TRUE HD]. YouTube video. 1:09. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sftuxbvGwiU Serkis, Andy. 2014. Dawn Of The Planet Of The Apes Official Clip - Prepare for Dawn (2014) Andy Serkis HD. YouTube video. 1:46. https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=cP8l2s9okAs Sisman, Candas. 2010. Flux. Vimeo video. 4:45. https://vimeo.com/15395471 Skull X-Ray. 2014. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/pin/348958671100858347/ The Best Slow Motions. 2014. Slow Motion Smoke Swirl. YouTube video. 1:27. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79tcBQlgIqE

The Jungian. 2012. Prometheus - God Is An Astronaut - Suicide By Star - Unofficial Music Video. YouTube video. 4:32. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=8tPRPKfZwNM Travel Links Directory. 2013. Rainfall Slow Motion HD Heavy Rain Drops Falling in Slow Mo Video View of Droplets Hitting Water. YouTube video. 0:13. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIJQkR-ofFo X-Ray. 2014. Human Hand X-Ray. Pinterest. http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/348958671100858351/


Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

113


APPEND


DIX Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

115


B IN O C U L A R P E R C E P T IO N

A N IM A T O R

D ependant on the interaction betw een both eyes to view the w orld, w hich can sometimes cause ambiguity or illusions based on the fact they don’ t see entirely the same images due to their separation. T he image is distorted.

S T A B IL IT Y

T H E

M IN D

IS

B O U N D

B Y

L A W

S

O F

W

E H A V E N O O U R S E N E S

P H Y S IC S

T he human brain evolved by finding patterns and relationships in information supplied by light to our eyes and associating those relationships w ith a behavioral meaning by interacting w ith the w orld. T he mind is bound by the law s of physics constantly calculating, shapes, lines and spaces. ( L otto 2 0 0 9 ) H ow w e see is by continually redefining normality. B egging the q uestion does this new contortion of space break dow n the minds systematic approach to geometry?

T H E

K N O W

N

V IT R U V IA N

M A N

T H E

M E T H O D O L O G IE S

G O L D E N

S E C T IO N

T H E

S ystem of proportions w ith same aspect ratio that can be repeated continuously creating an aesthetically balanced shape.

G O T H IC

G R E E K

B ased on a system of proportions and optical illusions to perfect the view ing of the building from all angles. B ased on a complex mathematical progression know n as the golden mean ( golden ratio) . N o line w ithin the planning of the structure w as ever straight. T he structures curve and bulge to distort the visual perspective. ( F letcher 2 0 0 1 , 1 2 6 )

perspeC T iV A L D isT orT ion oF

eY e A nD

G rA V iT A T ionA L moV emenT

minD

A R T

A R C H IT E C T U R E

repiT iT ion roT A T ion

proJ eC T ion

mA ss

M A N

A

emerG enC e

poW erF U L C omB inA T ion

&

B A

N O U V E A U

Art N ouveau w as by characterized by its use of iron to create organic free flow ing forms through w hat is know n as the “w hiplash curve” a “long, sensitive curve, undulating, flow ing, and interplaying w ith others, sprouting from corners and covering asymmetrically all available surfaces” T his ability to create free flow ing organic forms out of iron can be accredited to the incorporation of new technologies of construction and mechanical system ( H anser 1 9 8 2 , 2 5 1 )

rH Y T H m

V erT iC L e A C C eL erA T ion sY sT em oF

G roW T H

sprinG

T ension

pU sH

pU L L

A nD

D eF iniT ion: L ines oF

F orC e F U seD

:

-

V isU A L C onF U sion

G A L erie G mU rZ Y nsK A

G rA V iT A T ionA L pU L L

A rT

-

F oC A L poinT

- 2

D imension onT o A n eX isT inG

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

resU L T

-

W iT H

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT T o C reA T e A noT H er V isU A L

D eF iniT ion:

Z U riC H

T H e perC eiV eD

insT A L L A T ion reF rA me

oF

T H E

normA L

F O U N D

C reA T es V isU A L inT eresT

-

A nD

-

T oW A rD s iT seL F

:

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T sC H A U L A G er B A seL

rA inier T oW er seA T T L e

L oC A T inG

D rA W inG

F orC e

proX imiT Y

A nD

L enG T H

T iG H T

resU L T

-

spA C es D U e

-

T H e spA C e

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

eY e T rA C es T H e L ine

-

:

U F F iZ i G A L erie miL A n

proJ eC T s V ision

F orC e

T H e eY e A nD

T H roU G H

D oW n T H e spA C e

-

D eF iniT ion: V isU A L C ompL eX iT Y minD

resU L T

-

T ries T o mA p iT

A nD

pU L L inG A

minD

-

C onF L iC T

C onF L iC T

W iT H

-

eA C H

oT H er

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

G iV es iT

enerG Y

B A L A nC es L A rG er oB J eC T s

.

-

L iK e

-

mU sC L e

L ines A re in T enT ion or

>

miL W A U K ee A rT

A s iT

pU sH inG

>

>

A C T ion C A rD s

C A n

C reA T e T ension W iT H in T H e

T H e F iB ers oF

inT o spA C e

or oU T

oF

A

mU seU m oF

A rT

sT A rB U C K s sT iC K

oB J eC T s T H A T

:

Z A Y eD

B riD G e

roT A T ion

moV emenT

A ssoC iA T ion:

F orms reminisC enT

oF

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T moV e, inC L U D inG A nD

resU L T

-

minD

-

-

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

A ssoC iA T es W iT H

oB J eC T

F rA nK

G eH rY

nY

A nD

D A nC inG

-

D imensionA L pL A ne

F oC A L poinT

oF

sinG U L A riT Y

eF F eC T

proJ eC T eD

A T T enT ion

B oD iL Y

H iG H A rT

D eF iniT ion: sense oF

H oU se prA G U e

C reA T eD

T resT L e T rA iL B riD G e

oF

insT A L L A T ion reF rA me

A nD

eV oL V e

T H eA Q U A

impL ies moV emenT

miL W A U K ee A rT

mU seU m

minD

sA A rinens T W A

T erminA L

A nimA T es T H e sT A T iC

moV emenT

normA L

D A rK

-

sT A G es

-

A sC enD s

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

eY e T rA C es sT A G es

G oT H iC

D rA W s A T T enT ion U pW A rD s

inD iA n T empL es

C A T H eD rA L s

in L iG H T

spA C es W e A re

A T T rA C T eD in D A rK

T o T H e D A rK

spA C es W e A re

A T T rA C T eD

T o T H e L iG H T

B eA C on iT

T H e V ieW er in.

D rA W s

.

resU L T

-

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

impL ies D ireC T ion

T A D A o A nD o

D rA W inG

H erZ oG

F orC e

proJ eC T s B oD iL Y

.

proJ eC T eD L ines oF

B oD iL Y

D eF iniT ion:

normA L

L ines oF

D ireC T eD

resU L T

-

T oW A rD s

reG ion.

C ommA nD inG B oD iL Y

-

F orC e C reA T e

V isU A L G rA V iT Y A

C ompression

-

T H e eY e A nD

-

moV emenT

pU sH inG

iT

-

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

eY e T rA C es T H e L ine

sH eiK H

sense oF

Y inC H U A n A rT

D ireC T ion

empH A sises reG ions D rA W inG

Z A Y eD

:

s

B riD G e

F L orenC e

iT A L Y

H iG H

T H e neW

G eH rY

Y orK

D eF iniT ion: normA L

imA G ineD A

T H roU G H

spA C e A L onG oF

-

or G esT U reD

moV emenT G U iD eD

s

B Y

A

-

reF erenC e proJ eC T

eY e T rA C es T H e L ine

-

pin B A L L eF F eC T

-

proJ eC T s B oD Y

-

:

T H e mA X X ii mU seU m G A L erie G mU rZ Y nsK A

impL ies D ireC T ion D rA W inG

Z U riC H

F orC e inT o spA C e

A C T ion C A rD s

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L sC U L pT U re: B ernini

reminisC enC e

oF

A nD

moV emenT

T H e B A roQ U e perioD

T H roU G H

A nD

moV emenT

momenT

pL A nT s A nD

D A V iD

T H roU G H

mA K inG

G roW

eV oL V e

F oC U seD

on T H eA T riC s W H ere oB J eC T s

sC U L pT U res represenT eD

oF

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T

A

F iG U rA T iV e porT rA Y A L

T H e C A pT U rinG

T H e A rT

oF

W orK s F eeL D eepL Y

A n A C T ion or

A L iV e.

L iF e- siZ e

is A

mA rB L e sC U L pT U re B Y

I A L R E A D Y K N O W S E T A N A L Y S IS

T his card set is a detailed analysis of the methods employed by various architects to create implied movement w ithin architecture.

T iG H T

:

resU L T

or inT o

roU T e

C onT inoU s L ine

F orC e

L ine oF

eV oC A T ion

T oW er

moV e, inC L U D inG

A R C H IT E C T U R E

C onF L iC T B einG

B A roQ U e sC U L pT U re

T resT L e T rA iL B riD G e

D es moines riV er

oT H er orG A nisms T H A T

G iA n L orenZ o B ernini.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

T H e sT A T U e D epiC T s T H e

impressions

B A T T L e B eT W een D A V iD G oL iA T H

W H ere D A V iD

A nD

, A

smA L L F A rmer sL A Y s T H e G iA nT W iT H

V isU A L C ompression L ines oF

F orC e

L ines oF C enT rA L

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT

repeT iT ion A nD

moV emenT

A C C eL erA T eD

A rC H iT eC T U re

oF

eY e A nD

minD

represenT s T H e A C T

rH Y T H m

D roppinG

F orC e

W H iC H

L oC A T ion eV oC A T ion oF

C reA T es V isU A L

moV emenT

F orms reminisC enT

T oW A rD s T H e C enT rA L T H e

>>>

>>>

>>>

>>>

moV emenT

>>>

>>>

V isU A L C ompression

L ines normA L

repeT iT iV e rH Y T H m A nD

A ssoC iA T ion.

T H roU G H

G rA V iT Y

reG ion. C ommA nD inG B oD iL Y

A

W A T er W H iC H

L ines oF

oF

F orC eD

T oG eT H er A L onG

C reA T U res or T H inG s T H A T

eL onG A T eD

moV e or moV e T H emseL V es

B oD Y

A nD

impL ieD

C oU pL eD

moV emenT

T H roU G H

A n

G roW T H

roU T e proJ eC T

W iT H

C H A nG e oF

minD

oF

repeT iT iV e

A C C eL erA T eD

K noW n A s G oL iA T H A

sinG L e sT one.

sT A T U e is C A pT U reD

oF

sT A T e oF

sT one inT o sT iL L

H is sL inG sH oT

rippL es,

A B oU T

G L iD e A C ross T H e F A C A D e

H e

D rA W s B A C K A nD

is

T o F ire, C reA T inG

A n impenD inG

T H e sT rU C T U re

T

in A

moT ion F rom

W H ere D A V iD

in T U rn D ispL A C es

T H e W A T er C reA T inG

inT o A

C ompression A nD

eY e A nD

eV oC A T ion K ineT iC

F orC e

C onV erG inG

moV emenT

.

G rA D U A L

rH Y T H m:

moV emenT

>>>

IT H IN

sense oF F orC e in

oF

B erninis D A V iD U F F iZ i G A L L erY

eV oC A T ion oF

T he animation or reanimation of a space or structure w hich has the ability to unleash chaos upon our senses, but in an ordered and orchestrated fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. T he elegance of this animation w ithin architecture is composed though a play of forces that push and pull you around a space or facade leading you on your ow n j ourney as it draw s you closer into its grasp, creating a sense of implied movement w ithin a structure even though it is not actually moving.

F eeL inG

A C T ion C A rD s

A ssoC iA T ion: F orms reminisC enT

W

sU spenT ion B riD G es L onD on G A T es B riD G e

pU L L s V ieW ers in C reA T es A proJ eC T eD

D ireC T ion oF

-

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T

inT ernA L C onF L iC T

-

or

F orC e

?

mU seU m

T H e mA X X ii mU seU m

F orC e

V isU A L A C C eL erA T ion

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

mU seU m

F rA nK

H A T C A R D

:

resU L T

-

is

or pU L L A W A Y

T oo. A L W A Y s in

F orC e

D ireC T ion

A C T ion C A rD s

F eeL s A siF T o L A U nC H

moV emenT

? :

spiK es C U riosiT Y

.

pU L L inG

T enT ion.

or riG iD

F oC A L poinT

-

oB J eC T G oinG A pA rT

A C C eL erA T ion T H roU G H perspeC T iV A L D isT orT ion

F orC e

siG nA L B oX

moV emenT

A C T s A s A n A T T rA C T or

-

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A C T ion C A rD s

D eF iniT ion:

C reA T es V erT iC L e

in

proporT ions

G roW T H

L ines oF

D eF iniT ion:

B U iL D inG

L iK e A

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

.

:

resU L T

-

moV emenT T H roU G H

G roW T H

T oW A rD s T H e sK Y A L T ernA T inG

C ompression D ireC T ion

:

T oW er

A C T iV A T es memorY

pL A nT s

oT H er orG A nisms T H A T

G roW

A C T ion C A rD s

L iG H T

:

nA U T iL U s sH eL L

G rA V iT A T ionA L pU L L

- 2 -

T o F oC A L poinT

G rA V iT A T ionA L F orC e

eV oC A T ion oF T H roU G H rippL es

in V A riA B L e

moV emenT

rH Y T H m

reF erenC e proJ eC T

V isU A L H A rmonY

-

W iT H

rH Y T H m: A C C eL erA T eD

repiT iT ion

C ommA nD s A T T enT ion

moV e D eF iniT ion:

C A F e

prosT H o mU seU m sH eiK H

F orC e

D ireC T ions D emA nD s menT A L A T T enT ion

sT A T iC

B U iL D inG

:

resU L T

-

T H roU G H

G rA D U A L C H A nG e oF

mU seU m

mU seU m

moV emenT

repeT iT iV e G roW T H

miC H iG A n

miL iT A rY

D enV er A rT

L Y ons reseA rC H

poL A riT ies oF

F eD erA T ion sQ U A re

C reA T es V isU A L inT riG U e D rA W inG

A nimA T es oB J eC T

-

impL ieD

roY A L onT A rio mU seU m L iB esK inD

inT o sT rU C T U re

C reA T es D ireC T ionA L A C C eL erA T ion

-

D eF iniT ion:

:

reF erenC e proJ eC T F orm C A pT U res

eY e B A C K

-

B U iL D inG

:

imposinG

V ieW ers A T T enT ion D rA W inG

inT o

proJ eC T ion inT o A

sT reeT

eV oC A T ion represenT

H sT A T iC

F orC e

proJ eC T s B oD Y

eero sA A rinen

mU seU m

H

impL ies D ireC T ion D rA W inG

-

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

-

F orm inT o

D rA W s eY e B A C K

sT rU C T U re. T H is C A n B e D one B Y

!

moV emenT

L ines in C onF L iC T

L onG

T o T H e eY es perspeC T iV e

resU L T

proJ eC T ion oF V ieW

T ooL

D emA nD s A T T enT ion proJ eC T s B oD iL Y

mU sC U L A r T ension

perspeC T iV e

D eF iniT ion:

zzz

B A L A nC es oT H er oB J eC T s C reA T es A

F U seD

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT

C reA T e L ines oF

C H inA

-

A n oB J eC T

or mA T eriA L A U T omA T iC A L L Y

A T T enT ion

G rA V iT Y

D eF iniT ion:

Y inC H U A n A rT

resU L T

-

pH Y siC A L

mA ss or siZ e oF

D imensionA L pL A ne

D imensionA L pL A ne

proJ eC T inG

W

T he w her mov w ork pow e w as and arch

>

moV emenT

M O D U L A R

I s a scale of proportions created by architect L e C orbusier, to rectify the visual conflict betw een the incompatible I mperial and the M etric system.

G othic ecclesiastical architecture, like C lassical architecture, represents a calculated geometrical system of proportions. B ut instead of disrupting its masses horizontally, it distributes them vertically, stacking one upon the other, accelerating the eye upw ards. P ossessing a strong sense of upw ard movement ( E yre 2 0 0 1 ) T his effect w as employed to empow er the occupant w ith the presence of god.

B oD Y

M O V E M E N T

A C C

e have no direct access to our phy determined by multiple things in the w colour the space betw een us and tho of the light that falls on the eye, this T herefore meaning w e can trick the e and illumination, animating the space

T H E O R Y

T he law of visual reconstruction. A series of law s based on how the mind reconstructs obj ects in groups based on their visual properties.

pL A n

IM P L IE D

D IR E C T

W

( H ight 2 0 0 8 , 6 5 )

G E S T A L T

T H E

T hroughout the ages many various building techniq ues have been adopted. E ach having strong ties to the era in w hich it w as created. F or example V itruvius and his system of proportions during the R enaissance, T he G reeks and their harmony of optical illusions to perfect their buildings and now in the 2 1 st century w e are presented w ith a rapidly emerging techniq ue symbolic of our time. I mplied movement w ithin architecture, a symbol of our fast passed forever moving society.

IN S T A B IL IT Y

M O D E R N A R C H IT E C T U R E A N A T T E M P T T O B R E A K F R O F T H E V IT R U V IA N B O D Y

D escribed as being the principal source of proportion among the C lassical orders of architecture and the ideal proportions for the human body.

B U IL D IN G

A N D

hen looking at an obj ect the mind categorizes the obj ects into stable or instable obj ects, the simple rotation of an obj ect compared to a flat obj ect can make it feel unstable and instantly draw attention to itself. W hich spills over to convey movement. T his is w hy symmetry is so attractive to the human eye. ( D eregow ski 1 9 8 4 , 6 5 )

>>

T H E

V IS U A L W

e are able to convert tw o dimensional sensations of a scene on our retina into a three dimensional experience of perception. T his depends on using certain depth cues w hich allow s our brain to reconstruct the information into a readable form. ( R ookes 2 0 1 3 , 3 7 )

>

M IN D

T he mind is an unusual and complicated organ. I t transfers information from our eyes interprets it and sends it to our brain, making us feel or react differently to the events or obj ects w e are w itnessing. W ithin this section w e w ill explore how the mind w orks and w hy does our mind react in this w ay w hen w e lay on our eyes on a building that is actually static but gives off the impression that it is moving? W hy does the line have so much pow er in our mind?

P E R C IE V E T H E W O R L D A N D S O A C C U R E T L Y ?

W

>>

T H E

H O W D O W E S O Q U IC K L Y

1 G esT U res

2 eV oC A T ion oF

W inG s openinG

3 T oF L Y

reminisC enT

B irD

G esT U res

perspeC T iV e

eL eV A T ion: rH Y T H m repeT iT ion

pL A n

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com G esT U res

B riD G e in eL eV A T ion

rH Y T H m repeT iT ion A nD

roT A T ion

impressions

G esT U res

G esT U res

D E C O N S T R U C T IV IS M

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

B ernini’ s D A V iD

G E O M E T R IC

G esT U res

S T R U

Anti-form, Anti-structure, Anti-hierarchy, all that architecture typically is not ( B ernard 7 0 ) D ominated by curvilinear shapes, w hich disturb and dislocate the skeleton of the obj ect. T he structure of the building has a feeling of controlled chaos and stimulating unpredictability.

W

H O T H IS

IS A D V O C A T IN G F O R T Y P E O F A R C H IC T U R E ?

H A N I R A S H ID

( A S Y M P T O T E )

F R A N K

P E T E R

G E H R Y

E IS E N M A N

W

ithin the practice of architecture their are many individuals w ho have discovered and exploited this highly under utilized techniq ue. W ithin this section w e shall be looking at w ho they are? W hat are their methodologies and w hy?

P O S T

D IG IT A L A G E

M E T H O D O L O G IE S

E L E C T R IF IE D C U L T U R E B E C O M IN G A M E T H O D F O R A R C H IT E C T U R A L E X P L O R A T IO N ( G alofaro, 4 2 )

S P A C E

IMPLIED MOVEMENT. R E S E AR C H

M AP

A C T IV A T IO N

I t is clear that implied movement w ithin architecture can be used as an attracting device as our mind is instantly captured by its complexity and j uxtaposition. C an these techniq ues that break the confines of perceptual reality bring life to dormant spaces w ithin city scapes, reactivating the area and bring new purpose and social interaction?

C U L T U R A L

M IS S E D B Y I AI N

B IC K N E L L

| 1 4 8 4 4 7 8 4

S H IF T

N ew cultural shift due large amounts of readily available information be transfered around the globe due to advancements in technology in this new technological age. F orcing architecture to rethink its condition. ( R ackard 2 0 1 3 )

O P P O R T U N IT Y

A new frontier of architecture is upon us due to the freedom of the digital w orld, allow ing us the literally defy the law s of physics and gravity, blurring the lines betw een floor, w all and roof, creating a new spatial typology w hich is constantly evolving. Y et architects prefer to criticise this new method of expression and hold onto the methods of the past j ust like they did during the N eoclassical period. T here is an opportunity here for a new limitless spacial typologies of movement and expression that is being represented as little more than a sham.

F

D IG IT IZ A T IO N Asymptote pursue formal and perceptual shifts that are now possible through digitization as w ell as the sociopolitical and phenomenological possibilities for new spatial conditions available due to these shifts. T heir initiative is based on parameters of displacement and transfer, w here architecture becomes action, space a relinq uishment of control and the ever implicated body, either a shield or a force-field as opposed to a vector or a presence ( R ashid 1 9 9 9 ) .

R

E

N

E

T

I C

I S

M

/ P

E

R

F rank G ehry attempts to free his typological constraints into an unp of configuration. H is w orks take u transformation and evolution. W he never static it is alw ays progressing based on deconstuctivism w here by confines of normal architectural pra for w ays to constantly alter the pe structures as one moves aroun complex shapes and structure tha time through sophisticated 3 D mod ( F ranseco 1 9 9 8 , 9 )

T E C H N O L O G Y

A L L O W

N ew advancements in C AD ( computer aided design) architects are no lon of endless possibilities has been opened to them through this new techno the rules can be bent and broken. G iving architects the ability to create human mind could not of imagined w ithout the aid of the digital softw are

E V E R Y T H IN G M O V E S Y E T W E D E S IG N E V E R Y T H IN G S T A T IC T he architecture once again is caught in the confines of w hat it know s and resists change into architectures new formation of limitless experimentation and possibility. I t w ould rather hold onto the classical system of the old, then delve into a new frontier of expression, discovery and experimentation.

N

A ne Ar tu


E S S

T O

O U R

P H Y S IC A L

W

O R L D

O T H E R

T H A N

W

H A T IF W E D IS T O R T T H E M IN D S D E P T H P E R C E P T IO N ? W H A T C A N B E A C H IE V E D ?

T H R O U G H

ysical w orld other than through our senses and the light that falls on our eyes is orld, not only by the colour of obj ects, but the colour of their illumination and the ose obj ects. Y ou vary any one of those parameters and you’ ll change the colour means that the same image can have an infinite number of rail road possibilities. eye into seeing multiple things in one space j ust through the adj ustment of colour e ( lotto 2 0 0 9 ) .

D E C O N S T R U C T IV IS T A R C H IT E C T U R E A N D F R E E D O M O F D E S IG N IN D IG IT A L E N V IR O N M E N T R E D E F IN IN G W H A T O U R M IN D S P E R C E IV E S A S N O R M A L IT Y ? I f our mind calculates w hat w e see from experience and is rooted in the law s of physics and gravity, then buildings that blur the line betw een these tw o are challenging our minds sense of normality throw ing our senses into disarray?

D epth perception is the w ay the eye turns a tw o dimensional reading of a space into a 3 D image for the brain.

IS E E

T R I P R O T E N D E S T he P enrise I mpossible T raingle. I ts shape is infinite. T urning back on its self and continously changing. Y ou mind is draw n to this because it is a mathmatically organism and is constantly trying to make sense of its form. ( D esolneux 2 0 0 8 , 1 7 )

V anishing P oint - 3 D interpritation of the mind ( D esolneux 2 0 0 8 , 1 7 ) .

R O Q U E

B alance by d i r e c t i o n F O rC e A re P O W erF uL

eD ges, sH A P es A N D B e useD A

tO

A

IN

turN

D I reC tI O N A L

tO

O F

eF F eC t C A N

use O F L I gH tI N g A N D

A

H eA V I er A reA

A

tO

tH rO ugH

sM A L L

sH A P e.

tH e L I gH ter O N e. tH ese

B e F urtH er eN H A N C eD

sH A D O W s tO

P o s itio n B alance by

B alance by

D I ssI M I L A r O B J eC ts C A N

F rO M

B A L A N C I N g O ut tH e L A rger O B J eC t F O C us O N

complexity

B alance by

guI D I N g tH e eY e.

tO O L s I N

C O M B I N A tI O N

D I reC t tH e eY e A W A Y

L I gH ter A reA

A s tH e eY e I s F O rC eD

C O M P L I C A teD A L sO

C O M P L I C A teD A rO uN D

tH e

I t.

A

sH A P e C A N

B A L A N C e A

L A rge sI M P L e sH A P e I F

A reA

O F

M A N Y

sH A P es C A N

tH e P erC eI V eD

L A rge sI M P L e

P L A C eD

W I tH I N

A

IF

B A L A N C e tH e sH A P es

A

L A rger H eA V Y

O B J eC t rests O N

tH e C eN tre L I N e O F

C reA tes V I suA L A

tH

sC eN e A sM A L L er O B J eC t set F urtH er A W A Y W I L L A utO M A tI C A L L Y B A L A N C e tH e L A rger O B J eC ts M A ss.

eN H A N C e tH e eD ge C O N D I tI O N

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

H E IN G IL L A T I

M IN D S . IN H E R E N T U S IO N S A N D O N

T he I mpossible P enrose F ork. D ue to our B inocular P erception ( tw o eyes) our vision is slightly distorted and the eye can see tw o obj ects that dont make sense. C onstantly trying over and over again to stabalise the image, creating a tention betw een both eyes. H ide one side w ith one hand and then the other to see the variation ( D esolneux 2 0 0 8 ,1 7 ) .

B aroq ue period w as focused on a rhetorical display of theatrics reby obj ects and sculptures represented a figurative portrayal of ement through the capturing of an action or moment making the art ks feel deeply alive. T his techniq ue w as used to express the devine er of the C atholic C hurch and its absolutist state . I ts Architecture characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow dramatic intensity ( W ikipedia 2 0 0 8 ) , animating its spaces giving hitecture new life.

L I N es O F

C K IN G T G R A M M S IO N IN T A B IL IZ

P H Y sI C A L

M A S S M A ss O F

I N terest A N D

e grA V I tA tI O N A L

F rO M

P uL L

A N D

A N

O B J eC t A utO M A tI C A L L Y

tO W A rD s I ts M A ss.

grA V I tY

M A ss C A N

O tH er D I ssI M I L A r O B J eC ts O F

B A L A N C I N g tH e sC eN e.

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

A tteN tI O N

A W A Y

L ess I M P O rtA N C e I N

D rA W

turN

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

proJ eC T ion

miL iT A rY

D A nieL L iB esK inD

B iB L ioT eC A

mU seU m

L A U renZ iA nA

sT A ir C A se

miC H A eL A nG eL o

T H e mA X X ii mU seU m Z A H A

H eL iX

H A D iD

iT A L Y

G A L erie G mU rZ Y nsK A eX H iB iT ion Z A H A

sT A ir C A se: T H e V A T iC A n

H A D iD

Z U riC H sH eiK H A B U

D H A B i

Z A Y eD

B riD G e

sY sT em oF

proporT ions

sY sT em oF

proporT ions

C L A ssiC

V s G oT H iC

D A nieL L iB esK inD

oriG inA L sT rU C T U re H oriZ onT A L D isT riB U T ion oF

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

F orC es

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

impressions

impressions

-

proJ eC T ion oF

C onF L iC T inG

imA G ineD moV emenT

A D D iT ion

C reA T eD mA K inG

>>

>

oriG inA L

A

F A miL iA r sT A irC A se W H iC H

B Y

L A rV A

B Y

A

D oW nW A rD

sT eps W H iC H

B U L G e A nD

sU rG e

or inT o A

D isT orT A

reL A T iV e T o normA L sT A irs,

T H e sT A ir C A se in A F L oW inG

W A Y

T oW A rD s Y oU

.

roU T e.

moV emenT

or G esT U reD

>>>

moV emenT

sC reW inG

spA C e A L onG

oF

represenT

eY e A nD

C onT orT ion oF

minD

L ines oF

F orm

C L A ssiC

F orC e

F orC e F U seD

W iT H

impL ieD

perspeC T iV A L moV emenT

T H e

A nD

T U rninG

F orm T W isT inG

A roU nD

V isU A L D imension onT o A n

inC reA sinG

eX isT inG

A C C eL erA T ion

D imensionA L pL A ne

A nD F L oW

A nD

oB J eC T s

D eC reA sinG

H A D iD s H A s mA ppeD U seD

iT

T H e eX isT inG

>>

L ines oF

F L oW

.

D ireC T

T H e F L oW

T H e B U iL D inG W H iC H

F orC e proJ eC T inG

oF

peopL e T rA F F iC

moV es in A iT s H A L L s B Y moV emenT

C A L C U L A T eD

mA ssiV e H A nG inG

.

>

>

A s

>

G esT U res

G esT U res

impressions

>>>

T H roU G H

L ineA r F A sH ion A s

C irC U L A T e T H e mU seU m A C T inG B oD iL Y

D IS C O V E R Y F rom the points discussed, architecture is clearly moving into a new direction. O ne that breaks the confines of the C artesian box and the V itruvian system of proportions and delves deep into the unknow n w orld of limitless spacial diversity and creation. As technology has advanced, so has our understanding and manipulation of space. B ut w hy so much resistance? W h y d o w e c o n t i n u e t o d e s i g n s t r u c t u r e s t h a t f o l l o w r u l e s s e t d o w n i n a t im e w h e n t h e c u lt u r a l c h a lle n g e s w e r e e n t ir e ly d if f e r e n t t o t h e o n e s w e f a c e n o w ? B ecause architecture essentially is a product of its time, a response to the challenges of that era, so w hy are w e using a solution that is almost 5 decades old? . I t is evident that the old model of architecture it beginning to show its constraints w hen dealing w ith the post digital era of man and that new architectural systems and typologies are needed in order to embrace this cultural shift tow ards a fast paced society of free flow ing information. T he deconstructivist style is clearly an attempt to embrace this new shift. I mplied movement w ithin architecture is a by product of this new style, because as w e start to break the geometric norm, our mind is throw n into disarray, as these shapes break the minds sense of normality, forcing it to constantly recalculate w hat it sees as w hat it is view ing does not fit any know n order or proportion, in turn give the structures life and energy, moreover giving them the illusion of movement. T his by product of deconstructivism is clearly under utilized in our cities today, as it has the potential to reactivate spaces and draw people into a space purely through its visual complexity as an attractor. W h y d e s i g n a c i t y w i t h s t a t i c f o r m s , w h e n t h i s c i t y i t s e l f i s f r e e f l o w i n g a n d a l i v e ? A opportunity to create a new form of architectural typology that better represents the culture of our time is evidently upon the architectural profession.

>>>

pA T T erns oF T H e siT e

T o C reA T e T H e B A sis F or H er D esiG n. T H e pA T H s oF

D isC oV ereD T H e B U iL D inG

peopL e A re D rA W n A roU nD L oU V ers on T H e rooF A

D eL ineA T inG

>

oU T

>>>

moT ion T H roU G H

C onT orT ion oF

T o C reA T e A noT H er

F rom T H e

N E W E R A O F S P A T IA L D IV E R S IT Y

V s G oT H iC

C enT rA L A X is Z A H A

emerG enC e

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

L ines oF

B Y

moT ion W H iC H

proJ eC T s A W A Y

oB serV er T H roU G H

seC T ionA L proF iL e

G esT U res

is impL ieD

T H e H eL iX ’ s C L oC K W ise

T H roU G H

B U L G e

A D D iT ion

C T U R E

perspeC T iV A L D isT orT ion

T orsion

H eL iX

>>> miC H A eL A nG eL os sT A ir C A se C onT A ins T H e D Y nA miC s oF

oU T W A rD

A D D iT ion

H A nD eD

F orm

G eomeT rY

is C ompL emenT eD

oriG inA L

C U rV A T U re A nD T H e riG H T

>>>

T H roU G H

A noT H er

moV emenT

spA C e

>>>

>>>

oF

B oD iL Y

T H roU G H

G roW inG

spirA L

-

riG H T

H A nD eD

H eL iX

-

risinG

F orC e

G esT U res

D imension

1

D imension

2

>>> F U seD

D imension

D E S T A B IL IZ A T IO N

G esT U res

sT one A C ross W A T er

-

>>> C U rV A T U re

V eL oC iT Y

>

G esT U res

G eomeT riC

sY sT em oF

D isT riB U T ion oF

proporT ions

T ensionA L F orC es

>>>

moV emenT oU T

moV emenT

>>>

perC epT ion oF

proJ eC T eD

F L oW

>>>

A V isU A L D isT orT ion sU rG e A nD

contact: iain.bicknell@gmail.com

G esT U res

F R A G M E N T A T IO N O riginating from the avant-garde, S uprematist movement. N amely an R ussian artist by the name of K azimir M alevich w ho w as a pioneer of abstract art, interested in E xploding compositions, how space might erupt from the ground and how planes might intersect, fragmenting geometry and essentioally breaking it releasing it from its constraints ( Y entob 2 0 1 3 ) . A techniq ue clearly adopted by the deconstructivist movement of fragmenting geometry and space.

C

D A N IE L

E

P

T

I O

N

s buildings from recedented kind up a process of ere the form is g. H is method is y he divorces the actice. S earching erception of his nd it. C reating at represent the deling softw are.

IN G

L IB E S K IN D

M O R P H IN G /D E S T A B IL IZ A T IO N E isenman uses a techniq ue know n as morphing w hich is used in contemporary cinema, to transform the perception of tw o figures. E isenman use this techniq ue in an attempt to destabilize the general notion of cortesion space w here each obj ect has a clear and precise form. B reaking free from the geometric limitations and architectural proportions and constraints through the use of virtualisation. ( G alofaro, 4 1 )

C R E A T IV E

F R E E D O M

A R C H IT E C T U R A L

IS .T S U R U M A K I.L E W

IS

Z A H A

( L T L )

F R A G M E N T /D E C O N S T R U C T IO N

L ibeskind is another deconstructivist at heart. H e attempts to break the boundaries of the old V itruvian constraints yet still pays tribute to them by attempting to create a melding of the tw o. H e states that he w ishes to build dynamic spaces that invite the visitor even before entering. T his is done through the use of his distinct angular and complex non standard geometric shapes, typical of a deconstructivist architect ( G oldberger 2 0 0 8 , 3 4 4 )

C U R IO S IT Y /O P T IC A L

IL L U S IO N S

C uriosity is a central component of L T L as it plays an consistent and operative role in their proj ects. U sing constraints and limitations as reasons for design intervention and invention. T hrough out all their proj ects the play on the minds inability to resist the peculiar or the interesting is clearly evident as they creating optical paradoxes that seduce view ers and draw them around their spaces.

H A D ID

T H O M

M A Y N E

B E R N A R D

( M O R P H O S IS )

P A R A M E T R IC IS M /F L U ID IT Y / F L O W F ree follow ing organic forms that break the rigid conservative styles of the past, free & light, defying gravity. taking its q ues from nature in the w ay it evolves and deals w ith complexity. “ let it b e free, let it flow”. coined by Z aha as M odern B aroq ue, F luid B aroq ue. ( Y entob 2 0 1 3 )

A R C H IT E C T U R E

IS

A

P R O D U C T

T S C H U M I

T R A N S F O R M A T IO N /J U X T A P O S E D

M orphosis signifies a process of forming or being in formation. R eflecting a w illingness to embrace sculptural shapes and the sensation of movement ( arcspace) . M orphosis is a deconsrtuctivist architect w ho utilizes platonic geometries w hich are attacked, fragmented, altered and j uxtaposed. C onveying an implicit notion of future architecture and incompleteness of form ( M ayne, 1 0 ) .

O F

IT S

C IN E M A T IC

S U P E R IM P O S IT IO N

T schumis concept is based around the notion of “space, event and movement” resulting in a layering of superimposed points lines and planes reflecting a new concept of interacting layers. H is deconstructivist style allow ed for a new form of urbanism depicting theatrical spaces w hich accentuated the idea of movement. ( B ure 2 0 0 8 , 4 8 )

T IM E

Architecture is undeniably tied to the period in w hich it is created. T he cultural shifts, economic and technological advancement pave the w ay for the architecture of its time. F or example B aroq ue architecture speaks of the pow er of god and the church and is theatrical in nature, depicting acts of legend such as H ercules and G oliath frozen in motion but forever moving. Architecture today is faced w ith an era of rapid sharing of information and know ledge, highw ays and travel. A w orld surrounded by economic and technological advancement w hich presents new forms of cultural issues, that w ere not there in the past resulting in a new form of architectural solution. T his architectural solution is now open to the tools of its time. T he age of unparalleled creative freedom in the three dimension realm of digital design.

nger constrained to the rules of the old w orld. A new w orld ology. N o longer bound by the law s of physics and gravity, e organic and evolving forms in such complexity that the e such as parametric tools.

E W

L E W

H Y B R ID

M elding of the V itruvian system of proportions and the freedom of spatial diversity in these ew deconstructivist complex forms, is possible yet architects resist stepping into the unknow n. rchitects such has H ani R ashid, acknow ledge this melding of the tw o schools of thought and urn it into a new form free flow ing architectural expression.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

1 1 7


Nano Imprinting Natures Textures Moth eye textures printed directly onto a film producing 10x better anti reflective films than that of commercial chemically produced ones.

BIO-MIMETICS

Healing Plastics And Circuitry new materials are being manufactured that heal themselves based on the bodies ability to heal scratches and cuts.

BIO-MIMICRY

Underwater

FACILITIES MULTITUDE OF TRANSPORT OPTIONS ENGAGES WITH URBAN,LAND & WATER ECOLOGIES ADVANCED TYPOLOGY AND PROGRAM GLOBAL RECOGNITION

TE SI

• • • •

SEEKS ATTENTIONS FOR ALL ANGLES EXPOSED TO ALL POSSIBLE CONDITIONS LANDMARK STYLED LOCATION MAXIMISED LINES OF SITE

ES AG T AN V AD

Anzac Monument

- NERI OXMAN (MIT)

- IAIN BICKNELL

• Behaviour: Is based on a sensory response to conditions imposed upon the body forcing a change or response. • Form: Is beyond just geometric shapes and representative constructs, but is expressive of life, its behaviour and responses to imposed conditions.

“Design behaviour rather than form”

• • • •

ERSIBLE LANDSCAPE

City

Perth

Focal Centre

St

South Perth Foreshore

y

Qua

le

ast

Wat erba nk

Power Plant

V

LAR

GE ST RU CT U

RE

VERTICA L LA ND SC AP E

CBD

Site Location: Swan River centre of vision axis

beth

Eliza

k

Lin

e

dg

bri

rth

No

wc

Ne

I

TURE

Incoming/outgoing Freeway

VISUAL STIMULI

L

SITE CONDITIONS

Anzac Memorial

Riverside Drive

Incoming/outgoing Air Traffic

South Perth Foreshore

Bali Memorial

Kings Park Perth

VANTAGE POINTS

Subiaco Link

PERTH CBD NARRATIVE TENSION ANALYSIS SCALE 1:20000

A

IES

SUBM

S TR U C

ED IFI UN

OG OL EC

A LL SM wind

liver

immune system

skin

brain

adaptation production barrier.filter. self sufficient storage of contract.expand. energy vital nutrients: adapt.breath. respond reproduction energy

reproductive system

kidneys

nervous system

response to stimuli (site, eco)

rain

lungs

muscles

skin tensile response

storms

exo structure

skeletal system

endo structure

blood

eyes

information symbiotic nutrient relationship absorption

intestines

ears

internal circulation system

heart

stomach

nutrient production processing

river ecology

boat

walking

swimming

ferry

helicopter

diving

bike

jet ski

kayak

car

Iconic Building Landmark Location Opportunity

response to stimuli (site, eco)

land ecology

metadata learning network

tidal changes

varying speeds

FLIGHT PATH

LINKAGES

TENSION ZONES

SITE LINES

PRIMARY INFRASTRUCTURE

MAJOR CBD DEVELOPMENTS

LEGEND

ventilation apparatuses

TRANSPORT OPPORTUNITIES

E

waste science prog. cerebral recycling heal. replace. neural net re-use system upgrade (info adapt)

sun exposure

Stadium

SITE CONDITIONS

ALIVE ARCHITECTURE


Mu s t

80%

10%

30%

50%

ort n sp ra

r po

ry ra

m eu Non-Favourable • Restrictive program • Varied activity levels • Small to medium structure • Basic technological req. • Linear Typology

• • • • • •

• Restrictive program • Linear typology • Small Structure • Basic technological req.

High level of activity Facilitator of movement Public facility Cultural necessity Node Structure

Non-Favourable

• Restrictive program • Linear typology • Small to medium structure • Large land area req.

• • • • •

High level of activity Facilitator of movement Public facility Cultural necessity Node structure Increases infrastructure

Favourable

• • • • • •

Non-Favourable

• Restrictive program • Linear arrangement • Small to medium structure • Low pedestrian traffic • Basic technological req.

• Educational facility • Civic centre/public access

Favourable

Non-Favourable

Favourable

Expressive form Creativity focused Civic Centre/ Public access Iconic building Tourist location High activity (on event)

Favourable

Optimal Performance Moderate Performance Limited Performance

C ng

d

e

h

ity

Us

Arc

t

us

or

100%

100%

80%

60%

E-Skin Researchers from the University of California have created the first ‘electronic skin’ that responds to touch and pressure. The bendy e-skin could be used to give robots a sense of touch.

Legend

ROBOTICS

GENETIC ENGINEERING Cyborg Flesh Bio-engineers at Harvard University have created the first examples of cyborg tissue: Neurons, heart cells, muscle, and blood vessels that are interwoven by nano wires and transistors

IBM Watson - Cognitive System Watson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Liquid Solar Cells Researchers at USC developed technology utilizing nanochristals to produce cheap and stable solar cells that may be printed on clear surfaces or stay as liquid ink.

Nano-Particles A nanoparticle wrapped in a red blood cell membrane can remove toxins from the body and could be used to fight bacterial infections,

Graphene Carbon based material 10x stronger than steel with a multitude of applications such as zero energy filtration devices and flexible hardware.

RELATED DISCIPLINES

P

NS O ITI

FIN

C

IN SE Highly complex program Abundance of technologies Alive city model Diverse spacial requirements Large demographic of people Self sufficient Iconic

• Hierarchy issues • Exposed to all elements

W LO

GH HI MP CO

Y XIT

ITY

LE

NS TE IN

c ite

rce

ture

me m

er ow lT

el ot

70%

80%

80%

70%

Organisation Metabolism Growth Adaptation Response Reproduction Homeostasis

ATTRIBUTES Non-Favourable

SK E LE

TA L

• Facilitator of movement • Low complexity • Mobile • Arc typology

• Basic program • Basic technological req. • Linear typology • Small structure

Non-Favourable

• Not publicly accessible • Not a tourist location • Linear typology • Basic program • Activity based on working hours

• Medium to large structure • High activity level (time based) • Technology Rich • Increases infrastructure

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• Restrictive program • Linear typology • Basic technological req.

• Creates Infrastructure • Iconic Structure • High Population Density • Symbiosis

Favourable

Non-Favourable

Favourable

• Tourist Location • Basic program • High population capacity • Basic technological req. • Glorified internally and externally • Linear typology • Small to large structure

Favourable

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

7 Laws of Biology

‘Alive’ Architecture An Sophisticated Architectural Typology

EX O

C on vili

on

t cer

s Art al/

um di

Pa

70%

60%

10%

40%

IV AL

N

ST

SY

EM

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req. Small to medium structure

Non-Favourable Arts facility Expressive form Civic Centre/ Public access Tourist location Cultural centre Facilitator of movement High activity (on event)

• • • • • • •

• Restrictive program • Varied activity levels • Basic technological req. • Small to medium structure

Non-Favourable

Favourable

• Expressive form • Creativity focused • Civic centre/ Public access • Iconic building • Tourist location

Favourable

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req. Linear typology

Non-Favourable • • • • • •

Tourist Location Cultural centre Facilitator of movement High activity (on event) Medium to large structure Civic Centre/ Public access

Favourable

Restrictive program Varied activity levels Small to medium structure Event based Transient internal program Basic technological req.

Non-Favourable • Tourist location • Iconic building • Expressive form • Civic Centre/ Public access • High activity (on event)

‘ALIVENESS’ SAMPLES

Favourable

GA

R EO

WEEK 4 INTERIM PRESENTATION

• • • • • • •

Non-Favourable

• Complex external program • Complex internal program

• Facilitate an abundance of uses • Activated throughout the week • Technology Rich • Flexible • Site activator

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• Program specific • Complexity issues

Favourable

Non-Favourable

• Iconic Structure • Dual typology • Complex program • Varied scales • Dual Site

• Restrictive program • Linear typology • Noise • Pollution • Major commercial

• Transport node • High level of activity • Increased infrastructure • Large structure

Favourable

Non-Favourable

Favourable

1. To give motion to; 2. To give life; make alive; “god animated the dust”

Definition of Animate

1. Legal: Existence as an animate object 2. In a state of action; in force or operation: active 3. Having the quality of life: vivid, vibrant

Definition of Life/Alive

DE

T

LETAL SKE ENDO

NANO-TECHNOLOGY

Lib Ai r T

Pu b lic

H

en tia Resid o Office /C

Ar ch

Amph ibi o

Mi xe Flo at i

NC E

MAM MAL

INTE LLI GE

Ship

Exp o St a

Cu lt u r

ITY EX PL

Organ Growth from own Stem Cells Hannah Warren is the youngest person in history to receive a bioengineered organ transplant, a new windpipe made of a synthetic scaffold and her own stem cells.

M

BIO-ENGINEERING

O

IDEAL TYPOLOGIES BASED ON SITE /C

H Thea tre

N IA

HI G Evocation

Muscular Tension

er

nt Pla

rch

n

ea es

tio

al pit

70%

90%

50%

20%

• • • • •

• Restrictive program • Linear typology • Major commercial • Noise

Non-Favourable

IAIN BICKNELL | 14844784

High level of activity Self Sufficient Sustainable Facilitates reproduction Increases infrastructure

Favourable

• Technology rich • Not publicly accessible • Complex program • Safety issues • Actuator of structures philosophy • Varied activity levels • Enables building to be used for ongoing experiments • Maintains/heals buildings ecology • Increased life expectancy • Innovator of technology • Small to large structure

Non-Favourable

Highly complex program • Standardised learning spaces Abundance of technologies • Small to medium structure Actuator of structures philosophy • Generally not a tourist attraction Diverse spacial requirements • Not iconic Large demographic of people • Not public facility Increases infrastructure

Favourable

• • • • • •

Non-Favourable

• Restrictive program • Highly complex • Ethical Issues • Fixed codes

Favourable

Non-Favourable • Large structure • Biologically focused • Increases infrastructure • Technology rich • Diverse spacial req.

Elasticity

Virus

Projection

Membrane

Line Force

Favourable

Geometric Transcendence

ca

s

Ho

AM PH IB u

LO

ENSITY W INT Ed

NISM ORGA Scien ce /R

RID Hydro po w

H YB

119


“COMPLEXITY THAT CALLS FOR SIMPLICITY. ITS LIKE MAGIC, EVERYONE EXPECTS IT TO BE COMPLEX BUT THE ILLUSION IS DISTRACTION”

THIS PROVIDES THE COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT TO FACILITATE CREATIVE THINKING AND PROCESS

PROGRAM

MATERIALS

Artificial Intelligence

Bio-Mimicry

Nano Film Solar Cells

Bio-Mimetics

Genetic Engineering

Shape Memory Alloy

Nano Technology

Research Facility

NANO-TECHNOLOGY BIO-MIMICRY BIO-MIMETICS BIO-ENGINEERING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE GENETIC ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY ROBOTICS/BIONICS

cerebral waste science prog. recycling heal. replace. neural net (info adapt) re-use system upgrade

response to stimuli (site, eco)

skin tensile response

endo structure

BRA

metadata learning network

response to stimuli (site, eco)

nutrient production processing

ears

eyes

stomach

intestines

blood

heart

Bionics Robotics

Bio Engineering

Electro Active Polymer

“All the problems of the world could be settled easily if men were only willing to think.”

HUMAN ANATOMY

DISCIPLINES

kidneys

immune system

brain

reproductive system

liver

skin

muscles

REPRODUCTION Development of new tech based on acquired data and research

Thermochromic Polymer

LIVING Field testing

ECDYSIS Removal of redundant tech

SYSTEMS

nervous system

lungs

skeletal system

ventilation Apparatuses

exo structure

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech Sensory E-Skin

Graphene

The multi-disciplinary research facility will follow a collaborative program where all will aid in the accelerated development of areas in their respected fields using the structure as a test bed for their research and findings. Acting as the structures responsive immune system. It will heal, it will grow, it will evolve, it will age.

adaptation production barrier.filter. self sufficient storage of contract.expand. energy vital nutrients: adapt.breath. respond reproduction energy

information symbiotic relationship nutrient absorption

internal circulation system

SELECTED FOCUS science prog. heal. replace. upgrade

RIVER RIVER REHABILITATION Due to the lack of oxygen on the river bed resulting in mercy waters and lack of vegetation and aquatic life, air will be pumped into the water around the structure in turn aerating the water and providing a sound environment for flora and fauna to grow. This will inturn create a new habitat around the structure. Some where to view this beautiful underwater ecology as well as support river life

SITE CONDITIONS

1. Low waters are hypoxic - low oxygen meaning very little life sometimes even anoxic meaning no oxygen - no life, This decomposes organic matter releasing nutrients causing toxic blue green algae bloom. 2. River was named after the famous Black Swan 3. iver has two currents fresh water flowing over the top and denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom 4. Algae comes in the summer months killing aquatic fauna and forna by starving them of oxygen. High levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae. 5. Parts of the river were reclaimed and dredged due to flooding and marshy mosquito infested land.

storms

tidal changes

land ecology

river ecology

sun exposure

wind

rain

algae

Conditions in which structure must respond

ALL RESPONSES + INFO RELAYED TO THE BRAIN

SKIN LAWS Behavior: Is based on a sensory response to conditions imposed upon the body forcing a change or response.

barrier.filter. contract.expand. adapt.breath. respond

PROGRAM CURRENT SITUATION

cerebral neural net (info adapt)

BODY’S LARGEST ORGAN skin

Form: Is beyond just geometric shapes and representative constructs, but is expressive of life, its behavior and responses to imposed conditions.

PROPOSED SOLUTION

Muddy Polluted water

Toxic blue green algae bloom

Aeration of water around site

Allows for growth of natural fauna

Lack of aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

Destruction of Natural Aquatic life

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

Allows for public enjoyment of the Swan River

Structure

PROGRAM

ADAPTABLE SKIN HYBRID Scales: Barrier Protection Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

HUMAN SKIN 1. supple membrane composed of three layers -- the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis -- that work in support of one another 2. The epidermis thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one. serves as our armor against infections and diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its color 3. oldest skin cells are shed to make room for the younger ones that lie beneath them. But unlike snakes, we shed our skin gradually 4. The dermis is full of collagen, which gives your skin its firmness, contains sweat glands and hair follicles. contains nerve endings that allow you to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is body’ s own smoke detector 5. innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue, wonderful stuff that insulates our body and controls its temperature. 6. sebum a substance that shields our epidermis from the elements. oils and secrets that coat the skin. 7. Skin cells called keratinocytes determine skin colour - absorbs harmful UV raise. Dark skin is less susceptible to burning.

Energy: Nano film Solar ells

The skin of the building replicates the functions of human skin which consists of 5 distinct programs with specific functions. The skin reflects the 3 separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to imposed conditions such as light, wind, rain and touch. The skin will also act as the buildings solar energy source, harvesting energy throughout the day. The skin when in a static position of rest should reflect the principles of implied movement actively animating the structure. As the skin is polymer based it will stretch and crease just like human skin once stress is applied to it from the internal structure reacting to wind conditions.

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer

“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” AIR CELL MEMBRANE

LAND CELL MEMBRANE

A L I V E “Design behavior rather than form”

WATER CELL MEMBRANE

BMW GINA MOVEABLE SKIN MADE OF POLYURETHANE COATED LYCRA WITH INTERNAL MOVING ENDO SKELETON

ECOLOGIES

Wrinkle

Bend

Stretch

MIXED USE

RETAIL

OFFICE

ENERGY EXTREME UV hite Tint eflector

Front

GENERAL PROGRAM

SMOOTH TRANSITIONS MUSCLE TO TENDON TENDON TO BONE

RESILIENT SKIN

Compress

NERVOUS SYSTEM RUNS THROUGH THE SPINAL CORD OF THE BUILDING AND TO THE SKIN AND BRAIN. BRAIN RECORDS STIMULI AND ACTUATES APPROPRIATE RESPONSE.

1. LAND ECOLOGY 2. AIR ECOLOGY 3. RIVER ECOLOGY

SCALE MOTION

TRANSITIONAL SKIN

- Charles Darwin

REFERENCE

Side

skeletal system

NERVOUS SYSYEM

Aeration System

SKIN VARIATIONS TO REFLECT DIFFERENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

nervous system

INTERRELATED SYSTEMS

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

GEOTHERMAL POWER WIND POWER BIO FUEL (ALGAE) SOLAR ENERGY

HOTEL

CULTURAL CENTRE

RESEARCH FACILITY

TRANSPORT HUB/PORT

TRANSPORT helicopter

car

walking

ferry

kayak

boat

swimming

jet ski

Polymer Layer E-Skin Sensor Dermus Support Reactive Scales

storms

Front

Side COMFORT RANGE Translucent

Front

Side

TRANSLUCENT MEMBRANE DETAIL

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

diving

bike


PROGRAM

Imposed site condition

1. Wilson will act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and discoveries 2. Wilson will record all climatic and sensory data recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to external conditions 3. Wilson will evaluate best systematic response to all external and internal conditions over time

System response

Data received and stored

Data analyzed Brain

OCTOPUS

Hypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

TRANSFORMABLE DESIGN Data Analysed & implemented

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

R - Facility

REFERENCE

AIN

EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION CHANGE ITS SIZE, COLOUR AND TEXTURE 8 LEGS WITH MINDS OF THEIR OWN

IBM WATSON Watson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. And learn it does. Watson “gets smarter” in three ways: by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information

THE IMPLICATION IS THAT THE BRAIN ONLY HAS TO SEND A SINGLE MOVE COMMAND TO THE ARM, AND THE ARM WILL DO THE REST.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE MIND

CIRCULATION

PROGRAM

Structure transportation system work on non linear rail system through contained tubes like the vascular system and trachea of the human body that run from the land and the base of the organism up through the spine and into the rib structures for entry into the diaphragm Structural Rib Vessel Gyroscopic Rail

Polymer ligament

Perth CBD

Structure based on the Trachea which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and flexibility.

South Perth

Spinal Structure Transport System

WEEK 11 INTERIM PRESENTATION Ductile Skeletal System

PROGRAM Exo skeleton connects to internal endo skeleton which connects to core spine. This will allow the Endo Skeleton to hold up the structure while the facade is changed by the science facility. If exo skeleton needs changing, the Endo Skeleton will hold up structure. All core functions flow through the spine to the brain.

endo structure

exo structure

COMPLETE SYSTEM

SKIN REMOVAL

EXO REMOVAL

ENDO REMOVAL

SPINE REMOVAL

MEMBRANE REMOVAL

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

Spinal Structure Endo Skeleton Skin Rib Structure

INCORPORATES BOTH SKELETAL SYSTEMS WITH AN INTERNAL SPINE

Membrane Diaphragm/Floor Plates

OPTION 1

FORM

OPTION 2

EXPANDED DIAPHRAGM Breath In

CONTRACTED DIAPHRAGM Breath Out

CONTRACTED DIAPHRAGM Breath Out

EXPANDED DIAPHRAGM Breath In

Moves on spinal axis creating multitude of spaces also purging heat and air

3 Separate modules independent of the central spine

4 Separate modules independent of the central spine. Spine exposed

Moves on spinal axis creating multitude of spaces also purging heat and air

SPINE PROGRAM

IMPLIED MOVEMENT NE W

E

form works with tidal and air flows, acting with and not against. opening in structure for cross ventilation. possible gaps in form (large scale)

Form is driven by the tension between the two opposing forces of wind and water currents on site. The structures form will use implied movement techniques to reflect these converging forces while the structures responsive program will animate the structures as a whole. Smooth transitions will take place between both land, air and water ecologies, creating a unified response between the 3.

openings in higher levels to release heat like termite mound

DUCTILE SKELETAL PROGRAM

Closed spine formation

Can take on multiple forms

Ductile Expansion

Expanded Diaphragm

Winter - Fresh Down Stream Summer - Sea Up Stream TWO CURRENT Salt water on bottom (dense) Fresh Water Above - down

perth

east perth

south perth

Line Force

Projection

Virus

Membrane

Evocation

Elasticity

STORM

WIND

Structure closes form and links back together bracing itself

Structure reacts to strong wind loads flexing and bracing taking in air

Geometric Transcendence

4 MAIN VANTAGE POINTS

freeway kings park

IMPLIED MOVEMENT TECHNIQ UES

Muscular Tension

tension between wind and river currents apparent in the form.

VANTAGE POINTS

SW

121


S K I N M E L AT O N I N SY S T E M

S TAT U S

S P I N A L SY S T E M S

ea es

Scien ce /R

SITE CONDITIONS

+500.0

rch

+490.0 90%

+480.0 Storms

+470.0

+460.0

Tidal EXTREME UV Tint Adaptation

Iconic Building Landmark Location

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

+450.0

Wind

RE A C T I O N 1

RE A C T I O N 2

+440.0

RE A C T I O N 3

ACCESS

Rain

+430.0

Car

Helicopter

Kayak

Ferry

Structure reacts to strong wind loads flexing and bracing taking in air

Jet Ski

Swimming

Bike

Walking

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

+410.0

se

d

Mi xe

COMFORT RANGE Translucent

Sun Exposure

+420.0

WIND

Land Ecology

+400.0 100%

Algae

SKIN TRANSITION

S T O RM

Boat

Diving

+390.0

B RA C I N G

Extreme Environmental Conditions

Structure braces itself by locking spinal cords into a fixed position

+380.0

River Ecology

Perth Site Plan | Scale 1:20000

S TA G E 1 3 0 % UV

S TA G E 2 5 0 % UV

S TA G E 3 6 0 % UV

+370.0

S TA G E 4 8 0 % UV

+360.0

+350.0 Superior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

+340.0 Inferior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

+330.0

Transverse Process Muscle Connection

F RO N T

+320.0

rce

Office /

o

me m

+310.0

Rib Facet Rib Connection

80%

Spinal Column Structural Body

+300.0

Intervertebral Disc Compression flexibility

SIDE

+290.0

+280.0

+270.0 Lamina Spinal Nerve Exit

Spinal Canal Nerve System

+260.0

Transverse Process Rib connection Muscle Connection

+250.0

V I S U A L I N F O R M AT I O N I N T E R FA C E

C I R C U L AT I O N SY S T E M 3

Structural Rib Transport Cell

8

1

u

tio

TRANSPORT VASCULAR SYSTEM

+230.0

n

+220.0 90%

STRUCTURAL SY S T E M S

Gyroscopic Rail

2

4

+240.0

ca

Ed

1

PLAN

The skin system of the building acts as an interactive visual information interface which is constantly streaming visual data via the nervous system from various organs and locations from all around the structure’s body, collating data from people, the environment, its water, land and air ecologies as well as local and global scientific advancements. This allows users to become part of the building’s information ecology as it streams data all over its skin towards the brain and science divisions in the form of text, images, questions, interactions and statics. Users can interact with the skin interface by uploading data to the brain, asking it questions, catching passing data streams or simply gestural movements on the skin to activate the user interface. This visual information system creates a sense of human data space occupation where by the users of the building can visually and physically interact with its learning process, becoming one with the structure s scientific endeavor, allowing the public to embrace this new form of architectural ecology through educational experiences.

The system is based on the nervous and vascular systems of the human body running on a non-linear rail through contained tubes which runs from the land and base of the organism up through the spine and into the rib structures for for entry into the diaphragm and spinal canal.

+210.0

+200.0

Polymer Ligament

+190.0 3

Structure based on the Trachea which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and flexibility.

2

9

6

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

7

T RA N S P O RT N E RV E

Research Research Facility

Legend 5

1. Tower 2. Membrane 3. Skin 4. Rib Cage

+180.0

+170.0

Skin Spine Spinal Canal Exo Skeleton Endo Skeleton Rib Structure Floor Diaphragm Void Vascular Transport Floor plate

Transport Veins

Analysis

+160.0

COMPLETE SECTION 2 Memory

+150.0

Brain Structural Rings 1

1 2

1

1

Legend 1. Pedestrain 2. Large Objects Cargo/supply

S T RU C T U RA L A S S E M B LY 1

isual

EXO MEMBER

H

Legend

3

+140.0

el ot

+130.0

isplay Skin Interface

70%

Polymer Membrane/ Visual Interface

+120.0

EXO SKELETON

ata Transfer

1

+110.0

4

ser Data

rgan Responses

ploads

Skin

ownloads

Skeleton

or

P

ser Interactions

cological Data

t

+100.0

ENDO SKELETON

60%

+90.0

Q uestions

irculation

Gestures

Immune

River

RI B S T RU C T U RE

Land

ENDO MEMBER

+80.0

ity

ng

Flo at i

1

Statistics

+70.0

Air

Typical Floor Plan | Scale NTS

Scale Bar

0

5 10

20

50

Scale Bar

0

5

10

South Perth

100%

+60.0

20

ult ur

Tower Ecology Plan | Scale NTS

Perth CBD

Spinal Structure

+50.0

s Art al/

+40.0

Transport System 60%

+20.0

Pu b lic

T

+30.0

ort n sp ra

+10.0 80%

Arc

-10.0

h

Amph ibi

o

0.0

us

INTERNAL ECOLOGY

-20.0 80%

-30.0

-40.0

S WA N R I V E R R E J U V E N AT I O N

-60.0

rce

Office /

o

-50.0

me m

-70.0 80%

-80.0

5

1

Due to the below factors the result is the Swan River we know today; a polluted environment that we tell our children not to play in and are even reluctant to venture in ourselves. With this in mind, the opportunity was seized to rehabilitate the Swan River by dredging out the decayed/ polluted river bed and pumping it full of micro-nutrients and re-oxygenated water. This in turn would create an entirely rejuvenated natural habitat around the structure’s base that could be studied and maintained for the future enjoyment of the city and the varied natural aquatic species of the Swan River ecology.

5

1

-90.0

-100.0

Mi xe

5

d

-110.0

se

-120.0

4

4

100%

-130.0

5

5 2

-140.0

2 Structure

-150.0

Aeration System

PROBLEM

4 •

• •

H

4

River has two distinct currents running both up and down stream. resh water flows downstream into the ocean over the top of the denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom. This makes the Lower waters of the swan river hypoxic and even sometimes anoxic – which means little to no oxygen is available on the river bed for aquatic fauna or life to flourish, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter and the releasing of nutrients which cause blue green algae bloom. This creates vicious cycle creating Algae in the summer months which kills any aquatic fauna attempting to grow by starving them of oxygen. High levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae usually a result of decomposing aquatic fauna at the bottom of the sea bed.

-170.0 70%

-180.0

-190.0

-200.0

Scien ce /R

Winter - Fresh Down Stream Summer - Sea Up Stream

3 1

-160.0

el ot

ea es

-220.0

TWO CURRENTS Salt water on bottom (dense) Fresh Water Above - down

1

-210.0

rch

90%

-230.0

-240.0

5

I

-250.0

u

L

Toxic blue green algae bloom

c

io at

No aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

-270.0

Destruction of Natural Aquatic life

90%

-280.0

SOLUTION

-290.0

“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”

-300.0

- Charles Darwin

INTRODUCTION “That building is alive…”. A statement that this research has vigorously explored over the course of this dissertation, but what does this statement mean What is this personification or evocation of architecture How does the building come alive and how does it engage with its context? All relevant and intriguing questions which this research has explored through a design proposal situated within the heart of the Swan Canning River.

1

4

The statement “that building is alive…” refers to a relatively new form of architectural response that this research will denote as ‘The Alive’. The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scientific terms. These types of buildings have their own complex ecology of moving parts, skins, organs and innovative technologies that bring them to life, harmonising a new form of external expression, gesturing and interacting with their surrounding context. All this is made possible by the introduction of innovative digital and non-digital technological instruments to facilitate new types of architectural experimentation and exploration into that which was not thought possible.

4 2

Aerial Floor Plan | Scale 1:5000

Legend

The research presents an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-acquaintance of architecture with the applied sciences. Architecture only needs to leverage off the technologies the applied scientific fields develop and apply it to the designs. ars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek . Identifying a need for architecture to reorientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with that of the adaptive intelligence of nature. As harles arwin in his evolutionary theory identifies “It s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15).

1. Port 2. Ship Entry 3. Internal ecology 4. Main Hall Diaphragm 5. Vascular Connection

5

Through the exploration of this statement the research has achieved a deeper understanding of ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the historical developments of non-static architectural systems, the rapid advancement of new scientific technologies plus nature itself as an endless resource of information and the systems of the human body to develop a design response shaped by the principles discovered around this notion. The research is significant as we are moving into a rapidly evolving technological age of free flowing information and technological advancement. Our urban environments are being left behind, stuck within the limitations of the Cartesian systems of old, where static forms stagnate our cities; which cities in their very nature are pulsing with life and activity, thus presenting an opportunity to create a new form of architectural species that better represents the culture of our time and forms a symbiotic relationship with its occupants.

5

BACKGROUND “Implied movement” within architecture refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architecture has the ability to unleash chaos upon the mind’s senses, but in an ordered and manipulative fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this phenomenon within architecture is composed though a play of “forces” that push and pull the viewer around a space or facade creating a sense that either they or the object is moving even though it is essentially static. The engagement that these structures impose upon the viewer’s mind is the principle element that gives them their energy. These types of structures often evoke within the viewer (also described as evocation) associations of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another, moreover expressing itself as one thing, such as a building, but gesturing something else entirely.

This investigation initially in the dissertation proposal resulted in the research of 4 key areas associated with this idea: Existing architectural works that facilitate this phenomenon, the mind as the animator, the evolution of building methodologies and advocates of ‘the Alive’. As the research progressed, the investigation into the sciences and nature around the notion of life and how nature and other living organisms have evolved over time to adapt and respond to their surrounding environmental conditions, became increasingly important within the research. This resulted in the exploration of new scientific technological advancements in fields such as bio mimicry, bio mechatronics, bio engineering, bio-mimetics and many others, which in turn brought attention to the true meaning of what it means to be alive within architecture, and how nature and science are an endless source of information that must be leveraged and applied. The research into these two additional aspects underlined the importance of the ecologies within the Perth CBD area and allowed for a further investigation into the ecologies of air, land and water. SCIENCES In the beginning of the research the intention was primarily to study the current and historic developments of non-static architectural systems on the premise that this would give the project grounding around what it means to be alive. However as the research progressed, it was evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the confines of the introverted architectural profession, and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed or have been developed by the multitude of scientific fields. This allowed the pro ect to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to present a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the vital need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation. ECOLOGIES After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that The Swan Canning River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan Rivers’ multiple environmental issues such as pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health. SIGNIFICANCE As discussed in the background this “rapid change” requires appropriate response. Thus the significance is in the response: 1. Presenting an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through

the re-amalgamation of architecture with the sciences, and the potential of what could be achieved if architecture only leveraged off the technologies. These scientific fields are developed and applied to their own designs, as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology quotes ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), identifying an evident need for architecture to re orientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession,

2.

3.

4.

5.

but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with adaptive prowess of nature. As Charles arwin, an English naturalist best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory, cleverly identifies “It s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15) Submitting a proposition that not only looks inwards, but outwards as well, borrowing, leveraging and harnessing intelligence from nature and science, taking advantage of the best technologies and intellect on offer in order to provide a highly responsive and adaptable design solution. Putting forth a building that is not only high tech, but is attributed with an abundance of abilities, from monitoring and self-regulation, to a high level of intelligence, responsiveness and adaptability to change. A structure that, like the human body, is constantly regenerating itself, learning and adapting to its surrounding environment. Presenting a design proposition that contributes to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the Swan River and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, not only to itself but also its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies, that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

Spinal Structure ndo Skeleton Skin

The adaptation of the spine to the building was used to empower the structures formal composition while allowing the building to flex, twist and brace against external environmental conditions like that of a human being. The ductile programming of the spinal arrangements allows for any part of the skeletal system to be upgraded, as all elements of the system work together as a whole and independently in the instance they may need to support the load of a redundant system that is in the process of being upgraded.

immune system

nervous system

skeletal system

atson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. And learn it does. atson gets smarter in three ways: by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information. This technology was integrated into the structure in order to adopt the functions of the human brain while following these five programmatic principles. atson will implement these principles as follows:

Rib Structure Membrane iaphragm/ loor Plates

Line Force

Projection

Membrane

Evocation

Brain

1. Act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and invention . ecord all climatic and sensory data, internally and externally recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to imposed conditions. . Interact and learn from the building’s occupants and develop its intelligence over time . ollaborate and aid in all scientific and non scientific endeavours by its counterparts around the globe . Aid in the betterment, advancement, innovation and prolonging of the human race and the environment

endo structure

io

imicry

io

imetics

Imposed site condition

COMPLETE SYSTEM

SKIN REMOVAL

EXO REMOVAL

ENDO REMOVAL

Genetic ngineering

Research Facility

LIVING ield testing

Elasticity

ata analysed Brain

irus

Data analysed implemented

ionics Robotics

SYSTEMS

ata received and stored

ypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

Nano Technology

REPRODUCTION evelopment of new tech based on ac uired data and research

MEMBRANE REMOVAL

System response

ECDYSIS emoval of redundant tech

R - Facility

-320.0 90%

Allows for public enjoyment of the Swan River

-330.0

The discipline of architecture has a significant part to play as it seeks to balance the sustainability equation (social, cultural, economic and environmental). Our constructed built forms must “EVOLVE” and “ADAPT” and to be an agent of change – responsively intelligent and at the same time humane places that support the advancement in the quality to human society. The so call bricks and mortars of the buildings of the future are strongly receptive to the application of intelligent materials and systems. The research was always ambitious since the very beginning to scope widely and at all times taking advantage of knowledge from past, current and immediate future from discoveries – research that have been innovatively applied in the automotive, robotic, aerospace, information technology and biomedical industries . Notwithstanding also that nature holds many secrets where by animals and plants have physical attributes that allow them to survive and thrive under extreme conditions. The final pro ect is in no way meant to be a resolved design rather the outcomes presented a kind of “armature platform” in which the project continues to be a test-bed. A design to debate architecture themes around: generative design, form, typology, technological systems, ecologies, education, sustainability, responsive and adaptive design solutions. The applied sciences identified, explored and adopted in this research have and will continue to significantly challenge the discipline of architecture to re-imaging the “buildings as ecologies” - Alive and thriving. The harmonious balance of the natural and the built environment in a coexisting relationship – where both are living “beings” – is where I would consider devoting my future practice.

I

N

LL 1

AIR SKIN SYSTEM

LAND SKIN SYSTEM Scales: arrier Protection Movement: Lines of orce Ability: Turbulence eduction

Scales: arrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence eduction

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar ells

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar ells

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

MOVEABLE SKIN MADE OF POLYURETHANE COATED LYCRA WITH INTERNAL MOVING ENDO SKELETON

RESILIENT SKIN

H2 O

Air iltration: 10

E-Skin Sensor

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Electro Active Polymer

ater Turbulence: 0

Dermis Support

Compress

Wrinkle

Bend

Stretch

Indigo Snake Scales

Air Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Indigo Snake Scales

Land Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

xtreme eather

xtreme eather Protective Armor

Protective Armor

Smooth Surface

Smooth Surface

eduction in surface air friction

eduction in surface air friction

Indigo Snake Scales

Turbulence

eduction

Water Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

eather/ ater Turbulence

Human Skin Structure

Less Stress on Spine

Silent low Armor arrier

• •

PANEL 2

losing Scale

Lines of orce

losing Scale

PANEL 3

Lines of orce

Nano Film Solar Cells

Electro Active Polymer

The skin reflects these separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to imposed site conditions such as light, wind, rain, water currents and touch, also facilitating the ability to harvest solar energy throughout the day through the implementations of li uid solar cell technology. The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by called Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the cars skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions. outube, Gina This technology coupled with AP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structures structural skeleton without deformations imposed onto it by the skeletal structure causing any damage. The composition of the skins structural was designed to reflect the functions of the human skin as close as possible with other adaptations from other organisms such as sharks and snakes being applied as an extra protective layer, which human skin lacks.

• • Scale Assembly

Shape Memory Alloy

Thermochromic Polymer

Graphene

Filtration Membrane

eduction

Structures Skin Functions

The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by called Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the car’s skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions eb T 00 . This technology coupled with AP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structure’s skeletal system without deformations imposed onto it by the spine causing any damage.

TECHNOLOGY

Reactive Scales

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

O2

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Air iltration: 10

REJUVENATED WATER ECOLOGY

SKIN DETAIL

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

O2

WATER SKIN SYSTEM

Scales: arrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence eduction

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech

PANEL 1

-310.0

rch

CONCLUSION The complexities of our natural world continue to intrigue, challenge and reveal to us lessons that have greatly advanced our understanding of its intelligence. Civilisation has come at a great price on our natural environment. The constructed environment has been quite unsympathetic to the important balance of ecologies of: water, land and sky.

BMW GINA SKIN REACTIONS

Artificial Intelligence

exo structure

INTERRELATED SYSTEMS

SPINE REMOVAL

BRAIN PROGRAM IBM WATSON

THIS PROVIDES THE COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT TO FACILITATE CREATIVE THINKING AND PROCESS

io ngineering

skin system

IMPLIED MOVEMENT

Geometric Transcendence

UNIFIED SKELETAL SYSTEMS WITH AN INTERNAL SPINE

RESEARCH FACILITY IMMUNE SYSTEM

Muscular Tension

ALL RESPONSES + INFO RELAYED TO THE BRAIN

DUCTILE SKELETAL SYSTEM

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

ea es

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analysis of ‘The Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

IAIN

FOCUS

Allows for growth of natural fauna

Scien ce /R

Aeration of water around site

1

MAIN HALL DIAPHRAGM

-260.0

n

Ed

A

5

Muddy Polluted water

Smooth low

The skin consists of a supple membrane composed of three layers the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis that all work in support of one another. The epidermis is the thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one. Serving as the body’s armour against infectious diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its colour, darkening in response to harmful rays in order to protect the skin. ommonly referred to as a ‘Tan’. The ermis layer is full of collagen, which gives the skin its firmness, containing sweat glands and hair follicles. It also contains nerve endings that allow us to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is body’s the body’s alarm system, signalling it into action. The innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, which connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue that insulates our body and controls its temperature. Sebum is an oily substance that the body excretes to coat the skin to shield the epidermis from the elements. The skin also consists of cells called eratinocytes which determine peoples skin colour These skin cells absorb harmful rays. People with dark skin due to this cell are less susceptible to burning. . nlike snakes humans shed their skin gradually, shedding old skin cells to make room for the new ones that lie beneath them.

Shark Skin Technology

PANEL 4

Sensory E-Skin


FINAL PRESENTATION LAYOUT

PANELS 1-4 @ 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM PANEL 5 @ 1980X600 SATURN 190GSM

PANEL 5


River Ecology

Algae

Sun Exposure

Land Ecology

Rain

Wind

Tidal

Storms

3

1

SITE CONDITIONS

Scale Bar

0

5 10

20

Tower Ecology Plan | Scale NTS

4

1

50

2

1

1. 2. 3. 4.

Tower Membrane Skin Rib Cage

Legend

6

4

5

8

7

2

3

Scale Bar

0

5

10

Typical Floor Plan | Scale NTS

Perth Site Plan | Scale 1:20000

20

1

9

Walking

Boat Diving

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Skin Spine Spinal Canal Exo Skeleton Endo Skeleton Rib Structure Floor Diaphragm Void Vascular Transport Floor plate

Legend

Swimming

Bike

Ferry

Helicopter

Jet Ski

Kayak

Car

ACCESS

Iconic Building Landmark Location

S TAT U S


5

5

1

nervous system

skeletal system

INTERRELATED SYSTEMS

skin system

immune system

ALL RESPONSES + INFO RELAYED TO THE BRAIN

FOCUS

4

2

4

5

1

1

5

2

5

4

endo structure

MEMBRANE REMOVAL

ENDO REMOVAL

SKIN REMOVAL

exo structure

iaphragm/ loor Plates

embrane

ib Structure

Skin

ndo Skeleton

Spinal Structure

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

PANEL 1

SPINE REMOVAL

EXO REMOVAL

COMPLETE SYSTEM

The adaptation of the spine to the building was used to empower the structures formal composition while allowing the building to flex, twist and brace against external environmental conditions like that of a human being. The ductile programming of the spinal arrangements allows for any part of the skeletal system to be upgraded, as all elements of the system work together as a whole and independently in the instance they may need to support the load of a redundant system that is in the process of being upgraded.

UNIFIED SKELETAL SYSTEMS WITH AN INTERNAL SPINE

DUCTILE SKELETAL SYSTEM

4

3

5

1

1

4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Port Ship Entry Internal ecology Main Hall Diaphragm Vascular Connection

Legend

Aerial Floor Plan | Scale 1:5000

1

2

imicry

LIVING ield testing

io ngineering

Genetic ngineering

io

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech

SYSTEMS

REPRODUCTION evelopment of new tech based on ac uired data and research

Research Facility

Artificial Intelligence

Brain

Nano Technology

imetics

ECDYSIS emoval of redundant tech

ionics obotics

io

THIS PROVIDES THE COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT TO FACILITATE CREATIVE THINKING AND PROCESS

RESEARCH FACILITY IMMUNE SYSTEM

5

4

5

5


1

1 2 1

1

Perth CBD

Transport System

Spinal Structure

Polymer Membrane/ Visual Interface

Structural Rings

Transport Veins

South Perth

Structure based on the Trachea which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and flexibility.

Polymer Ligament

Gyroscopic Rail

Transport Cell

Structural Rib

The system is based on the nervous and vascular systems of the human body running on a non-linear rail through contained tubes which runs from the land and base of the organism up through the spine and into the rib structures for for entry into the diaphragm and spinal canal.

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

C I R C U L AT I O N SYSTEM

1. Pedestrain 2. Large Objects Cargo/supply

Legend

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

COMFORT RANGE Translucent

SKIN TRANSITION

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

EXTREME UV Tint Adaptation

S K I N M E L AT O N I N SYSTEM

S TA G E 1 3 0 % UV

S TA G E 2 5 0 % UV

S TA G E 3 6 0 % UV

ser Interactions

irculation Immune

Gestures Statistics

Skin Skeleton

ploads

rgan esponses

ata Transfer

Skin Interface

Brain

Analysis

Research Facility

uestions

1

2

3

ownloads

ser ata

isual isplay

esearch

Air

Land

iver

cological ata

emory

The skin system of the building acts as an interactive visual information interface which is constantly streaming visual data via the nervous system from various organs and locations from all around the structure’s body, collating data from people, the environment, its water, land and air ecologies as well as local and global scientific advancements. This allows users to become part of the building’s information ecology as it streams data all over its skin towards the brain and science divisions in the form of text, images, questions, interactions and statics. Users can interact with the skin interface by uploading data to the brain, asking it questions, catching passing data streams or simply gestural movements on the skin to activate the user interface. This visual information system creates a sense of human data space occupation where by the users of the building can visually and physically interact with its learning process, becoming one with the structure s scientific endeavor, allowing the public to embrace this new form of architectural ecology through educational experiences.

V I S U A L I N F O R M AT I O N I N T E R FA C E

S TA G E 4 8 0 % UV


A

Projection

Evocation

Virus

Line Force

Membrane

Elasticity

IMPLIED MOVEMENT

The engagement that these structures impose upon the viewer’s mind is the principle element that gives them their energy. These types of structures often evoke within the viewer (also described as evocation) associations of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another, moreover expressing itself as one thing, such as a building, but gesturing something else entirely.

BACKGROUND “Implied movement” within architecture refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architecture has the ability to unleash chaos upon the mind’s senses, but in an ordered and manipulative fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this phenomenon within architecture is composed though a play of “forces” that push and pull the viewer around a space or facade creating a sense that either they or the object is moving even though it is essentially static.

The research presents an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-acquaintance of architecture with the applied sciences. Architecture only needs to leverage off the technologies the applied scientific fields develop and apply it to the designs. Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007). Identifying a need for architecture to reorientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with that of the adaptive intelligence of nature. As Charles Darwin in his evolutionary theory identifies “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15).

Through the exploration of this statement the research has achieved a deeper understanding of ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the historical developments of non-static architectural systems, the rapid advancement of new scientific technologies plus nature itself as an endless resource of information and the systems of the human body to develop a design response shaped by the principles discovered around this notion. The research is significant as we are moving into a rapidly evolving technological age of free flowing information and technological advancement. Our urban environments are being left behind, stuck within the limitations of the Cartesian systems of old, where static forms stagnate our cities; which cities in their very nature are pulsing with life and activity, thus presenting an opportunity to create a new form of architectural species that better represents the culture of our time and forms a symbiotic relationship with its occupants.

The statement “that building is alive…” refers to a relatively new form of architectural response that this research will denote as ‘The Alive’. The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scientific terms. These types of buildings have their own complex ecology of moving parts, skins, organs and innovative technologies that bring them to life, harmonising a new form of external expression, gesturing and interacting with their surrounding context. All this is made possible by the introduction of innovative digital and non-digital technological instruments to facilitate new types of architectural experimentation and exploration into that which was not thought possible.

Muscular Tension

L

I

V

Data analysed & implemented

System response

R - Facility

Brain

Data analysed

PANEL 2

Data received and stored

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

Hypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

1. Act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and invention 2. Record all climatic and sensory data, internally and externally recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to imposed conditions. 3. Interact and learn from the building’s occupants and develop its intelligence over time 4. Collaborate and aid in all scientific and non-scientific endeavours by its counterparts around the globe 5. Aid in the betterment, advancement, innovation and prolonging of the human race and the environment

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

Imposed site condition

Watson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. And learn it does. Watson “gets smarter” in three ways: by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information. This technology was integrated into the structure in order to adopt the functions of the human brain while following these five programmatic principles. Watson will implement these principles as follows:

BRAIN PROGRAM IBM WATSON

the re-amalgamation of architecture with the sciences, and the potential of what could be achieved if architecture only leveraged off the technologies. These scientific fields are developed and applied to their own designs, as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology quotes ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), identifying an evident need for architecture to re-orientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession,

1. Presenting an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through

SIGNIFICANCE As discussed in the background this “rapid change” requires appropriate response. Thus the significance is in the response:

ECOLOGIES After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that The Swan Canning River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan Rivers’ multiple environmental issues such as pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health.

SCIENCES In the beginning of the research the intention was primarily to study the current and historic developments of non-static architectural systems on the premise that this would give the project grounding around what it means to be alive. However as the research progressed, it was evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the confines of the introverted architectural profession, and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed or have been developed by the multitude of scientific fields. This allowed the project to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to present a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the vital need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation.

As the research progressed, the investigation into the sciences and nature around the notion of life and how nature and other living organisms have evolved over time to adapt and respond to their surrounding environmental conditions, became increasingly important within the research. This resulted in the exploration of new scientific technological advancements in fields such as bio-mimicry, bio-mechatronics, bio-engineering, bio-mimetics and many others, which in turn brought attention to the true meaning of what it means to be alive within architecture, and how nature and science are an endless source of information that must be leveraged and applied. The research into these two additional aspects underlined the importance of the ecologies within the Perth CBD area and allowed for a further investigation into the ecologies of air, land and water.

This investigation initially in the dissertation proposal resulted in the research of 4 key areas associated with this idea: Existing architectural works that facilitate this phenomenon, the mind as the animator, the evolution of building methodologies and advocates of ‘the Alive’.

- Charles Darwin

“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”

INTRODUCTION “That building is alive…”. A statement that this research has vigorously explored over the course of this dissertation, but what does this statement mean? What is this personification or evocation of architecture? How does the building come alive and how does it engage with its context? All relevant and intriguing questions which this research has explored through a design proposal situated within the heart of the Swan Canning River.

Geometric Transcendence

Stretch

Wrinkle

The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the car’s skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions (BMW Web TV 2008). This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structure’s skeletal system without deformations imposed onto it by the spine causing any damage.

Bend

Compress

RESILIENT SKIN

MOVEABLE SKIN MADE OF POLYURETHANE COATED LYCRA WITH INTERNAL MOVING ENDO SKELETON

BMW GINA SKIN REACTIONS

IAIN BICKNELL 14844784

The applied sciences identified, explored and adopted in this research have and will continue to significantly challenge the discipline of architecture to re-imaging the “buildings as ecologies” - Alive and thriving. The harmonious balance of the natural and the built environment in a coexisting relationship – where both are living “beings” – is where I would consider devoting my future practice.

The final project is in no way meant to be a resolved design; rather the outcomes presented a kind of “armatureplatform” in which the project continues to be a test-bed. A design to debate architecture themes around: generative design, form, typology, technological systems, ecologies, education, sustainability, responsive and adaptive design solutions.

The research was always ambitious since the very beginning to scope widely and at all times taking advantage of knowledge from past, current and immediate future from discoveries – research that have been innovatively applied in the automotive, robotic, aerospace, information technology and biomedical industries . Notwithstanding also that nature holds many secrets where by animals and plants have physical attributes that allow them to survive and thrive under extreme conditions.

The discipline of architecture has a significant part to play as it seeks to balance the sustainability equation (social, cultural, economic and environmental). Our constructed built forms must “EVOLVE” and “ADAPT” and to be an agent of change – responsively intelligent and at the same time humane places that support the advancement in the quality to human society. The so call bricks and mortars of the buildings of the future are strongly receptive to the application of intelligent materials and systems.

CONCLUSION The complexities of our natural world continue to intrigue, challenge and reveal to us lessons that have greatly advanced our understanding of its intelligence. Civilisation has come at a great price on our natural environment. The constructed environment has been quite unsympathetic to the important balance of ecologies of: water, land and sky.

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analysis of ‘The Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society.

5.

4.

3.

2.

but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with adaptive prowess of nature. As Charles Darwin, an English naturalist best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory, cleverly identifies “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15) Submitting a proposition that not only looks inwards, but outwards as well, borrowing, leveraging and harnessing intelligence from nature and science, taking advantage of the best technologies and intellect on offer in order to provide a highly responsive and adaptable design solution. Putting forth a building that is not only high tech, but is attributed with an abundance of abilities, from monitoring and self-regulation, to a high level of intelligence, responsiveness and adaptability to change. A structure that, like the human body, is constantly regenerating itself, learning and adapting to its surrounding environment. Presenting a design proposition that contributes to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the Swan River and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, not only to itself but also its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies, that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

E


S T R U CT U R A L A S S E M B LY

C OM P L E T E S E C T I ON

T R A N S P OR T NERVE

P L AN

S ID E

FRONT

Structure braces itself by locking spinal cords into a fixed position

BR A C I N G

EN DO MEMBER

E XO MEMBER

Spinal Canal Nerve System

Intervertebral Disc Compression flexibility

Spinal Column Structural Body

Rib Facet Rib Connection

Inferior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

REACTION 3

S WA N R I V E R R E J U V E N AT I O N

RIB S T R U CT U R E

ENDO SKELETON

EXO SKELETON

Extreme Environmental Conditions

S T OR M

Structure reacts to strong wind loads flexing and bracing taking in air

WIND

REACTION 2

STRUCTURAL SY S T E M S

Transverse Process Rib connection Muscle Connection

Lamina Spinal Nerve Exit

Transverse Process Muscle Connection

Superior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

RE A CT IO N 1

SPINAL SYSTEMS Scien ce /R

d

tio

t

y Cit

n

me m

us

rce

h Arc

90%

80%

80%

60%

100%

60%

70%

90%

80%

100%

ort n sp ra

s Art al/

ng

or

el ot

ca

e

rch

e erc

Us

ea es

m m

Mi xe

o Office /C

u Ed

H

P

Flo at i

Cu lt u r T

Pu b lic Amph ibi o o Office /C

-70.0

-60.0

-50.0

-40.0

-30.0

-20.0

-10.0

0.0

+10.0

+20.0

+30.0

+40.0

+50.0

+60.0

+70.0

+80.0

+90.0

+100.0

+110.0

+120.0

+130.0

+140.0

+150.0

+160.0

+170.0

+180.0

+190.0

+200.0

+210.0

+220.0

+230.0

+240.0

+250.0

+260.0

+270.0

+280.0

+290.0

+300.0

+310.0

+320.0

+330.0

+340.0

+350.0

+360.0

+370.0

+380.0

+390.0

+400.0

+410.0

+420.0

+430.0

+440.0

+450.0

+460.0

+470.0

+480.0

+490.0

+500.0


Air Filtration: 10%

Destruction of Natural Aquatic life

No aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

Allows for growth of natural fauna

Allows for public enjoyment of the Swan River

Aeration of water around site

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

SOLUTION

Toxic blue green algae bloom

Muddy Polluted water

TWO CURRENTS Salt water on bottom (dense) Fresh Water Above - down

Summer - Sea Up Stream

Winter - Fresh Down Stream

Land Adaptive Membrane

PANEL 3

Closing Scale

Extreme Weather

Barrier Defence

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

Lines of Force

Scale Assembly

Closing Scale

Reduction in surface air friction

Protective Armor

Reduction in surface air friction

Extreme Weather

Indigo Snake Scales

Lines of Force

Armor Barrier

Silent Flow

Less Stress on Spine

Turbulence Reduction

Indigo Snake Scales

Water Adaptive Membrane

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Barrier Defence

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Water Turbulence: 20% Reduction

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

H 2O

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Smooth Flow

Weather/Water Turbulence

Barrier Defence

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Air Filtration: 10%

-330.0

-320.0

-310.0

-300.0

-290.0

-280.0

-270.0

-260.0

-250.0

-240.0

-230.0

-220.0

-210.0

-200.0

-190.0

-180.0

-170.0

-160.0

-150.0

-140.0

-130.0

-120.0

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

WATER SKIN SYSTEM

90%

90%

90%

70%

100%

-110.0

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Smooth Surface

Air Adaptive Membrane

O

2

n

rch

h arc

tio

e es

ca

ea es

e

-100.0

-90.0

-80.0

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar Cells

Us

el ot

d

80%

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar Cells

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Lines of Force Ability: Turbulence Reduction

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

LAND SKIN SYSTEM

Smooth Surface

Protective Armor

Indigo Snake Scales

O

2

PROBLEM River has two distinct currents running both up and down stream. Fresh water flows downstream into the ocean over the top of the denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom. This makes the Lower waters of the swan river hypoxic and even sometimes anoxic – which means little to no oxygen is available on the river bed for aquatic fauna or life to flourish, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter and the releasing of nutrients which cause blue green algae bloom. This creates vicious cycle creating Algae in the summer months which kills any aquatic fauna attempting to grow by starving them of oxygen. High levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae usually a result of decomposing aquatic fauna at the bottom of the sea bed.

AIR SKIN SYSTEM

Aeration System

Structure

Due to the below factors the result is the Swan River we know today; a polluted environment that we tell our children not to play in and are even reluctant to venture in ourselves. With this in mind, the opportunity was seized to rehabilitate the Swan River by dredging out the decayed/ polluted river bed and pumping it full of micro-nutrients and re-oxygenated water. This in turn would create an entirely rejuvenated natural habitat around the structure’s base that could be studied and maintained for the future enjoyment of the city and the varied natural aquatic species of the Swan River ecology.

Mi xe

H Scien ce /R

u Ed Scien ce /R


INTERNAL ECOLOGY

TRANSPORT VASCULAR SYSTEM


Filtration Membrane

Reactive Scales

Dermis Support

Electro Active Polymer

E-Skin Sensor

• •

The skin consists of a supple membrane composed of three layers -- the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis that all work in support of one another. The epidermis is the thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one. Serving as the body’s armour against infectious diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its colour, darkening in response to harmful UV rays in order to protect the skin. Commonly referred to as a ‘Tan’. The Dermis layer is full of collagen, which gives the skin its firmness, containing sweat glands and hair follicles. It also contains nerve endings that allow us to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is body’s the body’s alarm system, signalling it into action. The innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, which connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue that insulates our body and controls its temperature. Sebum is an oily substance that the body excretes to coat the skin to shield the epidermis from the elements. The skin also consists of cells called Keratinocytes which determine peoples skin colour – These skin cells absorb harmful UV rays. People with dark skin due to this cell are less susceptible to burning. 7. Unlike snakes humans shed their skin gradually, shedding old skin cells to make room for the new ones that lie beneath them.

Human Skin Structure

The skin reflects these 3 separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to imposed site conditions such as light, wind, rain, water currents and touch, also facilitating the ability to harvest solar energy throughout the day through the implementations of liquid solar cell technology. The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the cars skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions. (Youtube, Gina) This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structures structural skeleton without deformations imposed onto it by the skeletal structure causing any damage. The composition of the skins structural was designed to reflect the functions of the human skin as close as possible with other adaptations from other organisms such as sharks and snakes being applied as an extra protective layer, which human skin lacks.

Structures Skin Functions

SKIN DETAIL

Shark Skin Technology

Electro Active Polymer

Nano Film Solar Cells

ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

PANEL 4

Thermochromic Polymer

Shape Memory Alloy

REJUVENATED WATER ECOLOGY

MAIN HALL DIAPHRAGM

Sensory E-Skin

Graphene

TECHNOLOGY


PANEL 5 ORIGINAL: 1980X650 SATURN 190GSM


135

BACK FACE

FRONT FACE

ORIGINAL: 365X365x900

TOUCHSTONE MODEL

LEFT FACE

RIGHT FACE


TEASER TRAILER

1

2

3

PROMO


4

O

5

6

7

QR TO WATCH VIDEO Sound Track: Promethues Teaser

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

137


TEASER TRAILER

8

9

10

11

16

17

18

19

24

25

26

27


Sound Track: Promethues Teaser

12

13

14

15

20

21

22

23

28

29

30

31 Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

139


TEASER TRAILER

32

33

34

35

40

41

42

43

49

50

51

52


Sound Track: Promethues Teaser

36

37

38

39

45

46

47

48

53

54

55

56 Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

141


TEASER TRAILER

57

58

59

60

65

66

67

68

73

74

75

76


Sound Track: Promethues Teaser

61

62

63

64

69

70

71

72

77

78

79

80 Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

143


TEASER TRAILER

81

82

83

89

90

92

84


Sound Track: Promethues Teaser

85

86

87

88

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

145


TRANSPORT VASCULAR SYSTEM ORIGINAL: 425X900 SATURN 190GSM


INTERNAL ECOLOGY ORIGINAL: 425X900 SATURN 190GSM


MAIN HALL DIAPHRAGM ORIGINAL: 425X900 SATURN 190GSM


REJUVENATED UNDERWATER ECOLOGY ORIGINAL: 425X900 SATURN 190GSM


ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

ORGANISM FRONT ELEVATION


ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

ORGANISM DISSECTION


1

2

Legend

3

1. 2. 3. 4.

1

1

4

Tower Ecology Plan | Scale NTS Scale Bar

0

5

10

20

50

Tower Membrane Skin Rib Cage


1 3

8

9

6

7

Typical Floor Plan | Scale NTS Scale Bar

0

5

10

20

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Skin Spine Spinal Canal Exo Skeleton Endo Skeleton Rib Structure Floor Diaphragm Void Vascular Transport Floor plate

ORIGINAL: 380X350 SATURN 190GSM

Legend 5

ORGANISM PLANS

2

4


5

1

5

1 5

4

4

5

5 2

2

4

4

3 1

1

5

5

1

1

4

4 2

Aerial Floor Plan | Scale 1:5000

Legend 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

5

5

Port Ship Entry Internal ecology Main Hall Diaphragm Vascular Connection


Site Plan | Scale 1:20000

ORIGINAL: 380X350 SATURN 190GSM

ORGANISM PLANS


ORIGINAL: 535X100 SATURN 190GSM

SKELETAL SYSTEM


STAGE 1 30% UV

STAGE 2 50% UV

STAGE 3 60% UV


SKIN ADAPTATION ORIGINAL: 535X100 SATURN 190GSM

STAGE 4 80% UV


COLLABO


ORATION

TEAM WORK Unlike traditional attribution undertook in previous dissertation papers, this thesis was conducted through a series of collaborative efforts between myself and 2 other like-minded individuals in the span of 17 weeks. Such effort essentially allows constant sharing of knowledge, skills and ideas whereby each member has greatly benefitted. Meanwhile, it also allows rapid progression and refinement of the project through constant analysis and discussion between the group. Thus pushing the research to a higher level of refinement, one that goes beyond the capability of one self’s achievement as an individual researcher. The constant collaboration between myself and two fellow colleagues, resulted in the following thesis’. Jack Colombera Edge: An Uncertain Terrain for an Uncertain Future Chris Leong Exploring Design Concepts: Knowledge in the Making. These 2 thesis projects articulates the immense effort and culture of collaboration between like-minded individuals.

Dissertation Proposal Iain Bicknell

167 167


EXPLORING DESIGN CONCEPTS KNOWLEDGE IN THE MAKING

THE DISCIPLINE OF ARCHITECTURE IS CURRENTLY UNDERGOING AN IMMENSE CHANGE, PARTICULARLY IN THE FIELDS OF DESIGN SCHEMES AND APPROACHES WITH GREAT DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE DIGITAL PRACTICES. THIS HAS BEEN AT THE FOREFRONT AND DRIVERS OF AMAZING GENERATIVE DESIGNS BY GREAT MASTERS RANGING FROM ZAHA HADID, REM KOOLHAAS TO MORPHOSIS. EACH PLAYED A VITAL ROLE IN EXTENDING AND PUSHING THE LIMITATIONS AND BOUNDARIES OF DESIGN EXPERIMENTATION AND EXPLORATION.

CARVING

MOULDING

ENVELOPING

PUNCTURE

KEYWORDS: #CARVE #SCULPT #PATTERN #MATERIAL #SURFACE #CREATE #CUT #PRECISION #CHISEL #ENGRAVE #ETCH

KEYWORDS: #CAVITY #DEFINE #FORM #CASTING #PLIABLE #FRAME #SHAPE #MOULD #MALLEABLE #MATERIAL

KEYWORDS: #ENVELOP #ENCLOSE #WRAP-UP #COVER #SURROUND #COMPLETE #PARTIAL #TANGENT # MEMBRANE #SURFACE #CURVES

KEYWORDS: #PIERCING #PERFORATING #SURFACE # PENETRATE #PERFORATION #PUNCTURE #OPENINGS #APERTURES

TO MAKE SOMETHING (A SCULPTURE OR DESIGN) BY CUTTING OFF PIECES OF THE MATERIAL IT IS MADE OF. TO CUT OR CREATE (A PATTERN OR DESIGN) INTO A SURFACE WITH CARE AND PRECISION. CREATE A THREE-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATION OF AN IDEA USING SOLID MATERIAL.

HOWEVER, WITH SUCH IMMENSE DEVELOPMENT AND AFFLIATIONS TOWARDS THE DIGITAL PRACTICE, THERE HAS BEEN AN ADVERT EFFECT WITH RESPECT TO THE MAKING, CRAFTING AND DESIGNING OF PROJECTS THROUGH THE TACTILE EXPLORATION AND EXPERIMENTATION. THIS SHIFT FROM TACIT TO EXPLICIT PROCESS OF MAKING IS WHAT THIS THESIS IS FUNDAMENTALLY SEEK TO INVESTIGATE.

A SHAPED CAVITY USED TO GIVE A DEFINITE FORM TO FLUID OR PLASTIC MATERIAL. A FRAME ON WHICH SOMETHING MAY BE CONSTRUCTED. GIVE A SHAPE TO OR FORM (AN OBJECT) OUT OF MALLEABLE MATERIAL. ABLE TO BE HAMMERED OR PRESSED INTO SHAPE WITHOUT BREAKING OR CRACKING. EASILY INFLUENCE / PLIABLE

WRAP UP, COVER, OR SURROUND COMPLETELY. A SURROUNDING OR ENCLOSING STRUCTURE, AS A COROLLA OR AN OUTER MEMBRANE. A CURVE OR SURFACE TANGENT TO EACH MEMBER OF A SET OF CURVES OR SURFACES.

A HOLE MADE BY BORING OR PIERCING. THE ACT OF PIERCING OR PERFORATING, AS WITH A POINTED INSTRUMENT OR OBJECT. TO PIERCE/ PENETRATE THROUGH OR MAKE WAY INTO THE INTERIOR OF A SPACE.

SURFACE ENGRAVING

APERTURE SKINS

STRUCTURES

THE FOUR KEY AREAS / STUDY ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF MAKING 2. THE RELEVANCE OF MAKING 3. THE SHIFT FROM MAKING TO DIGITAL 4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MAKING TO ARCHITECTURE. THE METHOD ADOPTED IN THIS RESEARCH USES 6 CASE STUDIES. WHEREBY 6 THEMES WHICH HAVE BEEN PREOCCUPIED BY MY ARCHITECTURAL EXPLORATION. THEY ARE: II. MOULDING

DEFINITION: TO MAKE SOMETHING (A SCULPTURE OR DESIGN) BY CUTTING OFF PIECES OF THE MATERIAL IT IS MADE OF. TO CUT OR CREATE (A PATTERN OR DESIGN) INTO A SURFACE WITH CARE AND PRECISION. CREATE A THREE-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATION OF AN IDEA USING SOLID MATERIAL.

DEFINITION: A SHAPED CAVITY USED TO GIVE A DEFINITE FORM TO FLUID OR PLASTIC MATERIAL. A FRAME ON WHICH SOMETHING MAY BE CONSTRUCTED. GIVE A SHAPE TO OR FORM (AN OBJECT) OUT OF MALLEABLE MATERIAL. ABLE TO BE HAMMERED OR PRESSED INTO SHAPE WITHOUT BREAKING OR CRACKING. EASILY INFLUENCE / PLIABLE

III. ENVELOPE

IV . PUNCTURE

DEFINITION: WRAP UP, COVER, OR SURROUND COMPLETELY. A SURROUNDING OR ENCLOSING STRUCTURE, AS A COROLLA OR AN OUTER MEMBRANE. A CURVE OR SURFACE TANGENT TO EACH MEMBER OF A SET OF CURVES OR SURFACES.

DEFINITION: A HOLE MADE BY BORING OR PIERCING. THE ACT OF PIERCING OR PERFORATING, AS WITH A POINTED INSTRUMENT OR OBJECT. TO PIERCE/ PENETRATE THROUGH OR MAKE WAY INTO THE INTERIOR OF A SPACE.

V. SUBTRACT

VI. DISINTEGRATE

DEFINITION: TO WITHDRAW OR TAKE AWAY, AS A PART FROM A WHOLE. TO TAKE (ONE NUMBER OR QUANTITY) FROM ANOTHER. TAKE (SOMETHING) AWAY OR OFF FROM THE POSITION OCCUPIED. EXERT FORCE ONTO SOMETHING SO AS TO CAUSE ‘REMOVE’ MOVEMENT

DEFINITION: TO BECOME REDUCED TO COMPONENTS, FRAGMENTS, OR PARTICLES. BREAK UP INTO SMALL PARTS AS THE RESULT OF IMPACT OR DECAY. LOSE STRENGTH OR COHESION AND GRADUALLY FAIL. TO BRING DOWN, AS IN EXTENT, AMOUNT, OR DEGREE; DIMINISH.

PUNCTURED SYSTEMS (CORE STRUCTURE)

TESSELATED FLOOR PLATES

Interchangeable molding plates

1. CARVING

VIEW POINTS

VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURES VOIDS / VOLUME

GRIDS

WITH CONSTANT PRESSURE OF TIME, PRACTICE AND ECONOMIC CONSTRAINS, THIS HAS MADE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT TOWARDS THE DESIGN APPROACH PRACTICES. THE DISSERTATION RESEARCH AREA SEEKS TO CRITICALLY ENGAGE A DIALOGUE BETWEEN PRACTIONERS AND DESIGNERS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF MAKING AND ITS RELEVANCE WITHIN THE DISCIPLINE. FORESEEING THAT THE DISTANT FUTURE WOULD BECOME MORE DRIVEN BY DIGITAL AND FABRICATION METHODS OF EXPLORATION, IT IS TO MY CONCERN AND DESIRE IN THIS DISSERTATION TO INSPIRE THE IMPORTANCE OF EXPLORE DESIGN CONCEPTS WHERE KNOWLEDGE IS BUILT, SHAPED AND APPLIED THROUGH THE TACTILE MEANS OF EXPLORATION. THE PROCESS OF MAKING. CHISEL

RM TG SP SI ST

RESEARCH MAP TOUCHSTONE GRAMMAR STIPULATE

Specify a prescribed condition

SIMULATE

Imitate the appearance or character of

STIMULATE

Excite, provoke or invigorate

Crystallisation is described as a mental synthesis in order to pursue clarity and definition within fragmented ideas not yet distilled in the mind. In addition to an act of synthesis and consideration, it describes the process of forming something that is intangible into being. (Wordnet n.d.) CARVING QUALITIES

By reversing the order of the ‘Idea – plan – concrete object’ , our old images can only help us find new ones

A good piece of architecture is one that is conceived not only as a human inhabited environment but the importance of spatial quality that evokes the human perception.

(Zumthor 2006, 17). MOLDING QUALITIES

‘Reading a place, becoming involved with it, working out the purpose, meaning and goal of a brief, drafting, planning and de design a piece of architecture is therefore a convoluted process that does not follow a straightforward linear path.’ (Zumthor, 2005, 7)

ENVELOPE QUALITIES

PUNCTURE QUALITIES


SUBTRACT

DISINTEGRATE

KEYWORDS: #SUBTRACT #WITHDRAW #TAKE-AWAY #WHOLE #SHIFT #PULL #FORCE #EXTRACT #ABSTRACT

KEYWORDS: #DISINTEGRATE #DETERIORATE #BREAKING #IMPACT #FRAGMENTS #COMPONENTS #DECAY #PARTS #COHESION #UNITY #DIMINISH #DECOMPOSE

TO WITHDRAW OR TAKE AWAY, AS A PART FROM A WHOLE. TO TAKE (ONE NUMBER OR QUANTITY) FROM ANOTHER. TAKE (SOMETHING) AWAY OR OFF FROM THE POSITION OCCUPIED. EXERT FORCE ONTO SOMETHING SO AS TO CAUSE ‘REMOVE’ MOVEMENT

EXPLORING DESIGN CONCEPTS: KNOWLEDGE IN THE MAKING

TO BECOME REDUCED TO COMPONENTS, FRAGMENTS, OR PARTICLES. BREAK UP INTO SMALL PARTS AS THE RESULT OF IMPACT OR DECAY. LOSE STRENGTH OR COHESION AND GRADUALLY FAIL. TO BRING DOWN, AS IN EXTENT, AMOUNT, OR DEGREE; DIMINISH.

Scene #01 - Scoping of ideas F | Scoping of ideas S | Adapts to develop a research reference pallette A | Allows team brainstorming

CHRIS LEONG: PANEL 1

ADDITION + SUBTRACTION

ORIGINAL: 1900X900 SATURN 190GSM Scene #02 -Generative Integration F | Generative simulation charter S | Adapts to develop an application pallette A | Allows team to visualise and apply simulation to physical objects

“Learning is an active process. We learn by doing.. Only knowledge that is used sticks in your mind.” - Dale Carnegie

INSERT

Scene #03 -Progress Charter F | Records and capture process S | Adapts to develop a process data interface of information A | Allows team to re-visit, re-engage and re-evaluate

ON THE EDGE

Scene #05 - Interactive process dialogues F | Interactive simulation and demonstration S | Adapts to immediate demonstration and experimentation A | Allows quick tangible demonstration and experimentations

ADJACENT

The dissertation seeks to encourage the study of architecture and support ideas and concepts through an interactive process of testing, questioning and considering. Allowing acts of capture, record and explore design concepts to stimulate ways of thinking into fields of action and development. Inspire and critically engage a dialogue between practitioners and designers on the importance of making and its relevance within the discipline. Developing a form of knowledge that can be built, shaped and applied through the tactile means of exploration.

Scene #06 - Interactive idea pallette F | Pool of ideas, thoughts and designs S | Adapts to collect, categorise and chart ideas and approaches A | Allows practice to visualise the skill and idea development capacity within the practice. Built linkages, multi disciplinary

INTERLOCKS

Scene #07 - Interactive reflect critique F | Collection of experts within the study field. S | Adapts to reflect development and critiques A | Allows designers to retract, revise, re-engage and develop ideas

“The hand grasps the physicality and materiality of thought and turns it into a concrete image. In the arduous processes of designing, the hand often takes the lead in probing for a vision, a vague inkling... and eventually...a materialisation of an idea.” (Pallasmaa 2009, 16) SUBTRACT QUALITIES

While drawing, a mature designer and architect is not focused on the lines of the drawing, as he is envisioning the object itself and in his mind holding the object in his hands or occupying the spaces being designed. (Pallasmaa, 2009, 58) DISINTEGRATE QUALITIES

Yau Sing Leong 14120507 Chrislys88@gmail.com

30

MODEL EXPLORATION COLLABORATION 1 6 9


EDGE: A NEW HOPE FOR AN UNCERTAIN TERRAIN JACK COLOMBERA: PANEL 4 ORIGINAL: 1900X900 SATURN 190GSM

“If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up people together to collect wood and don’t assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long to for the endless immensity of the sea” - Antoine Sainte-Exupery This thesis explores the possibilities of an uncertain future and terrain, using the precarious nature of the coastal edge as a means to envisage an architectural possibility whilst questioning the role the architectural discipline could provide in an ever-changing terrain. This thesis does not seek to offer a solution, or enforce a stance on ethical or controversial issues but seeks to offer a discussion, an alternative and a vision to shape the terrain and time beyond. The future is not in our control or predictable with certainty and we cannot continue to follow the path we do. The time for change is now.

COLLABORATION 171


ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

JACK COLOMBERA: PANEL 1


ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

JACK COLOMBERA: PANEL 2


ORIGINAL: 2400X900 SATURN 190GSM

JACK COLOMBERA: PANEL 3



Iain Bicknell Thesis 'ALIVE'